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Sample records for containment iii effect

  1. Chimeric antigen receptor containing ICOS signaling domain mediates specific and efficient antitumor effect of T cells against EGFRvIII expressing glioma.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chan-Juan; Yang, Yu-Xiu; Han, Ethan Q; Cao, Na; Wang, Yun-Fei; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Ying-Ying; Zhao, Li-Ming; Cui, Jian; Gupta, Puja; Wong, Albert J; Han, Shuang-Yin

    2013-05-09

    Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells appears to be a promising immunotherapeutic strategy. CAR combines the specificity of antibody and cytotoxicity of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, enhancing T cells' ability to specifically target antigens and to effectively kill cancer cells. Recent efforts have been made to integrate the costimulatory signals in the CAR to improve the antitumor efficacy. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III (EGFRvIII) is an attractive therapeutic target as it frequently expresses in glioma and many other types of cancers. Our current study aimed to investigate the specific and efficient antitumor effect of T cells modified with CAR containing inducible costimulator (ICOS) signaling domain. A second generation of EGFRvIII/CAR was generated and it contained the EGFRvIII single chain variable fragment, ICOS signaling domain and CD3ζ chain. Lentiviral EGFRvIII/CAR was prepared and human CD3+ T cells were infected by lentivirus encoding EGFRvIII/CAR. The expression of EGFRvIII/CAR on CD3+ T cells was confirmed by flow cytometry and Western blot. The functions of EGFRvIII/CAR+ T cells were evaluated using in vitro and in vivo methods including cytotoxicity assay, cytokine release assay and xenograft tumor mouse model. Chimeric EGFRvIIIscFv-ICOS-CD3ζ (EGFRvIII/CAR) was constructed and lentiviral EGFRvIII/CAR were made to titer of 106 TU/ml. The transduction efficiency of lentiviral EGFRvIII/CAR on T cells reached around 70% and expression of EGFRvIII/CAR protein was verified by immunoblotting as a band of about 57 kDa. Four hour 51Cr release assays demonstrated specific and efficient cytotoxicity of EGFRvIII/CAR+ T cells against EGFRvIII expressing U87 cells. A robust increase in the IFN-γ secretion was detected in the co-culture supernatant of the EGFRvIII/CAR+ T cells and the EGFRvIII expressing U87 cells. Intravenous and intratumor injection of EGFRvIII/CAR+ T cells inhibited the in vivo growth of the EGFRvIII

  2. Dietary interventions that lower lipoproteins containing apolipoprotein C-III are more effective in whites than in blacks: results of the OmniHeart trial.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Jeremy D; Campos, Hannia; Sumner, Anne E; Appel, Lawrence J; Carey, Vincent J; Sacks, Frank M

    2010-10-01

    Blacks have lower average triglyceride and LDL cholesterol concentrations than do whites but higher rates of coronary heart disease. Apolipoprotein (apo) C-III in VLDL and LDL stimulates atherogenic processes in vascular cells. In blacks, the concentration of lipoproteins with apo C-III is unknown, and the response to dietary strategies that lower triglyceride and apo C-III has not been investigated We compared the concentration of and dietary effects on apo C-III-containing lipoproteins in blacks and whites. In a randomized, 3-period feeding study [OmniHeart (Optimal Macronutrient Intake Trial to Prevent Heart Disease)], we measured lipoprotein concentrations in 89 blacks and 73 whites who consumed self-selected diets (baseline) and after 3 healthful diets emphasizing carbohydrate, unsaturated fat, or protein. Participants had prehypertension or hypertension, and 79% were overweight or obese. While consuming self-selected diets, blacks had lower apo C-III in total plasma, VLDL, and LDL than did whites. Unsaturated fat and protein diets lowered plasma apo C-III (16% and 18%, respectively) and triglyceride (12% and 21%, respectively) in whites but not in blacks, reducing racial differences. Most important, blacks had a lower concentration of atherogenic LDL with apo C-III at baseline and after study diets (34-41% lower, P < 0.02). The molar ratio of apo E to apo B was higher in blacks than in whites in total plasma and LDL at baseline and after the study diets. Blacks have lower concentrations of atherogenic lipoproteins that contain apo C-III than do whites when consuming diverse diets and an attenuated dietary response of triglyceride and apo C-III. Dietary efforts to lower triglyceride and apo C-III may be more effective in whites than in blacks. The OmniHeart Trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00051350.

  3. First-principles study lone-pair effects of Sb (III)-S chromophore influence on SHG response in quaternary potassium containing silver antimony sulfides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Junben; Su, Xin; Hou, Dianwei; Lei, Binghua; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Shilie

    2017-05-01

    First-principles studies of the geometric structures, electronic structures and optical properties of non-centrosymmetrical (NCS) KAg2SbS4, K2AgSbS4 and K2Ag3Sb3S7 and centrosymmetrical (CS) KAg2SbS3 and K3Ag9Sb4S12 have been performed by means of density functional theory. It is indicated that although they have similarity in their anionic groups and, the electronic structures, prominent features of the optical anisotropy or second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) susceptibilities are apparently different. The calculated birefringences are 0.0537, 0.0343, 0.1324, 0.2217 and 0.0604 which are attributed to the different anionic groups [SbS3] and triangles [AgS3]. Also, the calculated NLO responses are about 0.5×, 1.0× and 2.0× times than that commercial AgGaS2 (AGS, d36=11 pm/V) for K2AgSbS4, KAg2SbS4 and K2Ag3Sb3S7, respectively. In comparison with the absolute magnitude of second harmonic generation (SHG) coefficients, the order K2Ag3Sb3S7>KAg2SbS4>K2AgSbS4 is clearly established in the SHG response. Further analysis based on the real-space atom-cutting method reveals that the main sources of the SHG properties of these compounds are from the Sb-S group, especially K2Ag3Sb3S7 is mainly attributed to the lone pair stereochemical activity of Sb (III)-S group.

  4. Biostimulation of Iron Reduction and Subsequent Oxidation of Sediment Containing Fe-silicates and Fe-oxides: Effect of Redox Cycling on Fe(III) Bioreduction

    SciTech Connect

    Komlos, John; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Zachara, John M.; Jaffe, Peter R.

    2007-07-01

    Microbial reduction of iron has been shown to be important in the transformation and remediation of contaminated sediments. Re-oxidation of microbially reduced iron may occur in sediments that experience oxidation-reduction cycling and can thus impact the extent of contaminant remediation. The purpose of this research was to quantify iron oxidation in a flow-through column filled with biologically-reduced sediment and to compare the iron phases in the re-oxidized sediment to both the pristine and biologically-reduced sediment. The sediment contained both Fe(III)-oxides (primarily goethite) and silicate Fe (illite/vermiculite) and was biologically reduced in phosphate buffered (PB) medium during a 497 day column experiment with acetate supplied as the electron donor. Long-term iron reduction resulted in partial reduction of silicate Fe(III) without any goethite reduction, based on Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements. This reduced sediment was treated with an oxygenated PB solution in a flow-through column resulting in the oxidation of 38% of the biogenic Fe(II). Additional batch experiments showed that the Fe(III) in the oxidized sediment was more quickly reduced compared to the pristine sediment, indicating that oxidation of the sediment not only regenerated Fe(III) but also enhanced iron reduction compared to the pristine sediment. Oxidation-reduction cycling may be a viable method to extend iron-reducing conditions during in-situ bioremediation.

  5. Fluoride adsorption on carboxylated aerobic granules containing Ce(III).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Song, Rui-Hong; Yang, Hui-Chun; Shi, Yi-Jing; Dang, Guang-Bin; Yang, Sen; Zhao, Yu; Sun, Xue-Fei; Wang, Shu-Guang

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic granules (AG) were carboxylated and Ce(III) was incorporated to obtain modified granuels (Ce(III)-MAG) for removal of fluoride from aqueous solutions. The Ce(III)-MAG was characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD and pH(pzc), and the introduction of carboxyl groups and Ce(III) was confirmed. The adsorption capacity of Ce(III)-MAG for fluoride was 45.80 mg/g at neutral pH, an increase of 359% compared to the capacity of pristine AG. Adsorption was highest at pH range of 3.0-5.0. A positive effect on fluoride removal in the order of K(+) ≈ Mg(2+) > Ca(2+) > Na(+) and a negative effect in the order of NO(3)(-) > Cl(-) > SO(4)(2-) > HCO(3)(-) > PO(4)(3-) was observed. Fluoride adsorption followed the Redlich-Peterson model and the pseudo-first order model with correlation factors of 0.999 and 0.950, respectively. Ce(III)-MAG held up to 790 bed volumes and the effluent fluoride concentration remained below 1.0mg/L (influent fluoride 10mg/L). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Low Density Lipoproteins Containing Apolipoprotein C-III and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mendivil, Carlos O; Rimm, Eric B.; Furtado, Jeremy; Chiuve, Stephanie; Sacks, Frank M

    2011-01-01

    Background LDL that contains apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) comprises only 10 to 20% of plasma LDL, but has a markedly altered metabolism and proatherogenic effects on vascular cells. Methods and results We examined the association between plasma LDL with apoC-III and coronary heart disease (CHD) in 320 women and 419 men initially free of cardiovascular disease who developed a fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction during 10 to 14 years of follow-up, and matched controls who remained free of CHD. Concentrations of LDL with apoC-III (measured as apoB in this fraction) were associated with risk of CHD in multivariable analysis that included the total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, triglycerides, or HDL cholesterol; and other risk factors. In all models, the relative risks for the top versus bottom quintile of LDL with apoC-III were greater than those for LDL without apoC-III. When included in the same multivariable adjusted model, the risk associated with LDL with apoC-III (relative risk for top versus bottom quintile 2.38, 95 percent confidence interval, 1.54 to 3.68; P for trend <0.001) was significantly greater than that associated with LDL without apoC-III (relative risk for top versus bottom quintile 1.25, 95 percent confidence interval, 0.76 to 2.05; P for trend=0.97), P for interaction <0.001. This divergence in association with CHD persisted even after adjustment for plasma triglycerides. Conclusions The risk of CHD contributed by LDL appeared to result to a large extent from LDL that contains apoC-III. PMID:21986282

  7. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part Iii: Truncation Effect Without Flow and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    2000-11-01

    The response of simply supported circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of one of the lowest natural frequencies is investigated by using improved mode expansions with respect to those assumed in Parts I and II of the present study. Two cases are studied: (1) shells in vacuo; and (2) shells filled with stagnant water. The improved expansions allow checking the accuracy of the solutions previously obtained and giving definitive results within the limits of Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell theory. The improved mode expansions include: (1) harmonics of the circumferential mode number n under consideration, and (2) only the principal n, but with harmonics of the longitudinal mode included. The effect of additional longitudinal modes is absolutely insignificant in both the driven and companion mode responses. The effect of modes with 2 n circumferential waves is very limited on the trend of non-linearity, but is significant in the response with companion mode participation in the case of lightly damped shells (empty shells). In particular, the travelling wave response appears for much lower vibration amplitudes and presents a frequency range without stable responses, corresponding to a beating phenomenon. A liquid (water) contained in the shell generates a much stronger softening behaviour of the system. Experiments with a water-filled circular cylindrical shell made of steel are in very good agreement with the present theory.

  8. Absorption of inorganic halides produced from Freon 12 by calcium carbonate containing iron(III) oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Imamura, Seiichiro; Matsuba, Yoichi; Yamada, Etsu; Takai, Kenji; Utani, Kazunori

    1997-09-01

    Inorganic halides produced by the catalytic decomposition of Freon 12 were fixed by calcium carbonate, which is the main component of limestone. Iron(III) oxide, which is present as a contaminant in limestone, promoted the absorption of the halides by calcium carbonate at low temperatures. The supposed action of iron(III) oxide was to first react with inorganic halides, forming iron halides, and, then, transfer them to calcium carbonate to replace carbonate ion in a catalytic way. Thus, calcium carbonate containing iron oxides (limestone) can be used as an effective absorbent for the inorganic halogens produced during the decomposition of Freons.

  9. Evaluation of 2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel for liquid-lithium containment. III. Effect of velocity and lead content. Unabridged final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkinson, B.D.; Edwards, G.R.

    1981-12-01

    The intergranular penetration of specially heat treated 2-1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel by lead-lithium liquids containing 0, 17.6, and 53 w/o lead has been investigated at temperatures ranging from 300 to 600/sup 0/C and for times to 1000 hours. Limited tests using a 99.3 w/o lead-lithium liquid were also conducted.

  10. Ytterbium (III) Luminescence in m-Methylbenzoic Acid-Containing Compounds.

    PubMed

    Kalinovskaya, I V; Zadorozhnaya, A N

    2015-05-01

    Complex compounds of ytterbium(III) with m-methylbenzoic acid and nitrogen-containing ligands luminescent in near infrared range have been synthesized. Spectral luminescence characteristics of heteroligand compounds of ytterbium(III) have been investigated. It has been established that ytterbium (III) m-methylbenzoate with 1,10-phenanthroline is characterized by the highest luminescence intensity.

  11. PRESERVATION OF SULFIDIC WATERS CONTAINING DISSOLVED AS (III)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field samples for arsenic analyses are commonly preserved by acidification with hydrochloric or nitric acid. In some suboxic samples, appreciable concentrations of H2S and HS- are observed due to the microbial respiration of sulfate-reducing bacteria. If both As(III) and sulfid...

  12. PRESERVATION OF SULFIDIC WATERS CONTAINING DISSOLVED AS (III)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field samples for arsenic analyses are commonly preserved by acidification with hydrochloric or nitric acid. In some suboxic samples, appreciable concentrations of H2S and HS- are observed due to the microbial respiration of sulfate-reducing bacteria. If both As(III) and sulfid...

  13. Gallium(III) Tetraphenylporphyrinates Containing Hydrosulfide and Thiolate Ligands: Structural Models for Sulfur-Bound Iron(III) Hemes.

    PubMed

    Meininger, Daniel J; Chee-Garza, Max; Arman, Hadi D; Tonzetich, Zachary J

    2016-03-07

    Gallium(III) tetraphenylporphyrinates (TPP) containing anionic sulfur ligands have been prepared and characterized in the solid state and solution. The complexes serve as structural models for iron(III) heme sites containing sulfur coordination that otherwise prove challenging to synthesize due to the propensity for reduction to iron(II). The compounds prepared include the first well-characterized example of a trivalent metalloporphyrinate containing a terminal hydrosulfide ligand, [Ga(SH)(TPP)], as well as [Ga(SEt)(TPP)], [Ga(SPh)(TPP)], and [Ga(SSi(i)Pr3)(TPP)]. The stability of these compounds toward reduction has permitted an investigation of their solid-state structures and electrochemistry. The structural features and reaction chemistry of the complexes in relation to their iron(III) analogs is discussed.

  14. Effect of protein, unsaturated fat, and carbohydrate intakes on plasma apolipoprotein B and VLDL and LDL containing apolipoprotein C-III: results from the OmniHeart Trial2

    PubMed Central

    Furtado, Jeremy D; Campos, Hannia; Appel, Lawrence J; Miller, Edgar R; Laranjo, Nancy; Carey, Vincent J; Sacks, Frank M

    2008-01-01

    Background Plasma apolipoprotein B (apo B) and VLDL and LDL with apolipoprotein C-III (apo C-III) are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Dietary intake affects lipoprotein concentration and composition related to those apolipoproteins. Objective We studied differences in apo B lipoproteins with and without apo C-III after 3 healthy diets based on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Trial diet. Design Healthy participants (n = 162) were fed each of 3 healthy diets for 6 wk in a crossover design. Diets differed by emphasis of either carbohydrate (Carb), unsaturated fat (Unsat), or protein (Prot). Blood was collected at baseline and after diets for analysis. Results Compared with the Carb diet, the Prot diet reduced plasma apo B and triglycerides in VLDL with apo C-III (16%, P = 0.07; 11%, P = 0.05, respectively) and apo B in LDL with apo C-III (16%, P = 0.04). Compared with the Unsat diet, the Prot diet reduced triglycerides in VLDL with apo C-III (16%, P = 0.02). Compared with baseline (subjects' usual diet was higher in saturated fat), the Prot diet reduced apo B in LDL with apo C-III (11%, P = 0.05), and all 3 diets reduced plasma total apo B (6−10%, P < 0.05) and apo B in the major type of LDL, LDL without apo C-III (8 −10%, P < 0.01). All 3 diets reduced the ratio of apo C-III to apo E in VLDL. Conclusions Substituting protein for carbohydrate in the context of a healthy dietary pattern reduced atherogenic apo C-III–containing LDL and its precursor, apo C-III–containing VLDL, resulting in the most favorable profile of apo B lipoproteins. In addition, compared with a typical high-saturated fat diet, healthy diets that emphasize carbohydrate, protein, or unsaturated fat reduce plasma total and LDL apo B and produce a lower more metabolically favorable ratio of apo C-III to apo E. PMID:18541549

  15. PRESERVATION OF SULFIDIC WATERS CONTAINING DISSOLVED AS (III)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solutions containing variable concentrations of sulfide (p to31 ppm) and arsenite (0.35 to 10 ppm) were subjected to several different preservation treatments. As predicted by equilibrium thermodynamics, at near-neutral pH the experimental solutions were undersaturated with resp...

  16. PRESERVATION OF SULFIDIC WATERS CONTAINING DISSOLVED AS (III)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solutions containing variable concentrations of sulfide (p to31 ppm) and arsenite (0.35 to 10 ppm) were subjected to several different preservation treatments. As predicted by equilibrium thermodynamics, at near-neutral pH the experimental solutions were undersaturated with resp...

  17. Preservation of sulfidic waters containing dissolved As(III).

    PubMed

    Smieja, Joanne A; Wilkin, Richard T

    2003-12-01

    Solutions containing variable concentrations of sulfide (0 to 31 ppm) and arsenite (0.35 to 10 ppm) were subjected to several different preservation treatments. As predicted by equilibrium thermodynamics, at near-neutral pH the experimental solutions were undersaturated with respect to orpiment (As2S3). However, upon acidification to pH 2 with HCl or HNO3, instantaneous precipitation of poorly crystalline As2S3 occurred in sulfidic solutions which resulted in the loss of dissolved arsenite. These results have implications concerning the practice of acidifying water samples containing hydrogen sulfide with HCl or HNO3 for the purpose of preserving total arsenic values. If a near-neutral water sample contains 1 ppm arsenite and as little as 0.4 ppm sulfide, loss of dissolved arsenic will occur upon acidification. An alternative three-step preservation method involving base addition, oxidation, and acidification is proposed and investigated as an appropriate technique for preserving sulfide-bearing aqueous samples for total arsenic.

  18. Polymer thin films containing Eu(III) complex as lanthanide lasing medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Wada, Yuji; Yanagida, Shozo; Kawai, Hideki; Yasuda, Naoki; Nagamura, Toshihiko

    2003-10-01

    Direct evidence of lanthanide(III) lasing using Eu(III) complex in polymer thin films (threshold level <0.05 mJ) is reported. The thin film consists of polystyrene containing Eu(III) complexes based on two criteria: (1) Higher emission quantum yield of Eu(III) complexes, which increases the rs (energy density), and (2) faster radiation rate at large B (Einstein coefficient). The microcavity was constructed by coating a glass substrate with a film having a high refractive index. The film thickness was found to be 1.71 mm. The threshold level for laser transmission was found to be <0.05 mJ.

  19. Reductive biotransformation of Fe in shale limestone saprolite containing Fe(III) oxides and Fe(II)/Fe(III) phyllosilicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Zachara, John M.; Fredrickson, James K.; McKinley, James P.; Kennedy, David W.; Smith, Steven C.; Dong, Hailiang

    2006-07-01

    A <2.0-mm fraction of a mineralogically complex subsurface sediment containing goethite and Fe(II)/Fe(III) phyllosilicates was incubated with Shewanella putrefaciens (strain CN32) and lactate at circumneutral pH under anoxic conditions to investigate electron acceptor preference and the nature of the resulting biogenic Fe(II) fraction. Anthraquinone-2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), an electron shuttle, was included in select treatments to enhance bioreduction and subsequent biomineralization. The sediment was highly aggregated and contained two distinct clast populations: (i) a highly weathered one with "sponge-like" internal porosity, large mineral crystallites, and Fe-containing micas, and (ii) a dense, compact one with fine-textured Fe-containing illite and nano-sized goethite, as revealed by various forms of electron microscopic analyses. Approximately 10-15% of the Fe(III) TOT was bioreduced by CN32 over 60 d in media without AQDS, whereas 24% and 35% of the Fe(III) TOT was bioreduced by CN32 after 40 and 95 d in media with AQDS. Little or no Fe 2+, Mn, Si, Al, and Mg were evident in aqueous filtrates after reductive incubation. Mössbauer measurements on the bioreduced sediments indicated that both goethite and phyllosilicate Fe(III) were partly reduced without bacterial preference. Goethite was more extensively reduced in the presence of AQDS whereas phyllosilicate Fe(III) reduction was not influenced by AQDS. Biogenic Fe(II) resulting from phyllosilicate Fe(III) reduction remained in a layer-silicate environment that displayed enhanced solubility in weak acid. The mineralogic nature of the goethite biotransformation product was not determined. Chemical and cryogenic Mössbauer measurements, however, indicated that the transformation product was not siderite, green rust, magnetite, Fe(OH) 2, or Fe(II) adsorbed on phyllosilicate or bacterial surfaces. Several lines of evidence suggested that biogenic Fe(II) existed as surface associated phase on the residual goethite

  20. Luminescence properties of compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and phosphor-containing neutral ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinovskaya, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent complex mixed-ligand compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and phosphor- containing neutral ligands have been obtained. Their composition and structure have been determined. The thermal and spectral-luminescent properties of the obtained complex mixed-ligand compounds of europium( III) have been studied. It is shown that, during thermolysis, a water molecule and neutral ligand are detached in two stages with endothermic effects. It is established that quinaldinate ion is coordinated to europium(III) ion in a bidentate fashion. The Stark structure of the 5 D 0-7 F j ( j = 0, 1, 2) transitions in low-temperature luminescence spectra of complex compounds of europium(III) has been analyzed.

  1. Fluorescence and DNA-binding properties of neodymium(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Mirkazehi-Rigi, Sohaila

    2011-09-01

    The binding of neodymium(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline, [M(phen) 2Cl 3·OH 2] (M = Nd ( 1), Pr ( 2)), to DNA has been investigated by absorption, emission, and viscosity measurements. The complexes show absorption decreasing in charge transfer band, fluorescence decrement when bound to DNA. The binding constant Kb has been determined by absorption measurement for both complexes and found to be (6.76 ± 0.12) × 10 4 for 1 and (1.83 ± 0.15) × 10 4 M -1, for 2. The fluorescence of [M(phen) 2Cl 3·OH 2] (M = Nd ( 1), Pr ( 2)) has been studied in detail. The results of fluorescence titration reveal that DNA has the strong ability to quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of Nd(III) and Pr(III) complexes through the static quenching procedure. The binding site number n, apparent binding constant Kb and the Stern-Volmer constant kSV are determined. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (Δ H°) and entropy change (Δ S°), are calculated according to relevant fluorescent data and Van't Hoff equation. The experimental data suggest that the complexes bind to DNA by non-intercalative mode. Major groove binding is the preferred mode of interaction for [M(phen) 2Cl 3·OH 2] (M = Nd ( 1), Pr ( 2)) with DNA.

  2. Fluorescence and DNA-binding properties of neodymium(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Mirkazehi-Rigi, Sohaila

    2011-09-01

    The binding of neodymium(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline, [M(phen)2Cl3·OH2] (M=Nd (1), Pr (2)), to DNA has been investigated by absorption, emission, and viscosity measurements. The complexes show absorption decreasing in charge transfer band, fluorescence decrement when bound to DNA. The binding constant Kb has been determined by absorption measurement for both complexes and found to be (6.76±0.12)×10(4) for 1 and (1.83±0.15)×10(4)M(-1), for 2. The fluorescence of [M(phen)2Cl3·OH2] (M=Nd (1), Pr (2)) has been studied in detail. The results of fluorescence titration reveal that DNA has the strong ability to quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of Nd(III) and Pr(III) complexes through the static quenching procedure. The binding site number n, apparent binding constant Kb and the Stern-Volmer constant kSV are determined. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°), are calculated according to relevant fluorescent data and Van't Hoff equation. The experimental data suggest that the complexes bind to DNA by non-intercalative mode. Major groove binding is the preferred mode of interaction for [M(phen)2Cl3·OH2] (M=Nd (1), Pr (2)) with DNA.

  3. Fluorescence studies, DNA binding properties and antimicrobial activity of a dysprosium(III) complex containing 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Moodi, Asieh; Niroomand, Sona

    2013-10-05

    Luminescence and binding properties of dysprosium(III) complex containing 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), [Dy(phen)2(OH2)3Cl]Cl2⋅H2O with DNA has been studied by electronic absorption, emission spectroscopy and viscosity measurement. The thermodynamic studies suggest that the interaction process to be endothermic and entropically driven, which indicates that the dysprosium(III) complex might interact with DNA by a non intercalation binding mode. Additionally, the competitive fluorescence study with ethidium bromide and also the effect of iodide ion and salt concentration on fluorescence of the complex-DNA system is investigated. Experimental results indicate that the Dy(III) complex strongly binds to DNA, presumably via groove binding mode. Furthermore, the complex shows a potent antibacterial activity and DNA cleavage ability.

  4. Treatment of groundwater containing Mn(II), Fe(II), As(III) and Sb(III) by bioaugmented quartz-sand filters.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaohui; Chang, Yangyang; Liang, Jinsong; Chen, Chen; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-12-01

    High concentrations of iron (Fe(II)) and manganese (Mn(II)) often occur simultaneously in groundwater. Previously, we demonstrated that Fe(II) and Mn(II) could be oxidized to biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO) via aeration and microbial oxidation, and the formed BFMO could further oxidize and adsorb other pollutants (e.g., arsenic (As(III)) and antimony (Sb(III))). To apply this finding to groundwater remediation, we established four quartz-sand columns for treating groundwater containing Fe(II), Mn(II), As(III), and Sb(III). A Mn-oxidizing bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) was inoculated into two parallel bioaugmented columns. Long-term treatment (120 d) showed that bioaugmentation accelerated the formation of Fe-Mn oxides, resulting in an increase in As and Sb removal. The bioaugmented columns also exhibited higher overall treatment effect and anti-shock load capacity than that of the non-bioaugmented columns. To clarify the causal relationship between the microbial community and treatment effect, we compared the biomass of active bacteria (reverse-transcribed real-time PCR), bacterial community composition (Miseq 16S rRNA sequencing) and community function (metagenomic sequencing) between the bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented columns. Results indicated that the QJX1 strain grew steadily and attached onto the filter material surface in the bioaugmented columns. In general, the inoculated strain did not significantly alter the composition of the indigenous bacterial community, but did improve the relative abundances of xenobiotic metabolism genes and Mn oxidation gene. Thus, bioaugmentation intensified microbial degradation/utilization for the direct removal of pollutants and increased the formation of Fe-Mn oxides for the indirect removal of pollutants. Our study provides an alternative method for the treatment of groundwater containing high Fe(II), Mn(II) and As/Sb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Synthesis, spectral and electrochemical studies of binuclear Ru(III) complexes containing dithiosemicarbazone ligand.

    PubMed

    Kanchana Devi, A; Ramesh, R

    2014-01-03

    Synthesis of several new octahedral binuclear ruthenium(III) complexes of the general composition [(EPh3)2(X)Ru-L-Ru(X)(EPh3)2] containing benzene dithiosemicarbazone ligands (where E=P or As; X=Cl or Br; L=binucleating ligands) is presented. All the complexes have been fully characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy together with magnetic susceptibility measurements. IR study shows that the dithiosemicarbazone ligands behave as dianionic tridentate ligands coordinating through the oxygen atom of the deprotonated phenolic group, nitrogen atom of the azomethine group and thiolate sulphur. In DMF solution, all the complexes exhibit intense d-d transition and ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) transition in the visible region. The magnetic moment values of the complexes are in the range 1.78-1.82 BM, which reveals the presence of one unpaired electron on each metal ion. The EPR spectra of the liquid samples at LNT show the presence of three different 'g' values (gx≠gy≠gz) indicate a rhombic distortion around the ruthenium ion. All the complexes exhibit two quasi-reversible one electron oxidation responses (Ru(III)-Ru(III)/Ru(III)-Ru(IV); Ru(III)-Ru(IV)/Ru(IV)-Ru(IV)) within the E1/2 range of 0.61-0.74 V and 0.93-0.98 V respectively, versus Ag/AgCl.

  6. Crystal structure of hydrazine iron(III) phosphate, the first transition metal phosphate containing hydrazine.

    PubMed

    David, Renald

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, poly[(μ2-hydrazine)(μ4-phosphato)iron(III)], [Fe(PO4)(N2H4)] n , was prepared under hydro-thermal conditions. Its asymmetric unit contains one Fe(III) atom located on an inversion centre, one P atom located on a twofold rotation axis, and two O, one N and two H atoms located on general positions. The Fe(III) atom is bound to four O atoms of symmetry-related PO4 tetra-hedra and to two N atoms of two symmetry-related hydrazine ligands, resulting in a slightly distorted FeO4N2 octa-hedron. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional hydrazine/iron phoshate framework whereby each PO4 tetra-hedron bridges four Fe(III) atoms and each hydrazine ligand bridges two Fe(III) atoms. The H atoms of the hydrazine ligands are also involved in moderate N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding with phosphate O atoms. The crystal structure is isotypic with the sulfates [Co(SO4)(N2H4)] and [Mn(SO4)(N2H4)].

  7. Crystal structure of hydrazine iron(III) phosphate, the first transition metal phosphate containing hydrazine

    PubMed Central

    David, Renald

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, poly[(μ2-hydrazine)(μ4-phosphato)iron(III)], [Fe(PO4)(N2H4)]n, was prepared under hydro­thermal conditions. Its asymmetric unit contains one FeIII atom located on an inversion centre, one P atom located on a twofold rotation axis, and two O, one N and two H atoms located on general positions. The FeIII atom is bound to four O atoms of symmetry-related PO4 tetra­hedra and to two N atoms of two symmetry-related hydrazine ligands, resulting in a slightly distorted FeO4N2 octa­hedron. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional hydrazine/iron phoshate framework whereby each PO4 tetra­hedron bridges four FeIII atoms and each hydrazine ligand bridges two FeIII atoms. The H atoms of the hydrazine ligands are also involved in moderate N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding with phosphate O atoms. The crystal structure is isotypic with the sulfates [Co(SO4)(N2H4)] and [Mn(SO4)(N2H4)]. PMID:26870399

  8. Synthesis, spectral and electrochemical studies of binuclear Ru(III) complexes containing dithiosemicarbazone ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanchana Devi, A.; Ramesh, R.

    2014-01-01

    Synthesis of several new octahedral binuclear ruthenium(III) complexes of the general composition [(EPh3)2(X)Ru-L-Ru(X)(EPh3)2] containing benzene dithiosemicarbazone ligands (where E = P or As; X = Cl or Br; L = binucleating ligands) is presented. All the complexes have been fully characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy together with magnetic susceptibility measurements. IR study shows that the dithiosemicarbazone ligands behave as dianionic tridentate ligands coordinating through the oxygen atom of the deprotonated phenolic group, nitrogen atom of the azomethine group and thiolate sulphur. In DMF solution, all the complexes exhibit intense d-d transition and ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) transition in the visible region. The magnetic moment values of the complexes are in the range 1.78-1.82 BM, which reveals the presence of one unpaired electron on each metal ion. The EPR spectra of the liquid samples at LNT show the presence of three different 'g' values (gx ≠ gy ≠ gz) indicate a rhombic distortion around the ruthenium ion. All the complexes exhibit two quasi-reversible one electron oxidation responses (RuIII-RuIII/RuIII-RuIV; RuIII-RuIV/RuIV-RuIV) within the E1/2 range of 0.61-0.74 V and 0.93-0.98 V respectively, versus Ag/AgCl.

  9. Photochromic Dithienylethene-Containing Boron(III) Ketoiminates: Modulation of Photo-Responsive Behavior through Variation of Intramolecular Motion.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cheok-Lam; Poon, Chun-Ting; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2016-08-26

    A series of dithienylethene-containing boron(III) ketoiminates, as well as their corresponding β-ketoimine ligands, have been synthesized and characterized. The photophysical, electrochemical, and photochromic properties of the compounds have been studied. Photocyclization has been found to be suppressed upon introduction of a phenyl substituent on the nitrogen atom of the β-ketoiminate core, whereas photochromism could be observed by replacement of the phenyl substituent with a bulky mesityl group. It is believed that the steric effect of the mesityl unit restricts molecular rotation, resulting in such a prominent difference in the photochromic properties.

  10. Rhodium(III)-triphenylphosphine complex with NNS donor thioether containing Schiff base ligand: Synthesis, spectra, electrochemistry and catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sujan; Sarkar, Deblina; Kundu, Subhankar; Roy, Puspendu; Mondal, Tapan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    New rhodium(III)-triphenylphosphine complex, [Rh(PPh3)(L)Cl2](PF6) (1) with thioether containing NNS donor ligand (L) (L = 2-(methylthio)-N-((pyridine-2-yl)methylene)benzenamine) has been synthesized and characterized. The pseudo octahedral geometry of the complex has been confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis. The electronic structure, redox properties, absorption and emission properties of the complexes have been interpreted by DFT and TDDFT calculations. The complex effectively catalyzed the transfer hydrogenation reaction of ketones in 2-propanol and oxidation of alcohols in presence of NMO.

  11. Effects of intravenous ABT-870 (iron (III)-hydroxide oligosaccharide) on mean arterial pressure and heart rate in the anaesthetized beagle: comparison with other iron-containing haematinic agents.

    PubMed

    Preusser, Lee C; Fryer, Ryan M; Gerhardt, Armin; Hu, Yanhui; Delgado-Herrera, Leticia; Melnick, Joel Z; Williams, Laura A; Cox, Bryan F; Reinhart, Glenn A

    2005-12-01

    Iron-deficiency anaemia, a complication of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is often treated with parenteral iron therapies that have been shown to produce dose-limiting hypotension in patients. ABT-870 (iron-(III)-hydroxide-oligosaccharide) is comprised of elemental iron complexed with oligosaccharide, a composition that we hypothesised would allow the hypotensive effects of parenteral iron therapy to be overcome, thus allowing a rapid rate of infusion to be well tolerated. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored in anaesthetized dogs following the infusion of ABT-870 and iron sucrose administered at doses of 7.1 and 21.3 mg/kg using a rapid 30 s infusion. ABT-870 and iron sucrose were also monitored at doses of 7.1, 21.3 and 50 mg/kg administered over a 10 min period. Sodium ferric gluconate complex (SFGC) was administered in an identical fashion at doses of 12.5 and 31.2 mg/kg. A 30 s rapid infusion of ABT-870 at doses of 7.1 and 14.3 mg/kg or a 10 min infusion of ABT-870 at doses of 7.1 and 21.3 mg/kg produced little effect on MAP and HR. Infusion of the highest dose of ABT-870 (50 mg/kg) produced no consistent hypotension, but did produce an increase in HR (maximal increase 35 +/- 9 b.p.m.), an effect that lasted only 15 min. A 30 s rapid infusion of iron sucrose at 7.1 mg/kg produced modest increases in MAP and HR (5 +/- 1 mmHg and 5 +/- 2 b.p.m., respectively). However, rapid infusion of iron sucrose at 14.3 mg/kg produced hypotension (to -8 +/- 1 mmHg below baseline) and exerted variable, biphasic effects on HR ranging from -16 to +50 b.p.m. Although 10 min infusion of iron sucrose at 7.1 mg/kg exerted little effect on MAP and HR, at doses of 21.3 and 50 mg/kg iron sucrose elicited a profound dose-dependent decrease in MAP (-34 +/- 11 and -83 +/- 5 mmHg, respectively) and a pronounced increase in HR ranging from 32 to 49 b.p.m. above baseline. A 10 min infusion of SFGC at doses of 12.5 and 31.2 mg/kg produced a dose-dependent decrease

  12. Purification, enzymatic properties, and active site environment of a novel manganese(III)-containing acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Y; Kawabe, H; Tanaka, H; Fujimoto, S; Ohara, A

    1981-10-25

    A new manganese-containing acid phosphatase has been isolated and crystallized from sweet potato tubers. The pure enzyme contains one atom of manganese per Mr = 110,000 polypeptide and shows phosphatase activity toward various phosphate substrates. The pH optimum of the enzyme was 5.8 and the enzyme activity was inhibited by Cu2+, Zn2+, Hg2+, AsO43-, and MoO42-. This stable metalloenzyme is red-violet in color with an intense absorption band at 515 nm (epsilon - 2460). Our electronic, circular dichroism, and electron spin resonance findings strongly indicate that the Mn-valence state of the native enzyme is trivalent. When the Mn-enzyme is excited by the 5145 A line of Ar+ laser, prominent Raman lines at 1230, 1298, 1508, and 1620 cm-1 were detected. This Raman spectrum can probably be interpreted in terms of internal vibration of a coordinated tyrosine phenolate anion. The tryptophan-modified enzyme showed a positive Raman band at 370 cm-1, which is preferentially assigned to a Mn(III)-S streching mode. The modification of the Mn-enzyme by N-bromosuccinimide led to a large decrease in the fluorescence intensity of 335 nm which was dominated by its tryptophan residues within a considerable hydrophobic environment. The acid phosphatase activity was significantly decreased by the tryptophan modification. With respect to the active site donor sets, the Mn(III)-containing acid phosphatase is distinctly different from the Zn(II)-containing alkaline phosphatase. Of interest is also the appreciable similarity of some enzymatic and spectroscopic properties between the present enzyme and uteroferrin.

  13. The characterization of molecular organization of multilamellar emulsions containing pseudoceramide and type III synthetic ceramide.

    PubMed

    Park, B D; Youm, J K; Jeong, S K; Choi, E H; Ahn, S K; Lee, S H

    2003-10-01

    To investigate the molecular organization and phase behavior of physiologic lipid mixtures that contain either newly synthesized pseudoceramide or type III synthetic ceramide, various analytical techniques were used. The phase transition temperatures detected in differential scanning calorimetry analysis were 51.19 and 50.52 for the pseudoceramide-containing physiologic lipid mixture and synthetic type III ceramide-containing lipid mixture, respectively. From the small angle XRD patterns, the multilamellar emulsion-pseudoceramide showed 11.5 nm and 7.61 nm lamellar phases, while the multilamellar emulsion-synthetic ceramide showed only a 7.61 nm lamellar phase. The nonceramide containing lipid mixture did not show any distinct repeat pattern. Lateral packing distances of multilamellar emulsion-pseudoceramide and multilamellar emulsion-synthetic ceramide were measured as 0.4119 and 0.4110 nm at 30, respectively, which indicated the presence of hexagonal lattice. On the contrary, non-multilamellar emulsion did not show any definite repeat pattern. Transmission electron microscopy observation showed nearly comparable lamellar structures in all of the tested emulsions compared to the structure of human stratum corneum intercellular lipid. Decrease of water contents resulted in phase transition into liquid phase for all the tested emulsions, whereas phase transition into orthorhombic phase was observed only in multilamellar emulsion-pseudoceramide. From these results, we concluded that the molecular organization of multilamellar emulsion-pseudoceramide was characterized as the lateral hexagonal phase and both the long and short periodicity lamellar phases, which showed structural similarity with the native human stratum corneum intercellular lipid.

  14. Effects of difructose anhydride III (DFA III) administration on rat intestinal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Minamida, Kimiko; Shiga, Kazuki; Sujaya, I Nengah; Sone, Teruo; Yokota, Atsushi; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2005-03-01

    The effects of difructose anhydride III (di-D-fructofuranose-1,2':2,3'-dianhydride; DFA III) administration (3% DFA III for 4 weeks) on rat intestinal microbiota were examined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). According to DGGE profiles, the number of bacteria related to Bacteroides acidofaciens and uncultured bacteria within the Clostridium lituseburense group decreased, while that of bacteria related to Bacteroides vulgatus, Bacteroides uniformis and Ruminococcus productus increased in DFA III-fed rat cecum. In the cecal contents of DFA III-fed rats, a lowering of pH and an increase in short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially acetic acid, were observed. The DFA III-assimilating bacterium, Ruminococcus sp. M-1, was isolated from the cecal contents of DFA III-fed rats. The strain had 98% similarity with R. productus ATCC 27340T (L76595), and mainly produced acetic acid. These results confirmed that the bacteria harmful to host health were not increased by DFA III administration. Moreover, DFA III stimulated the growth of Ruminococcus sp. M-1 producing acetic acid, which may alter the intestinal microbiota towards a healthier composition. It is expected that DFA III would be a new candidate as a prebiotic.

  15. An assessment of BWR (boiling water reactor) Mark III containment challenges, failure modes, and potential improvements in performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J.A.; Pafford, D.J.; Kelly, D.L.; Jones, K.R.; Dallman, F.J. )

    1991-01-01

    This report describes risk-significant challenges posed to Mark III containment systems by severe accidents as identified for Grand Gulf. Design similarities and differences between the Mark III plants that are important to containment performance are summarized. The accident sequences responsible for the challenges and the postulated containment failure modes associated with each challenge are identified and described. Improvements are discussed that have the potential either to prevent or delay containment failure, or to mitigate the offsite consequences of a fission product release. For each of these potential improvements, a qualitative analysis is provided. A limited quantitative risk analysis is provided for selected potential improvements. 21 refs., 5 figs., 46 tabs.

  16. The containment of oil spills in unconsolidated granular porous media using xanthan/Cr(III) and xanthan/Al(III) gels.

    PubMed

    Gioia, Francesco; Urciuolo, Massimo

    2004-12-10

    The gelation in situ of aqueous solutions of the biopolymer xanthan gum may be a method for temporarily containing oil spills in soil whilst the remediation procedure is planned and accomplished. The gelling reaction has been carried out using as crosslinking agents either Cr(III) or Al(III) cations. By using Cr(III) the gelation time, which has been measured for a range of xanthan and/or Cr(III) concentrations, is of the order of the hour. On the contrary, the gelation by means of Al(III) cations takes place at quite low pH and is instantaneous. Therefore, depending on the crosslinker adopted, rather different techniques must be used for generating the gel structure in situ. The gels have proven to be suitable for the containment of water and of many hydrocarbons without loosing their strength even for a long period of time. The rheological properties of xanthan aqueous solutions evidence a shear-thinning behaviour that is most favourable for the application. Theoretical considerations have permitted the establishment of the mobility conditions of xanthan solutions in porous media before the gelation, and the estimation of a suitable injection pressure. The experiments for investigating the mobility of xanthan solutions in porous media, and for simulating the containment of an oil spill, have been done using packed beds of uniformly sized spherical glass beads, in glass columns. The glass assembly made it possible to visualize the evolution of the phenomena of interest.

  17. Chlorido-containing ruthenium(II) and iridium(III) complexes as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Pandrala, Mallesh; Li, Fangfei; Feterl, Marshall; Mulyana, Yanyan; Warner, Jeffrey M; Wallace, Lynne; Keene, F Richard; Collins, J Grant

    2013-04-07

    A series of polypyridyl-ruthenium(II) and -iridium(III) complexes that contain labile chlorido ligands, [{M(tpy)Cl}(2){μ-bb(n)}](2/4+) {Cl-Mbb(n); where M = Ru or Ir; tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine; and bb(n) = bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane (n = 7, 12 or 16)} have been synthesised and their potential as antimicrobial agents examined. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the series of metal complexes against four strains of bacteria - Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) - have been determined. All the ruthenium complexes were highly active and bactericidal. In particular, the Cl-Rubb(12) complex showed excellent activity against all bacterial cell lines with MIC values of 1 μg mL(-1) against the Gram positive bacteria and 2 and 8 μg mL(-1) against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The corresponding iridium(III) complexes also showed significant antimicrobial activity in terms of MIC values; however and surprisingly, the iridium complexes were bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal. The inert iridium(III) complex, [{Ir(phen)(2)}(2){μ-bb(12)}](6+) {where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) exhibited no antimicrobial activity, suggesting that it could not cross the bacterial membrane. The mononuclear model complex, [Ir(tpy)(Me(2)bpy)Cl]Cl(2) (where Me(2)bpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine), was found to aquate very rapidly, with the pK(a) of the iridium-bound water in the corresponding aqua complex determined to be 6.0. This suggests the dinuclear complexes [Ir(tpy)Cl}(2){μ-bb(n)}](4+) aquate and deprotonate rapidly and enter the bacterial cells as 4+ charged hydroxo species.

  18. Spectroscopic properties of neodymium(III)-containing polyoxometalates in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    But, Slawomir; Lis, Stefan; Deun, Rik Van; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N; Görller-Walrand, Christiane; Binnemans, Koen

    2005-11-01

    The spectroscopic properties of the neodymium(III)-containing polyoxometalates (POMs) [Nd(PW(11)O(39))(2)](11-), [Nd(PMo(2)W(9)O(39))(2)](11-), [Nd(PMo(4)W(7)O(39))(2)](11-), [Nd(PMo(6)W(5)O(39))(2)](11-), [Nd(SiMo(2)W(9)O(39))(2)](13-), [Nd(P(2)W(17)O(61))(2)](17-), [NdW(10)O(36)](9-), [NdP(5)W(30)O(110)](12-) and [NdAs(4)W(40)O(140)](25-) are described. Absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of the complexes have been recorded and the transition intensities are parameterised in terms of the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Omega(lambda) (lambda=2, 4, 6). Marked differences were found between the luminescence lifetimes of the complexes of the type Nd(POM) and those of the type Nd(POM)(2), due to a better shielding of the neodymium(III) ions from the bulk water molecules in the latter type of complexes.

  19. Mechanism of cellular accumulation of an iridium(III) pentamethylcyclopentadienyl anticancer complex containing a C,N-chelating ligand.

    PubMed

    Novohradsky, Vojtech; Liu, Zhe; Vojtiskova, Marie; Sadler, Peter J; Brabec, Viktor; Kasparkova, Jana

    2014-03-01

    The effect of replacement of the N,N-chelating ligand 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) in the Ir(III) pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*) complex [(η(5)-Cp*)(Ir)(phen)Cl](+) (2) with the C,N-chelating ligand 7,8-benzoquinoline (bq) to give [(η(5)-Cp*)(Ir)(bq)Cl] (1) on the cytotoxicity of these Cp*Ir(III) complexes toward cancer cell lines was investigated. Complex 2 is inactive, similar to other Cp*Ir(III) complexes containing the N,N-chelating ligands. In contrast, a single atom change (C(-) for N) in the chelating N,N ligand resulted in potency in human ovarian carcinoma cisplatin-sensitive A2780 cells, and, strikingly, 1 is active in the cisplatin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7 and A2780/cisR cells. Replacement of the N,N-chelating ligand with the C,N-chelating ligand gives rise to increased hydrophobicity, leading to higher cellular accumulation, higher DNA-bound iridium in cells and higher cytotoxicity. The pathways involved in cellular accumulation of 1 have been further explored and compared with conventional cisplatin. The results show that both energy-independent passive diffusion and energy-dependent transport play a role in accumulation of 1. Further results were consistent with involvement of p-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 and glutathione metabolism in the efflux of 1. In contrast, the internalization of 1 mediated by the endocytotic uptake pathway(s) seems less likely. Understanding the factors which contribute to the mechanism of cellular accumulation of this Ir(III) complex can now lead to the design of structurally similar metal complexes for antitumor chemotherapy.

  20. Comparative serum albumin interactions and antitumor effects of Au(III) and Ga(III) ions.

    PubMed

    Sarioglu, Omer Faruk; Ozdemir, Ayse; Karaboduk, Kuddusi; Tekinay, Turgay

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, interactions of Au(III) and Ga(III) ions on human serum albumin (HSA) were studied comparatively via spectroscopic and thermal analysis methods: UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The potential antitumor effects of these ions were studied on MCF-7 cells via Alamar blue assay. It was found that both Au(III) and Ga(III) ions can interact with HSA, however; Au(III) ions interact with HSA more favorably and with a higher affinity. FT-IR second derivative analysis results demonstrated that, high concentrations of both metal ions led to a considerable decrease in the α-helix content of HSA; while Au(III) led to around 5% of decrease in the α-helix content at 200μM, it was around 1% for Ga(III) at the same concentration. Calorimetric analysis gave the binding kinetics of metal-HSA interactions; while the binding affinity (Ka) of Au(III)-HSA binding was around 3.87×10(5)M(-1), it was around 9.68×10(3)M(-1) for Ga(III)-HSA binding. Spectroscopy studies overall suggest that both metal ions have significant effects on the chemical structure of HSA, including the secondary structure alterations. Antitumor activity studies on MCF7 tumor cell line with both metal ions revealed that, Au(III) ions have a higher antiproliferative activity compared to Ga(III) ions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. One of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) treated with Tb(III).

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaofen; Cao, Rui; Lu, Aihua; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Li, Chaojun; Huang, Xiaohua

    2008-05-01

    One of the possible mechanisms for the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) treated with Tb(III) was investigated using some biophysical and biochemical methods. Firstly, it was found that a large amount of Tb(III) can be distributed on the cell wall, that some Tb(III) can enter into the horseradish cell, indicating that peroxidase was mainly distributed on cell wall, and thus that Tb(III) would interact with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the plant. In addition, peroxidase bioactivity was decreased in the presence of Tb(III). Secondly, a new peroxidase-containing Tb(III) complex (Tb-HRP) was obtained from horseradish after treatment with Tb(III); the molecular mass of Tb-HRP is near 44 kDa and the pI is about 8.80. Thirdly, the electrocatalytic activity of Tb-HRP is much lower than that of HRP obtained from horseradish without treatment with Tb(III). The decrease in the activity of Tb-HRP is due to the destruction (unfolding) of the conformation in Tb-HRP. The planarity of the heme active center in the Tb-HRP molecule was increased and the extent of exposure of Fe(III) in heme was decreased, leading to inhibition of the electron transfer. The microstructure change in Tb-HRP might be the result of the inhibition effect of Tb(III) on peroxidase activity in horseradish.

  2. Effect of subunit III removal on control of cytochrome c oxidase activity by pH.

    PubMed

    Gregory, L C; Ferguson-Miller, S

    1988-08-23

    Studies were undertaken to assess the postulated involvement of subunit III in the proton-linked functions of cytochrome c oxidase. The effect of pH on the steady-state kinetic [corrected] parameters of subunit III containing and subunit III depleted cytochrome oxidase was determined by using beef heart and rat liver enzymes reconstituted into phospholipid vesicles. The TNmax and Km values for the III-containing enzyme increase with decreasing pH in a manner quantitatively similar to that reported by Thornstrom et al. [(1984) Chem. Scr. 24, 230-235], giving three apparent pKa values of less than 5.0, 6.2, and 7.8. The maximal activities of the subunit III depleted enzymes (beef heart and rat liver) show a similar dependence on pH, but the Km values are consistently higher than those of the III-containing enzyme, an effect that is accentuated at low pH. The pH dependence of TNmax/Km for both forms of the enzyme (+/- subunit III) indicates that protonation of a group with an apparent pKa of 5.7 lowers the affinity for substrate (cytochrome c) independently of a continued increase in maximal velocity. N,N'-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) decreases the pH responsiveness of the electron-transfer activity to the same extent in both III-containing and III-depleted enzymes, indicating that this effect is mediated by a peptide other than subunit III. Control of intramolecular electron transfer by a transmembrane pH gradient (or alkaline intravesicular pH) is shown to occur in cytochrome oxidase vesicles with cytochrome c as the electron donor, in agreement with results of Moroney et al. [(1984) Biochemistry 23, 4991-4997] using hexaammineruthenium(II) as the reductant.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Structures and Luminescent Properties of Two 2D Coordination Polymers Containing Tb(III) or Dy(III) Ions.

    PubMed

    An, Xiaoping; Wang, Hongsheng; Li, Gongchun

    2014-03-01

    Two 2D rare earth terbium and dysprosium coordination polymers with 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylate and oxalate anions have been synthesized by hydrothermal method, the formula is {[RE(pda)(ox)0.5(H2O)4]·2H2O}n (RE = Tb (1) and Dy (2); H2pda = 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid; ox = oxalate anion). The two complexes are isomorphic and crystallized in monoclinic system, P21/c space group. Each pda anion connects two rare earth ions with 2- carboxyl group and the nitrogen atom but the 4- carboxyl group does not coordinate with rare earth ions. Each ox anion connects two rare earth ions by μ 2-bridge way. Both the complexes exhibit intense characteristic luminescence of Tb(III) or Dy(III) ion with excitation of UV-rays.

  4. Uranium dioxide in Fe(III)-containing ionic liquids with DMSO: Dissolution, separation, and structural characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Aining; Chu, Taiwei

    2016-11-01

    UO2 can be successfully dissolved in imidazolium-based Fe(III)-containing ionic liquids (ILs) with the help of DMSO. Spectroscopic studies and X-ray diffraction show that UO2Cl42- is the principal product. The dissolved uranyl species can be easily separated from the ILs via a combination of crystallization and solvent extraction. Moreover, even if 15.2 wt% of the rare-earth elements of Sm, Eu, and Gd, compared with the total amount of uranium and the rare-earth elements, exist in the IL, only uranium-containing crystals would be selectively formed and separated from the system. The solvents of acetone and acetonitrile could be used to separate the rare-earth elements from uranium in the IL with the help of imidazolium chloride. Considering the complete process from the dissolution of UO2 and some rare-earth oxides to the separation of uranium and rare-earth elements in the IL, the facile approach is promising for the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  5. Lanthanide(III) and Yttrium(III) Complexes of Benzimidazole-2-Acetic Acid: Synthesis, Characterisation and Effect of La(III) Complex on Germination of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gudasi, Kalagouda B.; Shenoy, Rashmi V.; Vadavi, Ramesh S.; Patil, Manjula S.; Patil, Siddappa A.; Hanchinal, Rayappa R.; Desai, Srinivas A.; Lohithaswa, H.

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of lanthanide(III) and yttrium(III) nitrate complexes of benzimidazole-2-acetic acid (HBIA) are reported. The complexes have been characterised by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic studies, IR, 1H NMR, UV-visible, EPR, and TG/DTA studies. They have the stoichiometry [Ln3(BIA)2(NO3)7(H2O)4] · 3H2O where Ln=La(III), Pr(III), Nd(II), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Y(III). The effect of La(III) complex on germination, coleoptile, and root length of two local varieties of wheat DWR-195 and GW-349 for different treatment periods has been investigated. The complex was found to exhibit enhanced activity, compared to HBIA or metal salt alone at lower treatment periods. PMID:17497017

  6. Effects of axions on Population III stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choplin, Arthur; Coc, Alain; Meynet, Georges; Olive, Keith A.; Uzan, Jean-Philippe; Vangioni, Elisabeth

    2017-09-01

    Aims: Following the renewed interest in axions as a dark matter component, we revisit the effects of energy loss by axion emission on the evolution of the first generation of stars. These stars with zero metallicity are assumed to be massive, more compact, and hotter than subsequent generations. It is hence important to extend previous studies, which were restricted to solar metallicity stars. Methods: Our analysis first compares the evolution of solar metallicity 8, 10, and 12 M⊙ stars to previous work. We then calculate the evolution of 8 zero-metallicity stars with and without axion losses and with masses ranging from 20 to 150 M⊙. Results: For the solar metallicity models, we confirm the disappearance of the blue-loop phase for a value of the axion-photon coupling of gaγ = 10-10 GeV-1. We show that for gaγ = 10-10 GeV-1, the evolution of Population III stars is not much affected by axion losses, except within the range of masses 80-130 M⊙. Such stars show significant differences in both their tracks within the Tc-ρc diagram and their central composition (in particular 20Ne and 24Mg). We discuss the origin of these modifications from the stellar physics point of view, and also their potential observational signatures.

  7. A neutral polydisulfide containing Gd(III) DOTA monoamide as a redox-sensitive biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhen; Zhou, Zhuxian; Ayat, Nadia; Wu, Xueming; Jin, Erlei; Shi, Xiaoyue; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to develop safe and effective gadolinium (III)-based biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agents for blood pool and cancer imaging. A neutral polydisulfide containing macrocyclic Gd-DOTA monoamide (GOLS) was synthesized and characterized. In addition to studying the in vitro degradation of GOLS, its kinetic stability was also investigated in an in vivo model. The efficacy of GOLS for contrast-enhanced MRI was examined with female BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 breast cancer xenografts. The pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and metabolism of GOLS were also determined in mice. GOLS has an apparent molecular weight of 23.0 kDa with T1 relaxivities of 7.20 mM(-1) s(-1) per Gd at 1.5 T, and 6.62 mM(-1) s(-1) at 7.0 T. GOLS had high kinetic inertness against transmetallation with Zn(2+) ions, and its polymer backbone was readily cleaved by L-cysteine. The agent showed improved efficacy for blood pool and tumor MR imaging. The structural effect on biodistribution and in vivo chelation stability was assessed by comparing GOLS with Gd(HP-DO3A), a negatively charged polydisulfide containing Gd-DOTA monoamide GODC, and a polydisulfide containing Gd-DTPA-bisamide (GDCC). GOLS showed high in vivo chelation stability and minimal tissue deposition of gadolinium. The biodegradable macromolecular contrast agent GOLS is a promising polymeric contrast agent for clinical MR cardiovascular imaging and cancer imaging.

  8. Diversity and Evolutionary Analysis of Iron-Containing (Type-III) Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Gaona-López, Carlos; Julián-Sánchez, Adriana; Riveros-Rosas, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity is widely distributed in the three domains of life. Currently, there are three non-homologous NAD(P)+-dependent ADH families reported: Type I ADH comprises Zn-dependent ADHs; type II ADH comprises short-chain ADHs described first in Drosophila; and, type III ADH comprises iron-containing ADHs (FeADHs). These three families arose independently throughout evolution and possess different structures and mechanisms of reaction. While types I and II ADHs have been extensively studied, analyses about the evolution and diversity of (type III) FeADHs have not been published yet. Therefore in this work, a phylogenetic analysis of FeADHs was performed to get insights into the evolution of this protein family, as well as explore the diversity of FeADHs in eukaryotes. Results showed that FeADHs from eukaryotes are distributed in thirteen protein subfamilies, eight of them possessing protein sequences distributed in the three domains of life. Interestingly, none of these protein subfamilies possess protein sequences found simultaneously in animals, plants and fungi. Many FeADHs are activated by or contain Fe2+, but many others bind to a variety of metals, or even lack of metal cofactor. Animal FeADHs are found in just one protein subfamily, the hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase (HOT) subfamily, which includes protein sequences widely distributed in fungi, but not in plants), and in several taxa from lower eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea. Fungi FeADHs are found mainly in two subfamilies: HOT and maleylacetate reductase (MAR), but some can be found also in other three different protein subfamilies. Plant FeADHs are found only in chlorophyta but not in higher plants, and are distributed in three different protein subfamilies. FeADHs are a diverse and ancient protein family that shares a common 3D scaffold with a patchy distribution in eukaryotes. The majority of sequenced FeADHs from eukaryotes are distributed in just two subfamilies, HOT

  9. Diversity and Evolutionary Analysis of Iron-Containing (Type-III) Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gaona-López, Carlos; Julián-Sánchez, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity is widely distributed in the three domains of life. Currently, there are three non-homologous NAD(P)+-dependent ADH families reported: Type I ADH comprises Zn-dependent ADHs; type II ADH comprises short-chain ADHs described first in Drosophila; and, type III ADH comprises iron-containing ADHs (FeADHs). These three families arose independently throughout evolution and possess different structures and mechanisms of reaction. While types I and II ADHs have been extensively studied, analyses about the evolution and diversity of (type III) FeADHs have not been published yet. Therefore in this work, a phylogenetic analysis of FeADHs was performed to get insights into the evolution of this protein family, as well as explore the diversity of FeADHs in eukaryotes. Principal Findings Results showed that FeADHs from eukaryotes are distributed in thirteen protein subfamilies, eight of them possessing protein sequences distributed in the three domains of life. Interestingly, none of these protein subfamilies possess protein sequences found simultaneously in animals, plants and fungi. Many FeADHs are activated by or contain Fe2+, but many others bind to a variety of metals, or even lack of metal cofactor. Animal FeADHs are found in just one protein subfamily, the hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase (HOT) subfamily, which includes protein sequences widely distributed in fungi, but not in plants), and in several taxa from lower eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea. Fungi FeADHs are found mainly in two subfamilies: HOT and maleylacetate reductase (MAR), but some can be found also in other three different protein subfamilies. Plant FeADHs are found only in chlorophyta but not in higher plants, and are distributed in three different protein subfamilies. Conclusions/Significance FeADHs are a diverse and ancient protein family that shares a common 3D scaffold with a patchy distribution in eukaryotes. The majority of sequenced FeADHs from

  10. Study on fluorescence and DNA-binding of praseodymium(III) complex containing 2,2'-bipyridine.

    PubMed

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Khmmarnia, Sommaieh

    2011-01-01

    The fluorescence of praseodymium(III) complex containing 2,2'-bipyridine, [Pr(bpy)2Cl3·OH2] has been investigated in details. Also, the biological activity of [Pr(bpy)2Cl3·OH2] has been evaluated by examining its ability to bind to DNA with UV-vis, fluorescence as well as viscosity measurement. The fluorescence of [Pr(bpy)2Cl3·OH2] is strongly quenched through static mechanism in the presence of DNA. DNA intrinsic binding constant, Kb the binding site number, n the Stern-Volmer quenching constant, KSV and the thermodynamic parameters have been determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. For characterization of bonding mode, the effect of various experimental parameters were investigated on the interaction of [Pr(bpy)2Cl3·OH2] with DNA.

  11. Tuning the chromaticity of the emission color of the copolymers containing Eu(III), Tb(III), Be(II) ions based on colorimetric principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aiqin; Yang, Yamin; Zhai, Guangmei; Jia, Husheng; Xu, Bingshe

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a method of tuning the chromaticity of the emission color of the copolymers containing Eu(III), Tb(III), Be(II) ions based on colorimetric principle was proposed. The technological route from coordination to copolymerization was employed to obtain the white light macromolecular phosphor. The three primary color monomers have been synthesized and their Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates are respectively (0.540, 0.314), (0.231, 0.463), and (0.161, 0.054). The molar feed ratios of the three primary color monomers were calculated from the CIE coordinates based on colorimetric principle. Serial copolymers have been synthesized by free radical copolymerization of the three primary color monomers and methyl methacrylate. The quantum efficiency of the copolymers was higher than that of the complex monomers. The complexes were directly boned to the polymer chain, in which the energy transfer was reduced significantly compared to the doped-polymers. The experimental values of copolymers' CIE coordinates were located in the white light region in good agreement with theoretical values. The results indicate that the chromaticity of the emission color of the copolymers containing Eu(III), Tb(III), Be(II) ions could be tuned by theoretical calculation based on colorimetric principle.

  12. Alterations in Fibronectin Type III Domain Containing 1 Protein Gene Are Associated with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Alan Y.; Chauvet, Cristina; Ménard, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for blood pressure (BP) have been detected in rat models of human polygenic hypertension. Great challenges confronting us include molecular identifications of individual QTLs. We first defined the chromosome region harboring C1QTL1 to a segment of 1.9 megabases that carries 9 genes. Among them, we identified the gene encoding the fibronectin type III domain containing 1 protein (Fndc1)/activator of G protein signaling 8 (Ags8) to be the strongest candidate for C1QTL1, since numerous non-synonymous mutations are found. Moreover, the 5’ Fndc1/Ags8 putative promoter contains numerous mutations that can account for its differential expression in kidneys and the heart, prominent organs in modulating BP, although the Fndc1/Ags8 protein was not detectable in these organs under our experimental conditions. This work has provided the premier evidence that Fndc1/Ags8 is a novel and strongest candidate gene for C1QTL1 without completely excluding other 8 genes in the C1QTL1-residing interval. If proven true by future in vivo function studies such as single-gene Fndc1/Ags8 congenics, transgenesis or targeted-gene modifications, it might represent a part of the BP genetic architecture that operates in the upstream position distant from the end-phase physiology of BP control, since it activates a Gbetagamma component in a signaling pathway. Its functional role could validate the concept that a QTL in itself can influence BP ‘indirectly’ by regulating other genes downstream in a pathway. The elucidation of the mechanisms initiated by Fndc/Ags8 variations will reveal novel insights into the BP modulation via a regulatory hierarchy. PMID:27064407

  13. Serotype specificity of recombinant fusion protein containing domain III and capsid protein of dengue virus 2.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Alienys; Valdés, Iris; Gil, Lázaro; Hermida, Lisset; Gutiérrez, Sheila; García, Angélica; Bernardo, Lidice; Pavón, Alekis; Guillén, Gerardo; Guzmán, María G

    2012-07-01

    Recombinant fusion protein containing domain III of the dengue envelope protein fused to capsid protein from dengue 2 virus was immunogenic and conferred protection in mice against lethal challenge in previously report. Here, the antigenic specificity of this recombinant protein using anti-dengue antibodies from mice and humans and the cross-reactive humoral and cellular response induced in immunized mice were evaluated. The homologous anti-dengue antibodies showed a higher reactivity to the recombinant protein compared to the wide cross-reactivity observed for viral antigen as determined by ELISA. The IgG anti-dengue and functional antibodies, induced by the recombinant proteins in mice, were highly serotype specific by ELISA, hemaglutination inhibition and plaque reduction neutralizing tests. Accordingly, the cellular immune response determined by the IFNγ and TNFα secretion, was serotype specific. The specificity of serotype associated to this recombinant protein in addition to its high antigenicity, immunogenicity and protecting capacity suggest its advantage as a possible functional and safe vaccine candidate against dengue in a future tetravalent formulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Unintentional Ga incorporation in metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy of In-containing III-nitride semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroki, Masanobu; Oda, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Maeda, Narihiko; Yokoyama, Haruki; Kumakura, Kazuhide; Yamamoto, Hideki

    2013-11-01

    We prepared InAlN barrier layer films on GaN buffer layers using the metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) method and investigated the InAlN/GaN heterointerfaces. Secondary ion spectroscopy experiments revealed that a quaternary alloy of InAlGaN is grown on GaN even when trimethylindium (TMIn) and trimethylaluminum (TMAl) are exclusively supplied as group-III precursors, indicating that Ga is unintentionally incorporated into the InAlN layers. This Ga incorporation is also observed in InGaN/GaN heterostructures. Our systematic investigations of the growth condition dependence, such as the TMIn flow rate, indicate that the Ga is supplied by a transmetalation reaction between TMIn and residual Ga on the flow distributor in the reactor. Here, we show that the Ga incorporation can be eliminated by adopting an elaborate growth sequence, including reactor cleaning and regrowth processes. This study provides guides for designing the MOVPE reactor configuration, as well as the growth sequences, for the growth of device structures with In-containing nitride layers.

  15. DNA interactions of cobalt(III) mixed-polypyridyl complexes containing asymmetric ligands.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang-Li; Chao, Hui; Li, Hong; Hong, Xian-Lan; Liu, Yun-Jun; Tan, Li-Feng; Ji, Liang-Nian

    2004-06-01

    Three novel asymmetric ligands, 3-(pyridine-2-yl)-5,6-diphenyl-as-triazine (pdtb), 3-(pyridine-2-yl)-as-triazino[5,6-f]acenaphthylene (pdta) and 3-(pyridine-2-yl)-as-triazino[5,6-f]phenanthroline (pdtp) and their cobalt(III) complexes have been synthesized and characterized. Binding of the three complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) has been investigated by spectroscopic methods, viscosity, cyclic voltammetry, and electrophoresis measurements. The experimental results indicate that the size and shape of the intercalated ligand have a marked effect on the binding affinity of complexes to CT-DNA. Complexes 2 and 3 have also been found to promote cleavage of plasmid pBR322 DNA from the supercoiled form I to the open circular form II upon irradiation.

  16. Analysis of the Magnetic Exchange Interactions in Yttrium(III) Complexes Containing Nitronyl Nitroxide Radicals.

    PubMed

    Jung, Julie; Puget, Marin; Cador, Olivier; Bernot, Kevin; Calzado, Carmen J; Le Guennic, Boris

    2017-06-19

    We report a combined theoretical and experimental investigation of the exchange interactions governing the magnetic behavior of a series of nitronyl nitroxide (NIT)-based Y(III) complexes, i.e., Y(hfac)3(NIT-R)2 with R = PhOPh (1), PhOEt (2), and PhOMe (3a, 3b). Even though some of these complexes or their Dy(III) parents were previously described in the literature [ Zhao et al. Transition Met. Chem. 2006 , 31 , 593 ; Bernot et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009 , 131 , 5573 ], their synthesis procedure as well as their structural and magnetic properties were completely reconsidered. Depending on the nature of R and the crystallization conditions, Y(hfac)3(NIT-R)2 units can be organized as supramolecular dimers or linear or orthogonal chains. Such structural diversity within the series induces extremely different magnetic behaviors. The observed behaviors are rationalized by state-of-the-art wave function-based quantum-chemical approaches (CASSCF/DDCI) that demonstrate the existence of not only effective intramolecular interactions between the NIT-R radical ligands of an isolated Y(hfac)3(NIT-R)2 molecule but also intermolecular interactions between NIT-R moieties belonging to different Y(hfac)3(NIT-R)2 units. These results are supported by the use of spin Hamiltonian models going beyond the basic Bleaney-Bowers formalism to properly fit the experimental magnetic data. Finally, the microscopic mechanisms behind the evidenced intramolecular exchange interactions are elucidated through the inspection of the calculated wave functions. In particular, whereas the role of Y orbitals was already proposed, we herein demonstrate the contribution of the hfac(-) ancillary ligands in mediating the magnetic interactions between the NIT radicals.

  17. A binuclear Fe(III)Dy(III) single molecule magnet. Quantum effects and models.

    PubMed

    Ferbinteanu, Marilena; Kajiwara, Takashi; Choi, Kwang-Yong; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Akio; Kojima, Norimichi; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Fujimura, Yuichi; Takaishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2006-07-19

    The binuclear [FeIII(bpca)(mu-bpca)Dy(NO3)4], having Single Molecule Magnet (SMM) properties, belonging to a series of isostructural FeIIILnIII complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) and closely related FeIILnIII chain structures, was characterized in concise experimental and theoretical respects. The low temperature magnetization data showed hysteresis and tunneling. The anomalous temperature dependence of Mössbauer spectra is related to the onset of magnetic order, consistent with the magnetization relaxation time scale resulting from AC susceptibility measurements. The advanced ab initio calculations (CASSCF and spin-orbit) revealed the interplay of ligand field, spin-orbit, and exchange effects and probed the effective Ising nature of the lowest states, involved in the SMM and tunneling effects.

