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Sample records for containment iii effect

  1. Biostimulation of Iron Reduction and Subsequent Oxidation of Sediment Containing Fe-silicates and Fe-oxides: Effect of Redox Cycling on Fe(III) Bioreduction

    SciTech Connect

    Komlos, John; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Zachara, John M.; Jaffe, Peter R.

    2007-07-01

    Microbial reduction of iron has been shown to be important in the transformation and remediation of contaminated sediments. Re-oxidation of microbially reduced iron may occur in sediments that experience oxidation-reduction cycling and can thus impact the extent of contaminant remediation. The purpose of this research was to quantify iron oxidation in a flow-through column filled with biologically-reduced sediment and to compare the iron phases in the re-oxidized sediment to both the pristine and biologically-reduced sediment. The sediment contained both Fe(III)-oxides (primarily goethite) and silicate Fe (illite/vermiculite) and was biologically reduced in phosphate buffered (PB) medium during a 497 day column experiment with acetate supplied as the electron donor. Long-term iron reduction resulted in partial reduction of silicate Fe(III) without any goethite reduction, based on Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements. This reduced sediment was treated with an oxygenated PB solution in a flow-through column resulting in the oxidation of 38% of the biogenic Fe(II). Additional batch experiments showed that the Fe(III) in the oxidized sediment was more quickly reduced compared to the pristine sediment, indicating that oxidation of the sediment not only regenerated Fe(III) but also enhanced iron reduction compared to the pristine sediment. Oxidation-reduction cycling may be a viable method to extend iron-reducing conditions during in-situ bioremediation.

  2. Non-Linear Dynamics and Stability of Circular Cylindrical Shells Containing Flowing Fluid. Part Iii: Truncation Effect Without Flow and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AMABILI, M.; PELLICANO, F.; PAÏDOUSSIS, M. P.

    2000-11-01

    The response of simply supported circular cylindrical shells to harmonic excitation in the spectral neighbourhood of one of the lowest natural frequencies is investigated by using improved mode expansions with respect to those assumed in Parts I and II of the present study. Two cases are studied: (1) shells in vacuo; and (2) shells filled with stagnant water. The improved expansions allow checking the accuracy of the solutions previously obtained and giving definitive results within the limits of Donnell's non-linear shallow-shell theory. The improved mode expansions include: (1) harmonics of the circumferential mode number n under consideration, and (2) only the principal n, but with harmonics of the longitudinal mode included. The effect of additional longitudinal modes is absolutely insignificant in both the driven and companion mode responses. The effect of modes with 2 n circumferential waves is very limited on the trend of non-linearity, but is significant in the response with companion mode participation in the case of lightly damped shells (empty shells). In particular, the travelling wave response appears for much lower vibration amplitudes and presents a frequency range without stable responses, corresponding to a beating phenomenon. A liquid (water) contained in the shell generates a much stronger softening behaviour of the system. Experiments with a water-filled circular cylindrical shell made of steel are in very good agreement with the present theory.

  3. Ytterbium (III) Luminescence in m-Methylbenzoic Acid-Containing Compounds.

    PubMed

    Kalinovskaya, I V; Zadorozhnaya, A N

    2015-05-01

    Complex compounds of ytterbium(III) with m-methylbenzoic acid and nitrogen-containing ligands luminescent in near infrared range have been synthesized. Spectral luminescence characteristics of heteroligand compounds of ytterbium(III) have been investigated. It has been established that ytterbium (III) m-methylbenzoate with 1,10-phenanthroline is characterized by the highest luminescence intensity.

  4. PRESERVATION OF SULFIDIC WATERS CONTAINING DISSOLVED AS (III)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field samples for arsenic analyses are commonly preserved by acidification with hydrochloric or nitric acid. In some suboxic samples, appreciable concentrations of H2S and HS- are observed due to the microbial respiration of sulfate-reducing bacteria. If both As(III) and sulfid...

  5. Gallium(III) Tetraphenylporphyrinates Containing Hydrosulfide and Thiolate Ligands: Structural Models for Sulfur-Bound Iron(III) Hemes.

    PubMed

    Meininger, Daniel J; Chee-Garza, Max; Arman, Hadi D; Tonzetich, Zachary J

    2016-03-07

    Gallium(III) tetraphenylporphyrinates (TPP) containing anionic sulfur ligands have been prepared and characterized in the solid state and solution. The complexes serve as structural models for iron(III) heme sites containing sulfur coordination that otherwise prove challenging to synthesize due to the propensity for reduction to iron(II). The compounds prepared include the first well-characterized example of a trivalent metalloporphyrinate containing a terminal hydrosulfide ligand, [Ga(SH)(TPP)], as well as [Ga(SEt)(TPP)], [Ga(SPh)(TPP)], and [Ga(SSi(i)Pr3)(TPP)]. The stability of these compounds toward reduction has permitted an investigation of their solid-state structures and electrochemistry. The structural features and reaction chemistry of the complexes in relation to their iron(III) analogs is discussed.

  6. PRESERVATION OF SULFIDIC WATERS CONTAINING DISSOLVED AS (III)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solutions containing variable concentrations of sulfide (p to31 ppm) and arsenite (0.35 to 10 ppm) were subjected to several different preservation treatments. As predicted by equilibrium thermodynamics, at near-neutral pH the experimental solutions were undersaturated with resp...

  7. Luminescence properties of compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and phosphor-containing neutral ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinovskaya, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    Luminescent complex mixed-ligand compounds of europium(III) with quinaldic acid and phosphor- containing neutral ligands have been obtained. Their composition and structure have been determined. The thermal and spectral-luminescent properties of the obtained complex mixed-ligand compounds of europium( III) have been studied. It is shown that, during thermolysis, a water molecule and neutral ligand are detached in two stages with endothermic effects. It is established that quinaldinate ion is coordinated to europium(III) ion in a bidentate fashion. The Stark structure of the 5 D 0-7 F j ( j = 0, 1, 2) transitions in low-temperature luminescence spectra of complex compounds of europium(III) has been analyzed.

  8. Fluorescence and DNA-binding properties of neodymium(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Mirkazehi-Rigi, Sohaila

    2011-09-01

    The binding of neodymium(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline, [M(phen) 2Cl 3·OH 2] (M = Nd ( 1), Pr ( 2)), to DNA has been investigated by absorption, emission, and viscosity measurements. The complexes show absorption decreasing in charge transfer band, fluorescence decrement when bound to DNA. The binding constant Kb has been determined by absorption measurement for both complexes and found to be (6.76 ± 0.12) × 10 4 for 1 and (1.83 ± 0.15) × 10 4 M -1, for 2. The fluorescence of [M(phen) 2Cl 3·OH 2] (M = Nd ( 1), Pr ( 2)) has been studied in detail. The results of fluorescence titration reveal that DNA has the strong ability to quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of Nd(III) and Pr(III) complexes through the static quenching procedure. The binding site number n, apparent binding constant Kb and the Stern-Volmer constant kSV are determined. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (Δ H°) and entropy change (Δ S°), are calculated according to relevant fluorescent data and Van't Hoff equation. The experimental data suggest that the complexes bind to DNA by non-intercalative mode. Major groove binding is the preferred mode of interaction for [M(phen) 2Cl 3·OH 2] (M = Nd ( 1), Pr ( 2)) with DNA.

  9. Fluorescence and DNA-binding properties of neodymium(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Mirkazehi-Rigi, Sohaila

    2011-09-01

    The binding of neodymium(III) and praseodymium(III) complexes containing 1,10-phenanthroline, [M(phen)2Cl3·OH2] (M=Nd (1), Pr (2)), to DNA has been investigated by absorption, emission, and viscosity measurements. The complexes show absorption decreasing in charge transfer band, fluorescence decrement when bound to DNA. The binding constant Kb has been determined by absorption measurement for both complexes and found to be (6.76±0.12)×10(4) for 1 and (1.83±0.15)×10(4)M(-1), for 2. The fluorescence of [M(phen)2Cl3·OH2] (M=Nd (1), Pr (2)) has been studied in detail. The results of fluorescence titration reveal that DNA has the strong ability to quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of Nd(III) and Pr(III) complexes through the static quenching procedure. The binding site number n, apparent binding constant Kb and the Stern-Volmer constant kSV are determined. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°), are calculated according to relevant fluorescent data and Van't Hoff equation. The experimental data suggest that the complexes bind to DNA by non-intercalative mode. Major groove binding is the preferred mode of interaction for [M(phen)2Cl3·OH2] (M=Nd (1), Pr (2)) with DNA.

  10. Fluorescence studies, DNA binding properties and antimicrobial activity of a dysprosium(III) complex containing 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Moodi, Asieh; Niroomand, Sona

    2013-10-05

    Luminescence and binding properties of dysprosium(III) complex containing 1,10-phenanthroline (phen), [Dy(phen)2(OH2)3Cl]Cl2⋅H2O with DNA has been studied by electronic absorption, emission spectroscopy and viscosity measurement. The thermodynamic studies suggest that the interaction process to be endothermic and entropically driven, which indicates that the dysprosium(III) complex might interact with DNA by a non intercalation binding mode. Additionally, the competitive fluorescence study with ethidium bromide and also the effect of iodide ion and salt concentration on fluorescence of the complex-DNA system is investigated. Experimental results indicate that the Dy(III) complex strongly binds to DNA, presumably via groove binding mode. Furthermore, the complex shows a potent antibacterial activity and DNA cleavage ability.

  11. Treatment of groundwater containing Mn(II), Fe(II), As(III) and Sb(III) by bioaugmented quartz-sand filters.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yaohui; Chang, Yangyang; Liang, Jinsong; Chen, Chen; Qu, Jiuhui

    2016-12-01

    High concentrations of iron (Fe(II)) and manganese (Mn(II)) often occur simultaneously in groundwater. Previously, we demonstrated that Fe(II) and Mn(II) could be oxidized to biogenic Fe-Mn oxides (BFMO) via aeration and microbial oxidation, and the formed BFMO could further oxidize and adsorb other pollutants (e.g., arsenic (As(III)) and antimony (Sb(III))). To apply this finding to groundwater remediation, we established four quartz-sand columns for treating groundwater containing Fe(II), Mn(II), As(III), and Sb(III). A Mn-oxidizing bacterium (Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1) was inoculated into two parallel bioaugmented columns. Long-term treatment (120 d) showed that bioaugmentation accelerated the formation of Fe-Mn oxides, resulting in an increase in As and Sb removal. The bioaugmented columns also exhibited higher overall treatment effect and anti-shock load capacity than that of the non-bioaugmented columns. To clarify the causal relationship between the microbial community and treatment effect, we compared the biomass of active bacteria (reverse-transcribed real-time PCR), bacterial community composition (Miseq 16S rRNA sequencing) and community function (metagenomic sequencing) between the bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented columns. Results indicated that the QJX1 strain grew steadily and attached onto the filter material surface in the bioaugmented columns. In general, the inoculated strain did not significantly alter the composition of the indigenous bacterial community, but did improve the relative abundances of xenobiotic metabolism genes and Mn oxidation gene. Thus, bioaugmentation intensified microbial degradation/utilization for the direct removal of pollutants and increased the formation of Fe-Mn oxides for the indirect removal of pollutants. Our study provides an alternative method for the treatment of groundwater containing high Fe(II), Mn(II) and As/Sb.

  12. Crystal structure of hydrazine iron(III) phosphate, the first transition metal phosphate containing hydrazine

    PubMed Central

    David, Renald

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, poly[(μ2-hydrazine)(μ4-phosphato)iron(III)], [Fe(PO4)(N2H4)]n, was prepared under hydro­thermal conditions. Its asymmetric unit contains one FeIII atom located on an inversion centre, one P atom located on a twofold rotation axis, and two O, one N and two H atoms located on general positions. The FeIII atom is bound to four O atoms of symmetry-related PO4 tetra­hedra and to two N atoms of two symmetry-related hydrazine ligands, resulting in a slightly distorted FeO4N2 octa­hedron. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional hydrazine/iron phoshate framework whereby each PO4 tetra­hedron bridges four FeIII atoms and each hydrazine ligand bridges two FeIII atoms. The H atoms of the hydrazine ligands are also involved in moderate N—H⋯O hydrogen bonding with phosphate O atoms. The crystal structure is isotypic with the sulfates [Co(SO4)(N2H4)] and [Mn(SO4)(N2H4)]. PMID:26870399

  13. Synthesis, spectral and electrochemical studies of binuclear Ru(III) complexes containing dithiosemicarbazone ligand.

    PubMed

    Kanchana Devi, A; Ramesh, R

    2014-01-03

    Synthesis of several new octahedral binuclear ruthenium(III) complexes of the general composition [(EPh3)2(X)Ru-L-Ru(X)(EPh3)2] containing benzene dithiosemicarbazone ligands (where E=P or As; X=Cl or Br; L=binucleating ligands) is presented. All the complexes have been fully characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, UV-vis and EPR spectroscopy together with magnetic susceptibility measurements. IR study shows that the dithiosemicarbazone ligands behave as dianionic tridentate ligands coordinating through the oxygen atom of the deprotonated phenolic group, nitrogen atom of the azomethine group and thiolate sulphur. In DMF solution, all the complexes exhibit intense d-d transition and ligand-to-metal charge transfer (LMCT) transition in the visible region. The magnetic moment values of the complexes are in the range 1.78-1.82 BM, which reveals the presence of one unpaired electron on each metal ion. The EPR spectra of the liquid samples at LNT show the presence of three different 'g' values (gx≠gy≠gz) indicate a rhombic distortion around the ruthenium ion. All the complexes exhibit two quasi-reversible one electron oxidation responses (Ru(III)-Ru(III)/Ru(III)-Ru(IV); Ru(III)-Ru(IV)/Ru(IV)-Ru(IV)) within the E1/2 range of 0.61-0.74 V and 0.93-0.98 V respectively, versus Ag/AgCl.

  14. Crystal structure of hydrazine iron(III) phosphate, the first transition metal phosphate containing hydrazine.

    PubMed

    David, Renald

    2015-12-01

    The title compound, poly[(μ2-hydrazine)(μ4-phosphato)iron(III)], [Fe(PO4)(N2H4)] n , was prepared under hydro-thermal conditions. Its asymmetric unit contains one Fe(III) atom located on an inversion centre, one P atom located on a twofold rotation axis, and two O, one N and two H atoms located on general positions. The Fe(III) atom is bound to four O atoms of symmetry-related PO4 tetra-hedra and to two N atoms of two symmetry-related hydrazine ligands, resulting in a slightly distorted FeO4N2 octa-hedron. The crystal structure consists of a three-dimensional hydrazine/iron phoshate framework whereby each PO4 tetra-hedron bridges four Fe(III) atoms and each hydrazine ligand bridges two Fe(III) atoms. The H atoms of the hydrazine ligands are also involved in moderate N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding with phosphate O atoms. The crystal structure is isotypic with the sulfates [Co(SO4)(N2H4)] and [Mn(SO4)(N2H4)].

  15. Rhodium(III)-triphenylphosphine complex with NNS donor thioether containing Schiff base ligand: Synthesis, spectra, electrochemistry and catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sujan; Sarkar, Deblina; Kundu, Subhankar; Roy, Puspendu; Mondal, Tapan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    New rhodium(III)-triphenylphosphine complex, [Rh(PPh3)(L)Cl2](PF6) (1) with thioether containing NNS donor ligand (L) (L = 2-(methylthio)-N-((pyridine-2-yl)methylene)benzenamine) has been synthesized and characterized. The pseudo octahedral geometry of the complex has been confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis. The electronic structure, redox properties, absorption and emission properties of the complexes have been interpreted by DFT and TDDFT calculations. The complex effectively catalyzed the transfer hydrogenation reaction of ketones in 2-propanol and oxidation of alcohols in presence of NMO.

  16. Photochromic Dithienylethene-Containing Boron(III) Ketoiminates: Modulation of Photo-Responsive Behavior through Variation of Intramolecular Motion.

    PubMed

    Wong, Cheok-Lam; Poon, Chun-Ting; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2016-08-26

    A series of dithienylethene-containing boron(III) ketoiminates, as well as their corresponding β-ketoimine ligands, have been synthesized and characterized. The photophysical, electrochemical, and photochromic properties of the compounds have been studied. Photocyclization has been found to be suppressed upon introduction of a phenyl substituent on the nitrogen atom of the β-ketoiminate core, whereas photochromism could be observed by replacement of the phenyl substituent with a bulky mesityl group. It is believed that the steric effect of the mesityl unit restricts molecular rotation, resulting in such a prominent difference in the photochromic properties.

  17. Effects of intravenous ABT-870 (iron (III)-hydroxide oligosaccharide) on mean arterial pressure and heart rate in the anaesthetized beagle: comparison with other iron-containing haematinic agents.

    PubMed

    Preusser, Lee C; Fryer, Ryan M; Gerhardt, Armin; Hu, Yanhui; Delgado-Herrera, Leticia; Melnick, Joel Z; Williams, Laura A; Cox, Bryan F; Reinhart, Glenn A

    2005-12-01

    Iron-deficiency anaemia, a complication of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is often treated with parenteral iron therapies that have been shown to produce dose-limiting hypotension in patients. ABT-870 (iron-(III)-hydroxide-oligosaccharide) is comprised of elemental iron complexed with oligosaccharide, a composition that we hypothesised would allow the hypotensive effects of parenteral iron therapy to be overcome, thus allowing a rapid rate of infusion to be well tolerated. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored in anaesthetized dogs following the infusion of ABT-870 and iron sucrose administered at doses of 7.1 and 21.3 mg/kg using a rapid 30 s infusion. ABT-870 and iron sucrose were also monitored at doses of 7.1, 21.3 and 50 mg/kg administered over a 10 min period. Sodium ferric gluconate complex (SFGC) was administered in an identical fashion at doses of 12.5 and 31.2 mg/kg. A 30 s rapid infusion of ABT-870 at doses of 7.1 and 14.3 mg/kg or a 10 min infusion of ABT-870 at doses of 7.1 and 21.3 mg/kg produced little effect on MAP and HR. Infusion of the highest dose of ABT-870 (50 mg/kg) produced no consistent hypotension, but did produce an increase in HR (maximal increase 35 +/- 9 b.p.m.), an effect that lasted only 15 min. A 30 s rapid infusion of iron sucrose at 7.1 mg/kg produced modest increases in MAP and HR (5 +/- 1 mmHg and 5 +/- 2 b.p.m., respectively). However, rapid infusion of iron sucrose at 14.3 mg/kg produced hypotension (to -8 +/- 1 mmHg below baseline) and exerted variable, biphasic effects on HR ranging from -16 to +50 b.p.m. Although 10 min infusion of iron sucrose at 7.1 mg/kg exerted little effect on MAP and HR, at doses of 21.3 and 50 mg/kg iron sucrose elicited a profound dose-dependent decrease in MAP (-34 +/- 11 and -83 +/- 5 mmHg, respectively) and a pronounced increase in HR ranging from 32 to 49 b.p.m. above baseline. A 10 min infusion of SFGC at doses of 12.5 and 31.2 mg/kg produced a dose-dependent decrease

  18. Purification, enzymatic properties, and active site environment of a novel manganese(III)-containing acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Y; Kawabe, H; Tanaka, H; Fujimoto, S; Ohara, A

    1981-10-25

    A new manganese-containing acid phosphatase has been isolated and crystallized from sweet potato tubers. The pure enzyme contains one atom of manganese per Mr = 110,000 polypeptide and shows phosphatase activity toward various phosphate substrates. The pH optimum of the enzyme was 5.8 and the enzyme activity was inhibited by Cu2+, Zn2+, Hg2+, AsO43-, and MoO42-. This stable metalloenzyme is red-violet in color with an intense absorption band at 515 nm (epsilon - 2460). Our electronic, circular dichroism, and electron spin resonance findings strongly indicate that the Mn-valence state of the native enzyme is trivalent. When the Mn-enzyme is excited by the 5145 A line of Ar+ laser, prominent Raman lines at 1230, 1298, 1508, and 1620 cm-1 were detected. This Raman spectrum can probably be interpreted in terms of internal vibration of a coordinated tyrosine phenolate anion. The tryptophan-modified enzyme showed a positive Raman band at 370 cm-1, which is preferentially assigned to a Mn(III)-S streching mode. The modification of the Mn-enzyme by N-bromosuccinimide led to a large decrease in the fluorescence intensity of 335 nm which was dominated by its tryptophan residues within a considerable hydrophobic environment. The acid phosphatase activity was significantly decreased by the tryptophan modification. With respect to the active site donor sets, the Mn(III)-containing acid phosphatase is distinctly different from the Zn(II)-containing alkaline phosphatase. Of interest is also the appreciable similarity of some enzymatic and spectroscopic properties between the present enzyme and uteroferrin.

  19. Comparative serum albumin interactions and antitumor effects of Au(III) and Ga(III) ions.

    PubMed

    Sarioglu, Omer Faruk; Ozdemir, Ayse; Karaboduk, Kuddusi; Tekinay, Turgay

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, interactions of Au(III) and Ga(III) ions on human serum albumin (HSA) were studied comparatively via spectroscopic and thermal analysis methods: UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The potential antitumor effects of these ions were studied on MCF-7 cells via Alamar blue assay. It was found that both Au(III) and Ga(III) ions can interact with HSA, however; Au(III) ions interact with HSA more favorably and with a higher affinity. FT-IR second derivative analysis results demonstrated that, high concentrations of both metal ions led to a considerable decrease in the α-helix content of HSA; while Au(III) led to around 5% of decrease in the α-helix content at 200μM, it was around 1% for Ga(III) at the same concentration. Calorimetric analysis gave the binding kinetics of metal-HSA interactions; while the binding affinity (Ka) of Au(III)-HSA binding was around 3.87×10(5)M(-1), it was around 9.68×10(3)M(-1) for Ga(III)-HSA binding. Spectroscopy studies overall suggest that both metal ions have significant effects on the chemical structure of HSA, including the secondary structure alterations. Antitumor activity studies on MCF7 tumor cell line with both metal ions revealed that, Au(III) ions have a higher antiproliferative activity compared to Ga(III) ions.

  20. An assessment of BWR (boiling water reactor) Mark III containment challenges, failure modes, and potential improvements in performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, J.A.; Pafford, D.J.; Kelly, D.L.; Jones, K.R.; Dallman, F.J. )

    1991-01-01

    This report describes risk-significant challenges posed to Mark III containment systems by severe accidents as identified for Grand Gulf. Design similarities and differences between the Mark III plants that are important to containment performance are summarized. The accident sequences responsible for the challenges and the postulated containment failure modes associated with each challenge are identified and described. Improvements are discussed that have the potential either to prevent or delay containment failure, or to mitigate the offsite consequences of a fission product release. For each of these potential improvements, a qualitative analysis is provided. A limited quantitative risk analysis is provided for selected potential improvements. 21 refs., 5 figs., 46 tabs.

  1. Chlorido-containing ruthenium(II) and iridium(III) complexes as antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed

    Pandrala, Mallesh; Li, Fangfei; Feterl, Marshall; Mulyana, Yanyan; Warner, Jeffrey M; Wallace, Lynne; Keene, F Richard; Collins, J Grant

    2013-04-07

    A series of polypyridyl-ruthenium(II) and -iridium(III) complexes that contain labile chlorido ligands, [{M(tpy)Cl}(2){μ-bb(n)}](2/4+) {Cl-Mbb(n); where M = Ru or Ir; tpy = 2,2':6',2''-terpyridine; and bb(n) = bis[4(4'-methyl-2,2'-bipyridyl)]-1,n-alkane (n = 7, 12 or 16)} have been synthesised and their potential as antimicrobial agents examined. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the series of metal complexes against four strains of bacteria - Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and Gram negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) - have been determined. All the ruthenium complexes were highly active and bactericidal. In particular, the Cl-Rubb(12) complex showed excellent activity against all bacterial cell lines with MIC values of 1 μg mL(-1) against the Gram positive bacteria and 2 and 8 μg mL(-1) against E. coli and P. aeruginosa, respectively. The corresponding iridium(III) complexes also showed significant antimicrobial activity in terms of MIC values; however and surprisingly, the iridium complexes were bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal. The inert iridium(III) complex, [{Ir(phen)(2)}(2){μ-bb(12)}](6+) {where phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) exhibited no antimicrobial activity, suggesting that it could not cross the bacterial membrane. The mononuclear model complex, [Ir(tpy)(Me(2)bpy)Cl]Cl(2) (where Me(2)bpy = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine), was found to aquate very rapidly, with the pK(a) of the iridium-bound water in the corresponding aqua complex determined to be 6.0. This suggests the dinuclear complexes [Ir(tpy)Cl}(2){μ-bb(n)}](4+) aquate and deprotonate rapidly and enter the bacterial cells as 4+ charged hydroxo species.

  2. Spectroscopic properties of neodymium(III)-containing polyoxometalates in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    But, Slawomir; Lis, Stefan; Deun, Rik Van; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N; Görller-Walrand, Christiane; Binnemans, Koen

    2005-11-01

    The spectroscopic properties of the neodymium(III)-containing polyoxometalates (POMs) [Nd(PW(11)O(39))(2)](11-), [Nd(PMo(2)W(9)O(39))(2)](11-), [Nd(PMo(4)W(7)O(39))(2)](11-), [Nd(PMo(6)W(5)O(39))(2)](11-), [Nd(SiMo(2)W(9)O(39))(2)](13-), [Nd(P(2)W(17)O(61))(2)](17-), [NdW(10)O(36)](9-), [NdP(5)W(30)O(110)](12-) and [NdAs(4)W(40)O(140)](25-) are described. Absorption spectra of aqueous solutions of the complexes have been recorded and the transition intensities are parameterised in terms of the Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Omega(lambda) (lambda=2, 4, 6). Marked differences were found between the luminescence lifetimes of the complexes of the type Nd(POM) and those of the type Nd(POM)(2), due to a better shielding of the neodymium(III) ions from the bulk water molecules in the latter type of complexes.

  3. Mechanism of cellular accumulation of an iridium(III) pentamethylcyclopentadienyl anticancer complex containing a C,N-chelating ligand.

    PubMed

    Novohradsky, Vojtech; Liu, Zhe; Vojtiskova, Marie; Sadler, Peter J; Brabec, Viktor; Kasparkova, Jana

    2014-03-01

    The effect of replacement of the N,N-chelating ligand 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) in the Ir(III) pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*) complex [(η(5)-Cp*)(Ir)(phen)Cl](+) (2) with the C,N-chelating ligand 7,8-benzoquinoline (bq) to give [(η(5)-Cp*)(Ir)(bq)Cl] (1) on the cytotoxicity of these Cp*Ir(III) complexes toward cancer cell lines was investigated. Complex 2 is inactive, similar to other Cp*Ir(III) complexes containing the N,N-chelating ligands. In contrast, a single atom change (C(-) for N) in the chelating N,N ligand resulted in potency in human ovarian carcinoma cisplatin-sensitive A2780 cells, and, strikingly, 1 is active in the cisplatin-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7 and A2780/cisR cells. Replacement of the N,N-chelating ligand with the C,N-chelating ligand gives rise to increased hydrophobicity, leading to higher cellular accumulation, higher DNA-bound iridium in cells and higher cytotoxicity. The pathways involved in cellular accumulation of 1 have been further explored and compared with conventional cisplatin. The results show that both energy-independent passive diffusion and energy-dependent transport play a role in accumulation of 1. Further results were consistent with involvement of p-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 and glutathione metabolism in the efflux of 1. In contrast, the internalization of 1 mediated by the endocytotic uptake pathway(s) seems less likely. Understanding the factors which contribute to the mechanism of cellular accumulation of this Ir(III) complex can now lead to the design of structurally similar metal complexes for antitumor chemotherapy.

  4. Lanthanide(III) and Yttrium(III) Complexes of Benzimidazole-2-Acetic Acid: Synthesis, Characterisation and Effect of La(III) Complex on Germination of Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Gudasi, Kalagouda B.; Shenoy, Rashmi V.; Vadavi, Ramesh S.; Patil, Manjula S.; Patil, Siddappa A.; Hanchinal, Rayappa R.; Desai, Srinivas A.; Lohithaswa, H.

    2006-01-01

    The synthesis and characterisation of lanthanide(III) and yttrium(III) nitrate complexes of benzimidazole-2-acetic acid (HBIA) are reported. The complexes have been characterised by elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic studies, IR, 1H NMR, UV-visible, EPR, and TG/DTA studies. They have the stoichiometry [Ln3(BIA)2(NO3)7(H2O)4] · 3H2O where Ln=La(III), Pr(III), Nd(II), Sm(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Dy(III), and Y(III). The effect of La(III) complex on germination, coleoptile, and root length of two local varieties of wheat DWR-195 and GW-349 for different treatment periods has been investigated. The complex was found to exhibit enhanced activity, compared to HBIA or metal salt alone at lower treatment periods. PMID:17497017

  5. Structures and Luminescent Properties of Two 2D Coordination Polymers Containing Tb(III) or Dy(III) Ions.

    PubMed

    An, Xiaoping; Wang, Hongsheng; Li, Gongchun

    2014-03-01

    Two 2D rare earth terbium and dysprosium coordination polymers with 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylate and oxalate anions have been synthesized by hydrothermal method, the formula is {[RE(pda)(ox)0.5(H2O)4]·2H2O}n (RE = Tb (1) and Dy (2); H2pda = 2,4-pyridinedicarboxylic acid; ox = oxalate anion). The two complexes are isomorphic and crystallized in monoclinic system, P21/c space group. Each pda anion connects two rare earth ions with 2- carboxyl group and the nitrogen atom but the 4- carboxyl group does not coordinate with rare earth ions. Each ox anion connects two rare earth ions by μ 2-bridge way. Both the complexes exhibit intense characteristic luminescence of Tb(III) or Dy(III) ion with excitation of UV-rays.

  6. Uranium dioxide in Fe(III)-containing ionic liquids with DMSO: Dissolution, separation, and structural characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Aining; Chu, Taiwei

    2016-11-01

    UO2 can be successfully dissolved in imidazolium-based Fe(III)-containing ionic liquids (ILs) with the help of DMSO. Spectroscopic studies and X-ray diffraction show that UO2Cl42- is the principal product. The dissolved uranyl species can be easily separated from the ILs via a combination of crystallization and solvent extraction. Moreover, even if 15.2 wt% of the rare-earth elements of Sm, Eu, and Gd, compared with the total amount of uranium and the rare-earth elements, exist in the IL, only uranium-containing crystals would be selectively formed and separated from the system. The solvents of acetone and acetonitrile could be used to separate the rare-earth elements from uranium in the IL with the help of imidazolium chloride. Considering the complete process from the dissolution of UO2 and some rare-earth oxides to the separation of uranium and rare-earth elements in the IL, the facile approach is promising for the spent nuclear fuel reprocessing.

  7. A neutral polydisulfide containing Gd(III) DOTA monoamide as a redox-sensitive biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agent.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhen; Zhou, Zhuxian; Ayat, Nadia; Wu, Xueming; Jin, Erlei; Shi, Xiaoyue; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to develop safe and effective gadolinium (III)-based biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agents for blood pool and cancer imaging. A neutral polydisulfide containing macrocyclic Gd-DOTA monoamide (GOLS) was synthesized and characterized. In addition to studying the in vitro degradation of GOLS, its kinetic stability was also investigated in an in vivo model. The efficacy of GOLS for contrast-enhanced MRI was examined with female BALB/c mice bearing 4T1 breast cancer xenografts. The pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and metabolism of GOLS were also determined in mice. GOLS has an apparent molecular weight of 23.0 kDa with T1 relaxivities of 7.20 mM(-1) s(-1) per Gd at 1.5 T, and 6.62 mM(-1) s(-1) at 7.0 T. GOLS had high kinetic inertness against transmetallation with Zn(2+) ions, and its polymer backbone was readily cleaved by L-cysteine. The agent showed improved efficacy for blood pool and tumor MR imaging. The structural effect on biodistribution and in vivo chelation stability was assessed by comparing GOLS with Gd(HP-DO3A), a negatively charged polydisulfide containing Gd-DOTA monoamide GODC, and a polydisulfide containing Gd-DTPA-bisamide (GDCC). GOLS showed high in vivo chelation stability and minimal tissue deposition of gadolinium. The biodegradable macromolecular contrast agent GOLS is a promising polymeric contrast agent for clinical MR cardiovascular imaging and cancer imaging.

  8. Study on fluorescence and DNA-binding of praseodymium(III) complex containing 2,2'-bipyridine.

    PubMed

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Khmmarnia, Sommaieh

    2011-01-01

    The fluorescence of praseodymium(III) complex containing 2,2'-bipyridine, [Pr(bpy)2Cl3·OH2] has been investigated in details. Also, the biological activity of [Pr(bpy)2Cl3·OH2] has been evaluated by examining its ability to bind to DNA with UV-vis, fluorescence as well as viscosity measurement. The fluorescence of [Pr(bpy)2Cl3·OH2] is strongly quenched through static mechanism in the presence of DNA. DNA intrinsic binding constant, Kb the binding site number, n the Stern-Volmer quenching constant, KSV and the thermodynamic parameters have been determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. For characterization of bonding mode, the effect of various experimental parameters were investigated on the interaction of [Pr(bpy)2Cl3·OH2] with DNA.

  9. Diversity and Evolutionary Analysis of Iron-Containing (Type-III) Alcohol Dehydrogenases in Eukaryotes

    PubMed Central

    Gaona-López, Carlos; Julián-Sánchez, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Background Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity is widely distributed in the three domains of life. Currently, there are three non-homologous NAD(P)+-dependent ADH families reported: Type I ADH comprises Zn-dependent ADHs; type II ADH comprises short-chain ADHs described first in Drosophila; and, type III ADH comprises iron-containing ADHs (FeADHs). These three families arose independently throughout evolution and possess different structures and mechanisms of reaction. While types I and II ADHs have been extensively studied, analyses about the evolution and diversity of (type III) FeADHs have not been published yet. Therefore in this work, a phylogenetic analysis of FeADHs was performed to get insights into the evolution of this protein family, as well as explore the diversity of FeADHs in eukaryotes. Principal Findings Results showed that FeADHs from eukaryotes are distributed in thirteen protein subfamilies, eight of them possessing protein sequences distributed in the three domains of life. Interestingly, none of these protein subfamilies possess protein sequences found simultaneously in animals, plants and fungi. Many FeADHs are activated by or contain Fe2+, but many others bind to a variety of metals, or even lack of metal cofactor. Animal FeADHs are found in just one protein subfamily, the hydroxyacid-oxoacid transhydrogenase (HOT) subfamily, which includes protein sequences widely distributed in fungi, but not in plants), and in several taxa from lower eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea. Fungi FeADHs are found mainly in two subfamilies: HOT and maleylacetate reductase (MAR), but some can be found also in other three different protein subfamilies. Plant FeADHs are found only in chlorophyta but not in higher plants, and are distributed in three different protein subfamilies. Conclusions/Significance FeADHs are a diverse and ancient protein family that shares a common 3D scaffold with a patchy distribution in eukaryotes. The majority of sequenced FeADHs from

  10. Tuning the chromaticity of the emission color of the copolymers containing Eu(III), Tb(III), Be(II) ions based on colorimetric principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aiqin; Yang, Yamin; Zhai, Guangmei; Jia, Husheng; Xu, Bingshe

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a method of tuning the chromaticity of the emission color of the copolymers containing Eu(III), Tb(III), Be(II) ions based on colorimetric principle was proposed. The technological route from coordination to copolymerization was employed to obtain the white light macromolecular phosphor. The three primary color monomers have been synthesized and their Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates are respectively (0.540, 0.314), (0.231, 0.463), and (0.161, 0.054). The molar feed ratios of the three primary color monomers were calculated from the CIE coordinates based on colorimetric principle. Serial copolymers have been synthesized by free radical copolymerization of the three primary color monomers and methyl methacrylate. The quantum efficiency of the copolymers was higher than that of the complex monomers. The complexes were directly boned to the polymer chain, in which the energy transfer was reduced significantly compared to the doped-polymers. The experimental values of copolymers' CIE coordinates were located in the white light region in good agreement with theoretical values. The results indicate that the chromaticity of the emission color of the copolymers containing Eu(III), Tb(III), Be(II) ions could be tuned by theoretical calculation based on colorimetric principle.

  11. A binuclear Fe(III)Dy(III) single molecule magnet. Quantum effects and models.

    PubMed

    Ferbinteanu, Marilena; Kajiwara, Takashi; Choi, Kwang-Yong; Nojiri, Hiroyuki; Nakamoto, Akio; Kojima, Norimichi; Cimpoesu, Fanica; Fujimura, Yuichi; Takaishi, Shinya; Yamashita, Masahiro

    2006-07-19

    The binuclear [FeIII(bpca)(mu-bpca)Dy(NO3)4], having Single Molecule Magnet (SMM) properties, belonging to a series of isostructural FeIIILnIII complexes (Ln = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho) and closely related FeIILnIII chain structures, was characterized in concise experimental and theoretical respects. The low temperature magnetization data showed hysteresis and tunneling. The anomalous temperature dependence of Mössbauer spectra is related to the onset of magnetic order, consistent with the magnetization relaxation time scale resulting from AC susceptibility measurements. The advanced ab initio calculations (CASSCF and spin-orbit) revealed the interplay of ligand field, spin-orbit, and exchange effects and probed the effective Ising nature of the lowest states, involved in the SMM and tunneling effects.

  12. Alterations in Fibronectin Type III Domain Containing 1 Protein Gene Are Associated with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Alan Y.; Chauvet, Cristina; Ménard, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for blood pressure (BP) have been detected in rat models of human polygenic hypertension. Great challenges confronting us include molecular identifications of individual QTLs. We first defined the chromosome region harboring C1QTL1 to a segment of 1.9 megabases that carries 9 genes. Among them, we identified the gene encoding the fibronectin type III domain containing 1 protein (Fndc1)/activator of G protein signaling 8 (Ags8) to be the strongest candidate for C1QTL1, since numerous non-synonymous mutations are found. Moreover, the 5’ Fndc1/Ags8 putative promoter contains numerous mutations that can account for its differential expression in kidneys and the heart, prominent organs in modulating BP, although the Fndc1/Ags8 protein was not detectable in these organs under our experimental conditions. This work has provided the premier evidence that Fndc1/Ags8 is a novel and strongest candidate gene for C1QTL1 without completely excluding other 8 genes in the C1QTL1-residing interval. If proven true by future in vivo function studies such as single-gene Fndc1/Ags8 congenics, transgenesis or targeted-gene modifications, it might represent a part of the BP genetic architecture that operates in the upstream position distant from the end-phase physiology of BP control, since it activates a Gbetagamma component in a signaling pathway. Its functional role could validate the concept that a QTL in itself can influence BP ‘indirectly’ by regulating other genes downstream in a pathway. The elucidation of the mechanisms initiated by Fndc/Ags8 variations will reveal novel insights into the BP modulation via a regulatory hierarchy. PMID:27064407

  13. Studying the sorption properties of a clinoptilolite-containing tuff with respect to europium(III) ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhevnikova, N. M.

    2014-03-01

    The kinetic laws of sorption of europium(III) ions from sulfate solutions by a clinoptilolite-containing tuff are studied. The kinetic parameters of sorption process are determined and absorption isotherms are constructed for europium ions. It is found that both external and internal diffusion are rate-limiting steps, and europium is completely extracted from dilute solutions (<0.0025 m).

  14. Manganese(III)-containing Wells-Dawson sandwich-type polyoxometalates: comparison with their manganese(II) counterparts.

    PubMed

    Lebrini, Mounim; Mbomekallé, Israël M; Dolbecq, Anne; Marrot, Jérôme; Berthet, Patrick; Ntienoue, Joseline; Sécheresse, Francis; Vigneron, Jacky; Etcheberry, Arnaud

    2011-07-18

    We present the synthesis and structural characterization, assessed by various techniques (FTIR, TGA, UV-vis, elemental analysis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction for three compounds, magnetic susceptibility, and electrochemistry) of five manganese-containing Wells-Dawson sandwich-type (WDST) complexes. The dimanganese(II)-containing complex, [Na(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](18-) (1), was obtained by reaction of MnCl(2) with 1 equiv of [As(2)W(15)O(56)](12-) in acetate medium (pH 4.7). Oxidation of 1 by Na(2)S(2)O(8) in aqueous solution led to the dimanganese(III) complex [Na(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](16-) (2), while its trimanganese(II) homologue, [Na(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(H(2)O)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](17-) (3), was obtained by addition of ca. 1 equiv of MnCl(2) to a solution of 1 in 1 M NaCl. The trimanganese(III) and tetramanganese(III) counterparts, [Mn(III)(H(2)O)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](15-) (4) and [Mn(III)(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(III)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](12-) (6), are, respectively, obtained by oxidation of aqueous solutions of 3 and [Mn(II)(2)(H(2)O)(2)Mn(II)(2)(As(2)W(15)O(56))(2)](16-) (5) by Na(2)S(2)O(8). Single-crystal X-ray analyses were carried out on 2, 3, and 4. BVS calculations and XPS confirmed that the oxidation state of Mn centers is +II for complexes 1, 3, and 5 and +III for 2, 4, and 6. A complete comparative electrochemical study was carried out on the six compounds cited above, and it was possible to observe the distinct redox steps Mn(IV/III) and Mn(III/II). Magnetization measurements, as a function of temperature, confirm the presence of antiferromagnetic interactions between the Mn ions in these compounds in all cases with the exception of compound 2.

  15. Sorption Kinetics Of Selected Heavy Metals Adsorption To Natural And Fe(III) Modified Zeolite Tuff Containing Clinoptilolite Mineral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirotiak, Maroš; Lipovský, Marek; Bartošová, Alica

    2015-06-01

    In the research described in this paper, studied was sorption capacity of natural and ferric modification of zeolite tuff containing mineral clinoptilolite from the Nižný Hrabovec deposit to remove potentially toxic metals (ionic forms of chromium, nickel, copper and aluminium) from their water solutions. We reported that the Fe (III) zeolite has an enhanced ability to sorption of Cu (II), and a slight improvement occurs in the case of Cr (VI) and Ni (II). On the other hand, the deterioration was observed in the case of Al (III) adsorption.

  16. Lanthanide(III) complexes that contain a self-immolative arm: potential enzyme responsive contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Chauvin, Thomas; Torres, Susana; Rosseto, Renato; Kotek, Jan; Badet, Bernard; Durand, Philippe; Tóth, Eva

    2012-01-27

    Enzyme-responsive MRI-contrast agents containing a "self-immolative" benzylcarbamate moiety that links the MRI-reporter lanthanide complex to a specific enzyme substrate have been developed. The enzymatic cleavage initiates an electronic cascade reaction that leads to a structural change in the Ln(III) complex, with a concomitant response in its MRI-contrast-enhancing properties. We synthesized and investigated a series of Gd(3+) and Yb(3+) complexes, including those bearing a self-immolative arm and a sugar unit as selective substrates for β-galactosidase; we synthesized complex LnL(1), its NH(2) amine derivatives formed after enzymatic cleavage, LnL(2), and two model compounds, LnL(3) and LnL(4). All of the Gd(3+) complexes synthesized have a single inner-sphere water molecule. The relaxivity change upon enzymatic cleavage is limited (3.68 vs. 3.15 mM(-1) s(-1) for complexes GdL(1) and GdL(2), respectively; 37 °C, 60 MHz), which prevents application of this system as an enzyme-responsive T(1) relaxation agent. Variable-temperature (17)O NMR spectroscopy and (1)H NMRD (nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion) analysis were used to assess the parameters that determine proton relaxivity for the Gd(3+) complexes, including the water-exchange rate (k(ex)(298), varies in the range 1.5-3.9×10(6) s(-1)). Following the enzymatic reaction, the chelates contain an exocyclic amine that is not protonated at physiological pH, as deduced from pH-potentiometric measurements (log K(H)=5.12(±0.01) and 5.99(±0.01) for GdL(2) and GdL(3), respectively). The Yb(3+) analogues show a PARACEST effect after enzymatic cleavage that can be exploited for the specific detection of enzymatic activity. The proton-exchange rates were determined at various pH values for the amine derivatives by using the dependency of the CEST effect on concentration, saturation time, and saturation power. A concentration-independent analysis of the saturation-power-dependency data was also applied. All these

  17. Synthesis, photochromic, and computational studies of dithienylethene-containing β-diketonate derivatives and their near-infrared photochromic behavior upon coordination of a boron(III) center.

    PubMed

    Poon, Chun-Ting; Lam, Wai Han; Yam, Vivian Wing-Wah

    2013-03-04

    A series of dithienylethene-containing 1-thienyl-3-aryl-propane-1,3-diones (aryl = phenyl (Ph), thienyl (Th), and 4,5-bis(2,5-dimethylthiophen-3-yl)thiophen-2-yl (DTE-Th)) and the corresponding boron(III) diketonates, (O^O)BR(2) (R = F, C(6)F(5), and Ph), have been designed and synthesized. Their photophysical, electrochemical, and photochromic properties have been studied. Upon coordination of a boron(III) center, the closed forms of the dithienylethene-containing β-diketonates show near-infrared response and the photochromic behavior was also found to be affected by the aryl substituents at the 3-position of the β-diketonates. Moreover, computational studies have been performed that help to provide an understanding of the effect of substituents on the photophysical and photochromic properties.

  18. Pharmaceutical container/closure integrity. III: Validation of the helium leak rate method for rigid pharmaceutical containers.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, L E; Nguyen, L; Gerth, R

    1997-01-01

    Validation of a helium leak rate method for pharmaceutical container/closure integrity quality assurance required the demonstration that this physical testing method was as good or better than microbial immersion challenge testing in detecting potential integrity failures. One lot of rubber-stoppered, broth-filled glass vials also containing defective vials with known leaks were subjected to both helium leak rate and microbial challenge testing. The defective vials were prepared by affixing glass micropipettes (0.1 to 10 microns) into the vial side walls. The validation lot included a 10% seeded defect rate of which about 50% contained leaks with a predicted probability of failing a microbial challenge (> 10%). Helium tracer was placed in the test units by charging them for 4 hours under a 40 psi helium pressure. The critical leak rate after charging was determined to be 10(-7) standard cc/second, and test units with measured leak rates greater than this value were considered helium leak rate failures. Microbial immersion challenge was conducted by exposing the test units in a bath inoculated with 10(9-10) viable E. coli and B. diminuta organisms for 24 hours followed by a 13 day (35 degrees C) incubation. Microbial failures were determined visually. The helium and microbial leak test methods were compared statistically using mean failure rates. The mean helium failure rate was 6.9%, whereas the mean microbial failure rate was 2.8%. The difference between helium and microbial failure rates was significantly greater than zero. Thus, helium leak rate testing was demonstrated to be a suitable pharmaceutical container/closure integrity method for microbial quality assurance of rigid containers.

  19. Luminescent complexes of iridium(III) containing N/\\C/\\N-coordinating terdentate ligands.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Andrew J; Puschmann, Horst; Howard, Judith A K; Foster, Clive E; Williams, J A Gareth

    2006-10-16

    A family of bis-terdentate iridium(III) complexes is reported which contain a cyclometalated, N/\\C[wedge]N-coordinating 1,3-di(2-pyridyl)benzene derivative. This coordination mode is favored by blocking competitive cyclometalation at the C4 and C6 positions of the ligand. Thus, 1,3-di(2-pyridyl)-4,6-dimethylbenzene (dpyxH) reacts with IrCl3 x 3H2O to generate a dichlorobridged dimer [Ir(dpyx-N,C,N)Cl(mu-Cl)]2, 1. This dimer is cleaved by DMSO to give [Ir(dpyx)(DMSO)Cl2], the X-ray crystal structure of which is reported here, confirming the N/\\C/\\N coordination mode of dpyx. The dimer 1 can also be cleaved by a variety of other ligands to generate novel classes of mononuclear complexes. These include charge-neutral bis-terdentate complexes of the form [Ir(N/\\C/\\N)(C/\\N/\\C)] and [Ir(N/\\C/\\N)(C/\\N/\\O)], by reaction of 1 with C/\\N/\\C-coordinating ligands (e.g., 2,6-diphenylpyridine and derivatives) and C/\\N/\\O-coordinating ligands (based on 6-phenylpicolinate), respectively. Treatment of 1 with terpyridines leads to dicationic complexes of the type [Ir(N/\\C/\\N)(N/\\N/\\N)]2+, while 2-phenylpyridine gives [Ir(dpyx-N/\\C/\\N)(ppy-C,N)Cl]. All of the charge-neutral complexes are luminescent in fluid solution at room temperature. Assignment of the emission to charge-transfer excited states with significant MLCT character is supported by DFT calculations. In the [Ir(N/\\C/\\N)(C/\\N/\\C)] class, fluorination of the C/\\N/\\C ligand at the phenyl 2' and 4' positions leads to a blue-shift in the emission and to an increase in the quantum yield (lambda(max) = 547 nm, phi = 0.41 in degassed CH(3)CN at 295 K) compared to the nonfluorinated parent complex (lambda(max) = 585 nm, phi = 0.21), as well as to a stabilization of the compound with respect to photodissociation through cleavage of mutually trans Ir-C bonds. [Ir(dpyx-N/\\C/\\N)(ppy-C,N)Cl] is an exceptionally bright emitter: phi = 0.76, lambda(max) = 508 nm, in CH(3)CN at 295 K. In contrast, the [Ir

  20. Some NUDET effects due to water containment

    SciTech Connect

    Symbalisty, E.M.D.

    1994-07-01

    The effect on the optical and acoustical signals of containing a nominal low yield nuclear device in a sphere of water is studied. The silicon photodiode optical signal is seen to be distorted by a relatively small amount of water. The acoustical signal timing and shape change little.

  1. DNA interaction of europium(III) complex containing 2,2'-bipyridine and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Jahani, Shohreh; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of native fish salmon DNA (FS-DNA) with [Eu(bpy)3Cl2(H2O)]Cl, where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, is studied at physiological pH in Tris-HCl buffer by spectroscopic methods, viscometric techniques as well as circular dichroism (CD). These experiments reveal that Eu(III) complex has interaction with FS-DNA. Moreover, binding constant and binding site size have been determined. The value of Kb has been defined 2.46 ± .02 × 10(5) M(-1). The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by Van't Hoff equation, the results show that the interaction of the complex with FS-DNA is an entropically driven phenomenon. CD spectroscopy followed by viscosity as well as fluorescence and UV--Vis measurements indicate that the complex interacts with FS-DNA via groove binding mode. Also, the synthesized Eu(III) complex has been screened for antimicrobial activities.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial study of cyclometalated rhodium(III) complex containing dithiocarbamate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri, Ghobad; Heidarizadi, Fateme; Naghipour, Ali; Notash, Behrouz

    2016-10-01

    The novel cyclometalated Rh(III) complex, [Rh(phpy)2(SˆS)], Where phpy is 2-phenylpyridine and (SˆS) is diethyldithiocarbamate, has been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 13C and 1H NMR, electronic absorption and Fluorescence spectroscopies, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray crystallography. The crystal structure of [Rh(phpy)2(SˆS)] shows that the coordination geometry around the Rh(III) is a distorted octahedron, with bite angles of 71.19-81.04° for all three bidentate ligands. Electrochemical analysis by cyclic voltammetry reveals irreversible redox behavior of the rhodium centre. Antibacterial activity of the complex has also been studied by agar disc diffusion method against three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) and two Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium renale).

  3. Electrically conductive polyimide film containing gold (III) ions, composition, and process of making

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caplan, Maggie L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); St. Clair, Anne K. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An electrically conductive, thermooxidatively stable poltimide, especially a film thereof, is prepared from an intimate admixture of a particular polyimide and gold (III) ions, in an amount sufficient to provide between 17 and 21 percent by weight of gold (III) ions, based on the weight of electrically conductive, thermooxidatively stable polyimide. The particular polyimide is prepared from a polyamic acid which has been synthesized from a dianhydride/diamine combination selected from the group consisting of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride and 2,2-bis[4-(4 -aminophenoxy)phenyl]hexafluoropropane; 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride and 4,4'-oxydianiline; 2,2'-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl)hexafluoropropane dianhydride and 4,4'-oxydianiline; and 3,3'4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride and 2,2-bis(3-aminophenyl)hexafluoropropane.

  4. Biochemical investigation of yttrium(III) complex containing 1,10-phenanthroline: DNA binding and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Moodi, Asieh; Niroomand, Sona

    2013-03-05

    Characterization of the interaction between yttrium(III) complex containing 1,10-phenanthroline as ligand, [Y(phen)2Cl(OH2)3]Cl2⋅H2O, and DNA has been carried out by UV absorption, fluorescence spectra and viscosity measurements in order to investigate binding mode. The experimental results indicate that the yttrium(III) complex binds to DNA and absorption is decreasing in charge transfer band with the increase in amount of DNA. The binding constant (Kb) at different temperatures as well as thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change (ΔH°) and entropy change (ΔS°), were calculated according to relevant fluorescent data and Vant' Hoff equation. The results of interaction mechanism studies, suggested that groove binding plays a major role in the binding of the complex and DNA. The activity of yttrium(III) complex against some bacteria was tested and antimicrobial screening tests shown growth inhibitory activity in the presence of yttrium(III) complex.

  5. Synthesis and Electrochemical Studies of Cobalt(III) Monohydride Complexes Containing Pendant Amines

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedner, Eric S.; Roberts, John A.; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. S.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-08-14

    Two new tetraphosphine ligands, PnC-PPh22NPh2 (1,5-diphenyl-3,7-bis((diphenylphosphino)alkyl)-1,5-diaza-3,7-diphosphacyclooctane; alkyl = (CH2)2, n = 2 (L2); (CH2)3, n = 3 (L3)), have been synthesized. Coordination of these ligands to cobalt affords the complexes [CoII(L2)(CH3CN)]2+ and [CoII(L3)(CH3CN)]2+, which are reduced with KC8 to afford [CoI(L2)(CH3CN)]1+ and [CoI(L3)(CH3CN)]1+. Protonation of the CoI complexes affords [HCoIII(L2)(CH3CN)]2+ and [HCoIII(L3)(CH3CN)]2+. Reduction of HCoIII results in formation of the analogous CoI complex through H-Co bond cleavage. Under voltammetric conditions, the reduced cobalt hydride reacts rapidly with a protic solvent impurity to generate H2 in a monometallic process involving two electrons per cobalt. In contrast, under bulk electrolysis conditions, H2 formation requires only one reducing equivalent per [HCoIII(L2)(CH3CN)]2+, indicating a bimetallic route wherein two cobalt hydride complexes react to form two equiv [CoI(L2)(CH3CN)]1+ and one equiv H2. The cyclic voltammetry of [HCoIII(L2)(CH3CN)]2+, analyzed using digital simulation, is consistent with an ErCrEr reduction mechanism involving reversible acetonitrile dissociation from [HCoII(L2)(CH3CN)]1+. We thank the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences, for support of the initial parts of this study. Current work is supported by the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific

  6. Antimony(III) and bismuth(III) amides containing pendant N-donor groups--a combined experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Vránová, Iva; Jambor, Roman; Růžička, Aleš; Hoffmann, Alexander; Herres-Pawlis, Sonja; Dostál, Libor

    2015-01-07

    N,N- and N,N,N-chelated antimony(III) and bismuth(III) chlorides L(1-3)MCl2 1-4 [for L(1): M = Sb (1), for L(2): M = Sb (2) and for L(3): M = Sb (3) and Bi (4)], containing ligands L(1-3) derived from the pyrrole ring (where L(1) = C4H3N-2-(CH[double bond, length as m-dash]N-2',6'-iPr2C6H3), L(2) = C4H2N-2,5-(CH2NMe2)2, L(3) = C4H2N-2,5-(CH2NC4H8)2), were prepared by the treatment of lithium precursors with SbCl3 or BiCl3. Molecular structures 1-4 of were described both in solution (NMR spectroscopy) and in the solid state (single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis). Structures of 1-4 were also subjected to a density functional theory study.

  7. Cooling effect on the electron states of Si(III)Pd and Si(III)Pt interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbati, I.; Braicovich, L.; Michelis, B. De; Pennino, U. Del; Valeri, S.

    1980-09-01

    Photoemission and Auger results are given for Si(III)Pd and Si(III)Pt interfaces prepared by depositing 10 ml metal onto cleaved Si(III). Thermal cycling between room temperature and liquid nitrogen temperature originates a reversible effect in the spectra due to metal concentration increase in {Si}/{Pt} and decrease in {Si}/{Pd}. The results are discussed in connection with open problems on Si d-metal interfaces.

  8. Fibronectin type III domain containing 5 expression in skeletal muscle in chronic heart failure—relevance of inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yae; Gleitsmann, Konstanze; Mangner, Norman; Werner, Sarah; Fischer, Tina; Bowen, T Scott; Kricke, Angela; Matsumoto, Yasuharu; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Schuler, Gerhard; Linke, Axel; Adams, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) is commonly associated with muscle atrophy and increased inflammation. Irisin, a myokine proteolytically processed by the fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) gene and suggested to be Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1α activated, modulates the browning of adipocytes and is related to muscle mass. Therefore, we investigated whether skeletal muscle FNDC5 expression in CHF was reduced and if this was mediated by inflammatory cytokines and/or angiotensin II (Ang-II). Methods Skeletal muscle FNDC5 mRNA/protein and PGC-1α mRNA expression (arbitrary units) were analysed in: (i) rats with ischemic cardiomyopathy; (ii) mice injected with tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) (24 h); (iii) mice infused with Ang-II (4 weeks); and (iv) C2C12 myotubes exposed to recombinant cytokines or Ang-II. Circulating TNF-α, Ang-II, and irisin was measured by ELISA. Results Ischemic cardiomyopathy reduced significantly FNDC5 protein (1.3 ± 0.2 vs. 0.5 ± 0.1) and PGC-1α mRNA expression (8.2 ± 1.5 vs. 4.7 ± 0.7). In vivo TNF-α and Ang-II reduced FNDC5 protein expression by 28% and 45%, respectively. Incubation of myotubes with TNF-α, interleukin-1ß, or TNF-α/interleukin-1ß reduced FNDC5 protein expression by 47%, 37%, or 57%, respectively, whereas Ang-II had no effect. PGC-1α was linearly correlated to FNDC5 in all conditions. In CHF, animals circulating TNF-α and Ang-II were significantly increased, whereas irisin was significantly reduced. A negative correlation between circulating TNF-α and irisin was evident. Conclusion A reduced expression of skeletal muscle FNDC5 in ischemic cardiomyopathy is likely modulated by inflammatory cytokines and/or Ang-II via the down-regulation of PGC-1α. This may act as a protective mechanism either by slowing the browning of adipocytes and preserving energy homeostasis or by regulating muscle atrophy. PMID:26136413

  9. Unexpected formation of a novel pyridinium-containing catecholate ligand and its manganese(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, Tippu S; Watkinson, Michael; Motevalli, Majid; Lesin, Jocelyne F

    2010-01-07

    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution of tetrachloro-o-benzoquinone by pyridine and reduction of the o-quinone to the catechol by hydroxylamine forms 1,2-dihydroxy-3,5,6-trichlorobenzene-4-pyridinium chloride. This compound reacts with manganese(II) acetate in air to form chlorobis(3,5,6-trichlorobenzene 4-pyridinium catecholate)manganese(III), which represents the first complex of this ligand class to be structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction; this complex is active in the catalytic reduction of dioxygen to hydrogen peroxide under ambient conditions and turnover frequencies (TOFs) >10,000 h(-1) can be obtained.

  10. Effects of Jigsaw III Technique on Achievement in Written Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the Jigsaw III technique (of cooperative learning) with the instructional teacher-centered teaching method in six graders in terms of the effect of written expression on their academic success. The universe of the study consists of 71 sixth-grade students studying during 2009-2010 academic term in a…

  11. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  12. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  13. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  14. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  15. 25 CFR 291.15 - How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect... ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.15 How long do Class III gaming procedures remain in effect? Class III gaming procedures remain in effect for the duration specified in the procedures or...

  16. Valuation effects of health cost containment measures.

    PubMed

    Strange, M L; Ezzell, J R

    2000-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research into the valuation effects of health cost containment activities by publicly traded corporations. The motivation for this study was employers' increasing cost of providing health care insurance to their employees and employers' efforts to contain those costs. A 1990 survey of corporate health benefits indicated that these costs represented 25 percent of employers' net earnings and this would rise by the year 2000 if no actions were taken to reduce cost. Health cost containment programs that are implemented by firms should be seen by shareholders as a wealth maximizing effort. As such, this should be reflected in share price. This study employed standard event study methodology where the event is a media announcement or report regarding an attempt by a firm to contain the costs of providing health insurance and other health related benefits to employees. It examined abnormal returns on a number of event days and for a number of event intervals. Of the daily and interval returns that are least significant at the 10 percent level, virtually all are negative. Cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns are related negatively to a unionization variable.

  17. The Distribution of Scaled Scores and Possible Floor Effects on the WISC-III and WAIS-III

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Simon; Wood, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Objective: It has been suggested that, as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III) give a scaled score of one even if a client scores a raw score of zero, these assessments may have a hidden floor effect at low IQ levels. The study looked for…

  18. Synthesis of Succinimide-Containing Chromones, Naphthoquinones, and Xanthones under Rh(III) Catalysis: Evaluation of Anticancer Activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Saegun; De, Umasankar; Mishra, Neeraj Kumar; Park, Jihye; Sharma, Satyasheel; Kwak, Jong Hwan; Han, Sangil; Kim, Hyung Sik; Kim, In Su

    2016-12-16

    The weakly coordinating ketone group directed C-H functionalizations of chromones, 1,4-naphthoquinones, and xanthones with various maleimides under rhodium(III) catalysis are described. These protocols efficiently provide a range of succinimide-containing chromones, naphthoquinones, and xanthones with excellent site selectivity and functional group compatibility. All synthetic compounds were screened for in vitro anticancer activity against human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines (MCF-7). In particular, compounds 7aa and 7ca with a naphthoquinone scaffold were found to be highly cytotoxic, with an activity competitive with anticancer agent doxorubicin.

  19. Chemiluminescence detection with water-soluble iridium(III) complexes containing a sulfonate-functionalised ancillary ligand.

    PubMed

    Truong, Josephine; Spilstead, Kara B; Barbante, Gregory J; Doeven, Egan H; Wilson, David J D; Barnett, Neil W; Henderson, Luke C; Altimari, Jarrad M; Hockey, Samantha C; Zhou, Ming; Francis, Paul S

    2014-11-21

    The chemiluminescence from four cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes containing an ancillary bathophenanthroline-disulfonate ligand exhibited a wide range of emission colours (green to red), and in some cases intensities that are far greater than the commonly employed benchmark reagent, [Ru(bpy)3](2+). A similar complex incorporating a sulfonated triazolylpyridine-based ligand enabled the emission to be shifted into the blue region of the spectrum, but the responses with this complex were relatively poor. DFT calculations of electronic structure and emission spectra support the experimental findings.

  20. Effect of thrombin and endotoxin on the in vivo metabolism of antithrombin III (AT III) in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Kobayashi, N.; Maekawa, T.

    1985-11-01

    Effect of thrombin and endotoxin on the metabolism of I-125-labelled canine AT III was studied in mongrel dogs. Under control condition, mean total amount of intravascular AT III with standard deviation was 23.4 +/- 2.4 mg/kg, plasma half life of i.v. injected I-125-AT III was 1.7 +/- 0.2 days, and the fractional catabolic flux (j3x) was 16.3 +/- 1.6 mg/kg/day. The total amount of intra- and extra-vascular AT III was 36.0 +/- 0.34 mg/kg. Neither a 3 hour infusion of a small dose (30 units/kg/hr) of thrombin nor i.v. injection of a large amount of thrombin (5,000-15,000 units/day) with heparin significantly affected AT III metabolism except for a transient decrease in AT III concentration in the latter case, although decrease in plasma fibrinogen concentration and platelet count was observed in both cases. Two injections with 200 micrograms/kg of endotoxin resulted in an evident acceleration of AT III metabolism with significant decrease in the plasma AT III, fibrinogen concentrations and platelet count. More marked changes in AT III metabolism were induced by a single infusion with 1 mg/kg of endotoxin. Changes in hemostatic system coincided with those observed in DIC.

  1. Mussel-Inspired Protein Nanoparticles Containing Iron(III)-DOPA Complexes for pH-Responsive Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jin; Cheong, Hogyun; Hwang, Byeong Hee; Cha, Hyung Joon

    2015-06-15

    A novel bioinspired strategy for protein nanoparticle (NP) synthesis to achieve pH-responsive drug release exploits the pH-dependent changes in the coordination stoichiometry of iron(III)-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) complexes, which play a major cross-linking role in mussel byssal threads. Doxorubicin-loaded polymeric NPs that are based on Fe(III)-DOPA complexation were thus synthesized with a DOPA-modified recombinant mussel adhesive protein through a co-electrospraying process. The release of doxorubicin was found to be predominantly governed by a change in the structure of the Fe(III)-DOPA complexes induced by an acidic pH value. It was also demonstrated that the fabricated NPs exhibited effective cytotoxicity towards cancer cells through efficient cellular uptake and cytosolic release. Therefore, it is anticipated that Fe(III)-DOPA complexation can be successfully utilized as a new design principle for pH-responsive NPs for diverse controlled drug-delivery applications.

  2. 75 FR 67054 - Listing of Approved Drug Products Containing Dronabinol in Schedule III

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... Cannabis sativa (i.e. naturally-derived), is identical to synthetically-produced dronabinol found in... \\9\\-(trans)-THC], which is believed to be the major psychoactive component of the cannabis plant... containing natural dronabinol (derived from the cannabis plant) or synthetic dronabinol (produced...

  3. Trapping and spectroscopic characterization of an FeIII-superoxo intermediate from a nonheme mononuclear iron-containing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Mbughuni, Michael M; Chakrabarti, Mrinmoy; Hayden, Joshua A; Bominaar, Emile L; Hendrich, Michael P; Münck, Eckard; Lipscomb, John D

    2010-09-28

    Fe(III)-O(2)*(-) intermediates are well known in heme enzymes, but none have been characterized in the nonheme mononuclear Fe(II) enzyme family. Many steps in the O(2) activation and reaction cycle of Fe(II)-containing homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase are made detectable by using the alternative substrate 4-nitrocatechol (4NC) and mutation of the active site His200 to Asn (H200N). Here, the first intermediate (Int-1) observed after adding O(2) to the H200N-4NC complex is trapped and characterized using EPR and Mössbauer (MB) spectroscopies. Int-1 is a high-spin (S(1) = 5/2) Fe(III) antiferromagnetically (AF) coupled to an S(2) = 1/2 radical (J ≈ 6 cm(-1) in ). It exhibits parallel-mode EPR signals at g = 8.17 from the S = 2 multiplet, and g = 8.8 and 11.6 from the S = 3 multiplet. These signals are broadened significantly by hyperfine interactions (A((17)O) ≈ 180 MHz). Thus, Int-1 is an AF-coupled species. The experimental observations are supported by density functional theory calculations that show nearly complete transfer of spin density to the bound O(2). Int-1 decays to form a second intermediate (Int-2). MB spectra show that it is also an AF-coupled Fe(III)-radical complex. Int-2 exhibits an EPR signal at g = 8.05 arising from an S = 2 state. The signal is only slightly broadened by (< 3% spin delocalization), suggesting that Int-2 is a peroxo-Fe(III)-4NC semiquinone radical species. Our results demonstrate facile electron transfer between Fe(II), O(2), and the organic ligand, thereby supporting the proposed wild-type enzyme mechanism.

  4. Investigation of Biowaivers for Immediate Release Formulations Containing BCS III Drugs, Acyclovir, Atenolol, and Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride, Using Dissolution Testing.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Nallagundla H S; Patnala, Srinivas; Kanfer, Isadore

    2017-02-01

    The dissolution of several products containing Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) class III drugs, acyclovir, atenolol, and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, listed in the WHO essential drug list (EDL), was tested and compared with their respective comparator pharmaceutical products (CPPs) marketed in South Africa and India. US Pharmacopeia (USP) buffers of pH 1.2, 4.5, and 6.8 were used as dissolution media and tested using USP apparatus 2 at 75 rpm and 900 ml. Nine acyclovir products were tested, and only three dissolved very rapidly in all media; i.e., they showed a release of >85% in 15 min. Eight atenolol products tested were all very rapidly dissolving in all three pH media. Ten ciprofloxacin hydrochloride products were tested, and the results showed that only five products met the WHO biowaiver criteria. This study indicates that not all marketed products containing the same BCS III active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in similar strength and dosage form are necessarily in vitro equivalent as per the WHO biowaiver criteria. Furthermore, selection and availability of an innovator product as CPP are important considerations that can affect the outcomes of such studies.

  5. Stability of chromium (III) sulfate in atmospheres containing oxygen and sulfur

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, K. T.; Rao, B. D.; Nelson, H. G.

    1978-01-01

    The stability of chromium sulfate in the temperature range from 880 K to 1040 K was determined by employing a dynamic gas-solid equilibration technique. The solid chromium sulfate was equilibrated in a gas stream of controlled SO3 potential. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses were used to follow the decomposition of chromium sulfate. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the decomposition product was crystalline Cr2O3 and that the mutual solubility between Cr2(SO4)3 and Cr2O3 was negligible. Over the temperature range investigated, the decomposition pressure were significantly high so that chromium sulfate is not expected to form on commercial alloys containing chromium when exposed to gaseous environments containing oxygen and sulfur (such as those encountered in coal gasification).

  6. Gallium(III)-Containing, Sandwich-Type Heteropolytungstates: Synthesis, Solution Characterization, and Hydrolytic Studies toward Phosphoester and Phosphoanhydride Bond Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Balamurugan; Vanhaecht, Stef; Nkala, Fiona Marylyn; Beelen, Tessa; Bassil, Bassem S; Parac-Vogt, Tatjana N; Kortz, Ulrich

    2016-09-19

    The gallium(III)-containing heteropolytungstates [Ga4(H2O)10(β-XW9O33)2](6-) (X = As(III), 1; Sb(III), 2) were synthesized in aqueous acidic medium by reaction of Ga(3+) ions with the trilacunary, lone-pair-containing [XW9O33](9-). Polyanions 1 and 2 are isostructural and crystallized as the hydrated sodium salts Na6[Ga4(H2O)10(β-AsW9O33)2]·28H2O (Na-1) and Na6[Ga4(H2O)10(β-SbW9O33)2]·30H2O (Na-2) in the monoclinic space group P21/c, with unit cell parameters a = 16.0218(12) Å, b = 15.2044(10) Å, c = 20.0821(12) Å, and β = 95.82(0)°, as well as a = 16.0912(5) Å, b = 15.2178(5) Å, c = 20.1047(5) Å, and β = 96.2(0)°, respectively. The corresponding tellurium(IV) derivative [Ga4(H2O)10(β-TeW9O33)2](4-) (3) was also prepared, by direct reaction of sodium tungstate, tellurium(IV) oxide, and gallium nitrate. Polyanion 3 crystallized as the mixed rubidium/sodium salt Rb2Na2[Ga4(H2O)10(β-TeW9O33)2]·28H2O (RbNa-3) in the triclinic space group P1̅ with unit cell parameters a = 12.5629(15) Å, b = 13.2208(18) Å, c = 15.474(2) Å, α = 80.52(1)°, β = 84.37(1)°, and γ = 65.83(1)°. All polyanions 1-3 were characterized in the solid state by single-crystal XRD, FT-IR, TGA, and elemental analysis, and polyanion 2 was also characterized in solution by (183)W NMR and UV-vis spectroscopy. Polyanion 2 was used as a homogeneous catalyst toward adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and the DNA model substrate 4-nitrophenylphosphate, monitored by (1)H and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. The encapsulated gallium(III) centers in 2 promote the Lewis acidic synergistic activation of the hydrolysis of ATP and DNA model substrates at a higher rate in near-physiological conditions. A strong interaction of 2 with the P-O bond of ATP was evidenced by changes in chemical shift values and line broadening of the (31)P nucleus in ATP upon addition of the polyanion.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, cytotoxic and antitubercular activities of new gold(I) and gold(III) complexes containing ligands derived from carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Joana Darc Souza; Damasceno, Jaqueline Lopes; Paula, Marcela Cristina Ferreira; de Oliveira, Pollyanna Francielli; Azevedo, Gustavo Chevitarese; Matos, Renato Camargo; Lourenço, Maria Cristina S; Tavares, Denise Crispim; Silva, Heveline; Fontes, Ana Paula Soares; de Almeida, Mauro Vieira

    2015-10-01

    Novel gold(I) and gold(III) complexes containing derivatives of D-galactose, D-ribose and D-glucono-1,5-lactone as ligands were synthesized and characterized by IR, (1)H, and (13)C NMR, high resolution mass spectra and cyclic voltammetry. The compounds were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxicity against three types of tumor cells: cervical carcinoma (HeLa) breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) and glioblastoma (MO59J) and one non-tumor cell line: human lung fibroblasts (GM07492A). Their antitubercular activity was evaluated as well expressed as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) in μg/mL. In general, the gold(I) complexes were more active than gold(III) complexes, for example, the gold(I) complex (1) was about 8.8 times and 7.6 times more cytotoxic than gold(III) complex (8) in MO59J and MCF-7 cells, respectively. Ribose and alkyl phosphine derivative complexes were more active than galactose and aryl phosphine complexes. The presence of a thiazolidine ring did not improve the cytotoxicity. The study of the cytotoxic activity revealed effective antitumor activities for the gold(I) complexes, being more active than cisplatin in all the tested tumor cell lines. Gold(I) compounds (1), (2), (3), (4) and (6) exhibited relevant antitubercular activity even when compared with first line drugs such as rifampicin.

  8. An Rpb4/Rpb7-like complex in yeast RNA polymerase III contains the orthologue of mammalian CGRP-RCP.

    PubMed

    Siaut, Magali; Zaros, Cécile; Levivier, Emilie; Ferri, Maria-Laura; Court, Magali; Werner, Michel; Callebaut, Isabelle; Thuriaux, Pierre; Sentenac, André; Conesa, Christine

    2003-01-01

    The essential C17 subunit of yeast RNA polymerase (Pol) III interacts with Brf1, a component of TFIIIB, suggesting a role for C17 in the initiation step of transcription. The protein sequence of C17 (encoded by RPC17) is conserved from yeasts to humans. However, mammalian homologues of C17 (named CGRP-RCP) are known to be involved in a signal transduction pathway related to G protein-coupled receptors, not in transcription. In the present work, we first establish that human CGRP-RCP is the genuine orthologue of C17. CGRP-RCP was found to functionally replace C17 in Deltarpc17 yeast cells; the purified mutant Pol III contained CGRP-RCP and had a decreased specific activity but initiated faithfully. Furthermore, CGRP-RCP was identified by mass spectrometry in a highly purified human Pol III preparation. These results suggest that CGRP-RCP has a dual function in mammals. Next, we demonstrate by genetic and biochemical approaches that C17 forms with C25 (encoded by RPC25) a heterodimer akin to Rpb4/Rpb7 in Pol II. C17 and C25 were found to interact genetically in suppression screens and physically in coimmunopurification and two-hybrid experiments. Sequence analysis and molecular modeling indicated that the C17/C25 heterodimer likely adopts a structure similar to that of the archaeal RpoE/RpoF counterpart of the Rpb4/Rpb7 complex. These RNA polymerase subunits appear to have evolved to meet the distinct requirements of the multiple forms of RNA polymerases.

  9. GLASSES CONTAINING IRON (II III) OXIDES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF RADIOACTIVE TECHNETIUM

    SciTech Connect

    KRUGER AA; HEO J; XU K; CHOI JK; HRMA PR; UM W

    2011-11-07

    Technetium-99 (Tc-99) has posed serious environmental threats as US Department of Energy's high-level waste. This work reports the vitrification of Re, as surrogate for Tc-99, by iron-borosilicate and iron-phosphate glasses, respectively. Iron-phosphate glasses can dissolve Re as high as {approx} 1.2 wt. %, which can become candidate waste forms for Tc-99 disposal, while borosilicate glasses can retain less than 0.1 wt. % of Re due to high melting temperature and long melting duration. Vitrification of Re as Tc-99's mimic was investigated using iron-borosilicate and iron-phosphate glasses. The retention of Re in borosilicate glasses was less than 0.1 wt. % and more than 99 wt. % of Re were volatilized due to high melting temperature and long melting duration. Because the retention of Re in iron-phosphate glasses is as high as 1.2 wt. % and the volatilization is reduced down to {approx}50 wt. %, iron-phosphate glasses can be one of the glass waste form candidates for Tc (or Re) disposal. The investigations of chemical durability and leaching test of iron-phosphate glasses containing Re are now underway to test the performance of the waste form.

  10. 25 CFR 291.4 - What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., maintenance, and accessibility; (6) Conduct of games, including patron requirements, posting of game rules, and hours of operation; (7) Procedures to protect the integrity of the rules for playing games; (8... enforcement and investigatory actions; (18) The length of time the procedures will remain in effect; and...

  11. 25 CFR 291.4 - What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., maintenance, and accessibility; (6) Conduct of games, including patron requirements, posting of game rules, and hours of operation; (7) Procedures to protect the integrity of the rules for playing games; (8... enforcement and investigatory actions; (18) The length of time the procedures will remain in effect; and...

  12. 25 CFR 291.4 - What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., maintenance, and accessibility; (6) Conduct of games, including patron requirements, posting of game rules, and hours of operation; (7) Procedures to protect the integrity of the rules for playing games; (8... enforcement and investigatory actions; (18) The length of time the procedures will remain in effect; and...

  13. 25 CFR 291.4 - What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., maintenance, and accessibility; (6) Conduct of games, including patron requirements, posting of game rules, and hours of operation; (7) Procedures to protect the integrity of the rules for playing games; (8... enforcement and investigatory actions; (18) The length of time the procedures will remain in effect; and...

  14. 25 CFR 291.4 - What must a proposal requesting Class III gaming procedures contain?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., maintenance, and accessibility; (6) Conduct of games, including patron requirements, posting of game rules, and hours of operation; (7) Procedures to protect the integrity of the rules for playing games; (8... enforcement and investigatory actions; (18) The length of time the procedures will remain in effect; and...

  15. [Current problems in the quality control of pharmaceutical preparations manufactured in pharmacies III. Investigation of theophilline containing suppositories].

    PubMed

    Takácsné, Novák Krisztina; Sinkó, Bálint; Hang, Ildikó; Kiss, Gézáné; Dávid, Adám Zoltán; Horváth, Péter Es

    2007-01-01

    In the present part of our series of papers a study on theophilline containing suppositories prepared in pharmacies is described. From the possible methods for assay of theophilline two nonaqueous titrations are compared. In first, theophilline is measured as a very weak base in a mixture of glacial acetic acid and acetic anhydride with perchloric acid using Sudan-III indicator, in second, the compound is measured as medium strong acid in dimethylformamide solvent with sodium-hydroxide titrant using phenolphtalein indicator. These methods were validated and the first was found more appropriate for regulatory control. We investigated suppositories prepared in our laboratory and in different pharmacies. The study revealed the poor quality of the preparations due to the difficulties in the technology and the importance of the applied vehicle. A guideline for the good preparation practice and an alternative technology are proposed.

  16. Isotope effects accompanying evaporation of water from leaky containers.

    PubMed

    Rozanski, Kazimierz; Chmura, Lukasz

    2008-03-01

    Laboratory experiments aimed at quantifying isotope effects associated with partial evaporation of water from leaky containers have been performed under three different settings: (i) evaporation into dry atmosphere, performed in a dynamic mode, (ii) evaporation into dry atmosphere, performed in a static mode, and (iii) evaporation into free laboratory atmosphere. The results demonstrate that evaporative enrichment of water stored in leaky containers can be properly described in the framework of the Craig-Gordon evaporation model. The key parameter controlling the degree of isotope enrichment is the remaining fraction of water in the leaking containers. Other factors such as temperature, relative humidity, or extent of kinetic fractionation play only minor roles. Satisfactory agreement between observed and predicted isotope enrichments for both (18)O and (2)H in experiments for the case of evaporation into dry atmosphere could be obtained only when molecular diffusivity ratios of isotope water molecules as suggested recently by Cappa et al. [J. Geophys. Res., 108, 4525-4535, (2003).] were adopted. However, the observed and modelled isotope enrichments for (2)H and (18)O could be reconciled also for the ratios of molecular diffusivities obtained by Merlivat [J. Chem. Phys., 69, 2864-2871 (1978).], if non-negligible transport resistance in the viscous liquid sub-layer adjacent to the evaporating surface is considered. The evaporation experiments revealed that the loss of mass of water stored in leaky containers in the order of 1%, will lead to an increase of the heavy isotope content in this water by ca. 0.35 and 1.1 per thousand, for delta (18)O and delta (2)H, respectively.

  17. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and antibacterial studies of lanthanide(III) Schiff base complexes containing N, O donor atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekha, L.; Raja, K. Kanmani; Rajagopal, G.; Easwaramoorthy, D.

    2014-01-01

    A series of six Ln(III) Schiff base complexes, Pr(III), Sm(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Er(III) and Yb(III), were synthesized using sodium salt of Schiff base, 2-[(5-bromo-2-hydroxy-benzylidene)-amino]-3-hydroxy-propionic acid, derived from L-serine and 5-bromosalicylaldehyde. These complexes having general formula [Ln(L)(NO3)2(H2O)]·NO3 were characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, UV-Vis, FT-IR, mass spectrometry and fluorescence studies. Elemental analysis and conductivity measurements suggest the complexes have a 1:1 stoichiometry. From the spectral studies it has been concluded that Ln(III) complexes display eight coordination. The Schiff base and its Ln(III) metal complexes have also been screened for their antibacterial activities by Agar diffusion method.

  18. Casiopeina III-Ea, a copper-containing small molecule, inhibits the in vitro growth of primitive hematopoietic cells from chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Gonzalez, Antonieta; Centeno-Llanos, Sandra; Moreno-Lorenzana, Dafne; Sandoval-Esquivel, Miguel Angel; Aviles-Vazquez, Socrates; Bravo-Gomez, María Elena; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena; Ayala-Sanchez, Manuel; Torres-Martinez, Hector; Mayani, Hector

    2017-01-01

    Several novel compounds have been developed for the treatment of different types of leukemia. In the present study, we have assessed the in vitro effects of Casiopeina III-Ea, a copper-containing small molecule, on cells from patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML). We included primary CD34(+) Lineage-negative (Lin(-)) cells selected from CML bone marrow, as well as the K562 and MEG01 cell lines. Bone marrow cells obtained from normal individuals - both total mononuclear cells as well as CD34(+) Lin(-) cells- were used as controls. IC50 corresponded to 0.5μM for K562 cells, 0.63μM for MEG01 cells, 0.38μM for CML CD34(+) lin(-) cells, and 1.0μM for normal CD34(+) lin(-) cells. Proliferation and expansion were also inhibited to significantly higher extents in cultures of CML cells as compared to their normal counterparts. All these effects seemed to occur via a bcr-abl transcription-independent mechanism that involved a delay in cell division, an increase in cell death, generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and changes in cell cycle. Our results demonstrate that Casiopeina III-Ea possesses strong antileukemic activity in vitro, and warrant further preclinical (animal) studies to assess such effects in vivo.

  19. The first 4d/4f single-molecule magnet containing a {Ru(III)2Dy(III)2} core.

    PubMed

    Langley, Stuart K; Wielechowski, Daniel P; Vieru, Veacheslav; Chilton, Nicholas F; Moubaraki, Boujemaa; Chibotaru, Liviu F; Murray, Keith S

    2015-02-07

    We report the synthesis, structure and magnetic properties of the first 4d-4f single-molecule magnet. The complex [Ru(III)2Dy(III)2(OMe)2(O2CPh)4(mdea)2(NO3)2] displays a butterfly type core, with an anisotropy barrier of 10.7 cm(-1). Ab initio and DFT calculations provide insight into the observed magnetic behaviour.

  20. Obesity favors apolipoprotein E- and C-III-containing high density lipoprotein subfractions associated with risk of heart disease[S

    PubMed Central

    Talayero, Beatriz; Wang, Liyun; Furtado, Jeremy; Carey, Vincent J.; Bray, George A.; Sacks, Frank M.

    2014-01-01

    Human HDLs have highly heterogeneous composition. Plasma concentrations of HDL with apoC-III and of apoE in HDL predict higher incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). The concentrations of HDL-apoA-I containing apoE, apoC-III, or both and their distribution across HDL sizes are unknown. We studied 20 normal weight and 20 obese subjects matched by age, gender, and race. Plasma HDL was separated by sequential immunoaffinity chromatography (anti-apoA-I, anti-apoC-III, anti-apoE), followed by nondenaturing-gel electrophoresis. Mean HDL-cholesterol concentrations in normal weight and obese subjects were 65 and 50 mg/dl (P = 0.009), and total apoA-I concentrations were 119 and 118 mg/dl, respectively. HDL without apoE or apoC-III was the most prevalent HDL type representing 89% of apoA-I concentration in normal weight and 77% in obese (P = 0.01) individuals; HDL with apoE-only was 5% versus 8% (P = 0.1); HDL with apoC-III-only was 4% versus 10% (P = 0.009); and HDL with apoE and apoC-III was 1.5% versus 4.6% (P = 0.004). Concentrations of apoE and apoC-III in HDL were 1.5–2× higher in obese subjects (P ≤ 0.004). HDL with apoE or apoC-III occurred in all sizes among groups. Obese subjects had higher prevalence of HDL containing apoE or apoC-III, subfractions associated with CHD, whereas normal weight subjects had higher prevalence of HDL without apoE or apoC-III, subfractions with protective association against CHD. PMID:24966274

  1. Spin-Seebeck Effect in III-V Based Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworski, Christopher M.; Myers, Roberto C.; Heremans, Joseph P.

    2012-02-01

    The spin-Seebeck effect has now been observed in metals^1 (NiFe), semiconductors^2 (GaMnAs), and insulators^3 (YIG). It consists of a thermally generated spin distribution that is phonon driven. Here we extend our measurements of the spin-Seebeck effect to other group III-V based magnetic semiconductors and present measurements of conventional thermomagnetic and galvanomagnetic properties as well as the spin-Seebeck effect. Work supported by the National Science Foundation, NSF-CBET-1133589 1. K. Uchida, et al., Nature 455 778 (2008) 2. C.M. Jaworski et al., Nature Materials 8 898 (2010), Phys. Rev. Lett. 106 186601 (2011) 3. K. Uchida, et al., Nature Materials 8 893 (2010)

  2. Iron (III) Matrix Effects on Mineralization and Immobilization of Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Cynthia-May S. Gong; Tyler A. Sullens; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - A number of models for the Yucca Mountain Project nuclear waste repository use studies of actinide sorption onto well-defined iron hydroxide materials. In the case of a waste containment leak, however, a complex interaction between dissolved waste forms and failed containment vessel components can lead to immediate precipitation of migratory iron and uranyl in the silicate rich near-field environment. Use of the Fe(III) and UO22+ complexing agent acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) as a colorimetric agent for visible spectrophotometry is well-known. Using the second derivative of these spectra a distinct shift in iron complexation in the presence of silicate is seen that is not seen with uranyl or alone. Silica also decreases the ability of uranyl and ferric solutions to absorb hydroxide, hastening precipitation. These ferric silicate precipitates are highly amorphous and soluble. Precipitates formed in the presence of uranyl below ~1 mol% exhibit lower solubility than precipitates from up to 50 mol % and of uranyl silicates alone.

  3. Complexation of Nd(III) with tetraborate ion and its effect on actinide (III) solubility in WIPP brine

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Marian; Richmann, Michael K; Reed, Donald T; Yongliang, Xiong

    2010-01-01

    The potential importance of tetraborate complexation on lanthanide(III) and actinide(III) solubility is recognized in the literature but a systematic study of f-element complexation has not been performed. In neodymium solubility studies in WIPP brines, the carbonate complexation effect is not observed since tetraborate ions form a moderately strong complex with neodymium(III). The existence of these tetraborate complexes was established for low and high ionic strength solutions. Changes in neodymium(III) concentrations in undersaturation experiments were used to determine the neodymium with tetraborate stability constants as a function of NaCl ionic strength. As very low Nd(III) concentrations have to be measured, it was necessary to use an extraction pre-concentration step combined with ICP-MS analysis to extend the detection limit by a factor of 50. The determined Nd(III) with borate stability constants at infinite dilution and 25 C are equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.55 {+-} 0.06 using the SIT approach, equal to log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.99 {+-} 0.30 using the Pitzer approach, with an apparent log {beta}{sub 1} = 4.06 {+-} 0.15 (in molal units) at I = 5.6 m NaCl. Pitzer ion-interaction parameters for neodymium with tetraborate and SIT interaction coefficients were also determined and reported.

  4. Co-norming the WAIS-III and WMS-III: Is there a test-order effect on IQ and memory scores?

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Tulsky, D S

    2000-11-01

    Test-order effect on the WAIS-III and WMS-III scores was evaluated using the WMS-III standardization sample. Participants completed the standardization editions of the WAIS-III and WMS-III in one session, with the tests administered in roughly counterbalanced order. Repeated measure MANOVA analyses were conducted to determine if there was an overall test-order effect for subtest, index, or IQ scores. No significant test-order effects were found for either the WAIS-III index or IQ scores or for the WMS-III index scores. At the subtest level, the majority of the WAIS-III and WMS-III subtests did not show a significant test-order effect. The exceptions were Digit Span and Digit Symbol-Coding on the WAIS-III and Faces II and Logical Memory II on the WMS-III. Although statistically significant test-order effects were found on these subtests, the effect sizes were small. This study indicates that the test-order effect is not a potential threat to the internal validity of the WAIS-III and WMS-III normative data. The practical implications of the current study are discussed.

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of a new dysprosium(III) complex containing 2,9-dimethyl 1,10-phenanthroline.

    PubMed

    Moradi, Zohreh; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam

    2017-02-01

    The binding of [Dy(dmp)2Cl3(OH2)], where dmp is 2,9-dimethyl 1,10-phenanthroline, with Fish salmon DNA (FS-DNA) is investigated by absorption and emission spectroscopy, quenching studies, salt dependent, and gel electrophoresis. The binding constant (Kb) of the interaction is calculated as (1.27 ± .05) × 10(5) M(-1) from absorption spectral titration data. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV), thermodynamic parameters involves ΔG°, ∆H°, and ∆S° are calculated by fluorescent data and Van't Hoff equation. The thermodynamic studies show that the reaction for the binding of the complex with FS-DNA is endothermic and entropically driven (ΔS° > 0, ΔH° > 0). The effect of the complex concentration on FS-DNA cleavage reactions is also investigated by gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, the Dy(III) complex has been screened for its antibacterial activity. The experimental results suggest that the Dy(III) complex binds significantly to FS-DNA by hydrophobic groove binding mode and the complex has more efficient antibacterial activity compared to its metal salt.

  6. Intron-containing type I and type III IFN coexist in amphibians: refuting the concept that a retroposition event gave rise to type I IFNs.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zhitao; Nie, Pin; Secombes, Chris J; Zou, Jun

    2010-05-01

    Type I and III IFNs are structurally related cytokines with similar antiviral functions. They have different genomic organizations and bind to distinct receptor complexes. It has been vigorously debated whether the recently identified intron containing IFN genes in fish and amphibians belong to the type I or III IFN family or diverged from a common ancestral gene, that subsequently gave rise to both types. In this report, we have identified intron containing type III IFN genes that are tandemly linked in the Xenopus tropicalis genome and hence demonstrate for the first time that intron containing type I and III genes diverged relatively early in vertebrate evolution, and at least by the appearance of early tetrapods, a transition period when vertebrates migrated from an aquatic environment to land. Our data also suggest that the intronless type I IFN genes seen in reptiles, birds, and mammals have originated from a type I IFN transcript via a retroposition event that led to the disappearance of intron-containing type I IFN genes in modern vertebrates. In vivo and in vitro studies in this paper show that the Xenopus type III IFNs and their cognate receptor are ubiquitously expressed in tissues and primary splenocytes and can be upregulated by stimulation with synthetic double-stranded RNA, suggesting they are involved in antiviral defense in amphibians.

  7. Central and peripheral cardiovascular effects of angiotensin III in trout.

    PubMed

    Mimassi, N; Lancien, F; Le Mével, J C

    2009-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the central and peripheral actions of trout angiotensin III (ANG III) on heart rate (HR) and mean dorsal aortic blood pressure (P(DA)) in the unanaesthetized rainbow trout. Intracerebroventricular injection of ANG III (5-100 pmol) produced a significant and dose-dependent increase in HR without significant change in P(DA). In contrast, when injected peripherally ANG III (5-50 pmol) evoked a significant and dose-dependent increase in P(DA). The hypertensive responses were accompanied by a bradycardia that reached significance only for the highest dose of ANG III tested. In conclusion, our results have shown that ANG III has potent and contrasting cardiovascular actions depending on whether its site of action is the brain or the peripheral circulation. Endogenous ANG III may have important physiological functions in teleost fishes.

  8. Fibronectin type III5 repeat contains a novel cell adhesion sequence, KLDAPT, which binds activated alpha4beta1 and alpha4beta7 integrins.

    PubMed

    Moyano, J V; Carnemolla, B; Domínguez-Jiménez, C; García-Gila, M; Albar, J P; Sánchez-Aparicio, P; Leprini, A; Querzé, G; Zardi, L; Garcia-Pardo, A

    1997-10-03

    The region of fibronectin encompassing type III repeats 4-6 contains a low affinity heparin binding domain, but its physiological significance is not clear. We have studied whether this domain is able to interact with cells as already shown for other heparin binding domains of fibronectin. A computer search based on homologies with known active sites in fibronectin revealed the sequence KLDAPT located in FN-III5. A synthetic peptide containing this sequence induced lymphoid cell adhesion upon treatment with the activating anti-beta1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) TS2/16 or with Mn2+, indicating that KLDAPT was binding to an integrin. A recombinant fragment containing repeat III5 (FN-III5) also mediated adhesion of TS2/16/Mn2+-treated cells while the FN-III6 fragment did not. Soluble KLDAPT peptide inhibited cell adhesion to FN-III5 as well as to a 38-kDa fibronectin fragment and VCAM-1, two previously known ligands for alpha4beta1 integrin. KLDAPT also competed with the binding of soluble alkaline phosphatase-coupled VCAM-Ig to Mn2+-treated alpha4beta1. Furthermore, mAbs anti-alpha4 and anti-alpha4beta7, but not mAbs to other integrins, inhibited cell adhesion to FN-III5 and KLDAPT. These results therefore establish a cell adhesive function for the FN-III5 repeat and show that KLDAPT is a novel fibronectin ligand for activated alpha4 integrins.

  9. New bipyridine gold(III) dithiocarbamate-containing complexes exerted a potent anticancer activity against cisplatin-resistant cancer cells independent of p53 status

    PubMed Central

    Altaf, Muhammad; Monim-ul-Mehboob, Muhammad; Kawde, Abdel-Nasser; Corona, Giuseppe; Larcher, Roberto; Ogasawara, Marcia; Casagrande, Naike; Celegato, Marta; Borghese, Cinzia; Siddik, Zahid H.; Aldinucci, Donatella; Isab, Anvarhusein A.

    2017-01-01

    We synthesized, characterized and tested in a panel of cancer cell lines, nine new bipyridine gold(III) dithiocarbamate-containing complexes. In vitro studies demonstrated that compounds 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 and 8 were the most cytotoxic in prostate, breast, ovarian cancer cell lines and in Hodgkin lymphoma cells with IC50 values lower than the reference drug cisplatin. The most active compound 1 was more active than cisplatin in ovarian (A2780cis and 2780CP-16) and breast cancer cisplatin-resistant cells. Compound 1 determined an alteration of the cellular redox homeostasis leading to increased ROS levels, a decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome-c release from the mitochondria and activation of caspases 9 and 3. The ROS scavenger NAC suppressed ROS generation and rescued cells from damage. Compound 1 resulted more active in tumor cells than in normal human Mesenchymal stromal cells. Gold compounds were active independent of p53 status: exerted cytotoxic effects on a panel of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines with different p53 status and in the ovarian A2780 model where the p53 was knocked out. In conclusion, these promising results strongly indicate the need for further preclinical evaluation to test the clinical potential of these new gold(III) complexes. PMID:27888799

  10. Layered double hydroxide stability. 2. Formation of Cr(III)-containing layered double hydroxides directly from solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.; Jiang, J.; Lou, S.; Yarberry, F.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing divalent metal [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+] chlorides and CrCl3 6H2O were titrated with NaOH to yield, for M(II) = Zn, Co, and Ni, hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDHs), [[M(II)]1-z[Cr(III)]z(OH)2][Cl]z yH2O, in a single step, without intermediate formation of chromium hydroxide. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields solubility constants for these compounds. These are in the order Zn < Ni approximately Co, with a clear preference for formation of the phase with z = 1/3. With Mg2+ as chloride, titration gives a mixture of Cr(OH)3 and Mg(OH)2, but the metal sulfates give Mg2Cr(OH)6 1/2(SO4) by a two-step process. Titrimetric and spectroscopic evidence suggests short-range cation order in the one-step LDH systems.

  11. Metal-containing components in medicinal plants. III. Manganese-containing components in Theae folium as oral magnetic resonance imaging contrast materials.

    PubMed

    Mino, Y; Yamada, K; Takeda, T; Nagasawa, O

    1996-12-01

    A manganese-containing component from the water-extract of Theae folium (green tea) was found to exert an augmentative effect in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast and may possibly be a manganese(II) complex with a pectin-like polysaccharide capable of shortening the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1) of water protons. Even though only the manganese(II) ion with S = 5/2 is active in T1-shortening ability, which should enhance contrast, complexation of this ion with the polysaccharide causes a marked increase in its activity. This manganese-containing pectin-like polysaccharides should prove useful as a low-toxic oral gastrointestinal contrast material in MRI.

  12. Effects of Ca2+ on refolding of the recombinant hemolytic lectin CEL-III.

    PubMed

    Hisamatsu, Keigo; Unno, Hideaki; Goda, Shuichiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

    2009-05-01

    CEL-III is a hemolytic lectin isolated from Cucumaria echinata. Although recombinant CEL-III (rCEL-III) expressed in Escherichia coli showed very weak hemolytic activity compared with native protein, it was considerably enhanced by refolding in the presence of Ca(2+). This suggests that Ca(2+) supported correct folding of the carbohydrate-binding domains of rCEL-III, leading to effective binding to the cell surface and subsequent self-oligomerization.

  13. Binary lanthanide(III)/nitrate and ternary lanthanide(III)/nitrate/chloride complexes in an ionic liquid containing water: optical absorption and luminescence studies.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Seraj A; Liu, Lisheng; Rao, Linfeng

    2015-02-14

    The formation of binary Ln(iii)/nitrate and ternary Ln(iii)/nitrate/chloride complexes in a water-saturated ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (denoted BumimTf(2)N), was investigated by absorption spectrophotometry and luminescence spectroscopy. Four successive binary complexes, Nd(NO(3))(2+), Nd(NO(3))(2)(+), Nd(NO(3))(3), and Nd(NO(3))(4)(-), were identified, and their stability constants in water-saturated BumimTf(2)N are several orders of magnitude higher than those in aqueous solutions, but much lower than those observed in dry BumimTf(2)N. The complexation of lanthanides with nitrate in wet BumimTf(2)N proceeds via the replacement of water molecules by bidentate nitrate anions from the inner solvation spheres of Ln(3+) cations. In the absence of nitrate, the precipitation of Ln(iii)/chloride complex(es) occurs at low ratios of C(Cl)/C(Ln) (<6) in BumimTf(2)N, which precludes the determination of stability constants of binary Ln(iii)/chloride complexes by spectrophotometry or luminescence spectroscopy. However, using a competition approach, the formation of two ternary complexes, Ln(NO(3))(3)Cl(2)(2-) and Ln(NO(3))(2)Cl(4)(3-), has been observed and their stability constants in wet BumimTf(2)N were determined. Data indicate that both nitrate and chloride are stronger ligands than water for lanthanides in BumimTf(2)N.

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal and antimicrobial studies of neodymium(III) and samarium(III) complexes derived from tetradentate ligands containing N and S donor atoms.

    PubMed

    Ain, Qurratul; Pandey, S K; Pandey, O P; Sengupta, S K

    2015-04-05

    Trivalent lanthanide complexes of the type [Ln(L)Cl(H2O)2] (where Ln=Nd(III) or Sm(III) and LH2=Schiff bases derived by the condensation of 3-(phenyl/substitutedphenyl)-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole with diacetyl/benzil) have been synthesized by the reactions of anhydrous lanthanide(III) chloride with Schiff bases in methanol. The structures of the complexes have been proposed on the basis of elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic moment, spectroscopic measurements (IR, 1H, 13C NMR and UV-vis spectra) and X-ray diffraction studies. The spectral data reveal that the Schiff base ligands behave as dibasic tetradentate chelating agents having coordination sites at two thiol sulfur atoms and two azomethine nitrogen atoms. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was confirmed by thermal and IR data of the complexes. All the Schiff bases and their metal complexes have also been screened for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Curvularia pallescens and Colletotrichum capsici.

  15. Synthesis, spectroscopic, thermal and antimicrobial studies of neodymium(III) and samarium(III) complexes derived from tetradentate ligands containing N and S donor atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ain, Qurratul; Pandey, S. K.; Pandey, O. P.; Sengupta, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Trivalent lanthanide complexes of the type [Ln(L)Cl(H2O)2] (where Ln = Nd(III) or Sm(III) and LH2 = Schiff bases derived by the condensation of 3-(phenyl/substitutedphenyl)-4-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole with diacetyl/benzil) have been synthesized by the reactions of anhydrous lanthanide(III) chloride with Schiff bases in methanol. The structures of the complexes have been proposed on the basis of elemental analysis, electrical conductance, magnetic moment, spectroscopic measurements (IR, 1H, 13C NMR and UV-vis spectra) and X-ray diffraction studies. The spectral data reveal that the Schiff base ligands behave as dibasic tetradentate chelating agents having coordination sites at two thiol sulfur atoms and two azomethine nitrogen atoms. The presence of coordinated water in metal complexes was confirmed by thermal and IR data of the complexes. All the Schiff bases and their metal complexes have also been screened for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and antifungal activities against Aspergillus niger, Curvularia pallescens and Colletotrichum capsici.

  16. Oral nutritional supplements containing (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids affect the nutritional status of patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer during multimodality treatment.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Barbara S; Langius, Jacqueline A E; Smit, Egbert F; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; von Blomberg, B Mary E; Heijboer, Annemieke C; Paul, Marinus A; van Leeuwen, Paul A M

    2010-10-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), (n-3) fatty acids from fish oil, have immune-modulating effects and may improve nutritional status in cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of an oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids on nutritional status and inflammatory markers in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing multimodality treatment. In a double-blind experiment, 40 patients with stage III NSCLC were randomly assigned to receive 2 cans/d of a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids (2.0 g EPA + 0.9 g DHA/d) or an isocaloric control supplement. EPA in plasma phospholipids, energy intake, resting energy expenditure (REE), body weight, fat free mass (FFM), mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), and inflammatory markers were assessed. Effects of intervention were analyzed by generalized estimating equations and expressed as regression coefficients (B). The intervention group (I) had a better weight maintenance than the control (C) group after 2 and 4 wk (B = 1.3 and 1.7 kg, respectively; P < 0.05), a better FFM maintenance after 3 and 5 wk (B = 1.5 and 1.9 kg, respectively; P < 0.05), a reduced REE (B = -16.7% of predicted; P = 0.01) after 3 wk, and a trend for a greater MUAC (B = 9.1; P = 0.06) and lower interleukin-6 production (B = -27.9; P = 0.08) after 5 wk. After 4 wk, the I group had a higher energy and protein intake than the C group (B = 2456 kJ/24 h, P = 0.03 and B = 25.0 g, P = 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, a protein- and energy-dense oral nutritional supplement containing (n-3) fatty acids beneficially affects nutritional status during multimodality treatment in patients with NSCLC.

  17. Tricarboxylate-based Gd(III) coordination polymers exhibiting large magnetocaloric effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sui-Jun; Cao, Chen; Xie, Chen-Chao; Zheng, Teng-Fei; Tong, Xiao-Lan; Liao, Jin-Sheng; Chen, Jing-Lin; Wen, He-Rui; Chang, Ze; Bu, Xian-He

    2016-05-31

    Two Gd(III) coordination polymers with the formula [Gd(cit)(H2O)]∞ () and [Gd(nta)(H2O)2]∞ () (H4cit = citric acid, H3nta = nitrilotriacetic acid) have been successfully prepared under hydrothermal conditions. Complex exhibits a three-dimensional (3D) structure based on carboxylate-bridged layers, while complex is a double-layer structure containing eight-coordinated Gd(III). Magnetic investigations reveal that weak antiferromagnetic couplings between adjacent Gd(III) ions in both and with different Weiss values result in large cryogenic magnetocaloric effects. It is notable that the maximum entropy changes (-ΔS) of and reach 31.3 J kg(-1) K(-1) and 32.2 J kg(-1) K(-1) at 2 K for a moderate field change (ΔH = 3 T), and a remarkable -ΔS (41.5 J kg(-1) K(-1) for and 42.0 J kg(-1) K(-1) for ) could be obtained for ΔH = 7 T.

  18. Polarization Effects in Group III-Nitride Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qiyuan

    Group III-nitride semiconductors have wide application in optoelectronic devices. Spontaneous and piezoelectric polarization effects have been found to be critical for electric and optical properties of group III-nitrides. In this dissertation, firstly, the crystal orientation dependence of the polarization is calculated and in-plane polarization is revealed. The in-plane polarization is sensitive to the lateral characteristic dimension determined by the microstructure. Specific semi-polar plane growth is suggested for reducing quantum-confined Stark effect. The macroscopic electrostatic field from the polarization discontinuity in the heterostructures is discussed, b ased on that, the band diagram of InGaN/GaN quantum well/barrier and AlGaN/GaN heterojunction is obtained from the self-consistent solution of Schrodinger and Poisson equations. New device design such as triangular quantum well with the quenched polarization field is proposed. Electron holography in the transmission electron microscopy is used to examine the electrostatic potential under polarization effects. The measured potential energy profiles of heterostructure are compared with the band simulation, and evidences of two-dimensional hole gas (2DHG) in a wurtzite AlGaN/ AlN/ GaN superlattice, as well as quasi two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a zinc-blende AlGaN/GaN are found. The large polarization discontinuity of AlN/GaN is the main source of the 2DHG of wurtzite nitrides, while the impurity introduced during the growth of AlGaN layer provides the donor states that to a great extent balance the free electrons in zinc-blende nitrides. It is also found that the quasi-2DEG concentration in zinc-blende AlGaN/GaN is about one order of magnitude lower than the wurtzite AlGaN/GaN, due to the absence of polarization. Finally, the InAlN/GaN lattice-matched epitaxy, which ideally has a zero piezoelectric polarization and strong spontaneous polarization, is experimentally studied. The breakdown in

  19. Langmuir mixing effects on global climate: WAVEWATCH III in CESM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qing; Webb, Adrean; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Craig, Anthony; Danabasoglu, Gokhan; Large, William G.; Vertenstein, Mariana

    2016-07-01

    Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) have shown the effects of ocean surface gravity waves in enhancing the ocean boundary layer mixing through Langmuir turbulence. Neglecting this Langmuir mixing process may contribute to the common shallow bias in mixed layer depth in regions of the Southern Ocean and the Northern Atlantic in most state-of-the-art climate models. In this study, a third generation wave model, WAVEWATCH III, has been incorporated as a component of the Community Earth System Model, version 1.2 (CESM1.2). In particular, the wave model is now coupled with the ocean model through a modified version of the K-Profile Parameterization (KPP) to approximate the influence of Langmuir mixing. Unlike past studies, the wind-wave misalignment and the effects of Stokes drift penetration depth are considered through empirical scalings based on the rate of mixing in LES. Wave-Ocean only experiments show substantial improvements in the shallow biases of mixed layer depth in the Southern Ocean. Ventilation is enhanced and low concentration biases of pCFC-11 are reduced in the Southern Hemisphere. A majority of the improvements persist in the presence of other climate feedbacks in the fully coupled experiments. In addition, warming of the subsurface water over the majority of global ocean is observed in the fully coupled experiments with waves, and the cold subsurface ocean temperature biases are reduced.

  20. Effect of Population III Multiplicity on Dark Star Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacy, Athena; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    We numerically study the mutual interaction between dark matter (DM) and Population III (Pop III) stellar systems in order to explore the possibility of Pop III dark stars within this physical scenario. We perform a cosmological simulation, initialized at z approx. 100, which follows the evolution of gas and DM. We analyze the formation of the first mini halo at z approx. 20 and the subsequent collapse of the gas to densities of 10(exp 12)/cu cm. We then use this simulation to initialize a set of smaller-scale 'cut-out' simulations in which we further refine the DM to have spatial resolution similar to that of the gas. We test multiple DM density profiles, and we employ the sink particle method to represent the accreting star-forming region. We find that, for a range of DM configurations, the motion of the Pop III star-disk system serves to separate the positions of the protostars with respect to the DM density peak, such that there is insufficient DM to influence the formation and evolution of the protostars for more than approx. 5000 years. In addition, the star-disk system causes gravitational scattering of the central DM to lower densities, further decreasing the influence of DM over time. Any DM-powered phase of Pop III stars will thus be very short-lived for the typical multiple system, and DM will not serve to significantly prolong the life of Pop III stars.

  1. Effects of sediment characteristics on the toxicity of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) to the amphipod, Hyalella azteca

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, J.M.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Kemble, N.E.; May, T.W.; Ingersoll, C.G.

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the influence of sediment characteristics, acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and organic matter (OM), on the toxicity of chromium (Cr) in freshwater sediments. We conducted chronic (28-42-d) toxicity tests with the amphipod Hyalella azteca exposed to Cr(VI) and Cr(III) in water and in spiked sediments. Waterborne Cr(VI) caused reduced survival of amphipods with a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 40 ??g/L. Cr(VI) spiked into test sediments with differing levels of AVS resulted in graded decreases in AVS and sediment OM. Only Cr(VI)-spiked sediments with low AVS concentrations (<1 ??mol/g) caused significant amphipod mortality. Waterborne Cr(III) concentrations near solubility limits caused decreased survival of amphipods at pH 7 and pH 8 but not at pH 6. Sediments spiked with high levels of Cr(III) did not affect amphipod survival but had minor effects on growth and inconsistent effects on reproduction. Pore waters of some Cr(III)-spiked sediments contained measurable concentrations of Cr(VI), but observed toxic effects did not correspond closely to Cr concentrations in sediment or pore waters. Our results indicate that risks of Cr toxicity are low in freshwater sediments containing substantial concentrations of AVS.

  2. Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetic Electrochemical Properties of a Family of Tungstoarsenates Containing Just Co(II) Centers or Both Co(II) and Fe(III) Centers.

    PubMed

    Ayingone Mezui, Charyle S; de Oliveira, Pedro; Teillout, Anne-Lucie; Marrot, Jérôme; Berthet, Patrick; Lebrini, Mounim; Mbomekallé, Israël M

    2017-02-20

    The three polyoxotungstates [(NaOH2)2Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](18-) (1), [(NaOH2)(Co(II)OH2)Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](17-) (2), and [(Co(II)OH2)2Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](16-) (3) have been prepared in aqueous solution upon mixing cobalt(II) salts with the ligand [As2W15O56](12-). The reaction of 1 or 2 with the Fe(3+) ion leads invariably to the same species [(Fe(III)OH2)(Co(II)OH2)Co(II)2(As2W15O56)2](15-) (4) possessing three cobalt atoms and a single iron atom. However, if the Fe-containing homologue of compound 1, that is, the polyoxotungstate [(NaOH2)2Fe(III)2(As2W15O56)2](16-) (5), is employed instead to react with the Co(2+) ion, the species [(Co(II)OH2)2Fe(III)2(As2W15O56)2](14-) (6) is obtained, having two cobalt atoms and two iron atoms. The compounds 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 are described for the first time and have been characterized by several physicochemical methods such as FTIR, UV-visible, ATG, and elemental analysis. Structural analysis by single-crystal X-ray diffraction has been carried out with compounds 2 (monoclinic space group P21/c, a = 17.0622(5) Å, b = 15.0828(4) Å, c = 32.0872(8) Å, β = 91.170(1)°, and Z = 2) and 3 (triclinic space group P1̅, a = 13.6137(7) Å, b = 13.8836(8) Å, c = 22.9276(6) Å, α = 89.906(3)°, β = 78.356(2)°, γ = 61.451(2)°, and Z = 1). Electrochemical studies undertaken with all the above-mentioned compounds and some of their homologues shed light on the influence of the chemical composition on their electrocatalytic properties toward substrates such as the nitrite ion and dioxygen. Magnetic measurements evidence anisotropic ferromagnetic interactions between Co(2+) ions and antiferromagnetic interactions between Fe(3+) ions. The nature and the strength of the Co(2+)-Fe(3+) interactions depend on the relative orientations of their 3d orbitals. The effective magnetic moment of the Co(2+) ions varies with the temperature and with the distortion of the octahedral sites in which they are located.

  3. High relaxivity Gd(III)-DNA gold nanostars: investigation of shape effects on proton relaxation.

    PubMed

    Rotz, Matthew W; Culver, Kayla S B; Parigi, Giacomo; MacRenaris, Keith W; Luchinat, Claudio; Odom, Teri W; Meade, Thomas J

    2015-03-24

    Gadolinium(III) nanoconjugate contrast agents (CAs) have distinct advantages over their small-molecule counterparts in magnetic resonance imaging. In addition to increased Gd(III) payload, a significant improvement in proton relaxation efficiency, or relaxivity (r1), is often observed. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanoconjugate CA created by covalent attachment of Gd(III) to thiolated DNA (Gd(III)-DNA), followed by surface conjugation onto gold nanostars (DNA-Gd@stars). These conjugates exhibit remarkable r1 with values up to 98 mM(-1) s(-1). Additionally, DNA-Gd@stars show efficient Gd(III) delivery and biocompatibility in vitro and generate significant contrast enhancement when imaged at 7 T. Using nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion analysis, we attribute the high performance of the DNA-Gd@stars to an increased contribution of second-sphere relaxivity compared to that of spherical CA equivalents (DNA-Gd@spheres). Importantly, the surface of the gold nanostar contains Gd(III)-DNA in regions of positive, negative, and neutral curvature. We hypothesize that the proton relaxation enhancement observed results from the presence of a unique hydrophilic environment produced by Gd(III)-DNA in these regions, which allows second-sphere water molecules to remain adjacent to Gd(III) ions for up to 10 times longer than diffusion. These results establish that particle shape and second-sphere relaxivity are important considerations in the design of Gd(III) nanoconjugate CAs.

  4. Effect of aging on the structure and phosphate retention of Fe(III)-precipitates formed by Fe(II) oxidation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senn, Anna-Caterina; Kaegi, Ralf; Hug, Stephan J.; Hering, Janet G.; Mangold, Stefan; Voegelin, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Iron(III)-precipitates formed by Fe(II) oxidation in aqueous solutions affect the cycling and impact of Fe and other co-precipitated elements in environmental systems. Fresh Fe(III)-precipitates are metastable and their transformation into more stable phases during aging may result in the release of initially co-precipitated ions. Phosphate, silicate, Mg and Ca play key roles in determining the structure and composition of fresh Fe(III)-precipitates. Here we examine how these ions affect the structure and phosphate retention of Fe(III)-precipitates formed by oxidation of 0.5 mM dissolved Fe(II) at pH 7.0 after aging for 30 days at 40 °C. Iron K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) shows that aged precipitates consist of the same structural units as fresh precipitates: Amorphous Fe(III)- or Ca-Fe(III)-phosphate, ferrihydrite, and poorly crystalline lepidocrocite. Mg, Ca, and dissolved phosphate stabilize (Ca-)Fe(III)-phosphate against transformation into ferrihydrite. Silicate further attenuates (Ca-)Fe(III)-phosphate transformation. The crystallinity of lepidocrocite formed in phosphate- and silicate-free solutions slightly increases during aging. The transformation of Fe(III)- and Ca-Fe(III)-phosphate into ferrihydrite and ongoing ferrihydrite crystallization during aging result in the release of co-precipitated phosphate. Dissolved Ca on the other hand limits phosphate concentrations to values consistent with solubility control by octacalciumphosphate. Owing to the combined effects of Ca and silicate, phosphate is most effectively retained by Fe(III)-precipitates formed and aged in Ca- and silicate-containing solutions. The results from this study contribute to an improved understanding of the formation and transformation of Fe(III)-precipitates and emphasize that the complexity of Fe(III)-precipitate dynamics in the presence of multiple interfering solutes must be considered when addressing their impact on major and trace elements in environmental systems.

  5. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos(®) IL 104.

    PubMed

    Bonggotgetsakul, Ya Ya Nutchapurida; Cattrall, Robert W; Kolev, Spas D

    2015-12-08

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of Au(III) extracted, was exhibited by a PIM consisting of 25 wt% Cyphos(®) IL 104, 5 wt% 1-dodecanol, and 70 wt% PVC. An almost complete back-extraction of the Au(III) extracted from this membrane was achieved by using a 0.10 mol L(-1) Na₂SO₃ receiver solution at pH 8. The stoichiometry of the extracted Au(III)/Cyphos® IL 104 adduct was determined as [P]⁺ [AuCl₄](-) H⁺ [PO₂](-) where [P]⁺ and [PO₂](-) represent trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ions, respectively. Back-extraction of Au(III) is suggested to occur by reduction of Au(III) to Au(I), with the formation of the species [Au(SO₃)₂](3-) in the aqueous receiver solution. Loss of 1-dodecanol from the newly developed PIM to the aqueous solutions in contact with it was observed, which indicated that this membrane was suitable for single use in the efficient recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions of electronic scrap or recycled jewelry.

  6. Extraction of Gold(III) from Hydrochloric Acid Solutions with a PVC-based Polymer Inclusion Membrane (PIM) Containing Cyphos® IL 104

    PubMed Central

    Bonggotgetsakul, Ya Ya Nutchapurida; Cattrall, Robert W.; Kolev, Spas D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) based polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs), with different concentrations of Cyphos® IL 104 as the membrane extractant/carrier, were studied for their ability to extract Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions. Some of the PIMs also contained one of the following plasticizers or modifiers: 2-nitrophenyloctyl ether, dioctylphthalate, 1-dodecanol, 1-tetradecanol, or tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate. The best performance, in terms of extraction rate and amount of Au(III) extracted, was exhibited by a PIM consisting of 25 wt% Cyphos® IL 104, 5 wt% 1-dodecanol, and 70 wt% PVC. An almost complete back-extraction of the Au(III) extracted from this membrane was achieved by using a 0.10 mol L−1 Na2SO3 receiver solution at pH 8. The stoichiometry of the extracted Au(III)/Cyphos® IL 104 adduct was determined as [P]+ [AuCl4]− H+ [PO2]− where [P]+ and [PO2]− represent trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium and bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinate ions, respectively. Back-extraction of Au(III) is suggested to occur by reduction of Au(III) to Au(I), with the formation of the species [Au(SO3)2]3− in the aqueous receiver solution. Loss of 1-dodecanol from the newly developed PIM to the aqueous solutions in contact with it was observed, which indicated that this membrane was suitable for single use in the efficient recovery of Au(III) from hydrochloric acid solutions of electronic scrap or recycled jewelry. PMID:26670259

  7. A hexaaza macrocyclic ligand containing acetohydrazide pendants for Ln(III) complexation in aqueous solution. Solid-state and solution structures and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Cristina; Bastida, Rufina; Macías, Alejandro; Mato-Iglesias, Marta; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Valencia, Laura

    2008-08-07

    Lanthanide complexes of a hexaaza macrocyclic ligand containing acetohydrazide pendants (L) have been synthesised (Ln = La-Er, except Pm), and structural studies have been carried out both in the solid state and in aqueous solution. Attempts to isolate the complexes of the heaviest Ln(iii) ions (Ln = Tm-Lu) were unsuccessful. The crystal structures of the ligand and its lanthanum complex have been determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. The X-ray crystal structure of [La(L)](3+) shows the metal ion being ten-coordinate, with the acetohydrazide pendants situated alternatively above and below the plane of the macrocycle. The two five membered chelate rings formed by the ethylenediamine moieties adopt (deltadelta) [or (lambdalambda)] conformations. The [Ln(L)](3+) complexes have been characterised by means of density-functional theory (DFT) calculations (B3LYP model). The structures obtained from these theoretical calculations are in very good agreement with the experimental solution structures, as obtained from paramagnetic NMR measurements on the Ce(iii), Pr(III), Nd(III) and Eu(III) complexes. The complexes adopt in aqueous solution a D(2) structure with the ligand adopting a (deltadelta) [or (lambdalambda)] conformation.

  8. Effect of praseodymium(III) on zinc(II) species in human interstitial fluid.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Wang, Jinping; Lu, Xin; Yang, Kuiyue; Niu, Chunji

    2005-11-01

    A multiphase model of metal ion species in human interstitial fluid was constructed under physiological conditions. The effect of Pr(III) on Zn(II) species was studied. At the normal conditions, Zn(II) species mainly distribute in [Zn(HSA)], [Zn(IgG)], and [Zn(Cys)(2)H](+). With the Pr(III) level increased, the apparent competition of Pr(III) for ligands lead to the redistribution of Zn(II) species.

  9. Effect of a gel containing pilocarpine on vaginal atrophy in castrated rats

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa-Lages, Cristina A.; de Deus-Lages, Lívio P.; de Sousa, Gabriela V.; de Moura-Leal, Adinaide C.; Conde, Airton Mendes; Costa-Silva, Danylo Rafhael; da Conceição Barros-Oliveira, Maria; Borges, Carine Soares; Escórcio-Dourado, Carla Solange; Sampaio, Fabiane A.; Cunha-Nunes, Lívio C.; da-Silva, Benedito B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of Carbopol gel formulations containing pilocarpine on the morphology and morphometry of the vaginal epithelium of castrated rats. METHODS: Thirty-one female Wistar-Hannover rats were randomly divided into four groups: the control Groups I (n=7, rats in persistent estrus; positive controls) and II (n=7, castrated rats, negative controls) and the experimental Groups, III (n=8) and IV (n=9). Persistent estrus (Group I) was achieved with a subcutaneous injection of testosterone propionate on the second postnatal day. At 90 days postnatal, rats in Groups II, III and IV were castrated and treated vaginally for 14 days with Carbopol gel (vehicle alone) or Carbopol gel containing 5% and 15% pilocarpine, respectively. Next, all of the animals were euthanized and their vaginas were removed for histological evaluation. A non-parametric test with a weighted linear regression model was used for data analysis (p<0.05). RESULTS: The morphological evaluation showed maturation of the vaginal epithelium with keratinization in Group I, whereas signs of vaginal atrophy were present in the rats of the other groups. Morphometric examinations showed mean thickness values of the vaginal epithelium of 195.10±12.23 μm, 30.90±1.14 μm, 28.16±2.98 μm and 29.84±2.30 μm in Groups I, II, III and IV, respectively, with statistically significant differences between Group I and the other three groups (p<0.0001) and no differences between Groups II, III and IV (p=0.0809). CONCLUSION: Topical gel formulations containing pilocarpine had no effect on atrophy of the vaginal epithelium in the castrated female rats. PMID:27276400

  10. Container effect in nanocasting synthesis of mesoporous metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohong; Shi, Yifeng; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Chunming; Zheng, Xinyue; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yichi; Guan, Naijia; Zhao, Dongyuan; Stucky, Galen D

    2011-09-21

    We report a general reaction container effect in the nanocasting synthesis of mesoporous metal oxides. The size and shape of the container body in conjunction with simply modifying the container opening accessibility can be used to control the escape rate of water and other gas-phase byproducts in the calcination process, and subsequently affect the nanocrystal growth of the materials inside the mesopore space of the template. In this way, the particle size, mesostructure ordering, and crystallinity of the final product can be systemically controlled. The container effect also explain some of the problems with reproducibility in previously reported results.

  11. Group III alcohol dehydrogenase from Pectobacterium atrosepticum: insights into enzymatic activity and organization of the metal ion-containing region.

    PubMed

    Elleuche, Skander; Fodor, Krisztian; von der Heyde, Amélie; Klippel, Barbara; Wilmanns, Matthias; Antranikian, Garabed

    2014-05-01

    NAD(P)(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are widely distributed in all phyla. These proteins can be assigned to three nonhomologous groups of isozymes, with group III being highly diverse with regards to catalytic activity and primary structure. Members of group III ADHs share a conserved stretch of amino acid residues important for cofactor binding and metal ion coordination, while sequence identities for complete proteins are highly diverse (<20 to >90 %). A putative group III ADH PaYqhD has been identified in BLAST analysis from the plant pathogenic enterobacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum. The PaYqhD gene was expressed in the heterologous host Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified in a two-step purification procedure to homogeneity indicating an obligate dimerization of monomers. Four conserved amino acid residues involved in metal ion coordination were substituted with alanine, and their importance for catalytic activity was confirmed by circular dichroism spectrum determination, in vitro, and growth experiments. PaYqhD exhibits optimal activity at 40 °C with short carbon chain aldehyde compounds and NADPH as cofactor indicating the enzyme to be an aldehyde reductase. No oxidative activities towards alcoholic compounds were detectable. EDTA completely inhibited catalytic activity and was fully restored by the addition of Co(2+). Activity measurements together with sequence alignments and structure analysis confirmed that PaYqhD belongs to the butanol dehydrogenase-like enzymes within group III of ADHs.

  12. Binding analysis of ytterbium(III) complex containing 1,10-phenanthroline with DNA and its antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Moodi, Asieh; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Niroomand, Sona

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the biological preference of [Yb(phen)₂(OH₂)Cl₃](H₂O)₂ (phen is 1,10-phenanthroline) for DNA, interaction of Yb(III) complex with DNA in Tris-HCl buffer is studied by various biophysical and spectroscopic techniques which reveal that the complex binds to DNA. The results of fluorescence titration reveal that [Yb(phen)₂(OH₂)Cl₃](H₂O)₂ has strongly quenched in the presence of DNA. The binding site number n, apparent binding constant K b, and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant K SV are determined. ΔH⁰, ΔS⁰, and ΔG⁰ are obtained based on the quenching constants and thermodynamic theory (ΔH⁰ > 0, ΔS⁰ > 0, and ΔG⁰ < 0). The experimental results show that the Yb(III) complex binds to DNA by non-intercalative mode. Groove binding is the preferred mode of interaction for [Yb(phen)₂(OH₂)Cl₃](H₂O)₂ to DNA. The DNA cleavage results show that in the absence of any reducing agent, Yb(III) complex can cleave DNA. The antimicrobial screening tests are also recorded and give good results in the presence of Yb(III) complex.

  13. Enhancement of optical Faraday effect of nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yuki; Doi, Yoshihiro; Seki, Tomohiro; Koizumi, Hitoshi; Fushimi, Koji; Fujita, Koji; Hinatsu, Yukio; Ito, Hajime; Tanaka, Katsuhisa; Hasegawa, Yasuchika

    2014-07-21

    The effective magneto-optical properties of novel nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes with Tb-O lattice (specifically, [Tb9(sal-R)16(μ-OH)10](+)NO3(-), where sal-R = alkyl salicylate (R = -CH3 (Me), -C2H5 (Et), -C3H7 (Pr), or -C4H9 (Bu)) are reported. The geometrical structures of these nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes were characterized using X-ray single-crystal analysis and shape-measure calculation. Optical Faraday rotation was observed in nonanuclear Tb(III) complexes in the visible region. The Verdet constant per Tb(III) ion of the Tb9(sal-Me) complex is 150 times larger than that of general Tb(III) oxide glass. To understand their large Faraday rotation, electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of Gd(III) complexes were carried out. In this Report, the magneto-optical relation to the coordination geometry of Tb ions is discussed.

  14. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III) and As(III)/Sb(III)-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Li, Mingshun; Wang, Gejiao

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III)]/antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing strain. The As(III) oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III) oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III) oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III) oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III) oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III) oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III), ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III) and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III) oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III) and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III) oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III) would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III) stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat.