  18. Elucidation of metal-ion accumulation induced by hydrogen bonds on protein surfaces by using porous lysozyme crystals containing Rh(III) ions as the model surfaces.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Takafumi; Abe, Satoshi; Koshiyama, Tomomi; Ohki, Takahiro; Hikage, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Yoshihito

    2010-03-01

    Metal-ion accumulation on protein surfaces is a crucial step in the initiation of small-metal clusters and the formation of inorganic materials in nature. This event is expected to control the nucleation, growth, and position of the materials. There remain many unknowns, as to how proteins affect the initial process at the atomic level, although multistep assembly processes of the materials formation by both native and model systems have been clarified at the macroscopic level. Herein the cooperative effects of amino acids and hydrogen bonds promoting metal accumulation reactions are clarified by using porous hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) crystals containing Rh(III) ions, as model protein surfaces for the reactions. The experimental results reveal noteworthy implications for initiation of metal accumulation, which involve highly cooperative dynamics of amino acids and hydrogen bonds: i) Disruption of hydrogen bonds can induce conformational changes of amino-acid residues to capture Rh(III) ions. ii) Water molecules pre-organized by hydrogen bonds can stabilize Rh(III) coordination as aqua ligands. iii) Water molecules participating in hydrogen bonds with amino-acid residues can be replaced by Rh(III) ions to form polynuclear structures with the residues. iv) Rh(III) aqua complexes are retained on amino-acid residues through stabilizing hydrogen bonds even at low pH (approximately 2). These metal-protein interactions including hydrogen bonds may promote native metal accumulation reactions and also may be useful in the preparation of new inorganic materials that incorporate proteins.

  19. Diagnosis of type III hyperlipoproteinemia by chromatography of plasma lipoproteins on columns containing agarose.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, J; Packard, C J; Dryburgh, F J; Third, J L

    1975-12-01

    Agarose column chromatography has been used to separate plasma lipoproteins into very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Applied to the diagnosis of primary type III hyperlipoproteinemia, the procedure is capable of demonstrating three characteristic and specific changes from normality in the elution pattern of lipoproteins from patients with this condition. In the type III profile there is (a) incomplete separation of VLDL from putative LDL material, (b) early elution of the type III LDL with respect to a normal LDL marker, and (c) relative deficiency of type III LDL with elution characteristics of normal LDL. We advocate the use of this method in the diagnosis of type III hyperlipoproteinemia.

  20. Studying the sorption properties of a clinoptilolite-containing tuff with respect to europium(III) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikova, N. M.

    2014-03-01

    The kinetic laws of sorption of europium(III) ions from sulfate solutions by a clinoptilolite-containing tuff are studied. The kinetic parameters of sorption process are determined and absorption isotherms are constructed for europium ions. It is found that both external and internal diffusion are rate-limiting steps, and europium is completely extracted from dilute solutions (<0.0025 m).

  1. Manganese(III)-containing Wells-Dawson sandwich-type polyoxometalates: comparison with their manganese(II) counterparts.

    PubMed

    Lebrini, Mounim; Mbomekallé, Israël M; Dolbecq, Anne; Marrot, Jérôme; Berthet, Patrick; Ntienoue, Joseline; Sécheresse, Francis; Vigneron, Jacky; Etcheberry, Arnaud

    2011-07-18

    We present the synthesis and structural characterization, assessed by various techniques (FTIR, TGA, UV-vis, elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction for three compounds, magnetic susceptibility, and electrochemistry) of five manganese-containing Wells-Dawson sandwich-type (WDST) complexes. The dimanganese(II)-containing complex, [Na(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](18-) (1), was obtained by reaction of MnCl(2) with 1 equiv of [As(2)W(15)O(56)](12-) in acetate medium (pH 4.7). Oxidation of 1 by Na(2)S(2)O(8) in aqueous solution led to the dimanganese(III) complex [Na(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](16-) (2), while its trimanganese(II) homologue, [Na(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(H(2)O)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](17-) (3), was obtained by addition of ca. 1 equiv of MnCl(2) to a solution of 1 in 1 M NaCl. The trimanganese(III) and tetramanganese(III) counterparts, [Mn(III)(H(2)O)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](15-) (4) and [Mn(III)(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](12-) (6), are, respectively, obtained by oxidation of aqueous solutions of 3 and [Mn(II)(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](16-) (5) by Na(2)S(2)O(8). Single-crystal X-ray analyses were carried out on 2, 3, and 4. BVS calculations and XPS confirmed that the oxidation state of Mn centers is +II for complexes 1, 3, and 5 and +III for 2, 4, and 6. A complete comparative electrochemical study was carried out on the six compounds cited above, and it was possible to observe the distinct redox steps Mn(IV/III) and Mn(III/II). Magnetization measurements, as a function of temperature, confirm the presence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the Mn ions in these compounds in all cases with the exception of compound 2.

  2. Sorption Kinetics Of Selected Heavy Metals Adsorption To Natural And Fe(III) Modified Zeolite Tuff Containing Clinoptilolite Mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirotiak, Maroš; Lipovský, Marek; Bartošová, Alica

    2015-06-01

    In the research described in this paper, studied was sorption capacity of natural and ferric modification of zeolite tuff containing mineral clinoptilolite from the Nižný Hrabovec deposit to remove potentially toxic metals (ionic forms of chromium, nickel, copper and aluminium) from their water solutions. We reported that the Fe (III) zeolite has an enhanced ability to sorption of Cu (II), and a slight improvement occurs in the case of Cr (VI) and Ni (II). On the other hand, the deterioration was observed in the case of Al (III) adsorption.

  3. Lanthanide(III) complexes that contain a self-immolative arm: potential enzyme responsive contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Thomas; Torres, Susana; Rosseto, Renato; Kotek, Jan; Badet, Bernard; Durand, Philippe; Tóth, Eva

    2012-01-27

    Enzyme-responsive MRI-contrast agents containing a "self-immolative" benzylcarbamate moiety that links the MRI-reporter lanthanide complex to a specific enzyme substrate have been developed. The enzymatic cleavage initiates an electronic cascade reaction that leads to a structural change in the Ln(III) complex, with a concomitant response in its MRI-contrast-enhancing properties. We synthesized and investigated a series of Gd(3+) and Yb(3+) complexes, including those bearing a self-immolative arm and a sugar unit as selective substrates for β-galactosidase; we synthesized complex LnL(1), its NH(2) amine derivatives formed after enzymatic cleavage, LnL(2), and two model compounds, LnL(3) and LnL(4). All of the Gd(3+) complexes synthesized have a single inner-sphere water molecule. The relaxivity change upon enzymatic cleavage is limited (3.68 vs. 3.15 mM(-1) s(-1) for complexes GdL(1) and GdL(2), respectively; 37 °C, 60 MHz), which prevents application of this system as an enzyme-responsive T(1) relaxation agent. Variable-temperature (17)O NMR spectroscopy and (1)H NMRD (nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion) analysis were used to assess the parameters that determine proton relaxivity for the Gd(3+) complexes, including the water-exchange rate (k(ex)(298), varies in the range 1.5-3.9×10(6) s(-1)). Following the enzymatic reaction, the chelates contain an exocyclic amine that is not protonated at physiological pH, as deduced from pH-potentiometric measurements (log K(H)=5.12(±0.01) and 5.99(±0.01) for GdL(2) and GdL(3), respectively). The Yb(3+) analogues show a PARACEST effect after enzymatic cleavage that can be exploited for the specific detection of enzymatic activity. The proton-exchange rates were determined at various pH values for the amine derivatives by using the dependency of the CEST effect on concentration, saturation time, and saturation power. A concentration-independent analysis of the saturation-power-dependency data was also applied. All these

  4. Pharmaceutical container/closure integrity. III: Validation of the helium leak rate method for rigid pharmaceutical containers.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, L E; Nguyen, L; Gerth, R

    1997-01-01

    Validation of a helium leak rate method for pharmaceutical container/closure integrity quality assurance required the demonstration that this physical testing method was as good or better than microbial immersion challenge testing in detecting potential integrity failures. One lot of rubber-stoppered, broth-filled glass vials also containing defective vials with known leaks were subjected to both helium leak rate and microbial challenge testing. The defective vials were prepared by affixing glass micropipettes (0.1 to 10 microns) into the vial side walls. The validation lot included a 10% seeded defect rate of which about 50% contained leaks with a predicted probability of failing a microbial challenge (> 10%). Helium tracer was placed in the test units by charging them for 4 hours under a 40 psi helium pressure. The critical leak rate after charging was determined to be 10(-7) standard cc/second, and test units with measured leak rates greater than this value were considered helium leak rate failures. Microbial immersion challenge was conducted by exposing the test units in a bath inoculated with 10(9-10) viable E. coli and B. diminuta organisms for 24 hours followed by a 13 day (35 degrees C) incubation. Microbial failures were determined visually. The helium and microbial leak test methods were compared statistically using mean failure rates. The mean helium failure rate was 6.9%, whereas the mean microbial failure rate was 2.8%. The difference between helium and microbial failure rates was significantly greater than zero. Thus, helium leak rate testing was demonstrated to be a suitable pharmaceutical container/closure integrity method for microbial quality assurance of rigid containers.

  5. Synthesis, photochromic, and computational studies of dithienylethene-containing β-diketonate derivatives and their near-infrared photochromic behavior upon coordination of a boron(III) center.

    PubMed

    Poon, Chun-Ting; Lam, Wai Han; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2013-03-04

    A series of dithienylethene-containing 1-thienyl-3-aryl-propane-1,3-diones (aryl = phenyl (Ph), thienyl (Th), and 4,5-bis(2,5-dimethylthiophen-3-yl)thiophen-2-yl (DTE-Th)) and the corresponding boron(III) diketonates, (O^O)BR(2) (R = F, C(6)F(5), and Ph), have been designed and synthesized. Their photophysical, electrochemical, and photochromic properties have been studied. Upon coordination of a boron(III) center, the closed forms of the dithienylethene-containing β-diketonates show near-infrared response and the photochromic behavior was also found to be affected by the aryl substituents at the 3-position of the β-diketonates. Moreover, computational studies have been performed that help to provide an understanding of the effect of substituents on the photophysical and photochromic properties.

  6. 40 CFR 300.310 - Phase III-Containment, countermeasures, cleanup, and disposal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Operational Response Phases for Oil Removal § 300.310 Phase III... environment. Actions may include but are not limited to: Analyzing water samples to determine the source and... or salvage operations; placement of physical barriers to deter the spread of the oil and to protect...

  7. Luminescent complexes of iridium(III) containing N/\\C/\\N-coordinating terdentate ligands.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Andrew J; Puschmann, Horst; Howard, Judith A K; Foster, Clive E; Williams, J A Gareth

    2006-10-16

    A family of bis-terdentate iridium(III) complexes is reported which contain a cyclometalated, N/\\C[wedge]N-coordinating 1,3-di(2-pyridyl)benzene derivative. This coordination mode is favored by blocking competitive cyclometalation at the C4 and C6 positions of the ligand. Thus, 1,3-di(2-pyridyl)-4,6-dimethylbenzene (dpyxH) reacts with IrCl3 x 3H2O to generate a dichlorobridged dimer [Ir(dpyx-N,C,N)Cl(mu-Cl)]2, 1. This dimer is cleaved by DMSO to give [Ir(dpyx)(DMSO)Cl2], the X-ray crystal structure of which is reported here, confirming the N/\\C/\\N coordination mode of dpyx. The dimer 1 can also be cleaved by a variety of other ligands to generate novel classes of mononuclear complexes. These include charge-neutral bis-terdentate complexes of the form [Ir(N/\\C/\\N)(C/\\N/\\C)] and [Ir(N/\\C/\\N)(C/\\N/\\O)], by reaction of 1 with C/\\N/\\C-coordinating ligands (e.g., 2,6-diphenylpyridine and derivatives) and C/\\N/\\O-coordinating ligands (based on 6-phenylpicolinate), respectively. Treatment of 1 with terpyridines leads to dicationic complexes of the type [Ir(N/\\C/\\N)(N/\\N/\\N)]2+, while 2-phenylpyridine gives [Ir(dpyx-N/\\C/\\N)(ppy-C,N)Cl]. All of the charge-neutral complexes are luminescent in fluid solution at room temperature. Assignment of the emission to charge-transfer excited states with significant MLCT character is supported by DFT calculations. In the [Ir(N/\\C/\\N)(C/\\N/\\C)] class, fluorination of the C/\\N/\\C ligand at the phenyl 2' and 4' positions leads to a blue-shift in the emission and to an increase in the quantum yield (lambda(max) = 547 nm, phi = 0.41 in degassed CH(3)CN at 295 K) compared to the nonfluorinated parent complex (lambda(max) = 585 nm, phi = 0.21), as well as to a stabilization of the compound with respect to photodissociation through cleavage of mutually trans Ir-C bonds. [Ir(dpyx-N/\\C/\\N)(ppy-C,N)Cl] is an exceptionally bright emitter: phi = 0.76, lambda(max) = 508 nm, in CH(3)CN at 295 K. In contrast, the [Ir

  8. Some NUDET effects due to water containment

    SciTech Connect

    Symbalisty, E.M.D.

    1994-07-01

    The effect on the optical and acoustical signals of containing a nominal low yield nuclear device in a sphere of water is studied. The silicon photodiode optical signal is seen to be distorted by a relatively small amount of water. The acoustical signal timing and shape change little.

  9. Electrically conductive polyimide film containing gold (III) ions, composition, and process of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplan, Maggie L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); St. Clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An electrically conductive, thermooxidatively stable poltimide, especially a film thereof, is prepared from an intimate admixture of a particular polyimide and gold (III) ions, in an amount sufficient to provide between 17 and 21 percent by weight of gold (III) ions, based on the weight of electrically conductive, thermooxidatively stable polyimide. The particular polyimide is prepared from a polyamic acid which has been synthesized from a dianhydride/diamine combination selected from the group consisting of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride and 2,2-bis[4-(4 -aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane; 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride and 4,4'-oxydianiline; 2,2'-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride and 4,4'-oxydianiline; and 3,3'4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride and 2,2-bis(3-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial study of cyclometalated rhodium(III) complex containing dithiocarbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Ghobad; Heidarizadi, Fateme; Naghipour, Ali; Notash, Behrouz

    2016-10-01

    The novel cyclometalated Rh(III) complex, [Rh(phpy)2(SˆS)], Where phpy is 2-phenylpyridine and (SˆS) is diethyldithiocarbamate, has been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 13C and 1H NMR, electronic absorption and Fluorescence spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of [Rh(phpy)2(SˆS)] shows that the coordination geometry around the Rh(III) is a distorted octahedron, with bite angles of 71.19-81.04° for all three bidentate ligands. Electrochemical analysis by cyclic voltammetry reveals irreversible redox behavior of the rhodium centre. Antibacterial activity of the complex has also been studied by agar disc diffusion method against three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) and two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium renale).

  11. DNA interaction of europium(III) complex containing 2,2'-bipyridine and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Jahani, Shohreh; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of native fish salmon DNA (FS-DNA) with [Eu(bpy)3Cl2(H2O)]Cl, where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, is studied at physiological pH in Tris-HCl buffer by spectroscopic methods, viscometric techniques as well as circular dichroism (CD). These experiments reveal that Eu(III) complex has interaction with FS-DNA. Moreover, binding constant and binding site size have been determined. The value of Kb has been defined 2.46 ± .02 × 10(5) M(-1). The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by Van't Hoff equation, the results show that the interaction of the complex with FS-DNA is an entropically driven phenomenon. CD spectroscopy followed by viscosity as well as fluorescence and UV--Vis measurements indicate that the complex interacts with FS-DNA via groove binding mode. Also, the synthesized Eu(III) complex has been screened for antimicrobial activities.

  12. Mononuclear ruthenium(III) complexes containing chelating thiosemicarbazones: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic property

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja, N.; Ramesh, R.

    2010-02-01

    Mononuclear ruthenium(III) complexes of the type [RuX(EPh 3) 2(L)] (E = P or As; X = Cl or Br; L = dibasic terdentate dehydroacetic acid thiosemicarbazones) have been synthesized from the reaction of thiosemicarbazone ligands with ruthenium(III) precursors, [RuX 3(EPh 3) 3] (where E = P, X = Cl; E = As, X = Cl or Br) and [RuBr 3(PPh 3) 2(CH 3OH)] in benzene. The compositions of the complexes have been established by elemental analysis, magnetic susceptibility measurement, FT-IR, UV-vis and EPR spectral data. These complexes are paramagnetic and show intense d-d and charge transfer transitions in dichloromethane. The complexes show rhombic EPR spectra at LNT which are typical of low-spin distorted octahedral ruthenium(III) species. All the complexes are redox active and display an irreversible metal centered redox processes. Complex [RuCl(PPh 3) 2(DHA-PTSC)] ( 5) was used as catalyst for transfer hydrogenation of ketones in the presence of isopropanol/KOH and was found to be the active species.

  13. Biochemical investigation of yttrium(III) complex containing 1,10-phenanthroline: DNA binding and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Moodi, Asieh; Niroomand, Sona

    2013-03-05

    Characterization of the interaction between yttrium(III) complex containing 1,10-phenanthroline as ligand, [Y(phen)2Cl(OH2)3]Cl2⋅H2O, and DNA has been carried out by UV absorption, fluorescence spectra and viscosity measurements in order to investigate binding mode. The experimental results indicate that the yttrium(III) complex binds to DNA and absorption is decreasing in charge transfer band with the increase in amount of DNA. The binding constant (Kb) at different temperatures as well as thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°), were calculated according to relevant fluorescent data and Vant' Hoff equation. The results of interaction mechanism studies, suggested that groove binding plays a major role in the binding of the complex and DNA. The activity of yttrium(III) complex against some bacteria was tested and antimicrobial screening tests shown growth inhibitory activity in the presence of yttrium(III) complex.

  14. EXAFS and HRTEM evidence for As(III)-containing surface precipitates on nanocrystalline magnetite: implications for As sequestration.

    PubMed

    Morin, Guillaume; Wang, Yuheng; Ona-Nguema, Georges; Juillot, Farid; Calas, Guillaume; Menguy, Nicolas; Aubry, Emmanuel; Bargar, John R; Brown, Gordon E

    2009-08-18

    Arsenic sorption onto iron oxide spinels such as magnetite could contribute to immobilization of arsenite (AsO3(3-)), the reduced, highly toxic form of arsenic in contaminated anoxic groundwaters, as well as to putative remediation processes. Nanocrystalline magnetite (<20 nm) is known to exhibit higher efficiency for arsenite sorption than larger particles, sorbing as much as approximately 20 micromol/m2 of arsenite. To improve our understanding of this process, we investigated the molecular level structure of As(III)-containing sorption products on two types of fine-grained magnetite: (1) a biogenic one with an average particle diameter of 34 nm produced by reduction of lepidocrocite (gamma-FeOOH) by Shewanella putrefaciens and (2) a synthetic, abiotic, nanocrystalline magnetite with an average particle diameter of 11 nm. Results from extended X-ray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) for both types of magnetite with As(III) surface coverages of up to 5 micromol/m2 indicate that As(III) forms dominantly inner-sphere, tridentate, hexanuclear, corner-sharing surface complexes (3C) in which AsO3 pyramids occupy vacant tetrahedral sites on octahedrally terminated {111} surfaces of magnetite. Formation of this type of surface complex results in a decrease in dissolved As(III) concentration below the maximum concentration level recommended by the World Health Organization (10 microg/L), which corresponds to As(III) surface coverages of 0.16 and 0.19 micromol/m2 in our experiments. In addition, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analyses revealed the occurrence of an amorphous As(III)-rich surface precipitate forming at As(III) surface coverages as low as 1.61 micromol/m2. This phase hosts the majority of adsorbed arsenite at surface coverages exceeding the theoretical maximum site density of vacant tetrahedral sites on the magnetite {111} surface (3.2 sites/nm2 or 5.3 micromol/m2). This finding

  15. Antimony(III) and bismuth(III) amides containing pendant N-donor groups--a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Vránová, Iva; Jambor, Roman; Růžička, Aleš; Hoffmann, Alexander; Herres-Pawlis, Sonja; Dostál, Libor

    2015-01-07

    N,N- and N,N,N-chelated antimony(III) and bismuth(III) chlorides L(1-3)MCl2 1-4 [for L(1): M = Sb (1), for L(2): M = Sb (2) and for L(3): M = Sb (3) and Bi (4)], containing ligands L(1-3) derived from the pyrrole ring (where L(1) = C4H3N-2-(CH[double bond, length as m-dash]N-2',6'-iPr2C6H3), L(2) = C4H2N-2,5-(CH2NMe2)2, L(3) = C4H2N-2,5-(CH2NC4H8)2), were prepared by the treatment of lithium precursors with SbCl3 or BiCl3. Molecular structures 1-4 of were described both in solution (NMR spectroscopy) and in the solid state (single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis). Structures of 1-4 were also subjected to a density functional theory study.

  16. Effect of RNase III on efficiency of translation of bacteriophage T7 lysozyme mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, F S; Young, E T

    1978-01-01

    RNase III had no positive effect on the translation of bacteriophage T7 lysozyme mRNA in vivo or in vitro. The time of appearance and quanity of lysozyme in T7-infected E. coli BL107, an RNase III- strain, and T7-infected E. coli BL15, a nearly isogenic RNase III+ strain, were indistinguishable. Nearly identical patterns of lysozyme mRNA activity were obtained when RNA extracted at different times after infection of RNase III+ and RNase III- hosts was translated in cell-free extracts of E. coli containing or lacking RNase III. Exposure of RNA extracted from T7-infected E. coli BL107 (RNase III-) to purified RNase III did not increase the lysozyme mRNA activity of this RNA. The only result that implied that RNase III has a differential effect on the translatability of the lysozyme mRNA was the translation of fractionaed RNA from T7-infected E. coli BL107. Translation of the smallest and largest lysozyme messages, 0.33 x 10(6) and 4 x 10(6) to 5 x 10(6) daltons, was the most inefficient in RNase III- cell-free extracts as compared to RNase III+ cell-free translation. The translation of the most abundant, medium-sized lysozyme mRNA between 0.9 x 10(6) and 1.5 x 10(6) daltons was the least affected by the absence of RNase III. The existence of a lag between the appearance of lysozyme mRNA and the appearance of lysozyme in T7 infection was confirmed. In these studies a very rapid method of RNA extraction was used, eliminating the possibility of continued RNA transcription during cell collection and RNA extraction. With this method of analysis, the length of the lag period was established at about 3 min. The possibility that RNase III is the controlling element of the lag period was eliminated by these investigations. Images PMID:353304

  17. Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 expression in skeletal muscle in chronic heart failure—relevance of inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yae; Gleitsmann, Konstanze; Mangner, Norman; Werner, Sarah; Fischer, Tina; Bowen, T Scott; Kricke, Angela; Matsumoto, Yasuharu; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Schuler, Gerhard; Linke, Axel; Adams, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is commonly associated with muscle atrophy and increased inflammation. Irisin, a myokine proteolytically processed by the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) gene and suggested to be Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α activated, modulates the browning of adipocytes and is related to muscle mass. Therefore, we investigated whether skeletal muscle FNDC5 expression in CHF was reduced and if this was mediated by inflammatory cytokines and/or angiotensin II (Ang-II). Methods Skeletal muscle FNDC5 mRNA/protein and PGC-1α mRNA expression (arbitrary units) were analysed in: (i) rats with ischemic cardiomyopathy; (ii) mice injected with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (24 h); (iii) mice infused with Ang-II (4 weeks); and (iv) C2C12 myotubes exposed to recombinant cytokines or Ang-II. Circulating TNF-α, Ang-II, and irisin was measured by ELISA. Results Ischemic cardiomyopathy reduced significantly FNDC5 protein (1.3 ± 0.2 vs. 0.5 ± 0.1) and PGC-1α mRNA expression (8.2 ± 1.5 vs. 4.7 ± 0.7). In vivo TNF-α and Ang-II reduced FNDC5 protein expression by 28% and 45%, respectively. Incubation of myotubes with TNF-α, interleukin-1ß, or TNF-α/interleukin-1ß reduced FNDC5 protein expression by 47%, 37%, or 57%, respectively, whereas Ang-II had no effect. PGC-1α was linearly correlated to FNDC5 in all conditions. In CHF, animals circulating TNF-α and Ang-II were significantly increased, whereas irisin was significantly reduced. A negative correlation between circulating TNF-α and irisin was evident. Conclusion A reduced expression of skeletal muscle FNDC5 in ischemic cardiomyopathy is likely modulated by inflammatory cytokines and/or Ang-II via the down-regulation of PGC-1α. This may act as a protective mechanism either by slowing the browning of adipocytes and preserving energy homeostasis or by regulating muscle atrophy. PMID:26136413

  18. Unexpected formation of a novel pyridinium-containing catecholate ligand and its manganese(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Tippu S; Watkinson, Michael; Motevalli, Majid; Lesin, Jocelyne F

    2010-01-07

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution of tetrachloro-o-benzoquinone by pyridine and reduction of the o-quinone to the catechol by hydroxylamine forms 1,2-dihydroxy-3,5,6-trichlorobenzene-4-pyridinium chloride. This compound reacts with manganese(II) acetate in air to form chlorobis(3,5,6-trichlorobenzene 4-pyridinium catecholate)manganese(III), which represents the first complex of this ligand class to be structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction; this complex is active in the catalytic reduction of dioxygen to hydrogen peroxide under ambient conditions and turnover frequencies (TOFs) >10,000 h(-1) can be obtained.

  19. Valuation effects of health cost containment measures.

    PubMed

    Strange, M L; Ezzell, J R

    2000-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research into the valuation effects of health cost containment activities by publicly traded corporations. The motivation for this study was employers' increasing cost of providing health care insurance to their employees and employers' efforts to contain those costs. A 1990 survey of corporate health benefits indicated that these costs represented 25 percent of employers' net earnings and this would rise by the year 2000 if no actions were taken to reduce cost. Health cost containment programs that are implemented by firms should be seen by shareholders as a wealth maximizing effort. As such, this should be reflected in share price. This study employed standard event study methodology where the event is a media announcement or report regarding an attempt by a firm to contain the costs of providing health insurance and other health related benefits to employees. It examined abnormal returns on a number of event days and for a number of event intervals. Of the daily and interval returns that are least significant at the 10 percent level, virtually all are negative. Cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns are related negatively to a unionization variable.

  20. Cooling effect on the electron states of Si(III)Pd and Si(III)Pt interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbati, I.; Braicovich, L.; Michelis, B. De; Pennino, U. Del; Valeri, S.

    1980-09-01

    Photoemission and Auger results are given for Si(III)Pd and Si(III)Pt interfaces prepared by depositing 10 ml metal onto cleaved Si(III). Thermal cycling between room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature originates a reversible effect in the spectra due to metal concentration increase in {Si}/{Pt} and decrease in {Si}/{Pd}. The results are discussed in connection with open problems on Si d-metal interfaces.

  1. Synthesis of Succinimide-Containing Chromones, Naphthoquinones, and Xanthones under Rh(III) Catalysis: Evaluation of Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Saegun; De, Umasankar; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Park, Jihye; Sharma, Satyasheel; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Han, Sangil; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, In Su

    2016-12-16

    The weakly coordinating ketone group directed C-H functionalizations of chromones, 1,4-naphthoquinones, and xanthones with various maleimides under rhodium(III) catalysis are described. These protocols efficiently provide a range of succinimide-containing chromones, naphthoquinones, and xanthones with excellent site selectivity and functional group compatibility. All synthetic compounds were screened for in vitro anticancer activity against human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MCF-7). In particular, compounds 7aa and 7ca with a naphthoquinone scaffold were found to be highly cytotoxic, with an activity competitive with anticancer agent doxorubicin.

  2. Chemiluminescence detection with water-soluble iridium(III) complexes containing a sulfonate-functionalised ancillary ligand.

    PubMed

    Truong, Josephine; Spilstead, Kara B; Barbante, Gregory J; Doeven, Egan H; Wilson, David J D; Barnett, Neil W; Henderson, Luke C; Altimari, Jarrad M; Hockey, Samantha C; Zhou, Ming; Francis, Paul S

    2014-11-21

    The chemiluminescence from four cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes containing an ancillary bathophenanthroline-disulfonate ligand exhibited a wide range of emission colours (green to red), and in some cases intensities that are far greater than the commonly employed benchmark reagent, [Ru(bpy)3](2+). A similar complex incorporating a sulfonated triazolylpyridine-based ligand enabled the emission to be shifted into the blue region of the spectrum, but the responses with this complex were relatively poor. DFT calculations of electronic structure and emission spectra support the experimental findings.

  3. Effects of Jigsaw III Technique on Achievement in Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the Jigsaw III technique (of cooperative learning) with the instructional teacher-centered teaching method in six graders in terms of the effect of written expression on their academic success. The universe of the study consists of 71 sixth-grade students studying during 2009-2010 academic term in a…

  4. Effects of Jigsaw III Technique on Achievement in Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the Jigsaw III technique (of cooperative learning) with the instructional teacher-centered teaching method in six graders in terms of the effect of written expression on their academic success. The universe of the study consists of 71 sixth-grade students studying during 2009-2010 academic term in a…

  5. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or until...

  6. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  7. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  8. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  9. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  10. Novel CoIII complexes containing fluorescent coumarin-N-acylhydrazone hybrid ligands: Synthesis, crystal structures, solution studies and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Areas, Esther S.; Bronsato, Bruna Juliana da S.; Pereira, Thiago M.; Guedes, Guilherme P.; Miranda, Fábio da S.; Kümmerle, Arthur E.; da Cruz, Antônio G. B.; Neves, Amanda P.

    2017-12-01

    A series of new CoIII complexes of the type [Co(dien)(L1 -L3)]ClO4 (1-3), containing fluorescent coumarin-N-acylhydrazonate hybrid ligands, (E)-N‧-(1-(7-oxido-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)ethylidene)-4-R-benzohydrazonate [where R = H (L12 -), OCH3 (L22 -) or Cl (L32 -)], were obtained and isolated in the low spin CoIII configuration. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that the coumarin-N-acylhydrazones act as tridentate ligands in their deprotonated form (L2 -). The cation (+ 1) complexes contain a diethylenetriamine (dien) as auxiliary ligand and their structures were calculated by DFT studies which were also performed for the CoII (S = 1/2 and S = 3/2) configurations. The LS CoII (S = 1/2) concentrated the spin density on the O-Co-O axis while the HS CoII (S = 3/2) exhibited a broad spin density distribution around the metallic center. Cyclic voltammetry studies showed that structural modifications made in the L2 - ligands caused a slight influence on the electronic density of the metal center, and the E1/2 values for the CoIII/CoII redox couple increased following the electronic effect of the R-substituent, in the order: 2 (R = OCH3) < 1 (R = H) < 3 (R = Cl). The theoretical redox potentials (E°) of the process CoIII → CoII were calculated for both CoII spin states (S = 1/2 and S = 3/2) and a better correlation was found for CoIII → CoII (S = 1/2), compared with experimental values vs SHE (E°calc = - 0.37, - 0.36 and - 0.32 V vs E°exp. = - 0.371, - 0.406 and - 0.358 V, for 1-3 respectively). Complexes 1-3 exhibited a very intense absorption band around 470 nm, assigned by DFT calculations as π-π* transitions from the delocalized coumarin-N-acylhydrazone system. 1-3 were very stable in MeOH for several days. Likewise, 1-3 were stable in phosphate buffer containing sodium ascorbate after 15 h, which was attributed to the high chelate effect and σ-donor ability of the L2 - and dien ligands.

  11. Mussel-Inspired Protein Nanoparticles Containing Iron(III)-DOPA Complexes for pH-Responsive Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jin; Cheong, Hogyun; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2015-06-15

    A novel bioinspired strategy for protein nanoparticle (NP) synthesis to achieve pH-responsive drug release exploits the pH-dependent changes in the coordination stoichiometry of iron(III)-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) complexes, which play a major cross-linking role in mussel byssal threads. Doxorubicin-loaded polymeric NPs that are based on Fe(III)-DOPA complexation were thus synthesized with a DOPA-modified recombinant mussel adhesive protein through a co-electrospraying process. The release of doxorubicin was found to be predominantly governed by a change in the structure of the Fe(III)-DOPA complexes induced by an acidic pH value. It was also demonstrated that the fabricated NPs exhibited effective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells through efficient cellular uptake and cytosolic release. Therefore, it is anticipated that Fe(III)-DOPA complexation can be successfully utilized as a new design principle for pH-responsive NPs for diverse controlled drug-delivery applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Trapping and spectroscopic characterization of an FeIII-superoxo intermediate from a nonheme mononuclear iron-containing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Mbughuni, Michael M; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Hayden, Joshua A; Bominaar, Emile L; Hendrich, Michael P; Münck, Eckard; Lipscomb, John D

    2010-09-28

    Fe(III)-O(2)*(-) intermediates are well known in heme enzymes, but none have been characterized in the nonheme mononuclear Fe(II) enzyme family. Many steps in the O(2) activation and reaction cycle of Fe(II)-containing homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase are made detectable by using the alternative substrate 4-nitrocatechol (4NC) and mutation of the active site His200 to Asn (H200N). Here, the first intermediate (Int-1) observed after adding O(2) to the H200N-4NC complex is trapped and characterized using EPR and Mössbauer (MB) spectroscopies. Int-1 is a high-spin (S(1) = 5/2) Fe(III) antiferromagnetically (AF) coupled to an S(2) = 1/2 radical (J ≈ 6 cm(-1) in ). It exhibits parallel-mode EPR signals at g = 8.17 from the S = 2 multiplet, and g = 8.8 and 11.6 from the S = 3 multiplet. These signals are broadened significantly by hyperfine interactions (A((17)O) ≈ 180 MHz). Thus, Int-1 is an AF-coupled species. The experimental observations are supported by density functional theory calculations that show nearly complete transfer of spin density to the bound O(2). Int-1 decays to form a second intermediate (Int-2). MB spectra show that it is also an AF-coupled Fe(III)-radical complex. Int-2 exhibits an EPR signal at g = 8.05 arising from an S = 2 state. The signal is only slightly broadened by (< 3% spin delocalization), suggesting that Int-2 is a peroxo-Fe(III)-4NC semiquinone radical species. Our results demonstrate facile electron transfer between Fe(II), O(2), and the organic ligand, thereby supporting the proposed wild-type enzyme mechanism.

  13. Stability of chromium (III) sulfate in atmospheres containing oxygen and sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, K. T.; Rao, B. D.; Nelson, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    The stability of chromium sulfate in the temperature range from 880 K to 1040 K was determined by employing a dynamic gas-solid equilibration technique. The solid chromium sulfate was equilibrated in a gas stream of controlled SO3 potential. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses were used to follow the decomposition of chromium sulfate. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the decomposition product was crystalline Cr2O3 and that the mutual solubility between Cr2(SO4)3 and Cr2O3 was negligible. Over the temperature range investigated, the decomposition pressure were significantly high so that chromium sulfate is not expected to form on commercial alloys containing chromium when exposed to gaseous environments containing oxygen and sulfur (such as those encountered in coal gasification).

  14. Investigation of Biowaivers for Immediate Release Formulations Containing BCS III Drugs, Acyclovir, Atenolol, and Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride, Using Dissolution Testing.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Kanfer, Isadore

    2017-02-01

    The dissolution of several products containing Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class III drugs, acyclovir, atenolol, and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, listed in the WHO essential drug list (EDL), was tested and compared with their respective comparator pharmaceutical products (CPPs) marketed in South Africa and India. US Pharmacopeia (USP) buffers of pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8 were used as dissolution media and tested using USP apparatus 2 at 75 rpm and 900 ml. Nine acyclovir products were tested, and only three dissolved very rapidly in all media; i.e., they showed a release of >85% in 15 min. Eight atenolol products tested were all very rapidly dissolving in all three pH media. Ten ciprofloxacin hydrochloride products were tested, and the results showed that only five products met the WHO biowaiver criteria. This study indicates that not all marketed products containing the same BCS III active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent as per the WHO biowaiver criteria. Furthermore, selection and availability of an innovator product as CPP are important considerations that can affect the outcomes of such studies.

  15. The Distribution of Scaled Scores and Possible Floor Effects on the WISC-III and WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Simon; Wood, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Objective: It has been suggested that, as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) give a scaled score of one even if a client scores a raw score of zero, these assessments may have a hidden floor effect at low IQ levels. The study looked for…

  16. Effect of thrombin and endotoxin on the in vivo metabolism of antithrombin III (AT III) in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Kobayashi, N.; Maekawa, T.

    1985-11-01

    Effect of thrombin and endotoxin on the metabolism of I-125-labelled canine AT III was studied in mongrel dogs. Under control condition, mean total amount of intravascular AT III with standard deviation was 23.4 +/- 2.4 mg/kg, plasma half life of i.v. injected I-125-AT III was 1.7 +/- 0.2 days, and the fractional catabolic flux (j3x) was 16.3 +/- 1.6 mg/kg/day. The total amount of intra- and extra-vascular AT III was 36.0 +/- 0.34 mg/kg. Neither a 3 hour infusion of a small dose (30 units/kg/hr) of thrombin nor i.v. injection of a large amount of thrombin (5,000-15,000 units/day) with heparin significantly affected AT III metabolism except for a transient decrease in AT III concentration in the latter case, although decrease in plasma fibrinogen concentration and platelet count was observed in both cases. Two injections with 200 micrograms/kg of endotoxin resulted in an evident acceleration of AT III metabolism with significant decrease in the plasma AT III, fibrinogen concentrations and platelet count. More marked changes in AT III metabolism were induced by a single infusion with 1 mg/kg of endotoxin. Changes in hemostatic system coincided with those observed in DIC.

  17. Gallium(III)-Containing, Sandwich-Type Heteropolytungstates: Synthesis, Solution Characterization, and Hydrolytic Studies toward Phosphoester and Phosphoanhydride Bond Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Balamurugan; Vanhaecht, Stef; Nkala, Fiona Marylyn; Beelen, Tessa; Bassil, Bassem S; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N; Kortz, Ulrich

    2016-09-19

    The gallium(III)-containing heteropolytungstates [Ga4(H2O)10(β-XW9O33)2](6-) (X = As(III), 1; Sb(III), 2) were synthesized in aqueous acidic medium by reaction of Ga(3+) ions with the trilacunary, lone-pair-containing [XW9O33](9-). Polyanions 1 and 2 are isostructural and crystallized as the hydrated sodium salts Na6[Ga4(H2O)10(β-AsW9O33)2]·28H2O (Na-1) and Na6[Ga4(H2O)10(β-SbW9O33)2]·30H2O (Na-2) in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with unit cell parameters a = 16.0218(12) Å, b = 15.2044(10) Å, c = 20.0821(12) Å, and β = 95.82(0)°, as well as a = 16.0912(5) Å, b = 15.2178(5) Å, c = 20.1047(5) Å, and β = 96.2(0)°, respectively. The corresponding tellurium(IV) derivative [Ga4(H2O)10(β-TeW9O33)2](4-) (3) was also prepared, by direct reaction of sodium tungstate, tellurium(IV) oxide, and gallium nitrate. Polyanion 3 crystallized as the mixed rubidium/sodium salt Rb2Na2[Ga4(H2O)10(β-TeW9O33)2]·28H2O (RbNa-3) in the triclinic space group P1̅ with unit cell parameters a = 12.5629(15) Å, b = 13.2208(18) Å, c = 15.474(2) Å, α = 80.52(1)°, β = 84.37(1)°, and γ = 65.83(1)°. All polyanions 1-3 were characterized in the solid state by single-crystal XRD, FT-IR, TGA, and elemental analysis, and polyanion 2 was also characterized in solution by (183)W NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Polyanion 2 was used as a homogeneous catalyst toward adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the DNA model substrate 4-nitrophenylphosphate, monitored by (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The encapsulated gallium(III) centers in 2 promote the Lewis acidic synergistic activation of the hydrolysis of ATP and DNA model substrates at a higher rate in near-physiological conditions. A strong interaction of 2 with the P-O bond of ATP was evidenced by changes in chemical shift values and line broadening of the (31)P nucleus in ATP upon addition of the polyanion.

  18. Multispectroscopic DNA-binding studies of a terbium(III) complex containing 2,2'-bipyridine ligand.

    PubMed

    Aramesh-Boroujeni, Zahra; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam

    2016-01-01

    Agarose gel electrophoresis, absorption, fluorescence, viscosity, and circular dichroism (CD) have been used in exploring the interaction of terbium(III) complex, [Tb(bpy)2Cl3(OH2)] where bipy is 2,2'-bipyridine, with Fish salmon DNA. Agarose gel electrophoresis assay, along with absorption and fluorescence studies, reveal interaction between the corresponding complex and FS-DNA. Also, the binding constants (Kb) and the Stern-Volmer quenching constants (Ksv) of Tb(III) complex with FS-DNA were determined. The calculated thermodynamic parameters suggested that the binding of mentioned complex to FS-DNA was driven mainly by hydrophobic interactions. A comparative study of this complex with respect to the effect of iodide-induced quenching, ionic strength effect, and ethidium bromide exclusion assay reflects binding of explicit to the FS-DNA primarily in a groove fashion. CD and viscosity data also support the groove binding mode. Furthermore, Tb(III) complex have been simultaneously screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  19. Synthesis, characterization, cytotoxic and antitubercular activities of new gold(I) and gold(III) complexes containing ligands derived from carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Joana Darc Souza; Damasceno, Jaqueline Lopes; Paula, Marcela Cristina Ferreira; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Azevedo, Gustavo Chevitarese; Matos, Renato Camargo; Lourenço, Maria Cristina S; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Silva, Heveline; Fontes, Ana Paula Soares; de Almeida, Mauro Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Novel gold(I) and gold(III) complexes containing derivatives of D-galactose, D-ribose and D-glucono-1,5-lactone as ligands were synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H, and (13)C NMR, high resolution mass spectra and cyclic voltammetry. The compounds were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxicity against three types of tumor cells: cervical carcinoma (HeLa) breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and glioblastoma (MO59J) and one non-tumor cell line: human lung fibroblasts (GM07492A). Their antitubercular activity was evaluated as well expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) in μg/mL. In general, the gold(I) complexes were more active than gold(III) complexes, for example, the gold(I) complex (1) was about 8.8 times and 7.6 times more cytotoxic than gold(III) complex (8) in MO59J and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Ribose and alkyl phosphine derivative complexes were more active than galactose and aryl phosphine complexes. The presence of a thiazolidine ring did not improve the cytotoxicity. The study of the cytotoxic activity revealed effective antitumor activities for the gold(I) complexes, being more active than cisplatin in all the tested tumor cell lines. Gold(I) compounds (1), (2), (3), (4) and (6) exhibited relevant antitubercular activity even when compared with first line drugs such as rifampicin.

  20. Geographic variation and sociodemographic disparity in the use of oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy in patients with stage III colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Janki M; Lairson, David R; Chan, Wenyaw; Du, Xianglin L

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the geographic variation and sociodemographic disparities in the use of oxaliplatin chemotherapy, which has not been widely studied in the past. Our results suggest that chemotherapy use varies across geographic regions. Patterns of use that relate specifically to oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy can inform providers and researchers how newer regimens are being used as standard chemotherapy in a real-world setting. According to the National Cancer Comprehensive Network (NCCN), oxaliplatin with 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (5-FU/LV) is the recommended adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with resected stage III colon cancer. Age and race are considered strong predictors of chemotherapy receipt, whereas geographic disparity has received minimal attention. The purpose of this study was to examine geographic variation and sociodemographic disparity in the use of chemotherapy in patients with stage III colon cancer, focusing specifically on oxaliplatin. A retrospective cohort of 4106 Medicare patients was identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)/Medicare linked database. Descriptive statistics show how oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy was used in various geographic regions among different age and racial groups. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the relationship between receipt of oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy and geographic region while adjusting for other sociodemographic and tumor characteristics. Only 49% of the patients with stage III disease received adjuvant chemotherapy within 3 to 6 months of colon cancer-specific surgery. Patients aged 66 to 70 years were 78% more likely to receive chemotherapy than were those aged 80 years and older (P<.001). Patients in less urban regions were approximately 42% less likely to receive oxaliplatin chemotherapy than those residing in a big metro region (odds ratio [OR], 0.58; P=.008). Chemotherapy use varies across geographic regions

  1. GLASSES CONTAINING IRON (II III) OXIDES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE TECHNETIUM

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HEO J; XU K; CHOI JK; HRMA PR; UM W

    2011-11-07

    Technetium-99 (Tc-99) has posed serious environmental threats as US Department of Energy's high-level waste. This work reports the vitrification of Re, as surrogate for Tc-99, by iron-borosilicate and iron-phosphate glasses, respectively. Iron-phosphate glasses can dissolve Re as high as {approx} 1.2 wt. %, which can become candidate waste forms for Tc-99 disposal, while borosilicate glasses can retain less than 0.1 wt. % of Re due to high melting temperature and long melting duration. Vitrification of Re as Tc-99's mimic was investigated using iron-borosilicate and iron-phosphate glasses. The retention of Re in borosilicate glasses was less than 0.1 wt. % and more than 99 wt. % of Re were volatilized due to high melting temperature and long melting duration. Because the retention of Re in iron-phosphate glasses is as high as 1.2 wt. % and the volatilization is reduced down to {approx}50 wt. %, iron-phosphate glasses can be one of the glass waste form candidates for Tc (or Re) disposal. The investigations of chemical durability and leaching test of iron-phosphate glasses containing Re are now underway to test the performance of the waste form.

  2. An Rpb4/Rpb7-like complex in yeast RNA polymerase III contains the orthologue of mammalian CGRP-RCP.

    PubMed

    Siaut, Magali; Zaros, Cécile; Levivier, Emilie; Ferri, Maria-Laura; Court, Magali; Werner, Michel; Callebaut, Isabelle; Thuriaux, Pierre; Sentenac, André; Conesa, Christine

    2003-01-01

    The essential C17 subunit of yeast RNA polymerase (Pol) III interacts with Brf1, a component of TFIIIB, suggesting a role for C17 in the initiation step of transcription. The protein sequence of C17 (encoded by RPC17) is conserved from yeasts to humans. However, mammalian homologues of C17 (named CGRP-RCP) are known to be involved in a signal transduction pathway related to G protein-coupled receptors, not in transcription. In the present work, we first establish that human CGRP-RCP is the genuine orthologue of C17. CGRP-RCP was found to functionally replace C17 in Deltarpc17 yeast cells; the purified mutant Pol III contained CGRP-RCP and had a decreased specific activity but initiated faithfully. Furthermore, CGRP-RCP was identified by mass spectrometry in a highly purified human Pol III preparation. These results suggest that CGRP-RCP has a dual function in mammals. Next, we demonstrate by genetic and biochemical approaches that C17 forms with C25 (encoded by RPC25) a heterodimer akin to Rpb4/Rpb7 in Pol II. C17 and C25 were found to interact genetically in suppression screens and physically in coimmunopurification and two-hybrid experiments. Sequence analysis and molecular modeling indicated that the C17/C25 heterodimer likely adopts a structure similar to that of the archaeal RpoE/RpoF counterpart of the Rpb4/Rpb7 complex. These RNA polymerase subunits appear to have evolved to meet the distinct requirements of the multiple forms of RNA polymerases.

  3. Isotope effects accompanying evaporation of water from leaky containers.

    PubMed

    Rozanski, Kazimierz; Chmura, Lukasz

    2008-03-01

    Laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying isotope effects associated with partial evaporation of water from leaky containers have been performed under three different settings: (i) evaporation into dry atmosphere, performed in a dynamic mode, (ii) evaporation into dry atmosphere, performed in a static mode, and (iii) evaporation into free laboratory atmosphere. The results demonstrate that evaporative enrichment of water stored in leaky containers can be properly described in the framework of the Craig-Gordon evaporation model. The key parameter controlling the degree of isotope enrichment is the remaining fraction of water in the leaking containers. Other factors such as temperature, relative humidity, or extent of kinetic fractionation play only minor roles. Satisfactory agreement between observed and predicted isotope enrichments for both (18)O and (2)H in experiments for the case of evaporation into dry atmosphere could be obtained only when molecular diffusivity ratios of isotope water molecules as suggested recently by Cappa et al. [J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4525-4535, (2003).] were adopted. However, the observed and modelled isotope enrichments for (2)H and (18)O could be reconciled also for the ratios of molecular diffusivities obtained by Merlivat [J. Chem. Phys., 69, 2864-2871 (1978).], if non-negligible transport resistance in the viscous liquid sub-layer adjacent to the evaporating surface is considered. The evaporation experiments revealed that the loss of mass of water stored in leaky containers in the order of 1%, will lead to an increase of the heavy isotope content in this water by ca. 0.35 and 1.1 per thousand, for delta (18)O and delta (2)H, respectively.

  4. [Current problems in the quality control of pharmaceutical preparations manufactured in pharmacies III. Investigation of theophilline containing suppositories].

    PubMed

    Takácsné, Novák Krisztina; Sinkó, Bálint; Hang, Ildikó; Kiss, Gézáné; Dávid, Adám Zoltán; Horváth, Péter Es

    2007-01-01

    In the present part of our series of papers a study on theophilline containing suppositories prepared in pharmacies is described. From the possible methods for assay of theophilline two nonaqueous titrations are compared. In first, theophilline is measured as a very weak base in a mixture of glacial acetic acid and acetic anhydride with perchloric acid using Sudan-III indicator, in second, the compound is measured as medium strong acid in dimethylformamide solvent with sodium-hydroxide titrant using phenolphtalein indicator. These methods were validated and the first was found more appropriate for regulatory control. We investigated suppositories prepared in our laboratory and in different pharmacies. The study revealed the poor quality of the preparations due to the difficulties in the technology and the importance of the applied vehicle. A guideline for the good preparation practice and an alternative technology are proposed.

  5. Boron(III)-Containing Donor-Acceptor Compound with Goldlike Reflective Behavior for Organic Resistive Memory Devices.

    PubMed

    Poon, Chun-Ting; Wu, Di; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2016-03-07

    A small-molecule-based boron(III)-containing donor-acceptor compound has been designed and synthesized. Interesting goldlike reflective behavior was observed in the neat thin-film sample from simple spin-coating preparation, which can serve as a potential organic thin-film optical reflector. The small thickness in nanometer range and the relatively smooth surface morphology, together with simple preparation and easy solution processability, are attractive features for opening up new avenues for the fabrication of reflective coatings. Moreover, this donor-acceptor compound has been employed in the fabrication of organic resistive memory device, which exhibited good performance with low turn-on voltage, small operating bias, large ON/OFF ratio, and long retention time. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and antibacterial studies of lanthanide(III) Schiff base complexes containing N, O donor atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekha, L.; Raja, K. Kanmani; Rajagopal, G.; Easwaramoorthy, D.

    2014-01-01

    A series of six Ln(III) Schiff base complexes, Pr(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), were synthesized using sodium salt of Schiff base, 2-[(5-bromo-2-hydroxy-benzylidene)-amino]-3-hydroxy-propionic acid, derived from L-serine and 5-bromosalicylaldehyde. These complexes having general formula [Ln(L)(NO3)2(H2O)]·NO3 were characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, UV-Vis, FT-IR, mass spectrometry and fluorescence studies. Elemental analysis and conductivity measurements suggest the complexes have a 1:1 stoichiometry. From the spectral studies it has been concluded that Ln(III) complexes display eight coordination. The Schiff base and its Ln(III) metal complexes have also been screened for their antibacterial activities by Agar diffusion method.

  7. Casiopeina III-Ea, a copper-containing small molecule, inhibits the in vitro growth of primitive hematopoietic cells from chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Gonzalez, Antonieta; Centeno-Llanos, Sandra; Moreno-Lorenzana, Dafne; Sandoval-Esquivel, Miguel Angel; Aviles-Vazquez, Socrates; Bravo-Gomez, María Elena; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Ayala-Sanchez, Manuel; Torres-Martinez, Hector; Mayani, Hector

    2017-01-01

    Several novel compounds have been developed for the treatment of different types of leukemia. In the present study, we have assessed the in vitro effects of Casiopeina III-Ea, a copper-containing small molecule, on cells from patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). We included primary CD34(+) Lineage-negative (Lin(-)) cells selected from CML bone marrow, as well as the K562 and MEG01 cell lines. Bone marrow cells obtained from normal individuals - both total mononuclear cells as well as CD34(+) Lin(-) cells- were used as controls. IC50 corresponded to 0.5μM for K562 cells, 0.63μM for MEG01 cells, 0.38μM for CML CD34(+) lin(-) cells, and 1.0μM for normal CD34(+) lin(-) cells. Proliferation and expansion were also inhibited to significantly higher extents in cultures of CML cells as compared to their normal counterparts. All these effects seemed to occur via a bcr-abl transcription-independent mechanism that involved a delay in cell division, an increase in cell death, generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and changes in cell cycle. Our results demonstrate that Casiopeina III-Ea possesses strong antileukemic activity in vitro, and warrant further preclinical (animal) studies to assess such effects in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular and cellular mechanism of the effect of La(III) on horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Huang, Xiaohua

    2010-09-01

    Horseradish is an important economic crop. It contains horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and lots of nutrients, and has specific pungency. Lanthanum is one of the heavy metals in the environment. It can transfer through the food chain to humans. In this paper, the molecular and cellular mechanism of the toxic effects of La(III) on HRP in vivo was investigated with an optimized combination of biophysical, biochemical, and cytobiological methods. It was found that La(III) could interact with O and/or N atoms in the backbone/side chains of the HRP molecule in the cell membrane of horseradish treated with 80 microM La(III), leading to the formation of a new complex of La and HRP (La-HRP). The formation of the La-HRP complex causes the redistribution of the electron densities of atoms in the HRP molecule, especially the decrease in the electron density of the active center, Fe(III), in the heme group of the La-HRP molecule compared with the native HRP molecule in vivo. Therefore, the electron transfer and the activity of HRP in horseradish treated with 80 microM La(III) are obviously decreased compared with those of the native HRP in vivo. This is a possible molecular and cellular mechanism for the toxic effect of La(III) on HRP in vivo. It is suggested that the accumulation of La in the environment, especially the formation of the La-HRP complex in vivo, is harmful to organisms.

  9. The first 4d/4f single-molecule magnet containing a {Ru(III)2Dy(III)2} core.

    PubMed

    Langley, Stuart K; Wielechowski, Daniel P; Vieru, Veacheslav; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Murray, Keith S

    2015-02-07

    We report the synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of the first 4d-4f single-molecule magnet. The complex [Ru(III)2Dy(III)2(OMe)2(O2CPh)4(mdea)2(NO3)2] displays a butterfly type core, with an anisotropy barrier of 10.7 cm(-1). Ab initio and DFT calculations provide insight into the observed magnetic behaviour.

  10. Obesity favors apolipoprotein E- and C-III-containing high density lipoprotein subfractions associated with risk of heart disease[S

    PubMed Central

    Talayero, Beatriz; Wang, Liyun; Furtado, Jeremy; Carey, Vincent J.; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Human HDLs have highly heterogeneous composition. Plasma concentrations of HDL with apoC-III and of apoE in HDL predict higher incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). The concentrations of HDL-apoA-I containing apoE, apoC-III, or both and their distribution across HDL sizes are unknown. We studied 20 normal weight and 20 obese subjects matched by age, gender, and race. Plasma HDL was separated by sequential immunoaffinity chromatography (anti-apoA-I, anti-apoC-III, anti-apoE), followed by nondenaturing-gel electrophoresis. Mean HDL-cholesterol concentrations in normal weight and obese subjects were 65 and 50 mg/dl (P = 0.009), and total apoA-I concentrations were 119 and 118 mg/dl, respectively. HDL without apoE or apoC-III was the most prevalent HDL type representing 89% of apoA-I concentration in normal weight and 77% in obese (P = 0.01) individuals; HDL with apoE-only was 5% versus 8% (P = 0.1); HDL with apoC-III-only was 4% versus 10% (P = 0.009); and HDL with apoE and apoC-III was 1.5% versus 4.6% (P = 0.004). Concentrations of apoE and apoC-III in HDL were 1.5–2× higher in obese subjects (P ≤ 0.004). HDL with apoE or apoC-III occurred in all sizes among groups. Obese subjects had higher prevalence of HDL containing apoE or apoC-III, subfractions associated with CHD, whereas normal weight subjects had higher prevalence of HDL without apoE or apoC-III, subfractions with protective association against CHD. PMID:24966274

  11. Radiation Effects in III-V Nanowire Devices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    radionuclides] 3.7 × 10 10 per second (s –1 ) [becquerel (Bq)] roentgen (R) [air exposure] 2.579 760 × 10 –4 coulomb per kilogram ( C kg –1 ) rad [absorbed...8725 John J. Kingman Road, MS 6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-16-94 Radiation Effects in III-V...PERSON a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c . THIS PAGE 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) Standard Form 298 (Re . 8-98) v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18

  12. Cobalt(II) and cobalt(III) complexes of thioether-containing hexadentate pyrazine amide ligands: C-S bond cleavage and cyclometallation reaction.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Mukherjee, Rabindranath

    2008-01-14

    Anaerobic reaction of Co(O2CMe)2.4H2O with the thioether-containing acyclic pyrazine amide hexadentate ligand 1,4-bis[o-(pyrazine-2-carboxamidophenyl)]-1,4-dithiobutane (H2L1) (-CH2CH2- spacer between the two pyrazine amide tridentate coordination units) furnishes [CoII(L1)].MeOH (1a) having CoN2(pyrazine)N'2(amide)S2(thioether) coordination. It exhibits an eight-line EPR spectrum, attesting to a low-spin (S = 1/2) state of CoII. A similar reaction in air, however, furnishes [CoIII(L3a)(L3b)].2MeOH (2a) (S = 0), resulting from a C-S bond cleavage reaction triggered by an acetate ion as a base, having CoN2(pyrazine)N'2(amide)S(thioether)S'(thiolate) coordination. On the other hand, the reaction of Co(O2CMe)2.4H2O with 1,4-bis[o-(pyrazine-2-carboxamidophenyl)]-1,5-dithiopentane (H2) (-CH2CH2CH2- spacer between the two pyrazine amide tridentate coordination units) in air affords a cobalt(II) complex [CoII(L2)].MeOH (1b.MeOH) (S = 1/2); its structurally characterized variety has the composition 1b.C6H6. Interestingly, 1b.MeOH undergoes facile metal-centred oxidation by aerial O2-H2O2-[Fe(eta5-C5H5)2][PF6], which led to the isolation of the corresponding cobalt(iii) complex [CoIII(L2)][ClO4] (2b). When treated with methanolic KOH, 2b affords a low-spin (S = 0) organocobalt(III) complex [Co(III)((L2')] (3). Structures of all complexes, except 1a, have been authenticated by X-ray crystallography. A five-membered chelate-ring forming ligand L1(2-) effects C-S bond cleavage and a six-membered chelate-ring forming ligand L2(2-) gives rise to Co-C bond formation, in cobalt(III)-coordinated thioether functions due to alpha C-H bond activation by the base. A rationale has been provided for the observed difference in the reactivity properties. The spectroscopic properties of the complexes have also been investigated. Cyclic voltammetry experiments in MeCN-CH2Cl2 reveal facile metal-centred reversible-to-quasireversible CoIV-CoIII (or a ligand-centred redox process; 2a), CoIII

  13. A Rare Water and Hydroxyl-Extended One-Dimensional Dysprosium(III) Chain and Its Magnetic Dilution Effect.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Zhao, Pu; Zhang, Shan; Li, Rui; Zhang, Yi-Quan; Yang, En-Cui; Zhao, Xiao-Jun

    2017-08-21

    A novel water and hydroxyl-extended one-dimensional dysprosium(III) chain was hydrothermally obtained, which exhibits a relatively high spin-reversal energy barrier of 88.7 K and intrachain ferromagnetic interaction with the coupling constant Jexch = 3.04 cm(-1) calculated by fitting magnetic susceptibilities using POLY_ANISO program based on ab initio calculations. To deeply understand the respective role of the single-ion anisotropy and intrachain exchange on the effective energy barrier, three crystallographically isostructural analogues containing isotropic Gd(III)-, diamagnetic Y(III)-, as well as Y(III)-doped Dy0.05Y0.95 were prepared and characterized structurally and magnetically. Due to the absence of significant intrachain exchange interaction, the effective energy barrier of the Dy0.05Y0.95 decreased by 9.9 K as compared with that of parent dysprosium(III) chain. Thus, it can be concluded that the intrachain ferromagnetic coupling and the magnetic anisotropy of the Dy(III) ion synergistically enhance the effective energy barrier of the dysprosium(III) chain, in which the single-ion anisotropy becomes more predominant.

  14. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new dysprosium(III) complex containing 2,9-dimethyl 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Zohreh; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam

    2017-02-01

    The binding of [Dy(dmp)2Cl3(OH2)], where dmp is 2,9-dimethyl 1,10-phenanthroline, with Fish salmon DNA (FS-DNA) is investigated by absorption and emission spectroscopy, quenching studies, salt dependent, and gel electrophoresis. The binding constant (Kb) of the interaction is calculated as (1.27 ± .05) × 10(5) M(-1) from absorption spectral titration data. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV), thermodynamic parameters involves ΔG°, ∆H°, and ∆S° are calculated by fluorescent data and Van't Hoff equation. The thermodynamic studies show that the reaction for the binding of the complex with FS-DNA is endothermic and entropically driven (ΔS° > 0, ΔH° > 0). The effect of the complex concentration on FS-DNA cleavage reactions is also investigated by gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the Dy(III) complex has been screened for its antibacterial activity. The experimental results suggest that the Dy(III) complex binds significantly to FS-DNA by hydrophobic groove binding mode and the complex has more efficient antibacterial activity compared to its metal salt.

  15. Intron-containing type I and type III IFN coexist in amphibians: refuting the concept that a retroposition event gave rise to type I IFNs.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhitao; Nie, Pin; Secombes, Chris J; Zou, Jun

    2010-05-01

    Type I and III IFNs are structurally related cytokines with similar antiviral functions. They have different genomic organizations and bind to distinct receptor complexes. It has been vigorously debated whether the recently identified intron containing IFN genes in fish and amphibians belong to the type I or III IFN family or diverged from a common ancestral gene, that subsequently gave rise to both types. In this report, we have identified intron containing type III IFN genes that are tandemly linked in the Xenopus tropicalis genome and hence demonstrate for the first time that intron containing type I and III genes diverged relatively early in vertebrate evolution, and at least by the appearance of early tetrapods, a transition period when vertebrates migrated from an aquatic environment to land. Our data also suggest that the intronless type I IFN genes seen in reptiles, birds, and mammals have originated from a type I IFN transcript via a retroposition event that led to the disappearance of intron-containing type I IFN genes in modern vertebrates. In vivo and in vitro studies in this paper show that the Xenopus type III IFNs and their cognate receptor are ubiquitously expressed in tissues and primary splenocytes and can be upregulated by stimulation with synthetic double-stranded RNA, suggesting they are involved in antiviral defense in amphibians.

  16. Iron (III) Matrix Effects on Mineralization and Immobilization of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Cynthia-May S. Gong; Tyler A. Sullens; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - A number of models for the Yucca Mountain Project nuclear waste repository use studies of actinide sorption onto well-defined iron hydroxide materials. In the case of a waste containment leak, however, a complex interaction between dissolved waste forms and failed containment vessel components can lead to immediate precipitation of migratory iron and uranyl in the silicate rich near-field environment. Use of the Fe(III) and UO22+ complexing agent acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) as a colorimetric agent for visible spectrophotometry is well-known. Using the second derivative of these spectra a distinct shift in iron complexation in the presence of silicate is seen that is not seen with uranyl or alone. Silica also decreases the ability of uranyl and ferric solutions to absorb hydroxide, hastening precipitation. These ferric silicate precipitates are highly amorphous and soluble. Precipitates formed in the presence of uranyl below ~1 mol% exhibit lower solubility than precipitates from up to 50 mol % and of uranyl silicates alone.

  17. Spin-Seebeck Effect in III-V Based Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Christopher M.; Myers, Roberto C.; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2012-02-01

    The spin-Seebeck effect has now been observed in metals^1 (NiFe), semiconductors^2 (GaMnAs), and insulators^3 (YIG). It consists of a thermally generated spin distribution that is phonon driven. Here we extend our measurements of the spin-Seebeck effect to other group III-V based magnetic semiconductors and present measurements of conventional thermomagnetic and galvanomagnetic properties as well as the spin-Seebeck effect. Work supported by the National Science Foundation, NSF-CBET-1133589 1. K. Uchida, et al., Nature 455 778 (2008) 2. C.M. Jaworski et al., Nature Materials 8 898 (2010), Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 186601 (2011) 3. K. Uchida, et al., Nature Materials 8 893 (2010)

  18. Fibronectin type III5 repeat contains a novel cell adhesion sequence, KLDAPT, which binds activated alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins.

    PubMed

    Moyano, J V; Carnemolla, B; Domínguez-Jiménez, C; García-Gila, M; Albar, J P; Sánchez-Aparicio, P; Leprini, A; Querzé, G; Zardi, L; Garcia-Pardo, A

    1997-10-03

    The region of fibronectin encompassing type III repeats 4-6 contains a low affinity heparin binding domain, but its physiological significance is not clear. We have studied whether this domain is able to interact with cells as already shown for other heparin binding domains of fibronectin. A computer search based on homologies with known active sites in fibronectin revealed the sequence KLDAPT located in FN-III5. A synthetic peptide containing this sequence induced lymphoid cell adhesion upon treatment with the activating anti-beta1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) TS2/16 or with Mn2+, indicating that KLDAPT was binding to an integrin. A recombinant fragment containing repeat III5 (FN-III5) also mediated adhesion of TS2/16/Mn2+-treated cells while the FN-III6 fragment did not. Soluble KLDAPT peptide inhibited cell adhesion to FN-III5 as well as to a 38-kDa fibronectin fragment and VCAM-1, two previously known ligands for alpha4beta1 integrin. KLDAPT also competed with the binding of soluble alkaline phosphatase-coupled VCAM-Ig to Mn2+-treated alpha4beta1. Furthermore, mAbs anti-alpha4 and anti-alpha4beta7, but not mAbs to other integrins, inhibited cell adhesion to FN-III5 and KLDAPT. These results therefore establish a cell adhesive function for the FN-III5 repeat and show that KLDAPT is a novel fibronectin ligand for activated alpha4 integrins.

  19. Metal-containing components in medicinal plants. III. Manganese-containing components in Theae folium as oral magnetic resonance imaging contrast materials.

    PubMed

    Mino, Y; Yamada, K; Takeda, T; Nagasawa, O

    1996-12-01

    A manganese-containing component from the water-extract of Theae folium (green tea) was found to exert an augmentative effect in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast and may possibly be a manganese(II) complex with a pectin-like polysaccharide capable of shortening the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of water protons. Even though only the manganese(II) ion with S = 5/2 is active in T1-shortening ability, which should enhance contrast, complexation of this ion with the polysaccharide causes a marked increase in its activity. This manganese-containing pectin-like polysaccharides should prove useful as a low-toxic oral gastrointestinal contrast material in MRI.

  20. New bipyridine gold(III) dithiocarbamate-containing complexes exerted a potent anticancer activity against cisplatin-resistant cancer cells independent of p53 status

    PubMed Central

    Altaf, Muhammad; Monim-ul-Mehboob, Muhammad; Kawde, Abdel-Nasser; Corona, Giuseppe; Larcher, Roberto; Ogasawara, Marcia; Casagrande, Naike; Celegato, Marta; Borghese, Cinzia; Siddik, Zahid H.; Aldinucci, Donatella; Isab, Anvarhusein A.

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized, characterized and tested in a panel of cancer cell lines, nine new bipyridine gold(III) dithiocarbamate-containing complexes. In vitro studies demonstrated that compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8 were the most cytotoxic in prostate, breast, ovarian cancer cell lines and in Hodgkin lymphoma cells with IC50 values lower than the reference drug cisplatin. The most active compound 1 was more active than cisplatin in ovarian (A2780cis and 2780CP-16) and breast cancer cisplatin-resistant cells. Compound 1 determined an alteration of the cellular redox homeostasis leading to increased ROS levels, a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome-c release from the mitochondria and activation of caspases 9 and 3. The ROS scavenger NAC suppressed ROS generation and rescued cells from damage. Compound 1 resulted more active in tumor cells than in normal human Mesenchymal stromal cells. Gold compounds were active independent of p53 status: exerted cytotoxic effects on a panel of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines with different p53 status and in the ovarian A2780 model where the p53 was knocked out. In conclusion, these promising results strongly indicate the need for further preclinical evaluation to test the clinical potential of these new gold(III) complexes. PMID:27888799

  1. Complexation of Nd(III) with tetraborate ion and its effect on actinide (III) solubility in WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Marian; Richmann, Michael K; Reed, Donald T; Yongliang, Xiong

    2010-01-01

    The potential importance of tetraborate complexation on lanthanide(III) and actinide(III) solubility is recognized in the literature but a systematic study of f-element complexation has not been performed. In neodymium solubility studies in WIPP brines, the carbonate complexation effect is not observed since tetraborate ions form a moderately strong complex with neodymium(III). The existence of these tetraborate complexes was established for low and high ionic strength solutions. Changes in neodymium(III) concentrations in undersaturation experiments were used to determine the neodymium with tetraborate stability constants as a function of NaCl ionic strength. As very low Nd(III) concentrations have to be measured, it was necessary to use an extraction pre-concentration step combined with ICP-MS analysis to extend the detection limit by a factor of 50. The determined Nd(III) with borate stability constants at infinite dilution and 25 C are equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.55 {+-} 0.06 using the SIT approach, equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.99 {+-} 0.30 using the Pitzer approach, with an apparent log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.06 {+-} 0.15 (in molal units) at I = 5.6 m NaCl. Pitzer ion-interaction parameters for neodymium with tetraborate and SIT interaction coefficients were also determined and reported.

  2. Photoluminescence profiles and fast/slow annealing effects of Eu(III)/Tb(III)-codoped silica phosphor materials.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hee Jung; Choi, Young In; Kang, Jun-Gill; Sohn, Youngku

    2016-05-01

    A silica (SiO2) nanoparticle matrix was codoped with luminescent Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions using a modified Stöber method. The effects of fast and slow thermal annealing on photoluminescence profile imaging were examined. Slow annealing treatment suppressed more quenching sites than fast thermal annealing to further increase the photoluminescence signals. The photoluminescence signals observed between 450 and 720 nm were assigned to the (5)D(0)  → (7)F(J) (J = 0,1,2,3,4) of Eu(III) and the (5)D(4)  → (7)F(J) (J = 6,5,4,3) transitions of Tb(III). Photoluminescence was largely sensitized by indirect excitation and was much stronger than that generated by direct excitation. The Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions were doped at lower symmetry sites in the silica matrix. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Layered double hydroxide stability. 2. Formation of Cr(III)-containing layered double hydroxides directly from solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.; Jiang, J.; Lou, S.; Yarberry, F.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing divalent metal [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+] chlorides and CrCl3 6H2O were titrated with NaOH to yield, for M(II) = Zn, Co, and Ni, hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs), [[M(II)]1-z[Cr(III)]z(OH)2][Cl]z yH2O, in a single step, without intermediate formation of chromium hydroxide. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields solubility constants for these compounds. These are in the order Zn < Ni approximately Co, with a clear preference for formation of the phase with z = 1/3. With Mg2+ as chloride, titration gives a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2, but the metal sulfates give Mg2Cr(OH)6 1/2(SO4) by a two-step process. Titrimetric and spectroscopic evidence suggests short-range cation order in the one-step LDH systems.