  15. Effects upon metabolic pathways and energy production by Sb(III) and As(III)/Sb(III)-oxidase gene aioA in Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingxin; Yang, Birong; Shi, Manman; Yuan, Kai; Guo, Wei; Li, Mingshun

    2017-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens GW4 is a heterotrophic arsenite [As(III)]/antimonite [Sb(III)]-oxidizing strain. The As(III) oxidase AioAB is responsible for As(III) oxidation in the periplasm and it is also involved in Sb(III) oxidation in Agrobacterium tumefaciens 5A. In addition, Sb(III) oxidase AnoA and cellular H2O2 are also responsible for Sb(III) oxidation in strain GW4. However, the deletion of aioA increased the Sb(III) oxidation efficiency in strain GW4. In the present study, we found that the cell mobility to Sb(III), ATP and NADH contents and heat release were also increased by Sb(III) and more significantly in the aioA mutant. Proteomics and transcriptional analyses showed that proteins/genes involved in Sb(III) oxidation and resistance, stress responses, carbon metabolism, cell mobility, phosphonate and phosphinate metabolism, and amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were induced by Sb(III) and were more significantly induced in the aioA mutant. The results suggested that Sb(III) oxidation may produce energy. In addition, without periplasmic AioAB, more Sb(III) would enter bacterial cells, however, the cytoplasmic AnoA and the oxidative stress response proteins were significantly up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased Sb(III) oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the carbon metabolism was also activated to generate more energy against Sb(III) stress. The generated energy may be used in Sb transportation, DNA repair, amino acid synthesis, and cell mobility, and may be released in the form of heat. PMID:28241045

  16. Synthesis of, characterization of, and photoinduced processes in polymetallic triad complexes containing Fe(II), Ru(II), and Rh(III) metal centers

    SciTech Connect

    Ronco, S.E. |; Thompson, D.W.; Gahan, S.L.; Petersen, J.D. |

    1998-04-20

    A series of new trimetallic mixed complexes containing Fe(II), Ru(II), and Rh(III) metal centers have been prepared and characterized, and their excited-state properties in a nanosecond time domain have been investigated. These new compounds were synthesized by following a building block strategy from monomeric Rh(III) and Ru(II) polyazines and tetracyanoferrate(II) ions. The products generated in each synthetic step were fully characterized and their excited-state properties investigated. These new trimetallic complexes, [(CN){sub 4}Fe{sup II}(BL(1))Ru{sup II}(bpy)-(BL(2))Rh{sup III}(tpy)(MQ{sup +})](PF{sub 6}){sub 4} (tpy = 2,2{prime}:6{prime}:2{double_prime}-terpyridine; BL(1) = 2,3-bis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine (dpp) or 2,2{prime}-bipyrimidine (bpm); BL(2) = dpp or bpm; MQ{sup +} = N-methyl-4,4{prime}-bipyridinium (monoquat)), consist of three fundamental parts linked by bridging ligands (1) an electron donor group, the tetracyanoferrate(II) unit; (2) an antenna fragment, the Ru(II) polypyridyl moiety; and (3) an electron acceptor group. The electron acceptor group is a Rh(III) polypyridyl that contains the ligands tpy and MQ{sup +}. No emission was observed in any of the reported complexes either in fluid solutions at room temperature or in glassy solutions at 77 K. Time-resolved experiments conducted on these triads showed formation of a transient intermediate within the laser pulse. Redox properties and transient absorption observations helped the authors to identify the nature of this intermediate as an Fe(III)/Ru(II) mixed-valence species that decays exponentially by following a first-order law with a lifetime of {tau} {le} 70 ns in fluid solution at room temperature.

  17. The Effects of Non-Normality on Type III Error for Comparing Independent Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendes, Mehmet

    2007-01-01

    The major objective of this study was to investigate the effects of non-normality on Type III error rates for ANOVA F its three commonly recommended parametric counterparts namely Welch, Brown-Forsythe, and Alexander-Govern test. Therefore these tests were compared in terms of Type III error rates across the variety of population distributions,…

  18. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  19. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  20. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  1. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  2. 25 CFR 291.13 - When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe... ECONOMIC ENTERPRISES CLASS III GAMING PROCEDURES § 291.13 When do Class III gaming procedures for an Indian tribe become effective? Upon approval of Class III gaming procedures for the Indian tribe under...

  3. A trinuclear oxo-chromium(III) complex containing the natural flavonoid primuletin: Synthesis, characterization, and antiradical properties

    DOE PAGES

    Rocha, Reginaldo C.; Alexiou, Anamaria D.P.; Decandio, Carla C.; ...

    2015-04-10

    A new trinuclear oxo-centered chromium(III) complex with formula [Cr₃O(CH₃CO₂)₆(L)(H₂O)₂] (L = 5-hydroxyflavone, known as primuletin) was synthetized and characterized by ESI mass spectrometry, thermogravimetry, and ¹H-NMR, UV-Vis, and FTIR spectroscopies. In agreement with the experimental results, DFT calculations indicated that the flavonoid ligand is coordinated to one of the three Cr(III) centers in an O,O-bidentate mode through the 5-hydroxy/4-keto groups. In a comparative study involving the uncoordinated primuletin and its corresponding complex, systematic reactions with the free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) showed that antiradical activity increases upon complexation.

  4. EGIS-7229, the new combined class III antiarrhythmic agent: lack of EAD inducing effect.

    PubMed

    Bányász, T; Magyar, J; Varró, A; Kovács, A; Gyönös, I; Szénási, G; Nánási, P P

    1999-03-01

    EGIS-7229 is a novel antiarrhythmic candidate having multiple mechanisms of action with class III predominance. In this study, the effects of EGIS-7229 and sotalol on action potential duration (APD) and incidence of early afterdepolarizations (EADs) were studied and compared in rabbit papillary muscle by using conventional microelectrode techniques. In control bathing solution, both drugs increased APD in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the prolongation of APD was greater with sotalol than with EGIS-7229 when the same drug concentrations were compared. EAD developed in 3 of the 11 preparations (27%) bathed with a solution containing 3.6 mmol/l CsCl + 2 mmol/l KCl within the first 120 min of superfusion. The addition of 100 micromol/l sotalol to this superfusate increased the incidence of EAD to 83% (10 from 12), whereas the addition of the same concentration of EGIS-7229 prevented the development of EAD in all of the 9 preparations studied. These differences in incidence of EAD are likely attributable to differences in drug-induced increases of APD-50 in the presence of CsCl. Prolongation of APD-90 showed less correlation with incidence of EAD than changes in APD-50. On the basis of these in vitro results, high concentrations of EGIS-7229 cannot be expected to be torsadogenic in vivo--in contrast with sotalol--presumably owing to the combined class III + IV activity of the compound.

  5. Could test length or order affect scores on letter number sequencing of the WAIS-III and WMS-III? Ruling out effects of fatigue.

    PubMed

    Tulsky, D S; Zhu, J

    2000-11-01

    The Letter Number Sequencing subtest of the WAIS-III and WMS-III was administered at the end of the standardization edition of the WMS-III. It was not administered as part of the WAIS-III standardization battery. Nevertheless, the subtest was included in the published version of the WAIS-III. This study examines differences between examinees administered the Letter Number Sequencing subtest at three different times during a psychological battery: (1) as part of the published battery, (2) as part of the WMS-III when the WMS-III was administered as the first test in a sequence, and (3) as part of the WMS-III standardization when the WAIS-III was administered immediately preceding the WMS-III. The participants were 372 examinees ( n = 124 in each condition) who were matched on key demographic variables. A repeated measures MANOVA yielded no difference in subtest scores when administered in any of these conditions. The results show no evidence of fatigue or ordering effects on the Letter Number Sequencing subtest.

  6. Interaction of imidazole containing hydroxamic acids with Fe(III): hydroxamate versus imidazole coordination of the ligands.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Etelka; Bátka, Dávid; Csóka, Hajnalka; Nagy, Nóra V

    2007-01-01

    Solution equilibrium studies on Fe(III) complexes formed with imidazole-4-carbohydroxamic acid (Im-4-Cha), N-Me-imidazole-4-carbohydroxamic acid (N-Me-Im-4-Cha), imidazole-4-acetohydroxamic acid (Im-4-Aha), and histidinehydroxamic acid (Hisha) have been performed by using pH-potentiometry, UV-visible spectrophotometry, EPR, ESI-MS, and H1-NMR methods. All of the obtained results demonstrate that the imidazole moiety is able to play an important role very often in the interaction with Fe(III), even if this metal ion prefers the hydroxamate chelates very much. If the imidazole moiety is in alpha-position to the hydroxamic one (Im-4-Cha and N-Me-Im-4-Cha) its coordination to the metal ion is indicated unambiguously by our results. Interestingly, parallel formation of (Nimidazole, Ohydroxamate), and (Ohydroxamate, Ohydroxamate) type chelates seems probable with N-Me-Im-4-Cha. The imidazole is in beta-position to the hydroxamic moiety in Im-4-Aha and an intermolecular noncovalent (mainly H-bonding) interaction seems to organize the intermediate-protonated molecules in this system. Following the formation of mono- and bishydroxamato mononuclear complexes, only EPR silent species exists in the Fe(III)-Hisha system above pH 4, what suggests the rather significant "assembler activity" of the imidazole (perhaps together with the ammonium moiety).

  7. Q-factor of (In,Ga)N containing III-nitride microcavity grown by multiple deposition techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gačević, Ž. Calleja, E.; Réveret, F.

    2013-12-21

    A 3λ/2 (In,Ga)N/GaN resonant cavity, designed for ∼415 nm operation, is grown by molecular beam epitaxy and is sandwiched between a 39.5-period (In,Al)N/GaN distributed Bragg reflector (DBR), grown on c-plane GaN-on-sapphire pseudo-substrate by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy and an 8-period SiO{sub 2}/ZrO{sub 2} DBR, deposited by electron beam evaporation. Optical characterization reveals an improvement in the cavity emission spectral purity of approximately one order of magnitude due to resonance effects. The combination of spectrophotometric and micro-reflectivity measurements confirms the strong quality (Q)-factor dependence on the excitation spot size. We derive simple analytical formulas to estimate leak and residual absorption losses and propose a simple approach to model the Q-factor and to give a quantitative estimation of the weight of cavity disorder. The model is in good agreement with both transfer-matrix simulation and the experimental findings. We point out that the realization of high Q-factor (In,Ga)N containing microcavities on GaN pseudo-substrates is likely to be limited by the cavity disorder.

  8. Effect of operating parameters on indium (III) ion removal by iron electrocoagulation and evaluation of specific energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Chou, Wei-Lung; Wang, Chih-Ta; Huang, Kai-Yu

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the specific energy consumption and removal efficiency of synthetic wastewater containing indium (III) ions by electrocoagulation in batch mode using an iron electrode. Several parameters, including different electrode pairs, supporting electrolytes, initial concentration, pH variation, and applied voltage, were investigated. In addition, the effects of applied voltage, supporting electrolyte, and initial concentration on indium (III) ion removal efficiency and specific energy consumption were investigated under the optimum balance of reasonable removal efficiency and relative low energy consumption. Experiment results indicate that a Fe/Al electrode pair is the most efficient choice of the four electrode pairs in terms of energy consumption. The optimum supporting electrolyte concentration, initial concentration, and applied voltage were found to be 100 mg/l NaCl, 20 mg/l, and 20V, respectively. A higher pH at higher applied voltage (20 or 30V) enhanced the precipitation of indium (III) ion as insoluble indium hydroxide, which improved the removal efficiency. Results from the indium (III) ion removal kinetics show that the kinetics data fit the pseudo second-order kinetic model well. Finally, the composition of the sludge produced was characterized with energy dispersion spectra (EDS).

  9. High Relaxivity Gd(III)–DNA Gold Nanostars: Investigation of Shape Effects on Proton Relaxation

    PubMed Central

    Rotz, Matthew W.; Culver, Kayla S. B.; Parigi, Giacomo; MacRenaris, Keith W.; Luchinat, Claudio; Odom, Teri W.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Gadolinium(III) nanoconjugate contrast agents (CAs) have distinct advantages over their small-molecule counterparts in magnetic resonance imaging. In addition to increased Gd(III) payload, a significant improvement in proton relaxation efficiency, or relaxivity (r1), is often observed. In this work, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanoconjugate CA created by covalent attachment of Gd(III) to thiolated DNA (Gd(III)–DNA), followed by surface conjugation onto gold nanostars (DNA–Gd@stars). These conjugates exhibit remarkable r1 with values up to 98 mM−1 s−1. Additionally, DNA–Gd@stars show efficient Gd(III) delivery and biocompatibility in vitro and generate significant contrast enhancement when imaged at 7 T. Using nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion analysis, we attribute the high performance of the DNA–Gd@stars to an increased contribution of second-sphere relaxivity compared to that of spherical CA equivalents (DNA–Gd@spheres). Importantly, the surface of the gold nanostar contains Gd(III)–DNA in regions of positive, negative, and neutral curvature. We hypothesize that the proton relaxation enhancement observed results from the presence of a unique hydrophilic environment produced by Gd(III)–DNA in these regions, which allows second-sphere water molecules to remain adjacent to Gd(III) ions for up to 10 times longer than diffusion. These results establish that particle shape and second-sphere relaxivity are important considerations in the design of Gd(III) nanoconjugate CAs. PMID:25723190

  10. Effects of Humidity on Non-Hermetically Packaged III-V Structures and Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, R.; Martin, S.; Lee, T.; Okuno, J.; Ruiz, R.; Gauldin, R.; Gaidis, M.; Smith, R.

    1999-01-01

    High humidity and temperature test (known as 85/85 tests) were performed on various III-V devices and structures to determine environmental effects in non-hermetically packaged GaAs membrane mixer diodes.

  11. Effects of ionic strength and fulvic acid on adsorption of Tb(III) and Eu(III) onto clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poetsch, Maria; Lippold, Holger

    2016-09-01

    High salinity and natural organic matter are both known to facilitate migration of toxic or radioactive metals in geochemical systems, but little is known on their combined effect. We investigated complexation of Tb(III) and Eu(III) (as analogues for trivalent actinides) with fulvic acid and their adsorption onto a natural clay in the presence of NaCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 up to very high ionic strengths. 160Tb, 152Eu and 14C-labelled fulvic acid were employed as radiotracers, allowing investigations at very low concentrations according to probable conditions in far-field scenarios of nuclear waste repositories. A combined Kd approach (Linear Additive Model) was tested for suitability in predicting solid-liquid distribution of metals in the presence of organic matter based on the interactions in the constituent subsystems. In this analysis, it could be shown that high ionic strength does not further enhance the mobilizing potential of humic matter. A quantitative reproduction of the influence of fulvic acid failed for most systems under study. Assumptions and limitations of the model are discussed.

  12. The Trypanosoma cruzi neuraminidase contains sequences similar to bacterial neuraminidases, YWTD repeats of the low density lipoprotein receptor, and type III modules of fibronectin

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi expresses a developmentally regulated neuraminidase (TCNA) implicated in parasite invasion of cells. We isolated full- length DNA clones encoding TCNA. Sequence analysis demonstrated an open reading frame coding for a polypeptide of 1,162 amino acids. In the N- terminus there is a cysteine-rich domain containing a stretch of 332 amino acids nearly 30% identical to the Clostridium perfringens neuraminidase, three repeat motifs highly conserved in bacterial and viral neuraminidases, and two segments with similarity to the YWTD repeats found in the low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor and in other vertebrate and invertebrate proteins. This domain is connected by a structure characteristic of type III modules of fibronectin to a long terminal repeat (LTR) consisting of 44 full length copies of twelve amino acids rich (75%) in serine, threonine, and proline. LTR is unusual in that it contains at least 117 potential phosphorylation sites. At the extreme C-terminus is a hydrophobic segment of 35 amino acids, which could mediate anchorage of TCNA to membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol linkage. This is the first time a protozoan protein has been found to contain a YWTD repeat and a fibronectin type III module. The domain structure of TCNA suggests that the enzyme may have functions additional to its catalytic activity such as in protein-protein interaction, which could play a role in T. cruzi binding to host cells. PMID:1711561

  13. Antimicrobial and antifungal effects of tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Uchimaru, Masayuki; Sakai, Takako; Moroi, Ryoji; Shiota, Susumu; Shibata, Yukie; Deguchi, Mikito; Sakai, Hidetaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Terada, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the antimicrobial/antifungal ability of a tissue conditioner containing a photocatalyst for Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The photocatalyst was mixed with tissue conditioners powders at concentrations of 0, 10, 15, and 20 wt%. Tissue conditioners powders containing a photocatalyst were mixed with liquid to make test specimens. Test specimens inoculated by each microorganism were irradiated by ultraviolet light for 0-, 2- and 4 hours. The antimicrobial/antifungal effects were evaluated by the CFU technique. The CFU values of each microorganism for tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst showed significant decrease following UV-irradiation. The improvement in antimicrobial/antifungal effects was concomitant with the increase of the mixing ratio and the irradiation time. Therefore, the results indicated that tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst might have photocatalytic ability.

  14. Dual shell-like magnetic clusters containing Ni(II) and Ln(III) (Ln = La, Pr, and Nd) ions.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiang-Jian; Ren, Yan-Ping; Long, La-Sheng; Zheng, Zhiping; Nichol, Gary; Huang, Rong-Bin; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2008-04-07

    Dual shell-like nanoscopic magnetic clusters featuring a polynuclear nickel(II) framework encapsulating that of lanthanide ions (Ln = La, Pr, and Nd) were synthesized using Ni(NO3)(2).6H2O, Ln(NO3)(3).6H2O, and iminodiacetic acid (IDA) under hydrothermal conditions. Structurally established by crystallographic studies, these clusters are [La20Ni30(IDA)30(CO3)6(NO3)6(OH)30(H2O)12](CO3)(6).72H2O (1), [Ln20Ni21(C4H5NO4)21(OH)24(C2H2O3)6(C2O4)3(NO3)9(H2O)12](NO3)9.nH2O [C2H2O3 is the alkoxide form of glycolate; Ln = Pr (2), n = 42; Nd (3), n = 50], and {[La4Ni5Na(IDA)5(CO3)(NO3)4(OH)5(H2O)5][CO3].10H2O} infinity (4). Carbonate, oxalate, and glycolate are products of hydrothermal decomposition of IDA. Compositions of these compounds were confirmed by satisfactory elemental analyses. It has been found that the cluster structure is dependent on the identity of the lanthanide ion as well as the starting Ln/Ni/IDA ratio. The cationic cluster of 1 features a core of the Keplerate type with an outer icosidodecahedron of Ni(II) ions encaging a dodecahedral kernel of La(III). Clusters 2 and 3, distinctly different from 1, are isostructural, possessing a core of an outer shell of 21 Ni(II) ions encapsulating an inner shell of 20 Ln(III) ions. Complex 4 is a three-dimensional assembly of cluster building blocks connected by units of Na(NO3)/La(NO3)3; the structure of the building block resembles closely that of 1, with a hydrated La(III) ion internalized in the decanuclear cage being an extra feature. Magnetic studies indicated ferromagnetic interactions in 1, while overall antiferromagnetic interactions were revealed for 2 and 3. The polymeric, three-dimensional cluster network 4 displayed interesting ferrimagnetic interactions.

  15. Characterization of Xenopus egg membrane microdomains containing uroplakin Ib/III complex: roles of their molecular interactions for subcellular localization and signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Mahbub Hasan, A K M; Ou, Zhize; Sakakibara, Keiichi; Hirahara, Shino; Iwasaki, Tetsushi; Sato, Ken-ichi; Fukami, Yasuo

    2007-02-01

    A single-transmembrane protein uroplakin III (UPIII) and its tetraspanin binding-partner uroplakin Ib (UPIb) are members of the UP proteins that were originally identified in mammalian urothelium. In Xenopus laevis eggs, these proteins: xUPIII and xUPIb, are components of the cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains or "rafts" and involved in the sperm-egg membrane interaction and subsequent egg activation signaling via Src tyrosine kinase at fertilization. Here, we investigate whether the xUPIII-xUPIb complex is in close proximity to CD9, a tetraspanin that has been implicated in the sperm-egg fusion in the mouse and GM1, a ganglioside typically enriched in egg rafts. Preparation of the egg membrane microdomains using different non-ionic detergents (Brij 98 and Triton X-100), chemical cross-linking, co-immunoprecipitation, in vitro kinase assay and in vitro fertilization experiments demonstrated that GM1, but not CD9, is in association with the xUPIII-xUPIb complex and contributes to the sperm-dependent egg activation. Transfection experiments using HEK293 cells demonstrated that xUPIII and xUPIb localized efficiently to the cholesterol-dependent membrane microdomains when they were co-expressed, whereas co-expression of xUPIII and CD9, instead of xUPIb, did not show this effect. Furthermore, xUPIII and xUPIb were shown to suppress kinase activity of the wild type, but not a constitutively active form of, Xenopus Src protein co-expressed in HEK293 cells. These results provide novel insight into the molecular architecture of the egg membrane microdomains containing xUPIII, xUPIb and Src, which may contribute to the understanding of sperm-egg interaction and signaling during Xenopus fertilization.

  16. Synthetic peptides containing B- and T-cell epitope of dengue virus-2 E domain III provoked B- and T-cell responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanfeng; Peng, Liang; Zhao, Wei; Zhong, Hua; Zhang, Fuchun; Yan, Ziqiang; Cao, Hong

    2011-05-09

    Our previous work applied a combination of bioinformatics approaches and in vitro assays to identify the dengue-2 virus (DENV-2)-specific B- and T-cell epitopes. In this report, we first evaluated the antigenicity of both B- and T-cell epitopes reacting with different sera against DENV-2 by ELISA as well as the ability of T-cell epitope to activate CD4(+) T-cell producing IFN-γ using ELISPOT, which showed a specific reactivity between either B- or T-cell epitope and DENV-2 antisera, and a significant increase of IFN-γ producing cells in DENV-2 infected mice. Then, a multi-epitope peptide containing the above B-, T-cell epitopes of envelope domain III (EDIII) of DENV-2 and pan-DR epitope (PADRE) was bioinformatically designed and synthesized. The verification of its immunogenicity and protective effect was performed in in vitro and in vivo experiments. The results showed that a high level of antibody in mice elicited by the multi-epitope peptide was detected by ELISA and the anti-peptide sera binding to the vero cells infected with DEN-2 was observed with immunofluorescence test. More importantly, the peptide could induce lymphoproliferation in vitro and a predominant Th1 type of immune response was examined by flow cytometry. We also found that the virus replication in the mice vaccinated with the multi-epitope peptide was obviously less than that of the control groups. These results may provide some important information for the development of dengue vaccine.

  17. Synthesis, photoluminescence and biological properties of terbium(III) complexes with hydroxyketone and nitrogen containing heterocyclic ligands.

    PubMed

    Poonam; Kumar, Rajesh; Boora, Priti; Khatkar, Anurag; Khatkar, S P; Taxak, V B

    2016-01-05

    The ternary terbium(III) complexes [Tb(HDAP)3⋅biq], [Tb(HDAP)3⋅dmph] and [Tb(HDAP)3⋅bathophen] were prepared by using methoxy substituted hydroxyketone ligand HDAP (2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyacetophenone) and an ancillary ligand 2,2-biquinoline or 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline or bathophenanthroline respectively. The ligand and synthesized complexes were characterised based on elemental analysis, FT-IR and (1)H NMR. Thermal behaviour of the synthesized complexes illustrates the general decomposition patterns of the complexes by thermogravimetric analysis. Photophysical properties such as excitation spectra, emission spectra and luminescence decay curves of the complexes were investigated in detail. The main green emitting peak at 548nm can be attributed to (5)D4→(7)F5 of Tb(3+) ion. Thus, these complexes might be used to make a bright green light-emitting diode for display purpose. In addition the in vitro antibacterial activities of HDAP and its Tb(III) complexes against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger are reported. The Tb(3+) complexes were found to be more potent antimicrobial agent as compared to the ligand. Among all these complexes, [Tb(HDAP)3⋅bathophen] exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity which proves its potential usefulness as an antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity tests were carried out by using DPPH method which indicates that the complexes have considerable antioxidant activity when compared with the standard ascorbic acid.

  18. Synthesis, photoluminescence and biological properties of terbium(III) complexes with hydroxyketone and nitrogen containing heterocyclic ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonam; Kumar, Rajesh; Boora, Priti; Khatkar, Anurag; Khatkar, S. P.; Taxak, V. B.

    2016-01-01

    The ternary terbium(III) complexes [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbiq], [Tb(HDAP)3ṡdmph] and [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbathophen] were prepared by using methoxy substituted hydroxyketone ligand HDAP (2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyacetophenone) and an ancillary ligand 2,2-biquinoline or 5,6-dimethyl-1,10-phenanthroline or bathophenanthroline respectively. The ligand and synthesized complexes were characterised based on elemental analysis, FT-IR and 1H NMR. Thermal behaviour of the synthesized complexes illustrates the general decomposition patterns of the complexes by thermogravimetric analysis. Photophysical properties such as excitation spectra, emission spectra and luminescence decay curves of the complexes were investigated in detail. The main green emitting peak at 548 nm can be attributed to 5D4 → 7F5 of Tb3+ ion. Thus, these complexes might be used to make a bright green light-emitting diode for display purpose. In addition the in vitro antibacterial activities of HDAP and its Tb(III) complexes against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and antifungal activities against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger are reported. The Tb3+ complexes were found to be more potent antimicrobial agent as compared to the ligand. Among all these complexes, [Tb(HDAP)3ṡbathophen] exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity which proves its potential usefulness as an antimicrobial agent. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant activity tests were carried out by using DPPH method which indicates that the complexes have considerable antioxidant activity when compared with the standard ascorbic acid.

  19. Incremental validity of the WJ III COG: Limited predictive effects beyond the GIA-E.

    PubMed

    McGill, Ryan J; Busse, R T

    2015-09-01

    This study is an examination of the incremental validity of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) broad clusters from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ III COG) for predicting scores on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III ACH). The participants were children and adolescents, ages 6-18 (n = 4,722), drawn from the WJ III standardization sample. The sample was nationally stratified and proportional to U.S. census estimates for race/ethnicity, parent education level, and geographic region. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to assess for cluster-level effects after controlling for the variance accounted for by the General Intellectual Ability-Extended (GIA-E) composite score. The results were interpreted using the R²/ΔR² statistic as the effect size indicator. Consistent with previous studies, the GIA-E accounted for statistically and clinically significant portions of WJ III ACH cluster score variance, with R2 values ranging from .29 to .56. WJ III COG CHC cluster scores collectively provided statistically significant incremental variance beyond the GIA-E in all of the regression models, although the effect sizes were consistently negligible to small (Average ΔR2(CHC) = .06), with significant effects observed only in the Oral Expression model (ΔR²(CHC) = .23). Individually, the WJ III COG cluster scores accounted for mostly small portions of achievement variance across the prediction models, with a large effect found for the Comprehension-Knowledge cluster in the Oral Expression model (ΔR²(Gc) = .23). The potential clinical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed.

  20. Binding of ligands containing carbonyl and phenol groups to iron(iii): new Fe6, Fe10 and Fe12 coordination clusters.

    PubMed

    Kitos, Alexandros A; Papatriantafyllopoulou, Constantina; Tasiopoulos, Anastasios J; Perlepes, Spyros P; Escuer, Albert; Nastopoulos, Vassilios

    2017-03-07

    The initial use of ligands 2'-hydroxyacetophenone (HL(1)), 2-hydroxybenzophenone (HL(2)) and 2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone (H2L(3)) in iron(iii) chemistry is described. The syntheses and crystal structures are reported for five iron(iii) clusters: [Fe10O4(OMe)14(L(1))6(MeOH)2](NO3)2·3MeOH (1·3MeOH), [Fe12O4(OH)(OMe)17(L(1))8](ClO4)2·2H2O (2·2H2O), [Fe10O4(OMe)14Cl4(L(2))4(MeOH)2] (3), [Fe10O4(OMe)14(L(2))6(py)2](ClO4)2·MeOH (4·MeOH), where py = pyridine, and [Fe6O2(OEt)6(O2CMe)2(L(3))2(HL(3))2] (5). The molecular structures of the decanuclear clusters 1, 3 and 4 are organized around a {Fe10(μ4-O)4(μ3-OMe)2(μ-OMe)12}(8+) core consisting of ten {Fe3O4} face-sharing defective cubane units. The core of 2 consists of a {Fe12(μ4-O)4(μ3-OMe)4(μ-OH)(μ-OMe)13}(10+) unit composed of twelve {Fe3O4} face-sharing defective cubanes. The ligands (L(1))(-) and (L(2))(-) in 1-4 adopt the O,O'-bidentate chelating coordination mode and their roles are to terminate the further aggregation of the Fe(III)/O(2-)/RO(-) cores. Complex 5 contains the {Fe6(μ4-O)2(μ-OEt)6(μ-Ocarbonyl)2}(4+) core, where the μ-Ocarbonyl atoms are the bridging carbonyl oxygens of the two η(1):η(2):η(1):μ (L(3))(2-) ligands; the (HL(3))(-) groups behave as Ophenolate, Ocarbonyl-bidentate chelating ligands with the neutral hydroxyl group being unbound to the Fe(III) atoms. The core is composed of four {Fe3O4} face-sharing defective cubanes. The Fe(III) atoms in 1-5 are all six-coordinate with distorted octahedral geometries. The IR spectra of the complexes are discussed in terms of the known coordination modes of the ligands and the ionic character of nitrates and perchlorates. Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility and variable-field magnetization measurements establish that 2, 3 and 5 have S = 3, 0 and 5 ground states, respectively. The susceptibility data for 5 were fitted using a 3-J model indicating the simultaneous presence of both antiferromagnetic and ferromagnetic Fe(III)Fe(III

  1. Membrane permeability transition and dysfunction of rice mitochondria effected by Er(III).

    PubMed

    Gao, Jia-ling; Wu, Man; Wang, Xuan; Zhang, Ye-zhong; Jiang, Feng-lei; Liu, Yi; Dai, Jie

    2015-02-01

    Herein, the biological effects of heavy rare earth ion Er(III) on rice mitochondria were comprehensively investigated mainly by spectroscopic methods. The experimental results demonstrated that Er(III) could lead to the swelling of rice mitochondria, collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, decrease of membrane fluidity, promotion of H(+) permeability and suppression of K(+) permeability. These further indicated that Er(III) could induce the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and the dysfunction of rice mitochondria. The ultra-structure change of mitochondria observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also proved that Er(III) induced MPT. Moreover, the testing results of the protective effect of four different agents on mitochondrial swelling implied that the thiol chelation on the mitochondrial inner membrane was the main reason that caused the MPT.

  2. Synthesis and Assessment of Antibacterial Activities of Ruthenium(III) Mixed Ligand Complexes Containing 1,10-Phenanthroline and Guanide

    PubMed Central

    Hailemariam, Tizazu

    2016-01-01

    In this work, two complexes of ruthenium(III) ([Ru(phen)2Cl2]Cl·2H2O and [Ru(phen)2(G)Cl]2Cl·H2O) were synthesized from 1,10-phenanthroline alone as well as from both 1,10-phenanthroline and guanide. The synthesis was checked using halide test, conductance measurement, and spectroscopic (ICP-OES, FTIR, and UV/Vis) analysis. Their in vitro antibacterial activities were also investigated on two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)) and two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae)) bacteria. These complexes showed wide-range better activities than the commercially available controls (Chloramphenicol and Ciprofloxacin) against even the most drug resistant K. pneumoniae. [Ru(phen)2(G)Cl]2Cl·H2O inhibited S. aureus, MRSA, E. coli, and K. pneumoniae by 17.5%, 27.4%, 16%, and 52%, respectively, better than Chloramphenicol. It also inhibited these pathogens by 5.9%, 5.1%, 2.3%, and 17.2%, respectively, better than Ciprofloxacin. Similarly, [Ru(Phen)2(Cl)2]Cl·2H2O inhibited these pathogens by 11%, 8.7%, 0.1%, and 31.2%, respectively, better than Chloramphenicol. Therefore, after in vivo cytotoxicity investigations, these compounds can be considered as potential antibiotic drugs. PMID:27833473

  3. Equatorial π-stacking interactions in diruthenium (II,III) tetracarboxylate complexes containing extended π-systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, Natasha F.; Ronaldson, Michael; Stanley Cameron, T.; Wang, Ruiyao; Aquino, Manuel A. S.

    2013-11-01

    The synthesis of three new valent-averaged tetracarboxylatodiruthenium (II,III) complexes, [Ru2(1-naphthylacetate)4(H2O)2](PF6)ṡ4THF, 1ṡ4THF, [Ru2(2-naphthoate)4(THF)2](PF6)ṡ3THF, 2ṡ3THF, and [Ru2(coumarin-3-carboxylate)4(MeOH)2](PF6)ṡMeOHṡH2O, 3ṡMeOHṡH2O, was accomplished using a well documented carboxylate exchange reaction. All three complexes were thoroughly characterized using infrared and UV-Vis spectroscopies, elemental analysis and X-ray diffraction. Due to the extended π-systems present, two of the complexes, 2ṡ3THF and 3ṡMeOHṡH2O, display extensive π-stacking in two dimensions, with similar interactions notably absent in 1ṡ4THF due to the perpendicular orientation of the naphthyl rings. Modest H-bonding is seen in complexes 1ṡ4THF and 3ṡMeOHṡH2O. As these types of complexes are noted secondary building units (SBU's) in the construction of metal-organic frameworks (MOF's), the significance of these interactions in stabilizing even larger, supramolecular structures, are noted.

  4. Construction and Characterization of Haemophilus ducreyi Lipooligosaccharide (LOS) Mutants Defective in Expression of Heptosyltransferase III and β1,4-Glucosyltransferase: Identification of LOS Glycoforms Containing Lactosamine Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Filiatrault, Melanie J.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Schilling, Birgit; Sun, Shuhua; Munson, Robert S.; Campagnari, Anthony A.

    2000-01-01

    To begin to understand the role of the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) molecule in chancroid infections, we constructed mutants defective in expression of glycosyltransferase genes. Pyocin lysis and immunoscreening was used to identify a LOS mutant of Haemophilus ducreyi 35000. This mutant, HD35000R, produced a LOS molecule that lacked the monoclonal antibody 3F11 epitope and migrated with an increased mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Structural studies indicated that the principal LOS glycoform contains lipid A, Kdo, and two of the three core heptose residues. HD35000R was transformed with a plasmid library of H. ducreyi 35000 DNA, and a clone producing the wild-type LOS was identified. Sequence analysis of the plasmid insert revealed one open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a protein with homology to the WaaQ (heptosyltransferase III) of Escherichia coli. A second ORF had homology to the LgtF (glucosyltransferase) of Neisseria meningitidis. Individual isogenic mutants lacking expression of the putative H. ducreyi heptosyltransferase III, the putative glucosyltransferase, and both glycosyltransferases were constructed and characterized. Each mutant was complemented with the representative wild-type genes in trans to restore expression of parental LOS and confirm the function of each enzyme. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry and SDS-PAGE analysis identified several unique LOS glycoforms containing di-, tri-, and poly-N-acetyllactosamine repeats added to the terminal region of the main LOS branch synthesized by the heptosyltransferase III mutant. These novel H. ducreyi mutants provide important tools for studying the regulation of LOS assembly and biosynthesis. PMID:10816485

  5. What Factors Underlie the Aging Effects on WAIS-R and WAIS-III Subtests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Jacques

    2001-01-01

    Studied the factors underlying the aging effects seen on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Adults-Revised (WAIS-R) and the scale's third edition (WAIS-III) using the French standardization samples of 1,104 for the WAIS-III and 1,000 for the WAIS-R. Results show that the observed decline in scores for both tests cannot be fully explained with a…

  6. Behavior of bubbles in glassmelts. III - Dissolution and growth of a rising bubble containing a single gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onorato, P. I. K.; Weinberg, M. C.; Uhlmann, D. R.

    1981-01-01

    Finite difference solutions of the mass transport equations governing the dissolution (growth) of a rising gas bubble, containing a single gas, in a glassmelt were obtained. These solutions were compared with those obtained from an approximate procedure for a range of the controlling parameters. Applications were made to describe various aspects of O2 and CO2 gas-bubble behavior in a soda-lime-silicate melt.

  7. Fe(II) sorption on pyrophyllite: Effect of structural Fe(III) (impurity) in pyrophyllite on nature of layered double hydroxide (LDH) secondary mineral formation

    SciTech Connect

    Starcher, Autumn N.; Li, Wei; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Elzinga, Evert J.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2016-11-01

    Fe(II)-Al(III)-LDH (layered double hydroxide) phases have been shown to form from reactions of aqueous Fe(II) with Fe-free Al-bearing minerals (phyllosilicate/clays and Al-oxides). To our knowledge, the effect of small amounts of structural Fe(III) impurities in “neutral” clays on such reactions, however, were not studied. In this study to understand the role of structural Fe(III) impurity in clays, laboratory batch studies with pyrophyllite (10 g/L), an Al-bearing phyllosilicate, containing small amounts of structural Fe(III) impurities and 0.8 mM and 3 mM Fe(II) (both natural and enriched in 57Fe) were carried out at pH 7.5 under anaerobic conditions (4% H2 – 96% N2 atmosphere). Samples were taken up to 4 weeks for analysis by Fe-X-ray absorption spectroscopy and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. In addition to the precipitation of Fe(II)-Al(III)-LDH phases as observed in earlier studies with pure minerals (no Fe(III) impurities in the minerals), the analyses indicated formation of small amounts of Fe(III) containing solid(s), most probably hybrid a Fe(II)-Al(III)/Fe(III)-LDH phase. The mechanism of Fe(II) oxidation was not apparent but most likely was due to interfacial electron transfer from the sorbed Fe(II) to the structural Fe(III) and/or surface-sorption-induced electron-transfer from the sorbed Fe(II) to the clay lattice. Increase in the Fe(II)/Al ratio of the LDH with reaction time further indicated the complex nature of the samples. This research provides evidence for the formation of both Fe(II)-Al(III)-LDH and Fe(II)-Fe(III)/Al(III)-LDH-like phases during reactions of Fe(II) in systems that mimic the natural environments. Better understanding Fe phase formation in complex laboratory studies will improve models of natural redox systems.

  8. Effective Photo- and Triboluminescent Europium(III) Coordination Polymers with Rigid Triangular Spacer Ligands.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Tateno, Shiori; Yamamoto, Masanori; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Seki, Tomohiro; Ito, Hajime; Fushimi, Koji

    2017-02-21

    Luminescent Eu(III) coordination polymers with rigid triangular spacer ligands are reported. The Eu(III) coordination polymer, [Eu3 (hfa)9 (tppb)2 ]n (hfa: hexafluoroacetylacetonate, tppb: tris(4-diphenylphosphorylphenyl)benzene), shows high thermo-stability (decomposition temperature=354 °C) and photoluminescence quantum yield (Φ4f-4f =82 %, photosensitized energy transfer efficiency=78 %). The triboluminescence efficiency of Eu(III) coordination polymer with triangular spacers under laser pulse irradiation (Nd:YAG, λ=1064 nm, pulse width=5 ns, pulse energy=0.1 mJ) is calculated to be 49 %. Characteristic triangular structure, high emission quantum yield, effective photosensitized energy transfer, and remarkable triboluminescence properties of Eu(III) coordination polymers are demonstrated for the first time.

  9. The Games Children Play III: More Comments on Effective Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Charlotte A.; Ashy, Madge

    2013-01-01

    In the years since the authors published two articles with tips for effective teaching, they have acquired and developed more advice and impressions on teaching. This article presents ideas that can help physical educators become increasingly effective in their teaching.

  10. The effect of chelating agent on the separation of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) from binary mixture solution by cation-exchange membrane.

    PubMed

    Kir, Esengül; Cengeloğlu, Yunus; Ersöz, Mustafa

    2005-12-15

    The competitive transport of Fe(III) and Ti(IV) ions and the effect of chelating agents on separation from binary mixture solutions through charged polysulfone cation-exchange membrane (SA3S) has been studied under Donnan dialysis conditions. The amount of chelating agent was taken as an equimolar of Fe(III) ion in the feed phase. In this process, the membrane separated two electrolyte solutions: the feed solution, initially containing metal salts (Fe, Ti), or metal salts solution, containing a chelating agent, and the other side (receiver solution) being HCl solution. An external potential field is not applied. It was observed that the chelating agents affect the metal transport; the transport of Fe(III) is decreased and the transport of Ti(IV) is increased.

  11. Effect of Cr(VI) concentration on gas and particle production during iron oxidation in aqueous solutions containing Cl(-) ions.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyangsig; Jo, Ho Young; Ryu, Ji-Hun; Koh, Yong-Kwon

    2017-02-01

    Zero-valent iron (ZVI) is commonly used as a medium in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) because of its high reducing ability. The generation of H2 gas in PRBs, however, can decrease the permeability of PRBs and reduce the contact area between the PRB and contaminated groundwater. This study investigated the effect of the initial Cr(VI) concentration ([Cr(VI)init]) in aqueous solutions containing Cl(-) ions on the generation of H2 gas. ZVI chips were reacted in reactors with 0.5-M NaCl solutions with [Cr(VI)init] ranging between 51 and 303 mg/L. The initial pH was set at 3. The oxidation of ZVI chips by Cr(VI) in aqueous solutions containing Cl(-) ions produced H2 gas and particles (Fe(III)-Cr(III)(oxy)hydroxides). The Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solutions increased as the [Cr(VI)init] increased, as did H2 gas generation. The positive effect of [Cr(VI)init] on H2 gas generation might be due to an increase in the redox potential gradient as [Cr(VI)init] increases. This increased gradient would enhance H(+) ion penetration through the passive film (Fe(III)-Cr(III)(oxy)hydroxides), which formed on the ZVI surface, by diffusion from the solution to pits beneath the passive film.

  12. C-type lectin-like carbohydrate recognition of the hemolytic lectin CEL-III containing ricin-type -trefoil folds.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Unno, Hideaki; Kouzuma, Yoshiaki; Uchida, Tatsuya; Eto, Seiichiro; Hidemura, Haruki; Kato, Norihisa; Yonekura, Masami; Kusunoki, Masami

    2007-12-28

    CEL-III is a Ca(2+)-dependent hemolytic lectin, isolated from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata. The three-dimensional structure of CEL-III/GalNAc and CEL-III/methyl alpha-galactoside complexes was solved by x-ray crystallographic analysis. In these complexes, five carbohydrate molecules were found to be bound to two carbohydrate-binding domains (domains 1 and 2) located in the N-terminal 2/3 portion of the polypeptide and that contained beta-trefoil folds similar to ricin B-chain. The 3-OH and 4-OH of bound carbohydrate molecules were coordinated with Ca(2+) located at the subdomains 1alpha, 1gamma, 2alpha, 2beta, and 2gamma, simultaneously forming hydrogen bond networks with nearby amino acid side chains, which is similar to carbohydrate binding in C-type lectins. The binding of carbohydrates was further stabilized by aromatic amino acid residues, such as tyrosine and tryptophan, through a stacking interaction with the hydrophobic face of carbohydrates. The importance of amino acid residues in the carbohydrate-binding sites was confirmed by the mutational analyses. The orientation of bound GalNAc and methyl alpha-galactoside was similar to the galactose moiety of lactose bound to the carbohydrate-binding site of the ricin B-chain, although the ricin B-chain does not require Ca(2+) ions for carbohydrate binding. The binding of the carbohydrates induced local structural changes in carbohydrate-binding sites in subdomains 2alpha and 2beta. Binding of GalNAc also induced a slight change in the main chain structure of domain 3, which could be related to the conformational change upon binding of specific carbohydrates to induce oligomerization of the protein.

  13. Mechanistic investigation of food effect on disintegration and dissolution of BCS class III compound solid formulations: the importance of viscosity.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Asma; Amidon, Gordon L; Langguth, Peter

    2012-10-01

    A negative food effect, i.e. a decrease in bioavailability upon the co-administration of compounds together with food, has been attributed particularly with high solubility/low permeability compounds (BCS class III). Different mechanisms have been proposed including intestinal dilution leading to a lower concentration gradient across the intestinal wall as well as binding of the active pharmaceutical ingredient to food components in the intestine and thereby decreasing the fraction of the dose available for absorption. These mechanisms refer primarily to the compound and not to the dosage form. An increase in viscosity of the dissolution fluid will in particular affect the absorption of BCS type III compounds with preferential absorption in the upper small intestine if the API release is delayed from the dosage form. The present study demonstrated that the increase in viscosity of the dissolution medium, following ingestion of a solid meal, may drastically reduce disintegration and dissolution. For that purpose the viscosity of the standard FDA meal was determined and simulated by solutions of HPMC in buffer. As model formulations, three commercially available tablets containing trospium chloride, a BCS class III m-cholinoreceptor antagonist was used. Trospium chloride drug products have been described to undergo a negative food effect of more than 80% following ingestion with food. The tablets showed prolonged disintegration times and reduced dissolution rates in viscous media, which could be attributed to changes in the liquid penetration rates. The effect was particularly significant for film-coated tablets relative to uncoated dosage forms. The results show the necessity of considering media viscosity when designing in vitro models of drug release for BCS type III drug formulations.

  14. Effect of Ascorbate on the Cyanide-Scavenging Capability of Cobalt(III) meso-Tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine Pentaiodide: Deactivation by Reduction?

    PubMed

    Benz, Oscar S; Yuan, Quan; Cronican, Andrea A; Peterson, Jim; Pearce, Linda L

    2016-03-21

    The Co(III)-containing water-soluble metalloporphyrin cobalt(III) meso-tetra(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine pentaiodide (Co(III)TMPyP) is a potential cyanide-scavenging agent. The rate of reduction of Co(III)TMPyP by ascorbate is facile enough that conversion to the Co(II)-containing Co(II)TMPyP should occur within minutes at prevailing in vivo levels of the reductant. It follows that any cyanide-decorporating capability of the metalloporphyrin should depend more on the cyanide-binding characteristics of Co(II)TMPyP than those of the administered form, Co(III)TMPyP. Addition of cyanide to buffered aqueous solutions of Co(II)TMPyP (pH 7.4, 25-37 °C) results in quite rapid (k2 = ∼10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) binding/substitution of cyanide anion in the two available axial positions with high affinity (K'β = 10(10) to 10(11)). Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic measurements and cyclic voltammetry indicate that cyanide induces oxidation to the Co(III)-containing dicyano species. The constraints that these observations put on plausible mechanisms for the reaction of Co(II)TMPyP with cyanide are discussed. Experiments in which Co(III)TMPyP and cyanide were added to freshly drawn mouse blood showed the same sequence of reactions (metalloporphyrin reduction → cyanide binding/substitution → reoxidation) to occur. Therefore, in cyanide-scavenging applications with this metalloporphyrin, we should be taking advantage of both the improved rate of ligand substitution at Co(II) compared to that at Co(III) and the increased affinity of Co(III) for anionic ligands compared to that of Co(II). Finally, using an established sublethal mouse model for cyanide intoxication, Co(III)TMPyP, administered either 5 min before (prophylaxis) or 1 min after the toxicant, is shown to have very significant antidotal capability. Possible explanations for the results of a previous contradictory study, which failed to find any prophylactic effect of Co(III)TMPyP toward cyanide intoxication, are

  15. Effects of Al(III) and nano-Al13 species on malate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al(13) can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al(13) concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al(13) on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules.

  16. Effects of Al(III) and Nano-Al13 Species on Malate Dehydrogenase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al13 can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al13 concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al13 on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules. PMID:22163924

  17. Dislocation effects in FinFETs for different III-V compound semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Ji-Hyun; Jeon, Sanghun

    2016-04-01

    While Si-based devices are facing the limits of scaling, III-V materials, having high mobility, have attracted more and more attention. However, their advantages are obtained by ignoring the drawbacks of inevitably present dislocations. In this paper, we present a theoretical model that describes the degradation in carrier mobility caused by these inevitable charged dislocations in nanometer-sized, quantum-confined III-V compound semiconductor fin-shaped field effect transistors. We conclude that the Fermi-level pinning effect needs to be resolved to give carriers high enough energy (Fermi energy in the channel) to effectively ignore Coulomb scattering of charges at dislocations in a channel made by III-V compound semiconductors.

  18. Effectiveness of Urban Shelter-in-Place. III: Commercial Districts

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Wanyu R.; Chan, Wanyu R.; Nazaroff, William W.; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    2007-12-28

    In the event of a toxic chemical release to the atmosphere, shelter-in-place (SIP) is an emergency response option available to protect public health. This paper is the last in a three-part series that examines the effectiveness of SIP at reducing adverse health effects in communities. We model a hypothetical chemical release in an urban area, and consider SIP effectiveness in protecting occupants of commercial buildings. Building air infiltration rates are predicted from empirical data using an existing model. We consider the distribution of building air infiltration rates both with mechanical ventilation systems turned off and with the systems operating. We also consider the effects of chemical sorption to indoor surfaces and nonlinear chemical dose-response relationships. We find that commercial buildings provide effective shelter when ventilation systems are off, but that any delay in turning off ventilation systems can greatly reduce SIP effectiveness. Using a two-zone model, we find that there can be substantial benefit by taking shelter in the inner parts of a building that do not experience direct air exchange with the outdoors. Air infiltration rates vary substantially among buildings and this variation is important in quantifying effectiveness for emergency response. Community-wide health metrics, introduced in the previous papers in this series, can be applied in pre-event planning and to guide real-time emergency response.

  19. Ytterbocenes as one- and two-electron reductants in their reactions with diazadienes: YbIII mixed-ligand bent-sandwich complexes containing a dianion of diazabutadiene.

    PubMed

    Trifonov, Alexander A; Borovkov, Ivan A; Fedorova, Elena A; Fukin, Georgii K; Larionova, Joulia; Druzhkov, Nikolai O; Cherkasov, Vladimir K

    2007-01-01

    Ytterbocene [Yb(C(5)MeH(4))(2)(thf)(2)] reacts with diazabutadiene 2,6-iPr(2)C(6)H(3)-N=CH-CH=N-C(6)H(3)iPr(2)-2,6 (DAD) as a one-electron reductant to afford a bis(cyclopentadienyl) Yb(III) derivative containing a DAD radical anion [Yb(C(5)MeH(4))(2)(dad(-.))]. However, ytterbocenes [YbCp*(2)(thf)(2)] (Cp*=C(5)Me(5), C(5)Me(4)H) coordinated by sterically demanding cyclopentadienyl ligands act as two-electron reductants in their reactions with DAD. These reactions occur by abstraction of one Cp* ring and result in the formation of novel Yb(III) mixed-ligand bent-sandwich complexes, [YbCp*(dad)(thf)], in which the dianion of DAD has an uncommon terminal eta(4)-coordination to the ytterbium atom. The variable-temperature magnetic measurements of complex [Yb(C(5)Me(5))(dad)(thf)] suggest the existence of redox tautomerism for this compound.

  20. An aluminum selective electrode via modification of PVC membrane by modified clinoptilolite nanoparticles with hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br) surfactant containing Arsenazo III.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Mostafa; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza

    2017-05-15

    A modified PVC (polyvinyl chloride) membrane with clinoptilolite nanoparticles/hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide surfactant (HDTMABr)/Arsenazo III: (NSMZ-ARS), was used for construction of Al(III) -selective electrode. The raw and modified samples were characterized by XRD, FTIR, SEM and TEM methods. Among the different tested membranes constructed by raw and modified samples, only, the membrane electrode containing NSMZ-ARS showed a suitable Nernstian response to aluminum in the concentration range of 2.04×10(-5) to 1.99×10(-1)M (r=0.9987), with a detection limit of 1.0×10(-5)molL(-1) and a Nernstian slope of 19.6±0.5mV per decade of aluminum concentration. The electrode response to aluminum remained constant in the pH range of 2-4. The sensor was selective for aluminum over a wide variety of other ions and exhibited. The electrode had a rapid response time and its response reached to steady potential at 5s. The electrode had also satisfactory long term stability and held its activity at least 3months.

  1. Genetic heterogeneity in the apolipoprotein C-III promoter and effects of insulin.

    PubMed

    Dallinga-Thie, G M; Groenendijk, M; Blom, R N; De Bruin, T W; De Kant, E

    2001-09-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the in vivo and in vitro role of two newly identified variants (G(-)944A and A(-)1180C) located in the upstream promoter region of the apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) gene. These variants were studied in 30 probands diagnosed with FCHL, their relatives, and spouses. The allele frequencies of both variants were not different between the groups. No significant associations between plasma lipid traits and DNA variants were observed. We further analyzed the effect of the presence of these variants in the upstream enhancing region of the apoC-III gene, as five different in vivo occurring haplotypes, on the transcriptional activity of apoC-III in both HepG2 and Caco-2 cells. All five promoter constructs, including the wild type, showed similar enhancing activity of the apoC-III gene. The average transcription efficiency was enhanced 19-fold in HepG2 cells and 11-fold in Caco-2 cells. Previous studies have shown in vitro insulin-dependent down-regulation of the apoC-III gene transcription in HepG2 cells by DNA variation in an insulin response element (IRE) in the apoC-III promoter. We observed a 30% insulin-dependent down-regulation of apoC-III expression that was, however, independent of the presence of the two IRE variants. In contrast, in Caco-2 cells, a more variable insulin-dependent up-regulation was found that was also independent of the presence of the IRE variants.In conclusion, our data suggested that the apoC-III gene transcription in vitro is regulated by insulin but independent of the presence of the two IRE variants at -455 and -482. We were unable to detect associations between these apoC-III variants and plasma lipids and insulin in our FCHL population. This means that in vivo apoC-III transcription not only depends upon insulin but appears to be mediated by other mechanisms.

  2. Flare loop radiative hydrodynamics. III - Nonlocal radiative transfer effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, R. C.; Fisher, G. H.; Mcclymont, A. N.

    1983-01-01

    The study has three goals. The first is to demonstrate that processes exist whose intrinsic nonlocal nature cannot be represented by local approximations. The second is to elucidate the physical nature and origins of these nonlocal processes. The third is to suggest that the methods and results described here may prove useful in constructing semiempirical models of the chromosphere by means more efficient than trial and error. Matrices are computed that describe the effect of a temperature perturbation at an arbitrary point in the loop on density, hydrogen ionized fraction, total radiative loss rate, and radiative loss rate of selected hydrogen lines and continua at all other points. It is found that the dominant nonlocal radiative transfer effects can be separated into flux divergence coefficient effects and upper level population effects. The former are most important when the perturbation takes place in a region of significant opacity. Upper level population effects arise in both optically thick and thin regions in response to nonlocal density, ionization, and interlocking effects.

  3. Noncovalent ligand-to-ligand interactions alter sense of optical chirality in luminescent tris(β-diketonate) lanthanide(III) complexes containing a chiral bis(oxazolinyl) pyridine ligand.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Junpei; Ohno, Tomoko; Miyata, Kohei; Tsumatori, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Yasuchika; Kawai, Tsuyoshi

    2011-06-29

    Highly luminescent tris[β-diketonate (HFA, 1,1,1,5,5,5-hexafluoropentane-2,4-dione)] europium(III) complexes containing a chiral bis(oxazolinyl) pyridine (pybox) ligand--[(Eu(III)(R)-Ph-pybox)(HFA)(3)], [(Eu(III)(R)-i-Pr-pybox)(HFA)(3)], and [(Eu(III)(R)-Me-Ph-pybox)(HFA)(3)])--exhibit strong circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) at the magnetic-dipole ((5)D(0) → (7)F(1)) transition, where the [(Eu(III)(R)-Ph-pybox)(HFA)(3)] complexes show virtually opposite CPL spectra as compared to those with the same chirality of [(Eu(III)(R)-i-Pr-pybox)(HFA)(3)] and [(Eu(III)(R)-Me-Ph-pybox)(HFA)(3)]. Similarly, the [(Tb(III)(R)-Ph-pybox)(HFA)(3)] complexes were found to exhibit CPL signals almost opposite to those of [(Tb(III)(R)-i-Pr-pybox)(HFA)(3)] and [(Tb(III)(R)-Me-Ph-pybox)(HFA)(3)] complexes with the same pybox chirality. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis revealed ligand-ligand interactions between the pybox ligand and the HFA ligand in each lanthanide(III) complex: π-π stacking interactions in the Eu(III) and Tb(III) complexes with the Ph-pybox ligand, CH/F interactions in those with the i-Pr-pybox ligand, and CH/π interactions in those with the Me-Ph-pybox ligand. The ligand-ligand interactions between the achiral HFA ligands and the chiral pybox results in an asymmetric arrangement of three HFA ligands around the metal center. The metal center geometry varies depending on the types of ligand-ligand interaction.

  4. Bis(o-methylserotonin)-containing iridium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes as new cellular imaging dyes: synthesis, applications, and photophysical and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Cristina; Silva López, Carlos; Faza, Olalla Nieto; Fernández-Lodeiro, Javier; Diniz, Mario; Bastida, Rufina; Capelo, Jose Luis; Lodeiro, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and scope of a new versatile emissive molecular probe functionalized with a 1,10-phenanthroline moiety containing methylserotonin groups as binding sites for metal ion recognition. The synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the in vitro imaging capability of the iridium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes [Ir(ppy)2(N-N)](+) and [Ru(bpy)2(N-N)](2+), in which ppy is 2-phenylpyridine, bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, and N-N is a 1,10-phenanthroline ligand functionalized with two methylserotonin groups to serve as binding sites for metal ion recognition, is reported. The uptake of these compounds by living freshwater fish (Carassius auratus) was studied by fluorescence microscopy, and the cytotoxicity of ligand N-N and [Ru(bpy)2(N-N)](2+) in this species was also investigated.

  5. Moisturizing effect of stable cream containing Crocus sativus extracts.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naveed; Khan, Haji Muhammad-Shoaib; Ashraf, Shoaib; Mohammad, Imran Shair; Saqib, Najam-us; Bashir, Kamran

    2014-11-01

    The present study is about to prepare stable cream of water-in-oil emulsion containing extracts of Crocus sativus against its base (without extracts) taken as control, to determine its stability on different storage conditions and effects on skin moisture contents and transepidermal water loss. The formulation contains 3% Crocus sativus (Saffron) concentrated extracts, and the base containing no extract, were formulated. Different stability tests were done on samples, which placed at 8°C, 25°C, 40°C and 40°C with 75% relative humidity, for 4 week period. These formulations (Creams) were applied on the cheeks of human volunteers for 8week period. To evaluate any effect produced by these formulations different skin parameters were monitored every week. The significant results of this study explored the fact that water-in-oil emulsion topical cream of saffron formulated from Crocus sativus extract has absolute physical stability at different storage conditions. The increase in skin moisture contents and changes in transepidermal water loss were significant (p<0.05) with respect to base and formulation respectively. Topical cream of Crocus sativus showed significant moisturizing effects on human skin.

  6. Relaxometry, luminescence measurements, electrophoresis, and animal biodistribution of lanthanide(III) complexes of some polyaza macrocyclic acetates containing pyridine

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, W.D.; Sherry, A.D.; Kiefer, G.E.; McMillan, K.; Maton, F.; Muller, R.N.

    1995-04-12

    Four Gd{sup 3+} complexes [Gd(BP2A){sup +}, Gd(PC2A){sup +}, Gd(PCTA){sup 0}, and Gd(BPO4A){sup {minus}}] with polyazamacrocyclic ligands that contain a pyridine moiety were prepared and examined for possible use as MRI contrast enhancement agents. The authors estimated the number of inner sphere water molecules (q{sub Gd}) for the Gd{sup 3+} complexes from the values of q found for the Tb{sup 3+} and/or Eu{sup 3+} complexes by luminescence lifetime measurements. It was estimated that q{sub Gd} = 3.5, 3.3, 2.4, and 0.2 for Gd(BP2A){sup +}, Gd(PC2A){sup +}, Gd(PCTA){sup 0}, and Gd(BPO4A){sup {minus}}, respectively. The inner sphere relaxivities (r{sub 1,inner}) of these tetraaza macrocyclic complexes were higher than that of Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}} [i.e. 6.79 for Gd(BP2A){sup +}, 6.21 for Gd(PC2A){sup +}, and 4.60 for Gd(PCTA){sup 0} mM{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1} at 40 MHz and 25{degrees}C], but the normalized relaxivities per q{sub Gd} (1.94, 1.88, and 1.92 mM{sup {minus}1}s{sup {minus}1}, respectively) were comparable to that of Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}}. A quantitative treatment of the NMRD profiles based on Solomon-Bloembergen-Morgan theory, using the NMRD profile of Gd(BPO4A){sup {minus}} to correct for an outer sphere contribution, showed that the complexes exhibit characteristics similar to that of Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}} but with shorter electronic relaxation times. Tissue biodistribution results using radioactive {sup 153}Sm and {sup 159}Gd complexes in rats indicate that the cationic [{sup 153}Sm-(BP2A){sup +} and {sup 153}Sm(PC2A){sup +}] complexes accumulate preferably in the bone tissue while the neutral [{sup 153}Sm-(PCTA){sup 0}] and anionic [{sup 153}Sm(BPO4A){sup {minus}}] complexes appear to have renal clearances similar to those of other low molecular weight contrast agents [i.e. Gd(DTPA){sup 2{minus}} and Gd(DOTA){sup {minus}}].

  7. Morphometric analysis of treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction in growing Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, H. J.; Cevidanes, L. H.; Franchi, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present morphometric investigation was to evaluate the effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) in the treatment of growing patients with Class III malocclusion. The shape and size changes in the craniofacial configuration of a sample of 26 children with Class III malocclusions consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol were compared with a matched sample of 15 children with untreated Class III malocclusions. All subjects in the two groups were at a prepubertal stage of skeletal development at time of first observation. Average duration of treatment was 14 months. Significant treatment-induced modifications involved both the maxilla and the mandible. The most evident deformation consisted of marked forward displacement of the maxillary complex with more moderate favourable effects in the mandible. Deformations in the vertical dimension were not detected. The significant deformations were associated with significant differences in size in the group treated with the BAMP protocol. PMID:21187527

  8. Rapid Ti(III) reduction of perchlorate in the presence of beta-alanine: kinetics, pH effect, complex formation, and beta-alanine effect.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Huang, Zhengdao; Lippincott, Lee; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2010-03-15

    Ti(III) reduction of perchlorate might be a useful method for the treatment of highly perchlorate-contaminated water. Though the reaction rate was usually low, we observed that beta-alanine (HOOCCH(2)CH(2)NH(2)) could significantly promote the reaction. A complete (>99.9%) perchlorate removal was obtained in a solution containing [ClO(4)(-)]=1.0mM, [Ti(III)]=40 mM, and [beta-alanine]=120 mM after 2.5h of reaction under 50 degrees C. The effects of both pH and complex formation on the reaction were then studied. The results showed that without beta-alanine the optimal pH was 2.3. When pH increased from 1.6 to 2.3, the reduction rate increased remarkably. In the pH range >2.3, however, the reduction was significantly inhibited, attributed to the formation of Ti(III) precipitate. The presence of beta-alanine at a molar ratio of [beta-alanine]:[Ti(III)]=3:1 significantly increased the reduction rate of perchlorate even at near neutral pH. This is because beta-alanine formed complexes with Ti(III), which greatly improved the total soluble [Ti(III)] in the pH range between 3.5 and 6. The findings may lead to the development of rapid treatment methods for intermittent and small stream of highly perchlorate-contaminated water, which are resulted from the manufacturing, storage, handling, use and/or disposal of large quantities of perchlorate salts.

  9. Effects of terbium (III) on signaling molecules in horseradish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Zhang, Xuanbo; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-03-01

    Rare earth elements, especially terbium (Tb), are high-valence heavy metal elements that accumulate in the environment, and they show toxic effects on plants. Signaling molecules regulate many physiological and biochemical processes in plants. How rare earth elements affect signaling molecules remains largely unknown. In the present study, the effects of Tb(3+) on some extracellular and intracellular signaling molecules (gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, auxin, H2O2, and Ca(2+)) in horseradish leaves were investigated by using high-performance liquid chromatography, X-ray energy spectrometry, and transmission electron microscopy, and Tb(3+) was sprayed on the surface of leaves. Tb(3+) treatment decreased the auxin and gibberellic acid contents and increased the abscisic acid content. These changes in the contents of phytohormones (gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, and auxin) triggered excessive production of intracellular H2O2. Consequently, the increase in H2O2 content stimulated the influx of extracellular Ca(2+) and the release of Ca(2+) from Ca(2+) stores, leading to Ca(2+) overload and the resulting inhibition of physiological and biochemical processes. The effects outlined above were more evident with increasing the concentration of Tb(3+) sprayed on horseradish leaves. Our data provide a possible underlying mechanism of Tb(3+) action on plants.

  10. Hair follicles stimulation effects of gelatin nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tura, V; Hagiu, B A; Mangalagiu, I I

    2010-04-01

    In the present work we studied gelatin nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles of 14 +/- 6 nm mean diameter, prepared by electrospinning. The electrospinnable solution was obtained by drop-wise adding a AgNO3/acetic acid solution to gelatin which had previously been dissolved in a mixture of formic acid and acetic acid. The silver metallic nanoparticles were formed due to the reducing action of the formic acid. The resulted material was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Subcutaneous implants in rabbits demonstrated that the gelatin nanofibers containing silver nanoparticles were resorbed with no inflammatory reactions. An increased number of secondary hair follicles developed in tissue regions close to implants, suggesting the existence of a stimulation effect of silver nanoparticles on hair follicles.

  11. Effects of materials containing antimicrobial compounds on food hygiene.

    PubMed

    Møretrø, Trond; Langsrud, Solveig

    2011-07-01

    Surfaces with microorganisms may transfer unwanted microorganisms to food through cross-contamination during processing and preparation. A high hygienic status of surfaces that come in contact with food is important in order to reduce the risk of cross-contamination. During the last decade, products containing antimicrobial compounds, such as cutting boards, knives, countertops, kitchen utensils, refrigerators, and conveyor belts, have been introduced to the market, claiming hygienic effects. Such products are often referred to as "treated articles." Here we review various aspects related to treated articles intended for use during preparation and processing of food. Regulatory issues and methods to assess antibacterial effects are covered. Different concepts for treated articles as well as their antibacterial activity are reviewed. The effects of products with antimicrobials on food hygiene and safety are discussed.