  4. Layered double hydroxide stability. 2. Formation of Cr(III)-containing layered double hydroxides directly from solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.; Jiang, J.; Lou, S.; Yarberry, F.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing divalent metal [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+] chlorides and CrCl3 6H2O were titrated with NaOH to yield, for M(II) = Zn, Co, and Ni, hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs), [[M(II)]1-z[Cr(III)]z(OH)2][Cl]z yH2O, in a single step, without intermediate formation of chromium hydroxide. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields solubility constants for these compounds. These are in the order Zn < Ni approximately Co, with a clear preference for formation of the phase with z = 1/3. With Mg2+ as chloride, titration gives a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2, but the metal sulfates give Mg2Cr(OH)6 1/2(SO4) by a two-step process. Titrimetric and spectroscopic evidence suggests short-range cation order in the one-step LDH systems.

  5. Co-norming the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Is there a test-order effect on IQ and memory scores?

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Tulsky, D S

    2000-11-01

    Test-order effect on the WAIS-III and WMS-III scores was evaluated using the WMS-III standardization sample. Participants completed the standardization editions of the WAIS-III and WMS-III in one session, with the tests administered in roughly counterbalanced order. Repeated measure MANOVA analyses were conducted to determine if there was an overall test-order effect for subtest, index, or IQ scores. No significant test-order effects were found for either the WAIS-III index or IQ scores or for the WMS-III index scores. At the subtest level, the majority of the WAIS-III and WMS-III subtests did not show a significant test-order effect. The exceptions were Digit Span and Digit Symbol-Coding on the WAIS-III and Faces II and Logical Memory II on the WMS-III. Although statistically significant test-order effects were found on these subtests, the effect sizes were small. This study indicates that the test-order effect is not a potential threat to the internal validity of the WAIS-III and WMS-III normative data. The practical implications of the current study are discussed.

  6. 7 CFR 42.111 - Sampling plans for reduced condition of container inspection, Tables III and III-A; and limit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS STANDARDS FOR CONDITION OF FOOD CONTAINERS Procedures for Stationary Lot Sampling and Inspection...

  7. Central and peripheral cardiovascular effects of angiotensin III in trout.

    PubMed

    Mimassi, N; Lancien, F; Le Mével, J C

    2009-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the central and peripheral actions of trout angiotensin III (ANG III) on heart rate (HR) and mean dorsal aortic blood pressure (P(DA)) in the unanaesthetized rainbow trout. Intracerebroventricular injection of ANG III (5-100 pmol) produced a significant and dose-dependent increase in HR without significant change in P(DA). In contrast, when injected peripherally ANG III (5-50 pmol) evoked a significant and dose-dependent increase in P(DA). The hypertensive responses were accompanied by a bradycardia that reached significance only for the highest dose of ANG III tested. In conclusion, our results have shown that ANG III has potent and contrasting cardiovascular actions depending on whether its site of action is the brain or the peripheral circulation. Endogenous ANG III may have important physiological functions in teleost fishes.

  8. Binary lanthanide(III)/nitrate and ternary lanthanide(III)/nitrate/chloride complexes in an ionic liquid containing water: optical absorption and luminescence studies.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Seraj A; Liu, Lisheng; Rao, Linfeng

    2015-02-14

    The formation of binary Ln(iii)/nitrate and ternary Ln(iii)/nitrate/chloride complexes in a water-saturated ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (denoted BumimTf(2)N), was investigated by absorption spectrophotometry and luminescence spectroscopy. Four successive binary complexes, Nd(NO(3))(2+), Nd(NO(3))(2)(+), Nd(NO(3))(3), and Nd(NO(3))(4)(-), were identified, and their stability constants in water-saturated BumimTf(2)N are several orders of magnitude higher than those in aqueous solutions, but much lower than those observed in dry BumimTf(2)N. The complexation of lanthanides with nitrate in wet BumimTf(2)N proceeds via the replacement of water molecules by bidentate nitrate anions from the inner solvation spheres of Ln(3+) cations. In the absence of nitrate, the precipitation of Ln(iii)/chloride complex(es) occurs at low ratios of C(Cl)/C(Ln) (<6) in BumimTf(2)N, which precludes the determination of stability constants of binary Ln(iii)/chloride complexes by spectrophotometry or luminescence spectroscopy. However, using a competition approach, the formation of two ternary complexes, Ln(NO(3))(3)Cl(2)(2-) and Ln(NO(3))(2)Cl(4)(3-), has been observed and their stability constants in wet BumimTf(2)N were determined. Data indicate that both nitrate and chloride are stronger ligands than water for lanthanides in BumimTf(2)N.

  9. Comparative Effects of Electron Transfer Mediators on the Bioreduction of Fe(III) Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    The transfer of electrons from microbes to sparingly-soluble, extracellular electron acceptors such as Fe(III) oxides can occur via direct contact with the mineral surface, by dissolution of the mineral facilitated by exogenous or endogenous ligands and subsequent reduction of the dissolved Fe(III) ligand complex, and by facilitated electron transfer involving endogenous or exogenous electron transfer mediators (ETMs, also commonly referred to as electron shuttles) that are reduced by the microbes and then subsequently diffuse away from the cell and transfer electrons to the Fe(III) mineral surface, regenerating the oxidized form of the ETM. This study examines the effects of a series of compounds representing major classes of natural and synthetic organic ETMs (including low molecular-mass quinones, humic substances, phenazines, phenoxazines, phenothiazines, and indigo derivatives) on the bioreduction of lepidocrocite (γ-FeOOH) by the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens CN32. S. putrefaciens CN32 was able to reduce lepidocrocite in the absence of exogenous ETMs; however, relative to the control, all of the synthetic ETMs examined in this study enhanced the bioreduction of lepidocrocite. The extent of the enhanced bioreduction increased with decreasing reduction potential of the given ETM redox couple. However, the addition of Suwannee River fulvic acid, humic acid, or unfractionated NOM (10 mg organic C L-1) resulted in, at best, a minimal enhancement of lepidocrocite bioreduction relative to the control that did not contain any added exdogenous ETM. These results suggest that the relative contribution of humic substances to microbially mediated Fe(III) reduction may be minimal in low-carbon environments such as oligotrophic lakes and typical groundwaters.

  10. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal and antimicrobial studies of neodymium(III) and samarium(III) complexes derived from tetradentate ligands containing N and S donor atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ain, Qurratul; Pandey, S. K.; Pandey, O. P.; Sengupta, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Trivalent lanthanide complexes of the type [Ln(L)Cl(H2O)2] (where Ln = Nd(III) or Sm(III) and LH2 = Schiff bases derived by the condensation of 3-(phenyl/substitutedphenyl)-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole with diacetyl/benzil) have been synthesized by the reactions of anhydrous lanthanide(III) chloride with Schiff bases in methanol. The structures of the complexes have been proposed on the basis of elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic moment, spectroscopic measurements (IR, 1H, 13C NMR and UV-vis spectra) and X-ray diffraction studies. The spectral data reveal that the Schiff base ligands behave as dibasic tetradentate chelating agents having coordination sites at two thiol sulfur atoms and two azomethine nitrogen atoms. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was confirmed by thermal and IR data of the complexes. All the Schiff bases and their metal complexes have also been screened for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Curvularia pallescens and Colletotrichum capsici.

  11. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal and antimicrobial studies of neodymium(III) and samarium(III) complexes derived from tetradentate ligands containing N and S donor atoms.

    PubMed

    Ain, Qurratul; Pandey, S K; Pandey, O P; Sengupta, S K

    2015-04-05

    Trivalent lanthanide complexes of the type [Ln(L)Cl(H2O)2] (where Ln=Nd(III) or Sm(III) and LH2=Schiff bases derived by the condensation of 3-(phenyl/substitutedphenyl)-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole with diacetyl/benzil) have been synthesized by the reactions of anhydrous lanthanide(III) chloride with Schiff bases in methanol. The structures of the complexes have been proposed on the basis of elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic moment, spectroscopic measurements (IR, 1H, 13C NMR and UV-vis spectra) and X-ray diffraction studies. The spectral data reveal that the Schiff base ligands behave as dibasic tetradentate chelating agents having coordination sites at two thiol sulfur atoms and two azomethine nitrogen atoms. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was confirmed by thermal and IR data of the complexes. All the Schiff bases and their metal complexes have also been screened for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Curvularia pallescens and Colletotrichum capsici.

  12. Oral nutritional supplements containing (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the nutritional status of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer during multimodality treatment.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Langius, Jacqueline A E; Smit, Egbert F; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; von Blomberg, B Mary E; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Paul, Marinus A; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

    2010-10-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), (n-3) fatty acids from fish oil, have immune-modulating effects and may improve nutritional status in cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids on nutritional status and inflammatory markers in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing multimodality treatment. In a double-blind experiment, 40 patients with stage III NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive 2 cans/d of a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids (2.0 g EPA + 0.9 g DHA/d) or an isocaloric control supplement. EPA in plasma phospholipids, energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), body weight, fat free mass (FFM), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and inflammatory markers were assessed. Effects of intervention were analyzed by generalized estimating equations and expressed as regression coefficients (B). The intervention group (I) had a better weight maintenance than the control (C) group after 2 and 4 wk (B = 1.3 and 1.7 kg, respectively; P < 0.05), a better FFM maintenance after 3 and 5 wk (B = 1.5 and 1.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.05), a reduced REE (B = -16.7% of predicted; P = 0.01) after 3 wk, and a trend for a greater MUAC (B = 9.1; P = 0.06) and lower interleukin-6 production (B = -27.9; P = 0.08) after 5 wk. After 4 wk, the I group had a higher energy and protein intake than the C group (B = 2456 kJ/24 h, P = 0.03 and B = 25.0 g, P = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids beneficially affects nutritional status during multimodality treatment in patients with NSCLC.

  13. Prevalence of type III secretion system in effective biocontrol pseudomonads.

    PubMed

    Almario, Juliana; Gobbin, Davide; Défago, Geneviève; Moënne-Loccoz, Yvan; Rezzonico, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Functional type III secretion system (T3SS) genes are needed for effective biocontrol of Pythium damping-off of cucumber by Pseudomonas fluorescens KD, but whether biocontrol Pseudomonas strains with T3SS genes display overall a higher plant-protecting activity is unknown. The assessment of 198 biocontrol fluorescent pseudomonads originating from 60 soils worldwide indicated that 32% harbour the ATPase-encoding T3SS gene hrcN, which was most often found in tomato isolates. The hrcN(+) biocontrol strains (and especially those also producing 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol and displaying 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity) displayed higher plant-protecting ability in comparison with hrcN(-) biocontrol strains, both in the Pythium/cucumber and Fusarium/cucumber pathosystems. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolism of VLDL and LDL containing apolipoprotein C-III and not other small apolipoproteins – R2

    PubMed Central

    Mendivil, Carlos O; Zheng, Chunyu; Furtado, Jeremy; Lel, Julian; Sacks, Frank M

    2010-01-01

    Objective We aimed to clarify the influence of apolipoprotein C-III (apoCIII) on human apolipoprotein B metabolism. Methods and Results We studied the kinetics of four VLDL, IDL and LDL types containing: (1) OtherApos−CIII−: none of apoCIII, apoAII, apoCI, apoCII or apoE; (2) OtherApos+CIII−: no apoCIII but at least one of the others; (3) OtherApos−CIII+: apoCIII, but not any others; (4) OtherApos+CIII+: apoCIII and at least one other. VLDL and IDL OtherApos−CIII+ and OtherApos−CIII− had similar rates of lipolytic conversion to smaller particles. However, light LDL OtherApos−CIII+ compared to OtherApos−CIII− had much faster conversion to dense LDL, as did light LDL OtherApos+CIII+ compared to OtherApos+CIII−. VLDL and IDL OtherApos−CIII+ had minimal direct removal from circulation, while VLDL and IDL OtherApos+CIII−, rich in apoE, showed fast clearance. Lipoproteins in fraction OtherApos+CIII+ also rich in apoE had very low clearance. Conclusions The results suggest that apoCIII strongly inhibits hepatic uptake of VLDL and IDL overriding the opposite influence of apoE when both are present. The presence of apoCIII on dense VLDL is not associated with slow conversion to IDL, a lipoprotein lipase dependent process; but when on light LDL apoCIII is associated with enhanced conversion to dense LDL, a process involving hepatic lipase. PMID:19910636

  15. Effects of Ca2+ on refolding of the recombinant hemolytic lectin CEL-III.

    PubMed

    Hisamatsu, Keigo; Unno, Hideaki; Goda, Shuichiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

    2009-05-01

    CEL-III is a hemolytic lectin isolated from Cucumaria echinata. Although recombinant CEL-III (rCEL-III) expressed in Escherichia coli showed very weak hemolytic activity compared with native protein, it was considerably enhanced by refolding in the presence of Ca(2+). This suggests that Ca(2+) supported correct folding of the carbohydrate-binding domains of rCEL-III, leading to effective binding to the cell surface and subsequent self-oligomerization.

  16. EFFECTS OF BICARBONATE ON GROWTH OF PASTEURELLA PESTIS III.

    PubMed Central

    Baugh, C. L.; Andrews, A. W.; Surgalla, M. J.

    1964-01-01

    Baugh, C. L. (Fort Detrick, Frederick, Md.), A. W. Andrews, and M. J. Surgalla. Effects of bicarbonate on growth of Pasteurella pestis. III. Replacement of bicarbonate by pyrimidines. J. Bacteriol. 88:1394–1398. 1964.—The effect of carbon dioxide on the growth of virulent Pasteurella pestis cultures at 37 C with aeration was studied by substituting known products of carbon dioxide fixation for bicarbonate in the test system. The growth of the virulent cells in the inoculum is stimulated and the culture remains virulent, if bicarbonate is replaced by orotic acid. The addition of cytosine, uracil, or citrulline also results in the retention of virulence, but the effect on the growth of the virulent cells is not as pronounced as with bicarbonate or orotic acid. It is proposed that an impaired pyrimidine synthesis due to a deficiency in carbomyl phosphate is responsible for the loss of virulence by P. pestis in aerated broth cultures at 37 C. The carbamyl phosphate deficiency may be enhanced by the loss of metabolically produced carbon dioxide at 37 C. PMID:14234798

  17. Tricarboxylate-based Gd(III) coordination polymers exhibiting large magnetocaloric effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sui-Jun; Cao, Chen; Xie, Chen-Chao; Zheng, Teng-Fei; Tong, Xiao-Lan; Liao, Jin-Sheng; Chen, Jing-Lin; Wen, He-Rui; Chang, Ze; Bu, Xian-He

    2016-05-31

    Two Gd(III) coordination polymers with the formula [Gd(cit)(H2O)]∞ () and [Gd(nta)(H2O)2]∞ () (H4cit = citric acid, H3nta = nitrilotriacetic acid) have been successfully prepared under hydrothermal conditions. Complex exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) structure based on carboxylate-bridged layers, while complex is a double-layer structure containing eight-coordinated Gd(III). Magnetic investigations reveal that weak antiferromagnetic couplings between adjacent Gd(III) ions in both and with different Weiss values result in large cryogenic magnetocaloric effects. It is notable that the maximum entropy changes (-ΔS) of and reach 31.3 J kg(-1) K(-1) and 32.2 J kg(-1) K(-1) at 2 K for a moderate field change (ΔH = 3 T), and a remarkable -ΔS (41.5 J kg(-1) K(-1) for and 42.0 J kg(-1) K(-1) for ) could be obtained for ΔH = 7 T.

  18. Polarization Effects in Group III-Nitride Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qiyuan

    Group III-nitride semiconductors have wide application in optoelectronic devices. Spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects have been found to be critical for electric and optical properties of group III-nitrides. In this dissertation, firstly, the crystal orientation dependence of the polarization is calculated and in-plane polarization is revealed. The in-plane polarization is sensitive to the lateral characteristic dimension determined by the microstructure. Specific semi-polar plane growth is suggested for reducing quantum-confined Stark effect. The macroscopic electrostatic field from the polarization discontinuity in the heterostructures is discussed, b ased on that, the band diagram of InGaN/GaN quantum well/barrier and AlGaN/GaN heterojunction is obtained from the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations. New device design such as triangular quantum well with the quenched polarization field is proposed. Electron holography in the transmission electron microscopy is used to examine the electrostatic potential under polarization effects. The measured potential energy profiles of heterostructure are compared with the band simulation, and evidences of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in a wurtzite AlGaN/ AlN/ GaN superlattice, as well as quasi two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a zinc-blende AlGaN/GaN are found. The large polarization discontinuity of AlN/GaN is the main source of the 2DHG of wurtzite nitrides, while the impurity introduced during the growth of AlGaN layer provides the donor states that to a great extent balance the free electrons in zinc-blende nitrides. It is also found that the quasi-2DEG concentration in zinc-blende AlGaN/GaN is about one order of magnitude lower than the wurtzite AlGaN/GaN, due to the absence of polarization. Finally, the InAlN/GaN lattice-matched epitaxy, which ideally has a zero piezoelectric polarization and strong spontaneous polarization, is experimentally studied. The breakdown in

  19. Langmuir mixing effects on global climate: WAVEWATCH III in CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing; Webb, Adrean; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Craig, Anthony; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Large, William G.; Vertenstein, Mariana

    2016-07-01

    Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) have shown the effects of ocean surface gravity waves in enhancing the ocean boundary layer mixing through Langmuir turbulence. Neglecting this Langmuir mixing process may contribute to the common shallow bias in mixed layer depth in regions of the Southern Ocean and the Northern Atlantic in most state-of-the-art climate models. In this study, a third generation wave model, WAVEWATCH III, has been incorporated as a component of the Community Earth System Model, version 1.2 (CESM1.2). In particular, the wave model is now coupled with the ocean model through a modified version of the K-Profile Parameterization (KPP) to approximate the influence of Langmuir mixing. Unlike past studies, the wind-wave misalignment and the effects of Stokes drift penetration depth are considered through empirical scalings based on the rate of mixing in LES. Wave-Ocean only experiments show substantial improvements in the shallow biases of mixed layer depth in the Southern Ocean. Ventilation is enhanced and low concentration biases of pCFC-11 are reduced in the Southern Hemisphere. A majority of the improvements persist in the presence of other climate feedbacks in the fully coupled experiments. In addition, warming of the subsurface water over the majority of global ocean is observed in the fully coupled experiments with waves, and the cold subsurface ocean temperature biases are reduced.

  20. Effect of III-V on insulator structure on quantum well intermixing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takashima, Seiya; Ikku, Yuki; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2016-04-01

    To achieve the monolithic active/passive integration on the III-V CMOS photonics platform, quantum well intermixing (QWI) on III-V on insulator (III-V-OI) is studied for fabricating multi-bandgap III-V-OI wafers. By optimizing the QWI condition for a 250-nm-thick III-V layer, which contains a five-layer InGaAsP-based multi-quantum well (MQW) with 80-nm-thick indium phosphide (InP) cladding layers, we have successfully achieved a photoluminescence (PL) peak shift of over 100 nm on the III-V-OI wafer. We have also found that the progress of QWI on the III-V-OI wafer is slower than that on the InP bulk wafer regardless of the buried oxide (BOX) thickness, bonding interface materials, and handle wafers. We have also found that the progress of QWI on the III-V-OI wafer is slower than that on the InP bulk wafer regardless of the buried oxide (BOX) thickness, bonding interface materials, and bulk support wafers on which the III-V-OI structure is formed (handle wafers). By comparing between the measured PL shift and simulated diffusions of phosphorus vacancies and interstitials during QWI, we have found that the slow QWI progress in the III-V-OI wafer is probably attributed to the enhanced recombination of vacancies and interstitials by the diffusion blocking of vacancies and interstitials at the BOX interface.

  1. Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetic Electrochemical Properties of a Family of Tungstoarsenates Containing Just Co(II) Centers or Both Co(II) and Fe(III) Centers.

    PubMed

    Ayingone Mezui, Charyle S; de Oliveira, Pedro; Teillout, Anne-Lucie; Marrot, Jérôme; Berthet, Patrick; Lebrini, Mounim; Mbomekallé, Israël M

    2017-02-20

    The three polyoxotungstates [(NaOH2)2Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](18-) (1), [(NaOH2)(Co(II)OH2)Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](17-) (2), and [(Co(II)OH2)2Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](16-) (3) have been prepared in aqueous solution upon mixing cobalt(II) salts with the ligand [As2W15O56](12-). The reaction of 1 or 2 with the Fe(3+) ion leads invariably to the same species [(Fe(III)OH2)(Co(II)OH2)Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](15-) (4) possessing three cobalt atoms and a single iron atom. However, if the Fe-containing homologue of compound 1, that is, the polyoxotungstate [(NaOH2)2Fe(III)2(As2W15O56)2](16-) (5), is employed instead to react with the Co(2+) ion, the species [(Co(II)OH2)2Fe(III)2(As2W15O56)2](14-) (6) is obtained, having two cobalt atoms and two iron atoms. The compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 are described for the first time and have been characterized by several physicochemical methods such as FTIR, UV-visible, ATG, and elemental analysis. Structural analysis by single-crystal X-ray diffraction has been carried out with compounds 2 (monoclinic space group P21/c, a = 17.0622(5) Å, b = 15.0828(4) Å, c = 32.0872(8) Å, β = 91.170(1)°, and Z = 2) and 3 (triclinic space group P1̅, a = 13.6137(7) Å, b = 13.8836(8) Å, c = 22.9276(6) Å, α = 89.906(3)°, β = 78.356(2)°, γ = 61.451(2)°, and Z = 1). Electrochemical studies undertaken with all the above-mentioned compounds and some of their homologues shed light on the influence of the chemical composition on their electrocatalytic properties toward substrates such as the nitrite ion and dioxygen. Magnetic measurements evidence anisotropic ferromagnetic interactions between Co(2+) ions and antiferromagnetic interactions between Fe(3+) ions. The nature and the strength of the Co(2+)-Fe(3+) interactions depend on the relative orientations of their 3d orbitals. The effective magnetic moment of the Co(2+) ions varies with the temperature and with the distortion of the octahedral sites in which they are located.

  2. Study of Class I and Class III Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) Synthases with Substrates Containing a Modified Side Chain.

    PubMed

    Jia, Kaimin; Cao, Ruikai; Hua, Duy H; Li, Ping

    2016-04-11

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are carbon and energy storage polymers produced by a variety of microbial organisms under nutrient-limited conditions. They have been considered as an environmentally friendly alternative to oil-based plastics due to their renewability, versatility, and biodegradability. PHA synthase (PhaC) plays a central role in PHA biosynthesis, in which its activity and substrate specificity are major factors in determining the productivity and properties of the produced polymers. However, the effects of modifying the substrate side chain are not well understood because of the difficulty to accessing the desired analogues. In this report, a series of 3-(R)-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A (HACoA) analogues were synthesized and tested with class I synthases from Chromobacterium sp. USM2 (PhaCCs and A479S-PhaCCs) and Caulobacter crescentus (PhaCCc) as well as class III synthase from Allochromatium vinosum (PhaECAv). It was found that, while different PHA synthases displayed distinct preference with regard to the length of the alkyl side chains, they could withstand moderate side chain modifications such as terminal unsaturated bonds and the azide group. Specifically, the specific activity of PhaCCs toward propynyl analogue (HHxyCoA) was only 5-fold less than that toward the classical substrate HBCoA. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of PhaECAv toward azide analogue (HABCoA) was determined to be 2.86 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), which was 6.2% of the value of HBCoA (4.62 × 10(6) M(-1) s(-1)) measured in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). These side chain modifications may be employed to introduce new material functions to PHAs as well as to study PHA biogenesis via click-chemistry, in which the latter remains unknown and is important for metabolic engineering to produce PHAs economically.

  3. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos® IL 104

    PubMed Central

    Bonggotgetsakul, Ya Ya Nutchapurida; Cattrall, Robert W.; Kolev, Spas D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of Au(III) extracted, was exhibited by a PIM consisting of 25 wt% Cyphos® IL 104, 5 wt% 1-dodecanol, and 70 wt% PVC. An almost complete back-extraction of the Au(III) extracted from this membrane was achieved by using a 0.10 mol L−1 Na2SO3 receiver solution at pH 8. The stoichiometry of the extracted Au(III)/Cyphos® IL 104 adduct was determined as [P]+ [AuCl4]− H+ [PO2]− where [P]+ and [PO2]− represent trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ions, respectively. Back-extraction of Au(III) is suggested to occur by reduction of Au(III) to Au(I), with the formation of the species [Au(SO3)2]3− in the aqueous receiver solution. Loss of 1-dodecanol from the newly developed PIM to the aqueous solutions in contact with it was observed, which indicated that this membrane was suitable for single use in the efficient recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions of electronic scrap or recycled jewelry. PMID:26670259

  4. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos(®) IL 104.

    PubMed

    Bonggotgetsakul, Ya Ya Nutchapurida; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2015-12-08

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of Au(III) extracted, was exhibited by a PIM consisting of 25 wt% Cyphos(®) IL 104, 5 wt% 1-dodecanol, and 70 wt% PVC. An almost complete back-extraction of the Au(III) extracted from this membrane was achieved by using a 0.10 mol L(-1) Na₂SO₃ receiver solution at pH 8. The stoichiometry of the extracted Au(III)/Cyphos® IL 104 adduct was determined as [P]⁺ [AuCl₄](-) H⁺ [PO₂](-) where [P]⁺ and [PO₂](-) represent trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ions, respectively. Back-extraction of Au(III) is suggested to occur by reduction of Au(III) to Au(I), with the formation of the species [Au(SO₃)₂](3-) in the aqueous receiver solution. Loss of 1-dodecanol from the newly developed PIM to the aqueous solutions in contact with it was observed, which indicated that this membrane was suitable for single use in the efficient recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions of electronic scrap or recycled jewelry.

  5. A hexaaza macrocyclic ligand containing acetohydrazide pendants for Ln(III) complexation in aqueous solution. Solid-state and solution structures and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Cristina; Bastida, Rufina; Macías, Alejandro; Mato-Iglesias, Marta; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Valencia, Laura

    2008-08-07

    Lanthanide complexes of a hexaaza macrocyclic ligand containing acetohydrazide pendants (L) have been synthesised (Ln = La-Er, except Pm), and structural studies have been carried out both in the solid state and in aqueous solution. Attempts to isolate the complexes of the heaviest Ln(iii) ions (Ln = Tm-Lu) were unsuccessful. The crystal structures of the ligand and its lanthanum complex have been determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The X-ray crystal structure of [La(L)](3+) shows the metal ion being ten-coordinate, with the acetohydrazide pendants situated alternatively above and below the plane of the macrocycle. The two five membered chelate rings formed by the ethylenediamine moieties adopt (deltadelta) [or (lambdalambda)] conformations. The [Ln(L)](3+) complexes have been characterised by means of density-functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP model). The structures obtained from these theoretical calculations are in very good agreement with the experimental solution structures, as obtained from paramagnetic NMR measurements on the Ce(iii), Pr(III), Nd(III) and Eu(III) complexes. The complexes adopt in aqueous solution a D(2) structure with the ligand adopting a (deltadelta) [or (lambdalambda)] conformation.

  6. Effect of Population III Multiplicity on Dark Star Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Athena; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    We numerically study the mutual interaction between dark matter (DM) and Population III (Pop III) stellar systems in order to explore the possibility of Pop III dark stars within this physical scenario. We perform a cosmological simulation, initialized at z approx. 100, which follows the evolution of gas and DM. We analyze the formation of the first mini halo at z approx. 20 and the subsequent collapse of the gas to densities of 10(exp 12)/cu cm. We then use this simulation to initialize a set of smaller-scale 'cut-out' simulations in which we further refine the DM to have spatial resolution similar to that of the gas. We test multiple DM density profiles, and we employ the sink particle method to represent the accreting star-forming region. We find that, for a range of DM configurations, the motion of the Pop III star-disk system serves to separate the positions of the protostars with respect to the DM density peak, such that there is insufficient DM to influence the formation and evolution of the protostars for more than approx. 5000 years. In addition, the star-disk system causes gravitational scattering of the central DM to lower densities, further decreasing the influence of DM over time. Any DM-powered phase of Pop III stars will thus be very short-lived for the typical multiple system, and DM will not serve to significantly prolong the life of Pop III stars.

  7. Container effect in nanocasting synthesis of mesoporous metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohong; Shi, Yifeng; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Chunming; Zheng, Xinyue; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yichi; Guan, Naijia; Zhao, Dongyuan; Stucky, Galen D

    2011-09-21

    We report a general reaction container effect in the nanocasting synthesis of mesoporous metal oxides. The size and shape of the container body in conjunction with simply modifying the container opening accessibility can be used to control the escape rate of water and other gas-phase byproducts in the calcination process, and subsequently affect the nanocrystal growth of the materials inside the mesopore space of the template. In this way, the particle size, mesostructure ordering, and crystallinity of the final product can be systemically controlled. The container effect also explain some of the problems with reproducibility in previously reported results.

  8. Effects of sediment characteristics on the toxicity of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Kemble, N.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of sediment characteristics, acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and organic matter (OM), on the toxicity of chromium (Cr) in freshwater sediments. We conducted chronic (28-42-d) toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca exposed to Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in water and in spiked sediments. Waterborne Cr(VI) caused reduced survival of amphipods with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 40 ??g/L. Cr(VI) spiked into test sediments with differing levels of AVS resulted in graded decreases in AVS and sediment OM. Only Cr(VI)-spiked sediments with low AVS concentrations (<1 ??mol/g) caused significant amphipod mortality. Waterborne Cr(III) concentrations near solubility limits caused decreased survival of amphipods at pH 7 and pH 8 but not at pH 6. Sediments spiked with high levels of Cr(III) did not affect amphipod survival but had minor effects on growth and inconsistent effects on reproduction. Pore waters of some Cr(III)-spiked sediments contained measurable concentrations of Cr(VI), but observed toxic effects did not correspond closely to Cr concentrations in sediment or pore waters. Our results indicate that risks of Cr toxicity are low in freshwater sediments containing substantial concentrations of AVS.

  9. Effect of a gel containing pilocarpine on vaginal atrophy in castrated rats

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa-Lages, Cristina A.; de Deus-Lages, Lívio P.; de Sousa, Gabriela V.; de Moura-Leal, Adinaide C.; Conde, Airton Mendes; Costa-Silva, Danylo Rafhael; da Conceição Barros-Oliveira, Maria; Borges, Carine Soares; Escórcio-Dourado, Carla Solange; Sampaio, Fabiane A.; Cunha-Nunes, Lívio C.; da-Silva, Benedito B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of Carbopol gel formulations containing pilocarpine on the morphology and morphometry of the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats. METHODS: Thirty-one female Wistar-Hannover rats were randomly divided into four groups: the control Groups I (n=7, rats in persistent estrus; positive controls) and II (n=7, castrated rats, negative controls) and the experimental Groups, III (n=8) and IV (n=9). Persistent estrus (Group I) was achieved with a subcutaneous injection of testosterone propionate on the second postnatal day. At 90 days postnatal, rats in Groups II, III and IV were castrated and treated vaginally for 14 days with Carbopol gel (vehicle alone) or Carbopol gel containing 5% and 15% pilocarpine, respectively. Next, all of the animals were euthanized and their vaginas were removed for histological evaluation. A non-parametric test with a weighted linear regression model was used for data analysis (p<0.05). RESULTS: The morphological evaluation showed maturation of the vaginal epithelium with keratinization in Group I, whereas signs of vaginal atrophy were present in the rats of the other groups. Morphometric examinations showed mean thickness values of the vaginal epithelium of 195.10±12.23 μm, 30.90±1.14 μm, 28.16±2.98 μm and 29.84±2.30 μm in Groups I, II, III and IV, respectively, with statistically significant differences between Group I and the other three groups (p<0.0001) and no differences between Groups II, III and IV (p=0.0809). CONCLUSION: Topical gel formulations containing pilocarpine had no effect on atrophy of the vaginal epithelium in the castrated female rats. PMID:27276400

  10. Effect of a gel containing pilocarpine on vaginal atrophy in castrated rats.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Lages, Cristina A; de Deus-Lages, Lívio P; de Sousa, Gabriela V; de Moura-Leal, Adinaide C; Conde, Airton Mendes; Costa-Silva, Danylo Rafhael; da Conceição Barros-Oliveira, Maria; Borges, Carine Soares; Escórcio-Dourado, Carla Solange; Sampaio, Fabiane A; Cunha-Nunes, Lívio C; da-Silva, Benedito B

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the effect of Carbopol gel formulations containing pilocarpine on the morphology and morphometry of the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats. Thirty-one female Wistar-Hannover rats were randomly divided into four groups: the control Groups I (n=7, rats in persistent estrus; positive controls) and II (n=7, castrated rats, negative controls) and the experimental Groups, III (n=8) and IV (n=9). Persistent estrus (Group I) was achieved with a subcutaneous injection of testosterone propionate on the second postnatal day. At 90 days postnatal, rats in Groups II, III and IV were castrated and treated vaginally for 14 days with Carbopol gel (vehicle alone) or Carbopol gel containing 5% and 15% pilocarpine, respectively. Next, all of the animals were euthanized and their vaginas were removed for histological evaluation. A non-parametric test with a weighted linear regression model was used for data analysis (p<0.05). The morphological evaluation showed maturation of the vaginal epithelium with keratinization in Group I, whereas signs of vaginal atrophy were present in the rats of the other groups. Morphometric examinations showed mean thickness values of the vaginal epithelium of 195.10±12.23 μm, 30.90±1.14 μm, 28.16±2.98 μm and 29.84±2.30 μm in Groups I, II, III and IV, respectively, with statistically significant differences between Group I and the other three groups (p<0.0001) and no differences between Groups II, III and IV (p=0.0809). Topical gel formulations containing pilocarpine had no effect on atrophy of the vaginal epithelium in the castrated female rats.

  11. Group III alcohol dehydrogenase from Pectobacterium atrosepticum: insights into enzymatic activity and organization of the metal ion-containing region.

    PubMed

    Elleuche, Skander; Fodor, Krisztian; von der Heyde, Amélie; Klippel, Barbara; Wilmanns, Matthias; Antranikian, Garabed

    2014-05-01

    NAD(P)(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are widely distributed in all phyla. These proteins can be assigned to three nonhomologous groups of isozymes, with group III being highly diverse with regards to catalytic activity and primary structure. Members of group III ADHs share a conserved stretch of amino acid residues important for cofactor binding and metal ion coordination, while sequence identities for complete proteins are highly diverse (<20 to >90 %). A putative group III ADH PaYqhD has been identified in BLAST analysis from the plant pathogenic enterobacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum. The PaYqhD gene was expressed in the heterologous host Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified in a two-step purification procedure to homogeneity indicating an obligate dimerization of monomers. Four conserved amino acid residues involved in metal ion coordination were substituted with alanine, and their importance for catalytic activity was confirmed by circular dichroism spectrum determination, in vitro, and growth experiments. PaYqhD exhibits optimal activity at 40 °C with short carbon chain aldehyde compounds and NADPH as cofactor indicating the enzyme to be an aldehyde reductase. No oxidative activities towards alcoholic compounds were detectable. EDTA completely inhibited catalytic activity and was fully restored by the addition of Co(2+). Activity measurements together with sequence alignments and structure analysis confirmed that PaYqhD belongs to the butanol dehydrogenase-like enzymes within group III of ADHs.

  12. Binding analysis of ytterbium(III) complex containing 1,10-phenanthroline with DNA and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Moodi, Asieh; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Niroomand, Sona

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the biological preference of [Yb(phen)₂(OH₂)Cl₃](H₂O)₂ (phen is 1,10-phenanthroline) for DNA, interaction of Yb(III) complex with DNA in Tris-HCl buffer is studied by various biophysical and spectroscopic techniques which reveal that the complex binds to DNA. The results of fluorescence titration reveal that [Yb(phen)₂(OH₂)Cl₃](H₂O)₂ has strongly quenched in the presence of DNA. The binding site number n, apparent binding constant K b, and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant K SV are determined. ΔH⁰, ΔS⁰, and ΔG⁰ are obtained based on the quenching constants and thermodynamic theory (ΔH⁰ > 0, ΔS⁰ > 0, and ΔG⁰ < 0). The experimental results show that the Yb(III) complex binds to DNA by non-intercalative mode. Groove binding is the preferred mode of interaction for [Yb(phen)₂(OH₂)Cl₃](H₂O)₂ to DNA. The DNA cleavage results show that in the absence of any reducing agent, Yb(III) complex can cleave DNA. The antimicrobial screening tests are also recorded and give good results in the presence of Yb(III) complex.

  13. Effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on FeIII (hydr)oxide reduction and microbial community development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Man Jae; Boyanov, Maxim I.; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Brulc, Jennifer M.; Johnston, Eric R.; Skinner, Kelly A.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; O'Loughlin, Edward J.

    2014-03-01

    Although dissimilatory iron and sulfate reduction (DIR and DSR) profoundly affect the biogeochemical cycling of C, Fe, and S in subsurface systems, the dynamics of DIR and DSR in the presence of both FeIII (hydr)oxides and sulfate have not been well-studied with mixed microbial populations. This study examined the response of native microbial communities in subsurface sediment from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Integrated Field Research Challenge site in Rifle, CO to the availability of sulfate and specific FeIII (hydr)oxide minerals in experimental systems containing lactate as the electron donor, with ferrihydrite, goethite, or lepidocrocite and high (10.2 mM) or low (0.2 mM) sulfate as electron acceptors. We observed rapid fermentation of lactate to acetate and propionate. FeIII reduction was slow and limited in the presence of low-sulfate, but the extent of FeIII reduction increased more than 10 times with high-sulfate amendments. Furthermore, the extent of FeIII reduction was higher in ferrihydrite or lepidocrocite incubations than in goethite incubations. Propionate produced during fermentation of lactate was used as the electron donor for DSR. The concurrence of sulfate reduction and FeII production suggests that FeII production was driven primarily by reduction of FeIII by biogenic sulfide. X-ray absorption fine-structure analysis confirmed the formation of ferrous sulfide and the presence of O-coordinated ferrous species. 16S rRNA-based microbial community analysis revealed the development of distinct communities with different FeIII (hydr)oxides. These results highlight the highly coupled nature of C, Fe, and S biogeochemical cycles during DIR and DSR and provide new insight into the effects of electron donor utilization, sulfate concentration, and the presence of specific FeIII (hydr)oxide phases on microbial community development.

  14. High relaxivity Gd(III)-DNA gold nanostars: investigation of shape effects on proton relaxation.

    PubMed

    Rotz, Matthew W; Culver, Kayla S B; Parigi, Giacomo; MacRenaris, Keith W; Luchinat, Claudio; Odom, Teri W; Meade, Thomas J

    2015-03-24

    Gadolinium(III) nanoconjugate contrast agents (CAs) have distinct advantages over their small-molecule counterparts in magnetic resonance imaging. In addition to increased Gd(III) payload, a significant improvement in proton relaxation efficiency, or relaxivity (r1), is often observed. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanoconjugate CA created by covalent attachment of Gd(III) to thiolated DNA (Gd(III)-DNA), followed by surface conjugation onto gold nanostars (DNA-Gd@stars). These conjugates exhibit remarkable r1 with values up to 98 mM(-1) s(-1). Additionally, DNA-Gd@stars show efficient Gd(III) delivery and biocompatibility in vitro and generate significant contrast enhancement when imaged at 7 T. Using nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion analysis, we attribute the high performance of the DNA-Gd@stars to an increased contribution of second-sphere relaxivity compared to that of spherical CA equivalents (DNA-Gd@spheres). Importantly, the surface of the gold nanostar contains Gd(III)-DNA in regions of positive, negative, and neutral curvature. We hypothesize that the proton relaxation enhancement observed results from the presence of a unique hydrophilic environment produced by Gd(III)-DNA in these regions, which allows second-sphere water molecules to remain adjacent to Gd(III) ions for up to 10 times longer than diffusion. These results establish that particle shape and second-sphere relaxivity are important considerations in the design of Gd(III) nanoconjugate CAs.

  15. 7 CFR 42.111 - Sampling plans for reduced condition of container inspection, Tables III and III-A; and limit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Origin inspection Sample Size 0.25 Ac Re 1.5 Ac Re 6.5 Ac Re Other Than Origin Inspection 0.25 Ac Re 2.5 Ac Re 10.0 Ac Re CAA 6,000 or less Single 29 1 2 1 2 4 5 1 2 2 3 5 6 CA 6,001-36,000 Single 84 1 2 3... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sampling plans for reduced condition of container...

  16. Effect of aging on the structure and phosphate retention of Fe(III)-precipitates formed by Fe(II) oxidation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senn, Anna-Caterina; Kaegi, Ralf; Hug, Stephan J.; Hering, Janet G.; Mangold, Stefan; Voegelin, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Iron(III)-precipitates formed by Fe(II) oxidation in aqueous solutions affect the cycling and impact of Fe and other co-precipitated elements in environmental systems. Fresh Fe(III)-precipitates are metastable and their transformation into more stable phases during aging may result in the release of initially co-precipitated ions. Phosphate, silicate, Mg and Ca play key roles in determining the structure and composition of fresh Fe(III)-precipitates. Here we examine how these ions affect the structure and phosphate retention of Fe(III)-precipitates formed by oxidation of 0.5 mM dissolved Fe(II) at pH 7.0 after aging for 30 days at 40 °C. Iron K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that aged precipitates consist of the same structural units as fresh precipitates: Amorphous Fe(III)- or Ca-Fe(III)-phosphate, ferrihydrite, and poorly crystalline lepidocrocite. Mg, Ca, and dissolved phosphate stabilize (Ca-)Fe(III)-phosphate against transformation into ferrihydrite. Silicate further attenuates (Ca-)Fe(III)-phosphate transformation. The crystallinity of lepidocrocite formed in phosphate- and silicate-free solutions slightly increases during aging. The transformation of Fe(III)- and Ca-Fe(III)-phosphate into ferrihydrite and ongoing ferrihydrite crystallization during aging result in the release of co-precipitated phosphate. Dissolved Ca on the other hand limits phosphate concentrations to values consistent with solubility control by octacalciumphosphate. Owing to the combined effects of Ca and silicate, phosphate is most effectively retained by Fe(III)-precipitates formed and aged in Ca- and silicate-containing solutions. The results from this study contribute to an improved understanding of the formation and transformation of Fe(III)-precipitates and emphasize that the complexity of Fe(III)-precipitate dynamics in the presence of multiple interfering solutes must be considered when addressing their impact on major and trace elements in environmental systems.

  17. Highly Specific and Effective Targeting of EGFRvIII-Positive Tumors with TandAb Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ellwanger, Kristina; Reusch, Uwe; Fucek, Ivica; Knackmuss, Stefan; Weichel, Michael; Gantke, Thorsten; Molkenthin, Vera; Zhukovsky, Eugene A.; Tesar, Michael; Treder, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To harness the cytotoxic capacity of immune cells for the treatment of solid tumors, we developed tetravalent, bispecific tandem diabody (TandAb) antibodies that recognize EGFRvIII, the deletion variant III of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and CD3 on T-cells, thereby directing immune cells to eliminate EGFRvIII-positive tumor cells. Using phage display, we identified scFv antibodies selectively binding to EGFRvIII. These highly EGFRvIII-specific, fully human scFv were substantially improved by affinity maturation, achieving KDs in the picomolar range, and were used to construct a set of bispecific EGFRvIII-targeting TandAbs with a broad range of binding and cytotoxic properties. These antibodies exhibited an exquisite specificity for a distinguished epitope in the N-terminal portion of EGFRvIII, as shown on recombinant antigen in Western Blot, SPR, and ELISA, as well as on antigen-expressing cells in FACS assays, and did not bind to the wild-type EGFR. High-affinity EGFRvIII/CD3 TandAbs were most potent in killing assays, displaying cytotoxicity toward EGFRvIII-expressing CHO, F98 glioma, or human DK-MG cells with EC50 values in the range of 1–10 pM in vitro. They also demonstrated dose-dependent growth control in vivo in an EGFRvIII-positive subcutaneous xenograft tumor model. Together with the tumor-exclusive expression of EGFRvIII, the EGFRvIII/CD3 TandAbs’ high specificity and strictly target-dependent activation with no off-target activity provide an opportunity to target tumor cells and spare normal tissues, thereby reducing the side effects associated with other anti-EGFR therapies. In summary, EGFRvIII/CD3 TandAbs are highly attractive therapeutic antibody candidates for selective immunotherapy of EGFRvIII-positive tumors. PMID:28596941

  18. The effect of K2SO4 solution on type III gypsum surface roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillary, N.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    The working model of type III gypsum is commonly used as working model for removable dentures. K2SO4 is well known as an effective accelerator to accelerate the gypsum setting time. This study aimed to identify the effect of K2SO4 1.5% solution on type III gypsum surface roughness. Surface roughness tests were performed using a Surface Roughness Tester at 1 hour, 24 hours, and 7 days after manipulation the gypsum. The results showed that type III gypsum surface roughness varied until the 7-day test. Moreover, the surface roughness of type III gypsum and K2SO4 1.5% solution is lower than type III gypsum surface roughness and equal to type IV gypsum surface roughness. It is concluded that the addition of K2SO4 1.5% solution decreased type III gypsum surface roughness.

  19. Synthesis of, characterization of, and photoinduced processes in polymetallic triad complexes containing Fe(II), Ru(II), and Rh(III) metal centers

    SciTech Connect

    Ronco, S.E. |; Thompson, D.W.; Gahan, S.L.; Petersen, J.D. |

    1998-04-20

    A series of new trimetallic mixed complexes containing Fe(II), Ru(II), and Rh(III) metal centers have been prepared and characterized, and their excited-state properties in a nanosecond time domain have been investigated. These new compounds were synthesized by following a building block strategy from monomeric Rh(III) and Ru(II) polyazines and tetracyanoferrate(II) ions. The products generated in each synthetic step were fully characterized and their excited-state properties investigated. These new trimetallic complexes, [(CN){sub 4}Fe{sup II}(BL(1))Ru{sup II}(bpy)-(BL(2))Rh{sup III}(tpy)(MQ{sup +})](PF{sub 6}){sub 4} (tpy = 2,2{prime}:6{prime}:2{double_prime}-terpyridine; BL(1) = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine (dpp) or 2,2{prime}-bipyrimidine (bpm); BL(2) = dpp or bpm; MQ{sup +} = N-methyl-4,4{prime}-bipyridinium (monoquat)), consist of three fundamental parts linked by bridging ligands (1) an electron donor group, the tetracyanoferrate(II) unit; (2) an antenna fragment, the Ru(II) polypyridyl moiety; and (3) an electron acceptor group. The electron acceptor group is a Rh(III) polypyridyl that contains the ligands tpy and MQ{sup +}. No emission was observed in any of the reported complexes either in fluid solutions at room temperature or in glassy solutions at 77 K. Time-resolved experiments conducted on these triads showed formation of a transient intermediate within the laser pulse. Redox properties and transient absorption observations helped the authors to identify the nature of this intermediate as an Fe(III)/Ru(II) mixed-valence species that decays exponentially by following a first-order law with a lifetime of {tau} {le} 70 ns in fluid solution at room temperature.

  20. Effect of Class III bone anchor treatment on airway.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Tung; De Clerck, Hugo; Wilson, Michael; Golden, Brent

    2015-07-01

    To compare airway volumes and minimum cross-section area changes of Class III patients treated with bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) versus untreated Class III controls. Twenty-eight consecutive skeletal Class III patients between the ages of 10 and 14 years (mean age, 11.9 years) were treated using Class III intermaxillary elastics and bilateral miniplates (two in the infra-zygomatic crests of the maxilla and two in the anterior mandible). The subjects had cone beam computed tomographs (CBCTs) taken before initial loading (T1) and 1 year out (T2). Twenty-eight untreated Class III patients (mean age, 12.4 years) had CBCTs taken and cephalograms generated. The airway volumes and minimum cross-sectional area measurements were performed using Dolphin Imaging 11.7 3D software. The superior border of the airway was defined by a plane that passes through the posterior nasal spine and basion, while the inferior border included the base of the epiglottis to the lower border of C3. From T1 to T2, airway volume from BAMP-treated subjects showed a statistically significant increase (1499.64 mm(3)). The area in the most constricted section of the airway (choke point) increased slightly (15.44 mm(2)). The airway volume of BAMP patients at T2 was 14136.61 mm(3), compared with 14432.98 mm(3) in untreated Class III subjects. Intraexaminer correlation coefficients values and 95% confidence interval values were all greater than .90, showing a high degree of reliability of the measurements. BAMP treatment did not hinder the development of the oropharynx.

  1. Effect of praseodymium(III) on zinc(II) species in human interstitial fluid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Wang, Jinping; Lu, Xin; Yang, Kuiyue; Niu, Chunji

    2005-11-01

    A multiphase model of metal ion species in human interstitial fluid was constructed under physiological conditions. The effect of Pr(III) on Zn(II) species was studied. At the normal conditions, Zn(II) species mainly distribute in [Zn(HSA)], [Zn(IgG)], and [Zn(Cys)(2)H](+). With the Pr(III) level increased, the apparent competition of Pr(III) for ligands lead to the redistribution of Zn(II) species.

  2. A trinuclear oxo-chromium(III) complex containing the natural flavonoid primuletin: Synthesis, characterization, and antiradical properties

    DOE PAGES

    Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Alexiou, Anamaria D.P.; Decandio, Carla C.; ...

    2015-04-10

    A new trinuclear oxo-centered chromium(III) complex with formula [Cr₃O(CH₃CO₂)₆(L)(H₂O)₂] (L = 5-hydroxyflavone, known as primuletin) was synthetized and characterized by ESI mass spectrometry, thermogravimetry, and ¹H-NMR, UV-Vis, and FTIR spectroscopies. In agreement with the experimental results, DFT calculations indicated that the flavonoid ligand is coordinated to one of the three Cr(III) centers in an O,O-bidentate mode through the 5-hydroxy/4-keto groups. In a comparative study involving the uncoordinated primuletin and its corresponding complex, systematic reactions with the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) showed that antiradical activity increases upon complexation.

  3. Interaction of imidazole containing hydroxamic acids with Fe(III): hydroxamate versus imidazole coordination of the ligands.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Etelka; Bátka, Dávid; Csóka, Hajnalka; Nagy, Nóra V

    2007-01-01

    Solution equilibrium studies on Fe(III) complexes formed with imidazole-4-carbohydroxamic acid (Im-4-Cha), N-Me-imidazole-4-carbohydroxamic acid (N-Me-Im-4-Cha), imidazole-4-acetohydroxamic acid (Im-4-Aha), and histidinehydroxamic acid (Hisha) have been performed by using pH-potentiometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, EPR, ESI-MS, and H1-NMR methods. All of the obtained results demonstrate that the imidazole moiety is able to play an important role very often in the interaction with Fe(III), even if this metal ion prefers the hydroxamate chelates very much. If the imidazole moiety is in alpha-position to the hydroxamic one (Im-4-Cha and N-Me-Im-4-Cha) its coordination to the metal ion is indicated unambiguously by our results. Interestingly, parallel formation of (Nimidazole, Ohydroxamate), and (Ohydroxamate, Ohydroxamate) type chelates seems probable with N-Me-Im-4-Cha. The imidazole is in beta-position to the hydroxamic moiety in Im-4-Aha and an intermolecular noncovalent (mainly H-bonding) interaction seems to organize the intermediate-protonated molecules in this system. Following the formation of mono- and bishydroxamato mononuclear complexes, only EPR silent species exists in the Fe(III)-Hisha system above pH 4, what suggests the rather significant "assembler activity" of the imidazole (perhaps together with the ammonium moiety).

  4. Novel complexes of Co(III) and Ni(II) containing peptide ligands: Synthesis, DNA binding and photonuclease activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhamani, C. N.; Bhojya Naik, H. S.; Girija, D.; Sangeetha Gowda, K. R.; Giridhar, M.; Arvinda, T.

    2014-01-01

    The new cobalt(III) and nickel(II) complexes of the type [M(L)2(H2O)2]n+ (where M = Co(III) or Ni(II) ion, n = 3 for Co and 2 for Ni, L = peptides Fmoc. Ala-val-OH (F-AVOH), Fmoc-Phe-Leu-Ome (F-PLOMe) and Z-Ala-Phe-COsbnd NH2 (Z-APCONH2)) were synthesized and structurally characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, elemental analysis and electronic spectral data. An octahedral geometry has been proposed for all the synthesized Co(III) and Ni(II) metal complexes. The binding property of the complexes with CT-DNA was studied by absorption spectral analysis, followed by viscosity measurement and thermal denaturation studies. Detailed analysis revealed that the metal complexes intercalates into the DNA base stack as intercalator. The photo induced cleavage studies shows that the complexes possess photonuclease property against pUC19 DNA under UV-Visible irradiation.

  5. A group III steroid solution without antibiotic components: an effective cure for external otitis.

    PubMed

    Emgård, Per; Hellström, Sten

    2005-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare the clinical benefits of prescribing ear drops containing 0.05% solution of betamethasone dipropionate (BD), and ear drops containing hydrocortisone with oxytetracycline hydrochloride and polymyxin B (HCPB), for topical treatment of external otitis. Fifty-one patients were enrolled in this open randomized, parallel-group, multicentre study, performed in eight different ENT departments. The patients were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups: BD (n = 26) and HCPB (n = 25). Only ENT specialists investigated the patients. Bacterial and fungal cultures were raised on days 1 and 11, using swabbed material from ear canals. Twice daily the patients recorded their symptoms during the acute phase, using special diary cards.BD proved a significantly more effective cure than HCPB during the acute phase of external otitis and afforded a lower relapse frequency during a six-month follow-up period. The patients of the BD group were significantly less troubled by itching (p < 0.01) than those in the HCPB group. On day 11, at the end of the acute phase, growth of bacteria (p = 0.03) and fungi (p < 0.01) was less frequent in the BD group than in the HCPB group. No serious adverse events occurred, and those minor events observed were comparable between the two groups.Our conclusion is that the group III steroid solution, BD, cured the external otitis more effectively than did the HCPB solution, whether infected by bacteria or by fungi. No difference was evident regarding adverse effects. Furthermore, price favours a solution without any antibiotic component. In view of these observations, a group III steroid solution ought to be the preferred remedy for external otitis, whether infected or not.

  6. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III) and As(III)/Sb(III)-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Li, Mingshun

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III)]/antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing strain. The As(III) oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III) oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III) oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III) oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III) oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III) oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III), ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III) and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III) oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III) and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III) oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III) would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III) stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat. PMID:28241045

  7. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III) and As(III)/Sb(III)-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Li, Mingshun; Wang, Gejiao

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III)]/antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing strain. The As(III) oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III) oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III) oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III) oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III) oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III) oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III), ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III) and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III) oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III) and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III) oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III) would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III) stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  8. Enhancement of optical Faraday effect of nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Tomohiro; Koizumi, Hitoshi; Fushimi, Koji; Fujita, Koji; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ito, Hajime; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2014-07-21

    The effective magneto-optical properties of novel nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes with Tb-O lattice (specifically, [Tb9(sal-R)16(μ-OH)10](+)NO3(-), where sal-R = alkyl salicylate (R = -CH3 (Me), -C2H5 (Et), -C3H7 (Pr), or -C4H9 (Bu)) are reported. The geometrical structures of these nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes were characterized using X-ray single-crystal analysis and shape-measure calculation. Optical Faraday rotation was observed in nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes in the visible region. The Verdet constant per Tb(III) ion of the Tb9(sal-Me) complex is 150 times larger than that of general Tb(III) oxide glass. To understand their large Faraday rotation, electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of Gd(III) complexes were carried out. In this Report, the magneto-optical relation to the coordination geometry of Tb ions is discussed.

  9. Q-factor of (In,Ga)N containing III-nitride microcavity grown by multiple deposition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gačević, Ž. Calleja, E.; Réveret, F.

    2013-12-21

    A 3λ/2 (In,Ga)N/GaN resonant cavity, designed for ∼415 nm operation, is grown by molecular beam epitaxy and is sandwiched between a 39.5-period (In,Al)N/GaN distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), grown on c-plane GaN-on-sapphire pseudo-substrate by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and an 8-period SiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} DBR, deposited by electron beam evaporation. Optical characterization reveals an improvement in the cavity emission spectral purity of approximately one order of magnitude due to resonance effects. The combination of spectrophotometric and micro-reflectivity measurements confirms the strong quality (Q)-factor dependence on the excitation spot size. We derive simple analytical formulas to estimate leak and residual absorption losses and propose a simple approach to model the Q-factor and to give a quantitative estimation of the weight of cavity disorder. The model is in good agreement with both transfer-matrix simulation and the experimental findings. We point out that the realization of high Q-factor (In,Ga)N containing microcavities on GaN pseudo-substrates is likely to be limited by the cavity disorder.

  10. EGIS-7229, the new combined class III antiarrhythmic agent: lack of EAD inducing effect.

    PubMed

    Bányász, T; Magyar, J; Varró, A; Kovács, A; Gyönös, I; Szénási, G; Nánási, P P

    1999-03-01

    EGIS-7229 is a novel antiarrhythmic candidate having multiple mechanisms of action with class III predominance. In this study, the effects of EGIS-7229 and sotalol on action potential duration (APD) and incidence of early afterdepolarizations (EADs) were studied and compared in rabbit papillary muscle by using conventional microelectrode techniques. In control bathing solution, both drugs increased APD in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the prolongation of APD was greater with sotalol than with EGIS-7229 when the same drug concentrations were compared. EAD developed in 3 of the 11 preparations (27%) bathed with a solution containing 3.6 mmol/l CsCl + 2 mmol/l KCl within the first 120 min of superfusion. The addition of 100 micromol/l sotalol to this superfusate increased the incidence of EAD to 83% (10 from 12), whereas the addition of the same concentration of EGIS-7229 prevented the development of EAD in all of the 9 preparations studied. These differences in incidence of EAD are likely attributable to differences in drug-induced increases of APD-50 in the presence of CsCl. Prolongation of APD-90 showed less correlation with incidence of EAD than changes in APD-50. On the basis of these in vitro results, high concentrations of EGIS-7229 cannot be expected to be torsadogenic in vivo--in contrast with sotalol--presumably owing to the combined class III + IV activity of the compound.

  11. Effect of chromium(III) gallate complex on stabilization of collagen.

    PubMed

    Jaikumar, Dhanya; Baskaran, Babu; Vaidyanathan, V G

    2017-03-01

    To improve the stability of the collagen, here we studied the interaction of chromium(III) polyphenolic complex, [Cr(GA)2] (GA: Gallic acid) with collagen using various spectroscopic techniques. Circular dichroism studies show that the [Cr(GA)2] and gallic acid did not induce any structural perturbations on the triple helix of the collagen. Both differential scanning calorimetric(DSC) data and micro-shrinkage temperature studies showed that [Cr(GA)2] stabilized the collagen by 6±1°C compared to gallic acid. Hydrodynamic studies revealed that the viscosity of collagen drastically reduced in the presence of [Cr(GA)2] while gallic acid did not. Fibrillation assay displayed a significant delay in fibril formation with Cr(III) complex compared to gallic acid treated collagen. The inhibition of fibril formation was further confirmed by microscopic data in which collagen fibres are seen with GA while [Cr(GA)2] treated collagen exhibit a thin microfibrils. From AFM studies, the d-periodicity of collagen was found to be decreased with [Cr(GA)2] while increased with gallic acid. The present study deliberate the advantage of metal complex containing polyphenolic ligand as crosslinking agent due to its synergistic effect of both metal center as well as polyphenolic groups in the stabilization of collagen structure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effects of Non-Normality on Type III Error for Comparing Independent Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the effects of non-normality on Type III error rates for ANOVA F its three commonly recommended parametric counterparts namely Welch, Brown-Forsythe, and Alexander-Govern test. Therefore these tests were compared in terms of Type III error rates across the variety of population distributions,…

  13. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under either...

  14. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  15. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  16. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  17. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  18. Could test length or order affect scores on letter number sequencing of the WAIS-III and WMS-III? Ruling out effects of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Tulsky, D S; Zhu, J

    2000-11-01

    The Letter Number Sequencing subtest of the WAIS-III and WMS-III was administered at the end of the standardization edition of the WMS-III. It was not administered as part of the WAIS-III standardization battery. Nevertheless, the subtest was included in the published version of the WAIS-III. This study examines differences between examinees administered the Letter Number Sequencing subtest at three different times during a psychological battery: (1) as part of the published battery, (2) as part of the WMS-III when the WMS-III was administered as the first test in a sequence, and (3) as part of the WMS-III standardization when the WAIS-III was administered immediately preceding the WMS-III. The participants were 372 examinees ( n = 124 in each condition) who were matched on key demographic variables. A repeated measures MANOVA yielded no difference in subtest scores when administered in any of these conditions. The results show no evidence of fatigue or ordering effects on the Letter Number Sequencing subtest.

  19. Classroom Interaction in Effective and Ineffective Schools: Preliminary Results from Phase III of the Louisiana School Effectiveness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringfield, Samuel; Teddlie, Charles; Suarez, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    A major focus in Phase III of the Louisiana School Effectiveness Study is on the relationship between classroom interaction patterns and school effectiveness. This paper presents observations on similarities and differences between prior teacher and school effectiveness studies, the LSES-III methodology, and preliminary results from one of the…

  20. Effects of the colour additive caramel colour III on the immune system: a study with human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; Abma, P M; van den Berg, H; van Dokkum, W; van Loveren, H; Penninks, A H; Seinen, W; Spanhaak, S; Vos, J G; Ockhuizen, T

    1992-09-01

    Administration of the colour additive Caramel Colour III to rats has been associated with decreased numbers of lymphocytes and several other changes in the immune system, as well as in immune function parameters, specifically in animals fed a diet with a relatively low vitamin B6 content. The effects are caused by the imidazole derivative 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI). Caramel Colour III is commonly used in food products such as bakery products, soya-bean sauces, brown sauces, gravies, soup aromas, brown (dehydrated) soups, brown malt caramel blend for various applications, vinegars and beers, and effects in humans on dietary intake cannot be excluded. Elderly male volunteers with a marginal deficit in vitamin B6 were considered a relevant and potentially sensitive group to study possible effects of Caramel Colour III on blood lymphocyte numbers (total and within subsets) or on proliferative responses of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation. In addition, several other haematological parameters, as well as serum immunoglobulin levels and immunoglobulin production in vitro by pokeweed mitogen-stimulated mononuclear blood cells were studied. The results of this double-blind intervention study demonstrated that in a selected test group of apparently healthy elderly male volunteers with a biochemically marginally deficient vitamin B6 status, Caramel Colour III containing 23 (commercial sample) or 143 (research sample) ppm THI and administered at the level of the current acceptable daily intake of 200 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days did not affect any of the factors investigated.

  1. Heterobimetallic μ-oxido complexes containing discrete V(V)-O-M(III) (M = Mn, Fe) cores: targeted synthesis, structural characterization, and redox studies.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Kisholoy; Abtab, Sk Md Towsif; Majee, Mithun Chandra; Endo, Akira; Chaudhury, Muktimoy

    2014-08-18

    Heterobimetallic compounds [L'OV(V)(μ-O)M(III)L]n (n = 1, M = Mn, 1-5; n = 2, M = Fe, 6 and 7) containing a discrete unsupported V(V)-O-M(III) bridge have been synthesized through a targeted synthesis route. In the V-O-Mn-type complexes, the vanadium(V) centers have a square-pyramidal geometry, completed by a dithiocarbazate-based tridentate Schiff-base ligand (H2L'), while the manganese(III) centers have either a square-pyramidal (1 and 3) or an octahedral (2 and 5) geometry, made up of a Salen-type tetradentate ligand (H2L) as established by X-ray diffraction analysis. The V-O-Mn bridge angle in these compounds varies systematically from 155.3° to 128.1° in going from 1 to 5 while the corresponding dihedral angle between the basal planes around the metal centers changes from 86.82° to 20.92°, respectively. The V-O-Fe-type complexes (6 and 7) are tetranuclear, in which the two dinuclear V(μ-O)Fe units are connected together by apical iron(III)-aryl oxide interactions, forming a dimeric structure with a pair of Fe-O-Fe bridges. The X-ray data also confirm the V═O → M canonical form to contribute predominantly on the overall V-O-M bridge structure. The molecules in solution also retain their heterobinuclear composition, as established by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and (51)V NMR spectroscopy. Electrochemically, these complexes are quite interesting; the manganese(III) complexes (1-5) display three successive reductions (processes I-III), each with a monoelectron stoichiometry. Process I is due to a Mn(III)/Mn(II) reduction (E1/2 ranges between -0.32 and -0.05 V), process II is a ligand-based reduction, and process III (E1/2 = ∼1.80 V) owes its origin to a V(V)O/V(IV)O reduction; all potentials are versus Ag/AgCl. The iron(III) compounds (6 and 7), on the other hand, show at least four irreversible processes, appearing at Epc = -0.20, -1.0, -1.58, and -1.68 V in compound 6 (processes IV-VII), together with a reversible process (process VIII

  2. Antimicrobial and antifungal effects of tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Uchimaru, Masayuki; Sakai, Takako; Moroi, Ryoji; Shiota, Susumu; Shibata, Yukie; Deguchi, Mikito; Sakai, Hidetaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Terada, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the antimicrobial/antifungal ability of a tissue conditioner containing a photocatalyst for Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The photocatalyst was mixed with tissue conditioners powders at concentrations of 0, 10, 15, and 20 wt%. Tissue conditioners powders containing a photocatalyst were mixed with liquid to make test specimens. Test specimens inoculated by each microorganism were irradiated by ultraviolet light for 0-, 2- and 4 hours. The antimicrobial/antifungal effects were evaluated by the CFU technique. The CFU values of each microorganism for tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst showed significant decrease following UV-irradiation. The improvement in antimicrobial/antifungal effects was concomitant with the increase of the mixing ratio and the irradiation time. Therefore, the results indicated that tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst might have photocatalytic ability.

  3. Effects of extended components of [O iii] on the correlation between the [O iii] luminosity and the power-law continuum luminosity for active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue-Guang; Feng, Long-Long

    2017-06-01

    In this manuscript, we check the well-known correlation between [O iii] luminosity and continuum luminosity (L_{[O III]}-L_{5100Å} ) for active galactic nuclei (AGN) by a large sample of 1982 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Quasar Stellar Objects (QSOs) with z < 0.8 and with high-quality spectra. The strong correlation of L_{[O III]}-L_{5100Å} can be found, similar as previous results for AGN. Moreover, among the 1982 QSOs, there are 708 QSOs with the [O iii] λ5007 Å described by two components: one core component plus one extended component. Based on the luminosity from the core components (L_{[O III], narrow}) and from the extended components (L_{[O III], ext}), we confirm that the correlation of L_{[O III], ext}-L_{5100Å} is stronger and tighter than the correlations on the total [O iii] luminosity and on the luminosity of the core components of the [O iii] lines. Therefore, the luminosity of the extended components should be better applied to trace AGN intrinsic luminosity. Meanwhile, we have found strong line-width correlation and line luminosity correlation between the core components and the extended components, indicating that the extended components of the [O iii] lines should be not due to commonly considered radial flows in the common [O iii] line clouds. And virial effects due to gravity of central black holes naturally lead to the wider extended components from regions more nearer to central black holes. Finally, we can say that the reported correlation of L_{[O III], narrow}-L_{5100Å} on the core components of the [O iii] lines should be more better to estimate AGN intrinsic luminosity in type-2 narrow-line AGN, because of totally/partly obscured extended components.

  4. Dual shell-like magnetic clusters containing Ni(II) and Ln(III) (Ln = La, Pr, and Nd) ions.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Jian; Ren, Yan-Ping; Long, La-Sheng; Zheng, Zhiping; Nichol, Gary; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2008-04-07

    Dual shell-like nanoscopic magnetic clusters featuring a polynuclear nickel(II) framework encapsulating that of lanthanide ions (Ln = La, Pr, and Nd) were synthesized using Ni(NO3)(2).6H2O, Ln(NO3)(3).6H2O, and iminodiacetic acid (IDA) under hydrothermal conditions. Structurally established by crystallographic studies, these clusters are [La20Ni30(IDA)30(CO3)6(NO3)6(OH)30(H2O)12](CO3)(6).72H2O (1), [Ln20Ni21(C4H5NO4)21(OH)24(C2H2O3)6(C2O4)3(NO3)9(H2O)12](NO3)9.nH2O [C2H2O3 is the alkoxide form of glycolate; Ln = Pr (2), n = 42; Nd (3), n = 50], and {[La4Ni5Na(IDA)5(CO3)(NO3)4(OH)5(H2O)5][CO3].10H2O} infinity (4). Carbonate, oxalate, and glycolate are products of hydrothermal decomposition of IDA. Compositions of these compounds were confirmed by satisfactory elemental analyses. It has been found that the cluster structure is dependent on the identity of the lanthanide ion as well as the starting Ln/Ni/IDA ratio. The cationic cluster of 1 features a core of the Keplerate type with an outer icosidodecahedron of Ni(II) ions encaging a dodecahedral kernel of La(III). Clusters 2 and 3, distinctly different from 1, are isostructural, possessing a core of an outer shell of 21 Ni(II) ions encapsulating an inner shell of 20 Ln(III) ions. Complex 4 is a three-dimensional assembly of cluster building blocks connected by units of Na(NO3)/La(NO3)3; the structure of the building block resembles closely that of 1, with a hydrated La(III) ion internalized in the decanuclear cage being an extra feature. Magnetic studies indicated ferromagnetic interactions in 1, while overall antiferromagnetic interactions were revealed for 2 and 3. The polymeric, three-dimensional cluster network 4 displayed interesting ferrimagnetic interactions.

  5. The Trypanosoma cruzi neuraminidase contains sequences similar to bacterial neuraminidases, YWTD repeats of the low density lipoprotein receptor, and type III modules of fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi expresses a developmentally regulated neuraminidase (TCNA) implicated in parasite invasion of cells. We isolated full- length DNA clones encoding TCNA. Sequence analysis demonstrated an open reading frame coding for a polypeptide of 1,162 amino acids. In the N- terminus there is a cysteine-rich domain containing a stretch of 332 amino acids nearly 30% identical to the Clostridium perfringens neuraminidase, three repeat motifs highly conserved in bacterial and viral neuraminidases, and two segments with similarity to the YWTD repeats found in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and in other vertebrate and invertebrate proteins. This domain is connected by a structure characteristic of type III modules of fibronectin to a long terminal repeat (LTR) consisting of 44 full length copies of twelve amino acids rich (75%) in serine, threonine, and proline. LTR is unusual in that it contains at least 117 potential phosphorylation sites. At the extreme C-terminus is a hydrophobic segment of 35 amino acids, which could mediate anchorage of TCNA to membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkage. This is the first time a protozoan protein has been found to contain a YWTD repeat and a fibronectin type III module. The domain structure of TCNA suggests that the enzyme may have functions additional to its catalytic activity such as in protein-protein interaction, which could play a role in T. cruzi binding to host cells. PMID:1711561

  6. Effects of Low Chromium(III) Concentration in Electrodeposition of Low Contraction Chromium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    AD TECHNICAL REPORT ARCCB-TR-90014 EFFECTS OF LOW CHROMIUM(III) CONCENTRA TION IN ELECTRODEPOSITION oo OF LOW CONTRACTION CHROMIUMcv) N M. D. MILLER...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED EFFECTS OF LOW CHROMIUM(III) CONCENTRATION IN Final ELECTRODEPOSITION OF LOW CONTRACTION CHROMIUM 6. PERFORMING ORG...effects of low chromium (Cr)(IIT) concentrations on the electrodeposition of low contraction (LC) chromium were studied. A systematic experiment was

  7. Characterization of Xenopus egg membrane microdomains containing uroplakin Ib/III complex: roles of their molecular interactions for subcellular localization and signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Mahbub Hasan, A K M; Ou, Zhize; Sakakibara, Keiichi; Hirahara, Shino; Iwasaki, Tetsushi; Sato, Ken-ichi; Fukami, Yasuo

    2007-02-01

    A single-transmembrane protein uroplakin III (UPIII) and its tetraspanin binding-partner uroplakin Ib (UPIb) are members of the UP proteins that were originally identified in mammalian urothelium. In Xenopus laevis eggs, these proteins: xUPIII and xUPIb, are components of the cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains or "rafts" and involved in the sperm-egg membrane interaction and subsequent egg activation signaling via Src tyrosine kinase at fertilization. Here, we investigate whether the xUPIII-xUPIb complex is in close proximity to CD9, a tetraspanin that has been implicated in the sperm-egg fusion in the mouse and GM1, a ganglioside typically enriched in egg rafts. Preparation of the egg membrane microdomains using different non-ionic detergents (Brij 98 and Triton X-100), chemical cross-linking, co-immunoprecipitation, in vitro kinase assay and in vitro fertilization experiments demonstrated that GM1, but not CD9, is in association with the xUPIII-xUPIb complex and contributes to the sperm-dependent egg activation. Transfection experiments using HEK293 cells demonstrated that xUPIII and xUPIb localized efficiently to the cholesterol-dependent membrane microdomains when they were co-expressed, whereas co-expression of xUPIII and CD9, instead of xUPIb, did not show this effect. Furthermore, xUPIII and xUPIb were shown to suppress kinase activity of the wild type, but not a constitutively active form of, Xenopus Src protein co-expressed in HEK293 cells. These results provide novel insight into the molecular architecture of the egg membrane microdomains containing xUPIII, xUPIb and Src, which may contribute to the understanding of sperm-egg interaction and signaling during Xenopus fertilization.

  8. Synthetic peptides containing B- and T-cell epitope of dengue virus-2 E domain III provoked B- and T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanfeng; Peng, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Fuchun; Yan, Ziqiang; Cao, Hong

    2011-05-09

    Our previous work applied a combination of bioinformatics approaches and in vitro assays to identify the dengue-2 virus (DENV-2)-specific B- and T-cell epitopes. In this report, we first evaluated the antigenicity of both B- and T-cell epitopes reacting with different sera against DENV-2 by ELISA as well as the ability of T-cell epitope to activate CD4(+) T-cell producing IFN-γ using ELISPOT, which showed a specific reactivity between either B- or T-cell epitope and DENV-2 antisera, and a significant increase of IFN-γ producing cells in DENV-2 infected mice. Then, a multi-epitope peptide containing the above B-, T-cell epitopes of envelope domain III (EDIII) of DENV-2 and pan-DR epitope (PADRE) was bioinformatically designed and synthesized. The verification of its immunogenicity and protective effect was performed in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results showed that a high level of antibody in mice elicited by the multi-epitope peptide was detected by ELISA and the anti-peptide sera binding to the vero cells infected with DEN-2 was observed with immunofluorescence test. More importantly, the peptide could induce lymphoproliferation in vitro and a predominant Th1 type of immune response was examined by flow cytometry. We also found that the virus replication in the mice vaccinated with the multi-epitope peptide was obviously less than that of the control groups. These results may provide some important information for the development of dengue vaccine.

  9. Synthesis, photoluminescence and biological properties of terbium(III) complexes with hydroxyketone and nitrogen containing heterocyclic ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonam; Kumar, Rajesh; Boora, Priti; Khatkar, Anurag; Khatkar, S. P.; Taxak, V. B.

    2016-01-01

    The ternary terbium(III) complexes [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbiq], [Tb(HDAP)3ṡdmph] and [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbathophen] were prepared by using methoxy substituted hydroxyketone ligand HDAP (2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyacetophenone) and an ancillary ligand 2,2-biquinoline or 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline or bathophenanthroline respectively. The ligand and synthesized complexes were characterised based on elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H NMR. Thermal behaviour of the synthesized complexes illustrates the general decomposition patterns of the complexes by thermogravimetric analysis. Photophysical properties such as excitation spectra, emission spectra and luminescence decay curves of the complexes were investigated in detail. The main green emitting peak at 548 nm can be attributed to 5D4 → 7F5 of Tb3+ ion. Thus, these complexes might be used to make a bright green light-emitting diode for display purpose. In addition the in vitro antibacterial activities of HDAP and its Tb(III) complexes against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger are reported. The Tb3+ complexes were found to be more potent antimicrobial agent as compared to the ligand. Among all these complexes, [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbathophen] exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity which proves its potential usefulness as an antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity tests were carried out by using DPPH method which indicates that the complexes have considerable antioxidant activity when compared with the standard ascorbic acid.

  10. Synthesis, photoluminescence and biological properties of terbium(III) complexes with hydroxyketone and nitrogen containing heterocyclic ligands.

    PubMed

    Poonam; Kumar, Rajesh; Boora, Priti; Khatkar, Anurag; Khatkar, S P; Taxak, V B

    2016-01-05

    The ternary terbium(III) complexes [Tb(HDAP)3⋅biq], [Tb(HDAP)3⋅dmph] and [Tb(HDAP)3⋅bathophen] were prepared by using methoxy substituted hydroxyketone ligand HDAP (2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyacetophenone) and an ancillary ligand 2,2-biquinoline or 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline or bathophenanthroline respectively. The ligand and synthesized complexes were characterised based on elemental analysis, FT-IR and (1)H NMR. Thermal behaviour of the synthesized complexes illustrates the general decomposition patterns of the complexes by thermogravimetric analysis. Photophysical properties such as excitation spectra, emission spectra and luminescence decay curves of the complexes were investigated in detail. The main green emitting peak at 548nm can be attributed to (5)D4→(7)F5 of Tb(3+) ion. Thus, these complexes might be used to make a bright green light-emitting diode for display purpose. In addition the in vitro antibacterial activities of HDAP and its Tb(III) complexes against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger are reported. The Tb(3+) complexes were found to be more potent antimicrobial agent as compared to the ligand. Among all these complexes, [Tb(HDAP)3⋅bathophen] exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity which proves its potential usefulness as an antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity tests were carried out by using DPPH method which indicates that the complexes have considerable antioxidant activity when compared with the standard ascorbic acid. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of operating parameters on indium (III) ion removal by iron electrocoagulation and evaluation of specific energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Huang, Kai-Yu

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the specific energy consumption and removal efficiency of synthetic wastewater containing indium (III) ions by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Several parameters, including different electrode pairs, supporting electrolytes, initial concentration, pH variation, and applied voltage, were investigated. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and initial concentration on indium (III) ion removal efficiency and specific energy consumption were investigated under the optimum balance of reasonable removal efficiency and relative low energy consumption. Experiment results indicate that a Fe/Al electrode pair is the most efficient choice of the four electrode pairs in terms of energy consumption. The optimum supporting electrolyte concentration, initial concentration, and applied voltage were found to be 100 mg/l NaCl, 20 mg/l, and 20V, respectively. A higher pH at higher applied voltage (20 or 30V) enhanced the precipitation of indium (III) ion as insoluble indium hydroxide, which improved the removal efficiency. Results from the indium (III) ion removal kinetics show that the kinetics data fit the pseudo second-order kinetic model well. Finally, the composition of the sludge produced was characterized with energy dispersion spectra (EDS).

  12. Asbestos-Containing Materials in Schools; Final Rule and Notice. Part III: Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Part 763.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Register, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has issued a final rule under the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA) to require all local education agencies (LEAs) to identify asbestos-containing materials in their school buildings and take appropriate action to control release of asbestos fibers. The LEAs are required to describe their activities in…

  13. High Relaxivity Gd(III)–DNA Gold Nanostars: Investigation of Shape Effects on Proton Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Rotz, Matthew W.; Culver, Kayla S. B.; Parigi, Giacomo; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Luchinat, Claudio; Odom, Teri W.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Gadolinium(III) nanoconjugate contrast agents (CAs) have distinct advantages over their small-molecule counterparts in magnetic resonance imaging. In addition to increased Gd(III) payload, a significant improvement in proton relaxation efficiency, or relaxivity (r1), is often observed. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanoconjugate CA created by covalent attachment of Gd(III) to thiolated DNA (Gd(III)–DNA), followed by surface conjugation onto gold nanostars (DNA–Gd@stars). These conjugates exhibit remarkable r1 with values up to 98 mM−1 s−1. Additionally, DNA–Gd@stars show efficient Gd(III) delivery and biocompatibility in vitro and generate significant contrast enhancement when imaged at 7 T. Using nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion analysis, we attribute the high performance of the DNA–Gd@stars to an increased contribution of second-sphere relaxivity compared to that of spherical CA equivalents (DNA–Gd@spheres). Importantly, the surface of the gold nanostar contains Gd(III)–DNA in regions of positive, negative, and neutral curvature. We hypothesize that the proton relaxation enhancement observed results from the presence of a unique hydrophilic environment produced by Gd(III)–DNA in these regions, which allows second-sphere water molecules to remain adjacent to Gd(III) ions for up to 10 times longer than diffusion. These results establish that particle shape and second-sphere relaxivity are important considerations in the design of Gd(III) nanoconjugate CAs. PMID:25723190

  14. Effects of ionic strength and fulvic acid on adsorption of Tb(III) and Eu(III) onto clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poetsch, Maria; Lippold, Holger

    2016-09-01

    High salinity and natural organic matter are both known to facilitate migration of toxic or radioactive metals in geochemical systems, but little is known on their combined effect. We investigated complexation of Tb(III) and Eu(III) (as analogues for trivalent actinides) with fulvic acid and their adsorption onto a natural clay in the presence of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 up to very high ionic strengths. 160Tb, 152Eu and 14C-labelled fulvic acid were employed as radiotracers, allowing investigations at very low concentrations according to probable conditions in far-field scenarios of nuclear waste repositories. A combined Kd approach (Linear Additive Model) was tested for suitability in predicting solid-liquid distribution of metals in the presence of organic matter based on the interactions in the constituent subsystems. In this analysis, it could be shown that high ionic strength does not further enhance the mobilizing potential of humic matter. A quantitative reproduction of the influence of fulvic acid failed for most systems under study. Assumptions and limitations of the model are discussed.

  15. Enhancement effect of tris(8-quinolinolato)cobalt(III) on the extraction of lanthanide(III) with 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone

    SciTech Connect

    Imura, Hisanori; Kameta, Naohiro; Osada, Minori; Ohashi, Kousaburo; Kimura, Takaumi; Yoshida, Zenko

    1999-05-01

    Remarkable phenomenon that the extraction of lanthanide(III) (Ln) with thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) in benzene is highly enhanced by the addition of inert mer-tris(8-quinolinolato)cobalt(III) (Co(q){sub 3}) has been found out. The effect of Co(q){sub 3} was ascribed to the formation of a 1:1 complex of Ln(tta), with Co(q){sub 3}, i.e., a binuclear complex, in the organic phase on the basis of the extraction-equilibrium analysis. The formation constants determined for La(tta){sub 3}, Eu(tta){sub 3}, and Lu(tta){sub 3}, with Co(q){sub 3} were as high as 10{sup 4.96}, 10{sup 4.56}, and 10{sup 3.97} respectively. Furthermore, in the spectrophotometric study, not only the hypsochromic shift of the ligand absorption band of Co(q){sub 3} but an isosbestic point were observed by increasing the concentration of Ln(tta){sub 3} in benzene. The formation constants of the binuclear complexes were also determined spectrophotometrically and confirmed to be comparable with those obtained by the extraction method.

  16. Effects of Humidity on Non-Hermetically Packaged III-V Structures and Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, R.; Martin, S.; Lee, T.; Okuno, J.; Ruiz, R.; Gauldin, R.; Gaidis, M.; Smith, R.

    1999-01-01

    High humidity and temperature test (known as 85/85 tests) were performed on various III-V devices and structures to determine environmental effects in non-hermetically packaged GaAs membrane mixer diodes.

  17. Equatorial π-stacking interactions in diruthenium (II,III) tetracarboxylate complexes containing extended π-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, Natasha F.; Ronaldson, Michael; Stanley Cameron, T.; Wang, Ruiyao; Aquino, Manuel A. S.

    2013-11-01

    The synthesis of three new valent-averaged tetracarboxylatodiruthenium (II,III) complexes, [Ru2(1-naphthylacetate)4(H2O)2](PF6)ṡ4THF, 1ṡ4THF, [Ru2(2-naphthoate)4(THF)2](PF6)ṡ3THF, 2ṡ3THF, and [Ru2(coumarin-3-carboxylate)4(MeOH)2](PF6)ṡMeOHṡH2O, 3ṡMeOHṡH2O, was accomplished using a well documented carboxylate exchange reaction. All three complexes were thoroughly characterized using infrared and UV-Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction. Due to the extended π-systems present, two of the complexes, 2ṡ3THF and 3ṡMeOHṡH2O, display extensive π-stacking in two dimensions, with similar interactions notably absent in 1ṡ4THF due to the perpendicular orientation of the naphthyl rings. Modest H-bonding is seen in complexes 1ṡ4THF and 3ṡMeOHṡH2O. As these types of complexes are noted secondary building units (SBU's) in the construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOF's), the significance of these interactions in stabilizing even larger, supramolecular structures, are noted.

  18. Synthesis and Assessment of Antibacterial Activities of Ruthenium(III) Mixed Ligand Complexes Containing 1,10-Phenanthroline and Guanide

    PubMed Central

    Hailemariam, Tizazu

    2016-01-01

    In this work, two complexes of ruthenium(III) ([Ru(phen)2Cl2]Cl·2H2O and [Ru(phen)2(G)Cl]2Cl·H2O) were synthesized from 1,10-phenanthroline alone as well as from both 1,10-phenanthroline and guanide. The synthesis was checked using halide test, conductance measurement, and spectroscopic (ICP-OES, FTIR, and UV/Vis) analysis. Their in vitro antibacterial activities were also investigated on two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae)) bacteria. These complexes showed wide-range better activities than the commercially available controls (Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin) against even the most drug resistant K. pneumoniae. [Ru(phen)2(G)Cl]2Cl·H2O inhibited S. aureus, MRSA, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae by 17.5%, 27.4%, 16%, and 52%, respectively, better than Chloramphenicol. It also inhibited these pathogens by 5.9%, 5.1%, 2.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, better than Ciprofloxacin. Similarly, [Ru(Phen)2(Cl)2]Cl·2H2O inhibited these pathogens by 11%, 8.7%, 0.1%, and 31.2%, respectively, better than Chloramphenicol. Therefore, after in vivo cytotoxicity investigations, these compounds can be considered as potential antibiotic drugs. PMID:27833473

  19. Antianxiety and antidepressant effects of riparin III from Aniba riparia (Nees) Mez (Lauraceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    Sousa, F C F; Melo, C T V; Monteiro, A P; Lima, V T M; Gutierrez, S J C; Pereira, B A; Barbosa-Filho, J M; Vasconcelos, S M M; Fonteles, M F; Viana, G S B

    2004-05-01

    This work presents behavioral effects of methyl ethers of N-(2,6-dihydroxybenzoyl) tyramine (riparin III) isolated from the unripe fruit of Aniba riparia on the open field, elevated plus maze (EPM), rotarod, hole board, barbiturate-induced sleeping time, tail suspension and forced swimming tests in mice. Riparin III was administered intraperitoneally to male mice at single doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. The results showed that riparin III with both doses had no effects on spontaneous motor activity in mice or in the rotarod test, but decreased the number of grooming and rearing. At the dose of 50 mg/kg, riparin III increased the number of entries in the open arms of the EPM test as compared with control. Similarly, in the hole-board test, both doses increased the number of head dips. There was a reduction on the sleeping latency with both doses and a prolongation of the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time with the dose of 25 mg/kg. In the tail suspension test, similar to imipramine (30 mg/kg), riparin III at the dose of 50 mg/kg presented a reduction in the immobility time. In the forced swimming test, both doses of riparin III decreased the immobility time. These results showed that riparin III potentiated the barbiturate-induced sleeping time and presented antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effects.

  20. Binding of ligands containing carbonyl and phenol groups to iron(iii): new Fe6, Fe10 and Fe12 coordination clusters.

    PubMed

    Kitos, Alexandros A; Papatriantafyllopoulou, Constantina; Tasiopoulos, Anastasios J; Perlepes, Spyros P; Escuer, Albert; Nastopoulos, Vassilios

    2017-03-07

    The initial use of ligands 2'-hydroxyacetophenone (HL(1)), 2-hydroxybenzophenone (HL(2)) and 2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone (H2L(3)) in iron(iii) chemistry is described. The syntheses and crystal structures are reported for five iron(iii) clusters: [Fe10O4(OMe)14(L(1))6(MeOH)2](NO3)2·3MeOH (1·3MeOH), [Fe12O4(OH)(OMe)17(L(1))8](ClO4)2·2H2O (2·2H2O), [Fe10O4(OMe)14Cl4(L(2))4(MeOH)2] (3), [Fe10O4(OMe)14(L(2))6(py)2](ClO4)2·MeOH (4·MeOH), where py = pyridine, and [Fe6O2(OEt)6(O2CMe)2(L(3))2(HL(3))2] (5). The molecular structures of the decanuclear clusters 1, 3 and 4 are organized around a {Fe10(μ4-O)4(μ3-OMe)2(μ-OMe)12}(8+) core consisting of ten {Fe3O4} face-sharing defective cubane units. The core of 2 consists of a {Fe12(μ4-O)4(μ3-OMe)4(μ-OH)(μ-OMe)13}(10+) unit composed of twelve {Fe3O4} face-sharing defective cubanes. The ligands (L(1))(-) and (L(2))(-) in 1-4 adopt the O,O'-bidentate chelating coordination mode and their roles are to terminate the further aggregation of the Fe(III)/O(2-)/RO(-) cores. Complex 5 contains the {Fe6(μ4-O)2(μ-OEt)6(μ-Ocarbonyl)2}(4+) core, where the μ-Ocarbonyl atoms are the bridging carbonyl oxygens of the two η(1):η(2):η(1):μ (L(3))(2-) ligands; the (HL(3))(-) groups behave as Ophenolate, Ocarbonyl-bidentate chelating ligands with the neutral hydroxyl group being unbound to the Fe(III) atoms. The core is composed of four {Fe3O4} face-sharing defective cubanes. The Fe(III) atoms in 1-5 are all six-coordinate with distorted octahedral geometries. The IR spectra of the complexes are discussed in terms of the known coordination modes of the ligands and the ionic character of nitrates and perchlorates. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility and variable-field magnetization measurements establish that 2, 3 and 5 have S = 3, 0 and 5 ground states, respectively. The susceptibility data for 5 were fitted using a 3-J model indicating the simultaneous presence of both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic Fe(III)Fe(III

  1. Behavior of bubbles in glassmelts. III - Dissolution and growth of a rising bubble containing a single gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onorato, P. I. K.; Weinberg, M. C.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Finite difference solutions of the mass transport equations governing the dissolution (growth) of a rising gas bubble, containing a single gas, in a glassmelt were obtained. These solutions were compared with those obtained from an approximate procedure for a range of the controlling parameters. Applications were made to describe various aspects of O2 and CO2 gas-bubble behavior in a soda-lime-silicate melt.

  2. Behavior of bubbles in glassmelts. III - Dissolution and growth of a rising bubble containing a single gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onorato, P. I. K.; Weinberg, M. C.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Finite difference solutions of the mass transport equations governing the dissolution (growth) of a rising gas bubble, containing a single gas, in a glassmelt were obtained. These solutions were compared with those obtained from an approximate procedure for a range of the controlling parameters. Applications were made to describe various aspects of O2 and CO2 gas-bubble behavior in a soda-lime-silicate melt.

  3. Construction and Characterization of Haemophilus ducreyi Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) Mutants Defective in Expression of Heptosyltransferase III and β1,4-Glucosyltransferase: Identification of LOS Glycoforms Containing Lactosamine Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Filiatrault, Melanie J.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Schilling, Birgit; Sun, Shuhua; Munson, Robert S.; Campagnari, Anthony A.

    2000-01-01

    To begin to understand the role of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) molecule in chancroid infections, we constructed mutants defective in expression of glycosyltransferase genes. Pyocin lysis and immunoscreening was used to identify a LOS mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi 35000. This mutant, HD35000R, produced a LOS molecule that lacked the monoclonal antibody 3F11 epitope and migrated with an increased mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Structural studies indicated that the principal LOS glycoform contains lipid A, Kdo, and two of the three core heptose residues. HD35000R was transformed with a plasmid library of H. ducreyi 35000 DNA, and a clone producing the wild-type LOS was identified. Sequence analysis of the plasmid insert revealed one open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a protein with homology to the WaaQ (heptosyltransferase III) of Escherichia coli. A second ORF had homology to the LgtF (glucosyltransferase) of Neisseria meningitidis. Individual isogenic mutants lacking expression of the putative H. ducreyi heptosyltransferase III, the putative glucosyltransferase, and both glycosyltransferases were constructed and characterized. Each mutant was complemented with the representative wild-type genes in trans to restore expression of parental LOS and confirm the function of each enzyme. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE analysis identified several unique LOS glycoforms containing di-, tri-, and poly-N-acetyllactosamine repeats added to the terminal region of the main LOS branch synthesized by the heptosyltransferase III mutant. These novel H. ducreyi mutants provide important tools for studying the regulation of LOS assembly and biosynthesis. PMID:10816485

  4. Potent Half-Sandwich Iridium(III) Anticancer Complexes Containing C∧N-Chelated and Pyridine Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We report the synthesis and characterization of eight half-sandwich cyclopentadienyl IrIII pyridine complexes of the type [(η5-Cpxph)Ir(phpy)Z]PF6, in which Cpxph = C5Me4C6H5 (tetramethyl(phenyl)cyclopentadienyl), phpy = 2-phenylpyridine as C∧N-chelating ligand, and Z = pyridine (py) or a pyridine derivative. Three X-ray crystal structures have been determined. The monodentate py ligands blocked hydrolysis; however, antiproliferative studies showed that all the Ir compounds are highly active toward A2780, A549, and MCF-7 human cancer cells. In general the introduction of an electron-donating group (e.g., Me, NMe2) at specific positions on the pyridine ring resulted in increased antiproliferative activity, whereas electron-withdrawing groups (e.g., COMe, COOMe, CONEt2) decreased anticancer activity. Complex 5 displayed the highest anticancer activity, exhibiting submicromolar potency toward a range of cancer cell lines in the National Cancer Institute NCI-60 screen, ca. 5 times more potent than the clinical platinum(II) drug cisplatin. DNA binding appears not to be the major mechanism of action. Although complexes [(η5-Cpxph)Ir(phpy)(py)]+ (1) and [(η5-Cpxph)Ir(phpy)(4-NMe2-py)]+ (5) did not cause cell apoptosis or cell cycle arrest after 24 h drug exposure in A2780 human ovarian cancer cells at IC50 concentrations, they increased the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) dramatically and led to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), which appears to contribute to the anticancer activity. This class of organometallic Ir complexes has unusual features worthy of further exploration in the design of novel anticancer drugs. PMID:25328266

  5. Membrane permeability transition and dysfunction of rice mitochondria effected by Er(III).

    PubMed

    Gao, Jia-ling; Wu, Man; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Ye-zhong; Jiang, Feng-lei; Liu, Yi; Dai, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Herein, the biological effects of heavy rare earth ion Er(III) on rice mitochondria were comprehensively investigated mainly by spectroscopic methods. The experimental results demonstrated that Er(III) could lead to the swelling of rice mitochondria, collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, decrease of membrane fluidity, promotion of H(+) permeability and suppression of K(+) permeability. These further indicated that Er(III) could induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and the dysfunction of rice mitochondria. The ultra-structure change of mitochondria observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also proved that Er(III) induced MPT. Moreover, the testing results of the protective effect of four different agents on mitochondrial swelling implied that the thiol chelation on the mitochondrial inner membrane was the main reason that caused the MPT.

  6. What Factors Underlie the Aging Effects on WAIS-R and WAIS-III Subtests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Jacques

    2001-01-01

    Studied the factors underlying the aging effects seen on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised (WAIS-R) and the scale's third edition (WAIS-III) using the French standardization samples of 1,104 for the WAIS-III and 1,000 for the WAIS-R. Results show that the observed decline in scores for both tests cannot be fully explained with a…

  7. Selective removal of gallium (III) from aqueous solutions containing zinc or aluminum using sodium di-(n-octyl) phosphinate.

    PubMed

    Dumortier, Rémy; Rodil, Eva; Weber, Martin E; Vera, Juan H

    2004-04-01

    Gallium was removed selectively from aqueous solutions containing zinc or aluminum using sodium di-(n-octyl) phosphinate as a ligand (NaL). At low pH or low mole ratios, the gallium was removed by complexation with the ligand as GaL(3(S)), while the zinc or the aluminum remained in the solution. Nearly complete separation of gallium was obtained. By increasing the amount of ligand or by increasing the pH, the zinc or aluminum remaining in the solution was then removed as a solid complex: ZnL(2(S)) or AlL(3(S)), respectively. At a pH between 1.5 and 2 and a mole ratio ligand to total metals of 0.75 for zinc solutions and 1.0 for aluminum solutions, more than 98% of the gallium was selectively removed with a high molar selectivity, alpha(Ga/Zn) and alpha(Ga/Al), respectively. Over 95% of gallium was recovered from the solid GaL(3(S)) complex by treatment of the complex with a 3M NaOH solution and diethyl ether. The gallium was concentrated in the aqueous solution to 4 times its initial concentration and the ligand was extracted into the ether phase. After evaporation of the ether, 95% of the ligand was regenerated in its sodium form as a solid.

  8. C-type lectin-like carbohydrate recognition of the hemolytic lectin CEL-III containing ricin-type -trefoil folds.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Unno, Hideaki; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Uchida, Tatsuya; Eto, Seiichiro; Hidemura, Haruki; Kato, Norihisa; Yonekura, Masami; Kusunoki, Masami

    2007-12-28

    CEL-III is a Ca(2+)-dependent hemolytic lectin, isolated from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata. The three-dimensional structure of CEL-III/GalNAc and CEL-III/methyl alpha-galactoside complexes was solved by x-ray crystallographic analysis. In these complexes, five carbohydrate molecules were found to be bound to two carbohydrate-binding domains (domains 1 and 2) located in the N-terminal 2/3 portion of the polypeptide and that contained beta-trefoil folds similar to ricin B-chain. The 3-OH and 4-OH of bound carbohydrate molecules were coordinated with Ca(2+) located at the subdomains 1alpha, 1gamma, 2alpha, 2beta, and 2gamma, simultaneously forming hydrogen bond networks with nearby amino acid side chains, which is similar to carbohydrate binding in C-type lectins. The binding of carbohydrates was further stabilized by aromatic amino acid residues, such as tyrosine and tryptophan, through a stacking interaction with the hydrophobic face of carbohydrates. The importance of amino acid residues in the carbohydrate-binding sites was confirmed by the mutational analyses. The orientation of bound GalNAc and methyl alpha-galactoside was similar to the galactose moiety of lactose bound to the carbohydrate-binding site of the ricin B-chain, although the ricin B-chain does not require Ca(2+) ions for carbohydrate binding. The binding of the carbohydrates induced local structural changes in carbohydrate-binding sites in subdomains 2alpha and 2beta. Binding of GalNAc also induced a slight change in the main chain structure of domain 3, which could be related to the conformational change upon binding of specific carbohydrates to induce oligomerization of the protein.

  9. Effect of Cr(VI) concentration on gas and particle production during iron oxidation in aqueous solutions containing Cl(-) ions.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyangsig; Jo, Ho Young; Ryu, Ji-Hun; Koh, Yong-Kwon

    2017-02-01

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is commonly used as a medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) because of its high reducing ability. The generation of H2 gas in PRBs, however, can decrease the permeability of PRBs and reduce the contact area between the PRB and contaminated groundwater. This study investigated the effect of the initial Cr(VI) concentration ([Cr(VI)init]) in aqueous solutions containing Cl(-) ions on the generation of H2 gas. ZVI chips were reacted in reactors with 0.5-M NaCl solutions with [Cr(VI)init] ranging between 51 and 303 mg/L. The initial pH was set at 3. The oxidation of ZVI chips by Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions containing Cl(-) ions produced H2 gas and particles (Fe(III)-Cr(III)(oxy)hydroxides). The Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions increased as the [Cr(VI)init] increased, as did H2 gas generation. The positive effect of [Cr(VI)init] on H2 gas generation might be due to an increase in the redox potential gradient as [Cr(VI)init] increases. This increased gradient would enhance H(+) ion penetration through the passive film (Fe(III)-Cr(III)(oxy)hydroxides), which formed on the ZVI surface, by diffusion from the solution to pits beneath the passive film.

  10. Fe(II) sorption on pyrophyllite: Effect of structural Fe(III) (impurity) in pyrophyllite on nature of layered double hydroxide (LDH) secondary mineral formation

    SciTech Connect

    Starcher, Autumn N.; Li, Wei; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Elzinga, Evert J.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2016-11-01

    Fe(II)-Al(III)-LDH (layered double hydroxide) phases have been shown to form from reactions of aqueous Fe(II) with Fe-free Al-bearing minerals (phyllosilicate/clays and Al-oxides). To our knowledge, the effect of small amounts of structural Fe(III) impurities in “neutral” clays on such reactions, however, were not studied. In this study to understand the role of structural Fe(III) impurity in clays, laboratory batch studies with pyrophyllite (10 g/L), an Al-bearing phyllosilicate, containing small amounts of structural Fe(III) impurities and 0.8 mM and 3 mM Fe(II) (both natural and enriched in 57Fe) were carried out at pH 7.5 under anaerobic conditions (4% H2 – 96% N2 atmosphere). Samples were taken up to 4 weeks for analysis by Fe-X-ray absorption spectroscopy and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. In addition to the precipitation of Fe(II)-Al(III)-LDH phases as observed in earlier studies with pure minerals (no Fe(III) impurities in the minerals), the analyses indicated formation of small amounts of Fe(III) containing solid(s), most probably hybrid a Fe(II)-Al(III)/Fe(III)-LDH phase. The mechanism of Fe(II) oxidation was not apparent but most likely was due to interfacial electron transfer from the sorbed Fe(II) to the structural Fe(III) and/or surface-sorption-induced electron-transfer from the sorbed Fe(II) to the clay lattice. Increase in the Fe(II)/Al ratio of the LDH with reaction time further indicated the complex nature of the samples. This research provides evidence for the formation of both Fe(II)-Al(III)-LDH and Fe(II)-Fe(III)/Al(III)-LDH-like phases during reactions of Fe(II) in systems that mimic the natural environments. Better understanding Fe phase formation in complex laboratory studies will improve models of natural redox systems.

  11. Moisturizing effect of stable cream containing Crocus sativus extracts.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naveed; Khan, Haji Muhammad-Shoaib; Ashraf, Shoaib; Mohammad, Imran Shair; Saqib, Najam-us; Bashir, Kamran

    2014-11-01

    The present study is about to prepare stable cream of water-in-oil emulsion containing extracts of Crocus sativus against its base (without extracts) taken as control, to determine its stability on different storage conditions and effects on skin moisture contents and transepidermal water loss. The formulation contains 3% Crocus sativus (Saffron) concentrated extracts, and the base containing no extract, were formulated. Different stability tests were done on samples, which placed at 8°C, 25°C, 40°C and 40°C with 75% relative humidity, for 4 week period. These formulations (Creams) were applied on the cheeks of human volunteers for 8week period. To evaluate any effect produced by these formulations different skin parameters were monitored every week. The significant results of this study explored the fact that water-in-oil emulsion topical cream of saffron formulated from Crocus sativus extract has absolute physical stability at different storage conditions. The increase in skin moisture contents and changes in transepidermal water loss were significant (p<0.05) with respect to base and formulation respectively. Topical cream of Crocus sativus showed significant moisturizing effects on human skin.

  12. The Games Children Play III: More Comments on Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Charlotte A.; Ashy, Madge

    2013-01-01

    In the years since the authors published two articles with tips for effective teaching, they have acquired and developed more advice and impressions on teaching. This article presents ideas that can help physical educators become increasingly effective in their teaching.

  13. The Games Children Play III: More Comments on Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Charlotte A.; Ashy, Madge

    2013-01-01

    In the years since the authors published two articles with tips for effective teaching, they have acquired and developed more advice and impressions on teaching. This article presents ideas that can help physical educators become increasingly effective in their teaching.

  14. An aluminum selective electrode via modification of PVC membrane by modified clinoptilolite nanoparticles with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) surfactant containing Arsenazo III.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Mostafa; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2017-05-15

    A modified PVC (polyvinyl chloride) membrane with clinoptilolite nanoparticles/hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide surfactant (HDTMABr)/Arsenazo III: (NSMZ-ARS), was used for construction of Al(III) -selective electrode. The raw and modified samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and TEM methods. Among the different tested membranes constructed by raw and modified samples, only, the membrane electrode containing NSMZ-ARS showed a suitable Nernstian response to aluminum in the concentration range of 2.04×10(-5) to 1.99×10(-1)M (r=0.9987), with a detection limit of 1.0×10(-5)molL(-1) and a Nernstian slope of 19.6±0.5mV per decade of aluminum concentration. The electrode response to aluminum remained constant in the pH range of 2-4. The sensor was selective for aluminum over a wide variety of other ions and exhibited. The electrode had a rapid response time and its response reached to steady potential at 5s. The electrode had also satisfactory long term stability and held its activity at least 3months. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The fate of aniline after a photo-fenton reaction in an aqueous system containing iron(III), humic acid, and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushima, Masami; Tatsumi, Kenji; Morimoto, Kengo

    2000-05-15

    The degradation of aniline (ArNH{sub 2}) was facilitated by light irradiation ({lambda} > 370 nm) of an aqueous solution, which contained Fe(III), humic acid(HA), and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The consumption of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and the reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) was consistent with the degradation of ArNH{sub 2} via the photo-Fenton reaction, accompanied by the generation of hydroxyl radicals (HO{sm_bullet}). HPLC analysis of the reaction mixture indicated the presence of p-aminophenol, p-hydroquinone, and maleic and fumaric acids and the simultaneous release of NH{sub 4}{sup +} ion. However, the sum of the product concentrations, as determined by HPLC after the reaction, was much smaller than the ArNH{sub 2} concentration added initially. This can be attributed to the majority of the ArNH{sub 2} being incorporated into the polymeric structure in the HA after the reaction. The {sup 15}N NMR and pyrolysis-GC/MS studies indicated that, after the reaction, ArNH{sub 2} formed covalent bonds with quinone and the vinyl carbons in the HA, to form anilino-compounds, such as anilinoquinone and enaminone.

  16. Ytterbocenes as one- and two-electron reductants in their reactions with diazadienes: YbIII mixed-ligand bent-sandwich complexes containing a dianion of diazabutadiene.

    PubMed

    Trifonov, Alexander A; Borovkov, Ivan A; Fedorova, Elena A; Fukin, Georgii K; Larionova, Joulia; Druzhkov, Nikolai O; Cherkasov, Vladimir K

    2007-01-01

    Ytterbocene [Yb(C(5)MeH(4))(2)(thf)(2)] reacts with diazabutadiene 2,6-iPr(2)C(6)H(3)-N=CH-CH=N-C(6)H(3)iPr(2)-2,6 (DAD) as a one-electron reductant to afford a bis(cyclopentadienyl) Yb(III) derivative containing a DAD radical anion [Yb(C(5)MeH(4))(2)(dad(-.))]. However, ytterbocenes [YbCp*(2)(thf)(2)] (Cp*=C(5)Me(5), C(5)Me(4)H) coordinated by sterically demanding cyclopentadienyl ligands act as two-electron reductants in their reactions with DAD. These reactions occur by abstraction of one Cp* ring and result in the formation of novel Yb(III) mixed-ligand bent-sandwich complexes, [YbCp*(dad)(thf)], in which the dianion of DAD has an uncommon terminal eta(4)-coordination to the ytterbium atom. The variable-temperature magnetic measurements of complex [Yb(C(5)Me(5))(dad)(thf)] suggest the existence of redox tautomerism for this compound.

  17. Ln(iii) complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy) with a chiral ligand containing 1,10-phenanthroline and (-)-menthol fragments: synthesis, structure, magnetic properties and photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Larionov, Stanislav V; Bryleva, Yuliya A; Glinskaya, Ludmila A; Plyusnin, Victor F; Kupryakov, Arkady S; Agafontsev, Alexander M; Tkachev, Alexey V; Bogomyakov, Artem S; Piryazev, Dmitry A; Korolkov, Ilya V

    2017-08-29

    A series of lanthanide(iii) complexes based on the new chiral ligand L, which contains 1,10-phenanthroline and (-)-menthol fragments, namely [LnL2(NO3)3] (Ln = Eu (1), Gd (2), Tb (3), Dy (4)), have been synthesized and structurally characterized. Complexes 1-4 are isostructural and crystallize in the non-centrosymmetric space group P41212. The mononuclear complexes comprise a 10-coordinate Ln(3+) ion with two bidentate N,N-donor ligands (L) and three bidentate chelating nitrate groups. The magnetic properties of complexes 1-4 are determined mainly by the Ln(3+) ions. In the case of complexes 3 and 4, significant anisotropy results in nonlinear field dependences of magnetization at low temperature. Complexes 1, 3 and 4 exhibit metal-centered red (Eu(3+)), green (Tb(3+)) and yellow (Dy(3+)) luminescence, respectively, whereas complex 2 displays blue ligand-based luminescence in the solid state at room temperature. The luminescence quantum yield for the solid samples increases in the order 4 < 2 ≈ 3 < 1. The europium(iii) complex shows long luminescence lifetimes (up to 1750 μs) and a very high quantum yield (φf = 0.87); these make this compound promising for application in sensing and optoelectronics.

  18. Effective Photo- and Triboluminescent Europium(III) Coordination Polymers with Rigid Triangular Spacer Ligands.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Tateno, Shiori; Yamamoto, Masanori; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Seki, Tomohiro; Ito, Hajime; Fushimi, Koji

    2017-02-21

    Luminescent Eu(III) coordination polymers with rigid triangular spacer ligands are reported. The Eu(III) coordination polymer, [Eu3 (hfa)9 (tppb)2 ]n (hfa: hexafluoroacetylacetonate, tppb: tris(4-diphenylphosphorylphenyl)benzene), shows high thermo-stability (decomposition temperature=354 °C) and photoluminescence quantum yield (Φ4f-4f =82 %, photosensitized energy transfer efficiency=78 %). The triboluminescence efficiency of Eu(III) coordination polymer with triangular spacers under laser pulse irradiation (Nd:YAG, λ=1064 nm, pulse width=5 ns, pulse energy=0.1 mJ) is calculated to be 49 %. Characteristic triangular structure, high emission quantum yield, effective photosensitized energy transfer, and remarkable triboluminescence properties of Eu(III) coordination polymers are demonstrated for the first time.

  19. Bis(o-methylserotonin)-containing iridium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes as new cellular imaging dyes: synthesis, applications, and photophysical and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Cristina; Silva López, Carlos; Faza, Olalla Nieto; Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Diniz, Mario; Bastida, Rufina; Capelo, Jose Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and scope of a new versatile emissive molecular probe functionalized with a 1,10-phenanthroline moiety containing methylserotonin groups as binding sites for metal ion recognition. The synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the in vitro imaging capability of the iridium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes [Ir(ppy)2(N-N)](+) and [Ru(bpy)2(N-N)](2+), in which ppy is 2-phenylpyridine, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and N-N is a 1,10-phenanthroline ligand functionalized with two methylserotonin groups to serve as binding sites for metal ion recognition, is reported. The uptake of these compounds by living freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) was studied by fluorescence microscopy, and the cytotoxicity of ligand N-N and [Ru(bpy)2(N-N)](2+) in this species was also investigated.

  20. The effect of chelating agent on the separation of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) from binary mixture solution by cation-exchange membrane.

    PubMed

    Kir, Esengül; Cengeloğlu, Yunus; Ersöz, Mustafa

    2005-12-15

    The competitive transport of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) ions and the effect of chelating agents on separation from binary mixture solutions through charged polysulfone cation-exchange membrane (SA3S) has been studied under Donnan dialysis conditions. The amount of chelating agent was taken as an equimolar of Fe(III) ion in the feed phase. In this process, the membrane separated two electrolyte solutions: the feed solution, initially containing metal salts (Fe, Ti), or metal salts solution, containing a chelating agent, and the other side (receiver solution) being HCl solution. An external potential field is not applied. It was observed that the chelating agents affect the metal transport; the transport of Fe(III) is decreased and the transport of Ti(IV) is increased.

  1. Relaxometry, luminescence measurements, electrophoresis, and animal biodistribution of lanthanide(III) complexes of some polyaza macrocyclic acetates containing pyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, W.D.; Sherry, A.D.; Kiefer, G.E.; McMillan, K.; Maton, F.; Muller, R.N.

    1995-04-12

    Four Gd{sup 3+} complexes [Gd(BP2A){sup +}, Gd(PC2A){sup +}, Gd(PCTA){sup 0}, and Gd(BPO4A){sup {minus}}] with polyazamacrocyclic ligands that contain a pyridine moiety were prepared and examined for possible use as MRI contrast enhancement agents. The authors estimated the number of inner sphere water molecules (q{sub Gd}) for the Gd{sup 3+} complexes from the values of q found for the Tb{sup 3+} and/or Eu{sup 3+} complexes by luminescence lifetime measurements. It was estimated that q{sub Gd} = 3.5, 3.3, 2.4, and 0.2 for Gd(BP2A){sup +}, Gd(PC2A){sup +}, Gd(PCTA){sup 0}, and Gd(BPO4A){sup {minus}}, respectively. The inner sphere relaxivities (r{sub 1,inner}) of these tetraaza macrocyclic complexes were higher than that of Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}} [i.e. 6.79 for Gd(BP2A){sup +}, 6.21 for Gd(PC2A){sup +}, and 4.60 for Gd(PCTA){sup 0} mM{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1} at 40 MHz and 25{degrees}C], but the normalized relaxivities per q{sub Gd} (1.94, 1.88, and 1.92 mM{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively) were comparable to that of Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}}. A quantitative treatment of the NMRD profiles based on Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan theory, using the NMRD profile of Gd(BPO4A){sup {minus}} to correct for an outer sphere contribution, showed that the complexes exhibit characteristics similar to that of Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}} but with shorter electronic relaxation times. Tissue biodistribution results using radioactive {sup 153}Sm and {sup 159}Gd complexes in rats indicate that the cationic [{sup 153}Sm-(BP2A){sup +} and {sup 153}Sm(PC2A){sup +}] complexes accumulate preferably in the bone tissue while the neutral [{sup 153}Sm-(PCTA){sup 0}] and anionic [{sup 153}Sm(BPO4A){sup {minus}}] complexes appear to have renal clearances similar to those of other low molecular weight contrast agents [i.e. Gd(DTPA){sup 2{minus}} and Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}}].

  2. Ga(III) complexes as models for the M(III) site of purple acid phosphatase: ligand effects on the hydrolytic reactivity toward bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl) phosphate.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Fergal; Hynes, Michael J; Erxleben, Andrea

    2010-07-19

    The effects of a series of Ga(III) complexes with tripodal ligands on the hydrolysis rate of the activated phosphate diester bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl)phosphate (BDNPP) have been investigated. In particular, the influence of the nature of the ligand donor sites on the reactivity of Ga(III) which represents a mimic of the Fe(III) ion in purple acid phosphatase has been evaluated. It has been shown that replacing neutral nitrogen donor atoms and carboxylate groups by phenolate groups enhanced the reactivity of the Ga complexes. Bell-shaped pH-rate profiles and the measured solvent deuterium isotope effects are indicative of a mechanism that involves nucleophilic attack on the coordinated substrate by Ga-OH. The trend in reactivity found for the different Ga complexes reveals that of the two effects of the metal, Lewis acid activation of the substrate and nucleophile activation, the latter one is more important in determining the intrinsic reactivity of the metal catalyst. The relevance of the present findings for the modulation of the activity of the M(III) ion in purple acid phosphatase whose active site contains a phenolate (tyrosine side chain) is discussed.

  3. Noncovalent ligand-to-ligand interactions alter sense of optical chirality in luminescent tris(β-diketonate) lanthanide(III) complexes containing a chiral bis(oxazolinyl) pyridine ligand.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Junpei; Ohno, Tomoko; Miyata, Kohei; Tsumatori, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2011-06-29

    Highly luminescent tris[β-diketonate (HFA, 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dione)] europium(III) complexes containing a chiral bis(oxazolinyl) pyridine (pybox) ligand--[(Eu(III)(R)-Ph-pybox)(HFA)(3)], [(Eu(III)(R)-i-Pr-pybox)(HFA)(3)], and [(Eu(III)(R)-Me-Ph-pybox)(HFA)(3)])--exhibit strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) at the magnetic-dipole ((5)D(0) → (7)F(1)) transition, where the [(Eu(III)(R)-Ph-pybox)(HFA)(3)] complexes show virtually opposite CPL spectra as compared to those with the same chirality of [(Eu(III)(R)-i-Pr-pybox)(HFA)(3)] and [(Eu(III)(R)-Me-Ph-pybox)(HFA)(3)]. Similarly, the [(Tb(III)(R)-Ph-pybox)(HFA)(3)] complexes were found to exhibit CPL signals almost opposite to those of [(Tb(III)(R)-i-Pr-pybox)(HFA)(3)] and [(Tb(III)(R)-Me-Ph-pybox)(HFA)(3)] complexes with the same pybox chirality. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis revealed ligand-ligand interactions between the pybox ligand and the HFA ligand in each lanthanide(III) complex: π-π stacking interactions in the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes with the Ph-pybox ligand, CH/F interactions in those with the i-Pr-pybox ligand, and CH/π interactions in those with the Me-Ph-pybox ligand. The ligand-ligand interactions between the achiral HFA ligands and the chiral pybox results in an asymmetric arrangement of three HFA ligands around the metal center. The metal center geometry varies depending on the types of ligand-ligand interaction.

  4. Hair follicles stimulation effects of gelatin nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tura, V; Hagiu, B A; Mangalagiu, I I

    2010-04-01

    In the present work we studied gelatin nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles of 14 +/- 6 nm mean diameter, prepared by electrospinning. The electrospinnable solution was obtained by drop-wise adding a AgNO3/acetic acid solution to gelatin which had previously been dissolved in a mixture of formic acid and acetic acid. The silver metallic nanoparticles were formed due to the reducing action of the formic acid. The resulted material was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Subcutaneous implants in rabbits demonstrated that the gelatin nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles were resorbed with no inflammatory reactions. An increased number of secondary hair follicles developed in tissue regions close to implants, suggesting the existence of a stimulation effect of silver nanoparticles on hair follicles.

  5. Sintering of Mullite-Containing Materials: I, Effect of Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Sacks, Michael D.; Pask, Joseph A.

    1982-02-01

    Sintering behavior of mullite-containing powders was studied over a range of chemical compositions (Al203/Si02 ratio). Densification measurements were made for both liquid phase-containing and solid state systems. Small amounts of liquid phase were observed to have a significant effect on densification rate. A linear relationship was obtained between the percent of theoretical density and the logarithm of time for compositions in the range 73-75 wt% Al2O3. Currently available models for intermediate stage sintering kinetics were considered to be inadequate for these systems. Lastly, grain boundary transport or diffusion appeared to be the primary mechanism of densification.

  6. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2007-12-28

    In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

  7. Mechanistic investigation of food effect on disintegration and dissolution of BCS class III compound solid formulations: the importance of viscosity.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Asma; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2012-10-01

    A negative food effect, i.e. a decrease in bioavailability upon the co-administration of compounds together with food, has been attributed particularly with high solubility/low permeability compounds (BCS class III). Different mechanisms have been proposed including intestinal dilution leading to a lower concentration gradient across the intestinal wall as well as binding of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to food components in the intestine and thereby decreasing the fraction of the dose available for absorption. These mechanisms refer primarily to the compound and not to the dosage form. An increase in viscosity of the dissolution fluid will in particular affect the absorption of BCS type III compounds with preferential absorption in the upper small intestine if the API release is delayed from the dosage form. The present study demonstrated that the increase in viscosity of the dissolution medium, following ingestion of a solid meal, may drastically reduce disintegration and dissolution. For that purpose the viscosity of the standard FDA meal was determined and simulated by solutions of HPMC in buffer. As model formulations, three commercially available tablets containing trospium chloride, a BCS class III m-cholinoreceptor antagonist was used. Trospium chloride drug products have been described to undergo a negative food effect of more than 80% following ingestion with food. The tablets showed prolonged disintegration times and reduced dissolution rates in viscous media, which could be attributed to changes in the liquid penetration rates. The effect was particularly significant for film-coated tablets relative to uncoated dosage forms. The results show the necessity of considering media viscosity when designing in vitro models of drug release for BCS type III drug formulations.

  8. Effect of Ascorbate on the Cyanide-Scavenging Capability of Cobalt(III) meso-Tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine Pentaiodide: Deactivation by Reduction?

    PubMed

    Benz, Oscar S; Yuan, Quan; Cronican, Andrea A; Peterson, Jim; Pearce, Linda L

    2016-03-21

    The Co(III)-containing water-soluble metalloporphyrin cobalt(III) meso-tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine pentaiodide (Co(III)TMPyP) is a potential cyanide-scavenging agent. The rate of reduction of Co(III)TMPyP by ascorbate is facile enough that conversion to the Co(II)-containing Co(II)TMPyP should occur within minutes at prevailing in vivo levels of the reductant. It follows that any cyanide-decorporating capability of the metalloporphyrin should depend more on the cyanide-binding characteristics of Co(II)TMPyP than those of the administered form, Co(III)TMPyP. Addition of cyanide to buffered aqueous solutions of Co(II)TMPyP (pH 7.4, 25-37 °C) results in quite rapid (k2 = ∼10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) binding/substitution of cyanide anion in the two available axial positions with high affinity (K'β = 10(10) to 10(11)). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements and cyclic voltammetry indicate that cyanide induces oxidation to the Co(III)-containing dicyano species. The constraints that these observations put on plausible mechanisms for the reaction of Co(II)TMPyP with cyanide are discussed. Experiments in which Co(III)TMPyP and cyanide were added to freshly drawn mouse blood showed the same sequence of reactions (metalloporphyrin reduction → cyanide binding/substitution → reoxidation) to occur. Therefore, in cyanide-scavenging applications with this metalloporphyrin, we should be taking advantage of both the improved rate of ligand substitution at Co(II) compared to that at Co(III) and the increased affinity of Co(III) for anionic ligands compared to that of Co(II). Finally, using an established sublethal mouse model for cyanide intoxication, Co(III)TMPyP, administered either 5 min before (prophylaxis) or 1 min after the toxicant, is shown to have very significant antidotal capability. Possible explanations for the results of a previous contradictory study, which failed to find any prophylactic effect of Co(III)TMPyP toward cyanide intoxication, are

  9. Effects of subchronic exposure to Caramel Colour III on the immune system in mice.

    PubMed

    Thuvander, A; Oskarsson, A

    1994-01-01

    Administration of Caramel Colour III is associated with lymphopenia in laboratory animals, especially if the animals are fed a vitamin B6-deficient diet. Recently, functional immunological alterations in rats exposed to Caramel Colour III have been reported. The component of Caramel Colour III that is responsible for the immunological effects has been shown to be 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI). In the present study, female Balb/c mice fed a diet with a relatively high vitamin B6 content were exposed to 2 or 10% of a commercial Caramel Colour III preparation with a low THI content (less than 25 ppm) in the drinking water for 9 wk. Although this treatment did not induce a lymphopenia in the exposed mice, flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subpopulations demonstrated reductions in the CD4+ and CD8+ cell populations. In addition, the proliferative response of spleen cells to B and T cell mitogens was significantly reduced in the mice exposed to 2% Caramel Colour III. No changes were observed in natural killer cell activity or in the humoral antibody response to a viral antigen. The results indicate that Caramel Colour III that meets the specified limit of less than 25 mg THI/kg may, nevertheless, interfere with the lymphoid system in mice with an adequate vitamin B6 status.

  10. Effects of Al(III) and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules. PMID:22163924

  11. Dislocation effects in FinFETs for different III-V compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Ji-Hyun; Jeon, Sanghun

    2016-04-01

    While Si-based devices are facing the limits of scaling, III-V materials, having high mobility, have attracted more and more attention. However, their advantages are obtained by ignoring the drawbacks of inevitably present dislocations. In this paper, we present a theoretical model that describes the degradation in carrier mobility caused by these inevitable charged dislocations in nanometer-sized, quantum-confined III-V compound semiconductor fin-shaped field effect transistors. We conclude that the Fermi-level pinning effect needs to be resolved to give carriers high enough energy (Fermi energy in the channel) to effectively ignore Coulomb scattering of charges at dislocations in a channel made by III-V compound semiconductors.

  12. Effects of Al(III) and nano-Al13 species on malate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al(13) can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al(13) concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al(13) on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  13. Flare loop radiative hydrodynamics. III - Nonlocal radiative transfer effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, R. C.; Fisher, G. H.; Mcclymont, A. N.

    1983-01-01

    The study has three goals. The first is to demonstrate that processes exist whose intrinsic nonlocal nature cannot be represented by local approximations. The second is to elucidate the physical nature and origins of these nonlocal processes. The third is to suggest that the methods and results described here may prove useful in constructing semiempirical models of the chromosphere by means more efficient than trial and error. Matrices are computed that describe the effect of a temperature perturbation at an arbitrary point in the loop on density, hydrogen ionized fraction, total radiative loss rate, and radiative loss rate of selected hydrogen lines and continua at all other points. It is found that the dominant nonlocal radiative transfer effects can be separated into flux divergence coefficient effects and upper level population effects. The former are most important when the perturbation takes place in a region of significant opacity. Upper level population effects arise in both optically thick and thin regions in response to nonlocal density, ionization, and interlocking effects.

  14. Genetic heterogeneity in the apolipoprotein C-III promoter and effects of insulin.

    PubMed

    Dallinga-Thie, G M; Groenendijk, M; Blom, R N; De Bruin, T W; De Kant, E

    2001-09-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the in vivo and in vitro role of two newly identified variants (G(-)944A and A(-)1180C) located in the upstream promoter region of the apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) gene. These variants were studied in 30 probands diagnosed with FCHL, their relatives, and spouses. The allele frequencies of both variants were not different between the groups. No significant associations between plasma lipid traits and DNA variants were observed. We further analyzed the effect of the presence of these variants in the upstream enhancing region of the apoC-III gene, as five different in vivo occurring haplotypes, on the transcriptional activity of apoC-III in both HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. All five promoter constructs, including the wild type, showed similar enhancing activity of the apoC-III gene. The average transcription efficiency was enhanced 19-fold in HepG2 cells and 11-fold in Caco-2 cells. Previous studies have shown in vitro insulin-dependent down-regulation of the apoC-III gene transcription in HepG2 cells by DNA variation in an insulin response element (IRE) in the apoC-III promoter. We observed a 30% insulin-dependent down-regulation of apoC-III expression that was, however, independent of the presence of the two IRE variants. In contrast, in Caco-2 cells, a more variable insulin-dependent up-regulation was found that was also independent of the presence of the IRE variants.In conclusion, our data suggested that the apoC-III gene transcription in vitro is regulated by insulin but independent of the presence of the two IRE variants at -455 and -482. We were unable to detect associations between these apoC-III variants and plasma lipids and insulin in our FCHL population. This means that in vivo apoC-III transcription not only depends upon insulin but appears to be mediated by other mechanisms.

  15. Effects of materials containing antimicrobial compounds on food hygiene.

    PubMed

    Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig

    2011-07-01

    Surfaces with microorganisms may transfer unwanted microorganisms to food through cross-contamination during processing and preparation. A high hygienic status of surfaces that come in contact with food is important in order to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. During the last decade, products containing antimicrobial compounds, such as cutting boards, knives, countertops, kitchen utensils, refrigerators, and conveyor belts, have been introduced to the market, claiming hygienic effects. Such products are often referred to as "treated articles." Here we review various aspects related to treated articles intended for use during preparation and processing of food. Regulatory issues and methods to assess antibacterial effects are covered. Different concepts for treated articles as well as their antibacterial activity are reviewed. The effects of products with antimicrobials on food hygiene and safety are discussed.

  16. Radiation effects in Zr and Hf containing garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittle, Karl R.; Blackford, Mark G.; Smith, Katherine L.; Zaluzec, Nestor J.; Weyland, Matthew; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2015-07-01

    Garnets have been considered as host phases for the safe immobilisation of high-level nuclear waste, as they have been shown to accommodate a wide range of elements across three different cation sites, such as Ca, Y, Mn on the a-site, Fe, Al, U, Zr, and Ti on the b-site, and Si, Fe, Al on the c-site. Garnets, due to their ability to have variable composition, make ideal model materials for the examination of radiation damage and recovery in nuclear materials, including as potential waste forms. Kimzeyite, Ca3Zr2FeAlSiO12, has been shown naturally to contain up to 30 wt% Zr, and has previously been examined to elucidate both the structure and ordering within the lattice. This study examines the effects of radiation damage and recovery using in-situ ion beam irradiation with 1 MeV Kr ions at the IVEM-TANDEM facility, Argonne National Laboratory. The complementary Hf containing system Ca3Hf2FeAlSiO12 was also examined, and found to have a different response to irradiation damage. A sample of irradiated Ca3Zr2FeAlSiO12, at 1000 K, was characterised using aberration corrected (S)TEM and found to contain discreet, nano-sized, crystalline Fe rich particles, indicating a competing process during recovery is occurring.

  17. Physiologic effects of a self-contained self-rescuer

    SciTech Connect

    Petsonk, E.L.

    1983-05-01

    Recent Federal legislation in the US requires the provision of an emergency, self-contained, oxygen-supplying breathing device to be provided for all underground mines. In order to assist in defining the potential limitations of this device, the responses of 10 healthy coal mine inspectors to submaximal steady-state treadmill exercise with and without the SCSR were measured. The results are reported and it is a concluded that in healthy individuals at submaximal exercise there is little evidence of a significant adverse effect of the device.

  18. Low-spin [M(II)(L)2] and [M(III)(L)2](+) (M = Fe and Co) complexes of tridentate azo-containing pyridine/pyrazine amide ligands: structures, properties and redox potential correlations.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Arunava; Rajput, Amit; Barman, Suman K; Mukherjee, Rabindranath

    2017-08-29

    Using deprotonated forms of tridentate azo-containing pyridine-2-/pyrazine-2-carboxamide 2-[N-(2-phenylazo)carbamoyl]-pyridine/pyrazine, seven bis-ligand complexes of Fe(II)/Co(II) and Fe(III)/Co(III) have been synthesized. Molecular structures of six of them reveal that these six-coordinate complexes utilize all available donor sites of the ligands and assume M(II/III)N2(pyridine/pyrazine)N'2(amide)N''2(azo) coordination. Complexes of Fe(II) and Co(III) are diamagnetic and those of Fe(III) and Co(II) are paramagnetic (S = 1/2; room-temperature magnetic data and EPR spectra). Cyclic voltammetry experiments in CH2Cl2 reveal facile metal-centred Fe(III)/Fe(II) and Co(III)/Co(II) redox responses, and all complexes display quasireversible-to-irreversible ligand(azo)-centred redox processes. The E1/2 values of M(III)/M(II) redox processes for Fe, Co and Ni (reported earlier) complexes of the pyridine amide ligand linearly correlate with those for six-coordinate [M(III)(bpy)3](3+)/[M(II)(bpy)3](2+), [M(III)(terpy)2](3+)/[M(II)(terpy)2](2+), [M(III)(L)](+)/[M(II)(L)](0) or [M(III)(L')2](+)/[M(II)(L')2](0) (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, terpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine, hexadentate L(2-) = 1,4-bis[o-(pyridine-2-carboxamidophenyl)]-1,4-dithiobutane and tridentate L'(-) = {2-[2-(arylimino)phenylazo]-pyridine}) couples. Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP level and time-dependent (TD)-DFT calculations rationalize the electronic structure of the present complexes and throw light on the origin of observed electronic transitions.

  19. D/H isotope ratios of kerogen, bitumen, oil, and water in hydrous pyrolysis of source rocks containing kerogen types I, II, IIS, and III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimmelmann, A.; Lewan, M.D.; Wintsch, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Immature source rock chips containing different types of kerogen (I, II, IIS, III) were artificially matured in isotopically distinct waters by hydrous pyrolysis and by pyrolysis in supercritical water. Converging isotopic trends of inorganic (water) and organic (kerogen, bitumen, oil) hydrogen with increasing time and temperature document that water-derived hydrogen is added to or exchanged with organic hydrogen, or both, during chemical reactions that take place during thermal maturation. Isotopic mass-balance calculations show that, depending on temperature (310-381??C), time (12-144 h), and source rock type, between ca. 45 and 79% of carbon-bound hydrogen in kerogen is derived from water. Estimates for bitumen and oil range slightly lower, with oil-hydrogen being least affected by water-derived hydrogen. Comparative hydrous pyrolyses of immature source rocks at 330??C for 72 h show that hydrogen in kerogen, bitumen, and expelled oil/wax ranks from most to least isotopically influenced by water-derived hydrogen in the order IIS > II ~ III > I. Pyrolysis of source rock containing type II kerogen in supercritical water at 381 ??C for 12 h yields isotopic results that are similar to those from hydrous pyrolysis at 350??C for 72 h, or 330??C for 144 h. Bulk hydrogen in kerogen contains several percent of isotopically labile hydrogen that exchanges fast and reversibly with hydrogen in water vapor at 115??C. The isotopic equilibration of labile hydrogen in kerogen with isotopic standard water vapors significantly reduces the analytical uncertainty of D/H ratios when compared with simple D/H determination of bulk hydrogen in kerogen. If extrapolation of our results from hydrous pyrolysis is permitted to natural thermal maturation at lower temperatures, we suggest that organic D/H ratios of fossil fuels in contact with formation waters are typically altered during chemical reactions, but that D/H ratios of generated hydrocarbons are subsequently little or not affected

  20. Synthesis and photochemical properties of pH responsive tris-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes that contain a pyridine ring on the 2-phenylpyridine ligand.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Akihiro; Hisamatsu, Yosuke; Moromizato, Shinsuke; Kohno, Masahiro; Aoki, Shin

    2014-01-06

    In our previous publication, it was reported that fac-Ir(atpy)3 3 (atpy = 2-(5'-amino-4'-tolyl)pyridine), which contains three amino groups at the 5'-position of the atpy ligands, exhibits a pH-dependent change in the color of the emitted radiation. Aqueous solution of 3 shows a weak red emission (at around 613 nm) under neutral or basic conditions, but the emission color changes to green (at around 530 nm) under acidic conditions, where the NH2 group is protonated to become an electron-withdrawing (NH3)(+) group. In this manuscript, we report on the preparation of some new pH-responsive Ir(III) complexes; fac-Ir(4Pyppy)3 5 and fac-Ir(3Pyppy)3 6 that contain three pyridyl groups at the 5'-position of the 2-phenylpyridine (ppy) ligand, and Ir(4Pyppym)3 7 and Ir(3Pyppym)3 8 that contain a pyridyl group at the same position of the 2-phenylpyrimidine (ppym) ligand. The introduction of three pyridyl groups on iodinated Ir(ppy)3 and Ir(ppym)3 was achieved via Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction assisted by microwave irradiation. Solutions of the acid-free Ir(III) complexes 5, 6, 7, and 8 showed a strong green emission (at around 500 nm) in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Protonation of three pyridyl groups of 5 and 7 causes a significant red-shift in the emission wavelength (at around 600 nm) with a decrease in emission intensity. The pH-dependent emission change of these complexes is also discussed. The generation of singlet oxygen ((1)O2) by the photoirradiation of the Ir complexes 5 and 6 was evidenced by the decomposition of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran (DPBF), the oxidation of thioanisole, and the oxidation of 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-3-pyrroline-3-carboxamide (TPC). The induction of necrosis-like cell death of HeLa-S3 cells upon photoirradiation of 5 at 465 nm is also reported.

  1. Effects of terbium (III) on signaling molecules in horseradish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Zhang, Xuanbo; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-03-01

    Rare earth elements, especially terbium (Tb), are high-valence heavy metal elements that accumulate in the environment, and they show toxic effects on plants. Signaling molecules regulate many physiological and biochemical processes in plants. How rare earth elements affect signaling molecules remains largely unknown. In the present study, the effects of Tb(3+) on some extracellular and intracellular signaling molecules (gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, auxin, H2O2, and Ca(2+)) in horseradish leaves were investigated by using high-performance liquid chromatography, X-ray energy spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy, and Tb(3+) was sprayed on the surface of leaves. Tb(3+) treatment decreased the auxin and gibberellic acid contents and increased the abscisic acid content. These changes in the contents of phytohormones (gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, and auxin) triggered excessive production of intracellular H2O2. Consequently, the increase in H2O2 content stimulated the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) and the release of Ca(2+) from Ca(2+) stores, leading to Ca(2+) overload and the resulting inhibition of physiological and biochemical processes. The effects outlined above were more evident with increasing the concentration of Tb(3+) sprayed on horseradish leaves. Our data provide a possible underlying mechanism of Tb(3+) action on plants.

  2. Effective band structure of random III-V alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popescu, Voicu; Zunger, Alex

    2010-03-01

    Random substitutional alloys have no long range order (LRO) or translational symmetry so rigorously speaking they have no E(k) band structure or manifestations thereof. Yet, many experiments on alloys are interpreted using the language of band theory, e.g. inferring Van Hove singularities, band dispersion and effective masses. Many standard alloy theories (VCA- or CPA-based) have the LRO imposed on the alloy Hamiltonian, assuming only on-site disorder, so they can not be used to judge the extent of LRO that really exists. We adopt the opposite way, by using large (thousand atom) randomly generated supercells in which chemically identical alloy atoms are allowed to have different local environments (a polymorphous representation). This then drives site-dependent atomic relaxation as well as potential fluctuations. The eigenstates from such supercells are then mapped onto the Brillouin zone (BZ) of the primitive cell, producing effective band dispersion. Results for (In,Ga)X show band-like behaviour only near the centre and faces of the BZ but rapidly lose such characteristics away from γ or for higher bands. We further analyse the effects of stoichiometry variation, internal relaxation, and short-range order on the alloy band structure.

  3. Morphometric analysis of treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction in growing Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, H. J.; Cevidanes, L. H.; Franchi, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present morphometric investigation was to evaluate the effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) in the treatment of growing patients with Class III malocclusion. The shape and size changes in the craniofacial configuration of a sample of 26 children with Class III malocclusions consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol were compared with a matched sample of 15 children with untreated Class III malocclusions. All subjects in the two groups were at a prepubertal stage of skeletal development at time of first observation. Average duration of treatment was 14 months. Significant treatment-induced modifications involved both the maxilla and the mandible. The most evident deformation consisted of marked forward displacement of the maxillary complex with more moderate favourable effects in the mandible. Deformations in the vertical dimension were not detected. The significant deformations were associated with significant differences in size in the group treated with the BAMP protocol. PMID:21187527

  4. Dynamic effects in thin liquid films containing ionic surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakashev, S. I.; Tsekov, R.; Ivanova, D. S.

    2010-03-01

    This paper is dedicated to studying dynamic effects in thin liquid films (TLF) containing ionic surfactants. The standard theory of TLF drainage has been developed without considering the electrical double layer (EDL) in the hydrodynamic equations, although EDL always exists. In addition, it has been found that this theory very well describes the drainage of TLF containing non-ionic surfactants in the presence of electrolytes. The inclusion of EDL into the hydrodynamics of TLF complicates the theory, producing additional dynamic effects during film drainage. For example, a gradient of electrostatic disjoining pressure across the film arises, thus causing non-uniform electrostatic repulsion between the film surfaces. This paper analyzes the hydrodynamics of TLF with EDL. A new equation of drainage was derived. This equation accounts for the non-uniform distribution of surface charges during the films drainage, which is coupled with non-uniform electrostatic repulsion between the film surfaces and results in faster film drainage. The theory was tested with drainage experiments on TLF with ionic surfactants. Foam films containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the presence and in the absence of added electrolyte were studied and the experimental data compared to the theoretical predictions. The experimental results, however, disagree with the theory. For example, the kinetic equation predicted faster film drainage for foam films at low ionic strength; at high ionic strength the theory tends to wReynolds drainagew. Inversely, the experiment exhibited slower drainage than predicted by the Reynolds equation in both cases of low and high ionic strengths. Numerical simulations yielded V/VRe<1. In addition, cases of wpositivew and wnegativew velocity of film surfaces were shown. Despite the sign of the velocity the dependence V/VRe<1 remained. The analysis showed similarity between the experimental data and the prediction of the Manev-Tsekov-Radoev (MTR) drainage model at

  5. Rapid Ti(III) reduction of perchlorate in the presence of beta-alanine: kinetics, pH effect, complex formation, and beta-alanine effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Zhengdao; Lippincott, Lee; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2010-03-15

    Ti(III) reduction of perchlorate might be a useful method for the treatment of highly perchlorate-contaminated water. Though the reaction rate was usually low, we observed that beta-alanine (HOOCCH(2)CH(2)NH(2)) could significantly promote the reaction. A complete (>99.9%) perchlorate removal was obtained in a solution containing [ClO(4)(-)]=1.0mM, [Ti(III)]=40 mM, and [beta-alanine]=120 mM after 2.5h of reaction under 50 degrees C. The effects of both pH and complex formation on the reaction were then studied. The results showed that without beta-alanine the optimal pH was 2.3. When pH increased from 1.6 to 2.3, the reduction rate increased remarkably. In the pH range >2.3, however, the reduction was significantly inhibited, attributed to the formation of Ti(III) precipitate. The presence of beta-alanine at a molar ratio of [beta-alanine]:[Ti(III)]=3:1 significantly increased the reduction rate of perchlorate even at near neutral pH. This is because beta-alanine formed complexes with Ti(III), which greatly improved the total soluble [Ti(III)] in the pH range between 3.5 and 6. The findings may lead to the development of rapid treatment methods for intermittent and small stream of highly perchlorate-contaminated water, which are resulted from the manufacturing, storage, handling, use and/or disposal of large quantities of perchlorate salts.