  12. D/H isotope ratios of kerogen, bitumen, oil, and water in hydrous pyrolysis of source rocks containing kerogen types I, II, IIS, and III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schimmelmann, A.; Lewan, M.D.; Wintsch, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    Immature source rock chips containing different types of kerogen (I, II, IIS, III) were artificially matured in isotopically distinct waters by hydrous pyrolysis and by pyrolysis in supercritical water. Converging isotopic trends of inorganic (water) and organic (kerogen, bitumen, oil) hydrogen with increasing time and temperature document that water-derived hydrogen is added to or exchanged with organic hydrogen, or both, during chemical reactions that take place during thermal maturation. Isotopic mass-balance calculations show that, depending on temperature (310-381??C), time (12-144 h), and source rock type, between ca. 45 and 79% of carbon-bound hydrogen in kerogen is derived from water. Estimates for bitumen and oil range slightly lower, with oil-hydrogen being least affected by water-derived hydrogen. Comparative hydrous pyrolyses of immature source rocks at 330??C for 72 h show that hydrogen in kerogen, bitumen, and expelled oil/wax ranks from most to least isotopically influenced by water-derived hydrogen in the order IIS > II ~ III > I. Pyrolysis of source rock containing type II kerogen in supercritical water at 381 ??C for 12 h yields isotopic results that are similar to those from hydrous pyrolysis at 350??C for 72 h, or 330??C for 144 h. Bulk hydrogen in kerogen contains several percent of isotopically labile hydrogen that exchanges fast and reversibly with hydrogen in water vapor at 115??C. The isotopic equilibration of labile hydrogen in kerogen with isotopic standard water vapors significantly reduces the analytical uncertainty of D/H ratios when compared with simple D/H determination of bulk hydrogen in kerogen. If extrapolation of our results from hydrous pyrolysis is permitted to natural thermal maturation at lower temperatures, we suggest that organic D/H ratios of fossil fuels in contact with formation waters are typically altered during chemical reactions, but that D/H ratios of generated hydrocarbons are subsequently little or not affected

  13. The Effect of Microbial FE(III) Reduction on Smectite Flocculation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    smectite suspensions. The effects of pH on the clay flocculation were minimal in this study because the value of pH remained nearly constant at pH = 7.0-7.3...rather than the Fe(III) in the observations of suspended particles were made. smectite structure. The pH of the initial aqueous phase was In this...study, the microbiological factor, especially 7.3. No attempt was made to buffer the pH value during the microbial Fe(III) reduction in controlling

  14. Effectiveness of phosphate removal during anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by dosing iron(III).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiang; Wang, Jue; Chen, Bing; Wang, Yu; Liu, Jiaqi; Liu, Lubo

    2017-05-15

    Phosphate-Fe(II) precipitation induced by Fe(III) reduction during the anaerobic digestion of excess activated sludge was investigated for the removal of phosphorus and its possible recovery. The experiments were conducted with three Fe(III) sources at 35 °C and 55 °C. The results show that ferrihydrite-Fe(III) was effectively reduced during the anaerobic sludge digestion by 63% and 96% under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Whereas FeCl3-Fe(III) was only mesophilically reducible and the reduction of hematite-Fe(III) was unnoticeable at either temperature. Efficient precipitation of vivianite was not observed although high saturation index values, e.g., >14 (activity reduction not considered), had been reached. This reveals the complexity of vivianite precipitation in anaerobic digestion systems; for example, Fe(II) complexation and organic interference could not be ignored. With ferrihydrite amendments at a Fe/TP of 1.5, methane production from sludge digestion was reduced by 35.1% at 35 °C, and was unaffected when the digestion temperature went up to 55 °C. But, acidic FeCl3 severely inhibited the methane production and consequently the sludge biomass degradation.

  15. Radiation effects in Zr and Hf containing garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittle, Karl R.; Blackford, Mark G.; Smith, Katherine L.; Zaluzec, Nestor J.; Weyland, Matthew; Lumpkin, Gregory R.

    2015-07-01

    Garnets have been considered as host phases for the safe immobilisation of high-level nuclear waste, as they have been shown to accommodate a wide range of elements across three different cation sites, such as Ca, Y, Mn on the a-site, Fe, Al, U, Zr, and Ti on the b-site, and Si, Fe, Al on the c-site. Garnets, due to their ability to have variable composition, make ideal model materials for the examination of radiation damage and recovery in nuclear materials, including as potential waste forms. Kimzeyite, Ca3Zr2FeAlSiO12, has been shown naturally to contain up to 30 wt% Zr, and has previously been examined to elucidate both the structure and ordering within the lattice. This study examines the effects of radiation damage and recovery using in-situ ion beam irradiation with 1 MeV Kr ions at the IVEM-TANDEM facility, Argonne National Laboratory. The complementary Hf containing system Ca3Hf2FeAlSiO12 was also examined, and found to have a different response to irradiation damage. A sample of irradiated Ca3Zr2FeAlSiO12, at 1000 K, was characterised using aberration corrected (S)TEM and found to contain discreet, nano-sized, crystalline Fe rich particles, indicating a competing process during recovery is occurring.

  16. Cr(III) removal by a microalgal isolate, Chlorella miniata: effects of nitrate, chloride and sulfate.

    PubMed

    Han, Xu; Gong, Yu-Feng; Wong, Yuk-Shan; Tam, Nora Fung Yee

    2014-05-01

    In the present study, nitrate, chloride and sulfate anion systems were used to investigate the presence of anions on the removal of Cr(III) by Chlorella miniata. Kinetic studies suggested that the equilibrium time of Cr(III) biosorption was not affected by the presence of different sodium salts, even at the concentration of 1.0 M, and all reached equilibrium after 24 h. Equilibrium experiments showed that the effects of different anions on Cr(III) biosorption varied, and the inhibitory order was SO4 (2-) > Cl(-) > NO3 (-). Langmuir isotherm indicated that the maximum sorption capacity of C. miniata increased with the increase of pH under different anion systems. The strongest inhibition effect of the sulfate system was attributed to the formation of Cr(OH)SO4 aq. and the decrease of Cr(OH)(2+) and Cr(3+) in solution, while the difference of inhibitory effect in the other two anion systems could be accounted by the formation of the inner-sphere surface complex in the nitrate system and the outer-sphere surface complex in the chloride system. The present study suggested that the presence of anions greatly affected the removal of Cr(III) on C. miniata and thereby their transport in the environment.

  17. Dynamic effects in thin liquid films containing ionic surfactants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakashev, S. I.; Tsekov, R.; Ivanova, D. S.

    2010-03-01

    This paper is dedicated to studying dynamic effects in thin liquid films (TLF) containing ionic surfactants. The standard theory of TLF drainage has been developed without considering the electrical double layer (EDL) in the hydrodynamic equations, although EDL always exists. In addition, it has been found that this theory very well describes the drainage of TLF containing non-ionic surfactants in the presence of electrolytes. The inclusion of EDL into the hydrodynamics of TLF complicates the theory, producing additional dynamic effects during film drainage. For example, a gradient of electrostatic disjoining pressure across the film arises, thus causing non-uniform electrostatic repulsion between the film surfaces. This paper analyzes the hydrodynamics of TLF with EDL. A new equation of drainage was derived. This equation accounts for the non-uniform distribution of surface charges during the films drainage, which is coupled with non-uniform electrostatic repulsion between the film surfaces and results in faster film drainage. The theory was tested with drainage experiments on TLF with ionic surfactants. Foam films containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in the presence and in the absence of added electrolyte were studied and the experimental data compared to the theoretical predictions. The experimental results, however, disagree with the theory. For example, the kinetic equation predicted faster film drainage for foam films at low ionic strength; at high ionic strength the theory tends to wReynolds drainagew. Inversely, the experiment exhibited slower drainage than predicted by the Reynolds equation in both cases of low and high ionic strengths. Numerical simulations yielded V/VRe<1. In addition, cases of wpositivew and wnegativew velocity of film surfaces were shown. Despite the sign of the velocity the dependence V/VRe<1 remained. The analysis showed similarity between the experimental data and the prediction of the Manev-Tsekov-Radoev (MTR) drainage model at

  18. Effect of pesticides on microbial communities in container aquatic habitats.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Donthu, Ravi Kiran; Fields, Christopher J; Moise, Imelda K; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2017-03-16

    Container aquatic habitats support a specialized community of macroinvertebrates (e.g. mosquitoes) that feed on microbial communities associated with decaying organic matter. These aquatic habitats are often embedded within and around agricultural lands and are frequently exposed to pesticides. We used a microcosm approach to examine the single and combined effects of two herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate), and three insecticides (malathion, carbaryl, permethrin) on microbial communities of container aquatic habitats. MiSeq sequencing of the V4 region of both bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the microbial communities of indoor microcosms that were either exposed to each pesticide alone, a mix of herbicides, a mix of insecticides, or a mix of all five insecticides. Individual insecticides but not herbicides reduced the microbial diversity and richness and two insecticides, carbaryl and permethrin, also altered the microbial community structure. A mixture of herbicides had no effect on microbial diversity or structure but a mixture of insecticides or all five pesticides reduced microbial diversity and altered the community structure. These findings suggest that exposure of aquatic ecosystems to individual pesticides or their mixtures can disrupt aquatic microbial communities and there is need to decipher how these changes affect resident macroinvertebrate communities.

  19. Effect of pesticides on microbial communities in container aquatic habitats

    PubMed Central

    Muturi, Ephantus J.; Donthu, Ravi Kiran; Fields, Christopher J.; Moise, Imelda K.; Kim, Chang-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Container aquatic habitats support a specialized community of macroinvertebrates (e.g. mosquitoes) that feed on microbial communities associated with decaying organic matter. These aquatic habitats are often embedded within and around agricultural lands and are frequently exposed to pesticides. We used a microcosm approach to examine the single and combined effects of two herbicides (atrazine, glyphosate), and three insecticides (malathion, carbaryl, permethrin) on microbial communities of container aquatic habitats. MiSeq sequencing of the V4 region of both bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene was used to characterize the microbial communities of indoor microcosms that were either exposed to each pesticide alone, a mix of herbicides, a mix of insecticides, or a mix of all five insecticides. Individual insecticides but not herbicides reduced the microbial diversity and richness and two insecticides, carbaryl and permethrin, also altered the microbial community structure. A mixture of herbicides had no effect on microbial diversity or structure but a mixture of insecticides or all five pesticides reduced microbial diversity and altered the community structure. These findings suggest that exposure of aquatic ecosystems to individual pesticides or their mixtures can disrupt aquatic microbial communities and there is need to decipher how these changes affect resident macroinvertebrate communities. PMID:28300212

  20. Experimental and theoretical studies on the DNA-binding of cationic yttrium(III) complex containing 2,2‧-bipyridine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Akbari, Alireza; Mirkazehi-Rigi, Sohaila

    2015-03-01

    The interaction of DNA with [Y(bpy)(OH2)6]+3, where bpy is 2,2‧-bipyridine has been studied at physiological pH in Tris-HCl buffer. Fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy, agarose gel electrophoresis as well as EB quenching experiments are used to study DNA binding of the complex. The results reveal that DNA have the strong ability to bind with Y(III) complex. The binding constant, Kb and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant, KSV are determined. For characterization of the binding mode between the Y(III) complex and DNA various procedures such as: iodide quenching assay, salt effect and thermodynamical investigation are used. The results suggest that minor groove binding should be the interaction mode of complex to DNA. A gel electrophoresis assay demonstrates the ability of the complex to cleave the DNA via oxidative pathway. Electronic structure of [Y(bpy)(OH2)6]+3 was also carried out applying the density functional theory (DFT) method and applied to explain some obtained experimental observations.

  1. Size effects of nanocrystalline TiO2 on As(V) and As(III) adsorption and As(III) photooxidation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhonghou; Meng, Xiaoguang

    2009-09-15

    The physicochemical properties of TiO(2) particles in the diameter range between 6.6 and 30.1 nm and the effect of the crystalline size on arsenic adsorption and photocatalytical oxidation were investigated. TiO(2) nanoparticles of different sizes were single-phase anatase. The adsorption capacity of the TiO(2) for As(III) and As(V) increased linearly with the N(2) Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (S(BET)) of the particles. There was not much difference in the rate of As(III) photooxidation when the diameter of the TiO(2) nanoparticles was between 6.6 and 14.8 nm. However, the As(III) photooxidation rate clearly decreased when the particle size increased to 30.1 nm. Arsenite photooxidation data could be fitted with a first-order kinetics equation.

  2. Effects of friction and high torque on fatigue crack propagation in Mode III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; McClintock, F. A.; Ritchie, R. O.

    1982-12-01

    Turbo-generator and automotive shafts are often subjected to complex histories of high torques. To provide a basis for fatigue life estimation in such components, a study of fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (anti-plane shear) for a mill-annealed AISI 4140 steel (RB88, 590 MN/m2 tensile strength) has been undertaken, using torsionally-loaded, circumferentially-notched cylindrical specimens. As demonstrated previously for higher strength AISI 4340 steel, Mode III cyclic crack growth rates (dc/dN) IIIcan be related to the alternating stress intensity factor ΔKIII for conditions of small-scale yielding. However, to describe crack propagation behavior over an extended range of crack growth rates (˜10-6 to 10-2 mm per cycle), where crack growth proceeds under elastic-plastic and full plastic conditions, no correlation between (dc/dN) III and ΔKIII is possible. Accordingly, a new parameter for torsional crack growth, termed the plastic strain intensity Γ III, is introduced and is shown to provide a unique description of Mode III crack growth behavior for a wide range of testing conditions, provided a mean load reduces friction, abrasion, and interlocking between mating fracture surfaces. The latter effect is found to be dependent upon the mode of applied loading (i.e., the presence of superimposed axial loads) and the crack length and torque level. Mechanistically, high-torque surfaces were transverse, macroscopically flat, and smeared. Lower torques showed additional axial cracks (longitudinal shear cracking) perpendicular to the main transverse surface. A micro-mechanical model for the main radi l Mode III growth, based on the premise that crack advance results from Mode II coalescence of microcracks initiated at inclusions ahead of the main crack front, is extended to high nominal stress levels, and predicts that Mode III fatigue crack propagation rates should be proportional to the range of plastic strain intensity (ΔΓIII if local Mode II growth rates are

  3. Helical lanthanide(III) complexes with chiral nonaaza macrocycle.

    PubMed

    Gregoliński, Janusz; Starynowicz, Przemysław; Hua, KimNgan T; Lunkley, Jamie L; Muller, Gilles; Lisowski, Jerzy

    2008-12-31

    The chiral nonaazamacrocyclic amine L, which is a reduction product of the 3 + 3 Schiff base macrocycle, wraps around the lanthanide(III) ions to form enantiopure helical complexes. These Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Eu(III), Gd(III), Tb(III), Er(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) complexes have been isolated in enantiopure form and have been characterized by spectroscopic methods. X-ray crystal structures of the Ln(III) complexes with L show that the thermodynamic product of the complexation of the RRRRRR-isomer of the macrocycle is the (M)-helical complex in the case of Ce(III), Pr(III), Nd(III) and Eu(III). In contrast, the (P)-helical complex is the thermodynamic product in the case of Yb(III) and Lu(III). The NMR and CD spectra show that the (M)-helicity for the kinetic complexation product of the RRRRRR-isomer of the macrocycle is preferred for all investigated lanthanide(III) ions, while the preferred helicity of the thermodynamic product is (M) for the early lanthanide(III) ions and (P) for the late lanthanide(III) ions. In the case of the late lanthanide(III) ions, a slow inversion of helicity between the kinetic (M)-helical product and the thermodynamic (P)-helical product is observed in solution. For Er(III), Yb(III) and Lu(III) both forms have been isolated in pure form and characterized by NMR and CD. The analysis of 2D NMR spectra of the Lu(III) complex reveals the NOE correlations that prove that the helical structure is retained in solution. The NMR spectra also reveal large isotopic effect on the 1H NMR shifts of paramagnetic Ln(III) complexes, related to NH/ND exchange. Photophysical measurements show that L(RRRRRR) appears to favor an efficient 3pipi*-to-Ln energy transfer process taking place for Eu(III) and Tb(III), but these Eu(III)- and Tb(III)-containing complexes with L(RRRRRR) lead to small luminescent quantum yields due to an incomplete intersystem crossing (isc) transfer, a weak efficiency of the luminescence sensitization by the ligand, and

  4. Simulation of impulse effects from explosive charges containing metal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, K.; Nance, D. V.; Menon, S.

    2010-06-01

    The propagation of an explosive blast wave containing inert metal particles is investigated numerically using a robust two-phase methodology with appropriate models to account for real gas behavior, inter-phase interactions, and inter-particle collisions to study the problem of interest. A new two-phase Eulerian-Lagrangian formulation is proposed that can handle the dense nature of the flow-field. The velocity and momentum profiles of the gas and particle phases are analyzed and used to elucidate the inter-phase momentum transfer, and its effect on the impulsive aspects of heterogeneous explosive charges. The particles are found to pick up significant amounts of momentum and kinetic energy from the gas, and by virtue of their inertia, are observed to sustain it for a longer time. The impulse characteristics of heterogeneous explosives are compared with a homogeneous explosive containing the same amount of high explosive, and it is observed that the addition of solid particles augments the impulsive loading significantly in the near-field, and to a smaller extent in the far-field. The total impulsive loading is found to be insensitive to the particle size added to the explosive charge above a certain cut-off radius, but the individual impulse components are found to be sensitive, and particles smaller than this cut-off size deliver about 8% higher total impulse than the larger ones. Overall, this study provides crucial insights to understand the impulsive loading characteristics of heterogeneous explosives.

  5. Effects of diaphragm discharge in water solutions containing humic substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halamova, Ivana; Stara, Zdenka; Krcma, Frantisek

    2010-01-01

    Preliminary results of research focused on the applications of DC diaphragm discharge in water solutions containing humic substances are presented in this paper. Diaphragm discharge investigated by this work was created in the reactor using constant DC high voltage up to 2 kV that gave the total input power from 100 to 200 W. Presented work investigated decomposition of humic substances by the electric discharge in the dependence of discharge conditions (electrode polarity) as well as solution properties (electrolyte kind, pH). Especially substantial effect of pH on humic acid decomposition has been observed when acidic conditions stimulated the degradation process. Absorption spectroscopy in UV-VIS region together with fluorescence spectroscopy has been used for the detection of changes in humic solutions. Index of humification was calculated from obtained fluorescence spectra and a significant decrease of aromatic components in the humic mixture was determined during the discharge treatment.

  6. The first examples of multiply bonded dirhenium(iii,ii) paramagnetic complexes containing nitrobenzoate ligands: spectroscopic, structural, cytotoxicity and computational studies.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Suman; Ghosh, Mrinal Kanti; Mandal, Suman; Rane, Vinayak; Kadam, Ramakant; Chatterjee, Annesha; Bhattacharyya, Arindam; Chattopadhyay, Swarup

    2017-02-09

    4-Nitrobenzoic acid, 3-nitrobenzoic acid and 4'-nitro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylic acid react with the multiply bonded paramagnetic dirhenium(iii,ii) complex Re2(μ-O2CCH3)Cl4(μ-Ph2PCH2PPh2)2 (1) in refluxing ethanol to afford the paramagnetic substitution products of the type Re2(μ-L)Cl4(μ-Ph2PCH2PPh2)2, where L represents the nitrobenzoate ligands [L = 4-nitrobenzoate, 2; 3-nitrobenzoate, 3; 4'-nitro[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-carboxylate, 4]. These are the first examples of paramagnetic dirhenium complexes containing nitrobenzoate ligands. The spectral (UV-vis, IR, and EPR) and electrochemical properties of the complexes are described. The identity of 4 has been established by single-crystal X-ray structure determination (Re-Re distance of 2.2967(4) Å). The electronic structures of the complexes were scrutinized by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. X-band EPR spectral measurements along with the DFT analysis show that the unpaired electron resides in the metal-metal δ* antibonding orbital. The complexes were also screened in vitro for their antiproliferative properties against the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 by the MTT assay. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the complexes arrested the sub-G0/G1 phase.

  7. The Effect of Chin-cup Therapy in Class III Malocclusion: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mousoulea, Sophia; Tsolakis, Ioannis; Ferdianakis, Efstratios; Tsolakis, Apostolos I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The treatment of Class III malocclusion has been challenging for orthodontists. Among a plethora of treatment modalities, the chin-cup is considered a traditional appliance for early orthopedic intervention. Objective: The present study aims to investigate the current scientific evidence regarding the effectiveness of chin-cup therapy in Class III malocclusion of prognathic growing patients. Method: A systematic review of the literature was conducted using PubMed/Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from January 1954 to October 2015. Articles were selected based on established inclusion/ exclusion criteria. Results: The search strategy resulted in 3285 articles.14 studies were selected for the final analysis. They were all CCTs, 13 of retrospective and 1 of prospective design. Methodological quality was evaluated by a risk of bias assessment, as suggested by the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-Randomized Studies on Interventions. The reported evidence presented favorable short-term outcomes both in hard and soft tissues improving the Class III profile, as well as desirable dento-alveolar changes, positively affecting the Class III malocclusion. Conclusion: There is considerable agreement between studies that chin-cup therapy can be considered for the short-term treatment of growing patients with Class III malocclusion, as indicated by favorable changes both in the hard and soft tissues. The existence of considerable risk of bias in all selected studies and the unclear long-term effectiveness of chin-cup therapy highlight the need for further investigation to draw reliable conclusions. PMID:28077971

  8. Effects of Water in Canisters Containing DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    P. A. Lessing

    1998-10-01

    This document is a starting analysis in an attempt to quantify the potential of problems resulting from the presence of condensed water and water vapor in sealed storage canisters containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Of the 55 spent fuel types, it was determined that only three types required study to evaluate the effects of water, these types were represented by: (1) zirconium clad N-Reactor fuel, (2) aluminum clad Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) or Materials Test Reactor (MTR) fuel, (3) damaged and/or melted zirconium clad Three Mile Island (TMI) fuel. The spent fuel types were briefly described and potential problems were generalized into four catagories: (1) effects of water and the source(s) of that water, (2) effects of hydrogen generated from water, (3) pyrophoricity of uranium hydride, (4) swelling or cavitation. An extensive literature search was conducted, chemical reactions considered, and simple pressurization sensitivity calculations performed. Using the available information, conclusions were drawn and issues identified that need further consideration or analysis.

  9. Quantum cascade emission in the III-nitride material system designed with effective interface grading

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Alex Y. Huang, Tzu-Yung; Zah, Chung-En; Gmachl, Claire F.; Bhat, Rajaram; Wang, Jie; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-09-28

    We report the realization of quantum cascade (QC) light emission in the III-nitride material system, designed with effective interface grading (EIG). EIG induces a continuous transition between wells and barriers in the quantum confinement, which alters the eigenstate system and even delocalizes the states with higher energy. Fully transverse-magnetic spontaneous emission is observed from the fabricated III-nitride QC structure, with a center wavelength of ∼4.9 μm and a full width at half maximum of ∼110 meV, both in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. A multi-peak photo-response spectrum is also measured from the QC structure, which again agrees well with theoretical calculations and verifies the effects of EIG.

  10. Assessment of the transition strip effect in the transonic flow over the sounding rocket Sonda III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcão Filho, J. B. P.; Reis, M. L. C. C.; Francisco, C. P. F.; Silva, L. M.

    2016-11-01

    Measurements of normalized pressure distribution are carried out over a 1:8 scale half-model of the Sonda III sounding rocket. The objective is to analyze the effect of the implementation of transition devices on the flow over the vehicle. Measurements show that the presence of the transition devices affect pressure distributions in different Mach numbers around the inter-stage region of Sonda III depending on its location and independently of the turbulent transition method employed. The study of these effects plays a significant role for future developments, since transition phenomena and the modification of the boundary layer behaviour due to the expansion can alter the load distributions and the turbulent structures of the flow. Furthermore, the experimental verification of such phenomena is crucial for the correct implementation of computational fluid dynamics calculations, as they might be able to capture the correct flow behaviour in these regions.

  11. EffectiveDB—updates and novel features for a better annotation of bacterial secreted proteins and Type III, IV, VI secretion systems

    PubMed Central

    Eichinger, Valerie; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Platzer, Alexander; Jehl, Marc-André; Arnold, Roland; Rattei, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Protein secretion systems play a key role in the interaction of bacteria and hosts. EffectiveDB (http://effectivedb.org) contains pre-calculated predictions of bacterial secreted proteins and of intact secretion systems. Here we describe a major update of the database, which was previously featured in the NAR Database Issue. EffectiveDB bundles various tools to recognize Type III secretion signals, conserved binding sites of Type III chaperones, Type IV secretion peptides, eukaryotic-like domains and subcellular targeting signals in the host. Beyond the analysis of arbitrary protein sequence collections, the new release of EffectiveDB also provides a ‘genome-mode’, in which protein sequences from nearly complete genomes or metagenomic bins can be screened for the presence of three important secretion systems (Type III, IV, VI). EffectiveDB contains pre-calculated predictions for currently 1677 bacterial genomes from the EggNOG 4.0 database and for additional bacterial genomes from NCBI RefSeq. The new, user-friendly and informative web portal offers a submission tool for running the EffectiveDB prediction tools on user-provided data. PMID:26590402

  12. Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Vijayakumar, M.

    2014-07-03

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the interface between graphene and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BMIM OTf) were carried out to gain molecular-level insights into the performance of graphene-based supercapacitors and, in particular, determine the effects of the presence of oxygen-containing defects at the graphene surface on their integral capacitance. The MD simulations predict that increasing the surface coverage of hydroxyl groups negatively affects the integral capacitance, whereas the effect of the presence of epoxy groups is much less significant. The calculated variations in capacitance are found to be directly correlated to the interfacial structure. Indeed, hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups and SO3 anion moieties prevents BMIM+ and OTf- molecules from interacting favorably in the dense interfacial layer and restrains the orientation and mobility of OTf- ions, thereby reducing the permittivity of the ionic liquid at the interface. The results of the molecular simulations can facilitate the rational design of electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  13. Gd(III) complexes for electron-electron dipolar spectroscopy: Effects of deuteration, pH and zero field splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbuio, Luca; Zimmermann, Kaspar; Häussinger, Daniel; Yulikov, Maxim

    2015-10-01

    Spectral parameters of Gd(III) complexes are intimately linked to the performance of the Gd(III)-nitroxide or Gd(III)-Gd(III) double electron-electron resonance (DEER or PELDOR) techniques, as well as to that of relaxation induced dipolar modulation enhancement (RIDME) spectroscopy with Gd(III) ions. These techniques are of interest for applications in structural biology, since they can selectively detect site-to-site distances in biomolecules or biomolecular complexes in the nanometer range. Here we report relaxation properties, echo detected EPR spectra, as well as the magnitude of the echo reduction effect in Gd(III)-nitroxide DEER for a series of Gadolinium(III) complexes with chelating agents derived from tetraazacyclododecane. We observed that solvent deuteration does not only lengthen the relaxation times of Gd(III) centers but also weakens the DEER echo reduction effect. Both of these phenomena lead to an improved signal-to-noise ratios or, alternatively, longer accessible distance range in pulse EPR measurements. The presented data enrich the knowledge on paramagnetic Gd(III) chelate complexes in frozen solutions, and can help optimize the experimental conditions for most types of the pulse measurements of the electron-electron dipolar interactions.

  14. The effect of lanthanum(III) and cerium(III) ions between layers of manganese oxide on water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Isaloo, Mohsen Abbasi; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Shen, Jian-Ren; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman

    2015-12-01

    Manganese oxide structure with lanthanum(III) or cerium(III) ions between the layers was synthesized by a simple method. The ratio of Mn to Ce or La in samples was 0.00, 0.04, 0.08, 0.16, 0.32, 0.5, 0.82, or 1.62. The compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The compounds show efficient catalytic activity of water oxidation in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate with a turnover frequency of 1.6 mmol O2/mol Mn.s. In contrast to the water-oxidizing complex in Photosystem II, calcium(II) has no specific role to enhance the water-oxidizing activity of the layered manganese oxides and other cations can be replaced without any significant decrease in water-oxidizing activities of these layered Mn oxides. Based on this and previously reported results from oxygen evolution in the presence of H 2 (18) O, we discuss the mechanism and the important factors influencing the water-oxidizing activities of the manganese oxides.

  15. 75 FR 11530 - Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status March 4, 2010. Docket Nos. Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC EG10-6-000 GardenGarden Wind, LLC EG10-7-000 Star Point Wind Project LLC EG10-8-000 Nacogdoches Power, LLC EG10-9-000...

  16. The rates of exchange of water molecules from Al(III)-methylmalonate complexes: The effect of chelate ring size

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, W.H.; Phillips, B.L.; Nordin, J.P.; Sullivan, D.J.

    1998-08-01

    Rate coefficients are reported for exchange of hydration waters in the inner-coordination-sphere of Al(III)-methylmalonate complexes with bulk solution as determined via {sup 17}O-NMR. Surprisingly, water molecules in the thermodynamically less-stable complexes containing six-membered chelates are much more labile than those in five-membered oxalate-A(III) complexes. The surprising trend in reactivity is attributable either to differences in the Lewis basicities of oxygens in bidentate oxalate and methylmalonate ligands, or to rapid dissociation/reassociation of one of the acetate groups to the metal center. These results identify a useful case where trends in the apparent labilities of dissolved and presumed surface complexes deviate sharply. This deviation could be usefully exploited to probe surfaces if ligand-promoted dissolution rates could be compared at conditions where inner-sphere and outer-sphere chelate complexes could be distinguished spectroscopically. The authors expect inner-sphere oxalate to have a smaller labilizing effect than malonate or methylmalonate. A contrary result would indicate structural dissimilarity between complexes on the surface and in solution, or perhaps steric hindrance.

  17. Effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Kavouras, Stavros A; Koutsari, Christina; Georgakakis, Charalambos; Skenderi, Katerina; Beer, Michael; Sidossis, Labros S

    2004-12-01

    This study examined the effect of maltose-containing sports drinks on exercise performance. Ten subjects completed 4 trials. Each trial consisted of a glycogen depletion protocol, followed by a 15-min refueling, after which subjects performed an 1-h performance test while consuming one of the experimental drinks (HGlu, glucose; HMal, maltose; MalMix, sucrose, maltose, and maltodextrin; Plac, placebo). Drinks provided 0.65 g/kg body weight carbohydrates during refueling and 0.2 g/kg every 15 min during the performance test. Although no significant differences were found in performance (HGlu: 67.2 +/- 2.0; HMal: 68.6 +/- 1.7; MalMix: 66.7 +/- 2.0; Plac: 69.4 +/- 3.0 min, P> 0.05), subjects completed the MalMix trial 3.9%; faster than the Plac. Carbohydrate drinks caused comparable plasma glucose values that were significantly higher during refueling and at the end of exercise, compared to Plac. The data suggest that although carbohydrate drinks help to maintain plasma glucose at a higher level, no differences in performance could be detected after glycogen-depleting exercise.

  18. Component effects on crystallization of RE-containing aluminoborosilicate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Fadzil, Syazwani; Hrma, Pavel; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.

    2016-09-01

    Lanthanide-aluminoborosilicate (LABS) glass is one option for immobilizing rare earth (RE) oxide fission products generated during reprocessing of pyroprocessed fuel. This glass system can accommodate a high loading of RE oxides and has excellent chemical durability. The present study describes efforts to model equilibrium crystallinity as a function of glass composition and temperature as well as liquidus temperature (TL) as a function of glass composition. The experimental method for determining TL was ASTM C1720-11. Typically, three crystalline phases were formed in each glass: Ce-borosilicate (Ce3BSi2O10), mullite (Al10Si2O19), and corundum (Al2O3). Cerianite (CeO2) was a common minor crystalline phase and Nd-silicate (Nd2Si2O7) occurred in some of the glasses. In the composition region studied, TL decreased as SiO2 and B2O3 fractions increased and strongly increased with increasing fractions of RE oxides; Al2O3 had a moderate effect on the TL but, as expected, it strongly affected the precipitation of Al-containing crystals.

  19. Synthesis and luminescence properties of polymeric complexes of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Al(III) with 8-hydroxyquinoline side group-containing polystyrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Baojiao; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Three kinds of metalloquinolate-containing polystyrene were prepared via a polymer reaction and a coordination reaction. 5-Chloromethyl-8-hydroxyquinoline (CHQ) was first prepared through the chloromethylation reaction of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ) with 1,4-bichloromethoxy-butane as chloromethylation reagent. A polymer reaction, Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction, was carried out between polystyrene (PS) and CHQ in the presence of Lewis catalyst, and HQ was bonded onto the side chains of PS, obtaining 8-hydroxyquinoline-functionalized Polystyrene, HQ-PS. And then, by using one-pot method with two-stage procedures, the coordination reaction of HQ-PS and small molecule HQ with metal ions including Al(III), Zn(II) and Cu(II) ions, was allowed to be carried out, and three polymeric metalloquinolates, AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, were successfully prepared, respectively. In the chemical structures of these polymeric metalloquinolates, metalloquinolates were chemically attached onto the side chains of PS. HQ-PS and three polymeric metalloquinolates were fully characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR and TGA. The luminescence properties of the three polymeric metalloquinolates were mainly investigated by UV/Vis absorption spectra and fluorescence emission spectra in solutions and in solid film states. When excited by the ray at about 365 nm, the three polymeric metalloquinolates have blue-green luminescence, and the main emission peaks in the DMF solutions are located at 490, 482 and 502 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. As compared with their emissions in solutions, the emissions in solid film states are red-shifted to some extent, and the main emission peaks are located at 500, 488 and 510 nm for AlQ3-PS, ZnQ2-PS and CuQ2-PS, respectively. Besides, these polymeric metalloquinolates have higher thermal stability than PS as polymeric skeleton.

  20. Different Arsenate and Phosphate Incorporation Effects on the Nucleation and Growth of Iron(III) (Hydr)oxides on Quartz

    SciTech Connect

    Neil, Chelsea W.; Lee, Byeongdu; Jun, Young-Shin

    2014-10-21

    Iron(III) (hydr)oxides play an important role in the geochemical cycling of contaminants in natural and engineered aquatic systems. The ability of iron(III) (hydr)oxides to immobilize contaminants can be related to whether the precipitates form heterogeneously (e.g., at mineral surfaces) or homogeneously in solution. Utilizing grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS), we studied heterogeneous iron(III) (hydr)oxide nucleation and growth on quartz substrates for systems containing arsenate and phosphate anions. For the iron(III) only system, the radius of gyration ( R g ) of heterogeneously formed precipitates grew from 1.5 to 2.5 ( ± 1.0) nm within 1 h. For the system containing 10-5 M arsenate, R g grew from 3.6 to 6.1 ( ± 0.5) nm, and for the system containing 10-5 M phosphate, R g grew from 2.0 to 4.0 ( ± 0.2) nm. While the systems containing these oxyanions had more growth, the system containing only iron(III) had the most nucleation events on substrates. Ex situ analyses of homogeneously and heterogeneously formed precipitates indicated that precipitates in the arsenate system had the highest water content and that oxyanions may bridge iron(III) hydroxide polymeric embryos to form a structure similar to ferric arsenate or ferric phosphate. These new fi ndings are important because di ff erences in nucleation and growth rates and particle sizes will impact the number of available reactive sites and the reactivity of newly formed particles toward aqueous contaminants.

  1. The effect of organic compounds in the oxidation kinetics of Cr(III) by H 2O 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettine, Maurizio; Gennari, Francesca; Campanella, Luigi; Millero, Frank J.

    2008-12-01

    The oxidation of Cr(III) has been studied in NaCl solutions in the presence of two siderophore models, acetohydroxamic acid (Aha) and benzohydroxamic acid (Bha), the natural siderophore Desferal (DFOB) and the synthetic aminocarboxilate (ethylenedinitrilo)-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) as a function of pH (8-9), ionic strength (0.01-2 M) and temperature (10-50 °C), at different Cr(III)-organic compound ratios. The addition of Aha and Bha caused the rates to increase at low ligand/Cr(III) ratios and decrease at high ratios. The variation of the pseudo first order rate constant ( k1) as a function of the ligand concentration has been attributed to the formation of three Cr(III)-organo species (1:1, 1:2, 1:3), which can form in the presence of monohydroxamic acids. A kinetic model has been developed that gives a value of 600 (min -1) for the pseudo first order rate constant k and values approaching zero for k and k. These kinetic results demonstrate that these monohydroxamic acids are able to bind with Cr(III) under experimental conditions that may occur in natural waters and can increase the oxidation rates of Cr(III) with H 2O 2 by a factor of 3.5 at an Aha/Cr(III) ratio of about 50-100. The monohydroxamic acids also affect the rates on aged products of Cr(III), suggesting that these ligands are able to affect the oxidation rates by releasing reactive Cr(III). DFOB and EDTA do not have a great effect on the oxidation of Cr(III) with H 2O 2. This is thought to be due to the much longer times they need to form complexes with Cr(III) compared to Aha and Bha. The rates for the formation of DFOB and EDTA complexes with Cr(III) are not competitive with the rates of the formation of aged Cr(III). After allowing Cr(III) and DFOB to react for 5 days to form the complex, reaction rates of Cr(III) with H 2O 2 appear to be lowered probably because of steric hindrance of the chelated Cr(III).

  2. Differential effects of Heparitinase I and Heparitinase III on endothelial tube formation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Karthik; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2010-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play vital roles in many steps of angiogenesis under physiological and pathological conditions. HSPGs on endothelial cell surfaces act as coreceptors for a variety of pro-angiogenic growth factors such as FGF and VEGF and anti-angiogenic factors such as endostatin. However, the fine structural requirements of these binding interactions are dependent on the sulfation patterns of HSPGs. Previous studies have shown that Heparitinases, heparin lyases isolated from flavobacterium heparinum, can cleave heparan sulfate chains. These enzymes have been shown to reduce tumor—derived neovascularization in vivo in mice. However, the results from these experiments could not conclusively pinpoint the origin of the HS fragments. Thus, in this study we utilized an in vitro assay to assess the differential effects of Heparitinase I (Hep I) and Heparitinase III (Hep III) on endothelial tube formation. Hep III was found to be a more potent inhibitor of tube formation than Hep I. In conclusion, differential cleavage of endothelial cell surface bound HS can affect the extent of inhibition of tube formation. PMID:20599743

  3. The effects of two methods of Class III malocclusion treatment on temporomandibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Hanefi; Alioğlu, Ceylan; Karayazgan, Banu; Tuncer, Necat; Kılıçoğlu, Hülya

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate, within a controlled clinical study, the effects of a Delaire-type facemask or a modified Jasper Jumper (JJ) used in the treatment of children with Class III malocclusions due to maxillary retrognathia on temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Forty-six patients with Class III malocclusions referred for orthodontic treatment were divided into two groups, a test and a control. The test group comprised 33 randomly chosen patients (15 females, 18 males) aged 8-11 years. The control group included 13 patients (eight females, five males) with similar features. TMD assessment was performed before and after treatment using a two-axis questionnaire, the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMDs). Qualitative data were evaluated using chi-square and McNemar tests. No statistically significant differences related to the presence of TMD were observed pre- or post-treatment (P > 0.05). The most commonly encountered diagnosis was arthralgia in the JJ group both before and after treatment. Evaluation of joint and muscle regions showed decreased symptoms, apart from the diagnosed discomforts, in the JJ group (P < 0.05). Reduced symptoms were observed in the Delaire group; however, this reduction was not statistically significant. An increase, not considered to be statistically significant, was observed in the control group. The Delaire-type facemask and modified JJ used in the early phase of Class III malocclusion treatment did not result in TMD.

  4. Anoxic and Oxic Oxidation of Rocks Containing Fe(II)Mg-Silicates and Fe(II)-Monosulfides as Source of Fe(III)-Minerals and Hydrogen. Geobiotropy.

    PubMed

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2017-03-31

    In this article, anoxic and oxic hydrolyses of rocks containing Fe (II) Mg-silicates and Fe (II)-monosulfides are analyzed at 25 °C and 250-350 °C. A table of the products is drawn. It is shown that magnetite and hydrogen can be produced during low-temperature (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous silicates and during high-temperature (250 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous monosulfides. The high-T (350 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous silicates leads mainly to ferric oxides/hydroxides such as the hydroxide ferric trihydroxide, the oxide hydroxide goethite/lepidocrocite and the oxide hematite, and to Fe(III)-phyllosilicates. Magnetite is not a primary product. While the low-T (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous monosulfides leads to pyrite. Thermodynamic functions are calculated for elementary reactions of hydrolysis and carbonation of olivine and pyroxene and E-pH diagrams are analyzed. It is shown that the hydrolysis of the iron endmember is endothermic and can proceed within the exothermic hydrolysis of the magnesium endmember and also within the exothermic reactions of carbonations. The distinction between three products of the iron hydrolysis, magnetite, goethite and hematite is determined with E-pH diagrams. The hydrolysis/oxidation of the sulfides mackinawite/troilite/pyrrhotite is highly endothermic but can proceed within the heat produced by the exothermic hydrolyses and carbonations of ferromagnesian silicates and also by other sources such as magma, hydrothermal sources, impacts. These theoretical results are confirmed by the products observed in several related laboratory experiments. The case of radiolyzed water is studied. It is shown that magnetite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite and hematite are formed in oxic hydrolysis of ferromagnesian silicates at 25 °C and 350 °C. Oxic oxidation of ferrous monosulfides at 25 °C leads mainly to pyrite and ferric oxides

  5. Anoxic and Oxic Oxidation of Rocks Containing Fe(II)Mg-Silicates and Fe(II)-Monosulfides as Source of Fe(III)-Minerals and Hydrogen. Geobiotropy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassez, Marie-Paule

    2017-03-01

    In this article, anoxic and oxic hydrolyses of rocks containing Fe (II) Mg-silicates and Fe (II)-monosulfides are analyzed at 25 °C and 250-350 °C. A table of the products is drawn. It is shown that magnetite and hydrogen can be produced during low-temperature (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous silicates and during high-temperature (250 °C) anoxic hydrolysis/oxidation of ferrous monosulfides. The high-T (350 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous silicates leads mainly to ferric oxides/hydroxides such as the hydroxide ferric trihydroxide, the oxide hydroxide goethite/lepidocrocite and the oxide hematite, and to Fe(III)-phyllosilicates. Magnetite is not a primary product. While the low-T (25 °C) anoxic hydrolysis of ferrous monosulfides leads to pyrite. Thermodynamic functions are calculated for elementary reactions of hydrolysis and carbonation of olivine and pyroxene and E-pH diagrams are analyzed. It is shown that the hydrolysis of the iron endmember is endothermic and can proceed within the exothermic hydrolysis of the magnesium endmember and also within the exothermic reactions of carbonations. The distinction between three products of the iron hydrolysis, magnetite, goethite and hematite is determined with E-pH diagrams. The hydrolysis/oxidation of the sulfides mackinawite/troilite/pyrrhotite is highly endothermic but can proceed within the heat produced by the exothermic hydrolyses and carbonations of ferromagnesian silicates and also by other sources such as magma, hydrothermal sources, impacts. These theoretical results are confirmed by the products observed in several related laboratory experiments. The case of radiolyzed water is studied. It is shown that magnetite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as ferric trihydroxide, goethite/lepidocrocite and hematite are formed in oxic hydrolysis of ferromagnesian silicates at 25 °C and 350 °C. Oxic oxidation of ferrous monosulfides at 25 °C leads mainly to pyrite and ferric oxides/hydroxides such as

  6. Non-linear Effects Associated with Solar Type III Radio Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thejappa, G.; MacDowall, R. J.

    2014-05-01

    Some of the Langmuir wave packets and associated density cavities observed by the STEREO spacecraft in the source regions of solar type III radio bursts indicate that they probably correspond to collapsing envelope soliton-caviton pairs. We present the observations of one of such wave packets, whose spectrum contains harmonic peaks at fpe, 2fpe and 3fpe (fpe is the electron plasma frequency). We show that frequencies, wave numbers and phases of the waves corresponding to these spectral peaks satisfy the resonance conditions of three wave interactions: L1+L2→T2fpe and L+T2fpe→T3fpe, where L1, L2 and L correspond to Langmuir waves, and T2fpe and T3fpe correspond to second and third harmonic electromagnetic waves, respectively.

  7. Overview of the effect of Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on the natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect

    Child, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    The regulation of hazardous air pollutants by Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has a potential wide-ranging impact for the natural gas industry. Title III includes a list of 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) which are targeted for reduction. Under Title III, HAP emissions from major sources will be reduced by the implementation of maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. If the source is defined as a major source, it must also comply with Title V (operating permit) and Title VII (enhanced monitoring) requirements. This presentation will review Title III`s effect on the natural gas industry by discussing the regulatory requirements and schedules associated with MACT as well as the control technology options available for affected sources.

  8. Combined effects of Lanthanum(III) and elevated Ultraviolet-B radiation on root nitrogen nutrient in soybean seedlings.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guangrong; Wang, Lihong; Sun, Zhaoguo; Li, Xiaodong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Rare earth element pollution and elevated ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation occur simultaneously in some regions, but the combined effects of these two factors on plants have not attracted enough attention. Nitrogen nutrient is vital to plant growth. In this study, the combined effects of lanthanum(III) and elevated UV-B radiation on nitrate reduction and ammonia assimilation in soybean (Glycine max L.) roots were investigated. Treatment with 0.08 mmol L(-1) La(III) did not change the effects of elevated UV-B radiation on nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), glutamine synthetase (GS), glutamate synthase (GOGAT), glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH), nitrate, ammonium, amino acids, or soluble protein in the roots. Treatment with 0.24 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation synergistically decreased the NR, NiR, GS, and GOGAT activities as well as the nitrate, amino acid, and soluble protein levels, except for the GDH activity and ammonium content. Combined treatment with 1.20 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation produced severely deleterious effects on all test indices, and these effects were stronger than those induced by La(III) or elevated UV-B radiation treatment alone. Following the withdrawal of La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation, all test indices for the combined treatments with 0.08/0.24 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation recovered to a certain extent, but they could not recover for treatments with 1.20 mmol L(-1) La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation. In summary, combined treatment with La(III) and elevated UV-B radiation seriously affected nitrogen nutrition in soybean roots through the inhibition of nitrate reduction and ammonia assimilation.

  9. Virus-induced gene silencing of RPC5-like subunit of RNA polymerase III caused pleiotropic effects in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In eukaryotic cells, RNA polymerase III is highly conserved, contains 17 subunits and transcribes housekeeping genes such as ribosomal 50S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. Functional roles of the RPC5 are poorly characterized in the literature. In this work, we report that virus-induced gene silenci...

  10. Single-molecule magnet behavior in heterometallic M(II)-Mn(III)(2)-M(II) tetramers (M(II) = Cu, Ni) containing Mn(III) salen-type dinuclear core.

    PubMed

    Kachi-Terajima, Chihiro; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Ayumi; Shirakawa, Naoki; Yamashita, Masahiro; Clérac, Rodolphe

    2007-07-23

    The linear-type heterometallic tetramers, [Mn(III)(2)(5-MeOsaltmen)(2)M(II)(2)(L)(2)](CF(3)SO(3))(2) x 2H(2)O (MII = Cu, 1a; Ni, 2a), where 5-MeOsaltmen(2-) = N,N'-(1,1,2,2-tetramethylethylene) bis(5-methoxysalicylideneiminate), and H(2)L = 3-{2-[(2-hydroxy-benzylidene)-amino]-2-methyl-propylimino}-butan-2-one oxime, have been synthesized and characterized from structural and magnetic points of view. These two compounds are isostructural and crystallize in the same monoclinic P2(1)/n space group. The structure has a [M(II)-NO-Mn(III)-(O)(2)-Mn(III)-ON-M(II)] skeleton, where -NO- is a linking oximato group derived from the non-symmetrical Schiff-base complex [M(II)(L)] and -(O)(2)- is a biphenolato bridge in the out-of-plane [Mn(2)(5-MeOsaltmen)(2)](2+) dimer. The solvent-free compounds, 1b and 2b, have also been prepared by drying of the parent compounds, 1a and 2a, respectively, at 100 degrees C under dried nitrogen. After this treatment, the crystallinity is preserved, and 1b and 2b crystallize in a monoclinic P2(1)/c space group without significant changes in their structures in comparison to 1a and 2a. Magnetic measurements on 1a and 1b revealed antiferromagnetic Mn(III)---Cu(II) interactions via the oximato group and weak ferromagnetic Mn(III)---Mn(III) interactions via the biphenolato bridge leading to an S(T) = 3 ground state. On the other hand, the diamagnetic nature of the square planar Ni(II) center generates an S(T) = 4 ground state for 2a and 2b. At low temperature, these solvated (a) and desolvated (b) compounds display single-molecule magnet behavior modulated by their spin ground state.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, and stereochemistry of S-bridged Co(III)MCo(III)(M = Pd(II), Pt(II)) trinuclear complexes containing two non-bridging thiolato groups: building blocks for the construction of chiral heterometallic aggregates.

    PubMed

    Chikamoto, Yu; Hirotsu, Masakazu; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Yoshimura, Takashi; Konno, Takumi

    2004-11-07

    The reaction of fac(S)-[Co(aet)(3)](aet = aminoethanethiolate) with [PdCl(4)](2-) in a 2:1 ratio in water gave an S-bridged Co(III)Pd(II)Co(III) trinuclear complex composed of two mer(S)-[Co(aet)(3)] units, [Pd[Co(aet)(3)](2)](2+)([1](2+)). In [1](2+), each of the two mer(S)-[Co(aet)(3)] units is bound to a square-planar Pd(II) ion through two of three thiolato groups, leaving two non-bridging thiolato groups at the terminal. Of two geometrical forms, syn and anti, possible for [Pd[Co(aet)(3)](2)](2+), which arise from the difference in arrangement of two terminal non-bridging thiolato groups, [1](2+) afforded only the syn form. A similar reaction of fac(S)-[Co(aet)(3)] with [PtCl(4)](2-) or trans-[PtCl(2)(NH(3))(2)] produced an analogous Co(III)Pt(II)Co(III) trinuclear complex, [Pt[Co(aet)(3)](2)](2+)([2](2+)), but both the syn and anti forms were formed for [2](2+). Complexes [1](2+) and syn- and anti-[2](2+), which exclusively exist as a racemic(DeltaDelta/LambdaLambda) form, were successfully optically resolved with use of [Sb(2)(R,R-tartrato)(2)](2-) as the resolving agent. The reaction of syn-[2](2+) with [AuCl[S(CH(2)CH(2)OH)(2)

  12. [Effect of low concentration of asbestos-containing dust].

    PubMed

    Kogan, F M; Kashanskiĭ, S V; Plotko, E G; Berzin, S A; Bogdanov, G B

    1993-01-01

    Dust, particularly fibrous, in atmosphere of Asbest town was characterized. Pulmonary cancer mortality in Asbest town and towns of nearby area were compared and no significant difference was found. Overall pulmonary cancer mortality was higher in the region than in Asbest. Obtained data served as a basis for discussion on the action threshold of asbestos-containing dust. MAC for asbestos fibers in atmosphere is reported to be 0.06 respirable fibers per ml.

  13. Strain effect in group-III nitride semiconductors and their alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qimin; Rinke, Patrick; Scheffler, Matthias; van de Walle, Chris

    2009-11-01

    Strain plays a crucial role in group-III nitride semiconductor based devices since it affects the band structure near the valence- and conduction-band edges and thus the optical properties and the device characteristics. However, the deformation potentials that describe the change in band structure under strain have not yet been reliably determined. We present a systematic study of the strain effects in AlN, GaN and InN in the wurtzite phase. We apply density functional theory and hybrid functionals to address the band-gap problem. We observe nonlinearities of transition energies under realistic strain condition that may, in part, explain the appreciable scatter in previous theoretical work on deformation potentials of group-III-nitrides. For the linear regime around the experimental lattice parameters, we present a complete set of deformation potentials. Applying our deformation potentials, we study strain effects in InGaN alloys (including c-, m-, and semi-polar planes) grown on GaN substrates. We make predictions for the transition energies in these systems and their dependence on In composition.

  14. Arsenic (III, V), indium (III), and gallium (III) toxicity to zebrafish embryos using a high-throughput multi-endpoint in vivo developmental and behavioral assay.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Christopher I; Field, Jim A; Simonich, Michael; Tanguay, Robert L; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes

    2016-04-01

    Gallium arsenide (GaAs), indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and other III/V materials are finding increasing application in microelectronic components. The rising demand for III/V-based products is leading to increasing generation of effluents containing ionic species of gallium, indium, and arsenic. The ecotoxicological hazard potential of these streams is unknown. While the toxicology of arsenic is comprehensive, much less is known about the effects of In(III) and Ga(III). The embryonic zebrafish was evaluated for mortality, developmental abnormalities, and photomotor response (PMR) behavior changes associated with exposure to As(III), As(V), Ga(III), and In(III). The As(III) lowest observable effect level (LOEL) for mortality was 500 μM at 24 and 120 h post fertilization (hpf). As(V) exposure was associated with significant mortality at 63 μM. The Ga(III)-citrate LOEL was 113 μM at 24 and 120 hpf. There was no association of significant mortality over the tested range of In(III)-citrate (56-900 μM) or sodium citrate (213-3400 μM) exposures. Only As(V) resulted in significant developmental abnormalities with LOEL of 500 μM. Removal of the chorion prior to As(III) and As(V) exposure was associated with increased incidence of mortality and developmental abnormality suggesting that the chorion may normally attenuate mass uptake of these metals by the embryo. Finally, As(III), As(V), and In(III) caused PMR hypoactivity (49-69% of control PMR) at 900-1000 μM. Overall, our results represent the first characterization of multidimensional toxicity effects of III/V ions in zebrafish embryos helping to fill a significant knowledge gap, particularly in Ga(III) and In(III) toxicology.

  15. Aqueous microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis using Fmoc strategy. III: racemization studies and water-based synthesis of histidine-containing peptides.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Keiko; Shinozaki, Natsuki; Hidaka, Koushi; Tsuda, Yuko; Fukumori, Yoshinobu; Ichikawa, Hideki; Wade, John D

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we describe the first aqueous microwave-assisted synthesis of histidine-containing peptides in high purity and with low racemization. We have previously shown the effectiveness of our synthesis methodology for peptides including difficult sequences using water-dispersible 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-amino acid nanoparticles. It is an organic solvent-free, environmentally friendly method for chemical peptide synthesis. Here, we studied the racemization of histidine during an aqueous-based coupling reaction with microwave irradiation. Under our microwave-assisted protocol using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium chloride, the coupling reaction can be efficiently performed with low levels of racemization of histidine. Application of this water-based microwave-assisted protocol with water-dispersible 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl-amino acid nanoparticles led to the successful synthesis of the histidine-containing hexapeptide neuropeptide W-30 (10-15), Tyr-His-Thr-Val-Gly-Arg-NH₂, in high yield and with greatly reduced histidine racemization.

  16. An unexpected cobalt(III) complex containing a Schiff base ligand: Synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic behavior, electrochemical property and SOD-like activity.

    PubMed

    Chai, Lan-Qin; Huang, Jiao-Jiao; Zhang, Hong-Song; Zhang, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jian-Yu; Li, Yao-Xin

    2014-10-15

    An unexpected mononuclear Co(III) complex, [Co(L2)2·(CH3COO)]·CH3OH (HL2=1-(2-{[(E)-3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzylidene]amino}phenyl)ethanone oxime), has been synthesized via complexation of Co(II) acetate tetrahydrate with HL1 originally. The plausible reaction mechanism for the formation of quinazoline-type ligand was proposed. HL1 and its corresponding Co(III) complex were characterized by IR, as well as by elemental analysis and UV-vis spectroscopy. The crystal structure of the complex has been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Each complex links two other molecules into an infinite 1-D chain via intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions. Moreover, the electrochemical properties of the cobalt(III) complex were studied by cyclic voltammetry and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS). In addition, superoxide dismutase-like activities of HL1 and Co(III) complex were also investigated.

  17. Effects of amino acid mutations in the pore-forming domain of the hemolytic lectin CEL-III.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Tomonao; Masaki, Risa; Unno, Hideaki; Goda, Shuichiro; Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu

    2016-10-01

    The hemolytic lectin CEL-III forms transmembrane pores in the membranes of target cells. A study on the effect of site-directed mutation at Lys405 in domain 3 of CEL-III indicated that replacements of this residue by relatively smaller residues lead to a marked increase in hemolytic activity, suggesting that moderately destabilizing domain 3 facilitates formation of transmembrane pores through conformational changes.

  18. Overdose effect of aconite containing Ayurvedic Medicine ('Mahashankha Vati').

    PubMed

    Panda, Ashok Kumar; Debnath, Saroj Kumar

    2010-07-01

    There are chances that the use of larger than recommended dose of Ayurvedic medicines containing aconite can produce drug reactions. Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox Wall.) is a very well-known ingredient of Ayurvedic formulations and is prescribed as an antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic, appetizer and digestive. The recommended dose of purified Vatsanabha (A. ferox Wall.) root is 15 mg. We present a case of hypotension and bradycardia due to aconite poisoning caused by overdosing of an Ayurvedic medicine (Mahashankha Vati), which was primarily managed by Ayurvedic treatment.

  19. Toxic effects of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) on energy metabolism of heterotrophic Euglena gracilis.

    PubMed

    Jasso-Chávez, Ricardo; Pacheco-Rosales, Angélica; Lira-Silva, Elizabeth; Gallardo-Pérez, Juan Carlos; García, Noemí; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael

    2010-11-15

    To assess the toxic effect of Cr on energy metabolism, heterotrophic Euglena gracilis was grown in a medium that prompts high yield biomass and in the presence of different Cr(VI) or Cr(III) concentrations. The cell growth IC₅₀ value was 12 and >250μM for Cr(VI) and Cr(III), respectively; in these cells chromium was accumulated and a fraction compartmentalized into mitochondria, and synthesis of cysteine and glutathione was induced. Respiration of control isolated mitochondria was strongly inhibited by added Cr(VI) or Cr(III) with L-lactate or succinate as substrates. In turn, cellular and mitochondrial respiration, respiratory Complexes I, III and IV, glycolysis and cytosolic NAD(+)-alcohol and -lactate dehydrogenases from cells cultured with Cr(VI) were significantly lower than control, whereas AOX and external NADH dehydrogenase activities were unaltered or increased, respectively. Addition of Cr(VI) or Cr(III) to isolated mitochondria or cytosol from control- or Cr(VI)-grown cells induced inhibition of respiration, respiratory Complexes III, IV and AOX, and glycolytic pyruvate kinase; whereas Complex I, external NADH dehydrogenase, and other glycolytic enzymes were unaffected. Protein contents of mitochondrial Complexes I, III, IV and V, and ANT were diminished in Cr(VI)-grown cells. Decreased respiration and glycolysis induced by Cr(VI) resulted in lower cellular ATP content. Results suggested that Cr(VI) cytotoxicity altered gene expression (as widely documented) and hence enzyme content, and induced oxidative stress, but it was also related with direct enzyme inhibition; Cr(III) was also cytotoxic although at higher concentrations. These findings establish new paradigms for chromium toxicity: Cr(VI) direct enzyme inhibition and non-innocuous external Cr(III) toxicity.

  20. Negatively charged Ir(iii) cyclometalated complexes containing a chelating bis-tetrazolato ligand: synthesis, photophysics and the study of reactivity with electrophiles.

    PubMed

    Fiorini, Valentina; Zacchini, Stefano; Raiteri, Paolo; Mazzoni, Rita; Zanotti, Valerio; Massi, Massimiliano; Stagni, Stefano

    2016-08-09

    The bis-tetrazolate dianion [1,2 BTB](2-), which is the deprotonated form of 1,2 bis-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)benzene [1,2-H2BTB], is for the first time exploited as an ancillary N^N ligand for negatively charged [Ir(C^N)2(N^N)](-)-type complexes, where C^N is represented by cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine (ppy) or 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)pyridine (F2ppy). The new Ir(iii) complexes [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- and [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- have been fully characterised and the analysis of the X-ray structure of [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- confirmed the coordination of the [1,2 BTB](2-) dianion in a bis chelated fashion through the N-atoms adjacent to each of the tetrazolic carbons. Both of the new anionic Ir(iii) complexes displayed phosphorescence in the visible region, with intense sky-blue (λmax = 460-490 nm) or aqua (λmax = 490-520 nm) emissions originating from [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- and [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]-, respectively. In comparison with our very recent examples of anionic Ir(iii)tetrazolate cyclometalates, the new Ir(iii) tris chelate complexes [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- and [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]-, display an improved robustness, allowing the study of their reactivity toward the addition of electrophiles such as H(+) and CH3(+). In all cases, the electrophilic attacks occurred at the coordinated tetrazolate rings, involving the reversible - by a protonation deprotonation mechanism - or permanent - upon addition of a methyl moiety - switching of their global net charge from negative to positive and, in particular, the concomitant variation of their photoluminescence output. The combination of the anionic complexes [Ir(F2ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- or [Ir(ppy)2(1,2 BTB)]- with a deep red emitting (λmax = 686 nm) cationic Ir(iii) tetrazole complex such as [IrTPYZ-Me]+, where TPYZ-Me is 2-(2-methyl-2H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyrazine, gave rise to two fully Ir(iii)-based soft salts capable of displaying additive and O2-sensitive emission colours, with an almost pure white light obtained by the appropriate

  1. Examination of effects of Cu(II) and Cr(III) on Al(III) binding by dissolved organic matter using absorbance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yan, Mingquan; Ma, Jing; Ji, Guodong

    2016-04-15

    Effects of Cu(II) and Cr(III) ions on the binding of Al(III) onto Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) exemplified by Suwannee River Humic Acid (SRHA) at pH 6.0 were quantified in this study using linear and log-transformed SRHA absorbance spectra acquired at varying Al(3+) concentrations and Cu(2+) or Cr(3+) levels. The competition between Al(3+) and Cu(2+)/Cr(3+) for the binding sites in DOM was ascertained by examining the intensity and shapes of the metal-specific differential spectra of DOM. The results indicated that the binding of Al(3+) onto SRHA is little influenced in the cases of in presence of 1.0 and 10.0 μM background Cr(3+) and in presence of 1.0 μM background Cu(2+), but it is significantly depressed in presence of 10.0 μM Cu(2+). Changes of the spectral slope of the log-transformed absorbance spectra in the 350-400 nm wavelength range (S350-400) were unambiguously correlated with the total amount of DOM-bound metals. The concentrations of Me-DOM complexes were determined using the NICA-Donnan Model. The results demonstrate that differential absorbance measurements provide quantitatively interpretable information concerning the nature and mechanisms of metal-DOM interactions and effects of metal cations competition on these processes.

  2. Correction: Effective Am(III)/Eu(III) separations using 2,6-bis(1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine (BTP) functionalised titania particles and hierarchically porous beads.

    PubMed

    Veliscek-Carolan, J; Jolliffe, K A; Hanley, T L

    2015-07-25

    Correction for 'Effective Am(III)/Eu(III) separations using 2,6-bis(1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)pyridine (BTP) functionalised titania particles and hierarchically porous beads' by J. Veliscek-Carolan et al., Chem. Commun., 2015, DOI: 10.1039/c5cc03957f.

  3. EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON ESTABLISHED FORENSIC EVIDENCE CONTAINMENT METHODS

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, C.; Duff, M.; Clark, E.; Chapman, G.

    2010-11-29

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory is currently exploring needs and protocols for the storage of evidentiary items contaminated with radioactive material. While a large body of knowledge on the behavior of storage polymers in radiation fields exists, this knowledge has not been applied to the field of forensics and maintaining evidentiary integrity. The focus of this research was to evaluate the behavior of several traditional evidentiary containment polymers when exposed to significant alpha, beta, gamma, neutron and mixed radiation sources. Doses were designed to simulate exposures possible during storage of materials. Several products were found to be poorly suited for use in this specific application based on standardized mechanical testing results. Remaining products were determined to warrant further investigation for the storage of radiologically contaminated evidence.