  6. Effect of pesticides on microbial communities in container aquatic habitats

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Donthu, Ravi Kiran; Fields, Christopher J.; Moise, Imelda K.; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Container aquatic habitats support a specialized community of macroinvertebrates (e.g. mosquitoes) that feed on microbial communities associated with decaying organic matter. These aquatic habitats are often embedded within and around agricultural lands and are frequently exposed to pesticides. We used a microcosm approach to examine the single and combined effects of two herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate), and three insecticides (malathion, carbaryl, permethrin) on microbial communities of container aquatic habitats. MiSeq sequencing of the V4 region of both bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the microbial communities of indoor microcosms that were either exposed to each pesticide alone, a mix of herbicides, a mix of insecticides, or a mix of all five insecticides. Individual insecticides but not herbicides reduced the microbial diversity and richness and two insecticides, carbaryl and permethrin, also altered the microbial community structure. A mixture of herbicides had no effect on microbial diversity or structure but a mixture of insecticides or all five pesticides reduced microbial diversity and altered the community structure. These findings suggest that exposure of aquatic ecosystems to individual pesticides or their mixtures can disrupt aquatic microbial communities and there is need to decipher how these changes affect resident macroinvertebrate communities. PMID:28300212

  7. Effect of pesticides on microbial communities in container aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Donthu, Ravi Kiran; Fields, Christopher J; Moise, Imelda K; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2017-03-16

    Container aquatic habitats support a specialized community of macroinvertebrates (e.g. mosquitoes) that feed on microbial communities associated with decaying organic matter. These aquatic habitats are often embedded within and around agricultural lands and are frequently exposed to pesticides. We used a microcosm approach to examine the single and combined effects of two herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate), and three insecticides (malathion, carbaryl, permethrin) on microbial communities of container aquatic habitats. MiSeq sequencing of the V4 region of both bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the microbial communities of indoor microcosms that were either exposed to each pesticide alone, a mix of herbicides, a mix of insecticides, or a mix of all five insecticides. Individual insecticides but not herbicides reduced the microbial diversity and richness and two insecticides, carbaryl and permethrin, also altered the microbial community structure. A mixture of herbicides had no effect on microbial diversity or structure but a mixture of insecticides or all five pesticides reduced microbial diversity and altered the community structure. These findings suggest that exposure of aquatic ecosystems to individual pesticides or their mixtures can disrupt aquatic microbial communities and there is need to decipher how these changes affect resident macroinvertebrate communities.

  8. Effects of lactose-containing stevioside sweeteners on dental biofilm acidogenicity.

    PubMed

    Giongo, Fernanda Cristina Mendes de Santana; Mua, Bruna; Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti Fatturi; Carlén, Anette; Maltz, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a commercial lactose-containing stevioside sweetener on biofilm acidogenicity in vivo. Nine volunteers refrained from brushing their teeth for 3 days in five phases. On the 4th day of each phase, the pH of the biofilm was measured by the "Strip method". Interproximal plaque pH was measured before and up to 60 minutes after a 10 mL mouthrinse for 1 minute with the test solutions: I - sweetener with 93% lactose and 7% stevioside; II - sweetener with 6.8% saccharin, 13.6% cyclamate, and 0.82% stevioside; III - 18% sucrose solution (positive control); IV - mineral water (negative control); and V- 93% lactose solution. The results revealed that the most pronounced pH fall was found with sucrose (positive control), followed by the 93% lactose solution, the sweetener with lactose + stevioside, the sweetener with saccharin + cyclamate + stevioside, and finally water (negative control). According to the area under the curve, the two sweeteners containing stevioside were significantly different, and the sweetener with lactose + stevioside was significantly different from water but not from sucrose. The critical pH for dentin demineralization (pH ≤ 6.5) was reached by all volunteers after rinsing with sucrose solution, lactose solution, and the stevioside + lactose sweetener. Analysis of the data suggests that lactose-containing stevioside sweeteners may be cariogenic, especially to dentin.

  9. Effect of bimaxillary rotational setback surgery on upper airway structure in skeletal class III deformities.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yuh-Jia; Chen, Yi-Chieh; Chen, Yin-An; Liao, Yu-Fang; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2015-02-01

    Upper airway narrowing has been a concern of mandibular setback. The aims of this study were (1) to evaluate the effect of bimaxillary rotational setback surgery on upper airway structure in patients with skeletal class III deformities, and (2) to compare the preoperative and postoperative upper airways of class III patients with age- and sex-matched class I control subjects. The upper airways of 36 adults who consecutively underwent bimaxillary rotational setback surgery for skeletal class III deformities were assessed by means of cone-beam computed tomography before and at least 6 months after surgery. Results were compared with those of age- and sex-matched control subjects with skeletal class I structure. Before surgery, the class III patients had significantly larger velopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal volumes than did the control subjects (all p < 0.01). The velopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharynx volumes decreased significantly after surgery (all p < 0.01). The postoperative airways of class III patients were similar with regard to velopharyngeal, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal volume (all p > 0.01) compared to control subjects. The postoperative velopharyngeal and oropharyngeal airway volumes were associated with the baseline airway volume (p < 0.001) and horizontal movement of the soft palate (p < 0.01). These results suggest that upper airway volume is decreased after bimaxillary rotational setback surgery for skeletal class III deformities, but is not smaller than in normal controls, and the postoperative upper airway volume is related to airway volume at baseline and changes in the surrounding structures. Therapeutic, III.

  10. A new chromium (III) complex containing N-(2-pyridylmethyl)-2-pyrazinecarboxamide, (NPyPzCa): Synthesis, molecular and crystal structure and theoretical electron density analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khavasi, Hamid Reza; Firouzi, Rohoullah; Sasan, Koroush; Zahedi, Mansour

    2010-12-01

    The chromium (III) complex [Cr(NPyPzCa)Cl 2(H 2O)].(CH 3) 2O ( 1) (NPyPzCa stands for N-(2-pyridylmethyl)-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) has been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Cr(III) atom exhibits an octahedral geometry due to the coordination of three donor atoms from carboxamide ligand, two chlorine atoms and one water molecule. There is O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and also π-π interactions between adjacent pyridine and ‎pyrazine rings that seem to be effective in the stabilization of the crystal packing. The ‎topological and energetic properties of the electron density distribution of all the metal-ligand ‎bonding interactions in this complex have also been calculated and studied at ‎ several DFT levels. According to the results, metal-ligand bonding interactions belong (from the topological and energetic point of view) to new interactions that represent a mix of closed-shell (ionic) and shared (covalent) characters.

  11. Experimental and theoretical studies on the DNA-binding of cationic yttrium(III) complex containing 2,2‧-bipyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Akbari, Alireza; Mirkazehi-Rigi, Sohaila

    2015-03-01

    The interaction of DNA with [Y(bpy)(OH2)6]+3, where bpy is 2,2‧-bipyridine has been studied at physiological pH in Tris-HCl buffer. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy, agarose gel electrophoresis as well as EB quenching experiments are used to study DNA binding of the complex. The results reveal that DNA have the strong ability to bind with Y(III) complex. The binding constant, Kb and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant, KSV are determined. For characterization of the binding mode between the Y(III) complex and DNA various procedures such as: iodide quenching assay, salt effect and thermodynamical investigation are used. The results suggest that minor groove binding should be the interaction mode of complex to DNA. A gel electrophoresis assay demonstrates the ability of the complex to cleave the DNA via oxidative pathway. Electronic structure of [Y(bpy)(OH2)6]+3 was also carried out applying the density functional theory (DFT) method and applied to explain some obtained experimental observations.

  12. Molecular and electronic structures of iron(II)/(III) complexes containing N,S-coordinated, closed-shell o-aminothiophenolato(1-) and o-iminothiophenolato(2-) ligands.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Prasanta; Begum, Ameerunisha; Bill, Eckhard; Weyhermüller, Thomas; Wieghardt, Karl

    2003-05-19

    The coordination chemistry of the ligands o-aminothiophenol, H(abt), 4,6-di-tert-butyl-2-aminothiophenol, H[L(AP)], and 1,2-ethanediamine-N,N'-bis(2-benzenethiol), H(4)('N(2)S(2')), with FeCl(2) under strictly anaerobic and increasingly aerobic conditions has been systematically investigated. Using strictly anaerobic conditions, the neutral, air-sensitive, yellow complexes (mu-S,S)[Fe(II)(abt)(2)](2) (1), (mu-S,S)[Fe(II)(L(AP))(2)](2).8CH(3)OH (2), and (mu-S,S)[Fe(II)('H(2)N(2)S(2'))](2).CH(3)CN (3) containing high spin ferrous ions have been isolated where (abt)(1-), (L(AP))(1-), and ('H(2)N(2)S(2'))(2-) represent the respective N,S-coordinated, aromatic o-aminothiophenolate derivative of these ligands. When the described reaction was carried out in the presence of trace amounts of O(2) and [PPh(4)]Br, light-green crystals of [PPh(4)][Fe(II)(abt)(2)(itbs)].[PPh(4)]Br (4) were isolated. The anion [Fe(II)(abt)(2)(itbs)](-) contains a high spin ferrous ion, two N,S-coordinated o-aminophenolate(1-) ligands, and an S-bound, monoanionic o-iminothionebenzosemiquinonate(1-) pi radical, (itbs)(-). Complex 4 possesses an S(t) = 3/2 ground state. In the absence of [PPh(4)]Br and presence of a base NEt(3) and a little O(2), the ferric dimer (mu-NH,NH)[Fe(III)(L(AP))(L(IP))](2) (5a) and its isomer (mu-S,S)[Fe(III)(L(AP))(L(IP))](2) (5b) formed. (L(IP))(2-) represents the aromatic o-iminothiophenolate(2-) dianion of H[L(AP)]. The structures of compounds 2, 4, and 5a have been determined by X-ray crystallography at 100(2) K. Zero-field Mössbauer spectroscopy of 1, 2, 3, and 4 unambiguously shows the presence of high spin ferrous ions: The isomer shift at 80 K is in the narrow range 0.85-0.92 mm s(-1), and a large quadrupole splitting, |DeltaE(Q)|, in the range 3.24-4.10 mm s(-1), is observed. In contrast, 5a and 5b comprise both intermediate spin ferric ions (S(Fe) = 3/2) which couple antiferromagnetically in the dinuclear molecules yielding an S(t) = 0 ground state.

  13. Effects of PECS Phase III Application Training on Independent Mands in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Jessica June

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of PECS phase III application training on independent mands in young children with autism. Participants were five children with autism ranging from ages 2 to 4 years old. A multiple baseline across participants was used to evaluate acquisition of independent correct mands across baseline and…

  14. Effectiveness of phosphate removal during anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by dosing iron(III).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang; Wang, Jue; Chen, Bing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Jiaqi; Liu, Lubo

    2017-05-15

    Phosphate-Fe(II) precipitation induced by Fe(III) reduction during the anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge was investigated for the removal of phosphorus and its possible recovery. The experiments were conducted with three Fe(III) sources at 35 °C and 55 °C. The results show that ferrihydrite-Fe(III) was effectively reduced during the anaerobic sludge digestion by 63% and 96% under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Whereas FeCl3-Fe(III) was only mesophilically reducible and the reduction of hematite-Fe(III) was unnoticeable at either temperature. Efficient precipitation of vivianite was not observed although high saturation index values, e.g., >14 (activity reduction not considered), had been reached. This reveals the complexity of vivianite precipitation in anaerobic digestion systems; for example, Fe(II) complexation and organic interference could not be ignored. With ferrihydrite amendments at a Fe/TP of 1.5, methane production from sludge digestion was reduced by 35.1% at 35 °C, and was unaffected when the digestion temperature went up to 55 °C. But, acidic FeCl3 severely inhibited the methane production and consequently the sludge biomass degradation.

  15. Effect of Ge autodoping during III-V MOVPE growth on Ge substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrutia, Laura; Barrigón, Enrique; García, Iván; Rey-Stolle, Ignacio; Algora, Carlos

    2017-10-01

    During the MOVPE growth of III-V layers on Ge substrates, Ge atoms can be evaporated or etched from the back of the wafer and reach the growth surface, becoming incorporated into the epilayers. This is the so-called Ge autodoping effect, which we have studied through a set of growth experiments of GaInP and Ga(In)As layers lattice matched to Ge substrates, which have been characterized by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy. The role of V/III ratio and growth rate on Ge autodoping has been studied and a MOVPE reactor pre-conditioning prior to the epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductor layers that mitigates this Ge autodoping has been identified. In addition, the use of 2-in. versus 4-in. Ge substrates has been compared and the use of a Si3N4 backside coating for the Ge substrates has been evaluated.

  16. Simulation of impulse effects from explosive charges containing metal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, K.; Nance, D. V.; Menon, S.

    2010-06-01

    The propagation of an explosive blast wave containing inert metal particles is investigated numerically using a robust two-phase methodology with appropriate models to account for real gas behavior, inter-phase interactions, and inter-particle collisions to study the problem of interest. A new two-phase Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation is proposed that can handle the dense nature of the flow-field. The velocity and momentum profiles of the gas and particle phases are analyzed and used to elucidate the inter-phase momentum transfer, and its effect on the impulsive aspects of heterogeneous explosive charges. The particles are found to pick up significant amounts of momentum and kinetic energy from the gas, and by virtue of their inertia, are observed to sustain it for a longer time. The impulse characteristics of heterogeneous explosives are compared with a homogeneous explosive containing the same amount of high explosive, and it is observed that the addition of solid particles augments the impulsive loading significantly in the near-field, and to a smaller extent in the far-field. The total impulsive loading is found to be insensitive to the particle size added to the explosive charge above a certain cut-off radius, but the individual impulse components are found to be sensitive, and particles smaller than this cut-off size deliver about 8% higher total impulse than the larger ones. Overall, this study provides crucial insights to understand the impulsive loading characteristics of heterogeneous explosives.

  17. Effects of diaphragm discharge in water solutions containing humic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halamova, Ivana; Stara, Zdenka; Krcma, Frantisek

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary results of research focused on the applications of DC diaphragm discharge in water solutions containing humic substances are presented in this paper. Diaphragm discharge investigated by this work was created in the reactor using constant DC high voltage up to 2 kV that gave the total input power from 100 to 200 W. Presented work investigated decomposition of humic substances by the electric discharge in the dependence of discharge conditions (electrode polarity) as well as solution properties (electrolyte kind, pH). Especially substantial effect of pH on humic acid decomposition has been observed when acidic conditions stimulated the degradation process. Absorption spectroscopy in UV-VIS region together with fluorescence spectroscopy has been used for the detection of changes in humic solutions. Index of humification was calculated from obtained fluorescence spectra and a significant decrease of aromatic components in the humic mixture was determined during the discharge treatment.

  18. Alcohol-containing mouthwashes: effect on composite hardness.

    PubMed

    Penugonda, B; Settembrini, L; Scherer, W; Hittelman, E; Strassler, H

    1994-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of alcohol-containing mouthwashes on composite resin hardness. Eighty hybrid composite discs were fabricated and divided into eight equal groups: Listerine, Scope, Viadent, Plax, Lavoris, Clear Choice, and Rembrandt Mouth Refreshing Rinse. Water acted as a control. All of the discs were immersed by group in their respective liquids for two minutes a day over a period of six months. Disc hardness was measured six times at the center and periphery using a Barcol impressor. The baseline values were taken for each disc and compared to the test values at the end of six months. The results of the study indicate that the alcohol content in mouthwashes can affect composite hardness. This softening affect can be directly related to the percentage of alcohol in the mouthwash.

  19. [Hypocholesteremic effectiveness of a yogurt containing plant stanol esters].

    PubMed

    Algorta Pineda, J; Chinchetru Ranedo, M J; Aguirre Anda, J; Francisco Terreros, S

    2005-02-01

    This clinical trial was carried out with the objective of a preliminar evaluation of the hypocholesteremic effectiveness of a dietary dairy product currently marketed in Spain in the form of drinkable yogurt. Thirty-two adult male and female patients with LDL cholesterol higher than 120 mg/dl were recruited in a pilot, randomized as parallel groups, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Patients consumed during 3 weeks (a bottle a day) Kaiku's Benecol containing 2 g/bottle of plant stanol esters, or a placebo consisting of the same product without plant stanol. Furthermore, all participants carried out some dietary standards. At the beginning and the end of the treatment LDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol were assessed; LDL/HDL index was also calculated. At the end of the treatment in the active group a significant decline (p < 0.01) with regard to the initial levels was observed in LDL cholesterol (157 +/- 30 to 140 +/- 34, mg/dl, mean +/- SD) levels, total cholesterol (235 +/- 34 to 219 +/- 35) levels, and LDL/HDL index (3,2 +/- 1,0 to 3,0 +/- 1,2), without significant changes in HDL cholesterol (48 +/- 15 to 53 +/- 29); in the placebo group there were no significant changes (LDL cholesterol: 168 +/- 25 to 164 +/- 23; total cholesterol: 245 +/- 31 to 237 +/- 23; HDL cholesterol: 51 +/- 12 to 51 +/- 12; LDL/HDL index: 3,4 +/- 0,6 to 3,3 +/- 0,8). In short, consumption of a yogurt a day containing 2 g of stanol reduces significantly the cholesterol levels and this effect is not observed with the placebo.

  20. Cr(III) removal by a microalgal isolate, Chlorella miniata: effects of nitrate, chloride and sulfate.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Gong, Yu-Feng; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung Yee

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, nitrate, chloride and sulfate anion systems were used to investigate the presence of anions on the removal of Cr(III) by Chlorella miniata. Kinetic studies suggested that the equilibrium time of Cr(III) biosorption was not affected by the presence of different sodium salts, even at the concentration of 1.0 M, and all reached equilibrium after 24 h. Equilibrium experiments showed that the effects of different anions on Cr(III) biosorption varied, and the inhibitory order was SO4 (2-) > Cl(-) > NO3 (-). Langmuir isotherm indicated that the maximum sorption capacity of C. miniata increased with the increase of pH under different anion systems. The strongest inhibition effect of the sulfate system was attributed to the formation of Cr(OH)SO4 aq. and the decrease of Cr(OH)(2+) and Cr(3+) in solution, while the difference of inhibitory effect in the other two anion systems could be accounted by the formation of the inner-sphere surface complex in the nitrate system and the outer-sphere surface complex in the chloride system. The present study suggested that the presence of anions greatly affected the removal of Cr(III) on C. miniata and thereby their transport in the environment.

  1. Effects of Water in Canisters Containing DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    P. A. Lessing

    1998-10-01

    This document is a starting analysis in an attempt to quantify the potential of problems resulting from the presence of condensed water and water vapor in sealed storage canisters containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of the 55 spent fuel types, it was determined that only three types required study to evaluate the effects of water, these types were represented by: (1) zirconium clad N-Reactor fuel, (2) aluminum clad Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) or Materials Test Reactor (MTR) fuel, (3) damaged and/or melted zirconium clad Three Mile Island (TMI) fuel. The spent fuel types were briefly described and potential problems were generalized into four catagories: (1) effects of water and the source(s) of that water, (2) effects of hydrogen generated from water, (3) pyrophoricity of uranium hydride, (4) swelling or cavitation. An extensive literature search was conducted, chemical reactions considered, and simple pressurization sensitivity calculations performed. Using the available information, conclusions were drawn and issues identified that need further consideration or analysis.

  2. Antibiofilm effects of endodontic sealers containing quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Barros, Joana; Silva, Marlei G; Rôças, Isabela N; Gonçalves, Lucio S; Alves, Flávio F; Lopes, Maria A; Pina-Vaz, Irene; Siqueira, José F

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the antibiofilm effects of 2 endodontic sealers incorporated with quaternary ammonium polyethylenimine (QPEI) nanoparticles at a 2% concentration (w/w). The materials tested were AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT (PCS) in the commercial unmodified form or containing 2% QPEI. Antibiofilm assays were conducted by using direct-contact and membrane-restricted tests for evaluation of bacterial viability in biofilms grown onto membranes or paper disks and the crystal violet microtiter-plate assay to evaluate the effects of sealer extracts on the biofilm biomass. Two Enterococcus faecalis strains (ATCC and an endodontic isolate) were used. Direct contact and membrane-restricted antibiofilm tests revealed that PCS 2% was the only material to promote total killing of E. faecalis ATCC biofilms. All the materials significantly reduced bacterial counts in E. faecalis ATCC biofilms when compared with the positive control in both tests (P < .05). In the direct test against E. faecalis RW35, PCS 2% was significantly more effective than the other materials and was the only one that showed significantly lower counts than the positive control (P < .05). In the crystal violet assay, only AH Plus 2% presented optical density readings significantly lower than the positive control of the ATCC strain (P < .05). No other significant effects on the biofilm biomass of the 2 E. faecalis strains were observed for any of the sealers tested (P > .05). Addition of QPEI nanoparticles improved the killing ability of PCS against biofilms of both E. faecalis strains and the effects of AH Plus on the biomass of biofilms from the ATCC strain. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The first examples of multiply bonded dirhenium(iii,ii) paramagnetic complexes containing nitrobenzoate ligands: spectroscopic, structural, cytotoxicity and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Suman; Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti; Mandal, Suman; Rane, Vinayak; Kadam, Ramakant; Chatterjee, Annesha; Bhattacharyya, Arindam; Chattopadhyay, Swarup

    2017-02-09

    4-Nitrobenzoic acid, 3-nitrobenzoic acid and 4'-nitro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid react with the multiply bonded paramagnetic dirhenium(iii,ii) complex Re2(μ-O2CCH3)Cl4(μ-Ph2PCH2PPh2)2 (1) in refluxing ethanol to afford the paramagnetic substitution products of the type Re2(μ-L)Cl4(μ-Ph2PCH2PPh2)2, where L represents the nitrobenzoate ligands [L = 4-nitrobenzoate, 2; 3-nitrobenzoate, 3; 4'-nitro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylate, 4]. These are the first examples of paramagnetic dirhenium complexes containing nitrobenzoate ligands. The spectral (UV-vis, IR, and EPR) and electrochemical properties of the complexes are described. The identity of 4 has been established by single-crystal X-ray structure determination (Re-Re distance of 2.2967(4) Å). The electronic structures of the complexes were scrutinized by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. X-band EPR spectral measurements along with the DFT analysis show that the unpaired electron resides in the metal-metal δ* antibonding orbital. The complexes were also screened in vitro for their antiproliferative properties against the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by the MTT assay. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the complexes arrested the sub-G0/G1 phase.

  4. Size effects of nanocrystalline TiO2 on As(V) and As(III) adsorption and As(III) photooxidation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhonghou; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2009-09-15

    The physicochemical properties of TiO(2) particles in the diameter range between 6.6 and 30.1 nm and the effect of the crystalline size on arsenic adsorption and photocatalytical oxidation were investigated. TiO(2) nanoparticles of different sizes were single-phase anatase. The adsorption capacity of the TiO(2) for As(III) and As(V) increased linearly with the N(2) Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (S(BET)) of the particles. There was not much difference in the rate of As(III) photooxidation when the diameter of the TiO(2) nanoparticles was between 6.6 and 14.8 nm. However, the As(III) photooxidation rate clearly decreased when the particle size increased to 30.1 nm. Arsenite photooxidation data could be fitted with a first-order kinetics equation.

  5. Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Vijayakumar, M.

    2014-07-03

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the interface between graphene and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BMIM OTf) were carried out to gain molecular-level insights into the performance of graphene-based supercapacitors and, in particular, determine the effects of the presence of oxygen-containing defects at the graphene surface on their integral capacitance. The MD simulations predict that increasing the surface coverage of hydroxyl groups negatively affects the integral capacitance, whereas the effect of the presence of epoxy groups is much less significant. The calculated variations in capacitance are found to be directly correlated to the interfacial structure. Indeed, hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups and SO3 anion moieties prevents BMIM+ and OTf- molecules from interacting favorably in the dense interfacial layer and restrains the orientation and mobility of OTf- ions, thereby reducing the permittivity of the ionic liquid at the interface. The results of the molecular simulations can facilitate the rational design of electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  6. Effects of friction and high torque on fatigue crack propagation in Mode III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; McClintock, F. A.; Ritchie, R. O.

    1982-12-01

    Turbo-generator and automotive shafts are often subjected to complex histories of high torques. To provide a basis for fatigue life estimation in such components, a study of fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (anti-plane shear) for a mill-annealed AISI 4140 steel (RB88, 590 MN/m2 tensile strength) has been undertaken, using torsionally-loaded, circumferentially-notched cylindrical specimens. As demonstrated previously for higher strength AISI 4340 steel, Mode III cyclic crack growth rates (dc/dN) IIIcan be related to the alternating stress intensity factor ΔKIII for conditions of small-scale yielding. However, to describe crack propagation behavior over an extended range of crack growth rates (˜10-6 to 10-2 mm per cycle), where crack growth proceeds under elastic-plastic and full plastic conditions, no correlation between (dc/dN) III and ΔKIII is possible. Accordingly, a new parameter for torsional crack growth, termed the plastic strain intensity Γ III, is introduced and is shown to provide a unique description of Mode III crack growth behavior for a wide range of testing conditions, provided a mean load reduces friction, abrasion, and interlocking between mating fracture surfaces. The latter effect is found to be dependent upon the mode of applied loading (i.e., the presence of superimposed axial loads) and the crack length and torque level. Mechanistically, high-torque surfaces were transverse, macroscopically flat, and smeared. Lower torques showed additional axial cracks (longitudinal shear cracking) perpendicular to the main transverse surface. A micro-mechanical model for the main radi l Mode III growth, based on the premise that crack advance results from Mode II coalescence of microcracks initiated at inclusions ahead of the main crack front, is extended to high nominal stress levels, and predicts that Mode III fatigue crack propagation rates should be proportional to the range of plastic strain intensity (ΔΓIII if local Mode II growth rates are

  7. Geometric effects on bilayer convection in cylindrical containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Duane Thomas

    The study of convection in two immiscible fluid layers is of interest for reasons both theoretical as well as applied. Recently, bilayer convection has been used as a model of convection in the earth's mantle. It is also an interesting system to use in the study of pattern formation. Bilayer convection also occurs in a process known as liquid encapsulated crystal growth, which is used to grow compound semiconductors. It is the last application which motivates this study. To analyze bilayer convection, theoretical models, numerical calculations and experiments were used. One theoretical model involves the derivation of the Navier- Stokes and energy equation for two immiscible fluid layers, using the Boussinesq approximation. A weakly nonlinear analysis was also performed to study the behavior of the system slightly beyond the onset of convection. Numerical calculations were necessary to solve both models. The experiments involved a single liquid layer of silicone oil, superposed by a layer of air. The radius and height of each fluid layer were changed to observe different flow patterns at the onset of convection. From the experiments and theory, two major discoveries were made as well as several interesting observations. The first discovery is the existence of codimension-two points-particular aspect ratios where two flow patterns coexist-in cylindrical containers. At these points, dynamic switching between different flow patterns was observed. The second discovery was the effect of air convection on the flow pattern in silicone oil. Historically, air has been considered a passive medium that has no effect on the lower fluid. However, experiments were done to show that for large air heights, convection in the air can cause radial temperature gradients at the liquid interface. These temperature gradients then cause surface tension gradient-driven flows. It was also shown that changing the radius of the container can change the driving force of convection from a

  8. Helical lanthanide(III) complexes with chiral nonaaza macrocycle.

    PubMed

    Gregoliński, Janusz; Starynowicz, Przemysław; Hua, KimNgan T; Lunkley, Jamie L; Muller, Gilles; Lisowski, Jerzy

    2008-12-31

    The chiral nonaazamacrocyclic amine L, which is a reduction product of the 3 + 3 Schiff base macrocycle, wraps around the lanthanide(III) ions to form enantiopure helical complexes. These Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Er(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) complexes have been isolated in enantiopure form and have been characterized by spectroscopic methods. X-ray crystal structures of the Ln(III) complexes with L show that the thermodynamic product of the complexation of the RRRRRR-isomer of the macrocycle is the (M)-helical complex in the case of Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III) and Eu(III). In contrast, the (P)-helical complex is the thermodynamic product in the case of Yb(III) and Lu(III). The NMR and CD spectra show that the (M)-helicity for the kinetic complexation product of the RRRRRR-isomer of the macrocycle is preferred for all investigated lanthanide(III) ions, while the preferred helicity of the thermodynamic product is (M) for the early lanthanide(III) ions and (P) for the late lanthanide(III) ions. In the case of the late lanthanide(III) ions, a slow inversion of helicity between the kinetic (M)-helical product and the thermodynamic (P)-helical product is observed in solution. For Er(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) both forms have been isolated in pure form and characterized by NMR and CD. The analysis of 2D NMR spectra of the Lu(III) complex reveals the NOE correlations that prove that the helical structure is retained in solution. The NMR spectra also reveal large isotopic effect on the 1H NMR shifts of paramagnetic Ln(III) complexes, related to NH/ND exchange. Photophysical measurements show that L(RRRRRR) appears to favor an efficient 3pipi*-to-Ln energy transfer process taking place for Eu(III) and Tb(III), but these Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-containing complexes with L(RRRRRR) lead to small luminescent quantum yields due to an incomplete intersystem crossing (isc) transfer, a weak efficiency of the luminescence sensitization by the ligand, and

  9. The Effect of Chin-cup Therapy in Class III Malocclusion: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mousoulea, Sophia; Tsolakis, Ioannis; Ferdianakis, Efstratios; Tsolakis, Apostolos I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The treatment of Class III malocclusion has been challenging for orthodontists. Among a plethora of treatment modalities, the chin-cup is considered a traditional appliance for early orthopedic intervention. Objective: The present study aims to investigate the current scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of chin-cup therapy in Class III malocclusion of prognathic growing patients. Method: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed/Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from January 1954 to October 2015. Articles were selected based on established inclusion/ exclusion criteria. Results: The search strategy resulted in 3285 articles.14 studies were selected for the final analysis. They were all CCTs, 13 of retrospective and 1 of prospective design. Methodological quality was evaluated by a risk of bias assessment, as suggested by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-Randomized Studies on Interventions. The reported evidence presented favorable short-term outcomes both in hard and soft tissues improving the Class III profile, as well as desirable dento-alveolar changes, positively affecting the Class III malocclusion. Conclusion: There is considerable agreement between studies that chin-cup therapy can be considered for the short-term treatment of growing patients with Class III malocclusion, as indicated by favorable changes both in the hard and soft tissues. The existence of considerable risk of bias in all selected studies and the unclear long-term effectiveness of chin-cup therapy highlight the need for further investigation to draw reliable conclusions. PMID:28077971

  10. Effects of Containment on Radionuclide Releases from Underground Nuclear Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrigan, C. R.; Sun, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Confirming the occurrence of an underground nuclear explosion can require capturing short-lived noble gas radioisotopes produced by the explosion, sometimes referred to as the "smoking gun" for nuclear explosion detection. It is well known that the radioisotopic distribution resulting from the detonation evolves with time in the explosion cavity. In effect, the explosion cavity or chimney behaves as a chemical reactor. As long as the parent and daughter radionuclides remain in a closed and well-mixed cavity, parameters, such as radioxenon isotopic ratios, can be calculated analytically from a decay-chain network model. When gases from the cavity migrate into the containment regime, consideration of a "leaky reactor" model is more appropriate. We consider several implications of such a leaky reactor model relevant to interpretations of gas samples from the subsurface during an on-site inspection that could potentially be carried out under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Additionally, we have attempted to validate our leaky reactor model against atmospheric observations of radioactive xenon isotopes detected by radionuclide monitoring stations in Japan and Russia following the February 2013 DPRK underground nuclear explosion (Carrigan et al., 2016). While both model uncertainty and observational error are significant, our model of isotopic evolution appears to be in broad agreement with radionuclide observations, and for the first time links atmospheric measurements of radioxenon isotopic ratios to estimates of seismic yield. Carrigan et al., Scientific Reports 6, Article number: 23032 (2016) doi:10.1038/srep23032

  11. Effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Kavouras, Stavros A; Koutsari, Christina; Georgakakis, Charalambos; Skenderi, Katerina; Beer, Michael; Sidossis, Labros S

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance. Ten subjects completed 4 trials. Each trial consisted of a glycogen depletion protocol, followed by a 15-min refueling, after which subjects performed an 1-h performance test while consuming one of the experimental drinks (HGlu, glucose; HMal, maltose; MalMix, sucrose, maltose, and maltodextrin; Plac, placebo). Drinks provided 0.65 g/kg body weight carbohydrates during refueling and 0.2 g/kg every 15 min during the performance test. Although no significant differences were found in performance (HGlu: 67.2 +/- 2.0; HMal: 68.6 +/- 1.7; MalMix: 66.7 +/- 2.0; Plac: 69.4 +/- 3.0 min, P> 0.05), subjects completed the MalMix trial 3.9%; faster than the Plac. Carbohydrate drinks caused comparable plasma glucose values that were significantly higher during refueling and at the end of exercise, compared to Plac. The data suggest that although carbohydrate drinks help to maintain plasma glucose at a higher level, no differences in performance could be detected after glycogen-depleting exercise.

  12. Component effects on crystallization of RE-containing aluminoborosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani; Hrma, Pavel; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.

    2016-09-01

    Lanthanide-aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass is one option for immobilizing rare earth (RE) oxide fission products generated during reprocessing of pyroprocessed fuel. This glass system can accommodate a high loading of RE oxides and has excellent chemical durability. The present study describes efforts to model equilibrium crystallinity as a function of glass composition and temperature as well as liquidus temperature (TL) as a function of glass composition. The experimental method for determining TL was ASTM C1720-11. Typically, three crystalline phases were formed in each glass: Ce-borosilicate (Ce3BSi2O10), mullite (Al10Si2O19), and corundum (Al2O3). Cerianite (CeO2) was a common minor crystalline phase and Nd-silicate (Nd2Si2O7) occurred in some of the glasses. In the composition region studied, TL decreased as SiO2 and B2O3 fractions increased and strongly increased with increasing fractions of RE oxides; Al2O3 had a moderate effect on the TL but, as expected, it strongly affected the precipitation of Al-containing crystals.

  13. Effectiveness of chemical sanitizers against Campylobacter jejuni-containing biofilms.

    PubMed

    Trachoo, Nathanon; Frank, Joseph F

    2002-07-01

    Survival of Campylobacter jejuni in mixed-culture biofilms was determined after treatment with chemical sanitizers including chlorine, quaternary ammonia, peracetic acid (PAA), and a PAA/peroctanoic acid mixture (PAA/POA). Biofilm-producing bacteria (gram-positive rods, Y1 and W1) were isolated from chicken house nipple drinkers. A meat plant isolate (Pseudomonas sp.) was also included as a biofilm producer. Two-day-old biofilms grown on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic coupons in R2A broth at 12 degrees C were incubated with 10(6) CFU/ml C jejuni for 6 h to allow attachment. The coupons were then rinsed and incubated in fresh media for an additional 24 h. C. jejuni-containing biofilms were detached by vortexing with glass beads in modified brucella broth, which was then enumerated for C. jejuni on selective/differential media. The presence of biofilm enhanced (P < 0.01) the attachment and survival of C. jejuni After the 24-h incubation, only 20 CFU/cm2 of C. jejuni were recovered from the control without biofilms compared to 2,500 to 5,000 CFU/cm2 in samples with preexisting biofilms. The presence of biofilm microflora decreased (P < 0.01) the effectiveness of sanitizers against C. jejuni. Chlorine was the most effective sanitizer since it completely inactivated C. jejuni in the biofilms after treatment at 50 ppm for 45 s. C. jejuni in biofilms was susceptible to all sanitizers tested but was not completely inactivated by treatment with quaternary ammonia, PAA, or PAA/POA mixture at 50 and 200 ppm for 45 s.

  14. Synthesis and luminescence properties of polymeric complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Al(III) with 8-hydroxyquinoline side group-containing polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Baojiao; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Three kinds of metalloquinolate-containing polystyrene were prepared via a polymer reaction and a coordination reaction. 5-Chloromethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (CHQ) was first prepared through the chloromethylation reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) with 1,4-bichloromethoxy-butane as chloromethylation reagent. A polymer reaction, Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, was carried out between polystyrene (PS) and CHQ in the presence of Lewis catalyst, and HQ was bonded onto the side chains of PS, obtaining 8-hydroxyquinoline-functionalized Polystyrene, HQ-PS. And then, by using one-pot method with two-stage procedures, the coordination reaction of HQ-PS and small molecule HQ with metal ions including Al(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions, was allowed to be carried out, and three polymeric metalloquinolates, AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, were successfully prepared, respectively. In the chemical structures of these polymeric metalloquinolates, metalloquinolates were chemically attached onto the side chains of PS. HQ-PS and three polymeric metalloquinolates were fully characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and TGA. The luminescence properties of the three polymeric metalloquinolates were mainly investigated by UV/Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra in solutions and in solid film states. When excited by the ray at about 365 nm, the three polymeric metalloquinolates have blue-green luminescence, and the main emission peaks in the DMF solutions are located at 490, 482 and 502 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. As compared with their emissions in solutions, the emissions in solid film states are red-shifted to some extent, and the main emission peaks are located at 500, 488 and 510 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. Besides, these polymeric metalloquinolates have higher thermal stability than PS as polymeric skeleton.

  15. Second-sphere coordination in anion binding: Synthesis, characterization and X-ray structures of bis(diethylenetriamine)cobalt(III) complexes containing benzoates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Ritu; Kaur, Amrinder; Kashyap, Monika; Janzen, Daron E.

    2014-04-01

    New complexes of composition s-fac-[Co(dien)2]Cl2(Bz)·H2O (1), s-fac-[Co(dien)2]Cl(p-CBz)2·4.5H2O (2) and mer-[Co(dien)2](p-NBz)3·3H2O (3) were obtained by reacting aqueous solutions of bis(diethylenetriamine)cobalt(III) chloride and sodium salts of benzoates ((Bz = benzoate, CBz = p-chlorobenzoate, NBz = p-nitrobenzoate)) in 1:3 molar ratio. These complexes were characterized by TG analysis and spectroscopic studies (IR, NMR and UV-vis). IR and NMR studies were used for the isomeric identification of [Co(dien)2]3+ in new complexes. This cation, contains ligand diethylenetriamine (dien) bearing H-bond donors, capable of forming hydrogen bonds and its binding properties with benzoates have been studied using standard UV-vis spectroscopic titrations in aqueous medium (log k for Bz = 2.11, p-CBz = 3.64 and p-NBz = 3.66). Single crystal X-ray study of complex 2 and 3 reveals that both the structures are dominantly stabilized by second-sphere coordination through H-bonding interactions of type-NH (dien)⋯O (benzoates) and H (water)⋯O (benzoates) in addition to the electrostatic forces of attractions. Further, the NH (dien)⋯Cl- (counter ion) and NH (dien)⋯O (water) types of interactions are also playing a dominant role to stabilize the crystal lattice in complex 2 and 3 respectively.

  16. Electrochemical illumination of intramolecular communication in ferrocene-containing tris-β-diketonato aluminum(III) complexes; cytotoxicity of Al(FcCOCHCOCF3)3.

    PubMed

    Gericke, Henno J; Muller, Alfred J; Swarts, Jannie C

    2012-02-06

    The series of ferrocene-containing tris-β-diketonato aluminum(III) complexes [Al(FcCOCHCOR)(3)] (R = CF(3), 1; CH(3), 2; C(6)H(5), 3; and Fc = ferrocenyl = Fe(η(5)-C(5)H(5))(η(5)-C(5)H(4)), 4) were synthesized and investigated structurally and electrochemically; complex 1 was subjected to cytotoxicity tests. (1)H NMR-spectroscopy distinguished between the mer and fac isomers of 2 and 3. Complex 1 existed only as the mer isomer. A single crystal X-ray crystallographic determination of the structure of a mer-isomer of Al(FcCOCHCOCF(3))(3), 1, (Z = 4, space group P2(1)2(1)2(1)) demonstrated extensive delocalization of all bonds which explained the pronounced electrochemically observed intramolecular communication between molecular fragments. In contrast to electrochemical studies in CH(2)Cl(2)/[N((n)Bu)(4)][PF(6)], the use of the supporting electrolyte [N((n)Bu)(4)][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] allowed identification of all Fc/Fc(+) electrochemical couples by cyclic and square wave voltammetry for 1-4. For R = Fc, formal reduction potentials of the six ferrocenyl groups were found to be E°' = 33, 123, 304, 432, 583, and 741 mV versus free ferrocene respectively. Complex 1 (IC(50) = 10.6 μmol dm(-3)) was less cytotoxic than the free FcCOCH(2)COCF(3) ligand having IC(50) = 6.8 μmol dm(-3) and approximately 2 orders of magnitude less toxic to human HeLa neoplastic cells than cisplatin (IC(50) = 0.19 μmol dm(-3)).

  17. Quantum cascade emission in the III-nitride material system designed with effective interface grading

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Alex Y. Huang, Tzu-Yung; Zah, Chung-En; Gmachl, Claire F.; Bhat, Rajaram; Wang, Jie; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-09-28

    We report the realization of quantum cascade (QC) light emission in the III-nitride material system, designed with effective interface grading (EIG). EIG induces a continuous transition between wells and barriers in the quantum confinement, which alters the eigenstate system and even delocalizes the states with higher energy. Fully transverse-magnetic spontaneous emission is observed from the fabricated III-nitride QC structure, with a center wavelength of ∼4.9 μm and a full width at half maximum of ∼110 meV, both in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. A multi-peak photo-response spectrum is also measured from the QC structure, which again agrees well with theoretical calculations and verifies the effects of EIG.

  18. Assessment of the transition strip effect in the transonic flow over the sounding rocket Sonda III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcão Filho, J. B. P.; Reis, M. L. C. C.; Francisco, C. P. F.; Silva, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of normalized pressure distribution are carried out over a 1:8 scale half-model of the Sonda III sounding rocket. The objective is to analyze the effect of the implementation of transition devices on the flow over the vehicle. Measurements show that the presence of the transition devices affect pressure distributions in different Mach numbers around the inter-stage region of Sonda III depending on its location and independently of the turbulent transition method employed. The study of these effects plays a significant role for future developments, since transition phenomena and the modification of the boundary layer behaviour due to the expansion can alter the load distributions and the turbulent structures of the flow. Furthermore, the experimental verification of such phenomena is crucial for the correct implementation of computational fluid dynamics calculations, as they might be able to capture the correct flow behaviour in these regions.

  19. Quantum cascade emission in the III-nitride material system designed with effective interface grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Alex Y.; Bhat, Rajaram; Allerman, Andrew A.; Wang, Jie; Huang, Tzu-Yung; Zah, Chung-En; Gmachl, Claire F.

    2015-09-01

    We report the realization of quantum cascade (QC) light emission in the III-nitride material system, designed with effective interface grading (EIG). EIG induces a continuous transition between wells and barriers in the quantum confinement, which alters the eigenstate system and even delocalizes the states with higher energy. Fully transverse-magnetic spontaneous emission is observed from the fabricated III-nitride QC structure, with a center wavelength of ˜4.9 μm and a full width at half maximum of ˜110 meV, both in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. A multi-peak photo-response spectrum is also measured from the QC structure, which again agrees well with theoretical calculations and verifies the effects of EIG.

  20. EffectiveDB—updates and novel features for a better annotation of bacterial secreted proteins and Type III, IV, VI secretion systems

    PubMed Central

    Eichinger, Valerie; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Platzer, Alexander; Jehl, Marc-André; Arnold, Roland; Rattei, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Protein secretion systems play a key role in the interaction of bacteria and hosts. EffectiveDB (http://effectivedb.org) contains pre-calculated predictions of bacterial secreted proteins and of intact secretion systems. Here we describe a major update of the database, which was previously featured in the NAR Database Issue. EffectiveDB bundles various tools to recognize Type III secretion signals, conserved binding sites of Type III chaperones, Type IV secretion peptides, eukaryotic-like domains and subcellular targeting signals in the host. Beyond the analysis of arbitrary protein sequence collections, the new release of EffectiveDB also provides a ‘genome-mode’, in which protein sequences from nearly complete genomes or metagenomic bins can be screened for the presence of three important secretion systems (Type III, IV, VI). EffectiveDB contains pre-calculated predictions for currently 1677 bacterial genomes from the EggNOG 4.0 database and for additional bacterial genomes from NCBI RefSeq. The new, user-friendly and informative web portal offers a submission tool for running the EffectiveDB prediction tools on user-provided data. PMID:26590402

  1. Effects of a novel magnetic orthopedic appliance (MOA-III) on the dentofacial complex in mild to moderate skeletal class III children.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ning; Feng, Jing; Hu, Zheng; Chen, Rongjing; Shen, Gang

    2015-10-14

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes of skeletal and dental structures in mild to moderate skeletal Class III children following the use of a new magnetic orthopedic appliance (MOA-III). A total of 36 patients (14 boys and 22 girls, mean age 9 years and 5 months) who presented with a mild to moderate skeletal Class III jaw discrepancy were treated with MOA-III. Another group of 20 untreated patients (9 boys and 11 girls, mean age 9 years and 2 months) with the same level of deformity served as the control group. The average treatment time was 6.6 months. Radiographs were taken at the same time intervals for both groups. A paired t test was used to determine the significant differences before and after treatment, and a two-sample t test was used to analyze the differences between the treatment and control groups. The anterior crossbite in all subjects was corrected after MOA-III therapy. The maxillomandibular relationship showed favorable changes (ANB, Wits, overjet increased significantly, P < 0.001). The maxilla was anteriorly positioned (SNA, ptm-A, ptm-S increased significantly, P < 0.001) with clockwise rotation (PP-FH increased, P < 0.001). The mandible showed a slight downward and backward rotation (SNB decreased, P < 0.05, MP-SN, Y-axis increased, P < 0.05). The length of the mandibular body showed no significant changes (Go-Pg, P > 0.05). Significant upper incisor proclination and lower incisor retroclination were observed (UI-NA increased, P < 0.001, LI-NB, FMIA decreased, P < 0.001). The upper lip moved forward, and the lower lip moved backward (UL-EP increased, P < 0.001, LL-EP decreased, P < 0.05). In the control group, most of the parameters showed normal growth, except for some unfavorable mandibular skeletal and soft tissue changes (Go-Pg, Go-Co, MP-SN, N'-SN-Pg' increased, P < 0.001). Significant positive changes were induced with the MOA-III appliance compared to the untreated group. The MOA-III was effective for

  2. The effects of K2SO4 solution on the compressive strength of dental gypsum type III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeilina, T.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    Dental gypsum type III is used as a material for manufacturing working models of dentures. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of the addition of a K2SO4 solution on the compressive strength of gypsum type III. A compressive strength test was performed using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. The results showed that the compressive strength of gypsum type III with a 1.5% K2SO4 solution added was higher than for gypsum type III alone but lower than the compressive strength of gypsum type IV.

  3. The effect of lanthanum(III) and cerium(III) ions between layers of manganese oxide on water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Isaloo, Mohsen Abbasi; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Shen, Jian-Ren; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman

    2015-12-01

    Manganese oxide structure with lanthanum(III) or cerium(III) ions between the layers was synthesized by a simple method. The ratio of Mn to Ce or La in samples was 0.00, 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.32, 0.5, 0.82, or 1.62. The compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The compounds show efficient catalytic activity of water oxidation in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate with a turnover frequency of 1.6 mmol O2/mol Mn.s. In contrast to the water-oxidizing complex in Photosystem II, calcium(II) has no specific role to enhance the water-oxidizing activity of the layered manganese oxides and other cations can be replaced without any significant decrease in water-oxidizing activities of these layered Mn oxides. Based on this and previously reported results from oxygen evolution in the presence of H 2 (18) O, we discuss the mechanism and the important factors influencing the water-oxidizing activities of the manganese oxides.

  4. A population of early fetal thymocytes expressing Fc gamma RII/III contains precursors of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Rodewald, H R; Moingeon, P; Lucich, J L; Dosiou, C; Lopez, P; Reinherz, E L

    1992-04-03

    We have identified a dominant fetal thymocyte population at day 14.5 of gestation in the mouse that lacks CD4 and CD8 but expresses Fc gamma RII/III several days prior to acquisition of the T cell receptor (TCR) in vivo. If maintained in a thymic microenvironment, this population of CD4-CD8-TCR-Fc gamma RII/III+ thymocytes differentiates first into CD4+CD8+TCRlowFc gamma RII/III- thymocytes and subsequently CD4+CD8-TCRhighFc gamma RII/III- and CD4-CD8+TCRhighFc gamma RII/III- mature Ti alpha-beta lineage T cells. However, if removed from the thymus, the CD4-CD8-TCR-Fc gamma RII/III+ thymocyte population selectively generates functional natural killer (NK) cells in vivo as well as in vitro. These findings show that a cellular pool of Fc gamma RII/III+ precursors gives rise to T and NK lineages in a microenvironment-dependent manner. Moreover, they suggest a hitherto unrecognized role for Fc receptors on primitive T cells.

  5. Gd(III) complexes for electron-electron dipolar spectroscopy: Effects of deuteration, pH and zero field splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbuio, Luca; Zimmermann, Kaspar; Häussinger, Daniel; Yulikov, Maxim

    2015-10-01

    Spectral parameters of Gd(III) complexes are intimately linked to the performance of the Gd(III)-nitroxide or Gd(III)-Gd(III) double electron-electron resonance (DEER or PELDOR) techniques, as well as to that of relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) spectroscopy with Gd(III) ions. These techniques are of interest for applications in structural biology, since they can selectively detect site-to-site distances in biomolecules or biomolecular complexes in the nanometer range. Here we report relaxation properties, echo detected EPR spectra, as well as the magnitude of the echo reduction effect in Gd(III)-nitroxide DEER for a series of Gadolinium(III) complexes with chelating agents derived from tetraazacyclododecane. We observed that solvent deuteration does not only lengthen the relaxation times of Gd(III) centers but also weakens the DEER echo reduction effect. Both of these phenomena lead to an improved signal-to-noise ratios or, alternatively, longer accessible distance range in pulse EPR measurements. The presented data enrich the knowledge on paramagnetic Gd(III) chelate complexes in frozen solutions, and can help optimize the experimental conditions for most types of the pulse measurements of the electron-electron dipolar interactions.

  6. The rates of exchange of water molecules from Al(III)-methylmalonate complexes: The effect of chelate ring size

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, W.H.; Phillips, B.L.; Nordin, J.P.; Sullivan, D.J.

    1998-08-01

    Rate coefficients are reported for exchange of hydration waters in the inner-coordination-sphere of Al(III)-methylmalonate complexes with bulk solution as determined via {sup 17}O-NMR. Surprisingly, water molecules in the thermodynamically less-stable complexes containing six-membered chelates are much more labile than those in five-membered oxalate-A(III) complexes. The surprising trend in reactivity is attributable either to differences in the Lewis basicities of oxygens in bidentate oxalate and methylmalonate ligands, or to rapid dissociation/reassociation of one of the acetate groups to the metal center. These results identify a useful case where trends in the apparent labilities of dissolved and presumed surface complexes deviate sharply. This deviation could be usefully exploited to probe surfaces if ligand-promoted dissolution rates could be compared at conditions where inner-sphere and outer-sphere chelate complexes could be distinguished spectroscopically. The authors expect inner-sphere oxalate to have a smaller labilizing effect than malonate or methylmalonate. A contrary result would indicate structural dissimilarity between complexes on the surface and in solution, or perhaps steric hindrance.

  7. 2-(Naphthalen-2-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline-2-carbaldehyde Oxime and Co(III) and Ni(II) Complexes of Tridentate Ligand Containing Oxime, Imine and Amine Donor Groups: Syntheses, Characterisation and Thermal Properties.

    PubMed

    Sirikçi, G; İrez, G; Gençkal, H Mutlu

    2012-12-01

    A novel 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinazoline oxime was synthesised from a condensation reaction of 2-(naphthalen-2-yl)-2-oxoacetaldehyde oxime with 2-aminobenzylamine. Subsequently, a-imine oxime complexes of this compound that formed with Co(III) and Ni(II) metal ions were obtained. All structures were characterised by spectral methods (FT-IR, nmr, AAS, mass), elemental analysis, thermal analyses, magnetic susceptibility and molar conductivity. The analyses confirmed the following molecular formulae: [Co(L)2]Cl • C2H5OH • 0,5H2O and [Ni(HL)2]Cl2. The Co(III) complex is diamagnetic. Magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed octahedral geometry for the Co(III) and Ni(II) complexes. In the complexes, the chloride ion was found to be noncoordinated to the metal ions as confirmed by conductivity measurements. The NMR spectra of the Co(III) complex confirmed the presence ofethanol in the Co(III) complex. The experimental results of TG-DTA showed that the Co(III) complex contained ethanol and crystal water in the first two stages. The end of the thermal decomposition of the complexes yielded a final product of a metal oxide.

  8. The effects of forehead and neck position on esthetics of class I, II and III profiles.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Parisa; Oshagh, Morteza; Aleyasin, Zeinab S; Pakshir, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    All parts of the face, other than jaw relationships, should be considered in orthodontic treatment planning. The role of forehead and neck in facial esthetics is well known; however, the majority of conventional facial analysis methods have not considered them. Neck and forehead may confer mutual effects on equilibrium and on esthetics of other facial components, and may change the overall convexity/concavity view of the profile. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of anteroposterior position of the forehead and neck on the esthetics of skeletal class I, II and III jaw relationships using profile silhouettes. Class II and III jaw relationships were constructed on the silhouette of a class I normal profile by altering the mandibular position. Retruded, normal and protruded positions were also applied for the forehead and neck. Three hundred Iranian laypeople (150 men, 150 women) scored the esthetics of profile silhouettes from 1 to 7. Half of the participants were told to consider the profiles as a man, and the other half were told to consider them as a woman. Data were analyzed using non-parametric methods. Class I jaw relation was found to be the most beautiful profile followed by class II and III respectively. Esthetics of different positions of the neck and forehead were significantly different (P < 0.05). In subjects with a normal neck and forehead position, and those with a retruded neck, the best esthetic relationship was class I, and the worst was class III. For protruded foreheads, the best jaw relationship was class II for females and class I for males, and the worst was class III for both. In a retruded forehead position, the most preferred jaw relationship was class I, and the worst was class II. For profiles with a protruded neck, the best esthetics was found to be in class III jaw relationship, and the worst was in class II. There was a small difference in scoring for male and female profiles (P < 0.05); there were also small

  9. Anoxic and Oxic Oxidation of Rocks Containing Fe(II)Mg-Silicates and Fe(II)-Monosulfides as Source of Fe(III)-Minerals and Hydrogen. Geobiotropy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2017-03-01

    In this article, anoxic and oxic hydrolyses of rocks containing Fe (II) Mg-silicates and Fe (II)-monosulfides are analyzed at 25 °C and 250-350 °C. A table of the products is drawn. It is shown that magnetite and hydrogen can be produced during low-temperature (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous silicates and during high-temperature (250 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous monosulfides. The high-T (350 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous silicates leads mainly to ferric oxides/hydroxides such as the hydroxide ferric trihydroxide, the oxide hydroxide goethite/lepidocrocite and the oxide hematite, and to Fe(III)-phyllosilicates. Magnetite is not a primary product. While the low-T (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous monosulfides leads to pyrite. Thermodynamic functions are calculated for elementary reactions of hydrolysis and carbonation of olivine and pyroxene and E-pH diagrams are analyzed. It is shown that the hydrolysis of the iron endmember is endothermic and can proceed within the exothermic hydrolysis of the magnesium endmember and also within the exothermic reactions of carbonations. The distinction between three products of the iron hydrolysis, magnetite, goethite and hematite is determined with E-pH diagrams. The hydrolysis/oxidation of the sulfides mackinawite/troilite/pyrrhotite is highly endothermic but can proceed within the heat produced by the exothermic hydrolyses and carbonations of ferromagnesian silicates and also by other sources such as magma, hydrothermal sources, impacts. These theoretical results are confirmed by the products observed in several related laboratory experiments. The case of radiolyzed water is studied. It is shown that magnetite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite and hematite are formed in oxic hydrolysis of ferromagnesian silicates at 25 °C and 350 °C. Oxic oxidation of ferrous monosulfides at 25 °C leads mainly to pyrite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as

  10. Anoxic and Oxic Oxidation of Rocks Containing Fe(II)Mg-Silicates and Fe(II)-Monosulfides as Source of Fe(III)-Minerals and Hydrogen. Geobiotropy.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2017-03-31

    In this article, anoxic and oxic hydrolyses of rocks containing Fe (II) Mg-silicates and Fe (II)-monosulfides are analyzed at 25 °C and 250-350 °C. A table of the products is drawn. It is shown that magnetite and hydrogen can be produced during low-temperature (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous silicates and during high-temperature (250 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous monosulfides. The high-T (350 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous silicates leads mainly to ferric oxides/hydroxides such as the hydroxide ferric trihydroxide, the oxide hydroxide goethite/lepidocrocite and the oxide hematite, and to Fe(III)-phyllosilicates. Magnetite is not a primary product. While the low-T (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous monosulfides leads to pyrite. Thermodynamic functions are calculated for elementary reactions of hydrolysis and carbonation of olivine and pyroxene and E-pH diagrams are analyzed. It is shown that the hydrolysis of the iron endmember is endothermic and can proceed within the exothermic hydrolysis of the magnesium endmember and also within the exothermic reactions of carbonations. The distinction between three products of the iron hydrolysis, magnetite, goethite and hematite is determined with E-pH diagrams. The hydrolysis/oxidation of the sulfides mackinawite/troilite/pyrrhotite is highly endothermic but can proceed within the heat produced by the exothermic hydrolyses and carbonations of ferromagnesian silicates and also by other sources such as magma, hydrothermal sources, impacts. These theoretical results are confirmed by the products observed in several related laboratory experiments. The case of radiolyzed water is studied. It is shown that magnetite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite and hematite are formed in oxic hydrolysis of ferromagnesian silicates at 25 °C and 350 °C. Oxic oxidation of ferrous monosulfides at 25 °C leads mainly to pyrite and ferric oxides

  11. Kinetic Differences and Synergistic Antiviral Effects Between Type I and Type III Interferon Signaling Indicate Pathway Independence

    PubMed Central

    Voigt, Emily A.

    2015-01-01

    The spread of acute respiratory viral infections is controlled by type I and III interferon (IFN) signaling. While the mechanisms of type I IFN signaling have been studied in detail, features that distinguish type III IFN signaling remain poorly understood. Type III IFNs play an essential role in limiting infections of intestinal and respiratory epithelial surfaces; however, type III IFNs have been shown to activate similar genes to type I IFNs, raising the question of how these IFNs differ and their signals interact. We measured the kinetics of type I and III IFN activation, functional stability, and downstream antiviral responses on A549 human lung epithelial cells. Similar kinetics were found for transcriptional upregulation and secretion of type I and III IFNs in response to infection by an RNA virus, peaking at 12 h postinfection, and both protein types had similar stabilities with functional half-lives extending beyond 2 days. Both IFNs activated potent cellular antiviral responses; however, responses to type III IFNs were delayed by 2–6 h relative to type I IFN responses. Combined treatments with type I and III IFNs produced enhanced antiviral effects, and quantitative analysis of these data with a Bliss interaction model provides evidence for independence of type I and III IFN downstream signaling pathways. This novel synergistic interaction has therapeutic implications for treatment of respiratory virus infections. PMID:25938799

  12. Different arsenate and phosphate incorporation effects on the nucleation and growth of iron(III) (Hydr)oxides on quartz.

    PubMed

    Neil, Chelsea W; Lee, Byeongdu; Jun, Young-Shin

    2014-10-21

    Iron(III) (hydr)oxides play an important role in the geochemical cycling of contaminants in natural and engineered aquatic systems. The ability of iron(III) (hydr)oxides to immobilize contaminants can be related to whether the precipitates form heterogeneously (e.g., at mineral surfaces) or homogeneously in solution. Utilizing grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), we studied heterogeneous iron(III) (hydr)oxide nucleation and growth on quartz substrates for systems containing arsenate and phosphate anions. For the iron(III) only system, the radius of gyration (Rg) of heterogeneously formed precipitates grew from 1.5 to 2.5 (± 1.0) nm within 1 h. For the system containing 10(-5) M arsenate, Rg grew from 3.6 to 6.1 (± 0.5) nm, and for the system containing 10(-5) M phosphate, Rg grew from 2.0 to 4.0 (± 0.2) nm. While the systems containing these oxyanions had more growth, the system containing only iron(III) had the most nucleation events on substrates. Ex situ analyses of homogeneously and heterogeneously formed precipitates indicated that precipitates in the arsenate system had the highest water content and that oxyanions may bridge iron(III) hydroxide polymeric embryos to form a structure similar to ferric arsenate or ferric phosphate. These new findings are important because differences in nucleation and growth rates and particle sizes will impact the number of available reactive sites and the reactivity of newly formed particles toward aqueous contaminants.

  13. Different Arsenate and Phosphate Incorporation Effects on the Nucleation and Growth of Iron(III) (Hydr)oxides on Quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Neil, Chelsea W.; Lee, Byeongdu; Jun, Young-Shin

    2014-10-21

    Iron(III) (hydr)oxides play an important role in the geochemical cycling of contaminants in natural and engineered aquatic systems. The ability of iron(III) (hydr)oxides to immobilize contaminants can be related to whether the precipitates form heterogeneously (e.g., at mineral surfaces) or homogeneously in solution. Utilizing grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), we studied heterogeneous iron(III) (hydr)oxide nucleation and growth on quartz substrates for systems containing arsenate and phosphate anions. For the iron(III) only system, the radius of gyration ( R g ) of heterogeneously formed precipitates grew from 1.5 to 2.5 ( ± 1.0) nm within 1 h. For the system containing 10-5 M arsenate, R g grew from 3.6 to 6.1 ( ± 0.5) nm, and for the system containing 10-5 M phosphate, R g grew from 2.0 to 4.0 ( ± 0.2) nm. While the systems containing these oxyanions had more growth, the system containing only iron(III) had the most nucleation events on substrates. Ex situ analyses of homogeneously and heterogeneously formed precipitates indicated that precipitates in the arsenate system had the highest water content and that oxyanions may bridge iron(III) hydroxide polymeric embryos to form a structure similar to ferric arsenate or ferric phosphate. These new fi ndings are important because di ff erences in nucleation and growth rates and particle sizes will impact the number of available reactive sites and the reactivity of newly formed particles toward aqueous contaminants.

  14. The gallium(III)-salicylidene acylhydrazide complex shows synergistic anti-biofilm effect and inhibits toxin production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Rzhepishevska, Olena; Hakobyan, Shoghik; Ekstrand-Hammarström, Barbro; Nygren, Yvonne; Karlsson, Torbjörn; Bucht, Anders; Elofsson, Mikael; Boily, Jean-François; Ramstedt, Madeleine

    2014-09-01

    Bacterial biofilms cause a range of problems in many areas and especially in health care. Biofilms are difficult to eradicate with traditional antibiotics and consequently there is a need for alternative ways to prevent and/or remove bacterial biofilms. Furthermore, the emergence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria creates a challenge to find new types of antibiotics with a lower evolutionary pressure for resistance development. One route to develop such drugs is to target the so called virulence factors, i.e. bacterial systems used when bacteria infect a host cell. This study investigates synergy effects between Ga(III) ions, previously reported to suppress biofilm formation and growth in bacteria, and salicylidene acylhydrazides (hydrazones) that have been proposed as antivirulence drugs targeting the type three secretion system used by several Gram-negative pathogens, including Pseudomonas aerugionosa, during bacterial infection of host cells. A library of hydrazones was screened for: Fe(III) binding, enhanced anti-biofilm effect with Ga(III) on P. aeruginosa, and low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. The metal coordination for the most promising ligand, 2-Oxo-2-[N-(2,4,6-trihydroxy-benzylidene)-hydrazino]-acetamide (ME0163) with Ga(III) was investigated using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy as well as density functional theory. The results showed that Ga(III) chelates the hydrazone with 5- and 6-membered chelating rings, and that the Ga(III)-ME0163 complex enhanced the antibiofilm effect of Ga(III) while suppressing the type three secretion system in P. aeruginosa. The latter effect was not observed for the hydrazone alone and was similar for Ga(III)-citrate and Ga(III)-ME0163 complexes, indicating that the inhibition of virulence was caused by Ga(III). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The effect of organic compounds in the oxidation kinetics of Cr(III) by H 2O 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettine, Maurizio; Gennari, Francesca; Campanella, Luigi; Millero, Frank J.

    2008-12-01

    The oxidation of Cr(III) has been studied in NaCl solutions in the presence of two siderophore models, acetohydroxamic acid (Aha) and benzohydroxamic acid (Bha), the natural siderophore Desferal (DFOB) and the synthetic aminocarboxilate (ethylenedinitrilo)-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) as a function of pH (8-9), ionic strength (0.01-2 M) and temperature (10-50 °C), at different Cr(III)-organic compound ratios. The addition of Aha and Bha caused the rates to increase at low ligand/Cr(III) ratios and decrease at high ratios. The variation of the pseudo first order rate constant ( k1) as a function of the ligand concentration has been attributed to the formation of three Cr(III)-organo species (1:1, 1:2, 1:3), which can form in the presence of monohydroxamic acids. A kinetic model has been developed that gives a value of 600 (min -1) for the pseudo first order rate constant k and values approaching zero for k and k. These kinetic results demonstrate that these monohydroxamic acids are able to bind with Cr(III) under experimental conditions that may occur in natural waters and can increase the oxidation rates of Cr(III) with H 2O 2 by a factor of 3.5 at an Aha/Cr(III) ratio of about 50-100. The monohydroxamic acids also affect the rates on aged products of Cr(III), suggesting that these ligands are able to affect the oxidation rates by releasing reactive Cr(III). DFOB and EDTA do not have a great effect on the oxidation of Cr(III) with H 2O 2. This is thought to be due to the much longer times they need to form complexes with Cr(III) compared to Aha and Bha. The rates for the formation of DFOB and EDTA complexes with Cr(III) are not competitive with the rates of the formation of aged Cr(III). After allowing Cr(III) and DFOB to react for 5 days to form the complex, reaction rates of Cr(III) with H 2O 2 appear to be lowered probably because of steric hindrance of the chelated Cr(III).

  16. The effects of two methods of Class III malocclusion treatment on temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Hanefi; Alioğlu, Ceylan; Karayazgan, Banu; Tuncer, Necat; Kılıçoğlu, Hülya

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate, within a controlled clinical study, the effects of a Delaire-type facemask or a modified Jasper Jumper (JJ) used in the treatment of children with Class III malocclusions due to maxillary retrognathia on temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusions referred for orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups, a test and a control. The test group comprised 33 randomly chosen patients (15 females, 18 males) aged 8-11 years. The control group included 13 patients (eight females, five males) with similar features. TMD assessment was performed before and after treatment using a two-axis questionnaire, the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMDs). Qualitative data were evaluated using chi-square and McNemar tests. No statistically significant differences related to the presence of TMD were observed pre- or post-treatment (P > 0.05). The most commonly encountered diagnosis was arthralgia in the JJ group both before and after treatment. Evaluation of joint and muscle regions showed decreased symptoms, apart from the diagnosed discomforts, in the JJ group (P < 0.05). Reduced symptoms were observed in the Delaire group; however, this reduction was not statistically significant. An increase, not considered to be statistically significant, was observed in the control group. The Delaire-type facemask and modified JJ used in the early phase of Class III malocclusion treatment did not result in TMD.

  17. Differential effects of Heparitinase I and Heparitinase III on endothelial tube formation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Karthik; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play vital roles in many steps of angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. HSPGs on endothelial cell surfaces act as coreceptors for a variety of pro-angiogenic growth factors such as FGF and VEGF and anti-angiogenic factors such as endostatin. However, the fine structural requirements of these binding interactions are dependent on the sulfation patterns of HSPGs. Previous studies have shown that Heparitinases, heparin lyases isolated from flavobacterium heparinum, can cleave heparan sulfate chains. These enzymes have been shown to reduce tumor—derived neovascularization in vivo in mice. However, the results from these experiments could not conclusively pinpoint the origin of the HS fragments. Thus, in this study we utilized an in vitro assay to assess the differential effects of Heparitinase I (Hep I) and Heparitinase III (Hep III) on endothelial tube formation. Hep III was found to be a more potent inhibitor of tube formation than Hep I. In conclusion, differential cleavage of endothelial cell surface bound HS can affect the extent of inhibition of tube formation. PMID:20599743

  18. Non-linear Effects Associated with Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2014-05-01

    Some of the Langmuir wave packets and associated density cavities observed by the STEREO spacecraft in the source regions of solar type III radio bursts indicate that they probably correspond to collapsing envelope soliton-caviton pairs. We present the observations of one of such wave packets, whose spectrum contains harmonic peaks at fpe, 2fpe and 3fpe (fpe is the electron plasma frequency). We show that frequencies, wave numbers and phases of the waves corresponding to these spectral peaks satisfy the resonance conditions of three wave interactions: L1+L2→T2fpe and L+T2fpe→T3fpe, where L1, L2 and L correspond to Langmuir waves, and T2fpe and T3fpe correspond to second and third harmonic electromagnetic waves, respectively.

  19. Atorvastatin and Fenofibrate have Comparable Effects on VLDL-Apolipoprotein C-III Kinetics in Men with the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Dick C; Watts, Gerald F; Ooi, Esther M.M; Ji, Juying; Johnson, Anthony G; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterised by insulin resistance and dyslipidemia that may accelerate atherosclerosis. Disturbed apolipoprotein (apo) C-III metabolism may account for dyslipidemia in these subjects. Atorvastatin and fenofibrate decrease plasma apoC-III, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Methods and Results The effects of atorvastatin (40 mg/d) and fenofibrate (200mg/d) on the kinetics of very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-apoC-III were investigated in a cross-over trial of 11 MetS men. VLDL-apoC-III kinetics were studied, following intravenous d3-leucine administration using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compartmental modeling. Compared with placebo, both atorvastatin and fenofibrate significantly decreased (P<0.001) plasma concentrations of triglyceride, apoB, apoB-48 and total apoC-III. Atorvastatin, not fenofibrate, significantly decreased plasma apoA-V concentrations (P<0.05). Both agents significantly increased the fractional catabolic rate (+32% and +30%, respectively) and reduced the production rate of VLDL-apoC-III (−20% and −24%, respectively), accounting for a significant reduction in VLDL-apoC-III concentrations (−41% and −39%, respectively).Total plasma apoC-III production rates were not significantly altered by the two agents. Neither treatment altered insulin resistance and body weight. Conclusions Both atorvastatin and fenofibrate have dual regulatory effects on VLDL-apoC-III kinetics in MetS; reduced production and increased fractional catabolism of VLDL-apoC-III may explain the triglyceride-lowering effect of these agents. PMID:18566295

  20. [Effect of low concentration of asbestos-containing dust].

    PubMed

    Kogan, F M; Kashanskiĭ, S V; Plotko, E G; Berzin, S A; Bogdanov, G B

    1993-01-01

    Dust, particularly fibrous, in atmosphere of Asbest town was characterized. Pulmonary cancer mortality in Asbest town and towns of nearby area were compared and no significant difference was found. Overall pulmonary cancer mortality was higher in the region than in Asbest. Obtained data served as a basis for discussion on the action threshold of asbestos-containing dust. MAC for asbestos fibers in atmosphere is reported to be 0.06 respirable fibers per ml.

  1. Virus-induced gene silencing of RPC5-like subunit of RNA polymerase III caused pleiotropic effects in Nicotiana benthamiana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In eukaryotic cells, RNA polymerase III is highly conserved, contains 17 subunits and transcribes housekeeping genes such as ribosomal 50S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. Functional roles of the RPC5 are poorly characterized in the literature. In this work, we report that virus-induced gene silenci...

  2. Single-molecule magnet behavior in heterometallic M(II)-Mn(III)(2)-M(II) tetramers (M(II) = Cu, Ni) containing Mn(III) salen-type dinuclear core.

    PubMed

    Kachi-Terajima, Chihiro; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Ayumi; Shirakawa, Naoki; Yamashita, Masahiro; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2007-07-23

    The linear-type heterometallic tetramers, [Mn(III)(2)(5-MeOsaltmen)(2)M(II)(2)(L)(2)](CF(3)SO(3))(2) x 2H(2)O (MII = Cu, 1a; Ni, 2a), where 5-MeOsaltmen(2-) = N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene) bis(5-methoxysalicylideneiminate), and H(2)L = 3-{2-[(2-hydroxy-benzylidene)-amino]-2-methyl-propylimino}-butan-2-one oxime, have been synthesized and characterized from structural and magnetic points of view. These two compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the same monoclinic P2(1)/n space group. The structure has a [M(II)-NO-Mn(III)-(O)(2)-Mn(III)-ON-M(II)] skeleton, where -NO- is a linking oximato group derived from the non-symmetrical Schiff-base complex [M(II)(L)] and -(O)(2)- is a biphenolato bridge in the out-of-plane [Mn(2)(5-MeOsaltmen)(2)](2+) dimer. The solvent-free compounds, 1b and 2b, have also been prepared by drying of the parent compounds, 1a and 2a, respectively, at 100 degrees C under dried nitrogen. After this treatment, the crystallinity is preserved, and 1b and 2b crystallize in a monoclinic P2(1)/c space group without significant changes in their structures in comparison to 1a and 2a. Magnetic measurements on 1a and 1b revealed antiferromagnetic Mn(III)---Cu(II) interactions via the oximato group and weak ferromagnetic Mn(III)---Mn(III) interactions via the biphenolato bridge leading to an S(T) = 3 ground state. On the other hand, the diamagnetic nature of the square planar Ni(II) center generates an S(T) = 4 ground state for 2a and 2b. At low temperature, these solvated (a) and desolvated (b) compounds display single-molecule magnet behavior modulated by their spin ground state.

  3. 75 FR 11530 - Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Wholesale Generator Status March 4, 2010. Docket Nos. Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC EG10-6-000 GardenGarden...-captioned entities as Exempt Wholesale Generators became effective by operation of the Commission's...

  4. Overview of the effect of Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Child, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    The regulation of hazardous air pollutants by Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has a potential wide-ranging impact for the natural gas industry. Title III includes a list of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) which are targeted for reduction. Under Title III, HAP emissions from major sources will be reduced by the implementation of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. If the source is defined as a major source, it must also comply with Title V (operating permit) and Title VII (enhanced monitoring) requirements. This presentation will review Title III`s effect on the natural gas industry by discussing the regulatory requirements and schedules associated with MACT as well as the control technology options available for affected sources.

  5. Combined effects of Lanthanum(III) and elevated Ultraviolet-B radiation on root nitrogen nutrient in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guangrong; Wang, Lihong; Sun, Zhaoguo; Li, Xiaodong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Rare earth element pollution and elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation occur simultaneously in some regions, but the combined effects of these two factors on plants have not attracted enough attention. Nitrogen nutrient is vital to plant growth. In this study, the combined effects of lanthanum(III) and elevated UV-B radiation on nitrate reduction and ammonia assimilation in soybean (Glycine max L.) roots were investigated. Treatment with 0.08 mmol L(-1) La(III) did not change the effects of elevated UV-B radiation on nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), nitrate, ammonium, amino acids, or soluble protein in the roots. Treatment with 0.24 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation synergistically decreased the NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities as well as the nitrate, amino acid, and soluble protein levels, except for the GDH activity and ammonium content. Combined treatment with 1.20 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation produced severely deleterious effects on all test indices, and these effects were stronger than those induced by La(III) or elevated UV-B radiation treatment alone. Following the withdrawal of La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation, all test indices for the combined treatments with 0.08/0.24 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation recovered to a certain extent, but they could not recover for treatments with 1.20 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation. In summary, combined treatment with La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation seriously affected nitrogen nutrition in soybean roots through the inhibition of nitrate reduction and ammonia assimilation.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and stereochemistry of S-bridged Co(III)MCo(III)(M = Pd(II), Pt(II)) trinuclear complexes containing two non-bridging thiolato groups: building blocks for the construction of chiral heterometallic aggregates.

    PubMed

    Chikamoto, Yu; Hirotsu, Masakazu; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Yoshimura, Takashi; Konno, Takumi

    2004-11-07

    The reaction of fac(S)-[Co(aet)(3)](aet = aminoethanethiolate) with [PdCl(4)](2-) in a 2:1 ratio in water gave an S-bridged Co(III)Pd(II)Co(III) trinuclear complex composed of two mer(S)-[Co(aet)(3)] units, [Pd[Co(aet)(3)](2)](2+)([1](2+)). In [1](2+), each of the two mer(S)-[Co(aet)(3)] units is bound to a square-planar Pd(II) ion through two of three thiolato groups, leaving two non-bridging thiolato groups at the terminal. Of two geometrical forms, syn and anti, possible for [Pd[Co(aet)(3)](2)](2+), which arise from the difference in arrangement of two terminal non-bridging thiolato groups, [1](2+) afforded only the syn form. A similar reaction of fac(S)-[Co(aet)(3)] with [PtCl(4)](2-) or trans-[PtCl(2)(NH(3))(2)] produced an analogous Co(III)Pt(II)Co(III) trinuclear complex, [Pt[Co(aet)(3)](2)](2+)([2](2+)), but both the syn and anti forms were formed for [2](2+). Complexes [1](2+) and syn- and anti-[2](2+), which exclusively exist as a racemic(DeltaDelta/LambdaLambda) form, were successfully optically resolved with use of [Sb(2)(R,R-tartrato)(2)](2-) as the resolving agent. The reaction of syn-[2](2+) with [AuCl[S(CH(2)CH(2)OH)(2)

  7. Overdose effect of aconite containing Ayurvedic Medicine ('Mahashankha Vati').

    PubMed

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Debnath, Saroj Kumar

    2010-07-01

    There are chances that the use of larger than recommended dose of Ayurvedic medicines containing aconite can produce drug reactions. Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox Wall.) is a very well-known ingredient of Ayurvedic formulations and is prescribed as an antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic, appetizer and digestive. The recommended dose of purified Vatsanabha (A. ferox Wall.) root is 15 mg. We present a case of hypotension and bradycardia due to aconite poisoning caused by overdosing of an Ayurvedic medicine (Mahashankha Vati), which was primarily managed by Ayurvedic treatment.

  8. Effects of the ACA on Health Care Cost Containment.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Janet; Marks, Clifford; Pauly, Mark

    2017-02-01

    This brief reviews the evidence on how key ACA provisions have affected the growth of health care costs. Coverage expansions produced a predictable jump in health care spending, amidst a slowdown that began a decade ago. Although we have not returned to the double-digit increases of the past, the authors find little evidence that ACA cost containment provisions produced changes necessary to "bend the cost curve." Cost control will likely play a prominent role in the next round of health reform and will be critical to sustaining coverage gains in the long term.

  9. Aqueous microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis using Fmoc strategy. III: racemization studies and water-based synthesis of histidine-containing peptides.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Keiko; Shinozaki, Natsuki; Hidaka, Koushi; Tsuda, Yuko; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Ichikawa, Hideki; Wade, John D

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we describe the first aqueous microwave-assisted synthesis of histidine-containing peptides in high purity and with low racemization. We have previously shown the effectiveness of our synthesis methodology for peptides including difficult sequences using water-dispersible 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-amino acid nanoparticles. It is an organic solvent-free, environmentally friendly method for chemical peptide synthesis. Here, we studied the racemization of histidine during an aqueous-based coupling reaction with microwave irradiation. Under our microwave-assisted protocol using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride, the coupling reaction can be efficiently performed with low levels of racemization of histidine. Application of this water-based microwave-assisted protocol with water-dispersible 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-amino acid nanoparticles led to the successful synthesis of the histidine-containing hexapeptide neuropeptide W-30 (10-15), Tyr-His-Thr-Val-Gly-Arg-NH₂, in high yield and with greatly reduced histidine racemization.

  10. Pentacoordinate and Hexacoordinate Mn(III) Complexes of Tetradentate Schiff-Base Ligands Containing Tetracyanidoplatinate(II) Bridges and Revealing Uniaxial Magnetic Anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Ivan; Herchel, Radovan; Trávníček, Zdeněk

    2016-12-08

    Crystal structures and magnetic properties of polymeric and trinuclear heterobimetallic Mn(III)···Pt(II)···Mn(III) coordination compounds, prepared from the Ba[Pt(CN)₄] and [Mn(L4A/B)(Cl)] (1a/b) precursor complexes, are reported. The polymeric complex [{Mn(L4A)}₂{μ⁴-Pt(CN)₄}]n (2a), where H₂L4A = N,N'-ethylene-bis(salicylideneiminate), comprises the {Mn(L4A)} moieties covalently connected through the [Pt(CN)₄](2-) bridges, thus forming a square-grid polymeric structure with the hexacoordinate Mn(III) atoms. The trinuclear complex [{Mn(L4B)}₂{μ-Pt(CN)₄}] (2b), where H₂L4B = N,N'-benzene-bis(4-aminodiethylene-salicylideneiminate), consists of two [{Mn(L4B)} moieties, involving pentacoordinate Mn(III) atoms, bridged through the tetracyanidoplatinate (II) bridges to which they are coordinated in a trans fashion. Both complexes possess uniaxial type of magnetic anisotropy, with D (the axial parameter of zero-field splitting) = -3.7(1) in 2a and -2.2(1) cm(-1) in 2b. Furthermore, the parameters of magnetic anisotropy 2a and 2b were also thoroughly studied by theoretical complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) methods, which revealed that the former is much more sensitive to the ligand field strength of the axial ligands.

  11. An unexpected cobalt(III) complex containing a Schiff base ligand: Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic behavior, electrochemical property and SOD-like activity.

    PubMed

    Chai, Lan-Qin; Huang, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Hong-Song; Zhang, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jian-Yu; Li, Yao-Xin

    2014-10-15

    An unexpected mononuclear Co(III) complex, [Co(L2)2·(CH3COO)]·CH3OH (HL2=1-(2-{[(E)-3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzylidene]amino}phenyl)ethanone oxime), has been synthesized via complexation of Co(II) acetate tetrahydrate with HL1 originally. The plausible reaction mechanism for the formation of quinazoline-type ligand was proposed. HL1 and its corresponding Co(III) complex were characterized by IR, as well as by elemental analysis and UV-vis spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the complex has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Each complex links two other molecules into an infinite 1-D chain via intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. Moreover, the electrochemical properties of the cobalt(III) complex were studied by cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). In addition, superoxide dismutase-like activities of HL1 and Co(III) complex were also investigated.

  12. Antiferromagnetic porous metal-organic framework containing mixed-valence [Mn(II)4Mn(III)2(μ4-O)2]10+ units with catecholase activity and selective gas adsorption.

    PubMed

    Kar, Paramita; Haldar, Ritesh; Gómez-García, Carlos J; Ghosh, Ashutosh

    2012-04-02

    A multifunctional porous metal organic framework based on mixed-valence hexa-nuclear [Mn(III)(2)Mn(II)(4)O(2)(pyz)(2)(C(6)H(5)CH(2)COO)(10)] (pyz = pyrazine) units has been synthesized. The complex has been characterized by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and variable-temperature magnetic measurements. The structural analysis reveals that the bidentate pyz molecules connect each [Mn(6)] unit to its four [Mn(6)] neighbors through the peripheral Mn(II) centers, giving rise to a three-dimensional (3D) distorted diamond-like porous framework. Variable-temperature (2-300 K) magnetic susceptibility measurements show the presence of dominant antiferromagnetic interactions within the discrete [Mn(6)] cluster that have been fitted with a model containing three exchange constants developed for the complex (J(1) = -8.6 cm(-1), J(2) = -3.9 cm(-1), and J(3) = -100.0 cm(-1)). Using 3,5-di-tert-butyl catechol (3,5-DTBC) as the substrate, catecholase activity of the complex has been studied; the turn over number is determined to be of 2547 h(-1) in acetonitrile. This porous compound shows remarkable selectivity for adsorption of CO(2) over N(2) that may be correlated with the effect of window flexibility of the pore to the corresponding adsorbate molecules.

  13. EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON ESTABLISHED FORENSIC EVIDENCE CONTAINMENT METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, C.; Duff, M.; Clark, E.; Chapman, G.

    2010-11-29

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory is currently exploring needs and protocols for the storage of evidentiary items contaminated with radioactive material. While a large body of knowledge on the behavior of storage polymers in radiation fields exists, this knowledge has not been applied to the field of forensics and maintaining evidentiary integrity. The focus of this research was to evaluate the behavior of several traditional evidentiary containment polymers when exposed to significant alpha, beta, gamma, neutron and mixed radiation sources. Doses were designed to simulate exposures possible during storage of materials. Several products were found to be poorly suited for use in this specific application based on standardized mechanical testing results. Remaining products were determined to warrant further investigation for the storage of radiologically contaminated evidence.

  14. Reactor-pumped laser: kinetics effects on the SPR III reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Minnema, D.M.; McArthur, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Sandia Pulsed Reactor III (SPR III) is being used as the pumping source for evaluation of energy deposition and laser physics in gas mixtures for reactor-pumped lasers. The test apparatus includes moderating and reflecting materials both near and in the glory hole, and occasionally, small quantities of uranium deposited on ceramic tubes in the glory hole. These materials significantly affect reactor behavior. The most prominent change that occurs with moderating material in the glory hole is an increase in the effective neutron lifetime of the reactor, and a factor of 2 to 3 has been observed in these tests. This affects several aspects of the reactor's behavior: initial reactor period, pulse width, and yield versus initial reactivity insertion. The most significant effect occurs when small quantities of uranium (ranging from 0.4 grams to 6 grams U/sub 3/O/sub 8/) are included in the package. There is an apparent increase in lifetime up to a factor of 7 over the normal value, and a large change in the pulse symmetry. Investigation suggests that the moderating material and uranium behave as a pseudo delayed-neutron precursor with a delay time of about 1.6 milliseconds, and an apparent yield of 0.00017. This paper provides a detailed discussion of these observations.

  15. Strain effect in group-III nitride semiconductors and their alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qimin; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias; van de Walle, Chris

    2009-11-01

    Strain plays a crucial role in group-III nitride semiconductor based devices since it affects the band structure near the valence- and conduction-band edges and thus the optical properties and the device characteristics. However, the deformation potentials that describe the change in band structure under strain have not yet been reliably determined. We present a systematic study of the strain effects in AlN, GaN and InN in the wurtzite phase. We apply density functional theory and hybrid functionals to address the band-gap problem. We observe nonlinearities of transition energies under realistic strain condition that may, in part, explain the appreciable scatter in previous theoretical work on deformation potentials of group-III-nitrides. For the linear regime around the experimental lattice parameters, we present a complete set of deformation potentials. Applying our deformation potentials, we study strain effects in InGaN alloys (including c-, m-, and semi-polar planes) grown on GaN substrates. We make predictions for the transition energies in these systems and their dependence on In composition.

  16. Negatively charged Ir(iii) cyclometalated complexes containing a chelating bis-tetrazolato ligand: synthesis, photophysics and the study of reactivity with electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Valentina; Zacchini, Stefano; Raiteri, Paolo; Mazzoni, Rita; Zanotti, Valerio; Massi, Massimiliano; Stagni, Stefano

    2016-08-09

    The bis-tetrazolate dianion [1,2 BTB](2-), which is the deprotonated form of 1,2 bis-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)benzene [1,2-H2BTB], is for the first time exploited as an ancillary N^N ligand for negatively charged [Ir(C^N)2(N^N)](-)-type complexes, where C^N is represented by cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine (ppy) or 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (F2ppy). The new Ir(iii) complexes [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- and [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- have been fully characterised and the analysis of the X-ray structure of [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- confirmed the coordination of the [1,2 BTB](2-) dianion in a bis chelated fashion through the N-atoms adjacent to each of the tetrazolic carbons. Both of the new anionic Ir(iii) complexes displayed phosphorescence in the visible region, with intense sky-blue (λmax = 460-490 nm) or aqua (λmax = 490-520 nm) emissions originating from [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- and [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]-, respectively. In comparison with our very recent examples of anionic Ir(iii)tetrazolate cyclometalates, the new Ir(iii) tris chelate complexes [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- and [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]-, display an improved robustness, allowing the study of their reactivity toward the addition of electrophiles such as H(+) and CH3(+). In all cases, the electrophilic attacks occurred at the coordinated tetrazolate rings, involving the reversible - by a protonation deprotonation mechanism - or permanent - upon addition of a methyl moiety - switching of their global net charge from negative to positive and, in particular, the concomitant variation of their photoluminescence output. The combination of the anionic complexes [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- or [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- with a deep red emitting (λmax = 686 nm) cationic Ir(iii) tetrazole complex such as [IrTPYZ-Me]+, where TPYZ-Me is 2-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyrazine, gave rise to two fully Ir(iii)-based soft salts capable of displaying additive and O2-sensitive emission colours, with an almost pure white light obtained by the appropriate

  17. Cost-effective critical care: cost containment and rationing.

    PubMed

    Rubenfeld, Gordon D

    2012-08-01

    Rationing occurs whenever the demand for a good or service exceeds its supply. Therefore rationing is an inevitable occurrence in medicine and in critical care where the potential demand for effective medical care will exceed supply. Although there are many strategies to allocate medical resources one that is often considered is based on cost-effectiveness. Cost-effectiveness analysis attempts to estimate the value of individual medical treatments in terms of dollars and outcomes. Allocation of medical treatments based on cost-effectiveness analysis requires valid estimates of both the costs and the effectiveness of treatments as well as some overarching body with the authority to enforce allocation based on these analyses. Limitations of allocation based on cost-effectiveness analysis in critical care include difficulties in estimating marginal costs of critical care treatments, limited evidence for any treatments with efficacy, and the ethical principle of rescuing identifiable lives in imminent risk of death. The prospect of a pandemic influenza-like infection has stimulated a lot of interest in hypothetical rationing strategies for the intensive care unit, none of which has been tested in actual pandemic scenarios. Given the burden of critical illness and the wide variation in resources a global approach to rationing is untenable. The article concludes with a vision of the future of allocation in critical care. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. The effect of gene drive on containment of transgenic mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John M

    2009-05-21

    Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever continue to be a major health problem through much of the world. Several new potential approaches to disease control utilize gene drive to spread anti-pathogen genes into the mosquito population. Prior to a release, these projects will require trials in outdoor cages from which transgenic mosquitoes may escape, albeit in small numbers. Most genes introduced in small numbers are very likely to be lost from the environment; however, gene drive mechanisms enhance the invasiveness of introduced genes. Consequently, introduced transgenes may be more likely to persist than ordinary genes following an accidental release. Here, we develop stochastic models to analyze the loss probabilities for several gene drive mechanisms, including homing endonuclease genes, transposable elements, Medea elements, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia, engineered underdominance genes, and meiotic drive. We find that Medea and Wolbachia present the best compromise between invasiveness and containment for the six gene drive systems currently being considered for the control of mosquito-borne disease.

  19. Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D M

    1997-01-01

    Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of backing soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor.

  20. Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D M

    1996-01-01

    Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of baking soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor.

  1. Effect of mobility devices on orientation sensors that contain magnetometers.

    PubMed

    Kendell, Cynthia; Lemaire, Edward D

    2009-01-01

    Orientation sensors containing magnetometers use the earth's magnetic field as a reference. Ferromagnetic objects may distort this magnetic field, leading to inaccurate orientation output. We explored the viability of these orientation sensors for motion analysis in an assistive mobility device rehabilitative setting. We attached two MTx orientation sensors (XSens; Enschade, the Netherlands), connected to the XBus Master data collection unit (XSens), to a plastic frame such that the relative angle between sensors was constant. We then moved a series of mobility devices in proximity to the plastic frame: two knee-ankle-foot orthoses (aluminum, stainless steel), one ankle-foot orthosis, two transtibial prostheses (exoskeletal, endoskeletal), two walkers (standard, Challenger Low Wide [Evolution Technologies; Port Coquitlam, Canada]), and two wheelchairs (Tango [OrthoFab; Quebec City, Canada], GTi [Quickie; Phoenix, Arizona]). For each mobility device, we calculated the average difference in relative angle between the baseline and peak angles for each of five trials. Errors ranged from less than 0.10 to 35.29 degrees, depending on the mobility device and frame positioning near the device. This demonstrated the large errors that can occur when magnetometer-based orientation sensors with mobility devices are used. While strategic orientation sensor placement on some mobility devices can minimize these errors to an acceptable level, testing protocols should be implemented to verify orientation sensor accuracy for these applications.

  2. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Boué, Stephen M; Wiese, Thomas E; Nehls, Suzanne; Burow, Matthew E; Elliott, Steven; Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Shih, Betty Y; McLachlan, John A; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2003-04-09

    Seven legume extracts containing phytoestrogens were analyzed for estrogenic activity. Methanol extracts were prepared from soybean (Glycine max L.), green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa L.), mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.), kudzu root (Pueraria lobata L.), and red clover blossom and red clover sprout (Trifolium pratense L.). Extracts of kudzu root and red clover blossom showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). Estrogenic activity was determined using an estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Kudzu root, red clover blossom and sprout, mung bean sprout, and alfalfa sprout extracts displayed increased cell proliferation above levels observed with estradiol. The pure estrogen antagonist, ICI 182,780, suppressed cell proliferation induced by the extracts, suggesting an ER-related signaling pathway was involved. The ER subtype-selective activities of legume extracts were examined using transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. All seven of the extracts exhibited preferential agonist activity toward ERbeta. Using HPLC to collect fractions and MCF-7 cell proliferation, the active components in kudzu root extract were determined to be the isoflavones puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein. These results show that several legumes are a source of phytoestrogens with high levels of estrogenic activity.

  3. Extraction and separation of thorium(IV) from lanthanides(III) with room-temperature ionic liquids containing primary amine N{sub 1923}

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Y.; Chen, J.; Bai, Y.; Li, D.Q.

    2008-07-01

    The extraction behavior of Th(IV) by primary amine N{sub 1923} in imidazolium-based ionic liquid namely 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (N{sub 1923}/IL) was studied in this paper. Results showed that N{sub 1923}/IL had poorer extraction ability for Th(IV) than N{sub 1923} in n-heptane (N{sub 1923}/HEP). The separation coefficients between Th(IV) and lanthanides(III) ({beta}{sub Th/Ln}) were obtained and compared with those in the N{sub 1923}/HEP system. On this basis, we made a preliminary assessment for the possibility of using ionic liquids as solvents for the separation of Th(IV) from lanthanides(III) sulfate in a clean process. (authors)

  4. Glutamine-containing “turn-on” fluorescence sensor for the highly sensitive and selective detection of chromium (III) ion in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Meili; Ma, Liguo; Zhang, Min; Cao, Weiguang; Yang, Liting; Ma, Li-Jun

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we reported a new fluorescence sensor for chromium (III) ion, dansyl-L-glutamine (1). The sensor displayed a unique selective fluorescence “turn-on” response to Cr3+ over other common metal ions in water. Notably, 1 still showed a ratiometric response to Cr3+ in UV-vis absorption spectra. The binding mechanism of 1 to Cr3+ was further clarified by using NMR and ESI-MS spectra. The experiment results indicated that the dual-responses of 1 to Cr3+ should attribute to the coordination of deprotonated sulfonamide group with Cr3+ and the protonation of the dimethylamino group due to the coordination of Cr3+ for 1. In addition, two chloride ions also coordinated to the complex of sensor-chromium (III) ion, which further strengthened the conformation of 1-Cr3+.

  5. Arsenic (III, V), indium (III), and gallium (III) toxicity to zebrafish embryos using a high-throughput multi-endpoint in vivo developmental and behavioral assay.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Christopher I; Field, Jim A; Simonich, Michael; Tanguay, Robert L; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2016-04-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and other III/V materials are finding increasing application in microelectronic components. The rising demand for III/V-based products is leading to increasing generation of effluents containing ionic species of gallium, indium, and arsenic. The ecotoxicological hazard potential of these streams is unknown. While the toxicology of arsenic is comprehensive, much less is known about the effects of In(III) and Ga(III). The embryonic zebrafish was evaluated for mortality, developmental abnormalities, and photomotor response (PMR) behavior changes associated with exposure to As(III), As(V), Ga(III), and In(III). The As(III) lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for mortality was 500 μM at 24 and 120 h post fertilization (hpf). As(V) exposure was associated with significant mortality at 63 μM. The Ga(III)-citrate LOEL was 113 μM at 24 and 120 hpf. There was no association of significant mortality over the tested range of In(III)-citrate (56-900 μM) or sodium citrate (213-3400 μM) exposures. Only As(V) resulted in significant developmental abnormalities with LOEL of 500 μM. Removal of the chorion prior to As(III) and As(V) exposure was associated with increased incidence of mortality and developmental abnormality suggesting that the chorion may normally attenuate mass uptake of these metals by the embryo. Finally, As(III), As(V), and In(III) caused PMR hypoactivity (49-69% of control PMR) at 900-1000 μM. Overall, our results represent the first characterization of multidimensional toxicity effects of III/V ions in zebrafish embryos helping to fill a significant knowledge gap, particularly in Ga(III) and In(III) toxicology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A fresnoite-structure-related mixed valent titanium(III/IV) chlorosilicate, Ba3Ti2Si4O14Cl: A flux crystal growth route to Ti(III) containing oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysinghe, Dileka; Smith, Mark D.; zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2017-06-01

    Single crystals of mixed valent barium titanium(III/IV) chlorosilicate, Ba3Ti2Si4O14Cl0.91O0.09, were grown in a high temperature molten chloride flux involving an in situ reduction step. The fresnoite structure related Ba3Ti2Si4O14Cl0.91O0.09 crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4/mbm with lattice parameters of a=8.6717(2) Å, c=18.6492(5) Å. The title compound exhibits a 3D structure consisting of 2D layers of fused Ti2O9 and Si4O12 groups and 2D layers of fused Ti2O9Cl2 and Si2O7 groups that are linked via barium atoms. The in situ reduction of Ti(IV) to Ti(III) is achieved via the addition of metallic Mg to the flux to function as the reducing agent. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility shows simple paramagnetism above 100 K. There is a discontinuity in the susceptibility data below 100 K, which might be due to a structural change that takes place resulting in charge ordering.

  7. Thallium speciation in plant tissues-Tl(III) found in Sinapis alba L. grown in soil polluted with tailing sediment containing thallium minerals.

    PubMed

    Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata; Sadowska, Monika; Ostrowska, Sylwia

    2012-05-15

    Besides the dominant species in plants-Tl(I), noticeable amounts of Tl(III) (about 10% of total Tl content) were found in extracts of plants cultivated in the presence of tailing sediments, which are the main source of anthropogenic thallium already present in the environment. It is an important step of gaining knowledge about the detoxification mechanisms developed by Sinapis alba. This plant species is highly tolerant to Tl and it is able to cumulate high amounts of Tl and transport it into the above-ground organs. For more adequate estimation of accumulating abilities of S. alba, the elements' bioavailability was taken into consideration. The obtained bioconcentration factors of Cd (AF=0.6) and Zn (AF=1-2) were significantly lower than of Tl (AF=100-200). The biomass production was similar to the biomass of control cultivation. The results were based on ICP MS measurements of total elements' content and HPLC ICP MS for speciation analysis. The quality of obtained results was evaluated based on the intermethod comparison with voltammetry as a reference method. Comparison of data obtained using ICP MS and electrochemical methods (after a proper chemical treatment) was also used for indication of Tl(III) presence and for proving that Tl(I) was not transferred into Tl(III) during analytical procedures.

  8. Preparation and photoluminescence of a novel β-diketone ligand containing electro-transporting group and its europium(III) ternary complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Neng-Jun; Leung, Louis M.; So, Shu-Kong; Gong, Meng-Lian

    2006-11-01

    A novel β-diketone with an electro-transporting oxadiazole group, 1-(4'-(5-(4-methylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione (MPBDTFA), was prepared with high yield. With this synthesized ligand as the first ligand and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) as the secondary ligand, a new europium(III) ternary complex, Eu(MPBDTFA) 3Phen, was synthesized. The new β-diketone and its europium(III) ternary complex were characteristized by elemental analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, IR and UV-visible spectroscopies. Photoluminescence measurements indicated that the energy absorbed by the organic ligands was efficiently transfered to the central Eu 3+ ions, and the complex showed intensely and characteristically red emissions due to the 5D0 → 7Fj transitions of the central Eu 3+ ions. With an electro-transporting group in molecule and highly thermal stability, the synthesized Eu(III) ternary complex is expected as a red-emitting candidate material for fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).

  9. Preparation and photoluminescence of a novel beta-diketone ligand containing electro-transporting group and its europium(III) ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Neng-Jun; Leung, Louis M; So, Shu-Kong; Gong, Meng-Lian

    2006-11-01

    A novel beta-diketone with an electro-transporting oxadiazole group, 1-(4'-(5-(4-methylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione (MPBDTFA), was prepared with high yield. With this synthesized ligand as the first ligand and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) as the secondary ligand, a new europium(III) ternary complex, Eu(MPBDTFA)(3)Phen, was synthesized. The new beta-diketone and its europium(III) ternary complex were characteristized by elemental analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, IR and UV-visible spectroscopies. Photoluminescence measurements indicated that the energy absorbed by the organic ligands was efficiently transfered to the central Eu(3+) ions, and the complex showed intensely and characteristically red emissions due to the (5)D(0)-->(7)F(j) transitions of the central Eu(3+) ions. With an electro-transporting group in molecule and highly thermal stability, the synthesized Eu(III) ternary complex is expected as a red-emitting candidate material for fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).

  10. Effects of amino acid mutations in the pore-forming domain of the hemolytic lectin CEL-III.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Tomonao; Masaki, Risa; Unno, Hideaki; Goda, Shuichiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

    2016-10-01

    The hemolytic lectin CEL-III forms transmembrane pores in the membranes of target cells. A study on the effect of site-directed mutation at Lys405 in domain 3 of CEL-III indicated that replacements of this residue by relatively smaller residues lead to a marked increase in hemolytic activity, suggesting that moderately destabilizing domain 3 facilitates formation of transmembrane pores through conformational changes.

  11. Mossbauer effect studies in iron containing nonmagnetic impurities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Mossbauer parameters of dilute quaternary (Fe-XYZ) alloys where X, Y, Z, are Al, Ge, and La, respectively were studied. A comparison between the computed and the observed values indicates that changes in effective hyperfine field, outer peak widths and the isomer shift predicted on the basis of binary alloys of the individual impurities are equal, within experimental errors, to those obtained in quaternary (Fe-XYZ) alloys. The effects of simultaneously present dilute impurities are shown to be additive, independent of their respective electronic configurations.

  12. Effect of starch sources on extruded aquaculture feed containing DDGS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aquaculture is one of the most rapidly growing sectors of agriculture, and is a reliable growth market for the prepared feeds. A Brabender laboratory-scale single screw extruder was used to study the effect of various starch sources (cassava, corn, and potato), DDGS levels (20, 30, and 40% (wb)), an...

  13. Anti-stress effects of lemon balm-containing foods.

    PubMed

    Scholey, Andrew; Gibbs, Amy; Neale, Chris; Perry, Naomi; Ossoukhova, Anastasia; Bilog, Vanessa; Kras, Marni; Scholz, Claudia; Sass, Mathias; Buchwald-Werner, Sybille

    2014-10-30

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) has been used historically and contemporarily as a modulator of mood and cognitive function, with anxiolytic effects following administration of capsules, coated tablets and topical application. Following a pilot study with lemon balm extract administered as a water based drink, which confirmed absorption of rosmarinic acid effects on mood and cognitive function, we conducted two similar double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. These evaluated the mood and cognitive effects of a standardised M. officinalis preparation administered in palatable forms in a beverage and in yoghurt. In each study a cohort of healthy young adults' self-rated aspects of mood were measured before and after a multi-tasking framework (MTF) administered one hour and three hours following one of four treatments. Both active lemon balm treatments were generally associated with improvements in mood and/or cognitive performance, though there were some behavioral "costs" at other doses and these effects depended to some degree on the delivery matrix.

  14. Anti-Stress Effects of Lemon Balm-Containing Foods

    PubMed Central

    Scholey, Andrew; Gibbs, Amy; Neale, Chris; Perry, Naomi; Ossoukhova, Anastasia; Bilog, Vanessa; Kras, Marni; Scholz, Claudia; Sass, Mathias; Buchwald-Werner, Sybille

    2014-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) has been used historically and contemporarily as a modulator of mood and cognitive function, with anxiolytic effects following administration of capsules, coated tablets and topical application. Following a pilot study with lemon balm extract administered as a water based drink, which confirmed absorption of rosmarinic acid effects on mood and cognitive function, we conducted two similar double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. These evaluated the mood and cognitive effects of a standardised M. officinalis preparation administered in palatable forms in a beverage and in yoghurt. In each study a cohort of healthy young adults’ self-rated aspects of mood were measured before and after a multi-tasking framework (MTF) administered one hour and three hours following one of four treatments. Both active lemon balm treatments were generally associated with improvements in mood and/or cognitive performance, though there were some behavioral “costs” at other doses and these effects depended to some degree on the delivery matrix. PMID:25360512

  15. Nonanuclear Spin-Crossover Complex Containing Iron(II) and Iron(III) Based on a 2,6-Bis(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine Ligand Functionalized with a Carboxylate Group.

    PubMed

    Abhervé, Alexandre; Recio-Carretero, María José; López-Jordà, Maurici; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Canet-Ferrer, Josep; Cantarero, Andrés; Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio

    2016-09-19

    The synthesis and magnetostructural characterization of [Fe(III)3(μ3-O)(H2O)3[Fe(II)(bppCOOH)(bppCOO)]6](ClO4)13·(CH3)2CO)6·(solvate) (2) are reported. This compound is obtained as a secondary product during synthesis of the mononuclear complex [Fe(II)(bppCOOH)2](ClO4)2 (1). The single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure of 2 shows that it contains the nonanuclear cluster of the formula [Fe(III)3(μ3-O)(H2O)3[Fe(II)(bppCOOH)(bppCOO)]6](13+), which is formed by a central Fe(III)3O core coordinated to six partially deprotonated [Fe(II)(bppCOOH)(bppCOO)](+) complexes. Raman spectroscopy studies on single crystals of 1 and 2 have been performed to elucidate the spin and oxidation states of iron in 2. These studies and magnetic characterization indicate that most of the iron(II) complexes of 2 remain in the low-spin (LS) state and present a gradual and incomplete spin crossover above 300 K. On the other hand, the Fe(III) trimer shows the expected antiferromagnetic behavior. From the structural point of view, 2 represents the first example in which bppCOO(-) acts as a bridging ligand, thus forming a polynuclear magnetic complex.

  16. Effects of Ce(III) and CeO₂ nanoparticles on soil-denitrification kinetics.

    PubMed

    Dahle, Jessica T; Arai, Yuji

    2014-11-01

    Cerium (Ce)-based compounds, such as CeO₂ nanoparticles (NPs), have received much attention in the last several years due to their popular applications in industrial and commercial uses. Understanding the impact of CeO₂ NPs on nutrient cycles, a subchronic toxicity study of CeO₂ NPs on soil-denitrification process was performed as a function of particle size (33 and 78 nm), total Ce concentration (50-500 mg L(-1)), and speciation [Ce(IV) vs. Ce(III)]. The antimicrobial effect on the soil-denitrification process was evaluated in both steady-state and zero-order kinetic models to assess particle- and chemical-species specific toxicity. It was found that soluble Ce(III) was far more toxic than Ce(IV)O₂ NPs when an equal total concentration of Ce was evaluated. Particle size-dependent toxicity, species-dependent toxicity, and concentration-dependent toxicity were all observed in this study for both the steady-state and the kinetic evaluations. Changes in physicochemical properties of Ce(IV)O₂ NPs might be important in assessing the environmental fate and toxicity of NPs in aquatic and terrestrial environments.

  17. Wound healing effects of nanoemulsion containing clove essential oil.

    PubMed

    Alam, Prawez; Ansari, Mohammad J; Anwer, Md Khalid; Raish, Mohammad; Kamal, Yoonus K T; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the wound healing effects of clove oil (CO) via its encapsulation into nanoemulsion. Optimized nanoemulsion (droplet size of 29.10 nm) was selected for wound healing investigation, collagen determination, and histopathological examination in rats. Optimized nanoemulsion presented significant would healing effects in rats as compared to pure CO. Nanoemulsion also presented significant enhancement in leucine content (0.61 mg/g) as compared to pure CO (0.50 mg/g) and negative control (0.31 mg/g). Histopathology of nanoemulsion treated rats showed no signs of inflammatory cells. These results suggested that nanoemulsion of CO was safe and nontoxic.

  18. Effective water disinfection using silver nanoparticle containing silica beads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quang, Dang Viet; Sarawade, Pradip B.; Jeon, Sun Jeong; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jong-Kil; Chai, Young Gyu; Kim, Hee Taik

    2013-02-01

    The shortage of safe drinking water in developing countries and at the sites of natural disaster has spurred scientists to develop more effective materials for water disinfection at the point of use. In the present study, silver nanoparticle supported silica beads (Ag-NPBs) with sizes ranging from 0.5 to 1 mm were prepared, and their potential for water disinfection was examined. Escherichia coli was utilized to assess water disinfection potential by flow tests using a filter column filled with Ag-NPBs. Ag-NPBs inactivated > 99% of E. coli with a contact time of several seconds when the input water had a bacterial load of approximately 106 colony-forming units per mL. Ag-NPBs have an antibacterial capacity of 4.5 L/g. The effect of ammonium and urea on the release rate of silver into filtrate was investigated. The results suggest that Ag-NPBs could be an effective material for water disinfection.

  19. Effect of Copper Addition on Crystallization and Properties of Hafnium Containing HITPERM Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-05-01

    AFRL-RZ-WP-TP-2010-2190 EFFECT OF COPPER ADDITION ON CRYSTALLIZATION AND PROPERTIES OF HAFNIUM CONTAINING HITPERM ALLOYS (POSTPRINT) L...SUBTITLE EFFECT OF COPPER ADDITION ON CRYSTALLIZATION AND PROPERTIES OF HAFNIUM CONTAINING HITPERM ALLOYS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house...8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Effect of copper addition on crystallization and properties of hafnium containing HITPERM alloys „invited

  20. [Prophylaxis of consumption coagulopathy in shock. Dependence of the effect of heparin on the activity of antithrombin III (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bergmann, H; Blauhut, B; Necek, S; Kramar, H; Vinazzer, H

    1980-11-01

    In 16 patients admitted in shock, heparin prophylaxis for DIC was carried out. The effect of heparin was monitored by a series of coagulation tests. A distinct relation was found between the effect of heparin on the aPTT and on the thrombin clotting time and the activity of antithrombin III. Even a comparatively slight diminution of this activity resulted in a considerable decrease of the heparin effect on coagulation. Since this effect is of primary importance for the efficacy of prophylaxis of DIC, regular assays of antithrombin III are proposed in shock patients receiving heparin.

  1. Toxic effects of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) on energy metabolism of heterotrophic Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Pacheco-Rosales, Angélica; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; García, Noemí; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2010-11-15

    To assess the toxic effect of Cr on energy metabolism, heterotrophic Euglena gracilis was grown in a medium that prompts high yield biomass and in the presence of different Cr(VI) or Cr(III) concentrations. The cell growth IC₅₀ value was 12 and >250μM for Cr(VI) and Cr(III), respectively; in these cells chromium was accumulated and a fraction compartmentalized into mitochondria, and synthesis of cysteine and glutathione was induced. Respiration of control isolated mitochondria was strongly inhibited by added Cr(VI) or Cr(III) with L-lactate or succinate as substrates. In turn, cellular and mitochondrial respiration, respiratory Complexes I, III and IV, glycolysis and cytosolic NAD(+)-alcohol and -lactate dehydrogenases from cells cultured with Cr(VI) were significantly lower than control, whereas AOX and external NADH dehydrogenase activities were unaltered or increased, respectively. Addition of Cr(VI) or Cr(III) to isolated mitochondria or cytosol from control- or Cr(VI)-grown cells induced inhibition of respiration, respiratory Complexes III, IV and AOX, and glycolytic pyruvate kinase; whereas Complex I, external NADH dehydrogenase, and other glycolytic enzymes were unaffected. Protein contents of mitochondrial Complexes I, III, IV and V, and ANT were diminished in Cr(VI)-grown cells. Decreased respiration and glycolysis induced by Cr(VI) resulted in lower cellular ATP content. Results suggested that Cr(VI) cytotoxicity altered gene expression (as widely documented) and hence enzyme content, and induced oxidative stress, but it was also related with direct enzyme inhibition; Cr(III) was also cytotoxic although at higher concentrations. These findings establish new paradigms for chromium toxicity: Cr(VI) direct enzyme inhibition and non-innocuous external Cr(III) toxicity.

  2. Nursery response of container Pinus palustris seedlings to nitrogen supply and subsequent effects on outplanting performance

    Treesearch

    D. Paul Jackson; R. Kasten Dumroese; James P. Barnett

    2012-01-01

    Container longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) seedlings often survive and grow better after outplanting than bareroot seedlings. Because of this, most longleaf pine are now produced in containers. Little is known about nursery fertilization effects on the quality of container longleaf pine seedlings and how that influences outplanting performance. We compared various...

  3. Examination of effects of Cu(II) and Cr(III) on Al(III) binding by dissolved organic matter using absorbance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingquan; Ma, Jing; Ji, Guodong

    2016-04-15

    Effects of Cu(II) and Cr(III) ions on the binding of Al(III) onto Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) exemplified by Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) at pH 6.0 were quantified in this study using linear and log-transformed SRHA absorbance spectra acquired at varying Al(3+) concentrations and Cu(2+) or Cr(3+) levels. The competition between Al(3+) and Cu(2+)/Cr(3+) for the binding sites in DOM was ascertained by examining the intensity and shapes of the metal-specific differential spectra of DOM. The results indicated that the binding of Al(3+) onto SRHA is little influenced in the cases of in presence of 1.0 and 10.0 μM background Cr(3+) and in presence of 1.0 μM background Cu(2+), but it is significantly depressed in presence of 10.0 μM Cu(2+). Changes of the spectral slope of the log-transformed absorbance spectra in the 350-400 nm wavelength range (S350-400) were unambiguously correlated with the total amount of DOM-bound metals. The concentrations of Me-DOM complexes were determined using the NICA-Donnan Model. The results demonstrate that differential absorbance measurements provide quantitatively interpretable information concerning the nature and mechanisms of metal-DOM interactions and effects of metal cations competition on these processes.

  4. Silver nanoparticles-enhanced rare earth co-luminescence effect of Tb(III)-Y(III)-dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Li, Huihui; Wu, Xia

    2015-06-01

    It was found that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) could enhance co-luminescence effect of rare earths ions Tb(3+) and Y(3+). Based on this, a sensitive fluorescence detection method for the determination of dopamine (DA) was proposed. Moreover, the detection limit for DA was very low (down to nM). This is because DA can remarkably enhance the luminescence intensity of the Tb(3+) ion by Y(3+) in the colloidal solution of AgNPs, forming a new co-luminescence system. Furthermore, based on the metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF), AgNPs can sensitize the co-luminescence effect of the complex of Tb(3+)-Y(3+)-DA. In a neutral buffer solution (pH 7.50), the luminescence intensity of the system was linearly related to the concentration of DA in the range of 2.0-100 nM, with a limit of detection as low as 0.57 nM. The proposed method was applied for the determination of DA in dopamine hydrochloride injections and human serum samples with good accuracy and satisfactory recovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Correction: Effective Am(III)/Eu(III) separations using 2,6-bis(1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine (BTP) functionalised titania particles and hierarchically porous beads.

    PubMed

    Veliscek-Carolan, J; Jolliffe, K A; Hanley, T L

    2015-07-25

    Correction for 'Effective Am(III)/Eu(III) separations using 2,6-bis(1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine (BTP) functionalised titania particles and hierarchically porous beads' by J. Veliscek-Carolan et al., Chem. Commun., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5cc03957f.

  6. Effectiveness and safety of a mouthwash containing essential oil ingredients.

    PubMed

    Vlachojannis, Christian; Winsauer, Heinz; Chrubasik, Sigrun

    2013-05-01

    The mouthwash, Listerine®, was compounded in 1879 from four essential oils. Later, the oils were replaced by one ingredient per oil with approximately 25% ethanol as a vehicle to keep them in solution. From then on, Listerine® was no longer a medicinal plant product. In 2003, a review by the FDA Subcommittee on Oral Health Care Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use concluded that the product is effective and safe, and a review of studies published in the meantime showed that Listerine® fulfils the consensus criteria for an effective antigingivitis/antiplaque product. However, concerns have been raised about the long-term safety of some of the ingredients, particularly the ethanol content, and in the light of these concerns, the evidence has been re-examined for both the efficacy and safety of Listerine®. In summary, the studies support the claim that Listerine® shows benefit for oral health, but the concerns over its safety remain to be clarified. Until these have been addressed, high risk populations (children, alcohol addicts, patients with genetic deficiencies in ethanol metabolism) should use alcohol-free mouthwashes for the maintenance of oral health.

  7. Virucidal effect of chlorinated water containing cyanuric acid.

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, T.; Sakae, K.; Ishihara, Y.; Isomura, S.; Inoue, H.

    1988-01-01

    The inhibitory influence of cyanuric acid on the virucidal effect of chlorine was studied. The time required for 99.9% inactivation of ten enteroviruses and two adenoviruses by 0.5 mg/l free available chlorine at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C was prolonged approximately 4.8-28.8 times by the addition of 30 mg/l cyanuric acid. Comparative inactivation of poliovirus 1 by free available chlorine with or without cyanuric acid revealed the following. The inactivation rate by 1.5 mg/l free available chlorine with 30 mg/l cyanuric acid or by 0.5 mg/l free available chlorine with 1 mg/l cyanuric acid was slower than by 0.5 mg/l free available chlorine alone. Temperature and pH did not affect the inhibitory influence of cyanuric acid on the disinfectant action of chlorine. In the swimming-pool and tap water, cyanuric acid delayed the virucidal effect of chlorine as much as in the 'clean' condition of chlorine-buffered distilled water. The available chlorine value should be increased to 1.5 mg/l when cyanuric acid is used in swimming-pool water. PMID:2850940

  8. Virucidal effect of chlorinated water containing cyanuric acid.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, T; Sakae, K; Ishihara, Y; Isomura, S; Inoue, H

    1988-12-01

    The inhibitory influence of cyanuric acid on the virucidal effect of chlorine was studied. The time required for 99.9% inactivation of ten enteroviruses and two adenoviruses by 0.5 mg/l free available chlorine at pH 7.0 and 25 degrees C was prolonged approximately 4.8-28.8 times by the addition of 30 mg/l cyanuric acid. Comparative inactivation of poliovirus 1 by free available chlorine with or without cyanuric acid revealed the following. The inactivation rate by 1.5 mg/l free available chlorine with 30 mg/l cyanuric acid or by 0.5 mg/l free available chlorine with 1 mg/l cyanuric acid was slower than by 0.5 mg/l free available chlorine alone. Temperature and pH did not affect the inhibitory influence of cyanuric acid on the disinfectant action of chlorine. In the swimming-pool and tap water, cyanuric acid delayed the virucidal effect of chlorine as much as in the 'clean' condition of chlorine-buffered distilled water. The available chlorine value should be increased to 1.5 mg/l when cyanuric acid is used in swimming-pool water.

  9. Effect of Oxidation Rate and Fe(II) State on Microbial Nitrate-Dependent Fe(III) Mineral Formation

    PubMed Central

    Senko, John M.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2005-01-01

    A nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium was isolated and used to evaluate whether Fe(II) chemical form or oxidation rate had an effect on the mineralogy of biogenic Fe(III) (hydr)oxides resulting from nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. The isolate (designated FW33AN) had 99% 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Klebsiella oxytoca. FW33AN produced Fe(III) (hydr)oxides by oxidation of soluble Fe(II) [Fe(II)sol] or FeS under nitrate-reducing conditions. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fe(III) (hydr)oxide produced by oxidation of FeS was shown to be amorphous, while oxidation of Fe(II)sol yielded goethite. The rate of Fe(II) oxidation was then manipulated by incubating various cell concentrations of FW33AN with Fe(II)sol and nitrate. Characterization of products revealed that as Fe(II) oxidation rates slowed, a stronger goethite signal was observed by XRD and a larger proportion of Fe(III) was in the crystalline fraction. Since the mineralogy of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides may control the extent of subsequent Fe(III) reduction, the variables we identify here may have an effect on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe in anoxic ecosystems. PMID:16269756

  10. Effect of the oxidation rate and Fe(II) state on microbial nitrate-dependent Fe(III) mineral formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senko, John M.; Dewers , Thomas A.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2005-01-01

    A nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium was isolated and used to evaluate whether Fe(II) chemical form or oxidation rate had an effect on the mineralogy of biogenic Fe(III) (hydr)oxides resulting from nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. The isolate (designated FW33AN) had 99% 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Klebsiella oxytoca. FW33AN produced Fe(III) (hydr)oxides by oxidation of soluble Fe(II) [Fe(II)sol] or FeS under nitrate-reducing conditions. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fe(III) (hydr)oxide produced by oxidation of FeS was shown to be amorphous, while oxidation of Fe(II)sol yielded goethite. The rate of Fe(II) oxidation was then manipulated by incubating various cell concentrations of FW33AN with Fe(II)sol and nitrate. Characterization of products revealed that as Fe(II) oxidation rates slowed, a stronger goethite signal was observed by XRD and a larger proportion of Fe(III) was in the crystalline fraction. Since the mineralogy of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides may control the extent of subsequent Fe(III) reduction, the variables we identify here may have an effect on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe in anoxic ecosystems.

  11. Effects of dental porcelain containing silver nanoparticles on static fatigue.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Tokushi; Uno, Mitsunori; Ishigami, Hajime; Kurachi, Masakazu; Kamemizu, Hideo; Wakamatsu, Nobukazu; Doi, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of silver nanoparticles on the behavior of subcritical crack growth (SCG) in dental porcelains. Prior to occurrence of fast fracture in dental porcelains, SCG occurs and leads to strength degradation over time. SCG in dental porcelains can be characterized by the stress corrosion susceptibility coefficient, n. A higher n value means a higher resistance to SCG. In this study, porcelain disks were prepared by mixing a commercial dental porcelain powder with different concentrations of silver nanoparticles, and then air-dried and fired according to manufacturer's instructions. Stress corrosion susceptibility coefficients of powder compacts were determined using a post-indentation method. A Vickers indenter was applied to the porcelain surface, and lengths of median cracks were measured at fixed time intervals over a 24-h period to calculate n. Addition of silver nanoparticles significantly increased the stress corrosion susceptibility coefficient of dental porcelain.

  12. [Effect of carcinogenic nitrogen-containing compounds on cell metabolism].

    PubMed

    Antropov, V I; Samoĭlov, V O; Slepian, É I

    2012-01-01

    The brown frog (Rana temporaria) skin cells respiration, calcium metabolism and glycolysis, the tree frog (Hyla arborea) skin cells respiration and calcium metabolism were studied under short-term (first hours) and long-term (first days) exposure to nitrogenous compounds [N-nitroso-N-methyl urea (NMU) and thiourea (TU)]. The first direct effect of nitrogenous compounds exposure was cell breathing inhibition occurring in Rana temporaria skin cells after 28 days of exposure, and in Hyla arborea skin cells after 8 days of exposure. These changes were precided by decrease of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in Rana temporaria skin cells starting 16 days after NMU and TU introduction. The increase of intracellular calcium level was noted in tree frog skin cells 4-8 days after NMU and TU introduction, in brown frogs skin cells this parameter was unchanged.

  13. Effect of desferrioxamine B and Suwannee River fulvic acid on Fe(III) release and Cr(III) desorption from goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Angela G.; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Dubbin, William E.

    2016-04-01

    Siderophores are biogenic chelating ligands that facilitate the solubilisation of Fe(III) and form stable complexes with a range of contaminant metals and therefore may significantly affect their biogeochemical cycling. Desferrioxamine B (DFOB) is a trihydroxamate siderophore that acts synergistically with fulvic acid and low molecular weight organic ligands to release Fe from Fe(III) oxides. We report the results of batch dissolution experiments in which we determine the rates of Cr(III) desorption and Fe(III) release from Cr(III)-treated synthetic goethite as influenced by DFOB, by fulvic acid, and by the two compounds in combination. We observed that adsorbed Cr(III) at 3% surface coverage significantly reduced Fe(III) release from goethite for all combinations of DFOB and fulvic acid. When DFOB (270 μM) was the only ligand present, dissolved Fe(III) and Cr(III) increased approximately 1000-fold and 16-fold, respectively, as compared to the ligand-free system, a difference we attribute to the slow rate of water exchange of Cr(III). Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) acts synergistically with DFOB by (i) reducing the goethite surface charge leading to increased HDFOB+ surface excess and by (ii) forming aqueous Fe(III)-SRFA species whose Fe(III) is subsequently removed by DFOB to yield aqueous Fe(III)-DFOB complexes. These observations shed new light on the synergistic relationship between DFOB and fulvic acid and reveal the mechanisms of Fe(III) acquisition available to plants and micro-organisms in Cr(III) contaminated environments.

  14. Luminescent Eu(III) and Gd(III) trisbipyridine cryptates: experimental and theoretical study of the substituent effects.

    PubMed

    Guillaumont, Dominique; Bazin, Hervé; Benech, Jean-Marc; Boyer, Marion; Mathis, Gérard

    2007-02-19

    Synthesis, absorption spectra and luminescebce properties of a series of lanthanide trisbipyridine cryptates Ln within R-Bpy x R-Bpy x R-Bpy, where Ln = Eu, Gd and R = H, COOH, COOCH3, CONH(CH2)2NH2 are described. Comparison of the unsubstituted parent compound with the substituted compounds shows that bipyridine substitution doesn't alter significantly the photophysical properties of the lanthanide cryptate. The absorption maximum is slightly red-shifted when three bipyridines are substituted, whereas substituting one bipyridines has a negligible effect on the absorption spectra. The experimental triplet state energy is between 21600 and 22 100 cm(-1) for the series of compounds and the luminescence lifetimes at 77 K are between 0.5 and 0.8 ms in HO2 and equal to 1.7 ms in D2O. The experimental characterizations are completed by DFT and TD-DFT calculations to assess the ability of these approaches to predict absorption maxima, triplet state energies and structural parameters of lanthanide cryptates and to characterize the electronic structure of the excited states. The calculations on the unsubstituted parent and substituted compounds show that absorption maxima and lowest 3pipi* triplet state energies can be accurately determined from density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD) DFT calculations.

  15. Phytotoxicity of wastewater containing lead (Pb) effects Scirpus grossus.

    PubMed

    Tangahu, B Voijant; Abdullah, S Rozaimah Sheikh; Basri, H; Idris, M; Anuar, N; Mukhlisin, M

    2013-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an environment-friendly and cost-effective method to clean the environment of heavy metal contamination. A prolonged phytotoxicity test was conducted in a single exposure. Scirpus grossus plants were grown in sand to which the diluted Pb (NO3)2 was added, with the variation of concentration were 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/L. It was found that Scirpus grossus plants can tolerate Pb at concentrations of up to 400 mg/L. The withering was observed on day-7 for Pb concentrations of 400 mg/L and above. 100% of the plants withered with a Pb concentration of 600 mg/L on day 65. The Pb concentration in water medium decreased while in plant tissues increased. Adsorption of Pb solution ranged between 2 to 6% for concentrations of 100 to 800 mg/L. The Bioaccumulation Coefficient and Translocation Factor of Scirpus grossus were found greater than 1, indicating that this species is a hyperaccumulator plant.

  16. Component effects on crystallization of RE-containing aluminoborosilicate glass

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani; Hrma, Pavel; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.

    2016-09-01

    Lanthanide-aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass is one option for immobilizing rare earth (RE) oxide fission products generated during reprocessing of pyroprocessed fuel. This glass system can accommodate a high loading of RE oxides and has excellent chemical durability. The present study describes efforts to model equilibrium crystallinity as a function of glass composition and temperature as well as liquidus temperature (TL) as a function of glass composition. The experimental method for determining TL was ASTM C1720-11. Typically, three crystalline phases were formed in each glass: Ce-borosilicate (Ce3BSi2O10), mullite (Al10Si2O19), and corundum (Al2O3). Cerianite (CeO2) was a common minor crystalline phase and Nd-silicate (Nd2Si2O7) occurred in some of the glasses. In the composition region studied, TL decreased as SiO2 and B2O3 fractions increased and strongly increased with increasing fractions of RE oxides; Al2O3 had a moderate effect on the TL but, as expected, it strongly affected the precipitation of Alcontaining crystals.

  17. Genotoxic effects of Bismuth (III) oxide nanoparticles by Allium and Comet assay.

    PubMed

    Liman, Recep

    2013-09-01

    Genotoxic effects of Bismuth (III) oxide nanoparticles (BONPs) were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Allium and Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of BONPs at five different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100ppm) for 4h. Exposure of BONPs significantly increased mitotic index (MI) except 12.5ppm, total chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in Allium test. While stickiness chromosome laggards, disturbed anaphase-telophase and anaphase bridges were observed in anaphase-telophase cells, pro-metaphase and c-metaphase in other cells. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of BONPs except 12.5ppm by Comet assay. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS for Windows; Duncan's multiple range test was performed. These results indicate that BONPs exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  18. Effective electron mass in quantum wires of III-V, ternary and quaternary materials.

    PubMed

    Paitya, N; Ghatak, K P

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to study the effective electron mass (EEM) in Quantum wires (QWs) of III-V, ternary and quaternary materials on the basis of three and two band models of Kane within the framework of k x p formalism. It has been found, taking QWs of InAs, InSb, GaAs, Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te and In(1-x)Ga(x)As(1-y)P(t) that the 1D EEM increases with electron concentration per unit length and decreases with increasing film thickness respectively. For ternary and quaternary materials the EEM increases with increase in alloy composition. Under certain special conditions all the results for all the 1-D materials get simplified into the well known parabolic energy bands and thus confirming the compatibility test. The results of this paper find two applications in the fields of nanoscience and technology.

  19. Comments on the somatic effects section of the BEIR III report

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, H.H.

    1980-12-01

    The recent report of the BEIR Committee of the National Academy of Sciences presents a wide range of risk estimates for radiogenic cancer. The values that can be considered to be most plausible on the basis of radiobiological and epidemiological evidence are given little emphasis and they are presented as lower bounds of the probable risk. The upper bound is said to be provided by estimates based on the so-called linear hypothesis. The preferred analysis in BEIR III requires an arbitrary choice of a critical parameter. This results in estimates that differ little from those given in BEIR I and that may be too high by an order of magnitude. It also refuses to speculate on any health effects of background radiation. It thus does not support the validity of those concepts of radiation protection that are based on linearity.

  20. Effects of Internal Fields on the Optical Emission in Nanostructured III-N LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalavarthi, Krishna; Sundaresan, Sasi; Merrill, Ky; Ahmed, Shaikh

    2012-02-01

    Nanostructured optical emitters can accommodate a broader range of lattice mismatch, be used in full-solar-spectrum light emitting diodes, and provide higher temperature stability of the threshold current and the luminescence. However, strong quantum confinement and certain symmetry-lowering mechanisms (caused by various internal fields) lead to pronounced optical polarization anisotropy and strong suppression of interband transitions in these structures. The objective of this work is to study the competing effects of various internal fields on the electronic structure and optical properties of nanostructured III-N LEDs. A multiscale approach has been employed where: 1) the NEMO 3-D tool is used to calculate the atomistic strain distribution and one-particle electronic states within a sp3s*d5 tight-binding framework, and 2) the outputs from NEMO 3-D are then coupled to the Synopsys TCAD tool to determine the terminal electrical and optical properties of the device.

  1. Hydrogen effects in dilute III-N-V alloys: From defect engineering to nanostructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Pettinari, G.; Felici, M.; Capizzi, M.; Polimeni, A.; Trotta, R.

    2014-01-07

    The variation of the band gap energy of III-N-V semiconductors induced by hydrogen incorporation is the most striking effect that H produces in these materials. A special emphasis is given here to the combination of N-activity passivation by hydrogen with H diffusion kinetics in dilute nitrides. Secondary ion mass spectrometry shows an extremely steep (smaller than 5 nm/decade) forefront of the H diffusion profile in Ga(AsN) under appropriate hydrogenation conditions. This discovery prompts the opportunity for an in-plane nanostructuring of hydrogen incorporation and, hence, for a modulation of the material band gap energy at the nanoscale. The properties of quantum dots fabricated by a lithographically defined hydrogenation are presented, showing the zero-dimensional character of these novel nanostructures. Applicative prospects of this nanofabrication method are finally outlined.

  2. Deep-red phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes containing 1-(benzo[b] thiophen-2-yl) isoquinoline ligand: synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Li, Gao-Nan; Zou, Ying; Yang, Yi-Ding; Liang, Jiao; Cui, Feng; Zheng, Tao; Xie, Hui; Niu, Zhi-Gang

    2014-09-01

    Four new bis-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes, [Ir(btq) 2phen] [PF6] (3a), [Ir(btq) 2bpy] [PF6] (3b), [Ir(btq) 2dtbipy] [PF6] (3c) and [Ir(btq) 2pic] (3d) (btq = 1-(benzo[b] thiophen-2-yl) isoquinoline, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dtbipy = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine, pic = picolinic acid) have been synthesized and fully characterized. The crystal structure of 3a has been determined by X-ray analysis. The photophysical and electrochemical properties of these new complexes 3a - 3d have been studied. The photoluminescence spectra of all Ir(III) complexes exhibit deep-red emission maxima at 682, 682, 683 and 698 nm, respectively. The most representative molecular orbital energy-level diagrams and the lowest energy electronic transitions of 3a - 3d have been calculated with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD - DFT). The results show that the pic ancillary ligand of complex 3d influences the absorption and emission energies with a further red-shift relative to other three complexes 3a - 3c.

  3. Designing and characterization of Fe(III) complexes of oxydiacetate containing α-diimine as auxiliary ligand: 57Fe-Mössbauer and cyclic voltammetric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, M.; Sharma, Prashant K.; Siddiqi, Zafar A.; Sama, Farasha; Ansari, Istikhar A.; Khalid, Mohd.

    2014-04-01

    The newly prepared complexes with stoichiometries [Fe(oda)(phen)Cl] (1), [Fe(oda)(4-picNO)(H2O)Cl)] (2) and [Fe2(oda)2(H2O)2Cl2] (3) [H2oda = oxydiacetic acid, phen = 1,10‧-phenantroline and 4-picNO = 4-picoline-N-oxide] were synthesized under varying experimental conditions. The complexes were characterized by spectral (IR, FAB-MS and Mössbauer), electrochemical and thermal studies. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectral data for complexes exhibit a quadrupole splitting confirming the presence of iron nuclei in asymmetric environment. The relevant parameters like isomer shift (δ), quadruple splitting (ΔEQ), line widths and peak height ratio (HWh/HWl) are consistent with high spin state of Fe(III) centre with the presence of Kramer’s double degeneracy in distorted octahedral environment. The electrochemical studies indicate existence of quasi-reversible redox couples (FeII/III) in solution.

  4. Effect of phosphate and sulfate on Ni repartitioning during Fe(II)-catalyzed Fe(III) oxide mineral recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Margaret A. G.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2015-09-01

    Dissolved Fe(II) activates coupled oxidative growth and reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxide minerals, causing recrystallization and the repartitioning of structurally-compatible trace metals. Phosphate and sulfate, two ligands common to natural aquatic systems, alter Fe(II) adsorption onto Fe(III) oxides and affect Fe(III) oxide dissolution and precipitation. However, the effect of these oxoanions on trace metal repartitioning during Fe(II)-catalyzed Fe(III) oxide recrystallization is unclear. The effects of phosphate and sulfate on Ni adsorption and Ni repartitioning during Fe(II)-catalyzed Fe(III) oxide recrystallization were investigated as such repartitioning may be affected by both Fe(II)-oxoanion and metal-oxoanion interactions. In most systems examined, phosphate alters Ni repartitioning during Fe(II)-catalyzed recrystallization to a larger extent than sulfate. Phosphate substantially enhances Ni adsorption onto hematite but decreases (nearly inhibiting) Fe(II)-catalyzed Ni incorporation into and release from this mineral. In the goethite system, however, phosphate suppresses Ni release but enhances Ni incorporation in the presence of aqueous Fe(II). In contrast, sulfate has little effect on macroscopic Ni adsorption and release of Ni from Fe(III) oxides, but substantially enhances Ni incorporation into goethite. This demonstrates that phosphate and sulfate have unique, mineral-specific interactions with Ni during Fe(II)-catalyzed Fe(III) oxide recrystallization. This research suggests that micronutrient bioavailability at redox interfaces in hematite-dominated systems may be especially suppressed by phosphate, while both oxoanions likely have limited effects in goethite-rich soils or sediments. Phosphate may also exert a large control on contaminant fate at redox interfaces, increasing Ni retention on iron oxide surfaces. These results further indicate that trace metal retention by iron oxides during lithification and later repartitioning during

  5. Kinetic method for the determination of traces of thyroxine by its catalytic effect on the Mn(III) metaphosphate-As(III) reaction.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Ferenc T; Milovanović, Gordana A; Todorović, Marija

    2008-02-15

    A new, highly sensitive and simple kinetic method for the determination of thyroxine was proposed. The method was based on the catalytic effect of thyroxine on the oxidation of As(III) by Mn(III) metaphosphate. The kinetics of the reaction was studied in the presence of orthophosphoric acid. The reaction rate was followed spectrophotometrically at 516 nm. It was established that orthophosphoric acid increased the reaction rate and that the extent of the non-catalytic reaction was extremely small. A kinetic equation was postulated and the apparent rate constant was calculated. The dependence of the reaction rate on temperature was investigated and the energy of activation and other kinetic parameters were determined. Thyroxine was determined under the optimal experimental conditions in the range 7.0 x 10(-9) to 3.0 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) with a relative standard deviation up to 6.7% and a detection limit of 2.7 x 10(-9) molL(-1). In the presence of 0.08 mol L(-1) chloride, the detection limit decreased to 6.6 x 10(-10) mol L(-1). The proposed method was applied for the determination of thyroxine in tablets. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with the HPLC method.

  6. Effect Of Oxidation On Chromium Leaching And Redox Capacity Of Slag-Containing Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, P. M.; Stefanko, D. B.; Langton, C. A.

    2013-03-01

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO4- in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases [Shuh, et al., 1994, Shuh, et al., 2000, Shuh, et al., 2003]. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O4-, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate in simulated waste form samples. Depth discrete subsamples were cut from material exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) field cured conditions. The subsamples were prepared and analyzed for both reduction capacity and chromium leachability. Results from field-cured samples indicate that the depth at which leachable chromium was detected advanced further into the sample exposed for 302 days compared to the sample exposed to air for 118 days (at least 50 mm compared to at least 20 mm). Data for only two exposure time intervals is currently available. Data for additional exposure times are required to develop an equation for the oxidation front progression. Reduction capacity measurements (per the Angus-Glasser method, which is a measurement of the ability of a material to chemically reduce Ce(IV) to Ce(III

  7. Influence of local capillary trapping on containment system effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Steven

    2014-03-31

    Immobilization of CO2 injected into deep subsurface storage reservoirs is a critical component of risk assessment for geologic CO2 storage (GCS). Local capillary trapping (LCT) is a recently established mode of immobilization that arises when CO2 migrates due to buoyancy through heterogeneous storage reservoirs. This project sought to assess the amount and extent of LCT expected in storage formations under a range of injection conditions, and to confirm the persistence of LCT if the seal overlying the reservoir were to lose its integrity. Numerical simulation using commercial reservoir simulation software was conducted to assess the influence of injection. Laboratory experiments, modeling and numerical simulation were conducted to assess the effect of compromised seal integrity. Bench-scale (0.6 m by 0.6 m by 0.03 m) experiments with surrogate fluids provided the first empirical confirmation of the key concepts underlying LCT: accumulation of buoyant nonwetting phase at above residual saturations beneath capillary barriers in a variety of structures, which remains immobile under normal capillary pressure gradients. Immobilization of above-residual saturations is a critical distinction between LCT and the more familiar “residual saturation trapping.” To estimate the possible extent of LCT in a storage reservoir an algorithm was developed to identify all potential local traps, given the spatial distribution of capillary entry pressure in the reservoir. The algorithm assumes that the driving force for CO2 migration can be represented as a single value of “critical capillary entry pressure” Pc,entrycrit, such that cells with capillary entry pressure greater/less than Pc,entrycrit act as barriers/potential traps during CO2 migration. At intermediate values of Pc,entrycrit, the barrier regions become more laterally extensive in the reservoir

  8. Effects of Caramel Colour III on the number of blood lymphocytes: a human study on Caramel Colour III immunotoxicity and a comparison of the results with data from rat studies.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; van Dokkum, W; van Loveren, H; Penninks, A H; Seinen, W; Spanhaak, S; Ockhuizen, T

    1992-05-01

    Administration of the colour additive Ammonia Caramel Colour (Caramel Colour III) to rats has been associated with decreased lymphocyte counts, specifically in rats fed a diet low in vitamin B6. This effect is rapidly reversible and is caused by an imidazole derivative (THI) in Caramel Colour III. In the present paper, the conduct of a human study with Caramel Colour III is outlined and the results of blood lymphocyte counts are presented. No decrease in the number of blood lymphocytes occurred in marginally vitamin B6-deficient humans who consumed Caramel Colour III at the acceptable daily intake level (200 mg/kg body weight/day) for 7 days. These data are discussed in relation to the effects of Caramel Colour III and THI on blood lymphocyte numbers in rats.

  9. The effects of a K2SO4 solution on the surface hardness of gypsum type III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Permana, B. N.; Triaminingsih, S.; Indrani, D. J.

    2017-08-01

    Gypsum type III is commonly used for working models and as a tool for restorations or dentures manufacturing in the laboratory. K2SO4 solution is recommended to be added to gypsum type III because it can accelerate the setting time. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of a K2SO4 solution on the surface hardness of gypsum type III. The surface hardness was tested using a Vickers Hardness Tester with a load of 500 gf. The results were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. The surface hardness of gypsum type III manipulated using a 1.5% K2SO4 solution was higher than the surface hardness of gypsum type III manipulated without K2SO4 but lower than the surface hardness of gypsum type IV. Therefore, the use of a 1.5% K2SO4 solution can increase the hardness of gypsum type III but not enough to make it equivalent to the surface hardness of gypsum type IV.