  4. Effect of Oxidation Rate and Fe(II) State on Microbial Nitrate-Dependent Fe(III) Mineral Formation

    PubMed Central

    Senko, John M.; Dewers, Thomas A.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2005-01-01

    A nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium was isolated and used to evaluate whether Fe(II) chemical form or oxidation rate had an effect on the mineralogy of biogenic Fe(III) (hydr)oxides resulting from nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. The isolate (designated FW33AN) had 99% 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Klebsiella oxytoca. FW33AN produced Fe(III) (hydr)oxides by oxidation of soluble Fe(II) [Fe(II)sol] or FeS under nitrate-reducing conditions. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fe(III) (hydr)oxide produced by oxidation of FeS was shown to be amorphous, while oxidation of Fe(II)sol yielded goethite. The rate of Fe(II) oxidation was then manipulated by incubating various cell concentrations of FW33AN with Fe(II)sol and nitrate. Characterization of products revealed that as Fe(II) oxidation rates slowed, a stronger goethite signal was observed by XRD and a larger proportion of Fe(III) was in the crystalline fraction. Since the mineralogy of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides may control the extent of subsequent Fe(III) reduction, the variables we identify here may have an effect on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe in anoxic ecosystems. PMID:16269756

  5. Effect of the oxidation rate and Fe(II) state on microbial nitrate-dependent Fe(III) mineral formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senko, John M.; Dewers , Thomas A.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2005-01-01

    A nitrate-dependent Fe(II)-oxidizing bacterium was isolated and used to evaluate whether Fe(II) chemical form or oxidation rate had an effect on the mineralogy of biogenic Fe(III) (hydr)oxides resulting from nitrate-dependent Fe(II) oxidation. The isolate (designated FW33AN) had 99% 16S rRNA sequence similarity to Klebsiella oxytoca. FW33AN produced Fe(III) (hydr)oxides by oxidation of soluble Fe(II) [Fe(II)sol] or FeS under nitrate-reducing conditions. Based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fe(III) (hydr)oxide produced by oxidation of FeS was shown to be amorphous, while oxidation of Fe(II)sol yielded goethite. The rate of Fe(II) oxidation was then manipulated by incubating various cell concentrations of FW33AN with Fe(II)sol and nitrate. Characterization of products revealed that as Fe(II) oxidation rates slowed, a stronger goethite signal was observed by XRD and a larger proportion of Fe(III) was in the crystalline fraction. Since the mineralogy of Fe(III) (hydr)oxides may control the extent of subsequent Fe(III) reduction, the variables we identify here may have an effect on the biogeochemical cycling of Fe in anoxic ecosystems.

  6. Extraction and separation of thorium(IV) from lanthanides(III) with room-temperature ionic liquids containing primary amine N{sub 1923}

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Y.; Chen, J.; Bai, Y.; Li, D.Q.

    2008-07-01

    The extraction behavior of Th(IV) by primary amine N{sub 1923} in imidazolium-based ionic liquid namely 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (N{sub 1923}/IL) was studied in this paper. Results showed that N{sub 1923}/IL had poorer extraction ability for Th(IV) than N{sub 1923} in n-heptane (N{sub 1923}/HEP). The separation coefficients between Th(IV) and lanthanides(III) ({beta}{sub Th/Ln}) were obtained and compared with those in the N{sub 1923}/HEP system. On this basis, we made a preliminary assessment for the possibility of using ionic liquids as solvents for the separation of Th(IV) from lanthanides(III) sulfate in a clean process. (authors)

  7. Silver nanoparticles-enhanced rare earth co-luminescence effect of Tb(III)-Y(III)-dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Li, Huihui; Wu, Xia

    2015-06-01

    It was found that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) could enhance co-luminescence effect of rare earths ions Tb(3+) and Y(3+). Based on this, a sensitive fluorescence detection method for the determination of dopamine (DA) was proposed. Moreover, the detection limit for DA was very low (down to nM). This is because DA can remarkably enhance the luminescence intensity of the Tb(3+) ion by Y(3+) in the colloidal solution of AgNPs, forming a new co-luminescence system. Furthermore, based on the metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF), AgNPs can sensitize the co-luminescence effect of the complex of Tb(3+)-Y(3+)-DA. In a neutral buffer solution (pH 7.50), the luminescence intensity of the system was linearly related to the concentration of DA in the range of 2.0-100 nM, with a limit of detection as low as 0.57 nM. The proposed method was applied for the determination of DA in dopamine hydrochloride injections and human serum samples with good accuracy and satisfactory recovery.

  8. Preparation and photoluminescence of a novel β-diketone ligand containing electro-transporting group and its europium(III) ternary complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Neng-Jun; Leung, Louis M.; So, Shu-Kong; Gong, Meng-Lian

    2006-11-01

    A novel β-diketone with an electro-transporting oxadiazole group, 1-(4'-(5-(4-methylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione (MPBDTFA), was prepared with high yield. With this synthesized ligand as the first ligand and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) as the secondary ligand, a new europium(III) ternary complex, Eu(MPBDTFA) 3Phen, was synthesized. The new β-diketone and its europium(III) ternary complex were characteristized by elemental analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, IR and UV-visible spectroscopies. Photoluminescence measurements indicated that the energy absorbed by the organic ligands was efficiently transfered to the central Eu 3+ ions, and the complex showed intensely and characteristically red emissions due to the 5D0 → 7Fj transitions of the central Eu 3+ ions. With an electro-transporting group in molecule and highly thermal stability, the synthesized Eu(III) ternary complex is expected as a red-emitting candidate material for fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).

  9. Preparation and photoluminescence of a novel beta-diketone ligand containing electro-transporting group and its europium(III) ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Neng-Jun; Leung, Louis M; So, Shu-Kong; Gong, Meng-Lian

    2006-11-01

    A novel beta-diketone with an electro-transporting oxadiazole group, 1-(4'-(5-(4-methylphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)biphenyl-4-yl)-4,4,4-trifluorobutane-1,3-dione (MPBDTFA), was prepared with high yield. With this synthesized ligand as the first ligand and 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen) as the secondary ligand, a new europium(III) ternary complex, Eu(MPBDTFA)(3)Phen, was synthesized. The new beta-diketone and its europium(III) ternary complex were characteristized by elemental analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, IR and UV-visible spectroscopies. Photoluminescence measurements indicated that the energy absorbed by the organic ligands was efficiently transfered to the central Eu(3+) ions, and the complex showed intensely and characteristically red emissions due to the (5)D(0)-->(7)F(j) transitions of the central Eu(3+) ions. With an electro-transporting group in molecule and highly thermal stability, the synthesized Eu(III) ternary complex is expected as a red-emitting candidate material for fabrication of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs).

  10. Thallium speciation in plant tissues-Tl(III) found in Sinapis alba L. grown in soil polluted with tailing sediment containing thallium minerals.

    PubMed

    Krasnodębska-Ostręga, Beata; Sadowska, Monika; Ostrowska, Sylwia

    2012-05-15

    Besides the dominant species in plants-Tl(I), noticeable amounts of Tl(III) (about 10% of total Tl content) were found in extracts of plants cultivated in the presence of tailing sediments, which are the main source of anthropogenic thallium already present in the environment. It is an important step of gaining knowledge about the detoxification mechanisms developed by Sinapis alba. This plant species is highly tolerant to Tl and it is able to cumulate high amounts of Tl and transport it into the above-ground organs. For more adequate estimation of accumulating abilities of S. alba, the elements' bioavailability was taken into consideration. The obtained bioconcentration factors of Cd (AF=0.6) and Zn (AF=1-2) were significantly lower than of Tl (AF=100-200). The biomass production was similar to the biomass of control cultivation. The results were based on ICP MS measurements of total elements' content and HPLC ICP MS for speciation analysis. The quality of obtained results was evaluated based on the intermethod comparison with voltammetry as a reference method. Comparison of data obtained using ICP MS and electrochemical methods (after a proper chemical treatment) was also used for indication of Tl(III) presence and for proving that Tl(I) was not transferred into Tl(III) during analytical procedures.

  11. Effect of desferrioxamine B and Suwannee River fulvic acid on Fe(III) release and Cr(III) desorption from goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Angela G.; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A.; Dubbin, William E.

    2016-04-01

    Siderophores are biogenic chelating ligands that facilitate the solubilisation of Fe(III) and form stable complexes with a range of contaminant metals and therefore may significantly affect their biogeochemical cycling. Desferrioxamine B (DFOB) is a trihydroxamate siderophore that acts synergistically with fulvic acid and low molecular weight organic ligands to release Fe from Fe(III) oxides. We report the results of batch dissolution experiments in which we determine the rates of Cr(III) desorption and Fe(III) release from Cr(III)-treated synthetic goethite as influenced by DFOB, by fulvic acid, and by the two compounds in combination. We observed that adsorbed Cr(III) at 3% surface coverage significantly reduced Fe(III) release from goethite for all combinations of DFOB and fulvic acid. When DFOB (270 μM) was the only ligand present, dissolved Fe(III) and Cr(III) increased approximately 1000-fold and 16-fold, respectively, as compared to the ligand-free system, a difference we attribute to the slow rate of water exchange of Cr(III). Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA) acts synergistically with DFOB by (i) reducing the goethite surface charge leading to increased HDFOB+ surface excess and by (ii) forming aqueous Fe(III)-SRFA species whose Fe(III) is subsequently removed by DFOB to yield aqueous Fe(III)-DFOB complexes. These observations shed new light on the synergistic relationship between DFOB and fulvic acid and reveal the mechanisms of Fe(III) acquisition available to plants and micro-organisms in Cr(III) contaminated environments.

  12. Nonanuclear Spin-Crossover Complex Containing Iron(II) and Iron(III) Based on a 2,6-Bis(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine Ligand Functionalized with a Carboxylate Group.

    PubMed

    Abhervé, Alexandre; Recio-Carretero, María José; López-Jordà, Maurici; Clemente-Juan, Juan Modesto; Canet-Ferrer, Josep; Cantarero, Andrés; Clemente-León, Miguel; Coronado, Eugenio

    2016-09-19

    The synthesis and magnetostructural characterization of [Fe(III)3(μ3-O)(H2O)3[Fe(II)(bppCOOH)(bppCOO)]6](ClO4)13·(CH3)2CO)6·(solvate) (2) are reported. This compound is obtained as a secondary product during synthesis of the mononuclear complex [Fe(II)(bppCOOH)2](ClO4)2 (1). The single-crystal X-ray diffraction structure of 2 shows that it contains the nonanuclear cluster of the formula [Fe(III)3(μ3-O)(H2O)3[Fe(II)(bppCOOH)(bppCOO)]6](13+), which is formed by a central Fe(III)3O core coordinated to six partially deprotonated [Fe(II)(bppCOOH)(bppCOO)](+) complexes. Raman spectroscopy studies on single crystals of 1 and 2 have been performed to elucidate the spin and oxidation states of iron in 2. These studies and magnetic characterization indicate that most of the iron(II) complexes of 2 remain in the low-spin (LS) state and present a gradual and incomplete spin crossover above 300 K. On the other hand, the Fe(III) trimer shows the expected antiferromagnetic behavior. From the structural point of view, 2 represents the first example in which bppCOO(-) acts as a bridging ligand, thus forming a polynuclear magnetic complex.

  13. The effect of gene drive on containment of transgenic mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Marshall, John M

    2009-05-21

    Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever continue to be a major health problem through much of the world. Several new potential approaches to disease control utilize gene drive to spread anti-pathogen genes into the mosquito population. Prior to a release, these projects will require trials in outdoor cages from which transgenic mosquitoes may escape, albeit in small numbers. Most genes introduced in small numbers are very likely to be lost from the environment; however, gene drive mechanisms enhance the invasiveness of introduced genes. Consequently, introduced transgenes may be more likely to persist than ordinary genes following an accidental release. Here, we develop stochastic models to analyze the loss probabilities for several gene drive mechanisms, including homing endonuclease genes, transposable elements, Medea elements, the intracellular bacterium Wolbachia, engineered underdominance genes, and meiotic drive. We find that Medea and Wolbachia present the best compromise between invasiveness and containment for the six gene drive systems currently being considered for the control of mosquito-borne disease.

  14. Effect of mobility devices on orientation sensors that contain magnetometers.

    PubMed

    Kendell, Cynthia; Lemaire, Edward D

    2009-01-01

    Orientation sensors containing magnetometers use the earth's magnetic field as a reference. Ferromagnetic objects may distort this magnetic field, leading to inaccurate orientation output. We explored the viability of these orientation sensors for motion analysis in an assistive mobility device rehabilitative setting. We attached two MTx orientation sensors (XSens; Enschade, the Netherlands), connected to the XBus Master data collection unit (XSens), to a plastic frame such that the relative angle between sensors was constant. We then moved a series of mobility devices in proximity to the plastic frame: two knee-ankle-foot orthoses (aluminum, stainless steel), one ankle-foot orthosis, two transtibial prostheses (exoskeletal, endoskeletal), two walkers (standard, Challenger Low Wide [Evolution Technologies; Port Coquitlam, Canada]), and two wheelchairs (Tango [OrthoFab; Quebec City, Canada], GTi [Quickie; Phoenix, Arizona]). For each mobility device, we calculated the average difference in relative angle between the baseline and peak angles for each of five trials. Errors ranged from less than 0.10 to 35.29 degrees, depending on the mobility device and frame positioning near the device. This demonstrated the large errors that can occur when magnetometer-based orientation sensors with mobility devices are used. While strategic orientation sensor placement on some mobility devices can minimize these errors to an acceptable level, testing protocols should be implemented to verify orientation sensor accuracy for these applications.

  15. Evaluation of the estrogenic effects of legume extracts containing phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Boué, Stephen M; Wiese, Thomas E; Nehls, Suzanne; Burow, Matthew E; Elliott, Steven; Carter-Wientjes, Carol H; Shih, Betty Y; McLachlan, John A; Cleveland, Thomas E

    2003-04-09

    Seven legume extracts containing phytoestrogens were analyzed for estrogenic activity. Methanol extracts were prepared from soybean (Glycine max L.), green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), alfalfa sprout (Medicago sativa L.), mung bean sprout (Vigna radiata L.), kudzu root (Pueraria lobata L.), and red clover blossom and red clover sprout (Trifolium pratense L.). Extracts of kudzu root and red clover blossom showed significant competitive binding to estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta). Estrogenic activity was determined using an estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cell proliferation assay. Kudzu root, red clover blossom and sprout, mung bean sprout, and alfalfa sprout extracts displayed increased cell proliferation above levels observed with estradiol. The pure estrogen antagonist, ICI 182,780, suppressed cell proliferation induced by the extracts, suggesting an ER-related signaling pathway was involved. The ER subtype-selective activities of legume extracts were examined using transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. All seven of the extracts exhibited preferential agonist activity toward ERbeta. Using HPLC to collect fractions and MCF-7 cell proliferation, the active components in kudzu root extract were determined to be the isoflavones puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, and genistein. These results show that several legumes are a source of phytoestrogens with high levels of estrogenic activity.

  16. Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D M

    1997-01-01

    Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of backing soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor.

  17. Effects of baking-soda-containing dentifrices on oral malodor.

    PubMed

    Brunette, D M

    1996-01-01

    Oral malodor, also known as bad breath or halitosis, is an extremely common problem. Bad breath can arise from many sources in the body, but most frequently is produced in the mouth by the action of gram-negative anaerobic bacteria on sulfur-containing proteinaceous substrates in the saliva, such as debris and plaque. The primary molecules responsible for oral malodor are volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), such as hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. Increased malodor production is related to greater bacterial numbers, reducing conditions, availability of protein substrates, and a pH above neutral. Bad breath is more common in the elderly, as well as those with unhygienic mouths, gingivitis, and periodontitis, but bad breath can also be found in some individuals who are periodontally healthy. The major source of oral malodor is the tongue. Approaches to controlling malodor have included masking, oral hygiene, antibacterial agents, conversion of VSC to nonodorous forms, oxidizing agents, and traditional approaches, including the use of baking soda. Results of controlled double-blind crossover studies, using both organoleptic (sensory) and gas chromatographic analysis of mouth air VSC, indicate that two dentifrices with high baking-soda concentrations, Arm & Hammer Dental Care and Arm & Hammer PeroxiCare, reduce oral malodor.

  18. Effect of phosphate and sulfate on Ni repartitioning during Fe(II)-catalyzed Fe(III) oxide mineral recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Margaret A. G.; Catalano, Jeffrey G.

    2015-09-01

    Dissolved Fe(II) activates coupled oxidative growth and reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxide minerals, causing recrystallization and the repartitioning of structurally-compatible trace metals. Phosphate and sulfate, two ligands common to natural aquatic systems, alter Fe(II) adsorption onto Fe(III) oxides and affect Fe(III) oxide dissolution and precipitation. However, the effect of these oxoanions on trace metal repartitioning during Fe(II)-catalyzed Fe(III) oxide recrystallization is unclear. The effects of phosphate and sulfate on Ni adsorption and Ni repartitioning during Fe(II)-catalyzed Fe(III) oxide recrystallization were investigated as such repartitioning may be affected by both Fe(II)-oxoanion and metal-oxoanion interactions. In most systems examined, phosphate alters Ni repartitioning during Fe(II)-catalyzed recrystallization to a larger extent than sulfate. Phosphate substantially enhances Ni adsorption onto hematite but decreases (nearly inhibiting) Fe(II)-catalyzed Ni incorporation into and release from this mineral. In the goethite system, however, phosphate suppresses Ni release but enhances Ni incorporation in the presence of aqueous Fe(II). In contrast, sulfate has little effect on macroscopic Ni adsorption and release of Ni from Fe(III) oxides, but substantially enhances Ni incorporation into goethite. This demonstrates that phosphate and sulfate have unique, mineral-specific interactions with Ni during Fe(II)-catalyzed Fe(III) oxide recrystallization. This research suggests that micronutrient bioavailability at redox interfaces in hematite-dominated systems may be especially suppressed by phosphate, while both oxoanions likely have limited effects in goethite-rich soils or sediments. Phosphate may also exert a large control on contaminant fate at redox interfaces, increasing Ni retention on iron oxide surfaces. These results further indicate that trace metal retention by iron oxides during lithification and later repartitioning during

  19. Luminescent Eu(III) and Gd(III) trisbipyridine cryptates: experimental and theoretical study of the substituent effects.

    PubMed

    Guillaumont, Dominique; Bazin, Hervé; Benech, Jean-Marc; Boyer, Marion; Mathis, Gérard

    2007-02-19

    Synthesis, absorption spectra and luminescebce properties of a series of lanthanide trisbipyridine cryptates Ln within R-Bpy x R-Bpy x R-Bpy, where Ln = Eu, Gd and R = H, COOH, COOCH3, CONH(CH2)2NH2 are described. Comparison of the unsubstituted parent compound with the substituted compounds shows that bipyridine substitution doesn't alter significantly the photophysical properties of the lanthanide cryptate. The absorption maximum is slightly red-shifted when three bipyridines are substituted, whereas substituting one bipyridines has a negligible effect on the absorption spectra. The experimental triplet state energy is between 21600 and 22 100 cm(-1) for the series of compounds and the luminescence lifetimes at 77 K are between 0.5 and 0.8 ms in HO2 and equal to 1.7 ms in D2O. The experimental characterizations are completed by DFT and TD-DFT calculations to assess the ability of these approaches to predict absorption maxima, triplet state energies and structural parameters of lanthanide cryptates and to characterize the electronic structure of the excited states. The calculations on the unsubstituted parent and substituted compounds show that absorption maxima and lowest 3pipi* triplet state energies can be accurately determined from density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD) DFT calculations.

  20. Comments on the somatic effects section of the BEIR III report

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, H.H.

    1980-12-01

    The recent report of the BEIR Committee of the National Academy of Sciences presents a wide range of risk estimates for radiogenic cancer. The values that can be considered to be most plausible on the basis of radiobiological and epidemiological evidence are given little emphasis and they are presented as lower bounds of the probable risk. The upper bound is said to be provided by estimates based on the so-called linear hypothesis. The preferred analysis in BEIR III requires an arbitrary choice of a critical parameter. This results in estimates that differ little from those given in BEIR I and that may be too high by an order of magnitude. It also refuses to speculate on any health effects of background radiation. It thus does not support the validity of those concepts of radiation protection that are based on linearity.

  1. Genotoxic effects of Bismuth (III) oxide nanoparticles by Allium and Comet assay.

    PubMed

    Liman, Recep

    2013-09-01

    Genotoxic effects of Bismuth (III) oxide nanoparticles (BONPs) were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Allium and Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of BONPs at five different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100ppm) for 4h. Exposure of BONPs significantly increased mitotic index (MI) except 12.5ppm, total chromosomal aberrations (CAs) in Allium test. While stickiness chromosome laggards, disturbed anaphase-telophase and anaphase bridges were observed in anaphase-telophase cells, pro-metaphase and c-metaphase in other cells. A significant increase in DNA damage was also observed at all concentrations of BONPs except 12.5ppm by Comet assay. The results were also analyzed statistically by using SPSS for Windows; Duncan's multiple range test was performed. These results indicate that BONPs exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  2. Effective electron mass in quantum wires of III-V, ternary and quaternary materials.

    PubMed

    Paitya, N; Ghatak, K P

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to study the effective electron mass (EEM) in Quantum wires (QWs) of III-V, ternary and quaternary materials on the basis of three and two band models of Kane within the framework of k x p formalism. It has been found, taking QWs of InAs, InSb, GaAs, Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te and In(1-x)Ga(x)As(1-y)P(t) that the 1D EEM increases with electron concentration per unit length and decreases with increasing film thickness respectively. For ternary and quaternary materials the EEM increases with increase in alloy composition. Under certain special conditions all the results for all the 1-D materials get simplified into the well known parabolic energy bands and thus confirming the compatibility test. The results of this paper find two applications in the fields of nanoscience and technology.

  3. Effects of Internal Fields on the Optical Emission in Nanostructured III-N LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yalavarthi, Krishna; Sundaresan, Sasi; Merrill, Ky; Ahmed, Shaikh

    2012-02-01

    Nanostructured optical emitters can accommodate a broader range of lattice mismatch, be used in full-solar-spectrum light emitting diodes, and provide higher temperature stability of the threshold current and the luminescence. However, strong quantum confinement and certain symmetry-lowering mechanisms (caused by various internal fields) lead to pronounced optical polarization anisotropy and strong suppression of interband transitions in these structures. The objective of this work is to study the competing effects of various internal fields on the electronic structure and optical properties of nanostructured III-N LEDs. A multiscale approach has been employed where: 1) the NEMO 3-D tool is used to calculate the atomistic strain distribution and one-particle electronic states within a sp3s*d5 tight-binding framework, and 2) the outputs from NEMO 3-D are then coupled to the Synopsys TCAD tool to determine the terminal electrical and optical properties of the device.

  4. Hydrogen effects in dilute III-N-V alloys: From defect engineering to nanostructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Pettinari, G.; Felici, M.; Capizzi, M.; Polimeni, A.; Trotta, R.

    2014-01-07

    The variation of the band gap energy of III-N-V semiconductors induced by hydrogen incorporation is the most striking effect that H produces in these materials. A special emphasis is given here to the combination of N-activity passivation by hydrogen with H diffusion kinetics in dilute nitrides. Secondary ion mass spectrometry shows an extremely steep (smaller than 5 nm/decade) forefront of the H diffusion profile in Ga(AsN) under appropriate hydrogenation conditions. This discovery prompts the opportunity for an in-plane nanostructuring of hydrogen incorporation and, hence, for a modulation of the material band gap energy at the nanoscale. The properties of quantum dots fabricated by a lithographically defined hydrogenation are presented, showing the zero-dimensional character of these novel nanostructures. Applicative prospects of this nanofabrication method are finally outlined.

  5. Kinetic method for the determination of traces of thyroxine by its catalytic effect on the Mn(III) metaphosphate-As(III) reaction.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Ferenc T; Milovanović, Gordana A; Todorović, Marija

    2008-02-15

    A new, highly sensitive and simple kinetic method for the determination of thyroxine was proposed. The method was based on the catalytic effect of thyroxine on the oxidation of As(III) by Mn(III) metaphosphate. The kinetics of the reaction was studied in the presence of orthophosphoric acid. The reaction rate was followed spectrophotometrically at 516 nm. It was established that orthophosphoric acid increased the reaction rate and that the extent of the non-catalytic reaction was extremely small. A kinetic equation was postulated and the apparent rate constant was calculated. The dependence of the reaction rate on temperature was investigated and the energy of activation and other kinetic parameters were determined. Thyroxine was determined under the optimal experimental conditions in the range 7.0 x 10(-9) to 3.0 x 10(-8) mol L(-1) with a relative standard deviation up to 6.7% and a detection limit of 2.7 x 10(-9) molL(-1). In the presence of 0.08 mol L(-1) chloride, the detection limit decreased to 6.6 x 10(-10) mol L(-1). The proposed method was applied for the determination of thyroxine in tablets. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by comparison with the HPLC method.

  6. Effect of starch sources on extruded aquaculture feed containing DDGS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaculture is one of the most rapidly growing sectors of agriculture, and is a reliable growth market for the prepared feeds. A Brabender laboratory-scale single screw extruder was used to study the effect of various starch sources (cassava, corn, and potato), DDGS levels (20, 30, and 40% (wb)), an...

  7. Anti-stress effects of lemon balm-containing foods.

    PubMed

    Scholey, Andrew; Gibbs, Amy; Neale, Chris; Perry, Naomi; Ossoukhova, Anastasia; Bilog, Vanessa; Kras, Marni; Scholz, Claudia; Sass, Mathias; Buchwald-Werner, Sybille

    2014-10-30

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) has been used historically and contemporarily as a modulator of mood and cognitive function, with anxiolytic effects following administration of capsules, coated tablets and topical application. Following a pilot study with lemon balm extract administered as a water based drink, which confirmed absorption of rosmarinic acid effects on mood and cognitive function, we conducted two similar double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover studies. These evaluated the mood and cognitive effects of a standardised M. officinalis preparation administered in palatable forms in a beverage and in yoghurt. In each study a cohort of healthy young adults' self-rated aspects of mood were measured before and after a multi-tasking framework (MTF) administered one hour and three hours following one of four treatments. Both active lemon balm treatments were generally associated with improvements in mood and/or cognitive performance, though there were some behavioral "costs" at other doses and these effects depended to some degree on the delivery matrix.

  8. Wound healing effects of nanoemulsion containing clove essential oil.

    PubMed

    Alam, Prawez; Ansari, Mohammad J; Anwer, Md Khalid; Raish, Mohammad; Kamal, Yoonus K T; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the wound healing effects of clove oil (CO) via its encapsulation into nanoemulsion. Optimized nanoemulsion (droplet size of 29.10 nm) was selected for wound healing investigation, collagen determination, and histopathological examination in rats. Optimized nanoemulsion presented significant would healing effects in rats as compared to pure CO. Nanoemulsion also presented significant enhancement in leucine content (0.61 mg/g) as compared to pure CO (0.50 mg/g) and negative control (0.31 mg/g). Histopathology of nanoemulsion treated rats showed no signs of inflammatory cells. These results suggested that nanoemulsion of CO was safe and nontoxic.

  9. EFFECT OF HOST IMMUNITY TO A FILTERABLE VIRUS (VIRUS III) ON THE GROWTH AND MALIGNANCY OF A TRANSPLANTABLE RABBIT NEOPLASM

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Louise; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1927-01-01

    Experiments are reported in which were studied the course and character of a transplantable malignant neoplasm in normal rabbits and in rabbits immunized with a filterable virus, Virus III. The disease which developed in immunized rabbits was extremely mild and much less severe than in normal animals. The effect upon the tumor process displayed by Virus III immune rabbits in the direction of diminished malignancy is considered to be entirely non-specific in character, and the suggestion is made that it is accomplished through a more effective resistance of the host. PMID:19869330

  10. Implications of the Differential Toxicological Effects of III-V Ionic and Particulate Materials for Hazard Assessment of Semiconductor Slurries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Lin, Sijie; Chang, Chong Hyun; Ji, Zhaoxia; Sun, Bingbing; Wang, Xiang; Li, Ruibin; Pon, Nanetta; Xia, Tian; Nel, André E

    2015-12-22

    Because of tunable band gaps, high carrier mobility, and low-energy consumption rates, III-V materials are attractive for use in semiconductor wafers. However, these wafers require chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) for polishing, which leads to the generation of large quantities of hazardous waste including particulate and ionic III-V debris. Although the toxic effects of micron-sized III-V materials have been studied in vivo, no comprehensive assessment has been undertaken to elucidate the hazardous effects of submicron particulates and released III-V ionic components. Since III-V materials may contribute disproportionately to the hazard of CMP slurries, we obtained GaP, InP, GaAs, and InAs as micron- (0.2-3 μm) and nanoscale (<100 nm) particles for comparative studies of their cytotoxic potential in macrophage (THP-1) and lung epithelial (BEAS-2B) cell lines. We found that nanosized III-V arsenides, including GaAs and InAs, could induce significantly more cytotoxicity over a 24-72 h observation period. In contrast, GaP and InP particulates of all sizes as well as ionic GaCl3 and InCl3 were substantially less hazardous. The principal mechanism of III-V arsenide nanoparticle toxicity is dissolution and shedding of toxic As(III) and, to a lesser extent, As(V) ions. GaAs dissolves in the cell culture medium as well as in acidifying intracellular compartments, while InAs dissolves (more slowly) inside cells. Chelation of released As by 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid interfered in GaAs toxicity. Collectively, these results demonstrate that III-V arsenides, GaAs and InAs nanoparticles, contribute in a major way to the toxicity of III-V materials that could appear in slurries. This finding is of importance for considering how to deal with the hazard potential of CMP slurries.

  11. [Effect of carcinogenic nitrogen-containing compounds on cell metabolism].

    PubMed

    Antropov, V I; Samoĭlov, V O; Slepian, É I

    2012-01-01

    The brown frog (Rana temporaria) skin cells respiration, calcium metabolism and glycolysis, the tree frog (Hyla arborea) skin cells respiration and calcium metabolism were studied under short-term (first hours) and long-term (first days) exposure to nitrogenous compounds [N-nitroso-N-methyl urea (NMU) and thiourea (TU)]. The first direct effect of nitrogenous compounds exposure was cell breathing inhibition occurring in Rana temporaria skin cells after 28 days of exposure, and in Hyla arborea skin cells after 8 days of exposure. These changes were precided by decrease of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity in Rana temporaria skin cells starting 16 days after NMU and TU introduction. The increase of intracellular calcium level was noted in tree frog skin cells 4-8 days after NMU and TU introduction, in brown frogs skin cells this parameter was unchanged.

  12. Effects of dental porcelain containing silver nanoparticles on static fatigue.

    PubMed

    Fujieda, Tokushi; Uno, Mitsunori; Ishigami, Hajime; Kurachi, Masakazu; Kamemizu, Hideo; Wakamatsu, Nobukazu; Doi, Yutaka

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of silver nanoparticles on the behavior of subcritical crack growth (SCG) in dental porcelains. Prior to occurrence of fast fracture in dental porcelains, SCG occurs and leads to strength degradation over time. SCG in dental porcelains can be characterized by the stress corrosion susceptibility coefficient, n. A higher n value means a higher resistance to SCG. In this study, porcelain disks were prepared by mixing a commercial dental porcelain powder with different concentrations of silver nanoparticles, and then air-dried and fired according to manufacturer's instructions. Stress corrosion susceptibility coefficients of powder compacts were determined using a post-indentation method. A Vickers indenter was applied to the porcelain surface, and lengths of median cracks were measured at fixed time intervals over a 24-h period to calculate n. Addition of silver nanoparticles significantly increased the stress corrosion susceptibility coefficient of dental porcelain.

  13. Calcium revisited, part III: effect of dietary calcium on BMD and fracture risk

    PubMed Central

    Burckhardt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Food can be an excellent source of calcium. Dietary calcium is in general as well absorbed as calcium supplements, and exerts the same effects on bone. The main sources are dairy products, but also some vegetables and fruits contain considerable amounts of calcium. Mineral water can serve as a supplement. Cross-sectional, longitudinal and some interventional trials have shown positive effects on bone metabolism, bone density and bone loss. But the effect on fracture incidence is less certain, and that of milk, the most studied dairy product, still unproven. PMID:26331006

  14. Deep-red phosphorescent iridium(III) complexes containing 1-(benzo[b] thiophen-2-yl) isoquinoline ligand: synthesis, photophysical and electrochemical properties and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Li, Gao-Nan; Zou, Ying; Yang, Yi-Ding; Liang, Jiao; Cui, Feng; Zheng, Tao; Xie, Hui; Niu, Zhi-Gang

    2014-09-01

    Four new bis-cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes, [Ir(btq) 2phen] [PF6] (3a), [Ir(btq) 2bpy] [PF6] (3b), [Ir(btq) 2dtbipy] [PF6] (3c) and [Ir(btq) 2pic] (3d) (btq = 1-(benzo[b] thiophen-2-yl) isoquinoline, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dtbipy = 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine, pic = picolinic acid) have been synthesized and fully characterized. The crystal structure of 3a has been determined by X-ray analysis. The photophysical and electrochemical properties of these new complexes 3a - 3d have been studied. The photoluminescence spectra of all Ir(III) complexes exhibit deep-red emission maxima at 682, 682, 683 and 698 nm, respectively. The most representative molecular orbital energy-level diagrams and the lowest energy electronic transitions of 3a - 3d have been calculated with density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TD - DFT). The results show that the pic ancillary ligand of complex 3d influences the absorption and emission energies with a further red-shift relative to other three complexes 3a - 3c.

  15. Designing and characterization of Fe(III) complexes of oxydiacetate containing α-diimine as auxiliary ligand: 57Fe-Mössbauer and cyclic voltammetric studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahid, M.; Sharma, Prashant K.; Siddiqi, Zafar A.; Sama, Farasha; Ansari, Istikhar A.; Khalid, Mohd.

    2014-04-01

    The newly prepared complexes with stoichiometries [Fe(oda)(phen)Cl] (1), [Fe(oda)(4-picNO)(H2O)Cl)] (2) and [Fe2(oda)2(H2O)2Cl2] (3) [H2oda = oxydiacetic acid, phen = 1,10‧-phenantroline and 4-picNO = 4-picoline-N-oxide] were synthesized under varying experimental conditions. The complexes were characterized by spectral (IR, FAB-MS and Mössbauer), electrochemical and thermal studies. 57Fe-Mössbauer spectral data for complexes exhibit a quadrupole splitting confirming the presence of iron nuclei in asymmetric environment. The relevant parameters like isomer shift (δ), quadruple splitting (ΔEQ), line widths and peak height ratio (HWh/HWl) are consistent with high spin state of Fe(III) centre with the presence of Kramer’s double degeneracy in distorted octahedral environment. The electrochemical studies indicate existence of quasi-reversible redox couples (FeII/III) in solution.

  16. Effect Of Oxidation On Chromium Leaching And Redox Capacity Of Slag-Containing Waste Forms

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, P. M.; Stefanko, D. B.; Langton, C. A.

    2013-03-01

    The rate of oxidation is important to the long-term performance of reducing salt waste forms because the solubility of some contaminants, e.g., technetium, is a function of oxidation state. TcO4- in the salt solution is reduced to Tc(IV) and has been shown to react with ingredients in the waste form to precipitate low solubility sulfide and/or oxide phases [Shuh, et al., 1994, Shuh, et al., 2000, Shuh, et al., 2003]. Upon exposure to oxygen, the compounds containing Tc(IV) oxidize to the pertechnetate ion, Tc(VII)O4-, which is very soluble. Consequently the rate of technetium oxidation front advancement into a monolith and the technetium leaching profile as a function of depth from an exposed surface are important to waste form performance and ground water concentration predictions. An approach for measuring contaminant oxidation rate (effective contaminant specific oxidation rate) based on leaching of select contaminants of concern is described in this report. In addition, the relationship between reduction capacity and contaminant oxidation is addressed. Chromate was used as a non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate in simulated waste form samples. Depth discrete subsamples were cut from material exposed to Savannah River Site (SRS) field cured conditions. The subsamples were prepared and analyzed for both reduction capacity and chromium leachability. Results from field-cured samples indicate that the depth at which leachable chromium was detected advanced further into the sample exposed for 302 days compared to the sample exposed to air for 118 days (at least 50 mm compared to at least 20 mm). Data for only two exposure time intervals is currently available. Data for additional exposure times are required to develop an equation for the oxidation front progression. Reduction capacity measurements (per the Angus-Glasser method, which is a measurement of the ability of a material to chemically reduce Ce(IV) to Ce(III

  17. BEIR-III report and the health effects of low-level radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1980-01-01

    The present BEIR-III Committee has not highlighted any controversy over the health effects of low-level radiation. In its evaluation of the experimental data and epidemiological surveys, the Committee has carefully reviewed and assessed the value of all the available scientific evidence for estimating numerical risk coefficients for the health hazards to human populations exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation. Responsible public awareness of the possible health effects of ionizing radiations from medical and industrial radiation exposure, centers on three important matters of societal concern: (1) to place into perspective the extent of harm to the health of man and his descendants to be expected in the present and in the future from those societal activities involving ionizing radiation; (2) to develop quantitative indices of harm based on dose-effect relationships; such indices could then be used with prudent caution to introduce concepts of the regulation of population doses on the basis of somatic and genetic risks; and (3) to identify the magnitude and extent of radiation activities which could cause harm, to assess their relative significance, and to provide a framework for recommendations on how to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure to human populations. The main difference of the BEIR Committee Report is not so much from new data or new interpretations of existing data, but rather from a philosophical approach and appraisal of existing and future radiation protection resulting from an atmosphere of constantly changing societal conditions and public attitudes. (PCS)

  18. Phytotoxicity of wastewater containing lead (Pb) effects Scirpus grossus.

    PubMed

    Tangahu, B Voijant; Abdullah, S Rozaimah Sheikh; Basri, H; Idris, M; Anuar, N; Mukhlisin, M

    2013-01-01

    Phytoremediation is an environment-friendly and cost-effective method to clean the environment of heavy metal contamination. A prolonged phytotoxicity test was conducted in a single exposure. Scirpus grossus plants were grown in sand to which the diluted Pb (NO3)2 was added, with the variation of concentration were 0, 100, 200, 400, 600, and 800 mg/L. It was found that Scirpus grossus plants can tolerate Pb at concentrations of up to 400 mg/L. The withering was observed on day-7 for Pb concentrations of 400 mg/L and above. 100% of the plants withered with a Pb concentration of 600 mg/L on day 65. The Pb concentration in water medium decreased while in plant tissues increased. Adsorption of Pb solution ranged between 2 to 6% for concentrations of 100 to 800 mg/L. The Bioaccumulation Coefficient and Translocation Factor of Scirpus grossus were found greater than 1, indicating that this species is a hyperaccumulator plant.

  19. Dentofacial effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction: A controlled study of consecutively treated Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    De Clerck, Hugo; Cevidanes, Lucia; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2011-01-01

    Introduction In this cephalometric investigation, we analyzed the treatment effects of bone-anchored maxillary protraction (BAMP) with miniplates in the maxilla and mandible connected by Class III elastics in patients with Class III malocclusion. Methods The treated sample consisted of 21 Class III patients consecutively treated with the BAMP protocol before the pubertal growth spurt (mean age, 11.10 ± 1.8 years) and reevaluated after BAMP therapy, about 1 year later. The treated group was compared with a matched control group of 18 untreated Class III subjects. Significant differences between the treated and control groups were assessed with independent-sample t tests (P<0.05). Results Sagittal measurements of the maxilla showed highly significant improvements during active treatment (about 4 mm more than the untreated controls), with significant protraction effects at orbitale and pterygomaxillare. Significant improvements of overjet and molar relationship were recorded, as well as in the mandibular skeletal measures at Point B and pogonion. Vertical skeletal changes and modifications in incisor inclination were negligible, except for a significant proclination of the mandibular incisors in the treated group. Significant soft-tissue changes reflected the underlying skeletal modifications. Conclusions Compared with growth of the untreated Class III subjects, the BAMP protocol induced an average increment on skeletal and soft-tissue advancement of maxillary structures of about 4 mm, and favorable mandibular changes exceeded 2 mm. PMID:21055597

  20. Influence of local capillary trapping on containment system effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, Steven

    2014-03-31

    Immobilization of CO2 injected into deep subsurface storage reservoirs is a critical component of risk assessment for geologic CO2 storage (GCS). Local capillary trapping (LCT) is a recently established mode of immobilization that arises when CO2 migrates due to buoyancy through heterogeneous storage reservoirs. This project sought to assess the amount and extent of LCT expected in storage formations under a range of injection conditions, and to confirm the persistence of LCT if the seal overlying the reservoir were to lose its integrity. Numerical simulation using commercial reservoir simulation software was conducted to assess the influence of injection. Laboratory experiments, modeling and numerical simulation were conducted to assess the effect of compromised seal integrity. Bench-scale (0.6 m by 0.6 m by 0.03 m) experiments with surrogate fluids provided the first empirical confirmation of the key concepts underlying LCT: accumulation of buoyant nonwetting phase at above residual saturations beneath capillary barriers in a variety of structures, which remains immobile under normal capillary pressure gradients. Immobilization of above-residual saturations is a critical distinction between LCT and the more familiar “residual saturation trapping.” To estimate the possible extent of LCT in a storage reservoir an algorithm was developed to identify all potential local traps, given the spatial distribution of capillary entry pressure in the reservoir. The algorithm assumes that the driving force for CO2 migration can be represented as a single value of “critical capillary entry pressure” Pc,entrycrit, such that cells with capillary entry pressure greater/less than Pc,entrycrit act as barriers/potential traps during CO2 migration. At intermediate values of Pc,entrycrit, the barrier regions become more laterally extensive in the reservoir

  1. On the interplay effects with proton scanning beams in stage III lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yupeng; Kardar, Laleh; Liao, Li; Lim, Gino; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Heng; Zhu, Ronald X.; Sahoo, Narayan; Gillin, Michael; Zhang, Xiaodong; Cao, Wenhua; Chang, Joe Y.; Liao, Zhongxing; Komaki, Ritsuko; Cox, James D.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To assess the dosimetric impact of interplay between spot-scanning proton beam and respiratory motion in intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) for stage III lung cancer. Methods: Eleven patients were sampled from 112 patients with stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer to well represent the distribution of 112 patients in terms of target size and motion. Clinical target volumes (CTVs) and planning target volumes (PTVs) were defined according to the authors' clinical protocol. Uniform and realistic breathing patterns were considered along with regular- and hypofractionation scenarios. The dose contributed by a spot was fully calculated on the computed tomography (CT) images corresponding to the respiratory phase that the spot is delivered, and then accumulated to the reference phase of the 4DCT to generate the dynamic dose that provides an estimation of what might be delivered under the influence of interplay effect. The dynamic dose distributions at different numbers of fractions were compared with the corresponding 4D composite dose which is the equally weighted average of the doses, respectively, computed on respiratory phases of a 4DCT image set. Results: Under regular fractionation, the average and maximum differences in CTV coverage between the 4D composite and dynamic doses after delivery of all 35 fractions were no more than 0.2% and 0.9%, respectively. The maximum differences between the two dose distributions for the maximum dose to the spinal cord, heart V40, esophagus V55, and lung V20 were 1.2 Gy, 0.1%, 0.8%, and 0.4%, respectively. Although relatively large differences in single fraction, correlated with small CTVs relative to motions, were observed, the authors' biological response calculations suggested that this interfractional dose variation may have limited biological impact. Assuming a hypofractionation scenario, the differences between the 4D composite and dynamic doses were well confined even for single fraction. Conclusions: Despite

  2. Malonate-containing manganese(III) complexes: synthesis, crystal structure, and magnetic properties of AsPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2].

    PubMed

    Delgado, Fernando S; Kerbellec, Nicolas; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina; Cano, Joan; Lloret, Francesc; Julve, Miguel

    2006-02-06

    The novel manganese(III) complexes PPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2] (1) and AsPh4[Mn(mal)2(H2O)2] (2) (PPh4+ = tetraphenylphosphonium cation, AsPh4+ = tetraphenylarsonium cation, and H2mal = malonic acid) have been prepared, and the structure of 2 was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. 2 is a mononuclear complex whose structure is made up of trans-diaquabis(malonato)manganate(III) units and tetraphenylarsonium cations. Two crystallographically independent manganese(III) ions (Mn(1) and Mn(2)) occur in 2 that exhibit elongated octahedral surroundings with four oxygen atoms from two bidentate malonate groups in equatorial positions (Mn(1)-O = 1.923(6) and 1.9328(6) A and Mn(2)-O = 1.894(6) and 1.925(6) A) and two trans-coordinated water molecules in the axial sites (Mn(1)-Ow = 2.245(6) A and Mn(2)-Ow = 2.268(6) A). The [Mn(mal)2(H2O)2]- units are linked through hydrogen bonds involving the free malonate-oxygen atoms and the coordinated water molecules to yield a quasi-square-type anionic layer growing in the ab plane. The shortest intralayer metal-metal separations are 7.1557(7) and 7.1526(7) A (through the edges of the square). The anionic sheets are separated from each other by layers of AsPh4+ where sextuple- and double-phenyl embraces occur. The magnetic behavior of 1 and 2 in the temperature range 1.9-290 K reveals the occurrence of weak intralayer ferromagnetic interactions (J = +0.081(1) (1) and +0.072(2) cm(-1) (2)). These values are compared to those of the weak antiferromagnetic coupling [J = -0.19(1) cm(-1)], which is observed in the chain compound K2[Mn(mal)2(MeOH)2][Mn(mal)2] (3), where the exchange pathway involves the carboxyate-malonate bridge in the anti-syn conformation. The structure of 3 was reported elsewhere. Theoretical calculations on fragment models of 2 and 3 were performed to analyze and substantiate both the nature and magnitude of the magnetic couplings observed.

  3. Direct observation of lanthanide(III)-phthalocyanine molecules on Au(111) by using scanning tunneling microscopy and scanning tunneling spectroscopy and thin-film field-effect transistor properties of Tb(III)- and Dy(III)-phthalocyanine molecules.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Keiichi; Yoshida, Yusuke; Yamashita, Masahiro; Miyasaka, Hitoshi; Breedlove, Brian K; Kajiwara, Takashi; Takaishi, Shinya; Ishikawa, Naoto; Isshiki, Hironari; Zhang, Yan Feng; Komeda, Tadahiro; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Takeya, Jun

    2009-07-29

    The crystal structures of double-decker single molecule magnets (SMM) LnPc(2) (Ln = Tb(III) and Dy(III); Pc = phthalocyanine) and non-SMM YPc(2) were determined by using X-ray diffraction analysis. The compounds are isomorphous to each other. The compounds have metal centers (M = Tb(3+), Dy(3+), and Y(3+)) sandwiched by two Pc ligands via eight isoindole-nitrogen atoms in a square-antiprism fashion. The twist angle between the two Pc ligands is 41.4 degrees. Scanning tunneling microscopy was used to investigate the compounds adsorbed on a Au(111) surface, deposited by using the thermal evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum. Both MPc(2) with eight lobes and MPc with four lobes, which has lost one Pc ligand, were observed. In the scanning tunneling spectroscopy images of TbPc molecules at 4.8 K, a Kondo peak with a Kondo temperature (T(K)) of approximately 250 K was observed near the Fermi level (V = 0 V). On the other hand, DyPc, YPc, and MPc(2) exhibited no Kondo peak. To understand the observed Kondo effect, the energy splitting of sublevels in a crystal field should be taken into consideration. As the next step in our studies on the SMM/Kondo effect in Tb-Pc derivatives, we investigated the electronic transport properties of Ln-Pc molecules as the active layer in top- and bottom-contact thin-film organic field effect transistor devices. Tb-Pc molecule devices exhibit p-type semiconducting properties with a hole mobility (mu(H)) of approximately 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Interestingly, the Dy-Pc based devices exhibited ambipolar semiconducting properties with an electron mobility (mu(e)) of approximately 10(-5) and a mu(H) of approximately 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). This behavior has important implications for the electronic structure of the molecules.

  4. A comparison of pure mode I and mixed mode I-III cracking of an adhesive containing an open knit cloth carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripling, E. J.; Crosley, P. B.; Johnson, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Static and fatigue tests were carried out on two commercial modified epoxy film adhesives with a wide open knit polyester carrier in order to compare crack resistance in mode I and mixed mode I-III loading. The carrier cloth is found to have a significant influence on the cracking behavior of the adhesives. The open air net carrier used in this study separates from the adhesive in mode I cracking but shreds during mixed-mode crack extension. This decreases the opening mode toughness but increases the mixed-mode toughness as compared with results obtained earlier using a heavier knit carrier. The results suggest that the type of carrier may have a far larger influence on crack resistance than is generally recognized.

  5. Bismuth(III) deferiprone effectively inhibits growth of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774.

    PubMed

    Barton, Larry L; Lyle, Daniel A; Ritz, Nathaniel L; Granat, Alex S; Khurshid, Ali N; Kherbik, Nada; Hider, Robert; Lin, Henry C

    2016-04-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria have been implicated in inflammatory bowel diseases and ulcerative colitis in humans and there is an interest in inhibiting the growth of these sulfide-producing bacteria. This research explores the use of several chelators of bismuth to determine the most effective chelator to inhibit the growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. For our studies, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ATCC 27774 was grown with nitrate as the electron acceptor and chelated bismuth compounds were added to test for inhibition of growth. Varying levels of inhibition were attributed to bismuth chelated with subsalicylate or citrate but the most effective inhibition of growth by D. desulfuricans was with bismuth chelated by deferiprone, 3-hydroxy-1,2-dimethyl-4(1H)-pyridone. Growth of D. desulfuricans was inhibited by 10 μM bismuth as deferiprone:bismuth with either nitrate or sulfate respiration. Our studies indicate deferiprone:bismuth has bacteriostatic activity on D. desulfuricans because the inhibition can be reversed following exposure to 1 mM bismuth for 1 h at 32 °C. We suggest that deferiprone is an appropriate chelator for bismuth to control growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria because deferiprone is relatively nontoxic to animals, including humans, and has been used for many years to bind Fe(III) in the treatment of β-thalassemia.

  6. Proton irradiation effects on advanced digital and microwave III-V components

    SciTech Connect

    Hash, G.L.; Schwank, J.R.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Sandoval, C.E.; Connors, M.P.; Sheridan, T.J.; Sexton, F.W.; Slayton, E.M.; Heise, J.A.; Foster, C.

    1994-09-01

    A wide range of advanced III-V components suitable for use in high-speed satellite communication systems were evaluated for displacement damage and single-event effects in high-energy, high-fluence proton environments. Transistors and integrated circuits (both digital and MMIC) were irradiated with protons at energies from 41 to 197 MeV and at fluences from 10{sup 10} to 2 {times} 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2}. Large soft-error rates were measured for digital GaAs MESFET (3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} errors/bit-day) and heterojunction bipolar circuits (10{sup {minus}5} errors/bit-day). No transient signals were detected from MMIC circuits. The largest degradation in transistor response caused by displacement damage was observed for 1.0-{mu}m depletion- and enhancement-mode MESFET transistors. Shorter gate length MESFET transistors and HEMT transistors exhibited less displacement-induced damage. These results show that memory-intensive GaAs digital circuits may result in significant system degradation due to single-event upset in natural and man-made space environments. However, displacement damage effects should not be a limiting factor for fluence levels up to 10{sup 14} protons/cm{sup 2} [equivalent to total doses in excess of 10 Mrad(GaAs)].

  7. Antimicrobial effects of helix D-derived peptides of human antithrombin III.

    PubMed

    Papareddy, Praveen; Kalle, Martina; Bhongir, Ravi K V; Mörgelin, Matthias; Malmsten, Martin; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2014-10-24

    Antithrombin III (ATIII) is a key antiproteinase involved in blood coagulation. Previous investigations have shown that ATIII is degraded by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, leading to release of heparin binding fragments derived from its D helix. As heparin binding and antimicrobial activity of peptides frequently overlap, we here set out to explore possible antibacterial effects of intact and degraded ATIII. In contrast to intact ATIII, the results showed that extensive degradation of the molecule yielded fragments with antimicrobial activity. Correspondingly, the heparin-binding, helix D-derived, peptide FFFAKLNCRLYRKANKSSKLV (FFF21) of human ATIII, was found to be antimicrobial against particularly the Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy studies demonstrated that FFF21 binds to and permeabilizes bacterial membranes. Analogously, FFF21 was found to induce membrane leakage of model anionic liposomes. In vivo, FFF21 significantly reduced P. aeruginosa infection in mice. Additionally, FFF21 displayed anti-endotoxic effects in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest novel roles for ATIII-derived peptide fragments in host defense.

  8. Lemur responses to edge effects in the Vohibola III classified forest, Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Shawn M; Rajaonson, Andry; Day, Sabine

    2006-03-01

    Forest edges are dynamic zones characterized by the penetration (to varying depths and intensities) of conditions from the surrounding environment (matrix) into the forest interior. Although edge effects influence many tropical organisms, they have not been studied directly in primates. Edge effects are particularly relevant to lemurs because of the highly fragmented forest landscapes found in Madagascar. In this study, data are presented regarding how the densities of six lemur species (Avahi laniger, Cheirogaleus major, Eulemur rubriventer, Hapalemur griseus griseus, Microcebus rufus, and Propithecus diadema edwardsi) varied between six 500-m interior transects and six 500-m edge transects in the Vohibola III Classified Forest in SE Madagascar. Diurnal (n = 433) and nocturnal (n = 128) lemur surveys were conducted during June-October 2003 and May-November 2004. A. laniger, E. rubriventer, and H. g. griseus exhibited a neutral edge response (no differences in densities between habitats). M. rufus and P. d. edwardsi had a positive edge response (higher densities in edge habitats), which may be related to edge-related variations in food abundance and quality. Positive edge responses by M. rufus and P. d. edwardsi may ultimately be detrimental due to edge-related anthropogenic factors (e.g., hunting by local people). The negative edge response exhibited by C. major (lower densities in edge habitats) may result from heightened ambient temperatures that inhibit torpor in edge habitats.

  9. An Examination of the Effect of Coach Leadership Behaviors on the Psychosocial Development of Division III College Football Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Gary P.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between student athlete development and coach leadership behaviors in NCAA Division III football players. Three key elements support this study. The first, Thelma Horn's model of coaching effectiveness, provided the framework for the impact of coaching behaviors on student athlete development. The second,…

  10. Ionic Strength Effect on the Rate of Reduction of Hexacyanoferrate (III) by Ascorbic Acid: A Physical Chemistry Laboratory Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Kenneth W.; Olson, June A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a physical chemistry experiment that allows students to test the effect of ionic strength on the rates of a reaction between ions. The reduction of hexacyanoferrate III by ascorbic acid is detailed. Comparisons with the iodine clock reaction are made. (CS)

  11. Talents and Type Iiis: The Effects of the Talents Unlimited Model on Creative Productivity in Gifted Youngsters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jane L.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined a set of lessons that integrate the Talents Unlimited Model (TU; C. L. Schlichter, 1986) with the 10 steps of completing a Type III activity (J. S. Renzulli & S. M. Reis, 1985) to determine the effects of these lessons on the quality of students' creative products and on the number of students who completed their products.…

  12. Monocationic gold(III) Gly-L-His and L-Ala-L-His dipeptide complexes: crystal structures arising from solvent free and solvent-containing crystal formation and structural modifications tuned by counter-anions.

    PubMed

    Rychlewska, Urszula; Warzajtis, Beata; Glisić, Biljana D; Zivković, Marija D; Rajković, Snezana; Djuran, Milos I

    2010-10-14

    Monocationic gold(III) complexes with histidine-containing peptides, glycyl-L-histidine (Gly-L-His) and L-alanyl-L-histidine (L-Ala-L-His) have been synthesized and characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The crystallized Au(III) complexes, [Au(Gly-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·1.25H(2)O and [Au(L-Ala-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·2.5H(2)O, were obtained from water solution at pH < 1.0. The chemical shifts in the (1)H NMR spectra of [Au(Gly-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·1.25H(2)O and [Au(L-Ala-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·2.5H(2)O complexes were compared with those for the corresponding Pd(II) complexes and for Pd(II) and Au(III) complexes with Gly-Gly-L-His tripeptide. Crystal data for the hydrated [Au(Gly-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·1.25H(2)O complex and its serendipitously obtained unhydrated form were compared with previously reported X-ray data for the hydrated chloride complex [Au(Gly-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]Cl·3H(2)O and with the analogous, though uncharged, Pd(II) and Pt(II) complexes. Furthermore, in the present study the crystal structure of the nitrate salt of Au(III) complex with L-Ala-L-His dipeptide, [Au(L-Ala-L-His-N,N',N'')Cl]NO(3)·2.5H(2)O has been determined.

  13. Mapping the effective mass of electrons in III-V semiconductor quantum confined structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, M. H.; Papworth, A. J.; Beanland, R.; Bullough, T. J.; Chalker, P. R.

    2006-01-01

    The electron effective mass me* can be calculated from the Kramers-Kronig transformation of electron energy loss spectra (EELS) for III-V semiconductor materials. The mapping capabilities of a scanning transmission electron microscope, equipped with a GatanEnfina™ EELS system are exploited to produce maps showing the variation of me* with nanometer scale resolution for a range of semiconductors. The analysis was carried out on three material systems: a GaInNAs quantum well in a GaAs matrix; InAs quantum dots in a GaAs matrix, and bulk wurzitic GaN. Values of me* were measured as ˜0.07m0 for GaAs and 0.183m0 for GaN, both in excellent agreement with the literature. It has also been shown that the high frequency dielectric constant can be calculated using the Kramers-Kronig methodology. When the high frequency dielectric constant is incorporated into the calculations a much more accurate visual representation of me* is displayed in the maps.

  14. Anticarcinogenic effects of hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride in mice initiated with diethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Naura, Amarjit S; Kalla, Natwar R; Sharma, Raj P; Sharma, Rajeshwar

    2007-11-01

    Hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride ([Co(NH3)6]Cl3) was investigated for its antineoplastic role in relation to tumor marker enzymes, drug metabolizing enzymes, oxidative stress-related parameters, and histopathological analysis of liver and lung tissues of mice. Initiation was performed using a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) at a carcinogenic dose of 90 mg/kg body weight. The cobalt complex supplementation at a dose of 100 ppm in drinking water was given ad libitum throughout the experimental period of 14 weeks. In comparison to lung, the cobalt complex supplementation was found to reverse DENA-induced biochemical changes more effectively in liver. Histological examination of liver and lung from DENA-initiated and cobalt-complex-supplemented mice showed considerable protection in the case of liver compared to that of lung. The involvement of the [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 in modulating several factors associated with carcinogenesis induced by DENA thus showed its anticarcinogenic potential against chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  15. Effective Collision Strengths for Electron Impact Excitation of Inelastic Transitions in S III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tayal, S. S.

    1997-01-01

    We have calculated electron collisional excitation strengths for all electric dipole forbidden, semi-forbidden, and allowed transitions among the lowest 17 LS states 3s(exp 2)3p(exp 2) P-3, D-1, S-1, 3s3p(exp 3)S-5(exp 0), D-3(exp 0), P-3(exp 0), P-1(exp 0), S-3(exp 0), D-1(exp 0), 3S(exp 2)3p3d D-1(exp 0), F-3(exp 0), P-3(exp 0), D-3(exp 0), F-3(exp 0), P-1(exp 0), and 3S(exp 2)3p4S P-3(exp 0), P-l(exp 0) of S III using the R-matrix method. These S m states are represented by fairly extensive configuration-interaction wave functions that yield excited state energies in close agreement with recent laboratory measurements. Rydberg series of resonances converging to the excited state thresholds are explicitly included in the scattering calculation. The effective collision strengths are determined assuming Maxwellian distribution of electron energies. These are listed over a wide temperature range ([0.5-10] x 10(exp 4) K) and compared, where possible, with other available calculations. Subject headings: atomic data - atomic processes

  16. Fluorescence and DNA-binding spectral studies of neodymium(III) complex containing 2,2'-bipyridine, [Nd(bpy) 2Cl 3·OH 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Mirkazehi-Rigi, Sohaila

    2010-02-01

    The interaction of [Nd(bpy) 2Cl 3·OH 2], where bipy is 2,2'-bipyridine, with DNA has been studied by absorption, emission, and viscosity measurements. [Nd(bpy) 2Cl 3·OH 2] showed absorption decreasing in charge transfer band with increasing of DNA. The binding constant, Kb has been determined by absorption measurement and found to be (1.5 ± 0.1) × 10 5 M -1. The fluorescent of [Nd(bpy) 2Cl 3·OH 2] has been investigated in detail. The interaction was also studied by fluorescence quenching technique. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that DNA had the strong ability to quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of Nd(III) complex at 327 nm. The binding site number n, apparent binding constant Kb and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant KSV have been determined. Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated according to relevant fluorescent data and Van't Hoff equation. Characterization of bonding mode has been studied. The results suggested that the major interaction mode between [Nd(bpy) 2Cl 3·OH 2] and DNA was groove binding.

  17. In situ chemical oxidation of contaminated groundwater by persulfate: decomposition by Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-containing oxides and aquifer materials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haizhou; Bruton, Thomas A; Doyle, Fiona M; Sedlak, David L

    2014-09-02

    Persulfate (S2O8(2-)) is being used increasingly for in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of organic contaminants in groundwater, despite an incomplete understanding of the mechanism through which it is converted into reactive species. In particular, the decomposition of persulfate by naturally occurring mineral surfaces has not been studied in detail. To gain insight into the reaction rates and mechanism of persulfate decomposition in the subsurface, and to identify possible approaches for improving its efficacy, the decomposition of persulfate was investigated in the presence of pure metal oxides, clays, and representative aquifer solids collected from field sites in the presence and absence of benzene. Under conditions typical of groundwater, Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-oxides catalytically converted persulfate into sulfate radical (SO4(•-)) and hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) over time scales of several weeks at rates that were 2-20 times faster than those observed in metal-free systems. Amorphous ferrihydrite was the most reactive iron mineral with respect to persulfate decomposition, with reaction rates proportional to solid mass and surface area. As a result of radical chain reactions, the rate of persulfate decomposition increased by as much as 100 times when benzene concentrations exceeded 0.1 mM. Due to its relatively slow rate of decomposition in the subsurface, it can be advantageous to inject persulfate into groundwater, allowing it to migrate to zones of low hydraulic conductivity where clays, metal oxides, and contaminants will accelerate its conversion into reactive oxidants.

  18. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of organic contaminants containing diverse microbial population by combined microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) and anaerobic reactor under Fe(III) reducing conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxin; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Afzal, Shahzad

    2013-05-01

    Microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) devices are efficient for wastewater treatment, but its application was limited due to low anode oxidation rate. The objective of this study was to improve anode performance of a MEC combined anaerobic reactor (R1) for high concentration industrial wastewater treatment via dosing Fe(OH)3. For the first 53 days without power, the addition of Fe(OH)3 in R1 enhanced the degradation of reactive brilliant red X-3B dye and sucrose. Applying a voltage of 0.8 V in R1 resulted in a higher decolorization and COD removal through driving the redox reactions at electrodes under Fe(III)-reducing conditions. Real-time PCR and enzyme activity analysis showed that the abundance and azoreductase activity of bacteria were improved in R1. Pyrosequencing revealed that dominant populations in anode biofilm and R1 were more diverse and abundant than the common anaerobic reactor (R2), and there was a significant distinction among anode film, R1 and R2 in microbial community structure.

  19. Fluorescence and DNA-binding spectral studies of neodymium(III) complex containing 2,2'-bipyridine, [Nd(bpy)2Cl(3)xOH2].

    PubMed

    Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Noroozifar, Meissam; Mirkazehi-Rigi, Sohaila

    2010-02-01

    The interaction of [Nd(bpy)(2)Cl(3)xOH(2)], where bipy is 2,2'-bipyridine, with DNA has been studied by absorption, emission, and viscosity measurements. [Nd(bpy)(2)Cl(3)xOH(2)] showed absorption decreasing in charge transfer band with increasing of DNA. The binding constant, K(b) has been determined by absorption measurement and found to be (1.5+/-0.1)x10(5)M(-1). The fluorescent of [Nd(bpy)(2)Cl(3)xOH(2)] has been investigated in detail. The interaction was also studied by fluorescence quenching technique. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that DNA had the strong ability to quenching the intrinsic fluorescence of Nd(III) complex at 327 nm. The binding site number n, apparent binding constant K(b) and the Stern-Volmer quenching constant K(SV) have been determined. Thermodynamic parameters have been calculated according to relevant fluorescent data and Van't Hoff equation. Characterization of bonding mode has been studied. The results suggested that the major interaction mode between [Nd(bpy)(2)Cl(3)xOH(2)] and DNA was groove binding.

  20. The Bordetella type III secretion system effector BteA contains a conserved N-terminal motif that guides bacterial virulence factors to lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    French, Christopher T; Panina, Ekaterina M; Yeh, Sylvia H; Griffith, Natasha; Arambula, Diego G; Miller, Jeff F

    2009-12-01

    The Bordetella type III secretion system (T3SS) effector protein BteA is necessary and sufficient for rapid cytotoxicity in a wide range of mammalian cells. We show that BteA is highly conserved and functionally interchangeable between Bordetella bronchiseptica, Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis. The identification of BteA sequences required for cytotoxicity allowed the construction of non-cytotoxic mutants for localization studies. BteA derivatives were targeted to lipid rafts and showed clear colocalization with cortical actin, ezrin and the lipid raft marker GM1. We hypothesized that BteA associates with the cytoplasmic face of lipid rafts to locally modulate host cell responses to Bordetella attachment. B. bronchiseptica adhered to host cells almost exclusively to GM1-enriched lipid raft microdomains and BteA colocalized to these same sites following T3SS-mediated translocation. Disruption of lipid rafts with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin protected cells from T3SS-induced cytotoxicity. Localization to lipid rafts was mediated by a 130-amino-acid lipid raft targeting domain at the N-terminus of BteA, and homologous domains were identified in virulence factors from other bacterial species. Lipid raft targeting sequences from a T3SS effector (Plu4750) and an RTX-type toxin (Plu3217) from Photorhabdus luminescens directed fusion proteins to lipid rafts in a manner identical to the N-terminus of BteA.