  10. Malonate-containing manganese(III) complexes: synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of AsPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Fernando S; Kerbellec, Nicolas; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2006-02-06

    The novel manganese(III) complexes PPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2] (1) and AsPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2] (2) (PPh4+ = tetraphenylphosphonium cation, AsPh4+ = tetraphenylarsonium cation, and H2mal = malonic acid) have been prepared, and the structure of 2 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. 2 is a mononuclear complex whose structure is made up of trans-diaquabis(malonato)manganate(III) units and tetraphenylarsonium cations. Two crystallographically independent manganese(III) ions (Mn(1) and Mn(2)) occur in 2 that exhibit elongated octahedral surroundings with four oxygen atoms from two bidentate malonate groups in equatorial positions (Mn(1)-O = 1.923(6) and 1.9328(6) A and Mn(2)-O = 1.894(6) and 1.925(6) A) and two trans-coordinated water molecules in the axial sites (Mn(1)-Ow = 2.245(6) A and Mn(2)-Ow = 2.268(6) A). The [Mn(mal)2(H2O)2]- units are linked through hydrogen bonds involving the free malonate-oxygen atoms and the coordinated water molecules to yield a quasi-square-type anionic layer growing in the ab plane. The shortest intralayer metal-metal separations are 7.1557(7) and 7.1526(7) A (through the edges of the square). The anionic sheets are separated from each other by layers of AsPh4+ where sextuple- and double-phenyl embraces occur. The magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 in the temperature range 1.9-290 K reveals the occurrence of weak intralayer ferromagnetic interactions (J = +0.081(1) (1) and +0.072(2) cm(-1) (2)). These values are compared to those of the weak antiferromagnetic coupling [J = -0.19(1) cm(-1)], which is observed in the chain compound K2[Mn(mal)2(MeOH)2][Mn(mal)2] (3), where the exchange pathway involves the carboxyate-malonate bridge in the anti-syn conformation. The structure of 3 was reported elsewhere. Theoretical calculations on fragment models of 2 and 3 were performed to analyze and substantiate both the nature and magnitude of the magnetic couplings observed.

  11. Effects of maxillary protraction for early correction of class III malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Celikoglu, Mevlut; Oktay, Hüsamettin

    2014-02-01

    This prospective study investigated the skeletal, dental, and soft-tissue effects of a mini maxillary protractor appliance in class III subjects with maxillary retrusion and mandibular protrusion and compared these changes with those of untreated, well matched control sample with normal occlusions. Twenty patients with class III malocclusion (mean age 11.1 ± 0.8 years) and 20 subjects with normal occlusion (mean age 10.9 ± 0.4 years) were included to this study. The class III subjects were treated with the mini maxillary protractor appliance, and the others were used as control subjects. Paired t-test and Student's t-test were used to determine the within- and between-group differences, respectively. In the study group, the maxilla moved forward (SNA, 2.0 degrees and A-Y, 2.4mm) (P < 0.001) with a slight rotation of palatal and occlusal planes (SN-PP, -0.8 degree and SN-OP, -0.7 degree) (P > 0.05). The mandible displaced backwards and downwards (SNB, -1.1 degrees; SND, -0.9 degree; B-Y, -0.9 mm and Pog-Y, -0.3mm; P < 0.001). These movements in the maxilla and mandible caused a significant improvement in intermaxillary sagittal relationship (ANB, 3.0 degrees; Convexity, 6.3 degrees; Wits, 4.6mm; P < 0.001). The maxillary incisors moved forward (2.2 degrees) while the mandibular ones backward (-1.9 degrees). The improvement in overjet was 5.0mm, and 66.1 per cent of this change (3.3mm) was skeletal (A-Y; 2.4mm and B-Y; -0.9 mm), and the remaining (1.7 mm) dentoalveolar (U1-NA; 0.9 mm and L1-NB; -0.8mm). The change in Ls-E measurement was more in the study group (2.1mm), and the difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.001).

  12. Effects of container cavity size and copper coating on field performance of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; James D. Haywood; Mary A. Sword-Sayer; Kristina F. Connor; D. Andrew Scott

    2010-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings were grown for 27 weeks in 3 container cavity sizes [small (S), medium (M), and large (L)], and half the containers were coated with copper (Cu). In November 2004, we planted 144 seedlings from each of 6 container treatments in each of 4 replications in central LA. All plots were burned in February 2006...

  13. A comparison of pure mode I and mixed mode I-III cracking of an adhesive containing an open knit cloth carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripling, E. J.; Crosley, P. B.; Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Static and fatigue tests were carried out on two commercial modified epoxy film adhesives with a wide open knit polyester carrier in order to compare crack resistance in mode I and mixed mode I-III loading. The carrier cloth is found to have a significant influence on the cracking behavior of the adhesives. The open air net carrier used in this study separates from the adhesive in mode I cracking but shreds during mixed-mode crack extension. This decreases the opening mode toughness but increases the mixed-mode toughness as compared with results obtained earlier using a heavier knit carrier. The results suggest that the type of carrier may have a far larger influence on crack resistance than is generally recognized.

  14. A new europium(III) complex containing a neutral ligand of 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole: Thermal, electrochemical, luminescent properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Li, Shuigen; Liao, Weibing; Chen, Yong

    2013-04-01

    A new europium(III) complex i.e. Eu(ECTFBD)3PBI was synthesized, where ECTFBD and PBI are 4-(9-ethyl-9H-carbazol-3-yl)-1,1,1-trifluoro-4-oxobutan-2-olate anion and 2-(pyridin-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole, respectively. Its IR, UV-Vis spectra, electrochemical, thermal properties as well as photoluminescent performances in solid state and in CH2Cl2 were investigated. Eu(ECTFBD)3PBI exhibited strong red emission without any emission from ECTFBD and PBI in solid state, but with a very weak emission from ECTFBD in CH2Cl2. We explored this difference of the luminesecences of Eu(ECTFBD)3PBI in solid state and in CH2Cl2 based on the excited triplet energy levels of ECTFBD and PBI.

  15. Calcium revisited, part III: effect of dietary calcium on BMD and fracture risk

    PubMed Central

    Burckhardt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Food can be an excellent source of calcium. Dietary calcium is in general as well absorbed as calcium supplements, and exerts the same effects on bone. The main sources are dairy products, but also some vegetables and fruits contain considerable amounts of calcium. Mineral water can serve as a supplement. Cross-sectional, longitudinal and some interventional trials have shown positive effects on bone metabolism, bone density and bone loss. But the effect on fracture incidence is less certain, and that of milk, the most studied dairy product, still unproven. PMID:26331006

  16. EFFECT OF HOST IMMUNITY TO A FILTERABLE VIRUS (VIRUS III) ON THE GROWTH AND MALIGNANCY OF A TRANSPLANTABLE RABBIT NEOPLASM

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Louise; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1927-01-01

    Experiments are reported in which were studied the course and character of a transplantable malignant neoplasm in normal rabbits and in rabbits immunized with a filterable virus, Virus III. The disease which developed in immunized rabbits was extremely mild and much less severe than in normal animals. The effect upon the tumor process displayed by Virus III immune rabbits in the direction of diminished malignancy is considered to be entirely non-specific in character, and the suggestion is made that it is accomplished through a more effective resistance of the host. PMID:19869330

  17. Implications of the Differential Toxicological Effects of III-V Ionic and Particulate Materials for Hazard Assessment of Semiconductor Slurries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Li, Ruibin; Pon, Nanetta; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-12-22

    Because of tunable band gaps, high carrier mobility, and low-energy consumption rates, III-V materials are attractive for use in semiconductor wafers. However, these wafers require chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) for polishing, which leads to the generation of large quantities of hazardous waste including particulate and ionic III-V debris. Although the toxic effects of micron-sized III-V materials have been studied in vivo, no comprehensive assessment has been undertaken to elucidate the hazardous effects of submicron particulates and released III-V ionic components. Since III-V materials may contribute disproportionately to the hazard of CMP slurries, we obtained GaP, InP, GaAs, and InAs as micron- (0.2-3 μm) and nanoscale (<100 nm) particles for comparative studies of their cytotoxic potential in macrophage (THP-1) and lung epithelial (BEAS-2B) cell lines. We found that nanosized III-V arsenides, including GaAs and InAs, could induce significantly more cytotoxicity over a 24-72 h observation period. In contrast, GaP and InP particulates of all sizes as well as ionic GaCl3 and InCl3 were substantially less hazardous. The principal mechanism of III-V arsenide nanoparticle toxicity is dissolution and shedding of toxic As(III) and, to a lesser extent, As(V) ions. GaAs dissolves in the cell culture medium as well as in acidifying intracellular compartments, while InAs dissolves (more slowly) inside cells. Chelation of released As by 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid interfered in GaAs toxicity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that III-V arsenides, GaAs and InAs nanoparticles, contribute in a major way to the toxicity of III-V materials that could appear in slurries. This finding is of importance for considering how to deal with the hazard potential of CMP slurries.

  18. Influence of the glass packing on the contamination of pharmaceutical products by aluminium. Part III: Interaction container-chemicals during the heating for sterilisation.

    PubMed

    Bohrer, Denise; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero; Binotto, Regina; Becker, Emilene

    2003-01-01

    The interaction of chemicals with the container materials during heating for sterilisation was investigated, storing the components of parenteral nutrition solutions individually in sealed glass ampoules and in contact with a rubber stopper, and heating the system at 121 degrees C for 30 min. Subsequently, the aluminium content of the solutions was measured by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The assay was also carried out with acids, alkalis and some complexing agents for Al. The containers were decomposed and also assayed for aluminium. 30 different commercial solutions for parenteral nutrition, stored either in glass or in plastic containers, were assayed measuring the aluminium present in the solutions and in the container materials. The results of all investigated container materials revealed an aluminium content of 1.57% Al in glass, 0.05% in plastic and 4.54% in rubber. The sterilisation procedure showed that even pure water was able to extract Al from glass and rubber, 22.5 +/- 13.3 microg/L and 79.4 +/- 22.7 microg/L respectively, while from plastic the aluminium leached was insignificant. The Al released from glass ampoules laid between 20 microg/L for leucine, ornithine and lysine solutions and 1500 microg/L for solutions of basic phosphates and bicarbonate; from rubber stoppers it reached levels over 500 microg/L for cysteine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and cystine solutions. Ion-exchange properties and influence of pH can explain the interaction of glass with some chemicals (salts, acids and alkalis), but only an affinity for aluminium could explain the action of some amino acids and other chemicals, as albumin and heparin, on glass and rubber, considering the aluminium release. Experiments with complexing agents for Al allowed to conclude that the higher the stability constant of the complex, the higher the Al release from the container material.

  19. BEIR-III report and the health effects of low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-01-01

    The present BEIR-III Committee has not highlighted any controversy over the health effects of low-level radiation. In its evaluation of the experimental data and epidemiological surveys, the Committee has carefully reviewed and assessed the value of all the available scientific evidence for estimating numerical risk coefficients for the health hazards to human populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Responsible public awareness of the possible health effects of ionizing radiations from medical and industrial radiation exposure, centers on three important matters of societal concern: (1) to place into perspective the extent of harm to the health of man and his descendants to be expected in the present and in the future from those societal activities involving ionizing radiation; (2) to develop quantitative indices of harm based on dose-effect relationships; such indices could then be used with prudent caution to introduce concepts of the regulation of population doses on the basis of somatic and genetic risks; and (3) to identify the magnitude and extent of radiation activities which could cause harm, to assess their relative significance, and to provide a framework for recommendations on how to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to human populations. The main difference of the BEIR Committee Report is not so much from new data or new interpretations of existing data, but rather from a philosophical approach and appraisal of existing and future radiation protection resulting from an atmosphere of constantly changing societal conditions and public attitudes. (PCS)

  20. Creep Effects on Design below the Temperature Limits of ASME Section III Subsection NB

    SciTech Connect

    Sham, Sam; Jetter, Robert I; Eno, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Some recent studies of material response have identified an issue that crosses over and blurs the boundary between ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III Subsection NB and Subsection NH. For very long design lives, the effects of creep show up at lower and lower temperature as the design life increases. Although true for the temperature at which the allowable stress is governed by creep properties, the effect is more apparent, e.g. creep effects show up sooner, at local structural discontinuities and peak thermal stress locations. This is because creep is a function of time, temperature and stress and the higher the localized stress, the lower in temperature creep begins to cause damage. If the threshold is below the Subsection NB to NH temperature boundary, 700 F for ferritic steels and 800 F for austenitic materials, then this potential failure mode will not be considered. Unfortunately, there is no experience base with very long lives at temperatures close to but under the Subsection NB to NH boundary to draw upon. This issue is of particular interest in the application of Subsection NB rules of construction to some High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) concepts. The purpose of this paper is, thus, twofold; one part is about statistical treatment and extrapolation of sparse data for a specific material of interest, A533B; the other part is about how these results could impact current design procedures in Subsection NB.

  1. Creep Effects on Design below the Temperature Limits of ASME Section III Subsection NB

    SciTech Connect

    Sham, Sam; Jetter, Robert I; Eno, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Some recent studies of material response have identified an issue that crosses over and blurs the boundary between ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III Subsection NB and Subsection NH. For very long design lives, the effects of creep show up at lower and lower temperature as the design life increases. Although true for the temperature at which the allowable stress is governed by creep properties, the effect is more apparent, e.g. creep effects show up sooner, at local structural discontinuities and peak thermal stress locations. This is because creep is a function of time, temperature and stress and the higher the localized stress, the lower in temperature creep begins to cause damage. If the threshold is below the Subsection NB to NH temperature boundary, 700 F for ferritic steels and 800 F for austenitic materials, then this potential failure mode will not be considered. Unfortunately, there is no experience base with very long lives at temperatures close to but under the Subsection NB to NH boundary to draw upon. This issue is of particular interest in the application of Subsection NB rules of construction to some High Temperature Gas Reactor (HTGR) concepts. The purpose of this paper is, thus, twofold; one part is about statistical treatment and extrapolation of sparse data for a specific material of interest, A533B; the other part is about how these results could impact current design procedures in Subsection NB.

  2. [Effect of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy on Infectious Complications in Grade III Open Fractures].

    PubMed

    Krtička, M; Ira, D; Nekuda, V; Švancara, J; Mašek, M

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Grade III open fractures are associated with infectious complications in 25-66% of injuries. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) applied to an injured soft tissue coverage provides an impermeable barrier between the injured structures and the external environment, in addition to early secretion draining and a positive effect on the site of application. All this also prevents secondary bacterial contamination. The objective of the study was to compare the results of treatment methods in view of infectious complications in patients with soft tissue injury in grade-III open fractures managed either by NPWT and primary closure or by covering with combined dressing fabric (COM) in combination with continual wound lavage. MATERIAL AND METHODS This retrospective study comprised 77 patients with 80 grade III open fractures treated in the years 2008-2012; of these, 39 patients with 41 fractures met the inclusion criteria and were finally evaluated. The patients were divided into two groups. The control group included 19 patients with 20 fractures treated by the standard surgical procedure using stabilisation with an external fixator or intramedullary nail, thorough soft tissue debridement, continual wound lavage and suture of skin lesions or using a primary coverage of the defect with COM. The trial group consisted of 20 patients with 21 fractures treated according to the same principle, but NPWT was applied to injured soft tissue coverage first and skin suture or any other type of skin defect coverage was carried out when the healing process was good and bacteriological findings were negative. The results of both methods were evaluated based on the following criteria: development of superficial or deep infection in the wound, interval to negative bacteriological findings and osteomyelitis rate. The results were analysed by Fisher's exact test and the Man Whitney U test. RESULTS Infectious complications were recorded in a total of 15 (37%) fractures

  3. Dentofacial effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction: A controlled study of consecutively treated Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, Hugo; Cevidanes, Lucia; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In this cephalometric investigation, we analyzed the treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) with miniplates in the maxilla and mandible connected by Class III elastics in patients with Class III malocclusion. Methods The treated sample consisted of 21 Class III patients consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol before the pubertal growth spurt (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.8 years) and reevaluated after BAMP therapy, about 1 year later. The treated group was compared with a matched control group of 18 untreated Class III subjects. Significant differences between the treated and control groups were assessed with independent-sample t tests (P<0.05). Results Sagittal measurements of the maxilla showed highly significant improvements during active treatment (about 4 mm more than the untreated controls), with significant protraction effects at orbitale and pterygomaxillare. Significant improvements of overjet and molar relationship were recorded, as well as in the mandibular skeletal measures at Point B and pogonion. Vertical skeletal changes and modifications in incisor inclination were negligible, except for a significant proclination of the mandibular incisors in the treated group. Significant soft-tissue changes reflected the underlying skeletal modifications. Conclusions Compared with growth of the untreated Class III subjects, the BAMP protocol induced an average increment on skeletal and soft-tissue advancement of maxillary structures of about 4 mm, and favorable mandibular changes exceeded 2 mm. PMID:21055597

  4. A study on III-nitride recessed-gate field-effect transistors using a remote-oxygen-plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.-C.; Kao, T.-T.; Shen, S.-C.

    2015-04-01

    We report a comparative study of the device performance of III-nitride (III-N) heterojunction field-effect transistors (HFETs) and metal-insulator-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MISFETs). The influence of a remote-oxygen-plasma treatment was investigated. The plasma-treated recessed-gate HFETs and MISFETs show normally-off characteristics with higher peak transconductance, lower sub-threshold slope, smaller hysteresis. An on-off ratio greater than 2.2E11 with a significant suppression of gate leakage can be achieved in plasma-treated III-N MISFETs. A drain current transient measurement was performed to analyze the traps in these devices and possible origins of these traps are studied. Six traps with characteristic time constants (τ) ranging from 180 s to 3 ms are identified in both HFETs and MISFETs, in addition to a trap which is associated with the ALD-grown gate dielectrics for the MISFETs. The results suggest that improved device performance in these plasma-treated III-N FETs is attributed to the reduced trap states with τ < 400 ms, which are located on III-N surfaces. The slower traps (τ > 2 s) cannot be reduced by the plasma treatment and are related to the oxygen and carbon impurities and the buffer traps in the bulk semiconductors.

  5. On the interplay effects with proton scanning beams in stage III lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yupeng; Kardar, Laleh; Liao, Li; Lim, Gino; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Zhu, Ronald X.; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Zhang, Xiaodong; Cao, Wenhua; Chang, Joe Y.; Liao, Zhongxing; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric impact of interplay between spot-scanning proton beam and respiratory motion in intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III lung cancer. Methods: Eleven patients were sampled from 112 patients with stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer to well represent the distribution of 112 patients in terms of target size and motion. Clinical target volumes (CTVs) and planning target volumes (PTVs) were defined according to the authors' clinical protocol. Uniform and realistic breathing patterns were considered along with regular- and hypofractionation scenarios. The dose contributed by a spot was fully calculated on the computed tomography (CT) images corresponding to the respiratory phase that the spot is delivered, and then accumulated to the reference phase of the 4DCT to generate the dynamic dose that provides an estimation of what might be delivered under the influence of interplay effect. The dynamic dose distributions at different numbers of fractions were compared with the corresponding 4D composite dose which is the equally weighted average of the doses, respectively, computed on respiratory phases of a 4DCT image set. Results: Under regular fractionation, the average and maximum differences in CTV coverage between the 4D composite and dynamic doses after delivery of all 35 fractions were no more than 0.2% and 0.9%, respectively. The maximum differences between the two dose distributions for the maximum dose to the spinal cord, heart V40, esophagus V55, and lung V20 were 1.2 Gy, 0.1%, 0.8%, and 0.4%, respectively. Although relatively large differences in single fraction, correlated with small CTVs relative to motions, were observed, the authors' biological response calculations suggested that this interfractional dose variation may have limited biological impact. Assuming a hypofractionation scenario, the differences between the 4D composite and dynamic doses were well confined even for single fraction. Conclusions: Despite

  6. Direct observation of lanthanide(III)-phthalocyanine molecules on Au(111) by using scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy and thin-film field-effect transistor properties of Tb(III)- and Dy(III)-phthalocyanine molecules.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Keiichi; Yoshida, Yusuke; Yamashita, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Breedlove, Brian K; Kajiwara, Takashi; Takaishi, Shinya; Ishikawa, Naoto; Isshiki, Hironari; Zhang, Yan Feng; Komeda, Tadahiro; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Takeya, Jun

    2009-07-29

    The crystal structures of double-decker single molecule magnets (SMM) LnPc(2) (Ln = Tb(III) and Dy(III); Pc = phthalocyanine) and non-SMM YPc(2) were determined by using X-ray diffraction analysis. The compounds are isomorphous to each other. The compounds have metal centers (M = Tb(3+), Dy(3+), and Y(3+)) sandwiched by two Pc ligands via eight isoindole-nitrogen atoms in a square-antiprism fashion. The twist angle between the two Pc ligands is 41.4 degrees. Scanning tunneling microscopy was used to investigate the compounds adsorbed on a Au(111) surface, deposited by using the thermal evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum. Both MPc(2) with eight lobes and MPc with four lobes, which has lost one Pc ligand, were observed. In the scanning tunneling spectroscopy images of TbPc molecules at 4.8 K, a Kondo peak with a Kondo temperature (T(K)) of approximately 250 K was observed near the Fermi level (V = 0 V). On the other hand, DyPc, YPc, and MPc(2) exhibited no Kondo peak. To understand the observed Kondo effect, the energy splitting of sublevels in a crystal field should be taken into consideration. As the next step in our studies on the SMM/Kondo effect in Tb-Pc derivatives, we investigated the electronic transport properties of Ln-Pc molecules as the active layer in top- and bottom-contact thin-film organic field effect transistor devices. Tb-Pc molecule devices exhibit p-type semiconducting properties with a hole mobility (mu(H)) of approximately 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Interestingly, the Dy-Pc based devices exhibited ambipolar semiconducting properties with an electron mobility (mu(e)) of approximately 10(-5) and a mu(H) of approximately 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This behavior has important implications for the electronic structure of the molecules.

  7. Lemur responses to edge effects in the Vohibola III classified forest, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Shawn M; Rajaonson, Andry; Day, Sabine

    2006-03-01

    Forest edges are dynamic zones characterized by the penetration (to varying depths and intensities) of conditions from the surrounding environment (matrix) into the forest interior. Although edge effects influence many tropical organisms, they have not been studied directly in primates. Edge effects are particularly relevant to lemurs because of the highly fragmented forest landscapes found in Madagascar. In this study, data are presented regarding how the densities of six lemur species (Avahi laniger, Cheirogaleus major, Eulemur rubriventer, Hapalemur griseus griseus, Microcebus rufus, and Propithecus diadema edwardsi) varied between six 500-m interior transects and six 500-m edge transects in the Vohibola III Classified Forest in SE Madagascar. Diurnal (n = 433) and nocturnal (n = 128) lemur surveys were conducted during June-October 2003 and May-November 2004. A. laniger, E. rubriventer, and H. g. griseus exhibited a neutral edge response (no differences in densities between habitats). M. rufus and P. d. edwardsi had a positive edge response (higher densities in edge habitats), which may be related to edge-related variations in food abundance and quality. Positive edge responses by M. rufus and P. d. edwardsi may ultimately be detrimental due to edge-related anthropogenic factors (e.g., hunting by local people). The negative edge response exhibited by C. major (lower densities in edge habitats) may result from heightened ambient temperatures that inhibit torpor in edge habitats.

  8. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    SciTech Connect

    Hash, G.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sandoval, C.E.; Connors, M.P.; Sheridan, T.J.; Sexton, F.W.; Slayton, E.M.; Heise, J.A.; Foster, C.

    1994-09-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10{sup 10} to 2 {times} 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10{sup {minus}5} errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-{mu}m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2} [equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad(GaAs)].

  9. Immunotoxic effects of the color additive caramel color III: immune function studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; Penninks, A H; Seinen, W; Vos, J G; Van Loveren, H

    1993-01-01

    Administration of the color additive caramel color III (AC) may cause a reduction in total white blood cell counts in rats due to reduced lymphocyte counts. Beside lymphopenia, several other effects in rat have been described. The effects are caused by the imidazole derivative 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI) and occur in rats fed a diet low in vitamin B6. In the present paper, immune function studies on AC and THI with rats fed a diet low, but not deficient in vitamin B6 are presented and discussed. Rats were exposed to 0.4 or 4% AC or to 5.72 ppm THI in drinking water during and for 28 days prior to the start of immune function assays. Resistance to Trichinella spiralis was examined in an oral infection model and clearance of Listeria monocytogenes upon an intravenous infection was studied. In addition, natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity of splenic and nonadherent peritoneal cells and the antibody response to sheep red blood cells were studied. From the results it is concluded that exposure of rats to AC or THI influenced various immune function parameters. Thymus-dependent immunity was suppressed, while parameters of the nonspecific resistance were also affected, as shown by a decreased natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the spleen and an enhanced clearance of L. monocytogenes.

  10. Antimicrobial effects of helix D-derived peptides of human antithrombin III.

    PubMed

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Bhongir, Ravi K V; Mörgelin, Matthias; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2014-10-24

    Antithrombin III (ATIII) is a key antiproteinase involved in blood coagulation. Previous investigations have shown that ATIII is degraded by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, leading to release of heparin binding fragments derived from its D helix. As heparin binding and antimicrobial activity of peptides frequently overlap, we here set out to explore possible antibacterial effects of intact and degraded ATIII. In contrast to intact ATIII, the results showed that extensive degradation of the molecule yielded fragments with antimicrobial activity. Correspondingly, the heparin-binding, helix D-derived, peptide FFFAKLNCRLYRKANKSSKLV (FFF21) of human ATIII, was found to be antimicrobial against particularly the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy studies demonstrated that FFF21 binds to and permeabilizes bacterial membranes. Analogously, FFF21 was found to induce membrane leakage of model anionic liposomes. In vivo, FFF21 significantly reduced P. aeruginosa infection in mice. Additionally, FFF21 displayed anti-endotoxic effects in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest novel roles for ATIII-derived peptide fragments in host defense.

  11. Bismuth(III) deferiprone effectively inhibits growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774.

    PubMed

    Barton, Larry L; Lyle, Daniel A; Ritz, Nathaniel L; Granat, Alex S; Khurshid, Ali N; Kherbik, Nada; Hider, Robert; Lin, Henry C

    2016-04-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been implicated in inflammatory bowel diseases and ulcerative colitis in humans and there is an interest in inhibiting the growth of these sulfide-producing bacteria. This research explores the use of several chelators of bismuth to determine the most effective chelator to inhibit the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. For our studies, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was grown with nitrate as the electron acceptor and chelated bismuth compounds were added to test for inhibition of growth. Varying levels of inhibition were attributed to bismuth chelated with subsalicylate or citrate but the most effective inhibition of growth by D. desulfuricans was with bismuth chelated by deferiprone, 3-hydroxy-1,2-dimethyl-4(1H)-pyridone. Growth of D. desulfuricans was inhibited by 10 μM bismuth as deferiprone:bismuth with either nitrate or sulfate respiration. Our studies indicate deferiprone:bismuth has bacteriostatic activity on D. desulfuricans because the inhibition can be reversed following exposure to 1 mM bismuth for 1 h at 32 °C. We suggest that deferiprone is an appropriate chelator for bismuth to control growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria because deferiprone is relatively nontoxic to animals, including humans, and has been used for many years to bind Fe(III) in the treatment of β-thalassemia.

  12. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    SciTech Connect

    Hash, G.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R. )

    1994-12-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10[sup 10] to 2 [times] 10[sup 14] protons/cm[sup 2]. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 [times] 10[sup [minus]5] errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10[sup [minus]5] errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-[mu]m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10[sup 14] protons/cm[sup 2] [equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad (GaAs)].

  13. Monocationic gold(III) Gly-L-His and L-Ala-L-His dipeptide complexes: crystal structures arising from solvent free and solvent-containing crystal formation and structural modifications tuned by counter-anions.

    PubMed

    Rychlewska, Urszula; Warzajtis, Beata; Glisić, Biljana D; Zivković, Marija D; Rajković, Snezana; Djuran, Milos I

    2010-10-14

    Monocationic gold(III) complexes with histidine-containing peptides, glycyl-L-histidine (Gly-L-His) and L-alanyl-L-histidine (L-Ala-L-His) have been synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The crystallized Au(III) complexes, [Au(Gly-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·1.25H(2)O and [Au(L-Ala-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·2.5H(2)O, were obtained from water solution at pH < 1.0. The chemical shifts in the (1)H NMR spectra of [Au(Gly-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·1.25H(2)O and [Au(L-Ala-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·2.5H(2)O complexes were compared with those for the corresponding Pd(II) complexes and for Pd(II) and Au(III) complexes with Gly-Gly-L-His tripeptide. Crystal data for the hydrated [Au(Gly-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·1.25H(2)O complex and its serendipitously obtained unhydrated form were compared with previously reported X-ray data for the hydrated chloride complex [Au(Gly-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]Cl·3H(2)O and with the analogous, though uncharged, Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes. Furthermore, in the present study the crystal structure of the nitrate salt of Au(III) complex with L-Ala-L-His dipeptide, [Au(L-Ala-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·2.5H(2)O has been determined.

  14. Fluorescence and DNA-binding spectral studies of neodymium(III) complex containing 2,2'-bipyridine, [Nd(bpy) 2Cl 3·OH 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Mirkazehi-Rigi, Sohaila

    2010-02-01

    The interaction of [Nd(bpy) 2Cl 3·OH 2], where bipy is 2,2'-bipyridine, with DNA has been studied by absorption, emission, and viscosity measurements. [Nd(bpy) 2Cl 3·OH 2] showed absorption decreasing in charge transfer band with increasing of DNA. The binding constant, Kb has been determined by absorption measurement and found to be (1.5 ± 0.1) × 10 5 M -1. The fluorescent of [Nd(bpy) 2Cl 3·OH 2] has been investigated in detail. The interaction was also studied by fluorescence quenching technique. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that DNA had the strong ability to quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of Nd(III) complex at 327 nm. The binding site number n, apparent binding constant Kb and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant KSV have been determined. Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated according to relevant fluorescent data and Van't Hoff equation. Characterization of bonding mode has been studied. The results suggested that the major interaction mode between [Nd(bpy) 2Cl 3·OH 2] and DNA was groove binding.

  15. Anomalous dielectric behaviour in centrosymmetric organic–inorganic hybrid chlorobismuthate(III) containing functional N,N-dimethylethylammonium ligand. Crystal structure and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Piecha, A.; Gągor, A.; Węcławik, M.; Jakubas, R.; Medycki, W.

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Novel organic–inorganic hybrid chlorobismuthate(III). ► Unprecedented dielectric response in non-polar material. ► Dielectric relaxation characterized by an exceptionally large dielectric increment. ► The NMR measurements confirmed dynamic disorder of cations. -- Abstract: The structure of [C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NH(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +}]{sub 3}[BiCl{sub 6}{sup −}] (abbreviated as DCB) was determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 115 K. The compound adopts tetragonal symmetry with the space group I4{sub 1}/acd; a = 23.35 Å, c = 17.60 Å, V = 9598 Å{sup 3} and Z = 16. The crystal structure of DCB is built up of isolated [BiCl{sub 6}]{sup 3−} units and N,N-dimethylethylammonium counterions that are accommodated in the large voids. At ambient temperature two-thirds of the counterions appear to be dynamically disordered. Dynamics of this type of cations contributes to the enhanced dielectric permittivity of DCB. A low frequency dielectric relaxation process that takes place between 200 and 300 K is characterized by an exceptionally large dielectric increment, Δε > 100, which is unprecedented in nonferroelectric materials. The molecular motions of the N,N-dimethylethylammonium cations were studied by means of {sup 1}H NMR spin-lattice relaxation time measurements.

  16. The Bordetella type III secretion system effector BteA contains a conserved N-terminal motif that guides bacterial virulence factors to lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    French, Christopher T; Panina, Ekaterina M; Yeh, Sylvia H; Griffith, Natasha; Arambula, Diego G; Miller, Jeff F

    2009-12-01

    The Bordetella type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein BteA is necessary and sufficient for rapid cytotoxicity in a wide range of mammalian cells. We show that BteA is highly conserved and functionally interchangeable between Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. The identification of BteA sequences required for cytotoxicity allowed the construction of non-cytotoxic mutants for localization studies. BteA derivatives were targeted to lipid rafts and showed clear colocalization with cortical actin, ezrin and the lipid raft marker GM1. We hypothesized that BteA associates with the cytoplasmic face of lipid rafts to locally modulate host cell responses to Bordetella attachment. B. bronchiseptica adhered to host cells almost exclusively to GM1-enriched lipid raft microdomains and BteA colocalized to these same sites following T3SS-mediated translocation. Disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin protected cells from T3SS-induced cytotoxicity. Localization to lipid rafts was mediated by a 130-amino-acid lipid raft targeting domain at the N-terminus of BteA, and homologous domains were identified in virulence factors from other bacterial species. Lipid raft targeting sequences from a T3SS effector (Plu4750) and an RTX-type toxin (Plu3217) from Photorhabdus luminescens directed fusion proteins to lipid rafts in a manner identical to the N-terminus of BteA.

  17. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of organic contaminants containing diverse microbial population by combined microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and anaerobic reactor under Fe(III) reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Afzal, Shahzad

    2013-05-01

    Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) devices are efficient for wastewater treatment, but its application was limited due to low anode oxidation rate. The objective of this study was to improve anode performance of a MEC combined anaerobic reactor (R1) for high concentration industrial wastewater treatment via dosing Fe(OH)3. For the first 53 days without power, the addition of Fe(OH)3 in R1 enhanced the degradation of reactive brilliant red X-3B dye and sucrose. Applying a voltage of 0.8 V in R1 resulted in a higher decolorization and COD removal through driving the redox reactions at electrodes under Fe(III)-reducing conditions. Real-time PCR and enzyme activity analysis showed that the abundance and azoreductase activity of bacteria were improved in R1. Pyrosequencing revealed that dominant populations in anode biofilm and R1 were more diverse and abundant than the common anaerobic reactor (R2), and there was a significant distinction among anode film, R1 and R2 in microbial community structure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fluorescence and DNA-binding spectral studies of neodymium(III) complex containing 2,2'-bipyridine, [Nd(bpy)2Cl(3)xOH2].

    PubMed

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Mirkazehi-Rigi, Sohaila

    2010-02-01

    The interaction of [Nd(bpy)(2)Cl(3)xOH(2)], where bipy is 2,2'-bipyridine, with DNA has been studied by absorption, emission, and viscosity measurements. [Nd(bpy)(2)Cl(3)xOH(2)] showed absorption decreasing in charge transfer band with increasing of DNA. The binding constant, K(b) has been determined by absorption measurement and found to be (1.5+/-0.1)x10(5)M(-1). The fluorescent of [Nd(bpy)(2)Cl(3)xOH(2)] has been investigated in detail. The interaction was also studied by fluorescence quenching technique. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that DNA had the strong ability to quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of Nd(III) complex at 327 nm. The binding site number n, apparent binding constant K(b) and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant K(SV) have been determined. Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated according to relevant fluorescent data and Van't Hoff equation. Characterization of bonding mode has been studied. The results suggested that the major interaction mode between [Nd(bpy)(2)Cl(3)xOH(2)] and DNA was groove binding.

  19. In Situ Chemical Oxidation of Contaminated Groundwater by Persulfate: Decomposition by Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-Containing Oxides and Aquifer Materials

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Persulfate (S2O82–) is being used increasingly for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants in groundwater, despite an incomplete understanding of the mechanism through which it is converted into reactive species. In particular, the decomposition of persulfate by naturally occurring mineral surfaces has not been studied in detail. To gain insight into the reaction rates and mechanism of persulfate decomposition in the subsurface, and to identify possible approaches for improving its efficacy, the decomposition of persulfate was investigated in the presence of pure metal oxides, clays, and representative aquifer solids collected from field sites in the presence and absence of benzene. Under conditions typical of groundwater, Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-oxides catalytically converted persulfate into sulfate radical (SO4•–) and hydroxyl radical (HO•) over time scales of several weeks at rates that were 2–20 times faster than those observed in metal-free systems. Amorphous ferrihydrite was the most reactive iron mineral with respect to persulfate decomposition, with reaction rates proportional to solid mass and surface area. As a result of radical chain reactions, the rate of persulfate decomposition increased by as much as 100 times when benzene concentrations exceeded 0.1 mM. Due to its relatively slow rate of decomposition in the subsurface, it can be advantageous to inject persulfate into groundwater, allowing it to migrate to zones of low hydraulic conductivity where clays, metal oxides, and contaminants will accelerate its conversion into reactive oxidants. PMID:25133603

  20. Synthesis, crystal structure, catecholase and phenoxazinone synthase activities of a mononuclear cobalt(III) complex containing in situ formed tridentate N-donor Schiff base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maji, Ashis Kumar; Chatterjee, Arnab; Khan, Sumitava; Ghosh, Barindra Kumar; Ghosh, Rajarshi

    2017-10-01

    Synthesis and structural characterization of a mononuclear cobalt(III) Schiff base complex is reported. It crystallizes with monoclinic crystal system with P21/n space group with a = 9.9793(4) Å, b = 28.2907(12) Å and c = 13.1233(6) Å, and β = 97.532(3)°. The compound is active to catecholase and phenoxazinone synthase activities in MeOH, and MeOH and MeCN solvents, respectively at room temperature. Each of the reactions was found to be of first order with reaction rate 8.08 × 10-3 min-1 (MeOH) for the catecholase activity and 1.05 × 10-3 min-1 (MeOH) and 3.82 × 10-3 min-1 (MeCN) for the phenoxazinone synthase activity. The turn over numbers for the catecholase activity is 5.02 × 103 h-1 (MeOH) and for the phenoxazinone synthase activity is 4.59 × 103 h-1 (MeOH) and 5.12 × 103 h-1 (MeCN). Substrate-catalyst adduct was tried to be trapped in each case using mass spectrometry.

  1. Synthesis, spectral characterization, catalytic and antibacterial studies of new Ru(III) Schiff base complexes containing chloride/bromide and triphenylphosphine/arsine as co-ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, S.; Padma Priya, N.; Jayabalakrishnan, C.; Chinnusamy, V.

    2009-10-01

    A new Ru(III) Schiff base complexes of the type [RuX(EPh 3)L] (X = Cl/Br; E = P/As; L = dianion of the Schiff bases were derived by the condensation of 1,4-diformylbenzene with o-aminobenzoic acid/ o-aminophenol/ o-aminothiophenol in the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio) have been synthesized from the reactions of [RuX 3(EPh 3) 3] with appropriate Schiff base ligands in benzene in the 2:1 stoichiometric ratio. The new complexes have been characterized by analytical, spectral (IR, electronic, 1H, 13C NMR and ESR), magnetic moment and electrochemical studies. An octahedral structure has been tentatively proposed for all these new complexes. All the new complexes have been found to be better catalyst for the oxidation of alcohols using molecular oxygen as co-oxidant at ambient temperature and aryl-aryl coupling reactions. These complexes were also subjected to antibacterial activity studies against Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophilla and Salmonella typhi.

  2. In situ chemical oxidation of contaminated groundwater by persulfate: decomposition by Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-containing oxides and aquifer materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haizhou; Bruton, Thomas A; Doyle, Fiona M; Sedlak, David L

    2014-09-02

    Persulfate (S2O8(2-)) is being used increasingly for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants in groundwater, despite an incomplete understanding of the mechanism through which it is converted into reactive species. In particular, the decomposition of persulfate by naturally occurring mineral surfaces has not been studied in detail. To gain insight into the reaction rates and mechanism of persulfate decomposition in the subsurface, and to identify possible approaches for improving its efficacy, the decomposition of persulfate was investigated in the presence of pure metal oxides, clays, and representative aquifer solids collected from field sites in the presence and absence of benzene. Under conditions typical of groundwater, Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-oxides catalytically converted persulfate into sulfate radical (SO4(•-)) and hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) over time scales of several weeks at rates that were 2-20 times faster than those observed in metal-free systems. Amorphous ferrihydrite was the most reactive iron mineral with respect to persulfate decomposition, with reaction rates proportional to solid mass and surface area. As a result of radical chain reactions, the rate of persulfate decomposition increased by as much as 100 times when benzene concentrations exceeded 0.1 mM. Due to its relatively slow rate of decomposition in the subsurface, it can be advantageous to inject persulfate into groundwater, allowing it to migrate to zones of low hydraulic conductivity where clays, metal oxides, and contaminants will accelerate its conversion into reactive oxidants.

  3. Effect of phase III cardiac rehabilitation and relaxation on the quality of life in patients with cardiac syndrome X.

    PubMed

    Feizi, Aram; Ghaderi, Chiman; Dehghani, Mohammad R; Khalkhali, Hamid R; Sheikhi, Siamak

    2012-11-01

    Cardiac syndrome X is a relatively common disorder, and still not much is known about the causative factors or its pathophysiology, which makes it difficult to cure. Due to its chronic nature and debilitating symptoms, many patients have significantly reduced quality of life (QOL).The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of phase III cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and relaxation on the QOL of patients. This research is a randomized clinical trial study. Forty eligible and consenting women (age 30-65 years) were randomly assigned to four groups. In the first group (n = 11), progressive muscle relaxation (PMR); in the second group (n = 11), phase III CR; and in the third group (n = 11), PMR along with phase III CR were performed for 8 weeks at home. The fourth group (n = 7) was used as the control group. Short form of QOL questionnaire (SF-36) was used for data gathering. Data analysis was performed using χ(2), Kruskal-Wallis, and rank sum difference tests. After phase III CR, relaxation, and combination of CR and relaxation, patients demonstrated improved QOL (P < 0.001). The results of post-test multiple comparisons showed that there were statistically significant differences between control and all intervention groups (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant difference between relaxation and combination of phase III CR and relaxation groups (P < 0.5). An 8-week phase III CR program together with relaxation improved QOL of patients with cardiac syndrome X. We suggest phase III CR program together with relaxation as an effective treatment in these patients.

  4. Effect of phase III cardiac rehabilitation and relaxation on the quality of life in patients with cardiac syndrome X

    PubMed Central

    Feizi, Aram; Ghaderi, Chiman; Dehghani, Mohammad R.; Khalkhali, Hamid R.; Sheikhi, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cardiac syndrome X is a relatively common disorder, and still not much is known about the causative factors or its pathophysiology, which makes it difficult to cure. Due to its chronic nature and debilitating symptoms, many patients have significantly reduced quality of life (QOL).The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of phase III cardiac rehabilitation (CR) and relaxation on the QOL of patients. Materials and Methods: This research is a randomized clinical trial study. Forty eligible and consenting women (age 30-65 years) were randomly assigned to four groups. In the first group (n = 11), progressive muscle relaxation (PMR); in the second group (n = 11), phase III CR; and in the third group (n = 11), PMR along with phase III CR were performed for 8 weeks at home. The fourth group (n = 7) was used as the control group. Short form of QOL questionnaire (SF-36) was used for data gathering. Data analysis was performed using χ2, Kruskal-Wallis, and rank sum difference tests. Results: After phase III CR, relaxation, and combination of CR and relaxation, patients demonstrated improved QOL (P < 0.001). The results of post-test multiple comparisons showed that there were statistically significant differences between control and all intervention groups (P < 0.05). There was also statistically significant difference between relaxation and combination of phase III CR and relaxation groups (P < 0.5). Conclusions: An 8-week phase III CR program together with relaxation improved QOL of patients with cardiac syndrome X. We suggest phase III CR program together with relaxation as an effective treatment in these patients. PMID:23922604

  5. Contrasting effects of Al substitution on microbial reduction of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekstrom, Eileen B.; Learman, Deric R.; Madden, Andrew S.; Hansel, Colleen M.

    2010-12-01

    Aluminum, one of the most abundant elements in soils and sediments, is commonly found co-precipitated with Fe in natural Fe(III) (hydr)oxides; yet, little is known about how Al substitution impacts bacterial Fe(III) reduction. Accordingly, we investigated the reduction of Al substituted (0-13 mol% Al) goethite, lepidocrocite, and ferrihydrite by the model dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium (DIRB), Shewanella putrefaciens CN32. Here we reveal that the impact of Al on microbial reduction varies with Fe(III) (hydr)oxide type. No significant difference in Fe(III) reduction was observed for either goethite or lepidocrocite as a function of Al substitution. In contrast, Fe(III) reduction rates significantly decreased with increasing Al substitution of ferrihydrite, with reduction rates of 13% Al-ferrihydrite more than 50% lower than pure ferrihydrite. Although Al substitution changed the minerals' surface area, particle size, structural disorder, and abiotic dissolution rates, we did not observe a direct correlation between any of these physiochemical properties and the trends in bacterial Fe(III) reduction. Based on projected Al-dependent Fe(III) reduction rates, reduction rates of ferrihydrite fall below those of lepidocrocite and goethite at substitution levels equal to or greater than 18 mol% Al. Given the prevalence of Al substitution in natural Fe(III) (hydr)oxides, our results bring into question the conventional assumptions about Fe (hydr)oxide bioavailability and suggest a more prominent role of natural lepidocrocite and goethite phases in impacting DIRB activity in soils and sediments.

  6. Ionic Strength Effect on the Rate of Reduction of Hexacyanoferrate (III) by Ascorbic Acid: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Kenneth W.; Olson, June A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment that allows students to test the effect of ionic strength on the rates of a reaction between ions. The reduction of hexacyanoferrate III by ascorbic acid is detailed. Comparisons with the iodine clock reaction are made. (CS)

  7. An Examination of the Effect of Coach Leadership Behaviors on the Psychosocial Development of Division III College Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gary P.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between student athlete development and coach leadership behaviors in NCAA Division III football players. Three key elements support this study. The first, Thelma Horn's model of coaching effectiveness, provided the framework for the impact of coaching behaviors on student athlete development. The second,…

  8. Ionic Strength Effect on the Rate of Reduction of Hexacyanoferrate (III) by Ascorbic Acid: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Kenneth W.; Olson, June A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment that allows students to test the effect of ionic strength on the rates of a reaction between ions. The reduction of hexacyanoferrate III by ascorbic acid is detailed. Comparisons with the iodine clock reaction are made. (CS)

  9. Talents and Type Iiis: The Effects of the Talents Unlimited Model on Creative Productivity in Gifted Youngsters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jane L.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined a set of lessons that integrate the Talents Unlimited Model (TU; C. L. Schlichter, 1986) with the 10 steps of completing a Type III activity (J. S. Renzulli & S. M. Reis, 1985) to determine the effects of these lessons on the quality of students' creative products and on the number of students who completed their products.…

  10. An Examination of the Effect of Coach Leadership Behaviors on the Psychosocial Development of Division III College Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gary P.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between student athlete development and coach leadership behaviors in NCAA Division III football players. Three key elements support this study. The first, Thelma Horn's model of coaching effectiveness, provided the framework for the impact of coaching behaviors on student athlete development. The second,…

  11. Effect of metal ion Fe(III) on the performance of chlorophyll as photosensitizers on dye sensitized solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyawati, Harsasi; Darmokoesoemo, Handoko; Ningtyas, Anggy Tamara Ayu; Kadmi, Yassine; Elmsellem, Hicham; Kusuma, Heri Septya

    The energy crisis is a major problem facing the world today and will need a renewable energy source that is environmentally friendly; one of these is the dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC). DSSC is photochemical electric cell that can convert solar energy into electrical energy. This research aims to study the characteristics of chlorophyll compounds with the addition of metal ions Fe(III) and to determine the effect of Fe(III) on the performance of chlorophyll as a photosensitizer in the DSSC. The formation of complex compounds of Fe(III)-chlorophyll is shown by the phenomenon of metal ligand charge transfer (MLCT) at a wavelength of 263.00 nm and absorption transition d-d at 745.00 nm. Fourier transform infrared characterization of the binding of Fe-O complex compounds appears at 486.06 cm-1. The complex compound of Fe(III)-chlorophyll has a magnetic moment value of 9.62 Bohr Magneton (BM). The existence of ion Fe(III) in chlorophyll can improve the performance of chlorophyll as a dye sensitizer with a maximum current of 4.00 mA/cm2, maximum voltage of 0.18 volts and efficiency values of 1.35%.

  12. Final efficacy and updated safety results of the randomized phase III BEATRICE trial evaluating adjuvant bevacizumab-containing therapy in triple-negative early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bell, R; Brown, J; Parmar, M; Toi, M; Suter, T; Steger, G G; Pivot, X; Mackey, J; Jackisch, C; Dent, R; Hall, P; Xu, N; Morales, L; Provencher, L; Hegg, R; Vanlemmens, L; Kirsch, A; Schneeweiss, A; Masuda, N; Overkamp, F; Cameron, D

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this analysis was to assess the long-term impact of adding bevacizumab to adjuvant chemotherapy for early triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Patients eligible for the open-label randomized phase III BEATRICE trial had centrally confirmed triple-negative operable primary invasive breast cancer (pT1a-pT3). Investigators selected anthracycline- and/or taxane-based chemotherapy for each patient. After definitive surgery, patients were randomized 1:1 to receive ≥4 cycles of chemotherapy alone or with 1 year of bevacizumab (5 mg/kg/week equivalent). Stratification factors were nodal status, selected chemotherapy, hormone receptor status, and type of surgery. The primary end point was invasive disease-free survival (IDFS; previously reported). Secondary outcome measures included overall survival (OS) and safety. After 56 months' median follow-up, 293 of 2591 randomized patients had died. There was no statistically significant difference in OS between treatment arms in either the total population (hazard ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-1.17; P = 0.52) or pre-specified subgroups. The 5-year OS rate was 88% (95% CI 86-90%) in both treatment arms. Updated IDFS results were consistent with the primary IDFS analysis. Five-year IDFS rates were 77% (95% CI 75-79%) with chemotherapy alone versus 80% (95% CI 77-82%) with bevacizumab. From 18 months after first study dose to study end, new grade ≥3 adverse events occurred in 4.6% and 4.5% of patients in the two arms, respectively. Final OS results showed no significant benefit from bevacizumab therapy for early TNBC. Late-onset toxicities were rare in both groups. Five-year OS and IDFS rates suggest that the prognosis for patients with TNBC is better than previously thought. NCT00528567.

  13. Oxidation of Benzene by Persulfate in the Presence of Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-Containing Oxides: Stoichiometric Efficiency and Transformation Products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haizhou; Bruton, Thomas A; Li, Wei; Buren, Jean Van; Prasse, Carsten; Doyle, Fiona M; Sedlak, David L

    2016-01-19

    Sulfate radical (SO4(•-)) is a strong, short-lived oxidant that is produced when persulfate (S2O8(2-)) reacts with transition metal oxides during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of contaminated groundwater. Although engineers are aware of the ability of transition metal oxides to activate persulfate, the operation of ISCO remediation systems is hampered by an inadequate understanding of the factors that control SO4(•-) production and the overall efficiency of the process. To address these shortcomings, we assessed the stoichiometric efficiency and products of transition metal-catalyzed persulfate oxidation of benzene with pure iron- and manganese-containing minerals, clays, and aquifer solids. For most metal-containing solids, the stoichiometric efficiency, as determined by the loss of benzene relative to the loss of persulfate, approached the theoretical maximum. Rates of production of SO4(•-) or hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) generated from radical chain reactions were affected by the concentration of benzene, with rates of S2O8(2-) decomposition increasing as the benzene concentration increased. Under conditions selected to minimize the loss of initial transformation products through reaction with radicals, the production of phenol only accounted for 30%-60% of the benzene lost in the presence of O2. The remaining products included a ring-cleavage product that appeared to contain an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde functional group. In the absence of O2, the concentration of the ring-cleavage product increased relative to phenol. The formation of the ring-cleavage product warrants further studies of its toxicity and persistence in the subsurface.

  14. Effective Collision Strengths for Electron Impact Excitation of Inelastic Transitions in S III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tayal, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    We have calculated electron collisional excitation strengths for all electric dipole forbidden, semi-forbidden, and allowed transitions among the lowest 17 LS states 3s(exp 2)3p(exp 2) P-3, D-1, S-1, 3s3p(exp 3)S-5(exp 0), D-3(exp 0), P-3(exp 0), P-1(exp 0), S-3(exp 0), D-1(exp 0), 3S(exp 2)3p3d D-1(exp 0), F-3(exp 0), P-3(exp 0), D-3(exp 0), F-3(exp 0), P-1(exp 0), and 3S(exp 2)3p4S P-3(exp 0), P-l(exp 0) of S III using the R-matrix method. These S m states are represented by fairly extensive configuration-interaction wave functions that yield excited state energies in close agreement with recent laboratory measurements. Rydberg series of resonances converging to the excited state thresholds are explicitly included in the scattering calculation. The effective collision strengths are determined assuming Maxwellian distribution of electron energies. These are listed over a wide temperature range ([0.5-10] x 10(exp 4) K) and compared, where possible, with other available calculations. Subject headings: atomic data - atomic processes

  15. Anticarcinogenic effects of hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride in mice initiated with diethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Naura, Amarjit S; Kalla, Natwar R; Sharma, Raj P; Sharma, Rajeshwar

    2007-11-01

    Hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride ([Co(NH3)6]Cl3) was investigated for its antineoplastic role in relation to tumor marker enzymes, drug metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress-related parameters, and histopathological analysis of liver and lung tissues of mice. Initiation was performed using a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) at a carcinogenic dose of 90 mg/kg body weight. The cobalt complex supplementation at a dose of 100 ppm in drinking water was given ad libitum throughout the experimental period of 14 weeks. In comparison to lung, the cobalt complex supplementation was found to reverse DENA-induced biochemical changes more effectively in liver. Histological examination of liver and lung from DENA-initiated and cobalt-complex-supplemented mice showed considerable protection in the case of liver compared to that of lung. The involvement of the [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 in modulating several factors associated with carcinogenesis induced by DENA thus showed its anticarcinogenic potential against chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  16. Mapping the effective mass of electrons in III-V semiconductor quantum confined structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, M. H.; Papworth, A. J.; Beanland, R.; Bullough, T. J.; Chalker, P. R.

    2006-01-01

    The electron effective mass me* can be calculated from the Kramers-Kronig transformation of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) for III-V semiconductor materials. The mapping capabilities of a scanning transmission electron microscope, equipped with a GatanEnfina™ EELS system are exploited to produce maps showing the variation of me* with nanometer scale resolution for a range of semiconductors. The analysis was carried out on three material systems: a GaInNAs quantum well in a GaAs matrix; InAs quantum dots in a GaAs matrix, and bulk wurzitic GaN. Values of me* were measured as ˜0.07m0 for GaAs and 0.183m0 for GaN, both in excellent agreement with the literature. It has also been shown that the high frequency dielectric constant can be calculated using the Kramers-Kronig methodology. When the high frequency dielectric constant is incorporated into the calculations a much more accurate visual representation of me* is displayed in the maps.

  17. EFFECTS OF TWO ANTIHISTAMINE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS UPON PERFORMANCE AT THREE ALTITUDES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    performance on a modified Mashburn coordinator. Another compound containing the antihistamine chlorpheniramine did impair performance. Performance was also...impaired by increasing altitudes. The combined effects of the chlorpheniramine compound and increased altitude proved more detrimental to

  18. Toxic effects of arsenic (III) on some hematopoietic and central nervous system variables in rats and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Kannan, G M; Tripathi, N; Dube, S N; Gupta, M; Flora, S J

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of arsenic (III) exposure on porphyrin metabolism and the central nervous system supplemented with data on the effect of hepatic and renal tissues of rats and guinea pigs. Rats and guinea pigs were exposed to 10 or 25 ppm arsenic in drinking water for 16 weeks. Following chronic arsenic (III) exposure, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in blood showed a significant reduction as did the total cell counts (RBC and WBC) and reduced glutathione with increased urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid. Zinc protoporphyrin, a sensitive indicator of iron deficiency and impairment of heme biosynthesis, showed a significant increase in arsenic exposure. The hepatic delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and delta-aminolevulinic acid synthetase activity increased in chronic arsenic (III) exposure in rats and guinea pigs. Significant changes in the steady-state level of three major neurotransmitters, dopamine, norepinephrine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, and monoamine oxidase were observed following chronic arsenic (III) exposure. At low doses (10 and 25 ppm in drinking water), the effects of arsenic on hematopoietic indices and whole-brain neurotransmitter concentrations were more prominent in guinea pigs than in rats with some variability in the dose response.

  19. Anomalously increased effective thermal conductivities of ethylene glycol-based nanofluids containing copper nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, J. A.; Choi, S. U. S.; Li, S.; Yu, W.; Thompson, L. J.

    2001-02-05

    It is shown that a ''nanofluid'' consisting of copper nanometer-sized particles dispersed in ethylene glycol has a much higher effective thermal conductivity than either pure ethylene glycol or ethylene glycol containing the same volume fraction of dispersed oxide nanoparticles. The effective thermal conductivity of ethylene glycol is shown to be increased by up to 40% for a nanofluid consisting of ethylene glycol containing approximately 0.3 vol% Cu nanoparticles of mean diameter <10 nm. The results are anomalous based on previous theoretical calculations that had predicted a strong effect of particle shape on effective nanofluid thermal conductivity, but no effect of either particle size or particle thermal conductivity.

  20. Effects of plants containing secondary compounds and plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Kongmun, Pongthon; Poungchompu, Onanong; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Kaenpakdee, Sujittra

    2012-03-01

    A number of experiments have been conducted to investigate effects of tropical plants containing condensed tannins and/or saponins present in tropical plants and some plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology in ruminants. Based on both in vitro and in vivo trials, the results revealed important effects on rumen microorganisms and fermentation including methane production. Incorporation and/or supplementation of these plants containing secondary metabolites have potential for improving rumen ecology and subsequently productivity in ruminants.

  1. High pressure synthesis and properties of ternary titanium (III) fluorides in the system KF-TiF{sub 3} containing regular pentagonal bipyramids [TiF{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, Shoji; Yasuda, Akira; Miyata, Hajime

    2010-01-15

    Titanium trifluoride TiF{sub 3} has the distorted ReO{sub 3} structure composed of corner sharing TiF{sub 6} octahedra linked with Ti-F-Ti bridges. Potassium fluoride KF was inserted into the bridges using high-pressure and high-temperature conditions (5 GPa, 1000-1200 deg. C). When the molar ratio KF/TiF{sub 3}>=1, a few low dimensional compounds were obtained forming non-bridged F ions. At the composition KF/TiF{sub 3}=1/2, a new compound KTi{sub 2}F{sub 7} was formed, which crystallizes with the space group Cmmm and the lattice parameters of a=6.371(3), b=10.448(6), c=3.958(2) A, consisting of edge-sharing pentagonal bipyramids [TiF{sub 7}] forming ribbons running along the a axis. The ribbons are linked by corners to construct a three-dimensional framework without forming non-bridged F ions. The compound is antiferromagnetic with the Neel temperature T{sub N}=75 K, and the optical band gap was 6.4 eV. A new fluoride K{sub 2}TiF{sub 5} (KF/TiF{sub 3}=2) with the space group Pbcn and the lattice parameters of a=7.4626(2), b=12.9544(4) and c=20.6906(7) A was also obtained by the high pressure and high temperature treatment (5 GPa at 1000 deg. C) of a molar mixture of 2 KF+TiF{sub 3}. The compound contains one-dimensional chains of corner-sharing TiF{sub 6} octahedra. - Graphical Abstract: A new ternary fluoride KTi{sub 2}F{sub 7} has been developed under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, which contains pentagonal bipyramid polyhedra [TiF{sub 7}].

  2. Effect of electrolyte components on the magnetic and magnetoresistive characteristics of Fe-containing plasma electrolytic oxide coatings on titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnev, V. S.; Adigamova, M. V.; Tkachenko, I. A.; Sergienko, V. I.; Yanushkevich, K. I.; Aplesnin, S. S.; Lukiyanchuk, I. V.; Morozova, V. P.; Medkov, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    The effect replacing Na3PO4 with Na2HPO4 in aqueous phosphate-borate-tungstate electrolyte that additionally contains Fe2(C2O4)3 on the magnetic and magnetoresistive characteristics of oxide coating/ titanium composites formed by means of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is investigated. It is established that PEO coatings with ferromagnetic characteristics form on titanium in an electrolyte containing Na3PO4 (pH 11) upon adding iron(III) oxalate, while replacing Na3PO4 with Na2HPO4 and the respective drop in the pH of the base electrolyte down to 9.8 results in the formation of coatings with different magnetic characteristics. The correlation between changes in the values of the charge carriers' activation energy and the magnetic susceptibility is demonstrated for the latter. An increase in the electric resistance of coatings in a magnetic field is observed, and the type of the magnetic resistance temperature dependence is established.

  3. Effect of a combined oral contraceptive containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 75 microg gestodene on hemostatic parameters.

    PubMed

    Aldrighi, José Mendes; De Campos, Luis Salvoni Carneiro; Eluf Gebara, Otávio Celso; Petta, Carlos Alberto; Bahamondes, Luis

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 75 microg gestodene (GSD) on prothrombin activity (PA), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), platelet number, fibrinogen, antithrombin III (ATIII), protein C, protein S and D-dimer were evaluated over 6 months in 23 young, healthy women. Laboratory assessments were performed prior to initiation of COC use (pretreatment) and after 3 and 6 months of use. Results showed no significant changes in fibrinogen, protein C, ATIII or D-dimer during COC use, compared with pretreatment values. The increase in platelet count, decreases in protein S level, PA and APTT, and the prolongation of TT were significant. In conclusion, the use of a COC containing 20 microg EE and 75 microg GSD did not cause any significant changes in the hemostatic parameters studied that could be suggestive of a higher prothrombotic risk. Further studies with a larger sample size are necessary in order to obtain conclusive data.

  4. [The non-contact effect of substances containing benzene rings and heterocycles on biological systems].

    PubMed

    Frolov, Iu P

    2001-01-01

    It was found that some substances containing benzolic rings and heterocyclic structures have a noncontact effect on biosystems. Some results of experiments dealing with the noncontact effect on enzyme molecules, cells, and uni- and multicellular organisms are presented. Factors influencing the efficiency of the noncontact effect were revealed.

  5. [Effect of tetrandine on gene expression of collagen type I, collagen type III and TGF-beta1 in scar tissue's of rabbits ear].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiao-Liang; Liu, De-Wu; Mao, Yuan-Gui; Lü, Jing

    2013-11-01

    To observe the effect of tetrandine on gene expression of collagen type I, collagen type III, transformation growth factor-beta1 and to investigate the inhibitory effect of tetrandine on the scar tissue hyperplasia in rabbits' ears. After the scar model was formed on the rabbits' ears, the rabbits were divided into 4 groups to receive intro-lesion injection with saline, or prednisolone (Pre) or tetrandrine in low concentration (L-Tet, 1.0 mg/ml) or tetrandrine in high concentration (H-Tet, 7.5 mg/ml). The morphological changes of scar tissue were observed. The changes of fibroblasts quantity and collagen expression were observed with HE and Masson staining. Immunohistochemical study was used to observe the expression level of collagen type I and collagen type III and TGF-beta1. Collagen type I and collagen type III and TGF-beta1, and signal factor Smad 3 mRNA were detected with RT-PCR. (1) 24 days after injury, all the wounds healed completely with formation of red, tough and hypertrophic scar. HE and Masson staining showed significant increase of fibroblasts and collagen density with irregularly arrangement. (2) Compared with that in saline group, the scar in other groups became softer, lighter and thinner, especially in H-Tet group. (3) HE and Masson staining shows the scar in Tet and Pre groups contained less fibroblasts and lower collagen dentsity with comparatively regular arrangement than that in saline group (P < 0.01), especially in H-Tet group. (4) According to the immunohistochemical study, the expression of collage type I and III and TGF-beta was positive in all the groups, but the positive rate and the ratio of collagen density I to III decreased in the order of saline, L-Tet, H-Tet and Pre groups (P < 0.01). (5) PT-PCR detection results showed that the amplification bands brightness of collagen type I and III and TGF-beta1 and signal molecular Smad 3 mRNA in scar tissue were obviously different. Compared with that in saline group, the expression of

  6. [Generation of Superoxide Radicals by Complex III in Heart Mitochondria and Antioxidant Effect of Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes at Different Partial Pressure of Oxygen].

    PubMed

    Dudylina, A L; Ivanova, M V; Shumaev, K B; Ruuge, E K

    2016-01-01

    The EPR spin-trapping technique and EPR-oximetry were used to study generation of superoxide radicals in heart mitochondria isolated from Wistar rats under conditions of variable oxygen concentration. Lithium phthalocyanine and TEMPONE-15N-D16 were chosen to determine oxygen content in a gas-permeable capillary tube containing mitochondria. TIRON was used as a spin trap. We investigated the influence of different oxygen concentrations in incubation mixture and demonstrated that heart mitochondria can generate superoxide in complex III at different partial pressure of oxygen as well as under the conditions of deep hypoxia (< 5% O2). Dinitrosyl iron complexes with glutathione (the pharmaceutical drug "Oxacom") exerted an antioxidant effect, regardless of the value of the partial pressure of oxygen, but the magnitude and kinetic characteristics of the effect depended on the concentration of the drug.

  7. [Health effects of nanoparticles and nanomaterials (III). Toxicity and health effects of nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Hirose, Akihiko; Hirano, Seishiro

    2008-07-01

    As described before in the first Frontier Report of this series, there are two types of nanoparticles to be considered in hygiene science; One is the environmental nanoparticle emitted from automobiles and the other is the manufactured nanoparticle. In general nanoparticles (less than 100 nm) are reported to be permeable through cell membrane and tissues and their large surface area is responsible for the greater toxicity compared to larger particles. However, there are contradictory reports on the health effects of nanoparticles. Recent reports suggest that carbon nanotubes, fiber-shaped biopersistent nanoparticles, resemble asbestos in the pathogenesis of granuloma and mesothelioma. As such we summarize health effects of environmental and manufactured nanoparticles in the literature so far including our studies, in this report.

  8. Effect of Wubeizi ointment aqueous solution on the expression of type I and III procollagen genes in keloid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Xiao-Xiang; Ding, Ji-Cun; Tang, Zhi-Ming; Li, Jing-Guo; Chen, Xiang-Hui; Zhang, Cui-Xia

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of Wubeizi (WBZ) ointment on keloids. Keloid-derived fibroblast primary cultures were used to evaluate the effect of the different concentration of WBZ ointment on the expression of type I and III procollagen in keloid fibroblast primary cultures using dot blot assay. Type I and II precollagen cDNA probes labeled with non-radioactive digoxin were used for dot blot. Cell cultures were divided into 4 groups: The large dose group received 1 g/ml of WBZ, middle dose, and small dose groups received 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml of WBZ, respectively. The control group received serum-free medium without WBZ. Our results showed that type I and III procollagen mRNA expression was reduced significantly in the large dose and middle dose groups compared to the control group. Type I and III procollagen mRNA expression level in the small dose group had no statistically significant difference with the control group. However, the difference between the large dose group and the small dose group was statistically significant. We concluded that WBZ ointment aqueous solution restricted keloid fibroblast proliferation by downregulating the expression of type I and III procollagen and therefore reducing collagen deposition in keloid tissue.

  9. Band structure effects on resonant tunneling in III-V quantum wells versus two-dimensional vertical heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Philip M.; Tarasov, Alexey; Joiner, Corey A.; Ready, W. Jud; Vogel, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the invention of the Esaki diode, resonant tunneling devices have been of interest for applications including multi-valued logic and communication systems. These devices are characterized by the presence of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic, resulting from lateral momentum conservation during the tunneling process. While a large amount of research has focused on III-V material systems, such as the GaAs/AlGaAs system, for resonant tunneling devices, poor device performance and device-to-device variability have limited widespread adoption. Recently, the symmetric field-effect transistor (symFET) was proposed as a resonant tunneling device incorporating symmetric 2-D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), separated by an interlayer barrier, such as hexagonal boron-nitride. The achievable peak-to-valley ratio for TMD symFETs has been predicted to be higher than has been observed for III-V resonant tunneling devices. This work examines the effect that band structure differences between III-V devices and TMDs has on device performance. It is shown that tunneling between the quantized subbands in III-V devices increases the valley current and decreases device performance, while the interlayer barrier height has a negligible impact on performance for barrier heights greater than approximately 0.5 eV.

  10. Photodegradation of parabens by Fe(III)-citrate complexes at circumneutral pH: matrix effect and reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaonan; Chen, Yong; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Zongping; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Yuegang

    2014-02-15

    The photodegradation of four parabens including methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butyl-paraben in the presence of Fe(III)-citrate complexes under simulated sunlight was investigated. The degradation of parabens increased with decreasing pH within the range of 5.0-8.0 at the Fe(III)-to-citrate ratio of 10:150 (μM). The addition of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids showed different effects on the photodegradation of methylparaben. The low-photoreactive carboxylic acids inhibited the photodegradation of methylparaben in the order of formic acid>succinic acid>acetic acid>malonic acid. In contrast, oxalic acid enhanced the photodegradation and exhibited appreciable synergistic effect with Fe(III)-citrate at concentration higher than 500 μM. Up to 99.0% of substrate was degraded after 30 min at pH6.0 in the Fe(III)-citrate-oxalate system. The various fractions of fulvic acid inhibited the photodegradation of methylparaben. The inhibition increased with increasing nominal molecular weight of fractionated fulvic acid. Moreover, the photodegradation of methylparaben was inhibited in natural waters in the order of Liangzi Lake

  11. Band structure effects on resonant tunneling in III-V quantum wells versus two-dimensional vertical heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Philip M.; Tarasov, Alexey; Joiner, Corey A.; Vogel, Eric M.; Ready, W. Jud

    2016-01-14

    Since the invention of the Esaki diode, resonant tunneling devices have been of interest for applications including multi-valued logic and communication systems. These devices are characterized by the presence of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic, resulting from lateral momentum conservation during the tunneling process. While a large amount of research has focused on III-V material systems, such as the GaAs/AlGaAs system, for resonant tunneling devices, poor device performance and device-to-device variability have limited widespread adoption. Recently, the symmetric field-effect transistor (symFET) was proposed as a resonant tunneling device incorporating symmetric 2-D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), separated by an interlayer barrier, such as hexagonal boron-nitride. The achievable peak-to-valley ratio for TMD symFETs has been predicted to be higher than has been observed for III-V resonant tunneling devices. This work examines the effect that band structure differences between III-V devices and TMDs has on device performance. It is shown that tunneling between the quantized subbands in III-V devices increases the valley current and decreases device performance, while the interlayer barrier height has a negligible impact on performance for barrier heights greater than approximately 0.5 eV.

  12. Assessing the effectiveness of health care cost containment measures: evidence from the market for rehabilitation care.

    PubMed

    Ziebarth, Nicolas R

    2014-03-01

    This study empirically evaluates the effectiveness of different health care cost containment measures. The measures investigated were introduced in Germany in 1997 to reduce moral hazard and public health expenditures in the market for rehabilitation care. Of the analyzed measures, doubling the daily copayments was clearly the most effective cost containment measure, resulting in a reduction in utilization of about [Formula: see text] . Indirect measures such as allowing employers to cut federally mandated sick pay or paid vacation during inpatient post-acute care stays did not significantly reduce utilization. There is evidence neither for adverse health effects nor for substitution effects in terms of more doctor visits.

  13. Diiron(III)-μ-Fluoro Bisporphyrins: Effect of Bridging Ligand on the Metal Spin State.

    PubMed

    Sil, Debangsu; Kumar, Amit; Rath, Sankar Prasad

    2016-08-01

    A hitherto unknown family of diiron(III)-μ-fluoro bisporphyrins has been synthesized and structurally characterized. Fluoride abstraction from SbF6 (-) and BF4 (-) resulted in the synthesis of the μ-fluoro complexes of ethane- and ethene-bridged diiron(III) bisporphyrins. Two such complexes were structurally characterized, which revealed a single fluoro bridge between two iron centers with a remarkably bent Fe-F-Fe unit. Although isoelectronic with the μ-hydroxo complexes, the μ-fluoro species are quite divergent in terms of the electronic structure and properties. UV/Vis spectroscopy of the μ-fluoro complex exhibits a large redshift (ca. 18 nm) of the Soret band in comparison to their μ-hydroxo analog. Combined analysis by single crystal X-ray structure determination and Mössbauer and (1) H NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of two equivalent iron(III) centers in the μ-fluoro complexes in both solid and solution phases. In contrast, the iron(III) centers of the μ-hydroxo complexes are known to be inequivalent. Variable-temperature magnetic studies show a weak antiferromagnetic interaction between the iron(III) centers of the μ-fluoro complexes with coupling constants (J) ranging from -33 to -40 cm(-1) . The experimental results were further supported by DFT calculations.

  14. Noncanonical Effects of IRF9 in Intestinal Inflammation: More than Type I and Type III Interferons.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Isabella; Rosebrock, Felix; Hainzl, Eva; Heider, Susanne; Majoros, Andrea; Wienerroither, Sebastian; Strobl, Birgit; Stockinger, Silvia; Kenner, Lukas; Müller, Mathias; Decker, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) transcription factor with its Stat1, Stat2, and interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF9) subunits is employed for transcriptional responses downstream of receptors for type I interferons (IFN-I) that include IFN-α and IFN-β and type III interferons (IFN-III), also called IFN-λ. Here, we show in a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis that IRF9 deficiency protects animals, whereas the combined loss of IFN-I and IFN-III receptors worsens their condition. We explain the different phenotypes by demonstrating a function of IRF9 in a noncanonical transcriptional complex with Stat1, apart from IFN-I and IFN-III signaling. Together, Stat1 and IRF9 produce a proinflammatory activity that overrides the benefits of the IFN-III response on intestinal epithelial cells. Our results further suggest that the CXCL10 chemokine gene is an important mediator of this proinflammatory activity. We thus establish IFN-λ as a potentially anticolitogenic cytokine and propose an important role for IRF9 as a component of noncanonical Stat complexes in the development of colitis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. An Investigation of Effective Discharge for Suspended Sediment by Level III Ecoregion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heins, A.; Simon, A.

    2002-12-01

    for seven ecoregions: Coast Range (1) Sierra Nevada (5), Snake River Basin (12), Arizona-New Mexico Plateau (22), Flint Hills (28), Central Irregular Plains (40) and the Mississippi Valley Loess Plains (74). Mean daily flow data for a substantial period of record were divided into 33 logarithmic classes and the percentage occurrence of each of these was computed. The total annual suspended sediment transport was then calculated for each class, using suspended-sediment rating equations generated through regression of instantaneous discharge and suspended sediment concentration historic sample data. The geometric midpoint of the class transporting the greatest annual sediment load was considered to be the effective discharge. Results to date demonstrate in environments as diverse the Sierra Nevada Mountains and the Mississippi Valley Loess Plains, the effective discharge for suspended sediment is close to the 1.5 year flow. In the former ecoregion, the mean recurrence interval of suspended sediment effective discharge was 1.526 years. The eventual aim of this project is to calculate effective discharges for all 2929 USGS gaging stations with sufficient instantaneous suspended sediment and associated discharges measurements. These sites cover all 84 level III ecoregions, permitting environmental and geographic patterns of effective discharge recurrence interval. Calculations will be repeated using higher temporal resolution (15 minute) flow data.

  16. Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteoarthritic human hips. III. Distribution and metabolism of amino sugar-containing macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Mankin, H J; Johnson, M E; Lippiello, L

    1981-01-01

    Since 1960, numerous studies have supported the thesis that the synthetic activity of articular chondrocytes is increased in osteoarthritis, but several recent reports have challenged this concept. To clarify this problem fully and also to define further the products of this increased synthesis, three experiments were performed in which the distribution and rates of synthesis of amino sugar-containing macromolecules in normal and osteoarthritic cartilage from the human femoral head were assessed by biochemical analysis and studies of the incorporation of 3H-glucosamine and 35SO4. The biochemical data obtained clearly demonstrated the previously noted significant decrease in hexosamine content in osteoarthritic tissue. This decrease was principally due to a diminution in glucosamine concentration and correlated inversely with the severity of the disease process (as measured by a previously described histological-histochemical grading system). Metabolic studies showed a marked increment in the rates of incorporation of 3H-glucosamine into both the glucosamine and the galactosamine fractions of the cartilage. The increased synthesis correlated directly in a non-linear fashion with the severity of the disease. The ratio of the rate of incorporation of 3H-glucosamine into the glucosamine fraction to the rate of its incorporation into the galactosamine fraction was the same in normal and osteoarthritic samples, suggesting that the decline in glucosamine concentration was not related to a qualitative alteration of synthetic activity.

  17. Application of the rotating cylinder electrode in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic containing uranium(III)- and magnesium(II)-chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappleye, Devin; Simpson, Michael F.

    2017-04-01

    The application of the rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) to molten LiCl-KCl eutectic mixtures for electroanalytical measurements is presented. This enabled the measurement of the limiting current which was observed to follow a linear trend with the rotational rate raised to 0.64-0.65 power on average, which closely agrees with existing RCE mass-transfer correlations. This is the first publication of electroanalytical RCE measurements in LiCl-KCl eutectic based molten salt mixtures, to our knowledge. These measurements were made in mixtures of molten LiCl-KCl eutectic containing UCl3 and MgCl2. Kinetic parameters were calculated for Mg2+ in LiCl-KCl eutectic. The exchange current density (io) of Mg2+ deposition varied with mole fraction (x) according to io(A cm-2) = 1.64x0.689. The parameters from RCE measurements were also applied in an electrochemical co-deposition model entitled DREP to detect and predict the deposition rate of U and Mg. DREP succeeded in detecting the co-deposition of U and Mg, even when Mg constituted less than 0.5 wt% of the deposit.

  18. Corn silage management III: effects of hybrid, maturity, and processing on nitrogen metabolism and ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Swift, M; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of maturity and mechanical processing of two hybrids of whole plant corn silage on DM and OM digestibility, nitrogen metabolism, ruminal fermentation, and milk production and composition in lactating Holstein cows. In the first experiment, Pioneer hybrid 3845 whole plant corn was harvested at hard dough, one-third milkline, and two-thirds milkline with a theoretical length-of-cut of 6.4 mm. At each stage of maturity, corn was harvested with (1-mm roll clearance) and without (15.9-mm roll clearance) mechanical processing using a John Deere 5830 harvester with an on-board kernel processor. In the second experiment, Pioneer hybrids 3845 and Quanta were harvested at one-third milkline, two-thirds milkline, and blackline stages of maturity with and without mechanical processing. The theoretical length-of-cut was 12.7 mm. Total tract DM and OM digestibilities were lower for cows fed diets containing processed corn silage in experiment 1, and tended to be lower for cows fed diets containing unprocessed corn silage in experiment 2. Ruminal acetate concentrations were greater and ruminal propionate concentrations were lower 2 and 6 h after feeding for cows fed diets containing corn silage harvested at physiological maturity in experiment 2. This was due to decreased digestion of starch at advanced maturities in experiment 2. Ruminal pH tended to decline rapidly after feeding for cows fed hybrid Quanta (2 h) compared to hybrid 3845 (5 h) corn silage based diets. Ruminal acetate concentrations decreased and ruminal propionate concentrations increased 2 and 6 h after feeding for cows fed diets containing hybrid Quanta corn silage compared to hybrid 3845 corn silage. This was related to a greater starch concentration in the corn silage, greater starch intake, and increased rate of starch digestion for cows fed hybrid Quanta corn silage-based diets. Microbial nitrogen flow was lower and feed nitrogen flow was greater for

  19. Noncontact dipole effects on channel permeation. III. Anomalous proton conductance effects in gramicidin

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, LR; Cole, CD; Hendershot, RJ; Cotten, M; Cross, TA; Busath, DD

    1999-01-01

    Proton transport on water wires, of interest for many problems in membrane biology, is analyzed in side-chain analogs of gramicidin A channels. In symmetrical 0.1 N HCl solutions, fluorination of channel Trp(11), Trp-(13), or Trp(15) side chains is found to inhibit proton transport, and replacement of one or more Trps with Phe enhances proton transport, the opposite of the effects on K(+) transport in lecithin bilayers. The current-voltage relations are superlinear, indicating that some membrane field-dependent process is rate limiting. The interfacial dipole effects are usually assumed to affect the rate of cation translocation across the channel. For proton conductance, however, water reorientation after proton translocation is anticipated to be rate limiting. We propose that the findings reported here are most readily interpreted as the result of dipole-dipole interactions between channel waters and polar side chains or lipid headgroups. In particular, if reorientation of the water column begins with the water nearest the channel exit, this hypothesis explains the negative impact of fluorination and the positive impact of headgroup dipole on proton conductance. PMID:20540928

  20. Synthesis, structure, and catalytic properties of V(IV), Mn(III), Mo(VI), and U(VI) complexes containing bidentate (N, O) oxazine and oxazoline ligands.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Karuppasamy; Singh, Harkesh B; Butcher, Ray J; Jasinski, Jerry P

    2004-09-06

    Synthesis of seven complexes containing oxazoline ([(L(1))(2)V=O] (4), [(L(1))(2)MoO(2)] (5), [(L(1))(2)UO(2)] (6); HL(1) (1) [HL(1) = 2-(4',4'-dimethyl-3'-4'-dihydroxazol-2'-yl)phenol]), chiral oxazoline ([(L(2))(2)UO(2)] (7); HL(2) (2) [HL(2) = (4'R)-2-(4'-ethyl-3'4'-dihyroxazol-2'-yl)phenol]), and oxazine ([(L(3))(2)V=O] (8), [(L(3))(2)Mn(CH(3)COO(-))] (9), [(L(3))(2)Co] (10); HL(3) (3) [HL(3) = 2-(5,6-dihydro-4H-1,3-oxazolinyl)phenol]) and their characterization by various techniques such as UV-vis, IR, and EPR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry, and elemental analysis are reported. The novel oxazine (3) and complexes 4, 5, 8 and 9 were also characterized by X-ray crystallography. Oxazine 3 crystallizes in the monoclinic system with the P2(1)/n space group, complexes 4 and 9 crystallize in the monoclinic system with the P2(1)/c space group, and complexes 5 and 8 crystallize in the orthorhombic system with the C222(1) space group and the P2(1)2(1)2(1) chiral space group, respectively. The representative synthetic procedure involves the reaction of metal acetate or acetylacetonate derivatives with corresponding ligand in ethanol. Addition of Mn(OAc)(2).4H(2)O to an ethanol solution of 3 gave the unexpected complex Mn(L(3))(2).(CH(3)COO(-)) (9) where the acetate group is coordinated with the metal center in a bidentate fashion. The catalytic activity of complexes 4-9 for oxidation of styrene with tert-butyl hydroperoxide was tested. In all cases, benzaldehyde formed exclusively as the oxidation product.

  1. Characterization of an antigenic site that contains a dominant, type-specific neutralization determinant on the envelope protein domain III (ED3) of dengue 2 virus

    SciTech Connect

    Gromowski, Gregory D.; Barrett, Alan D.T.

    2007-09-30

    The surface of the mature dengue virus (DENV) particle consists of 90 envelope (E) protein dimers that mediate both receptor binding and fusion. The E protein ectodomain can be divided into three structural domains designated ED1, ED2, and ED3, of which ED3 contains the critical and dominant virus-specific neutralization sites. In this study the ED3 epitopes recognized by seven, murine, IgG1 DENV-2 type-specific, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were determined using site-directed mutagenesis of a recombinant DENV-2 ED3 (rED3) protein. A total of 41 single amino acid substitutions were introduced into the rED3 at 30 different surface accessible residues. The affinity of each MAb with the mutant rED3s was assessed by indirect ELISA and the results indicate that all seven MAbs recognize overlapping epitopes with residues K305 and P384 critical for binding. These residues are conserved among DENV-2 strains and cluster together on the upper lateral face of ED3. A linear relationship was observed between relative occupancy of ED3 on the virion by MAb and neutralization of the majority of virus infectivity ({approx} 90%) for all seven MAbs. Depending on the MAb, it is predicted that between 10% and 50% relative occupancy of ED3 on the virion is necessary for virus neutralization and for all seven MAbs occupancy levels approaching saturation were required for 100% neutralization of virus infectivity. Overall, the conserved antigenic site recognized by all seven MAbs is likely to be a dominant DENV-2 type-specific, neutralization determinant.

  2. Viability testing of material derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to removal from a Containment Level-III Laboratory as part of a Laboratory Risk Assessment Program

    PubMed Central

    Blackwood, Kym S; Burdz, Tamara V; Turenne, Christine Y; Sharma, Meenu K; Kabani, Amin M; Wolfe, Joyce N

    2005-01-01

    Background In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3) laboratory. Tests for rapid diagnostic work involving smears and molecular methods do not require CL3 practices after the organism has been rendered non-viable. While it has been assumed that after organism deactivation these techniques can be performed outside of a CL3, no conclusive study has consistently confirmed that the organisms are noninfectious after the theoretical 'deactivation' steps. Previous studies have shown that initial steps (such as heating /chemical fixation) may not consistently kill MTB organisms. Methods An inclusive viability study (n = 226) was undertaken to determine at which point handling of culture extraction materials does not necessitate a CL3 environment. Four different laboratory protocols tested for viability included: standard DNA extractions for IS6110 fingerprinting, crude DNA preparations for PCR by boiling and mechanical lysis, protein extractions, and smear preparations. For each protocol, laboratory staff planted a proportion of the resulting material to Bactec 12B medium that was observed for growth for 8 weeks. Results Of the 208 isolates initially tested, 21 samples grew within the 8-week period. Sixteen (7.7%) of these yielded positive results for MTB that included samples of: deactivated culture resuspensions exposed to 80°C for 20 minutes, smear preparations and protein extractions. Test procedures were consequently modified and tested again (n = 18), resulting in 0% viability. Conclusions This study demonstrates that it cannot be assumed that conventional practices (i.e. smear preparation) or extraction techniques render the organism non-viable. All methodologies, new and existing, should be examined by individual laboratories to validate the safe removal of material derived from MTB to the outside of a CL3 laboratory. This

  3. Photodegradation of propranolol by Fe(III)-citrate complexes: kinetics, mechanism and effect of environmental media.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Liu, Zizheng; Wang, Zongping; Xue, Miaomiao; Zhu, Xianchen; Tao, Tao

    2011-10-30

    Photogeneration of HO was optimized in Fe(III)-citrate solution within the pH range of 3.0-9.0 to investigate its photoreactivity at neutral pH without the addition of H(2)O(2) under simulated sunlight. The generation of HO decreased with increasing pH within the range of 6.0-9.0 at the Fe(III)-to-citrate ratio of 10:50 (10(-6)M). However, when the concentration of citrate increased to 1.5 × 10(-4)M, the formation rate of HO increased in the order of pH 9.0<3.0<7.0<4.0<5.0. The pH-dependent HO production was governed by the stability of Fe(II)/Fe(II)-citrate and the amount of O(2)(-) in the solution. Propranolol can be efficiently photodegraded in Fe(III)-citrate system at pH 7.0 with pseudo-first-order constant 3.1 × 10(-4)s(-1). HO was verified to be the main reactive oxygen species (ROS) responsible for the photodegradation of propranolol. The presence of metal ions inhibited the Fe(III)-cit-induced photodegradation in the order of Mn(2+)>Cu(2+)>Ca(2+)>Mg(2+). Both humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) markedly suppressed the degradation of propranolol. Moreover, the iron in Fe(III)-citrate system was reused by a simple addition of citrate to the reaction solution. By GC-MS analysis, the photoproducts of the propranolol were identified and the degradation pathway was proposed. This work suggests that Fe(III)-citrate complexes are good alternative for the advanced treatment of organic pollutants at neutral pH in aqueous solution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidation of Cr(III) on birnessite surfaces: The effect of goethite and kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Laiyuan; Yang, Jiewen; Liu, Liming; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-11-01

    Oxidation of Cr(III) by manganese oxides may pose a potential threat to environments due to the formation of toxic Cr(VI) species. At present, it was still unclear whether the extent of Cr(III) oxidation and fate of Cr(VI) would be changed when manganese oxides co-exist with other minerals, the case commonly occurring in soils. This study investigated the influence of goethite and kaolinite on Cr(III) oxidation by birnessite under acidic pH condition (pH3.5) and background electrolyte of 0.01mol/L NaCl. Goethite was found not to affect Cr(III) oxidation, which was interpreted as the result of overwhelming adsorption of cationic Cr(III) onto the negatively-charged birnessite (point of zero charge (PZC)<3.0) rather than the positively-charged goethite (PZC=8.8). However, more Cr(VI) would be retained by the surface with the increase in addition of goethite because of its strong ability on adsorption of Cr(VI) at low pH. Moreover, either Cr(III) oxidation or distribution of the generated Cr(VI) between the solid and solution phases was not affected by kaolinite (PZC<3.0), indicating its low affinity for Cr species. Reactions occurring in the present mixed systems were suggested, which could be partly representative of those in the soils and further indicates that the mobility and risk of Cr(VI) would be decreased if goethite was present.

  5. Effects of transport container and ambient storage temperature on motion characteristics of equine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Brinsko, S P; Rowan, K R; Varner, D D; Blanchard, T L

    2000-05-01

    This study was conducted to compare the cooling rates and storage temperatures within equine semen transport containers exposed to different ambient temperatures, and to evaluate the ability of these containers to preserve spermatozoal motility following 24 h of storage under these conditions. In Experiment 1, nonfat dried milk solids, glucose, sucrose, equine semen extender was divided into seven 40-mL aliquots and loaded into seven different semen transport containers: Equitainer I, Equitainer II, Equitainer III, ExpectaFoal, Bio-Flite, Lane STS, and Equine Express. After containers were loaded, they were subjected to one of three ambient storage temperatures: 1) 22 degrees C for 72 h, 2) -20 degrees C for 6 h followed by 22 degrees C for 66 h, or 3) 37 degrees C for 72 h. Cooling rates and storage temperatures of semen extender in each container were monitored with thermocouples and a chart recorder. In Experiment 2, semen from each of three stallions (3 ejaculates per stallion) was diluted to 25 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL with semen extender, divided into 40 mL aliquots and loaded into transport containers as in Experiment I. Containers were subjected to one of three ambient storage conditions: 1) 22 degrees C for 24 h, 2) -20 degrees C for 6 h, followed by 22 degrees C for 18 h, or 3) 37 degrees C for 24 h. After 24 h of storage, spermatozoal motion characteristics (percentage of motile spermatozoa; MOT, percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa; PMOT, and mean curvilinear velocity; VCL) were evaluated using a computerized spermatozoal motion analyzer. Significant interactions were detected among storage conditions and semen transport containers for the majority of the temperature endpoints measured. When exposed to temporary ambient freezing conditions, the lowest temperatures attained by samples in containers ranged from -2.8 to 0.8 degrees C. Lowest temperature samples attained was not correlated (P > 0.05) with spermatozoal motility under any ambient

  6. [Effect of an arginine-containing polishing paste on Streptococcus mutans adhesion to exposed dentin surfaces].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yinchen; Fu, Dongiie; Huang, Cui; Pei, Dandan; Sun, Hualing

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of an arginine-containing antihypersensitivity polishing paste on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) adhesion to treated dentin. Dentin discs were treated with acid to expose dentin tubules, and then polished with either pumice or a polishing paste containing arginine. The surface roughness of the treated dentin was measured. The effects of dentin treatment on S. mutans adhesion and glucosyltransferase (GTFs) gene expression were also evaluated. The surface roughness decreased after polishing with both pumice and arginine-containing polishing paste. Moreover, the polishing paste affected gtfB and gtfC expressions. The arginine-containing polishing paste affects S. mutans adhesion, as well as gtfB and gtfC expressions. The polishing paste may be used to prevent caries in exposed dentin areas.

  7. Defluoridation of drinking water by combined electrocoagulation: effects of the molar ratio of alkalinity and fluoride to Al(III).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hua-Zhang; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Jun; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2009-03-01

    The defluoridation efficiency (epsilon(F)) of electrocoagulation (EC) is closely related to the pH level of the F(-)-containing solution. The pH level usually needs to be adjusted by adding acid in order to obtain the highest epsilon(F) for the F(-)-containing groundwater. The use of combined EC (CEC), which is the combination of chemical coagulation with EC, was proposed to remove fluoride from drinking water for the first time in this study. The optimal scheme for the design and operation of CEC were obtained through experiments on the treatment of F(-)-containing groundwater. It was found, with OH(-) being the only alkalinity of the raw water, that the highest efficiency would be obtained when the molar ratio of alkalinity and fluoride to Al(III) (gamma(Alkalinity+F)) was controlled at 3.0. However, when the raw water contained HCO(3)(-) alkalinity, a correction coefficient was needed to correct the concentration of HCO(3)(-) to obtain the optimal defluoridation condition of gamma(Alkalinity+F)=3.0 for CEC. The correction coefficient of HCO(3)(-) concentration was concluded as 0.60 from the experiment. For the practical F(-)-containing groundwater treatment, CEC can achieve similar epsilon(F) as an acid-adding EC process. The consumption of aluminum electrode was decreased in CEC. The energy consumption also declined greatly in CEC, which is less than one third of that in the acid-adding EC process.

  8. Cosmic Infrared Background From Population III Stars and Its Effect on Spectra of High-z Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the contribution of Population III stars to the near-IR (NIR) cosmic infrared background (CIB) and its effect on spectra of high-z, high-energy gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and other sources. It is shown that if Population III is composed of massive stars, the claimed NIR CIB excess will be reproduced if only approx. 4% plus or minus 2% of all baryons went through these stars. Regardless of the precise amount of the NIR CIB due to them, they likely left enough photons to provide a large optical depth for high-energy photons from distant GRBs. Observations of such GRBs are expected following the planned launch of NASA's GLAST mission. Detecting such damping in the spectra of high-z GRBs will then provide important information on the emissions from the Population III epoch, and the location of this cutoff may serve as an indicator of the GRBs' redshifts. We also point out the difficulty of unambiguously detecting the CIB part originating from Population III in spectra of low-z blazars.

  9. Fe (III) supported on resin as effective catalyst for the heterogeneous oxidation of phenol in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Liou, Rey-May; Chen, Shih-Hsiung; Hung, Mu-Ya; Hsu, Chin-Shan; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2005-03-01

    FeIII supported on resin as an effective catalyst for oxidation was prepared and applied for the degradation of aqueous phenol. Phenol was selected as a model pollutant and the catalytic oxidation was carried out in a batch reactor using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The influent factors on oxidation, such as catalyst dosage, H2O2 concentration, pH, and phenol concentration were examined by considering both phenol conversion and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. The FeIII-resin catalyst possesses a high oxidation activity for phenol degradation in aqueous solution. The experimental results of this study show that almost 100% phenol conversion and over 80% COD removal can be achieved with the FeIII-resin catalyst catalytic oxidation system. A series of prepared resin were investigated for improving the oxidation efficiency. It was found that the reaction temperature and initial pH in solution significantly affected both of phenol conversion and COD removal efficiency. The activity of the catalyst significantly decreased at high pH, which was similar to the Fenton-like reaction mechanism. Results in this study indicate that the FeIII-resin catalytic oxidation process is an efficient method for the treatment of phenolic wastewater.

  10. Effects of long-term ingestion of difructose anhydride III (DFA III) on intestinal bacteria and bile acid metabolism in humans.

    PubMed

    Minamida, Kimiko; Asakawa, Chikako; Sujaya, I Nengah; Kaneko, Maki; Abe, Ayumi; Sone, Teruo; Hara, Hiroshi; Asano, Kozo; Tomita, Fusao

    2006-02-01

    Changes in the intestinal microbiota of 10 human subjects with long-term ingestion of 3 g/d difructose anhydride III (DFA III; 4 persons, 2 months; 3 persons, 6 months; and 3 persons, 12 months) were examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). According to the answers to questionnaires, the subjects were divided into two groups (constipated and normal). The DGGE profile was different for every individual and each subject had unique profiles of intestinal microbiota. In the DGGE profiles of constipated subjects, the intensities of bands related to Bacteroides spp. increased. Moreover, the DFA III-assimilating bacteria, Ruminococcus sp. were isolated from subjects who ingested DFA III for 12 months. These strains showed 95% similarity of their 16S rDNA sequences with that of Ruminococcus obeum ATCC 29174(T) (X85101) and produced large amounts of acetic acid. DFA III ingestion for 2 months tended to increase total organic acids in feces, and tended to decrease fecal pH and the secondary bile acid (SBA) ratio in total bile acids. The SBA ratio in total bile acids corresponded to fecal pH. The production of SBA was decreased by low pH in vitro. These results indicated that DFA III ingestion in humans tended to lower intestinal pH, inhibited bile acid 7alpha-dehydroxylation activities and also tended to decrease the SBA ratios in total bile acids. Moreover, as another cause for the decrease in the SBA ratio in total bile acids, it was suggested that the number of bile acid 7alpha-dehydroxylating bacteria were decreased by DFA III ingestion.

  11. Effect of a dietary herbal supplement containing caffeine and ephedra on weight, metabolic rate, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Frank L; De Jonge, Lilian; Blanchard, Damian; Frisard, Madlyn; Smith, Steven R

    2004-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement containing herbal caffeine (70 mg/dose) and ephedra (24 mg/dose; C&E) on metabolic rate, weight loss, body composition, and safety parameters. In phase I, 12 healthy subjects with a BMI of 25 to 35 kg/m2 had resting metabolic rate (RMR) measured for 2 hours after ingesting C&E or a placebo on two occasions 1 week apart, followed by a 1-week washout before phase II. In phase II, these 12 and 28 additional subjects were randomized to a 12-week, double-blind trial comparing C&E (3 times/day) to placebo. In phase III, the C&E group was given open-label C&E for 3 months, and the placebo group was given C&E for 6 months. In phase I, C&E gave an average 8 +/- 0.1% (SE) rise in RMR over 2 hours compared with placebo (p < 0.01). In phase II, weight loss at 12 weeks was 3.5 +/- 0.6 kg with C&E compared with 0.8 +/- 0.5 kg with placebo (p < 0.02). The percentage fat lost, shown by DXA, was 7.9 +/- 2.9% with C&E and 1.9 +/- 1.1% with placebo (p < 0.05). Pulse decreased more in the placebo group that in the C&E group (p < 0.03). There were no differences in lipid levels or blood pressure. In phase III, there was a 6-month loss of 7.3% and 7.8% of initial body weight for the groups on placebo and C&E during phase II, respectively. There were no serious adverse events. C&E increased RMR significantly by 8% compared with placebo, promoted more weight and fat loss than placebo, and was well tolerated. Copyright 2004 NAASO

  12. Effect of a Curriculum Containing Creation Stories on Attitudes about Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how evolution and natural selection should be taught in the classroom. Presents a study investigating the effects of a nontraditional curriculum including creation stories on student attitudes toward evolution. Reports that a curriculum with creation stories is more effective in fostering scientific views about evolution. (Contains 22…

  13. Is alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction an effective protocol in the treatment of Class III malocclusion? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Nathalia de Lima; Santos, Camila Rangel Barreto Dos; Baião, Felipe Carvalho Souza; Pinheiro, Murilo Costa Rangel; Matos, Manoel; Souza, Ianderlei Andrade; Paula, Rafael Pereira de

    2016-01-01

    the treatment of Class III malocclusion in early age is one of the greatest challenges for orthodontists, and the establishment of more effective treatment method is a constant concern for these professionals. Thus, the objective of this systematic review is to verify the effectiveness of the therapy protocol for alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion. searches were performed in the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, Medline (EBSCO and PubMed), SciELO, LILACS and Scopus. The following inclusion criteria were used: in vivo studies conducted with early intervention (patient in craniofacial development phase) with the use of the Alt-RAMEC protocol. Reviews, case reports, editorials, and studies with syndromic patients or under use of systemic drug were excluded. Duplicates were also excluded. The studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane tool for assessment of risk of bias, and classified as high or low risk of bias. 53 articles were found. Duplicates exclusion was thus performed and 35 articles remained. After inclusion analysis, only 5 matched the criteria. Two articles were classified as low risk of bias and three as high risk of bias. It was observed that the Alt-RAMEC enable protraction in less time and with better results, promoting greater effectiveness in the protraction treatment of Class III malocclusion. Although there is positive evidence of the effectiveness of early treatment with the Alt-RAMEC protocol in patients with Class III malocclusion, further studies are needed to confirm its effectiveness using long-term methodology.

  14. Is alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction an effective protocol in the treatment of Class III malocclusion? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Nathalia de Lima; dos Santos, Camila Rangel Barreto; Baião, Felipe Carvalho Souza; Pinheiro, Murilo Costa Rangel; Matos, Manoel; Souza, Ianderlei Andrade; de Paula, Rafael Pereira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: the treatment of Class III malocclusion in early age is one of the greatest challenges for orthodontists, and the establishment of more effective treatment method is a constant concern for these professionals. Thus, the objective of this systematic review is to verify the effectiveness of the therapy protocol for alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion. Methods: searches were performed in the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, Medline (EBSCO and PubMed), SciELO, LILACS and Scopus. The following inclusion criteria were used: in vivo studies conducted with early intervention (patient in craniofacial development phase) with the use of the Alt-RAMEC protocol. Reviews, case reports, editorials, and studies with syndromic patients or under use of systemic drug were excluded. Duplicates were also excluded. The studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane tool for assessment of risk of bias, and classified as high or low risk of bias. Results: 53 articles were found. Duplicates exclusion was thus performed and 35 articles remained. After inclusion analysis, only 5 matched the criteria. Two articles were classified as low risk of bias and three as high risk of bias. It was observed that the Alt-RAMEC enable protraction in less time and with better results, promoting greater effectiveness in the protraction treatment of Class III malocclusion. Conclusions: Although there is positive evidence of the effectiveness of early treatment with the Alt-RAMEC protocol in patients with Class III malocclusion, further studies are needed to confirm its effectiveness using long-term methodology. PMID:28125138

  15. The costs and effectiveness of large Phase III pre-licensure vaccine clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Black, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s, most vaccines were licensed based upon safety and effectiveness studies in several hundred individuals. Beginning with the evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines, much larger pre-licensure trials became common. The pre-licensure trial for Haemophilus influenzae oligosaccharide conjugate vaccine had more than 60,000 children and that of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine included almost 38,000 children. Although trial sizes for both of these studies were driven by the sample size required to demonstrate efficacy, the sample size requirements for safety evaluations of other vaccines have subsequently increased. With the demonstration of an increased risk of intussusception following the Rotashield brand rotavirus vaccine, this trend has continued. However, routinely requiring safety studies of 20,000-50,000 or more participants has two major downsides. First, the cost of performing large safety trials routinely prior to licensure of a vaccine is very large, with some estimates as high at US$200 million euros for one vaccine. This high financial cost engenders an opportunity cost whereby the number of vaccines that a company is willing or able to develop to meet public health needs becomes limited by this financial barrier. The second downside is that in the pre-licensure setting, such studies are very time consuming and delay the availability of a beneficial vaccine substantially. One might argue that in some situations, this financial commitment is warranted such as for evaluations of the risk of intussusception following newer rotavirus vaccines. However, it must be noted that while an increased risk of intussusception was not identified in large pre-licensure studies, in post marketing evaluations an increased risk of this outcome has been identified. Thus, even the extensive pre-licensure evaluations conducted did not identify an associated risk. The limitations of large Phase III trials have also been

  16. Effectiveness of interceptive treatment of class III malocclusions with skeletal anchorage: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez de Guzmán-Barrera, Jorge; Sáez Martínez, Carla; Boronat-Catalá, Montserrat; Montiel-Company, Jose María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, José Luís; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Recently, new strategies for treating class III malocclusions have appeared. Skeletal anchorage appears to reduce the dentoalveolar effects while maximising the orthopaedic effect in growing patients. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the effectiveness of bone anchorage devices for interceptive treatment of skeletal class III malocclusions. Searches were made in the Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane databases, as well as in a grey literature database, and were complemented by hand-searching. The criteria for eligibility were: patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment with skeletal anchorage (miniplates and miniscrews). Patients with syndromes or craniofacial deformities or who had undergone maxillofacial surgery were excluded. The following variables were recorded for each article: author, year of publication, type of study, sample size, dropouts, demographic variables, treatment carried out, radiographic study (2D or 3D), follow-up time, and quality of the articles on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The means and confidence intervals of the following variables were employed: Wits, overjet, ANB, SNA and SNB. Initially, 239 articles were identified. After removing the duplicates and applying the selection criteria, 9 were included in the qualitative synthesis and 7 in the quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). It may be concluded that skeletal anchorage is an effective treatment for improving skeletal Class III malocclusion, but when compared with other traditional treatments such as disjunction and face mask, there is no clear evidence that skeletal anchorage improves the results. PMID:28328995

  17. Effects of hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride on oxidative stress-related parameters and drug metabolizing enzymes in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amarjit; Kalla, Natwar R; Sharma, Raj P; Sharma, Rajeshwar

    2007-01-01

    Hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride has been advocated as a potential anticarcinogenic compound. There is no information on the effects of this compound on oxidative stress-related parameters in animals. In the present study the effects of administration of hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride in drinking water to balb/c male mice at doses of 25, 50, and 100 ppm for 14 weeks were examined. The tissue distribution of the compound was seen in liver, kidney, lung, intestine, blood, and spleen. The effects of the compound were monitored on levels of lipid peroxidation, GSH content, and activities of SOD, catalase, GST, and Cyt P450, along with the liver and kidney function tests. The results show that the cobalt accumulated maximally in kidney followed by liver, intestine, blood, spleen, and lung in decreasing order, in a dose-dependent manner. GSH and GST also showed increase in a dose-dependent manner while SOD and catalase showed increase with the highest dose only. Liver and kidney function tests showed no untoward change with any dose at the end of the study. The results suggest an antioxidant potentiating effect of the hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride besides nontoxicity to liver and kidney. Since the ability to induce an increase of GSH and GST along with other detoxifying enzymes by anticarcinogenic agents has been reported to correlate with the inhibition of tumorigenesis, the cobalt complex might qualify as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent.

  18. Effectiveness of interceptive treatment of class III malocclusions with skeletal anchorage: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez de Guzmán-Barrera, Jorge; Sáez Martínez, Carla; Boronat-Catalá, Montserrat; Montiel-Company, Jose María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, José Luís; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Recently, new strategies for treating class III malocclusions have appeared. Skeletal anchorage appears to reduce the dentoalveolar effects while maximising the orthopaedic effect in growing patients. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the effectiveness of bone anchorage devices for interceptive treatment of skeletal class III malocclusions. Searches were made in the Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane databases, as well as in a grey literature database, and were complemented by hand-searching. The criteria for eligibility were: patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment with skeletal anchorage (miniplates and miniscrews). Patients with syndromes or craniofacial deformities or who had undergone maxillofacial surgery were excluded. The following variables were recorded for each article: author, year of publication, type of study, sample size, dropouts, demographic variables, treatment carried out, radiographic study (2D or 3D), follow-up time, and quality of the articles on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The means and confidence intervals of the following variables were employed: Wits, overjet, ANB, SNA and SNB. Initially, 239 articles were identified. After removing the duplicates and applying the selection criteria, 9 were included in the qualitative synthesis and 7 in the quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). It may be concluded that skeletal anchorage is an effective treatment for improving skeletal Class III malocclusion, but when compared with other traditional treatments such as disjunction and face mask, there is no clear evidence that skeletal anchorage improves the results.

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Suping; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Ning; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Weir, Michael D.; Ge, Yang; Wang, Shida; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05). In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives. PMID:25046750

  20. Effect of gravitation on dynamic response of tanks containing two liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yu

    1994-08-01

    The exact solution to the dynamic response of circular cylindrical tanks containing two liquids, considering the gravitational (g) effect at the interface of the two liquids, is presented. Only rigid tanks were studied. The solution is expressed as the superposition of the so-called impulsive and convective solutions. The results are compared with those obtained by neglecting the gravitional effect at the interface to elucidate the g effect and with those of the tanks containing only one liquid to elucidate the effect of the interaction between two liquids. The response functions examined include the hydrodynamic pressure, base shear, base moments, sloshing motions at surface and at the interface of two liquids and the associated sloshing frequencies. It is found that there are two natural frequencies associated with each sloshing mode in contrast to only one frequency associated with each sloshing mode if the g effect at the interface is neglected; also, the convective pressure has a jump at the interface of two liquids, whereas the impulsive pressure is continuous at the interface. Further, it is shown that in a tank containing two liquids the maximum sloshing wave height may increase significantly, and the fundamental frequency of the sloshing motion is lower than that of an identical tanks filled with only one liquid. Additionally, the well-known mechanical model for tanks containing one liquid is generalized for tanks containing two liquids.

  1. Effect of gravitation on the dynamic response of tanks containing two liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yu

    1995-07-01

    The exact solution to the dynamic response of circular cylindrical tanks containing two liquids, considering the gravitational (g) effect at the interface of the two liquids, is presented. Only rigid tanks were studied. The solution is expressed as the superposition of the so-called impulsive and convective solutions. The results are compared with those obtained by neglecting the gravitational effect at the interface to elucidate the g effect and with those of the tanks containing only one liquid to elucidate the effect of the interaction between two liquids. The response functions examined include the hydrodynamic pressure, base shear, base moments, sloshing motions at surface and at the interface of two liquids, and the associated sloshing frequencies. It is found that there are two natural frequencies associated with each sloshing mode in contrast to only one frequency associated with each sloshing mode if the g effect a-t the interface is neglected; also, the convective pressure has a discontinuity at the interface of two liquids, whereas the impulsive pressure is continuous at the interface. Further, it is shown that in a tank containing two liquids the maximum sloshing wave height may increase significantly, and the fundamental frequency of the sloshing motion is lower than that of an identical tank filled with only one liquid. Additionally, the well-known mechanical model for tanks containing one liquid is generalized for tanks containing two liquids.

  2. Effect of nanocomposite packaging containing ZnO on growth of Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Esmailzadeh, Hakimeh; Sangpour, Parvaneh; Shahraz, Farzaneh; Hejazi, Jalal; Khaksar, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have opened new windows in active food packaging. Nano-sized ZnO is an inexpensive material with potential antimicrobial properties. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antibacterial effect of low density Polyethylene (LDPE) containing ZnO nanoparticles on Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter aerogenes. ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by facil molten salt method and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nanocomposite films containing 2 and 4 wt.% ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by melt mixing in a twin-screw extruder. The growth of both microorganisms has decreased in the presence of ZnO containing nanocomposites compared with controls. Nanocomposites with 4 wt.% ZnO nanoparticles had stronger antibacterial effect against both bacteria in comparison with the 2 wt.% ZnO containing nanocomposites. B. subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ZnO containing nanocomposite films compared with E. aerogenes as Gram-negative bacteria. There were no significant differences between the migration of Zn ions from 2 and 4 wt.% ZnO containing nanocomposites and the released Zn ions were not significantly increased in both groups after 14 days compared with the first. Regarding the considerable antibacterial effects of ZnO nanoparticles, their application in active food packaging can be a suitable solution for extending the shelf life of food.

  3. Effect of posture on forces and moments measured in a Hybrid III ATD lower leg.

    PubMed

    Van Tuyl, John; Burkhart, Timothy A; Quenneville, Cheryl E

    2016-05-18

    Anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) are used to assess real injury risk to occupants of vehicles during injurious events. In the lower leg, values from load cells are compared to injury criteria developed in cadaveric studies. These criteria are typically developed with the leg in a neutral posture, whereas the ATD may assume a wide range of postures during safety evaluation tests. The degree to which the initial posture of an ATD has an effect on the measured forces and moments in the lower leg is unknown. A Hybrid III ATD lower leg was impacted in a range of postures under conditions representing a crash test, and peak axial force and adjusted tibia index injury measures were evaluated. Ankle posture was varied in 5° increments using a custom-made footplate, and dorsi/plantarflexion (20° DF to 20° PF) and in/eversion (20° IV to 5° EV) were evaluated. Tibia angle was also varied (representing knee flexion/extension) by ±10° from neutral. Peak axial force was not affected by ankle flexion or tibia angulation. Adjusted tibia index was lowest for plantarflexion, as well as for tibia angles representative of knee extension. Both peak axial force and adjusted tibia index were lowest for postures of great inversion and were highest in neutral or near-neutral postures. The range of postures tested herein spanned published injury criteria and thus would have made the difference between pass and fail in a safety evaluation. In/eversion had the largest influence on injury metrics, likely due to the change in axial stiffness and altered impact durations in these postures. Results suggest increased injury risk at neutral or near-neutral postures, whereas previous cadaveric studies have suggested that in/eversion does not influence injury risk. It is unclear whether the ATD appropriately represents the natural lower leg for impacts in out-of-position testing. Great care must be taken when initially positioning ATDs for safety evaluations, because small perturbations in

  4. REVISITING THE FIRST GALAXIES: THE EFFECTS OF POPULATION III STARS ON THEIR HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Muratov, Alexander L.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Zemp, Marcel; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2013-08-01

    We revisit the formation and evolution of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological simulations with the adaptive refinement tree code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for H{sub 2} formation and dissociation, and a star formation recipe that is based on molecular rather than atomic gas. Here, we develop and implement a recipe for the formation of metal-free Population III (Pop III) stars in galaxy-scale simulations that resolve primordial clouds with sufficiently high density. We base our recipe on the results of prior zoom-in simulations that resolved the protostellar collapse in pre-galactic objects. We find the epoch during which Pop III stars dominated the energy and metal budget of the first galaxies to be short-lived. Galaxies that host Pop III stars do not retain dynamical signatures of their thermal and radiative feedback for more than 10{sup 8} years after the lives of the stars end in pair-instability supernovae, even when we consider the maximum reasonable efficiency of the feedback. Though metals ejected by the supernovae can travel well beyond the virial radius of the host galaxy, they typically begin to fall back quickly, and do not enrich a large fraction of the intergalactic medium. Galaxies with a total mass in excess of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} re-accrete most of their baryons and transition to metal-enriched Pop II star formation.

  5. Complexation Effect on Redox Potential of Iron(III)-Iron(II) Couple: A Simple Potentiometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Syed, Raashid Maqsood; Khan, Badruddin

    2011-01-01

    A titration curve with multiple inflection points results when a mixture of two or more reducing agents with sufficiently different reduction potentials are titrated. In this experiment iron(II) complexes are combined into a mixture of reducing agents and are oxidized to the corresponding iron(III) complexes. As all of the complexes involve the…

  6. Complexation Effect on Redox Potential of Iron(III)-Iron(II) Couple: A Simple Potentiometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Syed, Raashid Maqsood; Khan, Badruddin

    2011-01-01

    A titration curve with multiple inflection points results when a mixture of two or more reducing agents with sufficiently different reduction potentials are titrated. In this experiment iron(II) complexes are combined into a mixture of reducing agents and are oxidized to the corresponding iron(III) complexes. As all of the complexes involve the…

  7. Stereoelectronic Effects in Cl2 Elimination from Binuclear Pt(III) Complexes.

    PubMed

    Powers, David C; Hwang, Seung Jun; Anderson, Bryce L; Yang, Haifeng; Zheng, Shao-Liang; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Cook, Timothy R; Gabbaï, François P; Nocera, Daniel G

    2016-11-21

    Halogen photoelimination is the critical energy-storing step of metal-catalyzed HX-splitting photocycles. Homo- and heterobimetallic Pt(III) complexes display among the highest quantum efficiencies for halogen elimination reactions. Herein, we examine in detail the mechanism and energetics of halogen elimination from a family of binuclear Pt(III) complexes featuring meridionally coordinated Pt(III) trichlorides. Transient absorption spectroscopy, steady-state photocrystallography, and far-infrared vibrational spectroscopy suggest a halogen elimination mechanism that proceeds via two sequential halogen-atom-extrusion steps. Solution-phase calorimetry experiments of the meridional complexes have defined the thermodynamics of halogen elimination, which show a decrease in the photoelimination quantum efficiency with an increase in the thermochemically defined Pt-X bond strength. Conversely, when compared to an isomeric facial Pt(III) trichloride, a much more efficient photoelimination is observed for the fac isomer than would be predicted based on thermochemistry. This difference in the fac vs mer isomer photochemistry highlights the importance of stereochemistry on halogen elimination efficiency and points to a mechanism-based strategy for achieving halogen elimination reactions that are both efficient and energy storing.

  8. 76 FR 50663 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Three Class III Preamendments Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) for the following three class III preamendments devices: Ventricular bypass (assist... current (2010) Implicit Price Deflator for the Gross Domestic Product. FDA does not expect this final...

  9. Comparative investigations on the biological effects of As (III) and As (V) in clam Ruditapes philippinarum using multiple biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Xu, Hai'e; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2015-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a known pollutant with two chemical forms, arsenite (As (III)) and arsenate (As (V)), in marine environment. Clam Ruditapes philippinarum is an important fishery species along the Bohai coast. In this study, the biological effects induced by the two arsenic chemical forms (arsenite and arsenate) were compared using multiple biochemical indices in the digestive glands of clam R. philippinarum. The production of reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic responses exhibited that both As (III) and As (V) induced immune, oxidative and osmotic stresses in clam digestive glands. The differential metabolic biomarkers, histidine and taurine, indicated the differential responsive mechanisms in osmotic regulation in clam digestive glands. In addition, both arsenic treatments enhanced the anaerobiosis metabolism in clam digestive glands. Overall, this work illustrated that arsenite and arsenate induced similar biological effects in clams, which might be accounted for the biological transformation of arsenate to arsenite in clams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tm(iii) complexes undergoing slow relaxation of magnetization: exchange coupling and aging effects.

    PubMed

    Amjad, A; Figuerola, A; Sorace, L

    2017-03-21

    The present study focuses on the dynamic magnetic behaviour of exchange coupled 3d-4f complexes containing the scarcely investigated non-Kramers Tm(3+) center, the 3d metal ions being either the low-spin Fe(3+) (1) or the diamagnetic Co(3+) (2) ion. Both complexes display field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization. The field and temperature dependences of the relaxation rate provided indication of relevant contributions from quantum tunnelling, direct, Orbach and Raman processes, with only minor effects from exchange coupling interactions. Furthermore, the aged sample of 2 exhibited an additional relaxation process, possibly due to structural modifications accompanied by solvent loss, highlighting the importance of a careful consideration of this factor when analysing the magnetization dynamics in solvated systems.

  11. SAGE III

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2017-01-13

    SAGE III Data and Information The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas ... on the spacecraft. SAGE III produced L1 and L2 scientific data from 5/07/2002 until 12/31/2005. The flight of the second instrument is as ... Additional Info:  Data Format: HDF-EOS or Big Endian/IEEE Binary SCAR-B Block:  ...

  12. Deuterium-substitution effects on relaxation times and interligand nuclear Overhauser effects for assignment of ligand resonances and isomer identification in cobalt(III) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, C.B.; Turner, A.H.; Rowan, N.S.

    1985-04-10

    Relaxation time, T/sub 1/, and nuclear Overhauser effects are reported for nine imidazole complexes and one histidine complex of Co(III). From these values unequivocal resonance and isomer assignments can be made. The deuterium substitution effect of T/sub 1/'s has been used to determine intranuclear distances and molecular configurations.

  13. ESR spectra and kinetics of the disproportionation of substituted phenoxyl radicals. III. Cross-disproportionation in a system containing two phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Roginskii, V.A.; Krasheninnikova, G.A.

    1987-09-01

    An ESR method was used to study the kinetics of radical reactions in systems of an initiator with two phenolic antioxidants. A theoretical analysis yielded formulas for calculating the equilibrium constant of reversible phenol-phenoxyl exchange reactions and the rate constant for the cross-disproportionation of phenoxyl radicals. Equilibrium and cross-disproportionation constants were measured for five different binary systems. From the results it was concluded that a connection exists between the cross-disproportionation rate constant and the structure of the phenol (in this case steric factors are most important than the O-H bond strength in the phenol). It is shown that the cross-disproportionation of phenoxyl radicals may lead to the generation of a more active antioxidant, as in the case of ionol + a synthetic analog of ..cap alpha..-tocopherol, leading to synergistic effects.

  14. Effect of the hemolytic lectin CEL-III from Holothuroidea Cucumaria echinata on the ANS fluorescence responses in sensitive MDCK and resistant CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Shinmura, N; Nishioka, Y; Komatsu, N; Hatakeyama, T; Muramatsu, T

    1999-04-01

    The addition of CEL-III to sensitive MDCK cells preincubated with 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) caused an increase in the fluorescence intensity of the probe. The increase in the ANS fluorescence caused by CEL-III was Ca2+-dependent and strongly inhibited by 0.1 M lactose, indicating that Ca2+-dependent binding of CEL-III to specific carbohydrate receptors on the plasma membrane is responsible for this phenomenon. In contrast, no significant effect of CEL-III on the ANS fluorescence was observed in CHO cells, which are highly resistant to CEL-III cytotoxicity. In MDCK cells, energy transfer from tryptophan residues to bound ANS molecules was observed in the presence of CEL-III, but not in CHO cells. Furthermore, the amount of ANS bound to MDCK cells increased as the concentration of CEL-III increased. Therefore, a simple interpretation is that the CEL-III-induced increase in ANS fluorescence is attributable to an increase of the hydrophobic region in the plasma membrane where ANS could bind. Immunoblotting analysis of proteins from cells treated with CEL-III indicated that CEL-III oligomers were irreversibly bound to the cells, and the amount of oligomer bound to MDCK cells was much greater than that bound to CHO cells under any conditions tested. The oligomerization may be accompanied by an enhancement of the hydrophobicity of CEL-III molecules, which in turn provides new ANS-binding sites. The difference in susceptibility of MDCK and CHO cells to CEL-III cytotoxicity may be due to a difference in oligomerization of bound CEL-III.

  15. Spatiotemporal Patterns of a Predator-Prey System with an Allee Effect and Holling Type III Functional Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jinfeng

    A diffusive Gause type predator-prey system with Allee effect in prey growth and Holling type III response subject to Neumann boundary conditions is investigated. Existence of nonconstant positive steady state solutions is proved by Leray-Schauder degree theory and bifurcation theory. Global stability of the positive equilibrium of the system is also investigated. Moreover, bifurcations of spatially homogeneous and nonhomogeneous periodic solutions are analyzed. Our rigorous results justify some recent ecological observations.

  16. Effect of model choice in genetic association studies: DRD4 exon III VNTR and cigarette use in young adults.

    PubMed

    Das, Debjani; Tan, Xiaoyun; Easteal, Simon

    2011-04-01

    A major concern with the vast literature associating the highly polymorphic 48 bp VNTR in exon III of the human dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) with various behavioral phenotypes is the lack of concordance between studies. Part of the problem arises from the absence of a universally accepted scheme for pooling the large number of low frequency genotypes into appropriate categories. Here, we investigated the effect of different pooling strategies and genetic models on the reported association between DRD4-exIII-VNTR polymorphism and cigarette smoking. Genotyping was performed on a large randomly selected community-based sample of 2,274 individuals aged 20-24 years. Participants were grouped into sub-samples based on their genotypes to test specific genetic models. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and cigarette smoking measures while controlling for confounders. While smoking status and age at start of smoking were not associated with the genotype, a significantly (P = 0.006) higher rate of cigarette consumption was observed among carriers of the 7-repeat (7r) allele. Thus, 7r carriers were not more likely to be smokers but if they did smoke they consumed significantly more cigarettes per day than 4r carriers. Unlike previous studies this association was observed only when comparing carriers of the 7r with the 4r but not the other repeat alleles. Our study demonstrates the need for caution when grouping functionally different DRD4-exIII-VNTR alleles in association studies. It particularly highlights the requirement for better functional characterization of the DRD4-exIII-VNTR alleles for interpreting results from association studies.

  17. The Effects of Helmet Weight on Hybrid III Head and Neck Responses by Comparing Unhelmeted and Helmeted Impacts.

    PubMed

    Jadischke, Ron; Viano, David C; McCarthy, Joe; King, Albert I

    2016-10-01

    Most studies on football helmet performance focus on lowering head acceleration-related parameters to reduce concussions. This has resulted in an increase in helmet size and mass. The objective of this paper was to study the effect of helmet mass on head and upper neck responses. Two independent test series were conducted. In test series one, 90 pendulum impact tests were conducted with four different headform and helmet conditions: unhelmeted Hybrid III headform, Hybrid III headform with a football helmet shell, Hybrid III headform with helmet shell and facemask, and Hybrid III headform with the helmet and facemask with mass added to the shell (n = 90). The Hybrid III neck was used for all the conditions. For all the configurations combined, the shell only, shell and facemask, and weighted helmet conditions resulted in 36%, 43%, and 44% lower resultant head accelerations (p < 0.0001), respectively, when compared to the unhelmeted condition. Head delta-V reductions were 1.1%, 4.5%, and 4.4%, respectively. In contrast, the helmeted conditions resulted in 26%, 41%, and 49% higher resultant neck forces (p < 0.0001), respectively. The increased neck forces were dominated by neck tension. In test series two, testing was conducted with a pneumatic linear impactor (n = 178). Fourteen different helmet makes and models illustrate the same trend. The increased neck forces provide a possible explanation as to why there has not been a corresponding reduction in concussion rates despite improvements in helmets ability to reduce head accelerations.

  18. Environmental influence on the single-molecule magnet behavior of [Mn(III)6Cr(III)]3+: molecular symmetry versus solid-state effects.

    PubMed

    Hoeke, Veronika; Heidemeier, Maik; Krickemeyer, Erich; Stammler, Anja; Bögge, Hartmut; Schnack, Jürgen; Postnikov, Andrei; Glaser, Thorsten

    2012-10-15

    The structural, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties of a series of [Mn(III)(6)Cr(III)](3+) (= [{(talen(t-Bu(2)))Mn(III)(3)}(2){Cr(III)(CN)(6)}](3+)) compounds have been investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and electronic absorption spectroscopy, elemental analysis, electro spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), cyclic voltammetry, AC and DC magnetic measurements, as well as theoretical analysis. The crystal structures obtained with [Cr(III)(CN)(6)](3-) as a counterion exhibit (quasi-)one-dimensional (1D) chains formed by hydrogen-bonded (1) or covalently linked (2) trications and trianions. The rod-shaped anion lactate enforces a rod packing of the [Mn(III)(6)Cr(III)](3+) complexes in the highly symmetric space group R3[overline] (3) with a collinear arrangement of the molecular S(6) axes. Incorporation of the spherical anion BPh(4)(-) leads to less-symmetric crystal structures (4-6) with noncollinear orientations of the [Mn(III)(6)Cr(III)](3+) complexes, as evidenced by the angle between the approximate molecular C(3) axes taking no specific values in the range of 2°-69°. AC magnetic measurements on freshly isolated crystals (1a and 3a-6a), air-dried crystals (3b-6b), and vacuum-dried powder samples (3c-6c) indicate single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for all samples with U(eff) values up to 28 K. The DC magnetic data are analyzed by a full-matrix diagonalization of the appropriate spin-Hamiltonian including isotropic exchange, zero-field splitting, and Zeeman interaction, taking into account the relative orientation of the D-tensors. Simulations for 3a-6a and 3c-6c indicate a weak antiferromagnetic exchange between the Mn(III) ions in the trinuclear subunits (J(Mn-Mn) = -0.70 to -0.85 cm(-1), Ĥ(ex) = -2∑(i

  19. Patient-reported outcome results from the open-label phase III AURELIA trial evaluating bevacizumab-containing therapy for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Stockler, Martin R; Hilpert, Felix; Friedlander, Michael; King, Madeleine T; Wenzel, Lari; Lee, Chee Khoon; Joly, Florence; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Arranz, José Angel; Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Sorio, Roberto; Freudensprung, Ulrich; Sneller, Vesna; Hales, Gill; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric

    2014-05-01

    To determine the effects of bevacizumab on patient-reported outcomes (PROs; secondary end point) in the AURELIA trial. Patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer were randomly assigned to chemotherapy alone (CT) or with bevacizumab (BEV-CT). PROs were assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Ovarian Cancer Module 28 (EORTC QLQ-OV28) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovarian Cancer symptom index (FOSI) at baseline and every two or three cycles (8/9 weeks) until disease progression. The primary PRO hypothesis was that more patients receiving BEV-CT than CT would achieve at least a 15% (≥ 15-point) absolute improvement on the QLQ-OV28 abdominal/GI symptom subscale (items 31-36) at week 8/9. Patients with missing week 8/9 questionnaires were included as unimproved. Questionnaires from all assessments until disease progression were analyzed using mixed-model repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis. Sensitivity analyses were used to determine the effects of differing assumptions and methods for missing data. Baseline questionnaires were available from 89% of 361 randomly assigned patients. More BEV-CT than CT patients achieved a ≥ 15% improvement in abdominal/GI symptoms at week 8/9 (primary PRO end point, 21.9% v 9.3%; difference, 12.7%; 95% CI, 4.4 to 20.9; P = .002). MMRM analysis covering all time points also favored BEV-CT (difference, 6.4 points; 95% CI, 1.3 to 11.6; P = .015). More BEV-CT than CT patients achieved ≥ 15% improvement in FOSI at week 8/9 (12.2% v 3.1%; difference, 9.0%; 95% CI, 2.9% to 15.2%; P = .003). Sensitivity analyses gave similar results and conclusions. Bevacizumab increased the proportion of patients achieving a 15% improvement in patient-reported abdominal/GI symptoms during chemotherapy for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

  20. Patient-Reported Outcome Results From the Open-Label Phase III AURELIA Trial Evaluating Bevacizumab-Containing Therapy for Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stockler, Martin R.; Hilpert, Felix; Friedlander, Michael; King, Madeleine T.; Wenzel, Lari; Lee, Chee Khoon; Joly, Florence; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Arranz, José Angel; Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Sorio, Roberto; Freudensprung, Ulrich; Sneller, Vesna; Hales, Gill; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of bevacizumab on patient-reported outcomes (PROs; secondary end point) in the AURELIA trial. Patients and Methods Patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer were randomly assigned to chemotherapy alone (CT) or with bevacizumab (BEV-CT). PROs were assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire–Ovarian Cancer Module 28 (EORTC QLQ-OV28) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Ovarian Cancer symptom index (FOSI) at baseline and every two or three cycles (8/9 weeks) until disease progression. The primary PRO hypothesis was that more patients receiving BEV-CT than CT would achieve at least a 15% (≥ 15-point) absolute improvement on the QLQ-OV28 abdominal/GI symptom subscale (items 31-36) at week 8/9. Patients with missing week 8/9 questionnaires were included as unimproved. Questionnaires from all assessments until disease progression were analyzed using mixed-model repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis. Sensitivity analyses were used to determine the effects of differing assumptions and methods for missing data. Results Baseline questionnaires were available from 89% of 361 randomly assigned patients. More BEV-CT than CT patients achieved a ≥ 15% improvement in abdominal/GI symptoms at week 8/9 (primary PRO end point, 21.9% v 9.3%; difference, 12.7%; 95% CI, 4.4 to 20.9; P = .002). MMRM analysis covering all time points also favored BEV-CT (difference, 6.4 points; 95% CI, 1.3 to 11.6; P = .015). More BEV-CT than CT patients achieved ≥ 15% improvement in FOSI at week 8/9 (12.2% v 3.1%; difference, 9.0%; 95% CI, 2.9% to 15.2%; P = .003). Sensitivity analyses gave similar results and conclusions. Conclusion Bevacizumab increased the proportion of patients achieving a 15% improvement in patient-reported abdominal/GI symptoms during chemotherapy for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:24687829

  1. Evidence-based biosafety: a review of the principles and effectiveness of microbiological containment measures.

    PubMed

    Kimman, Tjeerd G; Smit, Eric; Klein, Michèl R

    2008-07-01

    We examined the available evidence on the effectiveness of measures aimed at protecting humans and the environment against the risks of working with genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs) and with non-GMO pathogenic microorganisms. A few principles and methods underlie the current biosafety practice: risk assessment, biological containment, concentration and enclosure, exposure minimization, physical containment, and hazard minimization. Many of the current practices are based on experience and expert judgment. The effectiveness of biosafety measures may be evaluated at the level of single containment equipment items and procedures, at the level of the laboratory as a whole, or at the clinical-epidemiological level. Data on the containment effectiveness of equipment and laboratories are scarce and fragmented. Laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) are therefore important for evaluating the effectiveness of biosafety. For the majority of LAIs there appears to be no direct cause, suggesting that failures of biosafety were not noticed or that containment may have been insufficient. The number of reported laboratory accidents associated with GMOs is substantially lower than that of those associated with non-GMOs. It is unknown to what extent specific measures contribute to the overall level of biosafety. We therefore recommend that the evidence base of biosafety practice be strengthened.

  2. Evidence-Based Biosafety: a Review of the Principles and Effectiveness of Microbiological Containment Measures

    PubMed Central

    Kimman, Tjeerd G.; Smit, Eric; Klein, Michèl R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the available evidence on the effectiveness of measures aimed at protecting humans and the environment against the risks of working with genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs) and with non-GMO pathogenic microorganisms. A few principles and methods underlie the current biosafety practice: risk assessment, biological containment, concentration and enclosure, exposure minimization, physical containment, and hazard minimization. Many of the current practices are based on experience and expert judgment. The effectiveness of biosafety measures may be evaluated at the level of single containment equipment items and procedures, at the level of the laboratory as a whole, or at the clinical-epidemiological level. Data on the containment effectiveness of equipment and laboratories are scarce and fragmented. Laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) are therefore important for evaluating the effectiveness of biosafety. For the majority of LAIs there appears to be no direct cause, suggesting that failures of biosafety were not noticed or that containment may have been insufficient. The number of reported laboratory accidents associated with GMOs is substantially lower than that of those associated with non-GMOs. It is unknown to what extent specific measures contribute to the overall level of biosafety. We therefore recommend that the evidence base of biosafety practice be strengthened. PMID:18625678

  3. Hydration effects on the barrier function of stratum corneum lipids: Raman analysis of ceramides 2, III and 5.

    PubMed

    Tfayli, Ali; Jamal, Dima; Vyumvuhore, Raoul; Manfait, Michel; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2013-11-07

    The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the skin; its barrier function is highly dependent on the composition and the structure as well as the organization of lipids in its extracellular matrix. Ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol represent the major lipid classes present in this matrix. They play an important role in maintaining the normal hydration levels required for the normal physiological function. Despite the advancement in the understanding of the structure, composition and the function of the stratum corneum (SC), the concern of "dry skin" remains important in dermatology and care research. Most studies focus on the quantification of water in the skin using different techniques including Raman spectroscopy, while the studies that investigate the effect of hydration on the quality of the barrier function of the skin are limited. Raman spectroscopy provides structural, conformational and organizational information that could help elucidate the effect of hydration on the barrier function of the skin. In order to assess the effect of relative humidity on the lipid barrier function; we used Raman spectroscopy to follow-up the evolution of the conformation and the organization of three synthetic ceramides (CER) differing from each other by the nature of their polar heads (sphingosine, phytosphingosine and α hydroxyl sphingosine), CER 2, III and 5 respectively. CER III and 5 showed a more compact and ordered organization with stronger polar interactions at intermediate relative humidity values, while CER 2 showed opposite tendencies to those observed with CER III and 5.

  4. The biowaiver extension for BCS class III drugs: the effect of dissolution rate on the bioequivalence of BCS class III immediate-release drugs predicted by computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-08-02

    The Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) guidance issued by the FDA allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I drugs. However, a number of drugs within BCS class III have been proposed to be eligible for biowaivers. The World Health Organization (WHO) has shortened the requisite dissolution time of BCS class III drugs on their Essential Medicine List (EML) from 30 to 15 min for extended biowaivers; however, the impact of the shorter dissolution time on AUC(0-inf) and C(max) is unknown. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the ability of gastrointestinal simulation software to predict the oral absorption of the BCS class I drugs propranolol and metoprolol and the BCS class III drugs cimetidine, atenolol, and amoxicillin, and to perform in silico bioequivalence studies to assess the feasibility of extending biowaivers to BCS class III drugs. The drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted using physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of test drugs provided by GastroPlus (version 6.0). Virtual trials with a 200 mL dose volume at different drug release rates (T(85%) = 15 to 180 min) were performed to predict the oral absorption (C(max) and AUC(0-inf)) of the above drugs. Both BCS class I drugs satisfied bioequivalence with regard to the release rates up to 120 min. The results with BCS class III drugs demonstrated bioequivalence using the prolonged release rate, T(85%) = 45 or 60 min, indicating that the dissolution standard for bioequivalence is dependent on the intestinal membrane permeability and permeability profile throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The results of GastroPlus simulations indicate that the dissolution rate of BCS class III drugs could be prolonged to the point where dissolution, rather than permeability, would control the overall absorption. For BCS class III drugs with intestinal absorption patterns

  5. Synthesis, crystal structure, catalytic and anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of a new chromium(III) complex containing bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, John; Ibarra, Laura; Yepes, David; García-Huertas, Paola; Macías, Mario A.; Triana-Chavez, Omar; Nagles, Edgar; Suescun, Leopoldo; Muñoz-Castro, Alvaro

    2017-10-01

    The reaction of CrCl36H2O with the ligand bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazol-1-yl)methane (L) yielded the cationic complex [(Cr(L)(H2O)2Cl2]+, which crystallized as the chloride trihydrate [(Cr(L)(H2O)2Cl2]Cl·3H2O. The chromium complex was characterized by elemental analysis, electrical conductivity, Infrared and Ultraviolet/Visible spectroscopy. The crystal structure determination using single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed a chromium center in a distorted octahedral coordination sphere. In the crystal, the packing was directed by Osbnd H⋯(O,Cl) hydrogen bonds and weak Csbnd H⋯O interactions to build a monoclinic P21/c supramolecular structure. The complex showed excellent properties as an initiator for the ring opening polymerization of є-caprolactone (CL) under solvent-free conditions. The obtained polymer showed high crystallinity (89.9%) and a decomposition temperature above 475 °C. In addition, the new complex was evaluated against epimastigotes from Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) strains. The results indicated that this complex has a high activity against this parasite with a minimum inhibitory concentration 50 (MIC50) of 1.08 μg/mL. Interestingly, this compound showed little effect on erythrocytes, indicating that it is not cytotoxic. These results provide interesting contributions to the design of metal complexes by using simple and accessible ligands with activity against T. cruzi and with potential applications in the polymerization of CL.

  6. Clinical and microbiologic effects of commercially available dentifrice containing aloe vera: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, A R; Agarwal, Esha; Naik, Savitha B

    2012-06-01

    Certain plants used in folk medicine serve as a source of therapeutic agents that have antimicrobial and other multipotential effects. This prospective, randomized, placebo, and positively controlled clinical trial was designed to evaluate the clinical and microbiologic effects of a commercially available dentifrice containing aloe vera on the reduction of plaque and gingival inflammation in patients with gingivitis. Ninety patients diagnosed with chronic generalized gingivitis were selected and randomly divided into three groups: group 1, placebo toothpaste; group 2, toothpaste containing aloe vera; and group 3, toothpaste with polymer and fluoride containing triclosan. Clinical evaluation was undertaken using a gingival index, plaque was assessed using a modification of the Quigley-Hein index, and microbiologic counts were assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. A subjective evaluation was also undertaken by questionnaire. Toothpaste containing aloe vera showed significant improvement in gingival and plaque index scores as well as microbiologic counts compared with placebo dentifrice. These improvements were comparable to those achieved with toothpaste containing triclosan. Toothpaste containing aloe vera may be a useful herbal formulation for chemical plaque control agents and improvement in plaque and gingival status.

  7. Effects of atorvastatin and n-3 fatty acid supplementation on VLDL apolipoprotein C-III kinetics in men with abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Dick C; Nguyen, Minh N; Watts, Gerald F; Ooi, Esther Mm; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2010-04-01

    Disturbed apolipoprotein (apo) C-III metabolism in obese subjects may account for hypertriglyceridemia and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Atorvastatin and fish oils decrease plasma triglycerides and VLDL concentrations, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We studied the independent and combined effects of atorvastatin and fish oils on the metabolism of VLDL apo C-III in obese men. We carried out a 6-wk randomized, placebo-controlled, 2 x 2 factorial intervention study of atorvastatin (40 mg/d) and fish oils (4 g/d) on VLDL apo C-III kinetics in the postabsorptive state in 39 abdominally obese men using intravenous administration of d(3)-leucine. VLDL apo C-III isotopic enrichments were measured by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with kinetic parameters derived by using a multicompartmental model. Atorvastatin significantly (P < 0.05, main effect) increased the VLDL apo C-III fractional catabolic rate (+0.06 +/- 0.003 pools/d) without significantly altering its production rate (-0.14 +/- 0.18 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1)), accounting for a significant reduction in plasma VLDL apo C-III pool size (-44 +/- 17 mg/L). Fish-oil supplementation significantly decreased plasma triglycerides but did not significantly alter plasma VLDL apo C-III concentrations or kinetic parameters. Combination treatment provided no additional effect on VLDL apo C-III concentrations or kinetics compared with atorvastatin alone. In obesity, the triglyceride-lowering effect of atorvastatin, but not fish oils, is associated with increased VLDL apo C-III fractional catabolism and hence lower VLDL apo C-III concentrations. Combination treatment provided no significant additional improvement in VLDL apo C-III metabolism compared with atorvastatin alone.

  8. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of indium(iii) complexes with 2-acetylpyridine-derived thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alexandre A; Perdigão, Gabriele M C; Rodrigues, Luana E; da Silva, Jeferson G; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Rocha, Willian R; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2017-01-17

    Complexes [In(2Ac4oClPh)Cl2(MeOH)] (1), [In(2Ac4pFPh)Cl2(MeOH)] (2), [In(2Ac4pClPh)Cl2(MeOH)] (3) and [In(2Ac4pIPh)Cl2(MeOH)] (4) were obtained with N(4)-ortho-chlorophenyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H2Ac4oClPh), N(4)-para-fluorophenyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H2Ac4pFPh), N(4)-para-chlorophenyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H2Ac4pClPh) and N(4)-para-iodophenyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H2Ac4pIPh). Theoretical studies suggested that the coordinated methanol molecule can be easily replaced by DMSO used in the preparation of stock solutions, with the formation of [In(L)Cl2(DMSO)] (HL = thiosemicarbazonate ligand), and that the replacement of DMSO by water is unfavorable. However, for all complexes the displacement of one or two chloride ligands by water in aqueous solution is extremely favorable. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was evaluated against HL-60, Jurkat and THP-1 leukemia and against MDA-MB-231 and HCT-116 solid tumor cell lines, as well as against Vero non-malignant cells. The cytotoxicity and selectivity indexes (SI) increased in several cases for the indium(iii) complexes in comparison with the free thiosemicarbazones. The antimicrobia