  1. Anomalous dielectric behaviour in centrosymmetric organic–inorganic hybrid chlorobismuthate(III) containing functional N,N-dimethylethylammonium ligand. Crystal structure and properties

    SciTech Connect

    Piecha, A.; Gągor, A.; Węcławik, M.; Jakubas, R.; Medycki, W.

    2013-01-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► Novel organic–inorganic hybrid chlorobismuthate(III). ► Unprecedented dielectric response in non-polar material. ► Dielectric relaxation characterized by an exceptionally large dielectric increment. ► The NMR measurements confirmed dynamic disorder of cations. -- Abstract: The structure of [C{sub 2}H{sub 5}NH(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup +}]{sub 3}[BiCl{sub 6}{sup −}] (abbreviated as DCB) was determined by a single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 115 K. The compound adopts tetragonal symmetry with the space group I4{sub 1}/acd; a = 23.35 Å, c = 17.60 Å, V = 9598 Å{sup 3} and Z = 16. The crystal structure of DCB is built up of isolated [BiCl{sub 6}]{sup 3−} units and N,N-dimethylethylammonium counterions that are accommodated in the large voids. At ambient temperature two-thirds of the counterions appear to be dynamically disordered. Dynamics of this type of cations contributes to the enhanced dielectric permittivity of DCB. A low frequency dielectric relaxation process that takes place between 200 and 300 K is characterized by an exceptionally large dielectric increment, Δε > 100, which is unprecedented in nonferroelectric materials. The molecular motions of the N,N-dimethylethylammonium cations were studied by means of {sup 1}H NMR spin-lattice relaxation time measurements.

  2. Synthesis, spectral characterization, catalytic and antibacterial studies of new Ru(III) Schiff base complexes containing chloride/bromide and triphenylphosphine/arsine as co-ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, S.; Padma Priya, N.; Jayabalakrishnan, C.; Chinnusamy, V.

    2009-10-01

    A new Ru(III) Schiff base complexes of the type [RuX(EPh 3)L] (X = Cl/Br; E = P/As; L = dianion of the Schiff bases were derived by the condensation of 1,4-diformylbenzene with o-aminobenzoic acid/ o-aminophenol/ o-aminothiophenol in the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio) have been synthesized from the reactions of [RuX 3(EPh 3) 3] with appropriate Schiff base ligands in benzene in the 2:1 stoichiometric ratio. The new complexes have been characterized by analytical, spectral (IR, electronic, 1H, 13C NMR and ESR), magnetic moment and electrochemical studies. An octahedral structure has been tentatively proposed for all these new complexes. All the new complexes have been found to be better catalyst for the oxidation of alcohols using molecular oxygen as co-oxidant at ambient temperature and aryl-aryl coupling reactions. These complexes were also subjected to antibacterial activity studies against Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophilla and Salmonella typhi.

  3. [Generation of Superoxide Radicals by Complex III in Heart Mitochondria and Antioxidant Effect of Dinitrosyl Iron Complexes at Different Partial Pressure of Oxygen].

    PubMed

    Dudylina, A L; Ivanova, M V; Shumaev, K B; Ruuge, E K

    2016-01-01

    The EPR spin-trapping technique and EPR-oximetry were used to study generation of superoxide radicals in heart mitochondria isolated from Wistar rats under conditions of variable oxygen concentration. Lithium phthalocyanine and TEMPONE-15N-D16 were chosen to determine oxygen content in a gas-permeable capillary tube containing mitochondria. TIRON was used as a spin trap. We investigated the influence of different oxygen concentrations in incubation mixture and demonstrated that heart mitochondria can generate superoxide in complex III at different partial pressure of oxygen as well as under the conditions of deep hypoxia (< 5% O2). Dinitrosyl iron complexes with glutathione (the pharmaceutical drug "Oxacom") exerted an antioxidant effect, regardless of the value of the partial pressure of oxygen, but the magnitude and kinetic characteristics of the effect depended on the concentration of the drug.

  4. Band structure effects on resonant tunneling in III-V quantum wells versus two-dimensional vertical heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Philip M.; Tarasov, Alexey; Joiner, Corey A.; Ready, W. Jud; Vogel, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    Since the invention of the Esaki diode, resonant tunneling devices have been of interest for applications including multi-valued logic and communication systems. These devices are characterized by the presence of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic, resulting from lateral momentum conservation during the tunneling process. While a large amount of research has focused on III-V material systems, such as the GaAs/AlGaAs system, for resonant tunneling devices, poor device performance and device-to-device variability have limited widespread adoption. Recently, the symmetric field-effect transistor (symFET) was proposed as a resonant tunneling device incorporating symmetric 2-D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), separated by an interlayer barrier, such as hexagonal boron-nitride. The achievable peak-to-valley ratio for TMD symFETs has been predicted to be higher than has been observed for III-V resonant tunneling devices. This work examines the effect that band structure differences between III-V devices and TMDs has on device performance. It is shown that tunneling between the quantized subbands in III-V devices increases the valley current and decreases device performance, while the interlayer barrier height has a negligible impact on performance for barrier heights greater than approximately 0.5 eV.

  5. Band structure effects on resonant tunneling in III-V quantum wells versus two-dimensional vertical heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Philip M.; Tarasov, Alexey; Joiner, Corey A.; Vogel, Eric M.; Ready, W. Jud

    2016-01-14

    Since the invention of the Esaki diode, resonant tunneling devices have been of interest for applications including multi-valued logic and communication systems. These devices are characterized by the presence of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic, resulting from lateral momentum conservation during the tunneling process. While a large amount of research has focused on III-V material systems, such as the GaAs/AlGaAs system, for resonant tunneling devices, poor device performance and device-to-device variability have limited widespread adoption. Recently, the symmetric field-effect transistor (symFET) was proposed as a resonant tunneling device incorporating symmetric 2-D materials, such as transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), separated by an interlayer barrier, such as hexagonal boron-nitride. The achievable peak-to-valley ratio for TMD symFETs has been predicted to be higher than has been observed for III-V resonant tunneling devices. This work examines the effect that band structure differences between III-V devices and TMDs has on device performance. It is shown that tunneling between the quantized subbands in III-V devices increases the valley current and decreases device performance, while the interlayer barrier height has a negligible impact on performance for barrier heights greater than approximately 0.5 eV.

  6. Photodegradation of parabens by Fe(III)-citrate complexes at circumneutral pH: matrix effect and reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaonan; Chen, Yong; Fang, Yuan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Wang, Zongping; Tao, Tao; Zuo, Yuegang

    2014-02-15

    The photodegradation of four parabens including methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, and butyl-paraben in the presence of Fe(III)-citrate complexes under simulated sunlight was investigated. The degradation of parabens increased with decreasing pH within the range of 5.0-8.0 at the Fe(III)-to-citrate ratio of 10:150 (μM). The addition of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids showed different effects on the photodegradation of methylparaben. The low-photoreactive carboxylic acids inhibited the photodegradation of methylparaben in the order of formic acid>succinic acid>acetic acid>malonic acid. In contrast, oxalic acid enhanced the photodegradation and exhibited appreciable synergistic effect with Fe(III)-citrate at concentration higher than 500 μM. Up to 99.0% of substrate was degraded after 30 min at pH6.0 in the Fe(III)-citrate-oxalate system. The various fractions of fulvic acid inhibited the photodegradation of methylparaben. The inhibition increased with increasing nominal molecular weight of fractionated fulvic acid. Moreover, the photodegradation of methylparaben was inhibited in natural waters in the order of Liangzi Lake

  7. Effect of Wubeizi ointment aqueous solution on the expression of type I and III procollagen genes in keloid fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Xiao-Xiang; Ding, Ji-Cun; Tang, Zhi-Ming; Li, Jing-Guo; Chen, Xiang-Hui; Zhang, Cui-Xia

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of Wubeizi (WBZ) ointment on keloids. Keloid-derived fibroblast primary cultures were used to evaluate the effect of the different concentration of WBZ ointment on the expression of type I and III procollagen in keloid fibroblast primary cultures using dot blot assay. Type I and II precollagen cDNA probes labeled with non-radioactive digoxin were used for dot blot. Cell cultures were divided into 4 groups: The large dose group received 1 g/ml of WBZ, middle dose, and small dose groups received 0.5 and 0.25 g/ml of WBZ, respectively. The control group received serum-free medium without WBZ. Our results showed that type I and III procollagen mRNA expression was reduced significantly in the large dose and middle dose groups compared to the control group. Type I and III procollagen mRNA expression level in the small dose group had no statistically significant difference with the control group. However, the difference between the large dose group and the small dose group was statistically significant. We concluded that WBZ ointment aqueous solution restricted keloid fibroblast proliferation by downregulating the expression of type I and III procollagen and therefore reducing collagen deposition in keloid tissue.

  8. Oxidation of Benzene by Persulfate in the Presence of Fe(III)- and Mn(IV)-Containing Oxides: Stoichiometric Efficiency and Transformation Products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haizhou; Bruton, Thomas A; Li, Wei; Buren, Jean Van; Prasse, Carsten; Doyle, Fiona M; Sedlak, David L

    2016-01-19

    Sulfate radical (SO4(•-)) is a strong, short-lived oxidant that is produced when persulfate (S2O8(2-)) reacts with transition metal oxides during in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) of contaminated groundwater. Although engineers are aware of the ability of transition metal oxides to activate persulfate, the operation of ISCO remediation systems is hampered by an inadequate understanding of the factors that control SO4(•-) production and the overall efficiency of the process. To address these shortcomings, we assessed the stoichiometric efficiency and products of transition metal-catalyzed persulfate oxidation of benzene with pure iron- and manganese-containing minerals, clays, and aquifer solids. For most metal-containing solids, the stoichiometric efficiency, as determined by the loss of benzene relative to the loss of persulfate, approached the theoretical maximum. Rates of production of SO4(•-) or hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) generated from radical chain reactions were affected by the concentration of benzene, with rates of S2O8(2-) decomposition increasing as the benzene concentration increased. Under conditions selected to minimize the loss of initial transformation products through reaction with radicals, the production of phenol only accounted for 30%-60% of the benzene lost in the presence of O2. The remaining products included a ring-cleavage product that appeared to contain an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde functional group. In the absence of O2, the concentration of the ring-cleavage product increased relative to phenol. The formation of the ring-cleavage product warrants further studies of its toxicity and persistence in the subsurface.

  9. Diiron(III)-μ-Fluoro Bisporphyrins: Effect of Bridging Ligand on the Metal Spin State.

    PubMed

    Sil, Debangsu; Kumar, Amit; Rath, Sankar Prasad

    2016-08-01

    A hitherto unknown family of diiron(III)-μ-fluoro bisporphyrins has been synthesized and structurally characterized. Fluoride abstraction from SbF6 (-) and BF4 (-) resulted in the synthesis of the μ-fluoro complexes of ethane- and ethene-bridged diiron(III) bisporphyrins. Two such complexes were structurally characterized, which revealed a single fluoro bridge between two iron centers with a remarkably bent Fe-F-Fe unit. Although isoelectronic with the μ-hydroxo complexes, the μ-fluoro species are quite divergent in terms of the electronic structure and properties. UV/Vis spectroscopy of the μ-fluoro complex exhibits a large redshift (ca. 18 nm) of the Soret band in comparison to their μ-hydroxo analog. Combined analysis by single crystal X-ray structure determination and Mössbauer and (1) H NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of two equivalent iron(III) centers in the μ-fluoro complexes in both solid and solution phases. In contrast, the iron(III) centers of the μ-hydroxo complexes are known to be inequivalent. Variable-temperature magnetic studies show a weak antiferromagnetic interaction between the iron(III) centers of the μ-fluoro complexes with coupling constants (J) ranging from -33 to -40 cm(-1) . The experimental results were further supported by DFT calculations.

  10. Noncontact dipole effects on channel permeation. III. Anomalous proton conductance effects in gramicidin

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, LR; Cole, CD; Hendershot, RJ; Cotten, M; Cross, TA; Busath, DD

    1999-01-01

    Proton transport on water wires, of interest for many problems in membrane biology, is analyzed in side-chain analogs of gramicidin A channels. In symmetrical 0.1 N HCl solutions, fluorination of channel Trp(11), Trp-(13), or Trp(15) side chains is found to inhibit proton transport, and replacement of one or more Trps with Phe enhances proton transport, the opposite of the effects on K(+) transport in lecithin bilayers. The current-voltage relations are superlinear, indicating that some membrane field-dependent process is rate limiting. The interfacial dipole effects are usually assumed to affect the rate of cation translocation across the channel. For proton conductance, however, water reorientation after proton translocation is anticipated to be rate limiting. We propose that the findings reported here are most readily interpreted as the result of dipole-dipole interactions between channel waters and polar side chains or lipid headgroups. In particular, if reorientation of the water column begins with the water nearest the channel exit, this hypothesis explains the negative impact of fluorination and the positive impact of headgroup dipole on proton conductance. PMID:20540928

  11. EFFECTS OF TWO ANTIHISTAMINE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS UPON PERFORMANCE AT THREE ALTITUDES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    performance on a modified Mashburn coordinator. Another compound containing the antihistamine chlorpheniramine did impair performance. Performance was also...impaired by increasing altitudes. The combined effects of the chlorpheniramine compound and increased altitude proved more detrimental to

  12. Corn silage management III: effects of hybrid, maturity, and processing on nitrogen metabolism and ruminal fermentation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, L M; Harrison, J H; Davidson, D; Swift, M; Mahanna, W C; Shinners, K

    2002-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of maturity and mechanical processing of two hybrids of whole plant corn silage on DM and OM digestibility, nitrogen metabolism, ruminal fermentation, and milk production and composition in lactating Holstein cows. In the first experiment, Pioneer hybrid 3845 whole plant corn was harvested at hard dough, one-third milkline, and two-thirds milkline with a theoretical length-of-cut of 6.4 mm. At each stage of maturity, corn was harvested with (1-mm roll clearance) and without (15.9-mm roll clearance) mechanical processing using a John Deere 5830 harvester with an on-board kernel processor. In the second experiment, Pioneer hybrids 3845 and Quanta were harvested at one-third milkline, two-thirds milkline, and blackline stages of maturity with and without mechanical processing. The theoretical length-of-cut was 12.7 mm. Total tract DM and OM digestibilities were lower for cows fed diets containing processed corn silage in experiment 1, and tended to be lower for cows fed diets containing unprocessed corn silage in experiment 2. Ruminal acetate concentrations were greater and ruminal propionate concentrations were lower 2 and 6 h after feeding for cows fed diets containing corn silage harvested at physiological maturity in experiment 2. This was due to decreased digestion of starch at advanced maturities in experiment 2. Ruminal pH tended to decline rapidly after feeding for cows fed hybrid Quanta (2 h) compared to hybrid 3845 (5 h) corn silage based diets. Ruminal acetate concentrations decreased and ruminal propionate concentrations increased 2 and 6 h after feeding for cows fed diets containing hybrid Quanta corn silage compared to hybrid 3845 corn silage. This was related to a greater starch concentration in the corn silage, greater starch intake, and increased rate of starch digestion for cows fed hybrid Quanta corn silage-based diets. Microbial nitrogen flow was lower and feed nitrogen flow was greater for

  13. Effect of a combined oral contraceptive containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 75 microg gestodene on hemostatic parameters.

    PubMed

    Aldrighi, José Mendes; De Campos, Luis Salvoni Carneiro; Eluf Gebara, Otávio Celso; Petta, Carlos Alberto; Bahamondes, Luis

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 75 microg gestodene (GSD) on prothrombin activity (PA), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), platelet number, fibrinogen, antithrombin III (ATIII), protein C, protein S and D-dimer were evaluated over 6 months in 23 young, healthy women. Laboratory assessments were performed prior to initiation of COC use (pretreatment) and after 3 and 6 months of use. Results showed no significant changes in fibrinogen, protein C, ATIII or D-dimer during COC use, compared with pretreatment values. The increase in platelet count, decreases in protein S level, PA and APTT, and the prolongation of TT were significant. In conclusion, the use of a COC containing 20 microg EE and 75 microg GSD did not cause any significant changes in the hemostatic parameters studied that could be suggestive of a higher prothrombotic risk. Further studies with a larger sample size are necessary in order to obtain conclusive data.

  14. Effect of electrolyte components on the magnetic and magnetoresistive characteristics of Fe-containing plasma electrolytic oxide coatings on titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnev, V. S.; Adigamova, M. V.; Tkachenko, I. A.; Sergienko, V. I.; Yanushkevich, K. I.; Aplesnin, S. S.; Lukiyanchuk, I. V.; Morozova, V. P.; Medkov, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    The effect replacing Na3PO4 with Na2HPO4 in aqueous phosphate-borate-tungstate electrolyte that additionally contains Fe2(C2O4)3 on the magnetic and magnetoresistive characteristics of oxide coating/ titanium composites formed by means of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is investigated. It is established that PEO coatings with ferromagnetic characteristics form on titanium in an electrolyte containing Na3PO4 (pH 11) upon adding iron(III) oxalate, while replacing Na3PO4 with Na2HPO4 and the respective drop in the pH of the base electrolyte down to 9.8 results in the formation of coatings with different magnetic characteristics. The correlation between changes in the values of the charge carriers' activation energy and the magnetic susceptibility is demonstrated for the latter. An increase in the electric resistance of coatings in a magnetic field is observed, and the type of the magnetic resistance temperature dependence is established.

  15. Oxidation of Cr(III) on birnessite surfaces: The effect of goethite and kaolinite.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Laiyuan; Yang, Jiewen; Liu, Liming; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-11-01

    Oxidation of Cr(III) by manganese oxides may pose a potential threat to environments due to the formation of toxic Cr(VI) species. At present, it was still unclear whether the extent of Cr(III) oxidation and fate of Cr(VI) would be changed when manganese oxides co-exist with other minerals, the case commonly occurring in soils. This study investigated the influence of goethite and kaolinite on Cr(III) oxidation by birnessite under acidic pH condition (pH3.5) and background electrolyte of 0.01mol/L NaCl. Goethite was found not to affect Cr(III) oxidation, which was interpreted as the result of overwhelming adsorption of cationic Cr(III) onto the negatively-charged birnessite (point of zero charge (PZC)<3.0) rather than the positively-charged goethite (PZC=8.8). However, more Cr(VI) would be retained by the surface with the increase in addition of goethite because of its strong ability on adsorption of Cr(VI) at low pH. Moreover, either Cr(III) oxidation or distribution of the generated Cr(VI) between the solid and solution phases was not affected by kaolinite (PZC<3.0), indicating its low affinity for Cr species. Reactions occurring in the present mixed systems were suggested, which could be partly representative of those in the soils and further indicates that the mobility and risk of Cr(VI) would be decreased if goethite was present.

  16. Effects of plants containing secondary compounds and plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology.

    PubMed

    Wanapat, Metha; Kongmun, Pongthon; Poungchompu, Onanong; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Pilajun, Ruangyote; Kaenpakdee, Sujittra

    2012-03-01

    A number of experiments have been conducted to investigate effects of tropical plants containing condensed tannins and/or saponins present in tropical plants and some plant oils on rumen fermentation and ecology in ruminants. Based on both in vitro and in vivo trials, the results revealed important effects on rumen microorganisms and fermentation including methane production. Incorporation and/or supplementation of these plants containing secondary metabolites have potential for improving rumen ecology and subsequently productivity in ruminants.

  17. Cosmic Infrared Background From Population III Stars and Its Effect on Spectra of High-z Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kashlinsky, A.

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the contribution of Population III stars to the near-IR (NIR) cosmic infrared background (CIB) and its effect on spectra of high-z, high-energy gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and other sources. It is shown that if Population III is composed of massive stars, the claimed NIR CIB excess will be reproduced if only approx. 4% plus or minus 2% of all baryons went through these stars. Regardless of the precise amount of the NIR CIB due to them, they likely left enough photons to provide a large optical depth for high-energy photons from distant GRBs. Observations of such GRBs are expected following the planned launch of NASA's GLAST mission. Detecting such damping in the spectra of high-z GRBs will then provide important information on the emissions from the Population III epoch, and the location of this cutoff may serve as an indicator of the GRBs' redshifts. We also point out the difficulty of unambiguously detecting the CIB part originating from Population III in spectra of low-z blazars.

  18. High pressure synthesis and properties of ternary titanium (III) fluorides in the system KF-TiF{sub 3} containing regular pentagonal bipyramids [TiF{sub 7}

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, Shoji; Yasuda, Akira; Miyata, Hajime

    2010-01-15

    Titanium trifluoride TiF{sub 3} has the distorted ReO{sub 3} structure composed of corner sharing TiF{sub 6} octahedra linked with Ti-F-Ti bridges. Potassium fluoride KF was inserted into the bridges using high-pressure and high-temperature conditions (5 GPa, 1000-1200 deg. C). When the molar ratio KF/TiF{sub 3}>=1, a few low dimensional compounds were obtained forming non-bridged F ions. At the composition KF/TiF{sub 3}=1/2, a new compound KTi{sub 2}F{sub 7} was formed, which crystallizes with the space group Cmmm and the lattice parameters of a=6.371(3), b=10.448(6), c=3.958(2) A, consisting of edge-sharing pentagonal bipyramids [TiF{sub 7}] forming ribbons running along the a axis. The ribbons are linked by corners to construct a three-dimensional framework without forming non-bridged F ions. The compound is antiferromagnetic with the Neel temperature T{sub N}=75 K, and the optical band gap was 6.4 eV. A new fluoride K{sub 2}TiF{sub 5} (KF/TiF{sub 3}=2) with the space group Pbcn and the lattice parameters of a=7.4626(2), b=12.9544(4) and c=20.6906(7) A was also obtained by the high pressure and high temperature treatment (5 GPa at 1000 deg. C) of a molar mixture of 2 KF+TiF{sub 3}. The compound contains one-dimensional chains of corner-sharing TiF{sub 6} octahedra. - Graphical Abstract: A new ternary fluoride KTi{sub 2}F{sub 7} has been developed under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions, which contains pentagonal bipyramid polyhedra [TiF{sub 7}].

  19. Is alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction an effective protocol in the treatment of Class III malocclusion? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Nathalia de Lima; dos Santos, Camila Rangel Barreto; Baião, Felipe Carvalho Souza; Pinheiro, Murilo Costa Rangel; Matos, Manoel; Souza, Ianderlei Andrade; de Paula, Rafael Pereira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: the treatment of Class III malocclusion in early age is one of the greatest challenges for orthodontists, and the establishment of more effective treatment method is a constant concern for these professionals. Thus, the objective of this systematic review is to verify the effectiveness of the therapy protocol for alternate rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) in the early treatment of Class III malocclusion. Methods: searches were performed in the following electronic databases: Cochrane Library, Medline (EBSCO and PubMed), SciELO, LILACS and Scopus. The following inclusion criteria were used: in vivo studies conducted with early intervention (patient in craniofacial development phase) with the use of the Alt-RAMEC protocol. Reviews, case reports, editorials, and studies with syndromic patients or under use of systemic drug were excluded. Duplicates were also excluded. The studies were assessed for methodological quality using the Cochrane tool for assessment of risk of bias, and classified as high or low risk of bias. Results: 53 articles were found. Duplicates exclusion was thus performed and 35 articles remained. After inclusion analysis, only 5 matched the criteria. Two articles were classified as low risk of bias and three as high risk of bias. It was observed that the Alt-RAMEC enable protraction in less time and with better results, promoting greater effectiveness in the protraction treatment of Class III malocclusion. Conclusions: Although there is positive evidence of the effectiveness of early treatment with the Alt-RAMEC protocol in patients with Class III malocclusion, further studies are needed to confirm its effectiveness using long-term methodology. PMID:28125138

  20. Effects of hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride on oxidative stress-related parameters and drug metabolizing enzymes in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amarjit; Kalla, Natwar R; Sharma, Raj P; Sharma, Rajeshwar

    2007-01-01

    Hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride has been advocated as a potential anticarcinogenic compound. There is no information on the effects of this compound on oxidative stress-related parameters in animals. In the present study the effects of administration of hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride in drinking water to balb/c male mice at doses of 25, 50, and 100 ppm for 14 weeks were examined. The tissue distribution of the compound was seen in liver, kidney, lung, intestine, blood, and spleen. The effects of the compound were monitored on levels of lipid peroxidation, GSH content, and activities of SOD, catalase, GST, and Cyt P450, along with the liver and kidney function tests. The results show that the cobalt accumulated maximally in kidney followed by liver, intestine, blood, spleen, and lung in decreasing order, in a dose-dependent manner. GSH and GST also showed increase in a dose-dependent manner while SOD and catalase showed increase with the highest dose only. Liver and kidney function tests showed no untoward change with any dose at the end of the study. The results suggest an antioxidant potentiating effect of the hexaammine cobalt (III) chloride besides nontoxicity to liver and kidney. Since the ability to induce an increase of GSH and GST along with other detoxifying enzymes by anticarcinogenic agents has been reported to correlate with the inhibition of tumorigenesis, the cobalt complex might qualify as a potential cancer chemopreventive agent.

  1. Effectiveness of interceptive treatment of class III malocclusions with skeletal anchorage: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez de Guzmán-Barrera, Jorge; Sáez Martínez, Carla; Boronat-Catalá, Montserrat; Montiel-Company, Jose María; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa; Gandía-Franco, José Luís; Almerich-Silla, José Manuel; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Recently, new strategies for treating class III malocclusions have appeared. Skeletal anchorage appears to reduce the dentoalveolar effects while maximising the orthopaedic effect in growing patients. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the effectiveness of bone anchorage devices for interceptive treatment of skeletal class III malocclusions. Searches were made in the Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane databases, as well as in a grey literature database, and were complemented by hand-searching. The criteria for eligibility were: patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment with skeletal anchorage (miniplates and miniscrews). Patients with syndromes or craniofacial deformities or who had undergone maxillofacial surgery were excluded. The following variables were recorded for each article: author, year of publication, type of study, sample size, dropouts, demographic variables, treatment carried out, radiographic study (2D or 3D), follow-up time, and quality of the articles on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The means and confidence intervals of the following variables were employed: Wits, overjet, ANB, SNA and SNB. Initially, 239 articles were identified. After removing the duplicates and applying the selection criteria, 9 were included in the qualitative synthesis and 7 in the quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). It may be concluded that skeletal anchorage is an effective treatment for improving skeletal Class III malocclusion, but when compared with other traditional treatments such as disjunction and face mask, there is no clear evidence that skeletal anchorage improves the results. PMID:28328995

  2. The costs and effectiveness of large Phase III pre-licensure vaccine clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Black, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Prior to the 1980s, most vaccines were licensed based upon safety and effectiveness studies in several hundred individuals. Beginning with the evaluation of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines, much larger pre-licensure trials became common. The pre-licensure trial for Haemophilus influenzae oligosaccharide conjugate vaccine had more than 60,000 children and that of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine included almost 38,000 children. Although trial sizes for both of these studies were driven by the sample size required to demonstrate efficacy, the sample size requirements for safety evaluations of other vaccines have subsequently increased. With the demonstration of an increased risk of intussusception following the Rotashield brand rotavirus vaccine, this trend has continued. However, routinely requiring safety studies of 20,000-50,000 or more participants has two major downsides. First, the cost of performing large safety trials routinely prior to licensure of a vaccine is very large, with some estimates as high at US$200 million euros for one vaccine. This high financial cost engenders an opportunity cost whereby the number of vaccines that a company is willing or able to develop to meet public health needs becomes limited by this financial barrier. The second downside is that in the pre-licensure setting, such studies are very time consuming and delay the availability of a beneficial vaccine substantially. One might argue that in some situations, this financial commitment is warranted such as for evaluations of the risk of intussusception following newer rotavirus vaccines. However, it must be noted that while an increased risk of intussusception was not identified in large pre-licensure studies, in post marketing evaluations an increased risk of this outcome has been identified. Thus, even the extensive pre-licensure evaluations conducted did not identify an associated risk. The limitations of large Phase III trials have also been

  3. Comparative investigations on the biological effects of As (III) and As (V) in clam Ruditapes philippinarum using multiple biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chenglong; Xu, Hai'e; Wang, Qing; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2015-11-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a known pollutant with two chemical forms, arsenite (As (III)) and arsenate (As (V)), in marine environment. Clam Ruditapes philippinarum is an important fishery species along the Bohai coast. In this study, the biological effects induced by the two arsenic chemical forms (arsenite and arsenate) were compared using multiple biochemical indices in the digestive glands of clam R. philippinarum. The production of reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme activities and metabolic responses exhibited that both As (III) and As (V) induced immune, oxidative and osmotic stresses in clam digestive glands. The differential metabolic biomarkers, histidine and taurine, indicated the differential responsive mechanisms in osmotic regulation in clam digestive glands. In addition, both arsenic treatments enhanced the anaerobiosis metabolism in clam digestive glands. Overall, this work illustrated that arsenite and arsenate induced similar biological effects in clams, which might be accounted for the biological transformation of arsenate to arsenite in clams.

  4. Assessing the effectiveness of health care cost containment measures: evidence from the market for rehabilitation care.

    PubMed

    Ziebarth, Nicolas R

    2014-03-01

    This study empirically evaluates the effectiveness of different health care cost containment measures. The measures investigated were introduced in Germany in 1997 to reduce moral hazard and public health expenditures in the market for rehabilitation care. Of the analyzed measures, doubling the daily copayments was clearly the most effective cost containment measure, resulting in a reduction in utilization of about [Formula: see text] . Indirect measures such as allowing employers to cut federally mandated sick pay or paid vacation during inpatient post-acute care stays did not significantly reduce utilization. There is evidence neither for adverse health effects nor for substitution effects in terms of more doctor visits.

  5. Effect of the hemolytic lectin CEL-III from Holothuroidea Cucumaria echinata on the ANS fluorescence responses in sensitive MDCK and resistant CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Shinmura, N; Nishioka, Y; Komatsu, N; Hatakeyama, T; Muramatsu, T

    1999-04-01

    The addition of CEL-III to sensitive MDCK cells preincubated with 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) caused an increase in the fluorescence intensity of the probe. The increase in the ANS fluorescence caused by CEL-III was Ca2+-dependent and strongly inhibited by 0.1 M lactose, indicating that Ca2+-dependent binding of CEL-III to specific carbohydrate receptors on the plasma membrane is responsible for this phenomenon. In contrast, no significant effect of CEL-III on the ANS fluorescence was observed in CHO cells, which are highly resistant to CEL-III cytotoxicity. In MDCK cells, energy transfer from tryptophan residues to bound ANS molecules was observed in the presence of CEL-III, but not in CHO cells. Furthermore, the amount of ANS bound to MDCK cells increased as the concentration of CEL-III increased. Therefore, a simple interpretation is that the CEL-III-induced increase in ANS fluorescence is attributable to an increase of the hydrophobic region in the plasma membrane where ANS could bind. Immunoblotting analysis of proteins from cells treated with CEL-III indicated that CEL-III oligomers were irreversibly bound to the cells, and the amount of oligomer bound to MDCK cells was much greater than that bound to CHO cells under any conditions tested. The oligomerization may be accompanied by an enhancement of the hydrophobicity of CEL-III molecules, which in turn provides new ANS-binding sites. The difference in susceptibility of MDCK and CHO cells to CEL-III cytotoxicity may be due to a difference in oligomerization of bound CEL-III.

  6. 78 FR 20268 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Three Class III Preamendments Devices...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a proposed administrative order to require the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) for the following three class III preamendments devices: Sorbent hemoperfusion devices for the treatment of hepatic coma and metabolic disturbances; cranial electrotherapy stimulator......

  7. REVISITING THE FIRST GALAXIES: THE EFFECTS OF POPULATION III STARS ON THEIR HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Muratov, Alexander L.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Zemp, Marcel; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.

    2013-08-01

    We revisit the formation and evolution of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological simulations with the adaptive refinement tree code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for H{sub 2} formation and dissociation, and a star formation recipe that is based on molecular rather than atomic gas. Here, we develop and implement a recipe for the formation of metal-free Population III (Pop III) stars in galaxy-scale simulations that resolve primordial clouds with sufficiently high density. We base our recipe on the results of prior zoom-in simulations that resolved the protostellar collapse in pre-galactic objects. We find the epoch during which Pop III stars dominated the energy and metal budget of the first galaxies to be short-lived. Galaxies that host Pop III stars do not retain dynamical signatures of their thermal and radiative feedback for more than 10{sup 8} years after the lives of the stars end in pair-instability supernovae, even when we consider the maximum reasonable efficiency of the feedback. Though metals ejected by the supernovae can travel well beyond the virial radius of the host galaxy, they typically begin to fall back quickly, and do not enrich a large fraction of the intergalactic medium. Galaxies with a total mass in excess of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} re-accrete most of their baryons and transition to metal-enriched Pop II star formation.

  8. Complexation Effect on Redox Potential of Iron(III)-Iron(II) Couple: A Simple Potentiometric Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Masood Ahmad; Syed, Raashid Maqsood; Khan, Badruddin

    2011-01-01

    A titration curve with multiple inflection points results when a mixture of two or more reducing agents with sufficiently different reduction potentials are titrated. In this experiment iron(II) complexes are combined into a mixture of reducing agents and are oxidized to the corresponding iron(III) complexes. As all of the complexes involve the…

  9. 76 FR 50663 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Three Class III Preamendments Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... the filing of a premarket approval application (PMA) or a notice of completion of a product development protocol (PDP) for the following three class III preamendments devices: Ventricular bypass (assist... current (2010) Implicit Price Deflator for the Gross Domestic Product. FDA does not expect this final...

  10. 78 FR 4094 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Two Class III Preamendments Devices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... the following two class III preamendments devices: Hip joint metal/metal semi- constrained, with a cemented acetabular component, prosthesis; and hip joint metal/metal semi-constrained, with an uncemented.... Hip Joint Metal/Metal Semi-Constrained, With a Cemented Acetabular Component, Prosthesis (21 CFR...

  11. Biochemical and metabolic abnormalities in articular cartilage from osteoarthritic human hips. III. Distribution and metabolism of amino sugar-containing macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Mankin, H J; Johnson, M E; Lippiello, L

    1981-01-01

    Since 1960, numerous studies have supported the thesis that the synthetic activity of articular chondrocytes is increased in osteoarthritis, but several recent reports have challenged this concept. To clarify this problem fully and also to define further the products of this increased synthesis, three experiments were performed in which the distribution and rates of synthesis of amino sugar-containing macromolecules in normal and osteoarthritic cartilage from the human femoral head were assessed by biochemical analysis and studies of the incorporation of 3H-glucosamine and 35SO4. The biochemical data obtained clearly demonstrated the previously noted significant decrease in hexosamine content in osteoarthritic tissue. This decrease was principally due to a diminution in glucosamine concentration and correlated inversely with the severity of the disease process (as measured by a previously described histological-histochemical grading system). Metabolic studies showed a marked increment in the rates of incorporation of 3H-glucosamine into both the glucosamine and the galactosamine fractions of the cartilage. The increased synthesis correlated directly in a non-linear fashion with the severity of the disease. The ratio of the rate of incorporation of 3H-glucosamine into the glucosamine fraction to the rate of its incorporation into the galactosamine fraction was the same in normal and osteoarthritic samples, suggesting that the decline in glucosamine concentration was not related to a qualitative alteration of synthetic activity.

  12. Application of the rotating cylinder electrode in molten LiCl-KCl eutectic containing uranium(III)- and magnesium(II)-chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappleye, Devin; Simpson, Michael F.

    2017-04-01

    The application of the rotating cylinder electrode (RCE) to molten LiCl-KCl eutectic mixtures for electroanalytical measurements is presented. This enabled the measurement of the limiting current which was observed to follow a linear trend with the rotational rate raised to 0.64-0.65 power on average, which closely agrees with existing RCE mass-transfer correlations. This is the first publication of electroanalytical RCE measurements in LiCl-KCl eutectic based molten salt mixtures, to our knowledge. These measurements were made in mixtures of molten LiCl-KCl eutectic containing UCl3 and MgCl2. Kinetic parameters were calculated for Mg2+ in LiCl-KCl eutectic. The exchange current density (io) of Mg2+ deposition varied with mole fraction (x) according to io(A cm-2) = 1.64x0.689. The parameters from RCE measurements were also applied in an electrochemical co-deposition model entitled DREP to detect and predict the deposition rate of U and Mg. DREP succeeded in detecting the co-deposition of U and Mg, even when Mg constituted less than 0.5 wt% of the deposit.

  13. Spatiotemporal Patterns of a Predator-Prey System with an Allee Effect and Holling Type III Functional Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wang, Jinfeng

    A diffusive Gause type predator-prey system with Allee effect in prey growth and Holling type III response subject to Neumann boundary conditions is investigated. Existence of nonconstant positive steady state solutions is proved by Leray-Schauder degree theory and bifurcation theory. Global stability of the positive equilibrium of the system is also investigated. Moreover, bifurcations of spatially homogeneous and nonhomogeneous periodic solutions are analyzed. Our rigorous results justify some recent ecological observations.

  14. Symptomatic and neuroprotective effects following activation of nigral group III metabotropic glutamate receptors in rodent models of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Austin, PJ; Betts, MJ; Broadstock, M; O'Neill, MJ; Mitchell, SN; Duty, S

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Increased glutamatergic innervation of the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNpr) and pars compacta (SNpc) may contribute to the motor deficits and neurodegeneration, respectively, in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aimed to establish whether activation of pre-synaptic group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors reduced glutamate release in the SN, and provided symptomatic or neuroprotective relief in animal models of PD. Experimental approach: Broad-spectrum group III mGlu receptor agonists, O-phospho-l-serine (l-SOP) and l-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (l-AP4), were assessed for their ability to inhibit KCl-evoked [3H]-d-aspartate release in rat nigral prisms or inhibit KCl-evoked endogenous glutamate release in the SNpr in vivo using microdialysis. Reversal of akinesia in reserpine-treated rats was assessed following intranigral injection of l-SOP and l-AP4. Finally, the neuroprotective effect of 7 days' supra-nigral treatment with l-AP4 was examined in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. Key results: l-SOP and l-AP4 inhibited [3H]-d-aspartate release by 33 and 44% respectively. These effects were blocked by the selective group III mGlu antagonist (RS)-α-cyclopropyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (CPPG). l-SOP also reduced glutamate release in the SNpr in vivo by 48%. Injection of l-SOP and l-AP4 into the SNpr reversed reserpine-induced akinesia. Following administration above the SNpc, l-AP4 provided neurochemical, histological and functional protection against 6-OHDA lesion of the nigrostriatal tract. Pretreatment with CPPG inhibited these effects. Conclusions and implications: These findings highlight group III mGlu receptors in the SN as potential targets for providing both symptomatic and neuroprotective relief in PD, and indicate that inhibition of glutamate release in the SN may underlie these effects. PMID:20649576

  15. The Effects of Helmet Weight on Hybrid III Head and Neck Responses by Comparing Unhelmeted and Helmeted Impacts.

    PubMed

    Jadischke, Ron; Viano, David C; McCarthy, Joe; King, Albert I

    2016-10-01

    Most studies on football helmet performance focus on lowering head acceleration-related parameters to reduce concussions. This has resulted in an increase in helmet size and mass. The objective of this paper was to study the effect of helmet mass on head and upper neck responses. Two independent test series were conducted. In test series one, 90 pendulum impact tests were conducted with four different headform and helmet conditions: unhelmeted Hybrid III headform, Hybrid III headform with a football helmet shell, Hybrid III headform with helmet shell and facemask, and Hybrid III headform with the helmet and facemask with mass added to the shell (n = 90). The Hybrid III neck was used for all the conditions. For all the configurations combined, the shell only, shell and facemask, and weighted helmet conditions resulted in 36%, 43%, and 44% lower resultant head accelerations (p < 0.0001), respectively, when compared to the unhelmeted condition. Head delta-V reductions were 1.1%, 4.5%, and 4.4%, respectively. In contrast, the helmeted conditions resulted in 26%, 41%, and 49% higher resultant neck forces (p < 0.0001), respectively. The increased neck forces were dominated by neck tension. In test series two, testing was conducted with a pneumatic linear impactor (n = 178). Fourteen different helmet makes and models illustrate the same trend. The increased neck forces provide a possible explanation as to why there has not been a corresponding reduction in concussion rates despite improvements in helmets ability to reduce head accelerations.

  16. Effect of model choice in genetic association studies: DRD4 exon III VNTR and cigarette use in young adults.

    PubMed

    Das, Debjani; Tan, Xiaoyun; Easteal, Simon

    2011-04-01

    A major concern with the vast literature associating the highly polymorphic 48 bp VNTR in exon III of the human dopamine receptor D4 gene (DRD4) with various behavioral phenotypes is the lack of concordance between studies. Part of the problem arises from the absence of a universally accepted scheme for pooling the large number of low frequency genotypes into appropriate categories. Here, we investigated the effect of different pooling strategies and genetic models on the reported association between DRD4-exIII-VNTR polymorphism and cigarette smoking. Genotyping was performed on a large randomly selected community-based sample of 2,274 individuals aged 20-24 years. Participants were grouped into sub-samples based on their genotypes to test specific genetic models. Multiple regression analyses were used to assess the relationship between DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and cigarette smoking measures while controlling for confounders. While smoking status and age at start of smoking were not associated with the genotype, a significantly (P = 0.006) higher rate of cigarette consumption was observed among carriers of the 7-repeat (7r) allele. Thus, 7r carriers were not more likely to be smokers but if they did smoke they consumed significantly more cigarettes per day than 4r carriers. Unlike previous studies this association was observed only when comparing carriers of the 7r with the 4r but not the other repeat alleles. Our study demonstrates the need for caution when grouping functionally different DRD4-exIII-VNTR alleles in association studies. It particularly highlights the requirement for better functional characterization of the DRD4-exIII-VNTR alleles for interpreting results from association studies.

  17. Tm(iii) complexes undergoing slow relaxation of magnetization: exchange coupling and aging effects.

    PubMed

    Amjad, A; Figuerola, A; Sorace, L

    2017-03-21

    The present study focuses on the dynamic magnetic behaviour of exchange coupled 3d-4f complexes containing the scarcely investigated non-Kramers Tm(3+) center, the 3d metal ions being either the low-spin Fe(3+) (1) or the diamagnetic Co(3+) (2) ion. Both complexes display field-induced slow relaxation of magnetization. The field and temperature dependences of the relaxation rate provided indication of relevant contributions from quantum tunnelling, direct, Orbach and Raman processes, with only minor effects from exchange coupling interactions. Furthermore, the aged sample of 2 exhibited an additional relaxation process, possibly due to structural modifications accompanied by solvent loss, highlighting the importance of a careful consideration of this factor when analysing the magnetization dynamics in solvated systems.

  18. Hydration effects on the barrier function of stratum corneum lipids: Raman analysis of ceramides 2, III and 5.

    PubMed

    Tfayli, Ali; Jamal, Dima; Vyumvuhore, Raoul; Manfait, Michel; Baillet-Guffroy, Arlette

    2013-11-07

    The stratum corneum is the outermost layer of the skin; its barrier function is highly dependent on the composition and the structure as well as the organization of lipids in its extracellular matrix. Ceramides, free fatty acids and cholesterol represent the major lipid classes present in this matrix. They play an important role in maintaining the normal hydration levels required for the normal physiological function. Despite the advancement in the understanding of the structure, composition and the function of the stratum corneum (SC), the concern of "dry skin" remains important in dermatology and care research. Most studies focus on the quantification of water in the skin using different techniques including Raman spectroscopy, while the studies that investigate the effect of hydration on the quality of the barrier function of the skin are limited. Raman spectroscopy provides structural, conformational and organizational information that could help elucidate the effect of hydration on the barrier function of the skin. In order to assess the effect of relative humidity on the lipid barrier function; we used Raman spectroscopy to follow-up the evolution of the conformation and the organization of three synthetic ceramides (CER) differing from each other by the nature of their polar heads (sphingosine, phytosphingosine and α hydroxyl sphingosine), CER 2, III and 5 respectively. CER III and 5 showed a more compact and ordered organization with stronger polar interactions at intermediate relative humidity values, while CER 2 showed opposite tendencies to those observed with CER III and 5.

  19. Environmental influence on the single-molecule magnet behavior of [Mn(III)6Cr(III)]3+: molecular symmetry versus solid-state effects.

    PubMed

    Hoeke, Veronika; Heidemeier, Maik; Krickemeyer, Erich; Stammler, Anja; Bögge, Hartmut; Schnack, Jürgen; Postnikov, Andrei; Glaser, Thorsten

    2012-10-15

    The structural, spectroscopic, and magnetic properties of a series of [Mn(III)(6)Cr(III)](3+) (= [{(talen(t-Bu(2)))Mn(III)(3)}(2){Cr(III)(CN)(6)}](3+)) compounds have been investigated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and electronic absorption spectroscopy, elemental analysis, electro spray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS), cyclic voltammetry, AC and DC magnetic measurements, as well as theoretical analysis. The crystal structures obtained with [Cr(III)(CN)(6)](3-) as a counterion exhibit (quasi-)one-dimensional (1D) chains formed by hydrogen-bonded (1) or covalently linked (2) trications and trianions. The rod-shaped anion lactate enforces a rod packing of the [Mn(III)(6)Cr(III)](3+) complexes in the highly symmetric space group R3[overline] (3) with a collinear arrangement of the molecular S(6) axes. Incorporation of the spherical anion BPh(4)(-) leads to less-symmetric crystal structures (4-6) with noncollinear orientations of the [Mn(III)(6)Cr(III)](3+) complexes, as evidenced by the angle between the approximate molecular C(3) axes taking no specific values in the range of 2°-69°. AC magnetic measurements on freshly isolated crystals (1a and 3a-6a), air-dried crystals (3b-6b), and vacuum-dried powder samples (3c-6c) indicate single-molecule magnet (SMM) behavior for all samples with U(eff) values up to 28 K. The DC magnetic data are analyzed by a full-matrix diagonalization of the appropriate spin-Hamiltonian including isotropic exchange, zero-field splitting, and Zeeman interaction, taking into account the relative orientation of the D-tensors. Simulations for 3a-6a and 3c-6c indicate a weak antiferromagnetic exchange between the Mn(III) ions in the trinuclear subunits (J(Mn-Mn) = -0.70 to -0.85 cm(-1), Ĥ(ex) = -2∑(i

  20. Synthesis, structure, and catalytic properties of V(IV), Mn(III), Mo(VI), and U(VI) complexes containing bidentate (N, O) oxazine and oxazoline ligands.

    PubMed

    Kandasamy, Karuppasamy; Singh, Harkesh B; Butcher, Ray J; Jasinski, Jerry P

    2004-09-06

    Synthesis of seven complexes containing oxazoline ([(L(1))(2)V=O] (4), [(L(1))(2)MoO(2)] (5), [(L(1))(2)UO(2)] (6); HL(1) (1) [HL(1) = 2-(4',4'-dimethyl-3'-4'-dihydroxazol-2'-yl)phenol]), chiral oxazoline ([(L(2))(2)UO(2)] (7); HL(2) (2) [HL(2) = (4'R)-2-(4'-ethyl-3'4'-dihyroxazol-2'-yl)phenol]), and oxazine ([(L(3))(2)V=O] (8), [(L(3))(2)Mn(CH(3)COO(-))] (9), [(L(3))(2)Co] (10); HL(3) (3) [HL(3) = 2-(5,6-dihydro-4H-1,3-oxazolinyl)phenol]) and their characterization by various techniques such as UV-vis, IR, and EPR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry, and elemental analysis are reported. The novel oxazine (3) and complexes 4, 5, 8 and 9 were also characterized by X-ray crystallography. Oxazine 3 crystallizes in the monoclinic system with the P2(1)/n space group, complexes 4 and 9 crystallize in the monoclinic system with the P2(1)/c space group, and complexes 5 and 8 crystallize in the orthorhombic system with the C222(1) space group and the P2(1)2(1)2(1) chiral space group, respectively. The representative synthetic procedure involves the reaction of metal acetate or acetylacetonate derivatives with corresponding ligand in ethanol. Addition of Mn(OAc)(2).4H(2)O to an ethanol solution of 3 gave the unexpected complex Mn(L(3))(2).(CH(3)COO(-)) (9) where the acetate group is coordinated with the metal center in a bidentate fashion. The catalytic activity of complexes 4-9 for oxidation of styrene with tert-butyl hydroperoxide was tested. In all cases, benzaldehyde formed exclusively as the oxidation product.

  1. Characterization of an antigenic site that contains a dominant, type-specific neutralization determinant on the envelope protein domain III (ED3) of dengue 2 virus

    SciTech Connect

    Gromowski, Gregory D.; Barrett, Alan D.T.

    2007-09-30

    The surface of the mature dengue virus (DENV) particle consists of 90 envelope (E) protein dimers that mediate both receptor binding and fusion. The E protein ectodomain can be divided into three structural domains designated ED1, ED2, and ED3, of which ED3 contains the critical and dominant virus-specific neutralization sites. In this study the ED3 epitopes recognized by seven, murine, IgG1 DENV-2 type-specific, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were determined using site-directed mutagenesis of a recombinant DENV-2 ED3 (rED3) protein. A total of 41 single amino acid substitutions were introduced into the rED3 at 30 different surface accessible residues. The affinity of each MAb with the mutant rED3s was assessed by indirect ELISA and the results indicate that all seven MAbs recognize overlapping epitopes with residues K305 and P384 critical for binding. These residues are conserved among DENV-2 strains and cluster together on the upper lateral face of ED3. A linear relationship was observed between relative occupancy of ED3 on the virion by MAb and neutralization of the majority of virus infectivity ({approx} 90%) for all seven MAbs. Depending on the MAb, it is predicted that between 10% and 50% relative occupancy of ED3 on the virion is necessary for virus neutralization and for all seven MAbs occupancy levels approaching saturation were required for 100% neutralization of virus infectivity. Overall, the conserved antigenic site recognized by all seven MAbs is likely to be a dominant DENV-2 type-specific, neutralization determinant.

  2. Viability testing of material derived from Mycobacterium tuberculosis prior to removal from a Containment Level-III Laboratory as part of a Laboratory Risk Assessment Program

    PubMed Central

    Blackwood, Kym S; Burdz, Tamara V; Turenne, Christine Y; Sharma, Meenu K; Kabani, Amin M; Wolfe, Joyce N

    2005-01-01

    Background In the field of clinical mycobacteriology, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) can be a difficult organism to manipulate due to the restrictive environment of a containment level 3 (CL3) laboratory. Tests for rapid diagnostic work involving smears and molecular methods do not require CL3 practices after the organism has been rendered non-viable. While it has been assumed that after organism deactivation these techniques can be performed outside of a CL3, no conclusive study has consistently confirmed that the organisms are noninfectious after the theoretical 'deactivation' steps. Previous studies have shown that initial steps (such as heating /chemical fixation) may not consistently kill MTB organisms. Methods An inclusive viability study (n = 226) was undertaken to determine at which point handling of culture extraction materials does not necessitate a CL3 environment. Four different laboratory protocols tested for viability included: standard DNA extractions for IS6110 fingerprinting, crude DNA preparations for PCR by boiling and mechanical lysis, protein extractions, and smear preparations. For each protocol, laboratory staff planted a proportion of the resulting material to Bactec 12B medium that was observed for growth for 8 weeks. Results Of the 208 isolates initially tested, 21 samples grew within the 8-week period. Sixteen (7.7%) of these yielded positive results for MTB that included samples of: deactivated culture resuspensions exposed to 80°C for 20 minutes, smear preparations and protein extractions. Test procedures were consequently modified and tested again (n = 18), resulting in 0% viability. Conclusions This study demonstrates that it cannot be assumed that conventional practices (i.e. smear preparation) or extraction techniques render the organism non-viable. All methodologies, new and existing, should be examined by individual laboratories to validate the safe removal of material derived from MTB to the outside of a CL3 laboratory. This

  3. Cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) complexes of a hexadentate pyridine amide ligand. Effect of donor atom (ether vs. thioether) on coordination geometry, spin-state of cobalt and M(III)-M(II) redox potential.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sharmila; Das, Partha Pratim; Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Mukherjee, Rabindranath

    2011-10-28

    Using an acyclic hexadentate pyridine amide ligand, containing a -OCH(2)CH(2)O- spacer between two pyridine-2-carboxamide units (1,4-bis[o-(pyrydine-2-carboxamidophenyl)]-1,4-dioxabutane (H(2)L(9)), in its deprotonated form), four new complexes, [Co(II)(L(9))] (1) and its one-electron oxidized counterpart [Co(III)(L(9))][NO(3)]·2H(2)O (2), [Ni(II)(L(9))] (3) and [Cu(II)(L(9))] (4), have been synthesized. Structural analyses revealed that the Co(II) centre in 1 and the Ni(II) centre in 3 are six-coordinate, utilizing all the available donor sites and the Cu(II) centre in 4 is effectively five-coordinated (one of the ether O atoms does not participate in coordination). The structural parameters associated with the change in the metal coordination environment have been compared with corresponding complexes of thioether-containing hexadentate ligands. The μ(eff) values at 298 K of 1-4 correspond to S = 3/2, S = 0, S = 1 and S = 1/2, respectively. Absorption spectra for all the complexes have been investigated. EPR spectral properties of the copper(II) complex 4 have been investigated, simulated and analyzed. Cyclic voltammetric experiments in CH(2)Cl(2) reveal quasireversible Co(III)-Co(II), Ni(III)-Ni(II) and Cu(II)-Cu(I) redox processes. In going from ether O to thioether S coordination, the effect of the metal coordination environment on the redox potential values of Co(III)-Co(II) (here the effect of spin-state as well), Ni(III)-Ni(II) and Cu(II)-Cu(I) processes have been systematically analyzed.

  4. The biowaiver extension for BCS class III drugs: the effect of dissolution rate on the bioequivalence of BCS class III immediate-release drugs predicted by computer simulation.

    PubMed

    Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gordon L

    2010-08-02

    The Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS) guidance issued by the FDA allows waivers for in vivo bioavailability and bioequivalence studies for immediate-release (IR) solid oral dosage forms only for BCS class I drugs. However, a number of drugs within BCS class III have been proposed to be eligible for biowaivers. The World Health Organization (WHO) has shortened the requisite dissolution time of BCS class III drugs on their Essential Medicine List (EML) from 30 to 15 min for extended biowaivers; however, the impact of the shorter dissolution time on AUC(0-inf) and C(max) is unknown. The objectives of this investigation were to assess the ability of gastrointestinal simulation software to predict the oral absorption of the BCS class I drugs propranolol and metoprolol and the BCS class III drugs cimetidine, atenolol, and amoxicillin, and to perform in silico bioequivalence studies to assess the feasibility of extending biowaivers to BCS class III drugs. The drug absorption from the gastrointestinal tract was predicted using physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties of test drugs provided by GastroPlus (version 6.0). Virtual trials with a 200 mL dose volume at different drug release rates (T(85%) = 15 to 180 min) were performed to predict the oral absorption (C(max) and AUC(0-inf)) of the above drugs. Both BCS class I drugs satisfied bioequivalence with regard to the release rates up to 120 min. The results with BCS class III drugs demonstrated bioequivalence using the prolonged release rate, T(85%) = 45 or 60 min, indicating that the dissolution standard for bioequivalence is dependent on the intestinal membrane permeability and permeability profile throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The results of GastroPlus simulations indicate that the dissolution rate of BCS class III drugs could be prolonged to the point where dissolution, rather than permeability, would control the overall absorption. For BCS class III drugs with intestinal absorption patterns

  5. Effects of transport container and ambient storage temperature on motion characteristics of equine spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Brinsko, S P; Rowan, K R; Varner, D D; Blanchard, T L

    2000-05-01

    This study was conducted to compare the cooling rates and storage temperatures within equine semen transport containers exposed to different ambient temperatures, and to evaluate the ability of these containers to preserve spermatozoal motility following 24 h of storage under these conditions. In Experiment 1, nonfat dried milk solids, glucose, sucrose, equine semen extender was divided into seven 40-mL aliquots and loaded into seven different semen transport containers: Equitainer I, Equitainer II, Equitainer III, ExpectaFoal, Bio-Flite, Lane STS, and Equine Express. After containers were loaded, they were subjected to one of three ambient storage temperatures: 1) 22 degrees C for 72 h, 2) -20 degrees C for 6 h followed by 22 degrees C for 66 h, or 3) 37 degrees C for 72 h. Cooling rates and storage temperatures of semen extender in each container were monitored with thermocouples and a chart recorder. In Experiment 2, semen from each of three stallions (3 ejaculates per stallion) was diluted to 25 x 10(6) spermatozoa/mL with semen extender, divided into 40 mL aliquots and loaded into transport containers as in Experiment I. Containers were subjected to one of three ambient storage conditions: 1) 22 degrees C for 24 h, 2) -20 degrees C for 6 h, followed by 22 degrees C for 18 h, or 3) 37 degrees C for 24 h. After 24 h of storage, spermatozoal motion characteristics (percentage of motile spermatozoa; MOT, percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa; PMOT, and mean curvilinear velocity; VCL) were evaluated using a computerized spermatozoal motion analyzer. Significant interactions were detected among storage conditions and semen transport containers for the majority of the temperature endpoints measured. When exposed to temporary ambient freezing conditions, the lowest temperatures attained by samples in containers ranged from -2.8 to 0.8 degrees C. Lowest temperature samples attained was not correlated (P > 0.05) with spermatozoal motility under any ambient

  6. Effect of Zena F-III, a liquid nutritive and tonic drug, on the neurochemical changes elicited by physical fatigue in mice.

    PubMed

    Hanawa, M; Asano, T; Akiyama, K; Yabe, K; Tsunoda, K; Tadano, T; Sutoo, D

    2000-08-01

    The effects of a liquid nutritive and tonic drug (NTD) on the neurochemical changes elicited by physical fatigue in mice were investigated in terms of the calcium-dependent dopamine synthesizing function of the brain. In this study, Zena F-III (Taisho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Japan), one of the most popular NTDs in Japan, containing 15 crude drug extracts together with taurine, caffeine, and vitamins, and formulated based on the precepts of traditional Chinese medicine, was used. Male mice were forced to walk for 0-6 h at a speed of 3 m/min using a programmed motor-driven wheel cage. The serum and brain calcium levels in the mice were significantly increased following forced walking. The increase in brain calcium level began later and was more gradual than that in the serum calcium level, and reached its maximum value following forced walking for 3 h. The neostriatal dopamine level was also significantly increased, and locomotor activity significantly decreased following forced walking for 3 h. Prior oral administration of F-III (10 ml/kg) attenuated the increases in the serum and brain calcium levels, the increase in the brain dopamine levels, and the decrease in locomotor activity induced by forced walking. Taking into consideration these findings with our previous reports, it is suggested that physical fatigue leads to an increase in dopamine synthesis in the brain through a calcium/calmodulin-dependent system, thereby inducing behavioral changes, and that F-III inhibits this pathway and may alleviate overwork-induced physical fatigue.

  7. Cytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of indium(iii) complexes with 2-acetylpyridine-derived thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alexandre A; Perdigão, Gabriele M C; Rodrigues, Luana E; da Silva, Jeferson G; Souza-Fagundes, Elaine M; Takahashi, Jacqueline A; Rocha, Willian R; Beraldo, Heloisa

    2017-01-17

    Complexes [In(2Ac4oClPh)Cl2(MeOH)] (1), [In(2Ac4pFPh)Cl2(MeOH)] (2), [In(2Ac4pClPh)Cl2(MeOH)] (3) and [In(2Ac4pIPh)Cl2(MeOH)] (4) were obtained with N(4)-ortho-chlorophenyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H2Ac4oClPh), N(4)-para-fluorophenyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H2Ac4pFPh), N(4)-para-chlorophenyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H2Ac4pClPh) and N(4)-para-iodophenyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone (H2Ac4pIPh). Theoretical studies suggested that the coordinated methanol molecule can be easily replaced by DMSO used in the preparation of stock solutions, with the formation of [In(L)Cl2(DMSO)] (HL = thiosemicarbazonate ligand), and that the replacement of DMSO by water is unfavorable. However, for all complexes the displacement of one or two chloride ligands by water in aqueous solution is extremely favorable. The cytotoxic activity of the compounds was evaluated against HL-60, Jurkat and THP-1 leukemia and against MDA-MB-231 and HCT-116 solid tumor cell lines, as well as against Vero non-malignant cells. The cytotoxicity and selectivity indexes (SI) increased in several cases for the indium(iii) complexes in comparison with the free thiosemicarbazones. The antimicrobial activity of the compounds was investigated against Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida lusitaniae and Candida parapsilosis. In many cases complexation resulted in a substantial increase of the antifungal activity. Complexes (1-4) were revealed to be very active against C. lusitaniae and C. dubliniensis. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies were carried out to identify the physico-chemical properties that might be involved in the antifungal action, as well as in the cytotoxic effect of the compounds against HL-60 cells. In both cases, correlations between the bioactivity and physico-chemical properties did not appreciably change when the chloride ligands in [In(L)Cl2(DMSO)] were replaced by water molecules, suggesting [In(L)Cl(H2O)(DMSO)](+) or [In(L)(H2O)2

  8. The effect of types I and III interferons on adrenocortical cells and its possible implications for autoimmune Addison's disease.

    PubMed

    Hellesen, A; Edvardsen, K; Breivik, L; Husebye, E S; Bratland, E

    2014-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) is caused by selective destruction of the hormone-producing cells of the adrenal cortex. As yet, little is known about the potential role played by environmental factors in this process. Type I and/or type III interferons (IFNs) are signature responses to virus infections, and have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune endocrine disorders such as type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroiditis. Transient development of AAD and exacerbation of established or subclinical disease, as well as the induction of autoantibodies associated with AAD, have been reported following therapeutic administration of type I IFNs. We therefore hypothesize that exposure to such IFNs could render the adrenal cortex susceptible to autoimmune attack in genetically predisposed individuals. In this study, we investigated possible immunopathological effects of type I and type III IFNs on adrenocortical cells in relation to AAD. Both types I and III IFNs exerted significant cytotoxicity on NCI-H295R adrenocortical carcinoma cells and potentiated IFN-γ- and polyinosine-polycytidylic acid [poly (I : C)]-induced chemokine secretion. Furthermore, we observed increased expression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and up-regulation of 21-hydroxylase, the primary antigenic target in AAD. We propose that these combined effects could serve to initiate or aggravate an ongoing autoimmune response against the adrenal cortex in AAD.

  9. Proteomic and metabolomic analysis on the toxicological effects of As (III) and As (V) in juvenile mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-05-01

    Inorganic arsenic (As) is a known pollutant including two chemical forms (arsenite (As III) and arsenate (As V)), in marine and coastal environment. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is an important environmental monitoring species around the world. In this study, we focused on valence-specific responses of As in juvenile mussel M. galloprovincialis using a combined proteomic and metabolomic approach. Metabolic responses indicated that As (III) mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation in juvenile mussels. As (V) caused disturbances in both osmotic regulation and energy metabolism marked by different metabolic responses, including betaine, taurine, glucose and glycogen. Proteomic responses exhibited that As (III) had a significant negative effect on cytoskeleton and cell structure (actin and collagen alpha-6(VI) chain). As (V) affected some key enzymes involved in energy metabolism (cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, cMDH) and cell development (ornithine aminotransferase and astacin). Overall, all these results confirmed the valence-specific responses in juvenile mussels to As exposures. These findings demonstrate that a combined metabolomic and proteomic approach could provide an important insight into the toxicological effects of environmental pollutants in organisms.

  10. DRD4-exonIII-VNTR moderates the effect of childhood adversities on emotional resilience in young-adults.

    PubMed

    Das, Debjani; Cherbuin, Nicolas; Tan, Xiaoyun; Anstey, Kaarin J; Easteal, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Most individuals successfully maintain psychological well-being even when exposed to trauma or adversity. Emotional resilience or the ability to thrive in the face of adversity is determined by complex interactions between genetic makeup, previous exposure to stress, personality, coping style, availability of social support, etc. Recent studies have demonstrated that childhood trauma diminishes resilience in adults and affects mental health. The Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) exon III variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism was reported to moderate the impact of adverse childhood environment on behaviour, mood and other health-related outcomes. In this study we investigated whether DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype moderates the effect of childhood adversities (CA) on resilience. In a representative population sample (n = 1148) aged 30-34 years, we observed an interactive effect of DRD4 genotype and CA (β = 0.132; p = 0.003) on resilience despite no main effect of the genotype when effects of age, gender and education were controlled for. The 7-repeat allele appears to protect against the adverse effect of CA since the decline in resilience associated with increased adversity was evident only in individuals without the 7-repeat allele. Resilience was also significantly associated with approach-/avoidance-related personality measures (behavioural inhibition/activation system; BIS/BAS) measures and an interactive effect of DRD4-exIII-VNTR genotype and CA on BAS was observed. Hence it is possible that approach-related personality traits could be mediating the effect of the DRD4 gene and childhood environment interaction on resilience such that when stressors are present, the 7-repeat allele influences the development of personality in a way that provides protection against adverse outcomes.

  11. V/III ratio effects on high quality InAlAs for quantum cascade laser structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Ilkay; Elagoz, Sezai

    2017-04-01

    In this study we report the V/III ratio effects on growth, structural, optical and doping characteristics of low growth rate (∼1 Å/s) heteroepitaxial Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD) grown InxAl1-xAs layers, a part of Quantum Cascade Laser (QCL) structures, on InP substrate. Especially photoluminescence (PL) properties of InAlAs-InP interface show strong dependence on AsH3 overpressure. We have shown that the V/III ratio with fixed metalorganic precursor flow is a crucial parameter on InxAl1-xAs layers to have a good material quality in terms of crystallinity, optical and electrical characteristics with and without doping.

  12. Antibacterial Effect of Dental Adhesive Containing Dimethylaminododecyl Methacrylate on the Development of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Suping; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Xu, Ning; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Weir, Michael D.; Ge, Yang; Wang, Shida; Li, Mingyun; Li, Yuqing; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial bonding agents and composites containing dimethylaminododecyl methacrylate (DMADDM) have been recently developed. The objectives of this study were to investigate the antibacterial effect of novel adhesives containing different mass fractions of DMADDM on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) biofilm at different developmental stages. Different mass fractions of DMADDM were incorporated into adhesives and S. mutans biofilm at different developmetal stages were analyzed by MTT assays, lactic acid measurement, confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy observations. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) staining was used to analyze the inhibitory effect of DMADDM on the biofilm extracellular matrix. Dentin microtensile strengths were also measured. Cured adhesives containing DMADDM could greatly reduce metabolic activity and lactic acid production during the development of S. mutans biofilms (p < 0.05). In earlier stages of biofilm development, there were no significant differences of inhibitory effects between the 2.5% DMADDM and 5% DMADDM group. However, after 72 h, the anti-biofilm effects of adhesives containing 5% DMADDM were significantly stronger than any other group. Incorporation of DMADDM into adhesive did not adversely affect dentin bond strength. In conclusion, adhesives containing DMADDM inhibited the growth, lactic acid production and EPS metabolism of S. mutans biofilm at different stages, with no adverse effect on its dentin adhesive bond strength. The bonding agents have the potential to control dental biofilms and combat tooth decay, and DMADDM is promising for use in a wide range of dental adhesive systems and restoratives. PMID:25046750

  13. Effect of nanocomposite packaging containing ZnO on growth of Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Esmailzadeh, Hakimeh; Sangpour, Parvaneh; Shahraz, Farzaneh; Hejazi, Jalal; Khaksar, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in nanotechnology have opened new windows in active food packaging. Nano-sized ZnO is an inexpensive material with potential antimicrobial properties. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the antibacterial effect of low density Polyethylene (LDPE) containing ZnO nanoparticles on Bacillus subtilis and Enterobacter aerogenes. ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized by facil molten salt method and have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nanocomposite films containing 2 and 4 wt.% ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by melt mixing in a twin-screw extruder. The growth of both microorganisms has decreased in the presence of ZnO containing nanocomposites compared with controls. Nanocomposites with 4 wt.% ZnO nanoparticles had stronger antibacterial effect against both bacteria in comparison with the 2 wt.% ZnO containing nanocomposites. B. subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria were more sensitive to ZnO containing nanocomposite films compared with E. aerogenes as Gram-negative bacteria. There were no significant differences between the migration of Zn ions from 2 and 4 wt.% ZnO containing nanocomposites and the released Zn ions were not significantly increased in both groups after 14 days compared with the first. Regarding the considerable antibacterial effects of ZnO nanoparticles, their application in active food packaging can be a suitable solution for extending the shelf life of food.

  14. Investigation on the co-luminescence effect of europium (III)-lanthanum(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system and its application.

    PubMed

    Si, Hailin; Zhao, Fang; Cai, Huan

    2013-01-01

    A novel luminescence, enhancement phenomenon in the europium(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system was observed when lanthanum(III) was added. Based on this, a sensitive co-luminescence method was established for the determination of dopamine. The luminescence signal for the europium (III)-lanthanum(III)-dopamine-sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate system was monitored at λ(ex) = 300 nm, λ(em) = 618 nm and pH 8.3. Under optimized conditions, the enhanced luminescence signal responded linearly to the concentration of dopamine in the range 1.0 × 10(-10)-5.0 × 10(-7) mol/L with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993 (n = 11). The detection limit (3σ) was 2.7 × 10(-11) mol/L and the relative standard deviation for 11 parallel measurements of 3.0 × 10(-8) mol/L dopamine was 1.9%. The presented method was successfully applied for the estimation of dopamine in samples of pharmaceutical preparations, human serum and urine. The possible luminescence enhancement mechanism of the system is discussed briefly.

  15. Practice effects on the WAIS-III across 3- and 6-month intervals.

    PubMed

    Basso, Michael R; Carona, Francine D; Lowery, Natasha; Axelrod, Bradley N

    2002-02-01

    Fifty-one participants (age M = 24.6; education M = 14.4 years) were administered the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale - Third Edition (WAIS-III) at baseline and at an interval of either 3 or 6 months later. Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), Verbal IQ (VIQ), Performance IQ (PIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Organization Index (POI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI) scores improved significantly across time, whereas no significant change occurred on the Working Memory Index. Specifically, test scores increased approximately 3, 11, 6, 4, 8, and 7 points, respectively on the VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ, VCI, POI, and PSI for both groups. Notably, the degree of improvement was similar regardless of whether the inter-test interval was 3 or 6 months. These findings suggest that prior exposure to the WAIS-III yields considerable increases in test scores. Reliable change indices indicated that large confidence intervals might be expected. As such, users of the WAIS-III should interpret reevaluations across these intervals cautiously.

  16. Patient-Reported Outcome Results From the Open-Label Phase III AURELIA Trial Evaluating Bevacizumab-Containing Therapy for Platinum-Resistant Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stockler, Martin R.; Hilpert, Felix; Friedlander, Michael; King, Madeleine T.; Wenzel, Lari; Lee, Chee Khoon; Joly, Florence; de Gregorio, Nikolaus; Arranz, José Angel; Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Sorio, Roberto; Freudensprung, Ulrich; Sneller, Vesna; Hales, Gill; Pujade-Lauraine, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the effects of bevacizumab on patient-reported outcomes (PROs; secondary end point) in the AURELIA trial. Patients and Methods Patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer were randomly assigned to chemotherapy alone (CT) or with bevacizumab (BEV-CT). PROs were assessed using the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire–Ovarian Cancer Module 28 (EORTC QLQ-OV28) and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy–Ovarian Cancer symptom index (FOSI) at baseline and every two or three cycles (8/9 weeks) until disease progression. The primary PRO hypothesis was that more patients receiving BEV-CT than CT would achieve at least a 15% (≥ 15-point) absolute improvement on the QLQ-OV28 abdominal/GI symptom subscale (items 31-36) at week 8/9. Patients with missing week 8/9 questionnaires were included as unimproved. Questionnaires from all assessments until disease progression were analyzed using mixed-model repeated-measures (MMRM) analysis. Sensitivity analyses were used to determine the effects of differing assumptions and methods for missing data. Results Baseline questionnaires were available from 89% of 361 randomly assigned patients. More BEV-CT than CT patients achieved a ≥ 15% improvement in abdominal/GI symptoms at week 8/9 (primary PRO end point, 21.9% v 9.3%; difference, 12.7%; 95% CI, 4.4 to 20.9; P = .002). MMRM analysis covering all time points also favored BEV-CT (difference, 6.4 points; 95% CI, 1.3 to 11.6; P = .015). More BEV-CT than CT patients achieved ≥ 15% improvement in FOSI at week 8/9 (12.2% v 3.1%; difference, 9.0%; 95% CI, 2.9% to 15.2%; P = .003). Sensitivity analyses gave similar results and conclusions. Conclusion Bevacizumab increased the proportion of patients achieving a 15% improvement in patient-reported abdominal/GI symptoms during chemotherapy for platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:24687829

  17. Evidence-Based Biosafety: a Review of the Principles and Effectiveness of Microbiological Containment Measures

    PubMed Central

    Kimman, Tjeerd G.; Smit, Eric; Klein, Michèl R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the available evidence on the effectiveness of measures aimed at protecting humans and the environment against the risks of working with genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs) and with non-GMO pathogenic microorganisms. A few principles and methods underlie the current biosafety practice: risk assessment, biological containment, concentration and enclosure, exposure minimization, physical containment, and hazard minimization. Many of the current practices are based on experience and expert judgment. The effectiveness of biosafety measures may be evaluated at the level of single containment equipment items and procedures, at the level of the laboratory as a whole, or at the clinical-epidemiological level. Data on the containment effectiveness of equipment and laboratories are scarce and fragmented. Laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) are therefore important for evaluating the effectiveness of biosafety. For the majority of LAIs there appears to be no direct cause, suggesting that failures of biosafety were not noticed or that containment may have been insufficient. The number of reported laboratory accidents associated with GMOs is substantially lower than that of those associated with non-GMOs. It is unknown to what extent specific measures contribute to the overall level of biosafety. We therefore recommend that the evidence base of biosafety practice be strengthened. PMID:18625678

  18. Evidence-based biosafety: a review of the principles and effectiveness of microbiological containment measures.

    PubMed

    Kimman, Tjeerd G; Smit, Eric; Klein, Michèl R

    2008-07-01

    We examined the available evidence on the effectiveness of measures aimed at protecting humans and the environment against the risks of working with genetically modified microorganisms (GMOs) and with non-GMO pathogenic microorganisms. A few principles and methods underlie the current biosafety practice: risk assessment, biological containment, concentration and enclosure, exposure minimization, physical containment, and hazard minimization. Many of the current practices are based on experience and expert judgment. The effectiveness of biosafety measures may be evaluated at the level of single containment equipment items and procedures, at the level of the laboratory as a whole, or at the clinical-epidemiological level. Data on the containment effectiveness of equipment and laboratories are scarce and fragmented. Laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) are therefore important for evaluating the effectiveness of biosafety. For the majority of LAIs there appears to be no direct cause, suggesting that failures of biosafety were not noticed or that containment may have been insufficient. The number of reported laboratory accidents associated with GMOs is substantially lower than that of those associated with non-GMOs. It is unknown to what extent specific measures contribute to the overall level of biosafety. We therefore recommend that the evidence base of biosafety practice be strengthened.

  19. Incremental Criterion Validity of the WJ-III COG Clinical Clusters: Marginal Predictive Effects beyond the General Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Ryan J.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the incremental validity of the clinical clusters from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (WJ-III COG) for predicting scores on the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III ACH). All participants were children and adolescents (N = 4,722) drawn from the nationally representative WJ-III…

  20. BIOPLUME III

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BIOPLUME III is a two-dimensional finite difference model for simulating the natural attenuation of organic contaminants in groundwater due to the processes of advection, dispersion, sorption, and biodegradation.

  1. Tuning the olefin epoxidation by manganese(III) complexes of bisphenolate ligands: effect of Lewis basicity of ligands on reactivity.

    PubMed

    Sankaralingam, Muniyandi; Palaniandavar, Mallayan

    2014-01-14

    A new family of manganese(iii) complexes of the type [Mn(L)Cl], where H2L is 1,4-bis(2-hydroxy-benzyl)-1,4-diazepane (), 1,4-bis(2-hydroxy-4-methylbenzyl)-1,4-diazepane (), 1,4-bis(2-hydroxy-3,5-dimethylbenzyl)-1,4-diazepane () and 1,4-bis(2-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylbenzyl)-1,4-diazepane (), has been isolated and studied as a catalyst for epoxidation reaction. Complexes have been characterized using elemental analysis, electronic spectral and electrochemical methods and ESI-MS. The single crystal X-ray structures of and contain the MnN2O2Cl chromophore with a novel square pyramidal coordination geometry (τ: , 0.11; , 0.00). All the complexes possess a distorted square pyramidal coordination geometry in solution, as revealed by the characteristic bands observed in the electronic spectra. A time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculation has been performed to assist in the assignment of the electronic absorption spectral bands of the complexes. The Mn(iii)/Mn(ii) redox potentials (E1/2) of fall within the narrow range of 0.279-0.320 V. The catalytic ability of the complexes towards olefin epoxidation has been investigated using PhIO as the oxygen source at room temperature under an N2 atmosphere. Addition of N-methylimidazole to the reaction mixture leads to an increase in the epoxide yield. A correlation between the Lewis acidity of the Mn(iii) center as tuned by the substituents on the phenolate ligand, and the epoxide yield and product selectivity has been observed. The present complexes act as better chemoselective catalysts for epoxidation of cyclohexene and styrene rather than cyclooctene.

  2. The effect of safety climate on seafarers' safety behaviors in container shipping.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chin-Shan; Tsai, Chaur-Luh

    2010-11-01

    This study empirically examined safety climate and its effects on safety behaviors from seafarers' perceptions in the container shipping context. Research hypotheses were formulated and tested using survey data collected from 608 seafarers working on 124 vessels belonging to 13 of the top 20 global container carriers. A structural equation model was used to examine the effect of safety climate dimensions, namely, safety policy, perceived supervisor safety behavior, and safety management, on safety behavior. The results revealed a positive association between safety climate and seafarers' safety behavior. The contribution of the study findings to the development of safety climate theory and their managerial implications for vessel safety in shipping operations are discussed.

  3. Effect of a chromium-containing fuel additive on hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowell, C. E.; Deadmore, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Four superalloys were tested at 900 C in high velocity combustion gases containing synthetic sea salt and, in some cases, a chromium containing fuel additive. While the additive reduced hot corrosion of the alloys over the 100 hour test period, the attack was not eliminated nor was the mode of attack changed. Reduction of the number of thermal cycles had as large a beneficial effect as the Cr additive. Intermittent washing during testing had either small beneficial or adverse effects depending on the alloy.

  4. Effect of nitrate enrichment and diatoms on the bioavailability of Fe(III) oxyhydroxide colloids in seawater.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng-Jiao; Huang, Bang-Qin; Li, Shun-Xing; Zheng, Feng-Ying; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-03-01

    The photoconversion of colloidal iron oxyhydroxides was a significant source of bioavailable iron in coastal systems. Diatoms dominate phytoplankton communities in coastal and upwelling regions. Diatoms are often exposed to eutrophication. We investigated the effects of different species of diatom, cell density, illumination period, and nitrate additions on the bioavailability of Fe(III) oxy-hydroxide colloids in seawaters. With the increase of illumination period from 1 to 4 h, the ratios of concentrations of total dissolved Fe (DFe) to colloidal iron oxyhydroxides and Fe(II) to DFe increased up to 24.3% and 23.9% for seawater without coastal diatoms, 45.6% and 30.2% for Skeletonema costatum, 44.3% and 29.7% for Thalassiosira weissflogii, respectively. The photochemical activity of coastal diatoms themselves (excluding the dissolved organic matter secreted by algae) on the species transformation of iron in seawater (including the light-induced dissolution of Fe(III) oxyhydroxide colloids and the photo-reduction of Fe(III) into Fe(II)) was confirmed for the first time. There was no significant difference of the ability of S. costatum and Thalassiosira weissflogii on the photoconversion of colloidal iron oxyhydroxides. The photoproduction of dissolved Fe(II) and DFe in the seawater with or without diatoms could be depressed by the nitrate addition.

  5. Campylobacter jejuni Group III Phage CP81 Contains Many T4-Like Genes without Belonging to the T4-Type Phage Group: Implications for the Evolution of T4 Phages▿†

    PubMed Central

    Hammerl, Jens A.; Jäckel, Claudia; Reetz, Jochen; Beck, Sebastian; Alter, Thomas; Lurz, Rudi; Barretto, Caroline; Brüssow, Harald; Hertwig, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    CP81 is a virulent Campylobacter group III phage whose linear genome comprises 132,454 bp. At the nucleotide level, CP81 differs from other phages. However, a number of its structural and replication/recombination proteins revealed a relationship to the group II Campylobacter phages CP220/CPt10 and to T4-type phages. Unlike the T4-related phages, the CP81 genome does not contain conserved replication and virion modules. Instead, the respective genes are scattered throughout the phage genome. Moreover, most genes for metabolic enzymes of CP220/CPt10 are lacking in CP81. On the other hand, the CP81 genome contains nine similar genes for homing endonucleases which may be involved in the attrition of the conserved gene order for the virion core genes of T4-type phages. The phage apparently possesses an unusual modification of C or G bases. Efficient cleavage of its DNA was only achieved with restriction enzymes recognizing pure A/T sites. Uncommonly, phenol extraction leads to a significant loss of CP81 DNA from the aqueous layer, a property not yet described for other phages belonging to the T4 superfamily. PMID:21697478

  6. TURBULENT CONVECTION IN STELLAR INTERIORS. III. MEAN-FIELD ANALYSIS AND STRATIFICATION EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Viallet, Maxime; Meakin, Casey; Mocak, Miroslav; Arnett, David

    2013-05-20

    We present three-dimensional implicit large eddy simulations of the turbulent convection in the envelope of a 5 M{sub Sun} red giant star and in the oxygen-burning shell of a 23 M{sub Sun} supernova progenitor. The numerical models are analyzed in the framework of one-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The effects of pressure fluctuations are more important in the red giant model, owing to larger stratification of the convective zone. We show how this impacts different terms in the mean-field equations. We clarify the driving sources of kinetic energy, and show that the rate of turbulent dissipation is comparable to the convective luminosity. Although our flows have low Mach numbers and are nearly adiabatic, our analysis is general and can be applied to photospheric convection as well. The robustness of our analysis of turbulent convection is supported by the insensitivity of the mean-field balances to linear mesh resolution. We find robust results for the turbulent convection zone and the stable layers in the oxygen-burning shell model, and robust results everywhere in the red giant model, but the mean fields are not well converged in the narrow boundary regions (which contain steep gradients) in the oxygen-burning shell model. This last result illustrates the importance of unresolved physics at the convective boundary, which governs the mixing there.

  7. Effect of terbium(III) on the binding of aromatic guests with sodium taurocholate aggregates.

    PubMed

    Pace, Tamara C S; Souza, Sergio P; Zhang, Hui Ting; Bohne, Cornelia

    2011-10-01

    The effect of binding Tb(3+) to sodium taurocholate aggregates containing polyaromatic hydrocarbon guests was examined using pyrene and 1-ethylnaphthalene as guests that bind to the primary aggregate, and 1-naphthyl-1-ethanol as a secondary aggregate guest. Time-resolved fluorescence quenching studies were used to study the binding site properties, while laser flash photolysis quenching studies provided information on the dynamics of the guest-aggregate system. Both the primary and secondary aggregate binding sites became more compact in the presence of bound Tb(3+), while only the primary aggregate became more accessible to anionic molecules. The binding dynamics for the guest-primary aggregate system became faster when Tb(3+) was bound to the aggregate. In contrast, for the guest-secondary aggregate the presence of Tb(3+) resulted in a small decrease in the dissociation rate constant. The influence of bound Tb(3+) on the primary and secondary bile salt aggregates is significantly different, which affects how these aggregates can be used as supramolecular host systems to modify guest reactivity.

  8. 'Junction-Level' Heterogeneous Integration of III-V Materials with Si CMOS for Novel Asymmetric Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon Jung

    Driven by Moore's law, semiconductor chips have become faster, denser and cheaper through aggressive dimension scaling. The continued scaling not only led to dramatic performance improvements in digital logic applications but also in mixed-mode and/or communication applications. Moreover, size/weight/power (SWAP) restrictions on all high-performance system components have resulted in multi-functional integration of multiple integrated circuits (ICs)/dies in 3D packages/ICs by various system-level approaches. However, these approaches still possess shortcomings and in order to truly benefit from the most advanced digital technologies, the future high-speed/high power devices for communication applications need to be fully integrated into a single CMOS chip. Due to limitations in Si device performance in high-frequency/power applications as well as expensive III-V compound semiconductor devices with low integration density, heterogeneous integration of compound semiconductor materials/devices with Si CMOS platform has emerged as a viable solution to low-cost high-performance ICs. In this study, we first discuss on channel and drain engineering approaches in the state-of-the-art multiple-gate field-effect transistor to integrate III-V compound semiconductor materials with Si CMOS for improved device performance in mixed-mode and/or communication applications. Then, growth, characterization and electrical analysis on small-area (diameter < 100nm) complete selective-area epitaxy of GaAs/GaN will be demonstrated for achieving 'dislocation-free' III-V compound semiconductor film on a Si(001) substrate. Based on a success in dislocation-free heterogeneous III-V film growth, we propose a novel ultra-scaled 'junction-level' heterogeneous integration onto mainstream Si CMOS platform. Device architecture and its key features to overcome aforementioned challenges will be given to demonstrate the potential to improve the overall system performance with diverse functionality.

  9. Assessment of antimicrobial effects of food contact materials containing silver on growth of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Katherine; Valencia, Luis; Gokulan, Kuppan; Trbojevich, Raul; Khare, Sangeeta

    2017-02-01

    Food contact materials containing antibacterial properties are progressively appearing in the market. Items intended to provide antimicrobial effects such as increased shelf life and food safety are incorporating silver materials during the manufacture of such products. This study examined the total silver content, release capacity, and antibacterial activity of three different silver-containing food contact materials: plastic food storage containers, a plastic cutting board, and food wrapping paper. Silver content and release were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, and the results showed that, although the amount of silver in each product was similar, migration varied considerably with kind of material and simulant choice. Antimicrobial effect was tested by measuring the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium during or after exposure to the different food contact materials. The results showed that the food storage containers and wrapping paper delayed the growth of S. Typhimurium under certain conditions, but that these effects were short-lived. The strain of S. Typhimurium used in this study was found to be negative for the presence of tested silver resistance genes. The results of this study suggest that a thorough investigation should be required to show/claim the efficacy of silver-containing food contact materials for food safety purposes.

  10. Microheterogeneity of antithrombin III: effect of single amino acid substitutions and relationship with functional abnormalities.

    PubMed

    De Stefano, V; Leone, G; Mastrangelo, S; Lane, D A; Girolami, A; de Moerloose, P; Sas, G; Abildgaard, U; Blajchman, M; Rodeghiero, F

    1994-02-01

    Microheterogeneity of antithrombin III (AT-III) was investigated by crossed immunoelectrofocusing (CIEF) on eleven molecular variants. A normal pattern was found in five variants while two different abnormal CIEF patterns were found in the other four and two variants, respectively. Point mutations causing a major pI change (exceeding 4.0) of the amino acid substituted lead to alterations in the overall microheterogeneity. The variants thus substituted share a first type of abnormal CIEF pattern with alterations throughout the pH range, regardless of the location of the mutation (reactive site and adjacent regions or heparin binding region). Minor amino acid pI changes in these regions do not alter the AT-III overall microheterogeneity, whatever the resulting functional defect. However, if the mutation is placed in the region around positions 404 or 429, then even minor changes of the amino acid pI seem able to alter the overall charge, leading to a second type of abnormal CIEF pattern with the main alteration at pH 4.8-4.6. Neuraminidase treatment leads to disappearance of microheterogeneity except for the variants with the Arg393 to Cys substitution. Addition of thrombin induces CIEF modifications specifically related to the functional defect. A normal formation of thrombin-antithrombin complexes induces a shift towards the more acid pH range, whereas in the variants substituted at the reactive site the CIEF pattern is substantially unaffected by thrombin; variants substituted at positions 382-384 show a maximal thrombin-induced increase of the isoforms at pI 4.8-4.6. Therefore mutant antithrombins with different functional abnormalities but sharing a common CIEF pattern were well distinguished.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Antibacterial effect and shear bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive cement containing Galla chinensis extract

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LU-FEI; LUO, FENG; XUE, CHAO-RAN; DENG, MENG; CHEN, CHEN; WU, HAO

    2016-01-01

    Galla chinensis extract (GCE), a naturally-derived agent, has a significant inhibitory effect on cariogenic bacteria. The present study aims to evaluate the antibacterial effect and shear bond strength of an orthodontic adhesive cement containing GCE. A resin-modified glass ionomer cement incorporated GCE at five mass fractions (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8%) to prepare GCE-containing cement for analysis. For the agar diffusion test, cement specimens were placed on agar disk inoculated with Streptococcus mutans (strain ATCC 25175). Following 48 h incubation, the inhibition halo diameter was measured. To assess bacteria colonization susceptibility, S. mutans adhesion to cement specimens was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) following 48 h incubation. To evaluate bond strength, a total of 50 metal brackets were bonded on premolar surfaces by using cement (10 teeth/group). Following immersion in an artificial saliva for 3 days, shear bond strength (SBS) was measured. The results demonstrated that GCE-containing samples exhibited a larger bacterial inhibition halo than control, and the inhibition zone increased as the GCE mass fraction increased. SEM analysis demonstrated that S. mutans presented a weaker adherent capacity to all GCE-containing cements compared with control, but the difference between each GCE-containing group was not significant. SBS values of each GCE-containing group exhibited no difference compared with the control. In conclusion, GCE-containing adhesive cement exhibits a promising inhibitory effect on S. mutans growth and adhesion. Without compromising bond strength, adding GCE in adhesive cement may be an attractive option for preventing white spot lesions during orthodontic treatment. PMID:27073642

  12. Effects of Surfactants on the Properties of Mortar Containing Styrene/Methacrylate Superplasticizer

    PubMed Central

    Negim, El-Sayed; Kozhamzharova, Latipa; Khatib, Jamal; Bekbayeva, Lyazzat; Williams, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of mortar containing synthetic cosurfactants as air entraining agent are investigated. The cosurfactants consist of a combination of 2% dodecyl benzene sodium sulfonate (DBSS) and either 1.5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or 1.5% polyoxyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (POE). Also these cosurfactants were used to prepare copolymers latex: styrene/butyl methacrylate (St/BuMA), styrene/methyl methacrylate (St/MMA), and styrene/glycidyl methacrylate (St/GMA), in order to study their effects on the properties of mortar. The properties of mortar examined included flow table, W/C ratio, setting time, water absorption, compressive strength, and combined water. The results indicate that the latex causes improvement in mortar properties compared with cosurfactants. Also polymer latex containing DBSS/POE is more effective than that containing DBSS/PVA. PMID:24955426

  13. Effects of surfactants on the properties of mortar containing styrene/methacrylate superplasticizer.

    PubMed

    Negim, El-Sayed; Kozhamzharova, Latipa; Khatib, Jamal; Bekbayeva, Lyazzat; Williams, Craig

    2014-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of mortar containing synthetic cosurfactants as air entraining agent are investigated. The cosurfactants consist of a combination of 2% dodecyl benzene sodium sulfonate (DBSS) and either 1.5% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or 1.5% polyoxyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (POE). Also these cosurfactants were used to prepare copolymers latex: styrene/butyl methacrylate (St/BuMA), styrene/methyl methacrylate (St/MMA), and styrene/glycidyl methacrylate (St/GMA), in order to study their effects on the properties of mortar. The properties of mortar examined included flow table, W/C ratio, setting time, water absorption, compressive strength, and combined water. The results indicate that the latex causes improvement in mortar properties compared with cosurfactants. Also polymer latex containing DBSS/POE is more effective than that containing DBSS/PVA.

  14. In vitro anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal effects of new SbIII carboxylates

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Ring opening of phthalic anhydride has been carried out in acetic acid with glycine, β-alanine, L-phenylalanine, and 4-aminobenzoic acid to yield, respectively, 2-{[(carboxymethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (I), 2-{[(2-carboxyethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (II), 2-{[(1-carboxy-2-phenylethyl)amino]carbonyl}benzoic acid (III), and 2-[(4-carboxyanilino)carbonyl]benzoic acid (IV). Compounds I-IV have been employed as ligands for Sb(III) center (complexes V-VIII) in aqueous medium. FTIR and 1H NMR spectra proved the deprotonation of carboxylic protons and coordination of imine group and thereby tridentate behaviour of the ligands as chelates. Elemental, MS, and TGA analytic data confirmed the structural hypothesis based on spectroscopic results. All the compounds have been assayed in vitro for anti-leishmanial and anti-fungal activities against five leishmanial strains L. major (JISH118), L. major (MHOM/PK/88/DESTO), L. tropica (K27), L. infantum (LEM3437), L. mex mex (LV4), and L. donovani (H43); and Aspergillus Flavus, Aspergillus Fumigants, Aspergillus Niger, and Fusarium Solani. Compound VII exhibited good anti-leishmanial as well as anti-fungal impacts comparable to reference drugs.

  15. The effects of age on nuclear power plant containment cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lofaro, R.; Subudhi, M.; Travis, R.; DiBiasio, A.; Azarm, A.; Davis, J.

    1994-04-01

    A study was performed to assess the effects of aging on the performance and availability of containment cooling systems in US commercial nuclear power plants. This study is part of the Nuclear Plant Aging Research (NPAR) program sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The objectives of this program are to provide an understanding of the aging process and how it affects plant safety so that it can be properly managed. This is one of a number of studies performed under the NPAR program which provide a technical basis for the identification and evaluation of degradation caused by age. The effects of age were characterized for the containment cooling system by reviewing and analyzing failure data from national databases, as well as plant-specific data. The predominant failure causes and aging mechanisms were identified, along with the components that failed most frequently. Current inspection, surveillance, and monitoring practices were also examined. A containment cooling system unavailability analysis was performed to examine the potential effects of aging by increasing failure rates for selected components. A commonly found containment spray system design and a commonly found fan cooler system design were modeled. Parametric failure rates for those components in each system that could be subject to aging were accounted for in the model to simulate the time-dependent effects of aging degradation, assuming no provisions are made to properly manage it. System unavailability as a function of increasing component failure rates was then calculated.

  16. Effects of diets containing gossypol on spermatogenic tissues of young bulls.

    PubMed

    Arshami, J; Ruttle, J L

    1988-09-01

    Eighteen yearling beef bulls were used in a study to determine the effects of diets containing gossypol on spermatogenic tissues, Sertoli cells and Leydig cells. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of three (n = 6) isonitrogenous diet groups formulated from alfalfa hay and corn (gossypol-free control), control plus whole cottonseed and cottonseed hulls, or control plus cottonseed meal and cottonseed hulls as sources of gossypol. Testicular tissues collected were examined histologically, and tissues from bulls fed gossypol-free diets were compared with those fed diets containing cottonseed products. Following a 2-mo period (P(1)) when bulls were fed diets containing gossypol, one-half of the bulls were placed on a gossypol-free diet for an additional 2 mo (P(2)) to determine if gossypol effects were reversible. At the end of P(1), bulls fed whole cottonseed and cottonseed meal had larger (P<0.01) lumens in their seminiferous tubules, decreased (P<0.001) wall thickness in their seminiferous tubules, and a reduced (P<0.0001) number of cell layers in their seminiferous tubles, when compared with bulls fed a gossypol-free diet. These histological changes indicate detrimental effects to the spermatogenic tissues and associated cells. Following the initial two months (P(1)) of receiving feed containing gossypol, herd mates that were fed a gossypol-free diet for 2 mo (P(2)) showed improvement in histological characteristics, indicating that gossypol-induced effects were partially reversible.

  17. Influence factors of multicomponent mixtures containing reactive chemicals and their joint effects.

    PubMed

    Tian, Dayong; Lin, Zhifen; Yu, Jianqiao; Yin, Daqiang

    2012-08-01

    Organic chemicals usually coexist as a mixture in the environment, and the mixture toxicity of organic chemicals has received increased attention. However, research regarding the joint effects of reactive chemicals is lacking. In this study, we examined two kinds of reactive chemicals, cyanogenic toxicants and aldehydes and determined their joint effects on Photobacterium phosphoreum. Three factors were found to influence the joint effects of multicomponent mixtures containing reactive chemicals, including the number of components, the dominating components and the toxic ratios. With an increased number of components, the synergistic or antagonistic effects (interactions) will weaken to the additive effects (non-interactions) if the added component cannot yield a much stronger joint effect with an existing component. Contrarily, the joint effect of the mixture may become stronger instead of weaker if the added components can yield a much stronger joint effect than the existing joint effect of the multicomponent mixture. The components that yield the strongest interactions in their binary mixture can be considered the dominating components. These components contribute more to the interactions of multicomponent mixtures than other components. Moreover, the toxic ratios also influence the joint effects of the mixtures. This study provides an insight into what are the main factors and how they influence the joint effects of multicomponent mixtures containing reactive chemicals, and thus, the findings are beneficial to the study of mixture toxicology.

  18. Formulation development of a cream containing fennel extract: in vivo evaluation for anti-aging effects.

    PubMed

    Rasul, A; Akhtar, N; Khan, B A; Mahmood, T; Uz Zaman, S; Khan, H M Shoaib

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to formulate and evaluate anti-aging effects of a topical cream (w/o emulsion) containig extract of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) versus its base. Formulation containing 4% concentrated extract of Foeniculum vulgare was developed by entrapping in the inner aqueous phase of w/o emulsion and base contained no extract. Both the base and formulation were stored under different storage conditions to predict their stability. The formulation and base were evaluated for effect on skin moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL). The base showed insignificant while the formulation showed significant effects on skin moisture and TEWL. The parameter volume and surface evaluation of living skin (SELS) parameters SEr, SEsc, SEsm, SEw were also evaluated and showed a significant (p < or = 0.05) decline. The texture parameter energy showed a significant increase proving that the formulation possesses potential anti-aging effects.

  19. Effects of Cream Containing Ficus carica L. Fruit Extract on Skin Parameters: In vivo Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Khan, H.; Akhtar, N.; Ali, A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of cream containing Ficus carica L. fruit (Fig) extract on various skin parameters such as skin melanin, erythema, moisture content, trans-epidermal water loss and sebum. For this purpose, formulation with 4% concentrated extract of F. carica fruit and base without extract were developed. Base served as a control. Both base and formulation were applied to the cheeks of human volunteers for 8 weeks to investigate the effects on different skin parameters using non-invasive bioengineering instruments. Formulation decreased the skin melanin, trans-epidermal water loss and skin sebum significantly. Formulation increased the skin hydration significantly and insignificant effects on skin erythema. We concluded that a stable topical cream (w/o emulsion) containing F. carica fruit extract have effects on skin melanin, trans-epidermal loss, hydration values and sebum content and possibly could be used against for hyper pigmentation, acne, freckles and wrinkle. PMID:25593393

  20. Differential effects of buffer pH on Ca2+-induced ROS emission with inhibited mitochondrial complexes I and III

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Daniel P.; Camara, Amadou K. S.; Stowe, David F.; Lubbe, Ryan; Aldakkak, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) emission is a critical component in the etiology of ischemic injury. Complex I and complex III of the electron transport chain are considered the primary sources of ROS emission during cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury. Several factors modulate ischemic ROS emission, such as an increase in extra-matrix Ca2+, a decrease in extra-matrix pH, and a change in substrate utilization. Here we examined the combined effects of these factors on ROS emission from respiratory complexes I and III under conditions of simulated IR injury. Guinea pig heart mitochondria were suspended in experimental buffer at a given pH and incubated with or without CaCl2. Mitochondria were then treated with either pyruvate, a complex I substrate, followed by rotenone, a complex I inhibitor, or succinate, a complex II substrate, followed by antimycin A, a complex III inhibitor. H2O2 release rate and matrix volume were compared with and without adding CaCl2 and at pH 7.15, 6.9, or 6.5 with pyruvate + rotenone or succinate + antimycin A to simulate conditions that may occur during in vivo cardiac IR injury. We found a large increase in H2O2 release with high [CaCl2] and pyruvate + rotenone at pH 6.9, but not at pHs 7.15 or 6.5. Large increases in H2O2 release rate also occurred at each pH with high [CaCl2] and succinate + antimycin A, with the highest levels observed at pH 7.15. The increases in H2O2 release were associated with significant mitochondrial swelling, and both H2O2 release and swelling were abolished by cyclosporine A, a desensitizer of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). These results indicate that ROS production by complex I and by complex III is differently affected by buffer pH and Ca2+ loading with mPTP opening. The study suggests that changes in the levels of cytosolic Ca2+ and pH during IR alter the relative amounts of ROS produced at mitochondrial respiratory complex I and complex III. PMID

  1. Inhibition of the in vitro infectivity and cytopathic effect of human T-lymphotrophic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV) by 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides.

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuya, H; Broder, S

    1986-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III)/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) is a a newly discovered lymphotropic retrovirus that is cytopathic for helper/inducer T cells in vitro. This virus is the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and related diseases. In the current study, we tested the capacity of purine and pyrimidine nucleoside derivatives to inhibit the infectivity and cytopathic effect of human T-lymphotropic virus type III in vitro. With the ribose moiety of the molecule in a 2',3'-dideoxy configuration, every purine (adenosine, guanosine, and inosine) and pyrimidine (cytidine and thymidine) nucleoside tested suppressed the virus, although the thymidine derivative seemed to have substantially less activity in our system than the others. In general, we observed essentially complete suppression of the virus at doses that were lower by a factor of 10 to 20 than those needed to inhibit the proliferation of the target T cells and the immune reactivity of normal T cells in vitro. An analysis of five adenosine congeners, which differed only in the sugar moiety, revealed that reduction (an absence of hydroxyl determinants) at both the 2' and 3' carbons of the ribose was necessary for an anti-viral effect, and an additional reduction at the 5' carbon nullified the anti-viral activity. These observations may be of value in developing a new class of experimental drugs for the therapy of human T-lymphotropic virus type III infections. PMID:3006077

  2. Effects of Chromium(VI) and Chromium(III) on Desulfovibrio vulgaris Cells

    SciTech Connect

    M.E. Clark; A. Klonowska; S.B. Thieman; B. Giles; J.D. Wall; and M.W. Fields

    2007-04-19

    cell growth was most likely a consequence of Cr(III), and that an organic ligand could protect D. vulgaris cells from Cr(III) toxicity. Lactate consumption decoupled from sulfate reduction in the presence of Cr(VI) could provide organic carbon for organo- Cr(III) complexes.

  3. Cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate on the root meristem cells of Allium cepa.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Flávia de Castro; Vilanova-Costa, Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago; de Lima, Aliny Pereira; Ribeiro, Alessandra de Santana Braga Barbosa; da Silva, Hugo Delleon; Pavanin, Luiz Alfredo; Silveira-Lacerda, Elisângela de Paula

    2009-06-01

    Ruthenium complexes have attracted much attention as possible building blocks for new transition-metal-based antitumor agents. The present study examines the mitotoxic and clastogenic effects induced in the root tips of Allium cepa by cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate {cis-[Ru(C(2)O(2))(NH(3))(4)](2)(S(2)O(6))} at different exposure durations and concentrations. Correlation tests were performed to determine the effects of the time of exposure and concentration of ruthenium complex on mitotic index (MI) and mitotic aberration index. A comparison of MI results of cis-[Ru(C(2)O(2))(NH(3))(4)](2)(S(2)O(6)) to those of lead nitrate reveals that the ruthenium complex demonstrates an average mitotic inhibition eightfold higher than lead, with the frequency of cellular abnormalities almost fourfold lower and mitotic aberration threefold lower. A. cepa root cells exposed to a range of ruthenium complex concentrations did not display significant clastogenic effects. Cis-tetraammine(oxalato)ruthenium(III) dithionate therefore exhibits a remarkable capacity to inhibit mitosis, perhaps by inhibiting DNA synthesis or blocking the cell cycle in the G2 phase. Further investigation of the mechanisms of action of this ruthenium complex will be important to define its clinical potential and to contribute to a novel and rational approach to developing a new metal-based drug with antitumor properties complementary to those exhibited by the drugs already in clinical use.

  4. Rhodamine B-containing silica films from TEOS precursor: Substrate surface effects detected by photoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Alison Abreu; Flor, Juliana; Davolos, Marian Rosaly

    2007-02-01

    This work presents the study of substrate surface effects on rhodamine B-containing silica films obtained from TEOS (tetraethylorthosilicate) acid hydrolysis. Soda-lime glass substrates were treated with basic solution under different reaction times and temperatures. Rhodamine B-containing silica films were deposited on pre-treated substrates by the spin-coating method. The substrate surface directly affects film morphology and homogeneity. The films are formed by packed silica spheres which protect the dye against acid-base attack. Luminescence spectra present shifts on the dye emission maximum as expected for different pH values on the substrate surface depending on the alkaline treatment.

  5. Global Positioning System III (GPS III)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) As of FY 2015 President’s Budget...00-00-2013 to 00-00-2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...Responsible Office References Program Name Global Positioning System III ( GPS III) DoD Component Air Force

  6. The effects of radiation on the behavior of polymeric materials containing photoisomerizable groups

    SciTech Connect

    Hauenstein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet and electron radiation on the behavior of polymeric materials containing photoisomerizable groups was examined with primary emphases on the development of photocontrollable gas separation membranes. These photoresponses were found to be reversible, suggesting a method for real-time control of membrane properties. Extruded, oriented polyethylene films containing photoisomerizable dyes contracted in length by as much as 4.5% upon exposure to ultraviolet light. A 12-70% recovery was observed after 20 minutes to 2 days in darkness. The photoresponse was attributed to the geometrical isomerism of the azo photochromes. Similarly, the effect of electron radiation on the behavior of uncoated poly(vinyl alcohol) containing phenylazobenzene side groups was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The area of surface openings was reversibly decreased by as much as 45% as the emission current was increased. The stability of these uncoated materials under the electron beam was increased by the presence of the sodium salt of p-phenylazobenzoic acid. The effect of ultraviolet irradiation on the permeability and diffusivity of gases through nonporous membranes of ethyl cellulose and ethyl cellulose modified with p-phenylazobenzoyl chloride was examined at temperatures ranging from 30{degree} to 85{degree}C. Upon ultraviolet irradiation, the diffusion coefficient for nitrogen gas in membranes containing p-phenylazobenzoyl side groups reversibly decreased by as much as 18% with the maximum decrease observed at 40{degree}C. At 50{degree}C above, the irradiated and non-irradiated measurements were equivalent.

  7. The effect of cognitive, personality, and background factors on the WAIS-III Arithmetic subtest.

    PubMed

    Karzmark, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In the Wechsler system the Arithmetic subtest has been viewed as a measure of concentration, working memory, or freedom from distractibility. However, a wide range of other influences on Arithmetic performance has been proposed. The current study was intended to examine these to further characterize what is measured by the Arithmetic subtest. Participants were 118 adults referred for neuropsychological assessment. The results indicate a strong association between WAIS-III Arithmetic and the other WMI (Working Memory Index) subtests. Arithmetic also showed a high association with Arithmetic skill and verbal memory. Moderate contributions to Arithmetic performance were found for most other cognitive measures. Measures of anxiety and of background factors, such as perceived difficulty learning Arithmetic, were weakly related to Arithmetic scores. These results suggest that although Arithmetic may be considered a measure of concentration or working memory, many other factors influence it and its specificity as a concentration measure is limited.

  8. Sensitive determination of proteins by its quenching effect on fluorescence of new terbium(III) complex.

    PubMed

    Leonenko, Inna; Aleksandrova, Daria; Yegorova, Alla; Antonovich, Valery; Karasyov, Aleksandr

    2012-01-01

    It is found that in hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA-HCl) buffer pH = 7.8, proteins can quench the fluorescence intensity of new terbium(III) complex with 6-[(1-hydroxy-3-oxo-6,7-dihydro-3H,5H-pyrido[3,2,1-ij]quinoline-2-carbonyl)-amino]-hexanoic acid (L). Based on this, a sensitive fluorimetric method for the determination of proteins is proposed. Under optimum conditions, the I0/I is in proportion to the concentration of protein in the range of 0.1-40.0 microg/mL for bovine serum albumin (BSA), 0.1-70.0 microg/mL for human serum albumin (HSA) and 0.1-40.0 microg/mL for immunoglobulin G (IgG). Their detection limits (S/N = 3) are 0.03 microg/mL. The interaction mechanism for the luminescence quenching is also studied.

  9. Effective As(III) Removal by A Multi-Charged Hydroacid Complex Draw Solute Facilitated Forward Osmosis-Membrane Distillation (FO-MD) Processes.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingchun; Han, Gang; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-03-01

    Effective removal of As(III) from water by an oxalic acid complex with the formula of Na3[Cr(C2O4)3] (Na-Cr-OA) is demonstrated via an forward osmosis-membrane distillation (FO-MD) hybrid system in this study. Na-Cr-OA first proved its superiority as a draw solute with high water fluxes and negligible reverse fluxes in FO, then a systematic investigation of the Na-Cr-OA promoted FO process was conducted to ascertain the factors in As(III) removal. Relatively high water fluxes of 28 LMH under the FO mode and 74 LMH under the pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) mode were achieved when using a 1000 ppm As(III) solution as the feed and 1.0 M Na-Cr-OA as the draw solution at 60 °C. As(III) removal with a water recovery up to 21.6% (FO mode) and 48.3% (PRO mode) were also achieved in 2 h. An outstanding As(III) rejection with 30-3000 μg/L As(III) in the permeate was accomplished when As(III) feed solutions varied from 5 × 10(4) to 1 × 10(6) μg/L, superior to the best FO performance reported for As(III) removal. Incorporating MD into FO not only makes As(III) removal sustainable by reconcentrating the Na-Cr-OA solution simultaneously, but also reduces the As(III) concentration below 10 μg/L in the product water, meeting the WHO standard.

  10. The effect of grade norms in college students: using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement.

    PubMed

    Cressman, Markus N; Liljequist, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement grade norms versus age norms were examined in the calculation of discrepancy scores in 202 college students. Difference scores were calculated between the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition Full Scale IQ and the Woodcock-Johnson III Total Achievement, Broad Reading, Math, and Written Language scores. The proportion meeting the substantial discrepancy criterion of two standard deviations plus or minus the standard error of the difference between means was 7.9% using age norms and 37.6% using grade norms. Using mixed analyses of variance, the authors found main effects for type of norm for all difference scores, with grade norms yielding significantly higher difference scores than age norms. A main effect for student status (traditional-age students n = 124, non-traditional-age students n = 78) was found for Total Achievement, Broad Reading, and Math such that traditional-age students had greater discrepancies. Discrepancy scores are contrasted with absolute scores (SS < 85) in the identification of learning disabilities as well. Implications of using grade versus age norms are discussed.

  11. Polymer light-emitting diodes based on cationic iridium(III) complexes with a 1,10-phenanthroline derivative containing a bipolar carbazole-oxadiazole unit as the auxiliary ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Huaijun; Wei, Liying; Meng, Guoyun; Li, Yanhu; Wang, Guanze; Yang, Furui; Wu, Hongbin; Yang, Wei; Cao, Yong

    2014-11-01

    A 1,10-phenanthroline derivative (co-phen) containing a bipolar carbazole-oxadiazole unit was synthesized and used as the auxiliary ligand in cationic iridium(III) complexes [(ppy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 (ppy: 2-phenylpyridine) and [(npy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 (npy: 2-(naphthalen-1-yl)pyridine). Two complexes have high thermal stability with the glass-transition temperatures (Tg) of 207 °C and 241 °C, and the same 5% weight-reduction temperatures (ΔT5%) of 402 °C. Both of them were used as phosphorescent dopants in solution-processed polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs): ITO/PEDOT: PSS/PVK: PBD: complex (mass ratios 100: 40: x, x = 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0)/CsF/Al. The maximum luminances of the PLEDs using [(ppy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 and [(npy)2Ir(co-phen)]PF6 were 12567 cd m-2 and 11032 cd m-2, the maximum luminance efficiencies were 17.3 cd A-1 and 20.4 cd A-1, the maximum power efficiencies were 9.8 lm W-1 and 10.3 lm W-1, and the maximum external quantum efficiencies were 9.3% and 11.4% respectively. The CIE color coordinates were around (0.37, 0.57) and (0.44, 0.54) respectively, corresponding to the yellow green region.

  12. The acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capabilities.

    PubMed

    Beck, Travis W; Housh, Terry J; Schmidt, Richard J; Johnson, Glen O; Housh, Dona J; Coburn, Jared W; Malek, Moh H

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on upper- and lower-body strength and muscular endurance as well as anaerobic capabilities. Thirty-seven resistance-trained men (mean +/- SD, age: 21 +/- 2 years) volunteered to participate in this study. On the first laboratory visit, the subjects performed 2 Wingate Anaerobic Tests (WAnTs) to determine peak power (PP) and mean power (MP), as well as tests for 1 repetition maximum (1RM), dynamic constant external resistance strength, and muscular endurance (TOTV; total volume of weight lifted during an endurance test with 80% of the 1RM) on the bilateral leg extension (LE) and free-weight bench press (BP) exercises. Following a minimum of 48 hours of rest, the subjects returned to the laboratory for the second testing session and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: a supplement group (SUPP; n = 17), which ingested a caffeine-containing supplement, or a placebo group (PLAC; n = 20), which ingested a cellulose placebo. One hour after ingesting either the caffeine-containing supplement or the placebo, the subjects performed 2 WAnTs and were tested for 1RM strength and muscular endurance on the LE and BP exercises. The results indicated that there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in BP 1RM for the SUPP group, but not for the PLAC group. The caffeine-containing supplement had no effect, however, on LE 1RM, LE TOTV, BP TOTV, PP, and MP. Thus, the caffeine-containing supplement may be an effective supplement for increasing upper-body strength and, therefore, could be useful for competitive and recreational athletes who perform resistance training.

  13. III-V-on-nothing metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors enabled by top-down nanowire release process: Experiment and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, J. J.; Koybasi, O.; Wu, Y. Q.; Ye, P. D.

    2011-09-01

    III-V-on-nothing (III-VON) metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) are experimentally demonstrated with In0.53Ga0.47As as channel and atomic layer deposited Al2O3 as gate dielectric. A hydrochloric acid based release process has been developed to create an air gap beneath the InGaAs channel layer, forming the nanowire channel with width down to 40 nm. III-VON MOSFETs with channel lengths down to 50 nm are fabricated and show promising improvement in drain-induced barrier lowering, due to suppressed short-channel effects. The top-down processing technique provides a viable pathway towards fully gate-all-around III-V MOSFETs.

  14. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  15. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine toward maize plants

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Halley C.; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia B. R.; Sousa, Gustavo F. M.; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo B.; Fraceto, Leonardo F.

    2015-01-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were 10-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL−1), maize plants presented 15 and 21% decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected 4 and 8 days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a 10-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL−1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth

  16. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Halley; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia; Sousa, Gustavo; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo; Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1), maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth.

  17. A Population-Based Comparative Effectiveness Study of Radiation Therapy Techniques in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Jeremy P.; Murphy, James D.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Loo, Billy W.; Diehn, Maximilian

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Concerns have been raised about the potential for worse treatment outcomes because of dosimetric inaccuracies related to tumor motion and increased toxicity caused by the spread of low-dose radiation to normal tissues in patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). We therefore performed a population-based comparative effectiveness analysis of IMRT, conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT), and 2-dimensional radiation therapy (2D-RT) in stage III NSCLC. Methods and Materials: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database to identify a cohort of patients diagnosed with stage III NSCLC from 2002 to 2009 treated with IMRT, 3D-CRT, or 2D-RT. Using Cox regression and propensity score matching, we compared survival and toxicities of these treatments. Results: The proportion of patients treated with IMRT increased from 2% in 2002 to 25% in 2009, and the use of 2D-RT decreased from 32% to 3%. In univariate analysis, IMRT was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR] 0.90, P=.02) and cancer-specific survival (CSS) (HR 0.89, P=.02). After controlling for confounders, IMRT was associated with similar OS (HR 0.94, P=.23) and CSS (HR 0.94, P=.28) compared with 3D-CRT. Both techniques had superior OS compared with 2D-RT. IMRT was associated with similar toxicity risks on multivariate analysis compared with 3D-CRT. Propensity score matched model results were similar to those from adjusted models. Conclusions: In this population-based analysis, IMRT for stage III NSCLC was associated with similar OS and CSS and maintained similar toxicity risks compared with 3D-CRT.

  18. Camelina meal supplementation to beef cattle: III. Effects on acute-phase and thyroid responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fourteen halter-trained Angus steers were ranked by initial BW (average 191 ± 2.1 kg), and assigned (d 0) to receive supplements containing (as-fed basis): 1) 84% corn, 14% soybean meal, and 2% mineral mix (CO); and 2) 70% corn, 28% camelina meal, and 2% mineral mix (CAM). Treatments were offered in...

  19. Camelina meal supplementation to beef cattle: III. Effects on acute-phase and thyroid responses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty Angus x Hereford steers were ranked by BW on d -28 of the study and allocated to 20 drylot pens, which were randomly assigned to receive: 1) supplement containing (as-fed basis) 84% corn, 14% soybean meal, and 2% mineral mix (CO) offered during preconditioning (PC; d -28 to 0) and feedlot rece...

  20. Quantitative evaluations of the effect of UV irradiation on the infectivity of HTLV-III (AIDS virus) with HTLV-I-carrying cell line, MT-4

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, H.; Koyanagi, Y.; Harada, S.; Yamamoto, N.

    1986-08-01

    The effect of UV irradiation on HTLV-III was quantitatively studied to evaluate the dosage of UV irradiation which inactivates the virus for sterilization of blood products and for laboratory decontamination. In order to estimate the biologic activity and quantitation of the virus, induction of HTLV-III-specific antigens and inhibition of DNA synthesis in MT-4 cells infected by UV-irradiated HTLV-III were detected by indirect immunofluorescence technique and proliferation assay using (3H)thymidine uptake, respectively. Furthermore, plaque-forming assay was performed to count the infectious viral particles. Results showed that HTLV-III was completely inactivated by 5000 J/m2 UV irradiation. Cloned UV-irradiated HTLV-III (UV-1) was obtained from a plaque that was formed by 2000 J/m2 UV-irradiated virus. When MT-4 cells were infected by the clone UV-1, ballooning degeneration of cells was predominantly induced. These ballooning cells were not usually observed in MT-4 cells infected by unirradiated HTLV-III. The resistance to UV was not different between clone UV-1 and unirradiated HTLV-III.

  1. The effects of safety climate on vessel accidents in the container shipping context.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chin-Shan; Tsai, Chaur-Luh

    2008-03-01

    This study empirically evaluates the influence of safety climate on vessel accidents from a seafarer's perspective, specifically in the container shipping context. Factor analysis revealed six safety climate dimensions: management safety practices, supervisor safety practices, safety attitude, safety training, job safety, and co-workers' safety practices. Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effects of safety climate dimensions on vessel accidents in respect of crew fatality and vessel failure. Study findings indicated that management safety practices, safety training, and job safety dimensions significantly affect crew fatality incidence, and the job safety dimension has a significant influence on vessel failure. Overall, results suggest the job safety dimension has the most important effect on vessel accidents, followed by management safety practices and safety training dimensions. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings for vessel accident prevention in the container shipping context are discussed.

  2. The Effect of Oxygen Potential on the Sulfide Capacity for Slags Containing Multivalent Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allertz, Carl; Selleby, Malin; Sichen, Du

    2016-10-01

    The dependence of sulfide capacity on the oxygen partial pressure for slags containing multivalent species was investigated experimentally using a slag containing vanadium oxide. Copper-slag equilibration experiments were carried out at 1873 K (1600 °C) in the approximate oxygen partial pressure range 10-15.4 to 10-9 atm. The sulfide capacity was found to be strongly dependent on the oxygen potential in this slag system, increasing with the oxygen partial pressure. The sulfide capacity changed by more than two orders of magnitude over the oxygen partial pressure range. The effect of changing oxygen partial pressure was found to be much greater than the effect of changing slag composition at a fixed oxygen partial pressure.

  3. Effects of the new phosphodiesterase-III inhibitor R80122 on contractility and calcium current in human cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Himmel, H M; Ravens, U

    1994-07-01

    The selective phosphodiesterase III (PDE-III) inhibitor R80122 ((E)-N-cyclohexal-N-methyl-2-[[[phenyl-(1,2,3,5- tetrahydro-2-oxoimidazo-[2,1b]-quinazolin-7-yl)-methylene]-a mino]-oxy]-acetamide) has been reported to possess greater cardiotonic potency and less side effects than the standard compounds milrinone or enoximone. To characterize this new compound further, we investigated the effects of R80122 on force of contraction (Fc) and calcium current (ICa) in human right atrium (HRA) and human left ventricle (HLV) with reference to the nonselective PDE-inhibitor IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine). With "late" exposure (300- to 330-min equilibration) of human atrial trabeculae, R80122 (3 microM) increased Fc by 60 +/- 11%; log EC50 was -6.2 +/- 0.1. R80122 (3 microM) induced a relative leftward shift of forskolin concentration-response curves by 0.34 log units; the respective value for IBMX (20 microM) was 0.46. A positive inotropic effect of R80122 was also shown in guinea pig papillary muscles. ICa was measured in voltage-clamped isolated myocytes of human right atrial and left ventricular (LV) tissue, and, for comparison, guinea pig ventricle. With clamp steps from -40 to +5 mV, R80122 (3 microM) increased peak ICa from 3.1 +/- 0.2 to 5.4 +/- 0.3 pA/pF in HRA cells, from 2.9 +/- 0.4 to 5.1 +/- 0.6 pA/pF in HLV cells, and from 4.4 +/- 0.3 to 6.6 +/- 0.5 pA/pF in guinea pig myocytes. IBMX 20 microM increased ICa to a greater extent. Washout or addition of carbachol 10 microM partially reversed the effect of R80122. Voltage dependence, inactivation time course, and steady-state inactivation of ICa were little changed by either compound. Stimulation of Ca2+ influx by L-type Ca2+ channels contributes to the positive inotropic effect of the selective PDE-III inhibitor R80122.

  4. Direct Calculation of the Scattering Amplitude Without Partial Wave Decomposition. III; Inclusion of Correlation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shertzer, Janine; Temkin, Aaron

    2007-01-01

    In the first two papers in this series, we developed a method for studying electron-hydrogen scattering that does not use partial wave analysis. We constructed an ansatz for the wave function in both the static and static exchange approximations and calculated the full scattering amplitude. Here we go beyond the static exchange approximation, and include correlation in the wave function via a modified polarized orbital. This correlation function provides a significant improvement over the static exchange approximation: the resultant elastic scattering amplitudes are in very good agreement with fully converged partial wave calculations for electron-hydrogen scattering. A fully variational modification of this approach is discussed in the conclusion of the article Popular summary of Direct calculation of the scattering amplitude without partial wave expansion. III ....." by J. Shertzer and A. Temkin. In this paper we continue the development of In this paper we continue the development of a new approach to the way in which researchers have traditionally used to calculate the scattering cross section of (low-energy) electrons from atoms. The basic mathematical problem is to solve the Schroedinger Equation (SE) corresponding the above physical process. Traditionally it was always the case that the SE was reduced to a sequence of one-dimensional (ordinary) differential equations - called partial waves which were solved and from the solutions "phase shifts" were extracted, from which the scattering cross section was calculated.

  5. High pressure effects on a trimetallic Mn(II/III) SMM.

    PubMed

    Prescimone, Alessandro; Sanchez-Benitez, Javier; Kamenev, Konstantin V; Moggach, Stephen A; Lennie, Alistair R; Warren, John E; Murrie, Mark; Parsons, Simon; Brechin, Euan K

    2009-09-28

    A combined study of the high pressure crystallography and high pressure magnetism of the complex [Mn3(Hcht)2(bpy)4](ClO4)3.Et2O.2MeCN (1.Et2O.2MeCN) (H3cht is cis,cis-1,3,5-cyclohexanetriol) is presented in an attempt to observe and correlate pressure induced changes in its structural and physical properties. At 0.16 GPa the complex 1.Et2O.2MeCN loses all associated solvent in the crystal lattice, becoming 1. At higher pressures structural distortions occur changing the distances between the metal centres and the bridging oxygen atoms making the magnetic exchange between the manganese ions weaker. No significant variations are observed in the Jahn-Teller axis of the only Mn(III) present in the structure. High pressure dc chiMT plots display a gradual decrease in both the low temperature value and slope. Simulations show a decrease in J with increasing pressure although the ground state is preserved. Magnetisation data do not show any change in |D|.

  6. Synthesis of cartilage matrix by mammalian chondrocytes in vitro. III. Effects of ascorbate

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    Chondrocytes isolated from bovine articular cartilage were plated at high density and grown in the presence or absence of ascorbate. Collagen and proteoglycans, the major matrix macromolecules synthesized by these cells, were isolated at times during the course of the culture period and characterized. In both control and ascorbate-treated cultures, type II collagen and cartilage proteoglycans accumulated in the cell-associated matrix. Control cells secreted proteoglycans and type II collagen into the medium, whereas with time in culture, ascorbate-treated cells secreted an increasing proportion of types I and III collagens into the medium. The ascorbate-treated cells did not incorporate type I collagen into the cell-associated matrix, but continued to accumulate type II collagen in this compartment. Upon removal of ascorbate, the cells ceased to synthesize type I collagen. Morphological examination of ascorbate-treated and control chondrocyte culture revealed that both collagen and proteoglycans were deposited into the extracellular matrix. The ascorbate-treated cells accumulated a more extensive matrix that was rich in collagen fibrils and ruthenium red-positive proteoglycans. This study demonstrated that although ascorbate facilitates the formation of an extracellular matrix in chondrocyte cultures, it can also cause a reversible alteration in the phenotypic expression of those cells in vitro. PMID:6501411

  7. Thermal and optical properties of Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) co-complexed silicone fluorinated acrylate copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yinfeng; Xie, Hongde; Cai, Haijun; Cai, Peiqing; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-07-01

    Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) activated silicone fluorinated acrylate (SFA) have been successfully synthesized using the method of semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. The copolymers are characterized by flourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectroscopy. The copolymer containing Tb(III) and Eu(III) ions display green and red luminescent colors under UV light excitation, respectively. The TGA curves show the thermal decomposition temperatures of the copolymers are up to about 300 °C. The PL spectra show a strong green emission at 546 nm (5D4 → 7F5) of Tb(III) complexed copolymers, and show a prominent red emission at 615 nm (5D0 → 7F2) of Eu(III) complexed copolymers. Different concentrations of Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions are introduced into the copolymer and the energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) ions in the copolymer was found. Thus, based on the results it can be suggested that SFA:Eu(III), SFA:Tb(III) and SFA:Tb(III)/Eu(III) can be used potentially as luminescent materials.

  8. The staining effect of different mouthwashes containing nanoparticles on dental enamel

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Neda; Rajabi, Omid; Zamani, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to evaluate the effects of several mouthwashes containing nanoparticles on discoloration of dental enamel, and compare the results with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX). Material and Methods Sixty intact premolars were randomly assigned to six groups. A spectrophotometer was used to measure the color of the teeth (T1) according to the CIELAB system. The specimens in groups 1 to 4 were then immersed in colloidal solutions containing nanoTiO2 (Group 1), nanoZnO (Group 2), nanoAg (Group 3) and nanoCuO (Group 4). In groups 5 and 6, a 0.2% CHX mouthwash and distilled water were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. After 24 hours of immersion, color determination was repeated (T2). The third color assessment was accomplished after brushing (T3). The L, a, and b values were recorded and the color change (?E) between different stages was calculated. Results ANOVA revealed significant between-group differences in the color change between T1 and T2 stages, as well as between T1 and T3 time points (p<0.05), whereas the color change between T2 and T3 was not significantly different among the study groups (p=0.09). ?ET1-T3 was significantly lower in the specimens immersed in distilled water or CHX as compared to the nanoparticle-containing mouthwashes (p<0.05). The highest ?E value pertained to the specimens immersed in nanoZnO-containing solution. The TiO2 nanoparticles caused the lowest staining among the tested nanoparticles. Conclusions The mouthwashes containing nanoparticles produced comparable or even greater enamel discoloration compared to CHX. Brushing had little effect on removal of induced stains. Key words:Nanoparticle, mouthrinse, mouthwash, staining, enamel, discoloration, chlorhexidine. PMID:26535089

  9. The addition of a second lanthanide ion to increase the luminescence of europium(III) macrocyclic complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Bromm, A.J. Jr.; Vallarino, L.M.; Leif, R.C.; Quagliano, J.R.

    1998-12-29

    At present, the microscopic visualization of luminescent labels containing lanthanide(III) ions, primarily europium(III), as light-emitting centers is best performed with time-gated instrumentation, which by virtually eliminating the background fluorescence results in an improved signal to noise ratio. However, the use of the europium(III) macrocycle, Quantum Dye{trademark}, in conjunction with the strong luminescence enhancing effect (cofluorescence) of yttrium(III) or gadolinium(III), can eliminate the need for such specialized instrumentation. In the presence of Gd(III), the luminescence of the Eu(III)-macrocycles can be conveniently observed with conventional fluorescence instrumentation at previously unattainable low levels. The Eu(III) {sup 5}D{sub 0} {r_arrow} {sup 7}F{sub 2} emission of the Eu(III)-macrocycles was observed as an extremely sharp band with a maximum at 619 nm and a clearly resolved characteristic pattern. At very low Eu(III)-macrocycle concentrations, another sharp emission was detected at 614 nm, arising from traces of Eu(III) present in even the purest commercially available gadolinium products. Discrimination of the resolved emissions of the Eu(III)-macrocycle and Eu(III) contaminant should provide a means to further lower the limit of detection of the Eu(III)-macrocycle.

  10. Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Jayasimman; Tomašić, Nikica; Kotarsky, Heike; Hansson, Eva; Velagapudi, Vidya; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Fellman, Vineta

    2016-11-01

    Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1l(c.232A>G)) mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose) will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21) than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30), and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders.

  11. Effects of joint position on the distraction distance during grade III glenohumeral joint distraction in healthy individuals

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sam-Sik; Kim, Bo-Kyung; Moon, Ok-Kon; Choi, Wan-Suk

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The study investigated the effects of joint position on the distraction distance during Grade III glenohumeral joint distraction in healthy individuals. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty adults in their forties without shoulder disease were randomly divided into neutral position group (NPG; n = 7), resting position group (RPG; n = 7), and end range position group (ERPG; n = 6). After Kaltenborn Grade III distraction for 40s, the distance between glenoid fossa and humeral head was measured by ultrasound. [Results] The average distances between the humeral head and glenoid fossa before distraction were 2.86 ± 0.81, 3.21 ± 0.47, and 3.55 ± 0.59 mm for the NP, RP, and ERP groups. The distances after applying distraction were 3.12 ± 0.51, 3.86 ± 0.55, and 4.35 ± 0.32 mm. Between-group comparison after applying distraction revealed no significant differences between the NP and RP groups, while there was a statistically significant difference between the NP and RP groups, as well as between the NP and ERP groups. [Conclusion] Joint space was largest in ERP individuals when performing manual distraction. PMID:26644692

  12. Effect of High-Carbohydrate Diet on Plasma Metabolome in Mice with Mitochondrial Respiratory Chain Complex III Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Jayasimman; Tomašić, Nikica; Kotarsky, Heike; Hansson, Eva; Velagapudi, Vidya; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Fellman, Vineta

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial disorders cause energy failure and metabolic derangements. Metabolome profiling in patients and animal models may identify affected metabolic pathways and reveal new biomarkers of disease progression. Using liver metabolomics we have shown a starvation-like condition in a knock-in (Bcs1lc.232A>G) mouse model of GRACILE syndrome, a neonatal lethal respiratory chain complex III dysfunction with hepatopathy. Here, we hypothesized that a high-carbohydrate diet (HCD, 60% dextrose) will alleviate the hypoglycemia and promote survival of the sick mice. However, when fed HCD the homozygotes had shorter survival (mean ± SD, 29 ± 2.5 days, n = 21) than those on standard diet (33 ± 3.8 days, n = 30), and no improvement in hypoglycemia or liver glycogen depletion. We investigated the plasma metabolome of the HCD- and control diet-fed mice and found that several amino acids and urea cycle intermediates were increased, and arginine, carnitines, succinate, and purine catabolites decreased in the homozygotes. Despite reduced survival the increase in aromatic amino acids, an indicator of liver mitochondrial dysfunction, was normalized on HCD. Quantitative enrichment analysis revealed that glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, phenylalanine and tyrosine metabolism, and urea cycle were also partly normalized on HCD. This dietary intervention revealed an unexpected adverse effect of high-glucose diet in complex III deficiency, and suggests that plasma metabolomics is a valuable tool in evaluation of therapies in mitochondrial disorders. PMID:27809283

  13. Effects of blood sample anticoagulants on lateral flow assays using luminescent photon-upconverting and Eu(III) nanoparticle reporters.

    PubMed

    Juntunen, Etvi; Arppe, Riikka; Kalliomäki, Laura; Salminen, Teppo; Talha, Sheikh M; Myyryläinen, Tiina; Soukka, Tero; Pettersson, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Many quantitative and semiquantitative lateral flow (LF) assays have been introduced for clinical analytes such as biomarkers for cancer or acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Various detection technologies involving quantitative analyzing devices have been reported to have sufficient analytical sensitivity and quantification capability for clinical point-of-care tests. Fluorescence-based detection technologies such as quantum dots, Eu(III) nanoparticles, and photon-upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) have been introduced as promising solutions for point-of-care devices because of their high detectability by optical sensors. Lateral flow assays can be used for various sample types, e.g., urine, saliva, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood. This study focuses on the properties of serum and plasma because of their relevance in cancer and AMI diagnostics. The limit of detection was compared in LF assays having Eu(III) nanoparticles or UCNPs as reporters and the antibody configurations for two different analytes (prostate-specific antigen and cardiac troponin I (cTnI)). The results indicate a significant effect of anticoagulants in venipuncture tubes. The samples in K3EDTA tubes resulted in significant interference by decreased reporter particle mobility, and thus the limit of detection was up to eightfold less sensitive compared to serum samples. Despite the matrix interference in the cTnI assay with UCNP reporters, limits of detection of 41 ng/L with serum and 66 ng/L with the Li-heparin sample were obtained.

  14. Effects of surface reconstruction on the epitaxial growth of III-Sb on GaAs using interfacial misfit array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Bo Wen; Tan, Kian Hua; Loke, Wan Khai; Wicaksono, Satrio; Yoon, Soon Fatt

    2017-03-01

    The effects of pre-growth Sb reconstruction on a GaAs surface on the epitaxial growth of III-Sb (GaSb and InSb) on a (100) GaAs substrate using interfacial misfit array were investigated. All samples exhibited smooth surface with a root mean square (r.m.s.) roughness below 1.5 nm and nearly 100% relaxation. Modeling indicated that the distribution and types of misfit dislocations can be evaluated using a reciprocal space map (RSM) of the x-ray measurements. The interfacial misfit (IMF) arrays in III-Sb/GaAs samples were characterized by RSMs of high-resolution x-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The RSM results suggest that all samples exhibited highly uniformly distributed misfit dislocations, and pre-growth (2 × 8) Sb surface reconstruction promoted the formation of 90° dislocations in an IMF array. Hall measurements of unintentionally doped GaSb and InSb layers also suggested that the highest motilities at both 77 K and 300 K were achieved at the samples grown on GaAs with pre-growth (2 × 8) Sb reconstruction.

  15. Effect of a high carbohydrate diet on the content of apolipoproteins C-II, C-III and E in human plasma high density lipoprotein subfractions.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, N; Holdsworth, G; Barnhart, R L; Srivastava, L S; Glueck, C J; Kashyap, M L; Jackson, R L

    1983-03-01

    The effect of isocaloric high and low carbohydrate (Carb) diets on the structure and apoprotein composition of plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) was assessed in four healthy men. The high Carb diet contained 65% calories as Carb and 15% as fat; the low Carb was 15% and 65%, respectively, with protein fixed at 20% of calories in each case. Cholesterol was 400 mg/day and the P/S ratio of the fat was 0.4. Each diet was sequentially consumed for periods of 3 weeks. At the end of each 3-week study period, plasma HDL2 and HDL3 were isolated by zonal ultracentrifugation and their apoprotein and lipid compositions were determined. Compared to the low Carb diet, the high Carb diet was associated with an increase in the size of HDL2 (116.0 +/- 1.8 vs. 109.1 +/- 1.8 A) and in the content (mean weight % +/- SEM) of apoE (2.81 +/- 0.71 vs. 1.79 +/- 0.49, P less than 0.01) and of apoC-II (1.73 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.11 +/- 0.12, P less than 0.01). HDL2 apoC-III content was not significantly different on the two diets (6.49 +/- 0.50 vs. 7.42 +/- 1.21). On the two diets, HDL3 size and HDL3 apoE content were not significantly changed. HDL3 apoC-II and apoC-III, however, were higher on the high Carb diet, P less than 0.05. The ratio (by weight) of HDL2 apoE/HDL2 apoC-II + C-III increased on the high Carb diet compared to the low Carb diet (0.344 +/- 0.058 vs. 0.228 +/- 0.053, P less than 0.01). We suggest that the increased amount of apolipoprotein E in HDL2 may influence its rate of catabolic clearance and may account for the well-known decrease in plasma HDL-cholesterol in subjects on high Carb diets.

  16. Lanthanide(III)/pyrimidine-4,6-dicarboxylate/oxalate extended frameworks: a detailed study based on the lanthanide contraction and temperature effects.

    PubMed

    Cepeda, Javier; Balda, Rolindes; Beobide, Garikoitz; Castillo, Oscar; Fernández, Joaquín; Luque, Antonio; Pérez-Yáñez, Sonia; Román, Pascual; Vallejo-Sánchez, Daniel

    2011-09-05

    entropic effects at high temperatures directs the crystallization process toward less hydrated crystal structures. The magnetic data of these compounds indicate that the exchange coupling between the lanthanide atoms is almost negligible, so the magnetic behavior is dominated by the spin-orbit coupling and the ligand field perturbation. The luminescence properties that exhibit the compounds containing Nd(III), Eu(III), and Tb(III) have been also characterized.

  17. Effect of water storage in silver container on the viability of enteric bacterial pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kotigadde, Subbannayya; Anusha, G R; Sandya, V; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Subbannayya, Tejaswini; Nayak, Shivananda

    2012-12-01

    Silver is one of the heavy metals traditionally played major role in the human life. It is used in the form of ornaments or as containers to store or drink water and other consumable liquids. The study was designed to observe the effect of water storage in silver containers on enteric pathogens. Three sets of sterile silver, stainless steel and glass metal screw capped containers were filled with non-chlorinated sterilized well water. One each of the three sets was inoculated with enteric pathogens viz. Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae O1 and Salmonella typhi cultures drawn from the laboratory stock and incubated at 37 degrees C for varying periods. Preliminary findings of this study indicated that silver is bactericidal within an hour to Shigella dysenteriae, Vibrio cholerae O1 and Salmonella typhi which cause life-threatening enteric human diseases. The quantity of silver needed to eliminate these bacteria was found to be less than 2.5 ug/dl at pH 6.5. This study reveals the potential for silver containers to be used to disinfect natural water in areas of poor hygiene and sanitation where groundwater is the main source of drinking water.

  18. Selective Recovery of Chromium from Precipitates Containing d Elements and Actinides: I. Effects of O2

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoseev, A. M.; Budantseva, N. A.; Yusov, A. B.; Shilov, V. P.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2002-07-15

    The oxidation of Cr(III) hydroxides, mixed Fe(III)-Cr(III) hydroxides, and specimens of spinel phases NiCr2O4 and Fe(Cr,Fe)2O4 have been investigated in alkaline suspensions under the action of air and pure oxygen (1-3 atm). The rate of reaction increases with increasing alkali concentration, temperature, and oxygen pressure. Pu(IV) fixed on chromium hydroxides is not oxidized by oxygen under these conditions but is retained in the precipitate.

  19. Effect of cigarette smoke extract on the polymorphonuclear leukocytes chemiluminescence: influence of a filter containing glutathione.

    PubMed

    Zappacosta, B; Persichilli, S; Minucci, A; Fasanella, S; Scribano, D; Giardina, B; De Sole, P

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to be a risk factor for several chronic and neoplastic diseases. Many compounds formed by cigarette burning, ranging from particulate materials to water solutes and gaseous extracts, are considered to be noxious agents, and many biochemical and molecular mechanisms have been proposed for the toxic effects of cigarette smoke. The oral cavity and the upper respiratory tract represent the first contact areas for smoke compounds; even a single cigarette can produce marked effects on some components of the oral cavity, either chemical compounds, such as glutathione and enzymes, or cellular elements, such as polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Several studies suggest a protective role of glutathione against the noxious effects of tobacco smoke; the sulphydril groups of glutathione, in fact, could react with some smoke products, such as unsaturated aldehydes, leading to the formation of harmless intermediate compounds and simultaneously preventing the inactivation of metabolically essential molecules, such as some enzymes. In this paper we analyse the effect of a filter containing glutathione on the respiratory burst of polymorphonuclear leukocytes exposed to aqueous extract of cigarette smoke, measuring their chemiluminescence activity. The results of this paper indicate that the GSH-containing filter has a likely protective effect against the inhibition of cigarette smoke extract on polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity.

  20. The effect of electron beam pitch angle and density gradient on solar type III radio bursts

    SciTech Connect

    Pechhacker, R.; Tsiklauri, D.

    2012-11-15

    1.5D particle-in-cell simulations of a hot, low density electron beam injected into magnetized, maxwellian plasma were used to further explore the alternative non-gyrotropic beam driven electromagnetic (EM) emission mechanism, first studied in Tsiklauri, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052903 (2011). Variation of beam injection angle and background density gradient showed that the emission process is caused by the perpendicular component of the beam injection current, whereas the parallel component only produces Langmuir waves, which play no role in the generation of EM waves in our mechanism. Particular emphasis was put on the case, where the beam is injected perpendicularly to the background magnetic field, as this turned off any electrostatic wave generation along the field and left a purely electromagnetic signal in the perpendicular components. The simulations establish the following key findings: (i) Initially, waves at a few {omega}{sub ce}/{gamma} are excited, mode converted and emitted at Almost-Equal-To {omega}{sub pe} (ii) The emission intensity along the beam axis is proportional to the respective component of the kinetic energy of the beam; (iii) The frequency of the escaping EM emission is independent of the injection angle; (iv) A stronger background density gradient causes earlier emission; (v) The beam electron distribution function in phase space shows harmonic oscillation in the perpendicular components at the relativistic gyrofrequency; (vi) The requirement for cyclotron maser emission, ({partial_derivative}f/{partial_derivative}v{sub Up-Tack })>0, is fulfilled; (vii) The degree of linear polarization of the emission is strongly dependent on the beam injection angle; (viii) The generated electromagnetic emission is left-hand elliptically polarized as the pitch angle tends to 90 Degree-Sign ; and (ix) The generated electromagnetic energy is of the order of 0.1% of the initial beam kinetic energy.

  1. Effect of dietary calcium level and source on mineral utilisation by piglets fed diets containing exogenous phytase.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, P; Gutzwiller, A

    2016-11-21

    Calcium and phosphorus are essential minerals, closely linked in digestive processes and metabolism. With widespread use of low P diets containing exogenous phytase, the optimal dietary Ca level was verified. The 40-day study evaluated the effects of Ca level (4, 7 and 10 g/kg diet) and Ca source (Ca from CaCO3 and from Lithothamnium calcareum) on mineral utilisation in 72 piglets (7.9 ± 1.0 kg BW) fed an exogenous phytase containing diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg. Measured parameters were growth performance, stomach mineral solubility, bone breaking strength and urinary, serum and bone mineral concentration. The apparent total tract digestibility of minerals was also assessed in the two diets with 7 g Ca/kg, using 12 additional pigs. Regardless of Ca source, increasing dietary Ca impaired feed conversion ratio, increased urinary pH, increased serum and urinary Ca, decreased serum and urinary P, decreased serum Mg and increased urinary Mg, increased serum AP activity, decreased bone Mg increased bone Zn. Bone breaking strength was improved with 7 compared to 4 g Ca/kg. Compared to CaCO3 , Ca from Lithothamnium calcareum increased serum Mg and with, 10 g Ca/kg, it limited body weight gain. The dose response of Ca in a diet with 2.9 g digestible P/kg and including exogenous phytase indicated that: (i) a low dietary Ca was beneficial for piglet growth, but was limiting the metabolic use of P; (ii) a high dietary Ca level impaired P utilisation; (iii) the optimal P utilisation and bone breaking strength was obtained with a dietary Ca-to-digestible P ratio of 2.1 to 2.4:1; (iv). Increasing dietary Ca reduced Mg utilisation, but not Zn status, when fed at adequate level. Finally, Ca from Lithothamnium calcareum had similar effects on Ca and P metabolism as CaCO3 , but impaired growth when fed at the highest inclusion level.

  2. Chemiluminescence of the reaction system Ce(IV)-non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs containing europium(III) ions and its application to the determination of naproxen in pharmaceutical preparations and urine.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Małgorzata

    2011-11-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) of oxidation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by Ce(IV) ions, was recorded in the presence and absence europium(III) ions, in solution of pH ~ 4 of solution. Kinetic curves and CL emission spectra of the all studied systems were discussed. CL of measurable intensity was observed in the Ce(IV)-NP-Eu(III) reaction system only in acidic solutions. The CL spectrum rcegistered for this system shows emission bands, typical of Eu(III) ions, with maximum at λ ~ 600 nm. The chemiluminescent method, based on Eu(III) emission in reaction system of NP-Ce(IV)-Eu(III) in acid solution was therefore used for the determination of naproxen in mixture of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  3. The effect of health payment reforms on cost containment in Taiwan hospitals: the agency theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether the Taiwanese government's implementation of new health care payment reforms (the National Health Insurance with fee-for-service (NHI-FFS) and global budget (NHI-GB)) has resulted in better cost containment. Also, the question arises under the agency theory whether the monitoring system is effective in reducing the risk of information asymmetry. This study uses panel data analysis with fixed effects model to investigate changes in cost containment at Taipei municipal hospitals before and after adopting reforms from 1989 to 2004. The results show that the monitoring system does not reduce information asymmetry to improve cost containment under the NHI-FFS. In addition, after adopting the NHI-GB system, health care costs are controlled based on an improved monitoring system in the policymaker's point of view. This may suggest that the NHI's fee-for-services system actually causes health care resource waste. The GB may solve the problems of controlling health care costs only on the macro side.

  4. Phytotoxic effects of a natural bloom extract containing microcystins on Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    El Khalloufi, Fatima; El Ghazali, Issam; Saqrane, Sana; Oufdou, Khalid; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Oudra, Brahim

    2012-05-01

    The cyanobacterial toxins microcystins (MC) are known to affect many processes in plants. Their presence in the water used for irrigation may have considerable impact on the survivorship, growth and development of plants. In this study, a crude extract of a toxic cyanobacterial bloom from "Lalla Takerkoust" reservoir (Morocco) was used to study the effects of extract containing MC on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Five MC variants: MC-LR, MC-FR, MC-LY, MC-(H4)-YR and DMC-LR were identified by HPLC in the cyanobacterial extract. Exposure of the seeds to the crude extract (containing 22.24 μg MC mL(-1)) caused a reduction of germination up to 85%. Experiments showed that 30 days exposure of plant to the cyanobacterial extract containing MC caused inhibition of L. esculentum growth and productivity, as well as harmful effects on photosystem II activity, measured by Fv/Fm fluorescence. An accumulation of nutrients Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+) was also registered. The activity of peroxidase and phenolic content indicated that the extract caused an oxidative stress. The tissue necrosis of leaves was also a consequence of MC exposure indicating a disorder in the exposed plant metabolism.

  5. Flushing effect of rain on container-inhabiting mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Koenraadt, C J M; Harrington, L C

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of heavy rain on container-inhabiting mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations, and how different species may have adapted to such conditions. Rains were created with a rain simulator calibrated to natural rain intensities in the habitats of two important vector species: Aedes aegypti (L.) from northern Thailand and Culex pipiens L. from New York state, USA. Immature stages of Ae. aegypti were able to resist the flushing effect of rain better than Cx. pipiens. This difference was most dramatic during the pupal stage. Fourth instars of Ae. aegypti were not affected by flushing when exposed for longer rain intervals (30 versus 60 min) or at a colder water temperature (24 versus 16 degrees C). In contrast, significantly more Cx. pipiens larvae flushed out with longer rain exposure. Warmer water temperatures also increased the proportion of Cx. pipiens flushed out, but mostly at the longest exposure time. Container position (tilted at a 7 degrees angle or level) did not affect proportions of fourth instars flushed out for both species. More accurate models of vector-borne diseases can be developed by incorporating the described effects of rain on container-breeding mosquito populations. Such models may provide more realistic assessments of disease risk and ensure optimal use of limited financial resources of mosquito control agencies.

  6. Shear Bond Strength of MDP-Containing Self-Adhesive Resin Cement and Y-TZP Ceramics: Effect of Phosphate Monomer-Containing Primers

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jin-Soo; Yi, Young-Ah; Lee, Yoon; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different phosphate monomer-containing primers on the shear bond strength between yttria-tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) ceramics and MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement. Materials and Methods. Y-TZP ceramic surfaces were ground flat with #600-grit SiC paper and divided into six groups (n = 10). They were treated as follows: untreated (control), Metal/Zirconia Primer, Z-PRIME Plus, air abrasion, Metal/Zirconia Primer with air abrasion, and Z-PRIME Plus with air abrasion. MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cement was applied to the surface-treated Y-TZP specimens. After thermocycling, a shear bond strength test was performed. The surfaces of the Y-TZP specimens were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope. The bond strength values were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and the Student–Newman–Keuls multiple comparison test (P < 0.05). Results. The Z-PRIME Plus treatment combined with air abrasion produced the highest bond strength, followed by Z-PRIME Plus application, Metal/Zirconia Primer combined with air abrasion, air abrasion alone, and, lastly, Metal/Zirconia Primer application. The control group yielded the lowest results (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The application of MDP-containing primer resulted in increased bond strength between Y-TZP ceramics and MDP-containing self-adhesive resin cements. PMID:26539485

  7. Effect of added zinc on the properties of cobalt-containing ceramic pigments prepared from layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Bernal, M. E.; Ruano-Casero, R. J.; Rives, V.

    2009-09-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the hydrotalcite-type structure containing Co and Al, or Zn, Co and Al in the brucite-like layers and carbonate in the interlayer have been prepared by coprecipitation. The Zn/Co molar ratio was kept to 1 in all samples, while the divalent/trivalent molar ratio was varied from 2/1 to 1/2. The samples have been characterised by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed reduction and FT-IR spectroscopy. A single hydrotalcite-like phase is formed for samples with molar ratio 2/1, which crystallinity decreases as the Al content is increased, developing small amounts of diaspore and dawsonite and probably an additional amorphous phase. Calcination at 1200 °C in air led to formation of spinels; a small amount of NaAlO 2 was observed in the Al-rich samples, which was removed by washing. The nature of the spinels formed (containing Co II, Co III, Al III and Zn II) strongly depends on the cations molar ratio in the starting materials and the calcination treatment, leading to a partial oxidation of Co II species to Co III ones. Colour properties ( L* a* b*) of the original and calcined solids have been measured. While the original samples show a pink colour (lighter for the series containing Zn), the calcined Co,Al samples show a dark blue colour and the Zn,Co,Al ones a green colour. Changes due to the different molar ratios within a given calcined series are less evident than between samples with the same composition in different series. These calcined materials could be usable as ceramic pigments.

  8. Clinical effect of a gel containing Lippia sidoides on plaque and gingivitis control

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sérgio Luis da Silva; Praxedes, Yuri Carvalho Machado; Bastos, Thiago Catunda; Alencar, Phillipe Nogueira Barbosa; da Costa, Flávio Nogueira

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This parallel controlled clinical trial evaluated the effect of a gel containing Lippia sidoides essential oil on plaque and gingivitis control. Methods: Thirty patients (n=30) were randomly selected and allocated into three groups: Lippia sidoides (LS, n=10), chlorhexidine (CLX, n=10) or placebo (control, n=10). Plaque and bleeding index were recorded at baseline and after three months. All volunteers were instructed to brush with the gel three times a day throughout the experiment period. Results: There was a significant reduction on plaque and gingivitis in the test groups (P<.05), but no statistically significant difference was observed between them (P>.05). Conclusion: A gel preparation containing 10% Lippia sidoides essential oil was an efficient herbal antiplaque and antigingivitis agent. PMID:23408652

  9. Burn-wound healing effect of gelatin/polyurethane nanofiber scaffold containing silver-sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Heo, Dong Nyoung; Yang, Dae Hyeok; Lee, Jung Bok; Bae, Min Soo; Kim, Jung Ho; Moon, Seong Hwan; Chun, Heoung Jae; Kim, Chun Ho; Lim, Ho-Nam; Kwon, Il Keun

    2013-03-01

    Despite the fact that advances of burn treatment have led to reduction in the morbidity caused by burns, burn infection is still a serious problem. In this study, we designed blended synthetic and natural polymers nanofiber scaffolds using polyurethane (PU) and gelatin, which were prepared by an electrospinning method. Silver-sulfadiazine (SSD) was co-mixed to the blended polymer solution for being incorporated into the nanofibers after the electrospinning, followed by examination of burn-wound healing effect. The nanofiber scaffolds containing SSD should not only serve as a substrate for skin regeneration, but may also deliver suitable drugs, within a controlled manner during healing. The SSD release was able to prevent the growth of a wide array of bacteria and accelerate the wound healing by preventing infection. Therefore it could accelerate the burn-wound closure rate. We confirmed that PU/gelatin nanofiber scaffolds containing SSD lead to enhanced regeneration of burn-wounds.

  10. Silver-containing hydrofiber dressing is an effective adjunct in the treatment of pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chieh-Shan; Hsu, Hui-Yu; Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Chiu, Hsiu-Hui; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2009-11-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris is a life-threatening autoimmune bullous dermatosis and its management represents a major challenge to medical teams. The primary treatments for pemphigus vulgaris are oral steroids and immunosuppressants, but topical approaches also play a role in disease management. Here, we report a patient with pemphigus vulgaris involving 62% of the total body surface area, with initial poor clinical response to systemic steroids and topical silver sulfadiazine therapy. However, a marked improvement in wound healing and decreased patient discomfort were observed after application of silver-containing hydrofiber dressings (Aquacel-Ag). Therefore, silver-containing hydrofiber dressings may offer an effective adjunct in the treatment of patients with pemphigus vulgaris with extensive skin involvement. Our encouraging experience with these dressing patches may be extended to manage other large exudation wounds.

  11. [Peptide-containing fraction from a culture medium of Fusarium sambucinum: composition and biological effects].

    PubMed

    Bogdanov, V V; Fatkulina, É F; Berezin, B B; Il'ina, A P; Iamskova, V P; Iamskov, I A

    2014-01-01

    The culture fluid of the fungus Fusarium sambucinum was investigated for the presence of new peptide-containing bioregulators, previously identified in various mammalian and plant tissues. A fraction containing peptides with molecular weights from 1000 to 2000 Da, which exhibited specific membranotropic activity and a number of physical and chemical properties characteristic of this group of bioregulators, was obtained. The effects of this fraction on the model roller organotypic cultivation of liver tissue of the Pleurodeles waltl newt in vitro were investigated for the first time. This fraction caused the additional activation of pigmented liver cells of newt (analogues to Kupffer cells of the liver of mammals) and provided the maintenance of cell-cell adhesive interactions in tissues. The results show that a new group of peptide bioregulators was present in the culture medium of the fungus F. sambucinum.

  12. Evaluation of dermatological effects of cosmetic formulations containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, L R; Camargo, F B; Gianeti, M D; Maia Campos, P M B G

    2008-11-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract (SCE) is used in cosmetics since it can act in oxidative stress and improve skin conditions. This study investigated dermatological effects of cosmetic formulations containing SCE and/or vitamins A, C and E. The formulation studied was supplemented or not (F1: vehicle) with vitamins A, C and E esters (F2) or with SCE (F3) or with the combination of vitamins and SCE (F4). Formulations were patch tested on back skin of volunteers. For efficacy studies, formulations were applied on volunteers and transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin moisture (SM), skin microrelief (SMR) and free radicals protection were analysed after 3h, 15 and 30 days of application. Volunteers were also asked about efficacy perception. It was observed that F4 provoked a slight erythema in one volunteer. All formulations enhanced forearm SM. Only F3 and F4 presented long term effects on SMR and showed higher texture values; F3 had the highest brightness values. Our results suggest that vitamins and SCE showed effects in SM and SMR. Only formulations containing SC had long term effects in the improvement of SMR. Thus, these kinds of evaluations are very important in cosmetics development to evaluate the best risk and benefit correlation.

  13. Conditions inside Water Pooled in a Failed Nuclear Waste Container and its Effect on Radionuclide Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdan, L. K.; Walton, J. C.; Woocay, A.

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear power use is expected to expand in the future, as part of the global clean energy initiative, to meet the world’s surging energy demand, and attenuate greenhouse gas emissions, which are mainly caused by fossil fuels. As a result, it is estimated that hundreds of thousands of metric tons of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will accumulate. SNF disposal has major environmental (radiation exposure) and security (nuclear proliferation) concerns. Storage in unsaturated zone geological repositories is a reasonable solution for dealing with SNF. One of the key factors that determine the performance of the geological repository is the release of radionuclides from the engineered barrier system. Over time, the nuclear waste containers are expected to fail gradually due to general and localized corrosions and eventually infiltrating water will have access to the nuclear waste. Once radionuclides are released, they will be transported by water, and make their way to the accessible environment. Physical and chemical disturbances in the environment over the container will lead to different corrosion rates, causing different times and locations of penetration. One possible scenario for waste packages failure is the bathtub model, where penetrations occur on the top of the waste package and water pools inside it. In this paper the bathtub-type failed waste container is considered. We shed some light on chemical and physical processes that take place in the pooled water inside a partially failed waste container (bathtub category), and the effects of these processes on radionuclide release. Our study considers two possibilities: temperature stratification of the pooled water versus mixing process. Our calculations show that temperature stratification of the pooled water is expected when the waste package is half (or less) filled with water. On the other hand, when the waste package is fully filled (or above half) there will be mixing in the upper part of water. The effect of

  14. Effects of proton irradiation on luminescence and carrier dynamics of self-assembled III-V quatum dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leon, R.; Marcinkevicius, S.; Siegert, J.; Magness, B.; Taylor, W.; Lobo, C.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of proton irradiation (1.5 MeV) on photoluminescence intensities and carrier dynamics were compared between III-V quantum dots and similar quantum well structures. A significant enhancement in radiation tolerance is seen with three-dimensional quantum confinement. Measurements were carried out in different quantum dot (QD) structures, varying in material (InGaAs/GaAs and InAlAs/AlGaAs), QD surface density (4x10^8 to 3x10'^10 cm^-2), and substrate orientation [(100) and (311) B]. Similar trends were observed for all QD samples. A slight increase in PL emission after low to intermediate proton doses, are also observed in InGaAs/GaAs (100) QD structures. The latter is explained in terms of more efficient carrier transfer from the wetting layer via radiation-induced defects.

  15. Effects of Cosmetic Formulations Containing Hydroxyacids on Sun-Exposed Skin: Current Applications and Future Developments

    PubMed Central

    Kornhauser, Andrija; Coelho, Sergio G.; Hearing, Vincent J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent data on the effects of various skin formulations containing hydroxyacids (HAs) and related products on sun-exposed skin. The most frequently used classes of these products, such as α- and β-hydroxyacids, polyhydroxy acids, and bionic acids, are reviewed, and their application in cosmetic formulations is described. Special emphasis is devoted to the safety evaluation of these formulations, particularly on the effects of their prolonged use on sun-exposed skin. We also discuss the important contribution of cosmetic vehicles in these types of studies. Data on the effects of HAs on melanogenesis and tanning are also included. Up-to-date methods and techniques used in those explorations, as well as selected future developments in the cosmetic area, are presented. PMID:22675344

  16. Effects of cosmetic formulations containing hydroxyacids on sun-exposed skin: current applications and future developments.

    PubMed

    Kornhauser, Andrija; Coelho, Sergio G; Hearing, Vincent J

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent data on the effects of various skin formulations containing hydroxyacids (HAs) and related products on sun-exposed skin. The most frequently used classes of these products, such as α- and β-hydroxyacids, polyhydroxy acids, and bionic acids, are reviewed, and their application in cosmetic formulations is described. Special emphasis is devoted to the safety evaluation of these formulations, particularly on the effects of their prolonged use on sun-exposed skin. We also discuss the important contribution of cosmetic vehicles in these types of studies. Data on the effects of HAs on melanogenesis and tanning are also included. Up-to-date methods and techniques used in those explorations, as well as selected future developments in the cosmetic area, are presented.

  17. [Effect of krypton-containing gas mixture on Japanese quail embryo development].

    PubMed

    Kussmaul', A R; Gur'eva, T S; Dadasheva, O A; Pavlov, N B; Pavlov, B N

    2008-01-01

    Investigated were effects of gas mixture with up to 3.0 kgs/cm2 of krypton on the embryonic development of domesticated Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica dom.). Results demonstrated absence of a serious krypton effect on Japanese quail embryos. Development of embryos proceeded in due course; morphometrically the experimental embryos were essentially similar to controls. It should be noted that despite exposure to acute hypoxic hypoxia during the initial 12 hours of development in the krypton-containing gas mixture, viability of quail embryos was high enough which can be ascribed to the krypton protective action. Besides, an additional experiment showed that krypton partial pressure of 5-5.5 kgs/cm2 produces the narcotic effect on adult Japanese quails.

  18. Effects of heavy metals on the expression of a zinc-inducible metallothionein-III gene and antioxidant enzyme activities in Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Cong, Ming; Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Wang, Xuan; Lv, Jiasen; Hou, Lin

    2012-10-01

    Sequestration by metallothioneins and antioxidant defense are two kinds of important defense mechanisms employed by mollusks to minimize adverse effects caused by heavy metal contaminants in marine environment. In the present study, a novel metallothionein gene, CgMT-III, was cloned from Crassostrea gigas, consisting of eighteen conserved cysteine residues and encoding a MT III-like protein with two tandem β domains. The expression level of CgMT-III transcript induced by zinc was much higher than that induced by cadmium exposure. It suggested that CgMT-III was perhaps mainly involved in homeostatic control of zinc metabolism, which was distinct from previously identified MTs in C. gigas. Among the tested antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), SOD and GPx showed varying up-regulations in a tissue-specific manner, while CAT activities were inhibited in both gill and hepatopancreas from C. gigas exposed to heavy metals. It can be inferred that CgMT-III was mainly involved in zinc homeostasis, and CgMT-III gene together with CAT enzyme could be potential biomarkers to indicate heavy metal, especially zinc pollution in marine organisms.

  19. Evaluation of anti-wrinkle effects of a novel cosmetic containing niacinamide.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Akira; Konishi, Natsuko; Oiso, Naoki; Kawara, Shigeru; Date, Akira

    2008-10-01

    Niacinamide is known to have effectiveness on sallowness, wrinkling, red blotchiness and hyperpigmented spots in aging skin. In this study, we have evaluated the anti-wrinkle effects of a new cosmetic containing niacinamide. A randomized, placebo-controlled, split face study was performed in 30 healthy Japanese females who had wrinkles in the eye areas. The tested cosmetic containing 4% niacinamide was applied on wrinkles of one side for 8 weeks, and a control cosmetic without niacinamide on another site. Anti-wrinkle effects were evaluated with two methods: (i) doctors' observation and photographs based on the guideline of the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association; and (ii) average roughness of skin surface (Ra value) using skin replica. This cosmetic showed marked and moderate improvement in 64% of the subjects with a significant difference as compared with the control site (P < 0.001). Wrinkle grades in the tested area significantly reduced more than pre-application (P < 0.001) and the control (P < 0.001). Reduction in Ra value on the tested area was more than pre-application (P < 0.01) and the control site (P < 0.05) with significant differences. Only one subject stopped the study with minimal irritation. These results indicated that the tested lotion was well tolerated and may be an optional preparation for the treatment of wrinkles in the eye areas.

  20. [Effects of phosphorus-containing substances on arsenic uptake by rice].

    PubMed

    Lei, Ming; Zeng, Min; Liao, Bo-Han; Hu, Li-Qiong; Zhou, Hang; Long, Shui-Bo

    2014-08-01

    The disodium hydrogen phosphate (DSP) and hydroxyapatite (HAP) were added into arsenic contaminated soil, then rice pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of phosphorus (P)-containing substances on arsenic (As) uptake by rice. The results showed that: DSP and HAP significantly increased soil pH and the contents of available P in soil (P < 0.05), activating soil arsenic. And DSP was stronger than HAP in improving the migration ability of As in soil. DSP and HAP treatments both significantly reduced the contents of total As in root, as well as total As and inorganic As in brown rice. But HAP significantly increased total As contents in stem. DSP and HAP treatments had better reducing effects on inorganic As than on total As in brown rice. And DSP had the same reducing effects as HAP on total As and inorganic As in brown rice. Analysis results showed that the contents of As in rice were affected by the antagonism between P and As and the increase of As bio-availability in soil. The antagonism played the major role in this study and it was clearly exhibited in both root and rice. Lower dosage (< or = 0.12 g x kg(-1)) of DSP and HAP increased total biomass of rice and brown rice yield, but with the increase of P addition, the two kinds of P-containing substances obviously inhibited the growth of rice, and inhibition by HAP was relatively light.

  1. Effect of root canal filling materials containing calcium hydroxide on the alkalinity of root dentin.

    PubMed

    Staehle, H J; Spiess, V; Heinecke, A; Müller, H P

    1995-08-01

    The effect of root canal filling pastes containing calcium oxide resp. calcium hydroxide on the alkalinity of extracted human teeth was investigated using a colour indicator (cresol red). An aqueous suspension of calcium hydroxide (Pulpdent), which is normally used for temporary root canal filling, most consistently produced alkalinity. Removal of the smear layer following instrumentation of the root canal led to increased proportion of alkaline-positive spots in dentinal locations distant from the canal. A clearly smaller effect was found with a calcium salicylate cement (Sealapex) and an oil-paste (Gangraena Merz), both of which are available for definite root canal fillings. Following removal of the smear layer, these hard-setting preparations caused moderate alkalinity in dentin adjacent to the canal but no effect was observed in locations more distant from the canal. Neither at locations adjacent to nor distant from the root canal was alkalinity found when another calcium salicylate cement (Apexit) was used. Apparently the release of hydroxyl ions into root dentin from calcium hydroxide containing root canal filling materials is not solely influenced by the absolute amount of calcium hydroxide, but also depends on other ingredients which variably inhibit the release of these ions.

  2. Effects of combination of leaf resources on competition in container mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Reiskind, M H; Zarrabi, A A; Lounibos, L P

    2012-08-01

    Resource diversity is critical to fitness in many insect species, and may determine the coexistence of competitive species and the function of ecosystems. Plant material provides the nutritional base for numerous aquatic systems, yet the consequences of diversity of plant material have not been studied in aquatic container systems important for the production of mosquitoes. To address how diversity in leaf detritus affects container-inhabiting mosquitoes, we examined how leaf species affect competition between two container inhabiting mosquito larvae, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, that co-occur in many parts of the world. We tested the hypotheses that leaf species changes the outcome of intra- and interspecific competition between these mosquito species, and that combinations of leaf species affect competition in a manner not predictable based upon the response to each leaf species alone (i.e. the response to leaf combinations is non-additive). We find support for our first hypothesis that leaf species can affect competition, evidence that, in general, leaf combination alters competitive interactions, and no support that leaf combination impacts interspecific competition differently than intraspecific competition. We conclude that combinations of leaves increase mosquito production non-additively such that combinations of leaves act synergistically, in general, and result in higher total yield of adult mosquitoes in most cases, although certain leaf combinations for A. albopictus are antagonistic. We also conclude that leaf diversity does not have a different effect on interspecific competition between A. aegypti and A. albopictus, relative to intraspecific competition for each mosquito.

  3. Effects of national culture on human failures in container shipping: the moderating role of Confucian dynamism.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chin-Shan; Lai, Kee-hung; Lun, Y H Venus; Cheng, T C E

    2012-11-01

    Recent reports on work safety in container shipping operations highlight high frequencies of human failures. In this study, we empirically examine the effects of seafarers' perceptions of national culture on the occurrence of human failures affecting work safety in shipping operations. We develop a model adopting Hofstede's national culture construct, which comprises five dimensions, namely power distance, collectivism/individualism, uncertainty avoidance, masculinity/femininity, and Confucian dynamism. We then formulate research hypotheses from theory and test the hypotheses using survey data collected from 608 seafarers who work on global container carriers. Using a point scale for evaluating seafarers' perception of the five national culture dimensions, we find that Filipino seafarers score highest on collectivism, whereas Chinese and Taiwanese seafarers score highest on Confucian dynamism, followed by collectivism, masculinity, power distance, and uncertainty avoidance. The results also indicate that Taiwanese seafarers have a propensity for uncertainty avoidance and masculinity, whereas Filipino seafarers lean more towards power distance, masculinity, and collectivism, which are consistent with the findings of Hofstede and Bond (1988). The results suggest that there will be fewer human failures in container shipping operations when power distance is low, and collectivism and uncertainty avoidance are high. Specifically, this study finds that Confucian dynamism plays an important moderating role as it affects the strength of associations between some national culture dimensions and human failures. Finally, we discuss our findings' contribution to the development of national culture theory and their managerial implications for reducing the occurrence of human failures in shipping operations.

  4. Effects of various grit-containing cleansers on skin barrier function.

    PubMed

    Wigger-Alberti, W; Fischer, T; Greif, C; Maddern, P; Elsner, P

    1999-09-01

    Products intended for individuals in contact with strongly adhering dirt often contain grit. Various clinical test methods have been developed for evaluating the potential of personal washing products to induce skin irritation. In the present study, differences in the irritant effects of washing products containing naturally-derived grit and synthetic grit were investigated in a forearm wash test. The forearms of 16 test subjects were washed in a total of 18 treatments (4 per day for 4 days, with 2 treatments on the 5th day). Treatment consisted of continuous washing for 2 min by a technician, who gently slid his fingertips with the lather up and down the forearm. Non-invasive instrumental measurements of skin barrier function were performed. Repetitive washing for 1 week lead to increased TEWL values, skin redness and decreased stratum corneum hydration. Results indicate differences in irritancy potential due to different types of grit, their surface and concentration. It is concluded that the repeated wash test seems to be adequate for rating personal washing products that contain grit.

  5. The effects of oxalate-containing products on the exposed dentine surface: an SEM investigation.

    PubMed

    Gillam, D G; Mordan, N J; Sinodinou, A D; Tang, J Y; Knowles, J C; Gibson, I R

    2001-11-01

    In-office products containing oxalates have been claimed to be clinically effective in reducing dentine sensitivity, although there has been limited supporting clinical data. The rationale for their use appears to be based on their potential to act as occluding and/or nerve desensitizing agents. Four commercially available oxalate-containing products were applied to etched dentine discs and the extent of tubule occlusion was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Tenure Quick (aluminium oxalate), Sensodyne Sealant (ferric oxalate) and MS Coat (oxalic acid) covered the dentine surface and occluded the tubules. However, Butler Protect (potassium oxalate) did not cover the surface to any great extent but provided some occlusion. The presence of oxalates after application to glass slides and dentine discs was examined using thin film X-ray diffraction. From samples on glass, only potassium oxalate could be clearly identified (JCPDS 14-0845). No oxalate was detected on dentine discs in either thin film geometry or standard theta two theta mode. We have demonstrated that professionally applied in-office products containing oxalate are capable of covering the dentine surface and/or occluding the tubules to varying degrees. However, X-ray diffraction analysis was unable to confirm the oxalate profile for all products as described in the available commercial literature.

  6. Effects of drugs on food- and cocaine-maintained responding, III: Dopaminergic antagonists.

    PubMed

    Glowa, J R; Wojnicki, F H

    1996-12-01

    The effects of three dopamine (DA) antagonists (SCH23390, pimozide, and chlorpromazine), with various degrees of selectivity for D1 and D2 receptors, and an agonist (the cocaine analog, CFT) were studied on responding maintained under a multiple fixed-ratio (FR) 30 food, FR30 cocaine (1-100 micrograms/kg per injection) delivery, with an interposed 10-min time-out (TO), schedule in rhesus monkeys. The effects of each drug depended upon the unit dose of cocaine. With an intermediate (10 micrograms/kg per injection) unit dose of cocaine, each antagonist decreased rates of responding maintained by either event in a dose-related manner. At higher (56-100 micrograms/kg per injection) unit doses of cocaine, antagonists generally increased and then decreased both food- and cocaine-maintained responding in a dose-related manner. These increases appeared to result from the blockade of non-specific rate-decreasing effects of self-administered cocaine, questioning their relevance to the reinforcing effects of cocaine. The results failed to support a role for pharmacological selectivity in this rate-decreasing effect of cocaine, as both D1 and D2 antagonists were able to reverse the effect. In contrast, CFT decreased cocaine-maintained responding at doses less than those that decreased food-maintained responding, and failed to shift the cocaine dose-effect function to the left. These results, together with previous work, suggest that agonists can selectively decrease drug-seeking behavior.

  7. [Effectiveness of phytotherapy in supportive treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus III. Momordica (Momordica charantia)].

    PubMed

    Rudá-Kučerová, Jana; Kotolová, Hana; Koupý, David

    2015-09-01

    Momordica charantia is a thermophilic voluble plant from the tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and the Caribbean. In central Europe, momordica requires greenhouse plantations. Mature fruits resemble a cucumber or a pumpkin and can be used as other similar vegetables. Crude fruits are very bitter and refreshing. For centuries the plant has been known in Chinese traditional medicine for its antidiabetic effects as well as for the treatment of cancer or infections caused by worms, viruses and malaria. Antidiabetic effects are attributed namely to cucurbitane type triterpenoids, charantin, p-insulin and 9cis-11trans-13trans-conjugated linolenic acid. These substances in momordica preparations show antidiabetic effectiveness in clinical studies by increasing insulin secretion and deceasing insulin resistance or glucose absorption from the gut. Beside this main effect the extract possesses certain neuroprotective and antioxidant effects (especially p9cis-11trans-13trans-conjugated linolenic acid) and contributes to normalize blood lipid and adipokine levels which results in the normalization of metabolic syndrome. Antidiabetic effectiveness of momordica was compared to active treatment with several oral antidiabetic drugs and proved comparable effects. However, the number of studies is limited and their methodological approach variable. Therefore, the evidence is so far inconclusive.

  8. Combined effects of lanthanum (III) chloride and acid rain on photosynthetic parameters in rice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihong; Wang, Wen; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua

    2014-10-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) pollution and acid rain are environmental issues, and their deleterious effects on plants attract worldwide attention. These two issues exist simultaneously in many regions, especially in some rice-growing areas. However, little is known about the combined effects of REEs and acid rain on plants. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3), one type of REE salt, and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice were investigated. We showed that the combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 4.5 increased net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatic conductance (Gs), intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci), Hill reaction activity (HRA), apparent quantum yield (AQY) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) in rice. The combined treatment of 81.6 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 3.5 began to behave toxic effects on photosynthesis (decreasing Pn, Gs, HRA, AQY and CE, and increasing Ci), and the maximally toxic effects were observed in the combined treatment of 2449.0 μM LaCl3 and acid rain at pH 2.5. Moreover, the combined effects of LaCl3 and acid rain on photosynthesis in rice depended on the growth stage of rice, with the maximal effects occurring at the booting stage. Furthermore, the combined treatment of high-concentration LaCl3 and low-pH acid rain had more serious effects on photosynthesis in rice than LaCl3 or acid rain treatment alone. Finally, the combined effect of LaCl3 and acid rain on Pn in rice resulted from the changes in stomatic (Gs, Ci) and non-stomatic (HRA, AQY and CE) factors.

  9. Anti-cancer effects of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates on human cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Pengfei; Zhang, Peiying; Mukthavaram, Rajesh; Nomura, Natsuko; Pingle, Sandeep C.; Teng, Dayu; Chien, Shu; Guo, Fang; Kesari, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Zoledronic acid, a potent nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate (NBP), has been extensively used to limit bone turnover in a various diseases including tumors. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated direct anti-cancer effects of zoledronic acid, in addition to its clinical benefits for skeletal-related events. Here we investigated the effects of 4 clinically available NBPs on human tumor cell proliferation. Our data demonstrate a potent anti-proliferative effect of zoledronic acid against glioblastoma (GBM) cell lines, breast cancer cells and GBM patient-derived lines. Zoledronic acid also effectively inhibited GBM tumor growth in xenograft mouse models. Zoledronic acid strongly stimulated autophagy but not apoptotic signals in all tested cells. Only one intermediate product of cholesterols synthesis pathway, geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) rescued cells from the cytotoxic effects of zoledronic acid. To further investigate the effect of GGPP, we knocked down RABGGTA, which encodes a subunit of the Rabgeranylgeranyltransferase protein. This knockdown induced an effect similar to zoledronic acid in cancer cell lines. These data are promising and suggested a potential for zoledronic acid as an anti-cancer agent, through its ablation of the function of Rab proteins. PMID:27462771

  10. Effects of Surface Conditions on Carrier Transport in III-V Compounds.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    large enough that charging effects would complicate the XPS measurements. Consequently, a doping density in the 1016 cm-3 range is very suitable for XPS...constant, T is the absolute temperature, Nc is the effective conduction-band density of states and ND is the donor density . For ND W1017 cm-3 , EcEF...CHART NAIIONAt BLRLJALI Of MANDARD, lq% A AFWAL-TR-81-1200 AD A109 7 (0 3 EFFECTS OF SURFACE CONDITIONS ON CARRIER TRANSPORT IN Ill-V COMPOUNDS R.W

  11. Photorefractive effect in ferroelectric liquid crystal blends containing terthiophene photoconductive chiral dopants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Takeo; Yoshino, Masanori

    2016-04-01

    Ferroelectric liquid crystalline mixtures composed of a smectic liquid crystal, a photoconductive chiral dopant, and an electron trap reagent exhibit a large photorefractivity with a rapid response. It is expected that the photorefractive FLC blends can be utilized in dynamic amplification of moving optical signals. In the present study, the photorefractive properties of the ferroelectric liquid crystal blends containing different photoconductive chiral dopants were examined. The durability of the photoconductive chiral dopants during laser irradiation was investigated. Tthe effect of the conduction of photogenerated ionic species on the photorefractivity decay was clarified.

  12. DNA oligonucleotide duplexes containing intramolecular platinated cross-links: energetics, hydration, sequence, and ionic effects.

    PubMed

    Kankia, Besik I; Soto, Ana Maria; Burns, Nicole; Shikiya, Ronald; Tung, Chang-Shung; Marky, Luis A

    2002-11-05

    The anticancer activity of cisplatin arises from its ability to bind covalently to DNA, forming primarily intrastrand cross-links to adjacent purine residues; the most common adducts involve d(GpG) (65%) and d(ApG) (25%) intrastrand cross-links. The incorporation of these platinum adducts in a B-DNA helix induces local distortions, causing bending and unwinding of the DNA. In this work, we used temperature-dependent UV spectroscopy to investigate the unfolding thermodynamics, and associated ionic effects, of two sets of DNA decamer duplexes containing either cis-[Pt(NH(3))(2)[d(GpG

  13. Liposomes containing lipid A: an effective, safe, generic adjuvant system for synthetic vaccines.

    PubMed

    Alving, Carl R; Rao, Mangala; Steers, Nicholas J; Matyas, Gary R; Mayorov, Alexander V

    2012-06-01

    Liposomes containing monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) have previously exhibited considerable potency and safety in human trials with a variety of candidate vaccines, including vaccines to malaria, HIV-1 and several different types of cancer. The long history of research and development of MPLA and liposomal MPLA as vaccine adjuvants reveals that there are numerous opportunities for creation and development of generic (nonproprietary) adjuvant system formulations with these materials that are not only highly potent and safe, but also readily available as native materials or as synthetic compounds. They are easily manufactured as potentially inexpensive and easy to use adjuvant systems and might be effective even with synthetic peptides as antigens.

  14. The effect of early physiotherapy on the recovery of mandibular function after orthognathic surgery for class III correction. Part II: electromyographic activity of masticatory muscles.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ellen Wen-Ching; Teng, Terry Te-Yi; Huang, Chiung Shing; Chen, Yu-Ray

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of early physical rehabilitation by comparing the differences of surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity in the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles after surgical correction of skeletal class III malocclusion. The prospective study included 63 patients; the experimental groups contained 31 patients who received early systematic physical rehabilitation; the control group (32 patients) did not receive physiotherapy. The amplitude of sEMG in the masticatory muscles reached 72.6-121.3% and 37.5-64.6% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively at 6 weeks after orthognathic surgery (OGS). At 6 months after OGS, the sEMG reached 135.1-233.4% and 89.6-122.5% of pre-surgical values in the experimental and control groups respectively. Most variables in the sEMG examination indicated that recovery of the masticatory muscles in the experimental group was better than the control group as estimated in the early phase (T1 to T2) and the total phase (T1 to T3); there were no significant differences between the mean recovery percentages in the later phase (T2 to T3). Early physical rehabilitative therapy is helpful for early recovery of muscle activity in masticatory muscles after OGS. After termination of physical therapy, no significant difference in recovery was indicated in patients with or without early physiotherapy.

  15. Hepatoprotective effect of juglone on dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis and its effect on hepatic antioxidant defence and the expression levels of α-SMA and collagen III.

    PubMed

    Zhou, De-Jiang; Mu, Dong; Jiang, Ming-De; Zheng, Shu-Mei; Zhang, Yong; He, Sheng; Weng, Min; Zeng, Wei-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antifibrotic effects of juglone on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)‑induced fibrosis in rats. Juglone, which is a quinone, significantly decreased DMN‑induced rat hepatic fibrosis, which was associated with increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, decreased oxidative stress and reduced levels of α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA) and collagen (Col) III in the liver. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, hyaluronic acid, laminin, type III precollagen and type IV collagen were significantly reduced by treatment with juglone. Liver fibrosis was induced in male Sprague‑Dawley rats by subcutaneous injections of DMN solution and hepatic fibrosis was assessed using Massons trichome staining. The expression levels of α‑SMA and Col III were determined using immunohistochemical techniques. The activities of SOD and malondialdehyde in liver homogenates were also determined. The results suggested that juglone augmented the antioxidative capability of the liver, possibly by stimulating the activity of SOD, which promoted the inactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and decreased the accumulation of extracellular matrix collagen in the liver, thereby alleviating hepatic fibrosis. Silymarin was used as a positive control for liver fibrosis protection. It was hypothesized that juglone alleviates or mitigates oxidative stress‑mediated hepatic fibrosis by upregulating the expression of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ and inhibiting the activation of HSC.

  16. The effect of Low Earth Orbit exposure on some experimental fluorine and silicon-containing polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Young, Philip R.; Kalil, Carol G.; Chang, Alice C.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    1994-01-01

    Several experimental fluorine and silicon-containing polymers in film form were exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) on a Space Shuttle flight experiment (STS-46, Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials, EOIM-3). The environmental parameters of primary concern were atomic oxygen (AO) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. The materials were exposed to 2.3 plus or minus 0.1 x 10(exp 20) oxygen atoms/sq cm and 30.6 UV sun hours during the flight. In some cases, the samples were exposed at ambient, 120 C and 200 C. The effects of exposure on these materials were assessed utilizing a variety of characterization techniques including optical, scanning electron (SEM) and scanning tunneling (STM) microscopy, UV-visible (UV-VIS) transmission, diffuse reflectance infrared (DR-FTIR), x-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and in a few cases, gel permeation chromatography (GPC). In addition, weight losses of the films, presumably due to AO erosion, were measured. The fluorine-containing polymers exhibited significant AO erosion and exposed films were diffuse or 'frosted' in appearance and consequently displayed dramatic reductions in optical transmission. The silicon-containing films exhibited minimum AO erosion and the optical transmission of exposed films was essentially unchanged. The silicon near the exposed surface in the films was converted to silicate/silicon oxide upon AO exposure which subsequently provided protection for the underlying material. The silicon-containing epoxies are potentially useful as AO resistant coatings and matrix resins as they are readily processed into carbon fiber reinforced composites and cured via electron radiation.

  17. Effectiveness of travel restrictions in the rapid containment of human influenza: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Ana LP; Otete, Harmony E; Beck, Charles R; Dolan, Gayle P; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of internal and international travel restrictions in the rapid containment of influenza. Methods We conducted a systematic review according to the requirements of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Health-care databases and grey literature were searched and screened for records published before May 2014. Data extraction and assessments of risk of bias were undertaken by two researchers independently. Results were synthesized in a narrative form. Findings The overall risk of bias in the 23 included studies was low to moderate. Internal travel restrictions and international border restrictions delayed the spread of influenza epidemics by one week and two months, respectively. International travel restrictions delayed the spread and peak of epidemics by periods varying between a few days and four months. Travel restrictions reduced the incidence of new cases by less than 3%. Impact was reduced when restrictions were implemented more than six weeks after the notification of epidemics or when the level of transmissibility was high. Travel restrictions would have minimal impact in urban centres with dense populations and travel networks. We found no evidence that travel restrictions would contain influenza within a defined geographical area. Conclusion Extensive travel restrictions may delay the dissemination of influenza but cannot prevent it. The evidence does not support travel restrictions as an isolated intervention for the rapid containment of influenza. Travel restrictions would make an extremely limited contribution to any policy for rapid containment of influenza at source during the first emergence of a pandemic virus. PMID:25552771

  18. The binomial distribution of hydrogen and deuterium in arsanes, diarsanes, and triarsanes generated from As(III)/[BH(n)D(4-n)]- and the effect of trace amounts of Rh(III) ions.

    PubMed

    Pagliano, Enea; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Mester, Zoltán; Sturgeon, Ralph E; Meija, Juris

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies of the formation of arsane in the borohydride/arsenate reaction demonstrate the occurrence of condensation cascades whereby small quantities of di- and triarsanes are formed. In this study, the isotopic composition of these di- and triarsanes was examined using deuterium labelled borohydrides. A statistical model was employed to construct the mass spectra of all diarsane and triarsane isotopologues (As(2)H(n)D(4-n) and As(3)H(n)D(5-n)) from the mass spectra of isotopically pure compounds (As(2)H(4), As(2)D(4), As(3)H(5), and As(3)D(5)). Subsequent deconvolution of the experimental mixed spectra shows that incorporation of hydrogen closely follows the binomial distribution, in accord with arsane formation. The H/D distribution in arsane, diarsane, and triarsane isotopologues is binomial in the absence of any interference. However, this is significantly altered by the presence of some transition metals; presented here, for the first time, are the effects of Rh(III). The presence of Rh(III) in the As(III)/[BD(4)](-) system entails the incorporation of hydrogen into the arsanes arising from the solvent, altering the expected binomial H/D distribution.

  19. Effects of the methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on phenolic and miscanthus composites containing calcium sulfite scrubber material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Sean

    The purpose of this research is to test the effects of methyltrimethoxysilane coupling agent on composite material containing calcium sulfite obtained from the Southern Illinois Power Co-operative. This scrubber material and the miscanthus plant are of interest due to their use in coal burning power plants to reduce toxic emission. When calcium sulfate is passed through coal fire gas emissions it absorbs mercury and sulfur. In these composites it is used as filler to reduce cost. Miscanthus is a source of both cellulose reinforcement and some natural resin. This plant has low care requirements, little mineral content, useful energy return, and positive environmental effects. Under investigation is whether a post-cure procedure or a silane coupling agent will positively impact the composite. Hot pressing alone may not be enough to fully cure the phenolic. It is hoped that the silane will increase the strength characteristics of the composite by enhancing adhesion between the calcium sulfite and phenolic resin. Possible effects on the miscanthus by the silane will also be tested. Phenolic is being utilized because of its recycling and biodegradable properties along with cost effectiveness in mass production. Composite mechanical performance was measured through 3-point bending to measure flexural strength and strain at breakage. A dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) was used to find thermomechanical properties. The post-cure was found to be effective, particularly on the final composite containing silane. When methyltrimethoxysilane was added to the miscanthus prior to fabrication, it was found to reduce flexural strength and density. However the addition of methyltrimethoxysilane to the calcium sulfite altered thermo-mechanical properties to a state more like pure phenolic, with added flexibility and thermal stability.

  20. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-Insurers § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits OFFICE...

  1. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. As... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits...

  2. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-Insurers § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits OFFICE...

  3. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-Insurers § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits OFFICE...

  4. 20 CFR 726.103 - Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-Insurers § 726.103 Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application for authority to self-insure; effect of regulations contained in this part. 726.103 Section 726.103 Employees' Benefits OFFICE...

  5. Effects of friction and high torque on fatigue crack propagation in mode III. [AISI 4140 and 4340

    SciTech Connect

    Nayeb-Hashemi, H.; McClintock, F.A.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1982-12-01

    Turbo-generator and automotive shafts are often subjected to complex histories of high torques. To provide a basis for fatigue life estimation in such components, a study of fatigue crack propagation in Mode III (anti-plane shear) for a mill-annealed AISI 4140 steel (R /SUB B/ 88, 590 MN/m/sup 2/ tensile strength) has been undertaken, using torsionally-loaded, circumferentially-notched cylindrical specimens. As demonstrated previously for higher strength AISI 4340 steel, Mode III cyclic crack growth rates (dc/dN) /SUB III/ can be related to the alternating stress intensity factor ..delta..K /SUB III/ for conditions of small-scale yielding. However, to describe crack propagation behavior over an extended range of crack growth rates (about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -2/ mm per cycle), where crack growth proceeds under elastic-plastic and full plastic conditions, no correlation between (dc/dN) /SUB III/ and ..delta..K /SUB III/ is possible. Accordingly, a new parameter for torsional crack growth, termed the plastic strain intensity GAMMA /SUB III/, is introduced and is shown to provide a unique description of Mode III crack growth behavior for a wide range of testing conditions, provided a mean load reduces friction, abrasion, and interlocking between mating fracture surfaces A micro-mechanical model for the main radial Mode III growth is extended to high nominal stress levels, and predicts that Mode III fatigue crack propagation rates should be proportional to the range of plastic strain intensity (..delta..GAMMA /SUB III/) if local Mode II growth rates are proportional to the displacements. Such predictions are shown to be in agreement with measured growth rates in AISI 4140 steel from 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -2/ mm per cycle.

  6. RED SUPERGIANT STARS AS COSMIC ABUNDANCE PROBES. III. NLTE EFFECTS IN J-BAND MAGNESIUM LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Bergemann, Maria; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Gazak, Zach; Davies, Ben; Plez, Bertrand E-mail: kud@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: bdavies@ast.cam.ac.uk

    2015-05-10

    Non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) calculations for Mg i in red supergiant stellar atmospheres are presented to investigate the importance of NLTE for the formation of Mg i lines in the NIR J-band. Recent work using medium resolution spectroscopy of atomic lines in the J-band of individual red supergiant stars has demonstrated this technique is a very promising tool for investigating the chemical composition of the young stellar population in star forming galaxies. As in previous work, where NLTE effects were studied for iron, titanium, and silicon, substantial effects are found resulting in significantly stronger Mg i absorption lines. For the quantitative spectral analysis the NLTE effects lead to magnesium abundances significantly smaller than in local thermodynamic equilibrium with the NLTE abundance corrections varying smoothly between −0.4 dex and −0.1 dex for effective temperatures between 3400 and 4400 K. We discuss the physical reasons of the NLTE effects and the consequences for extragalactic J-band abundance studies using individual red supergiants in the young massive galactic double cluster h and χ Persei.

  7. The Incidence of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Children Using the Rome III Criteria and the Effect of Trimebutine Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Beşer, Ömer F; Erginöz, Ethem; Kutlu, Tufan; Çokuğraş, Fügen Ç; Erkan, Tülay

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders and when compared to the vast knowledge pertaining to adults with IBS, very little is known about IBS in children and adolescents. We aimed to explore the prevalence of IBS, identify symptoms and contributing factors and also to examine the efficacy of trimebutine maleate in children and adolescents. Methods The study involved 345 children and adolescents (4-18 years) and parents were requested to fill in a questionnaire, Rome III criteria was used to diagnose IBS. To exclude organic disease, all patients underwent medical investigations. Half of the randomly selected IBS patients were treated with trimebutine maleate while the rest of IBS patients were not. The IBS patients were reevaluated at the end of 3 weeks. Results The prevalence of IBS according to Rome III criteria in children and adolescents was 22.6% and IBS with constipation was the predominant subtype. Back pain (OR, 6.68), headache (OR, 4.72) and chronic fatigue (OR, 3.74) were significantly higher in IBS group. The prevalence of IBS in both parents and depression in mothers was greater for the patient group than the healthy controls (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of functional dyspepsia in IBS group was 80.8% and was significantly higher than control group. Clinical recovery was seen in 94.9% of the trimebutine maleate group versus spontaneous recovery in 20.5% of the non-medicated group. The difference was significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusions IBS is a common disorder in children and adolescents. IBS is closely associated with somatic and familial factors. Trimebutine maleate is effective for pediatric IBS patients. PMID:23350053

  8. Pharmacology of Casimiroa edulis; III. Relaxant and contractile effects in rat aortic rings.

    PubMed

    Magos, G A; Vidrio, H; Enríquez, R

    1995-06-23

    The relaxant and contractile effects of an aqueous extract of the seeds of the hypotensive plant Casimiroa edulis were investigated in rat aortic rings. The extract inhibited contractions elicited by noradrenaline, serotonin and prostaglandin F2 alpha, but did not affect responses to KCl. Inhibition did not require the presence of intact vascular endothelium and was not affected by histamine antagonists. In this preparation, the extract also elicited concentration-related contractions which were more marked in the absence of endothelium, were not blocked by histamine antagonists, and were completely suppressed by alpha-adrenergic blockade. It was concluded that the relaxant effect of the extract is not exerted through release of an endothelial relaxing factor nor through blockade of calcium channels or of specific smooth muscle receptors, and does not involve histaminergic mechanisms. The contractile effect is modulated by vascular endothelium and is alpha-adrenergic in nature.

  9. Workshop on perinatal exposure to dioxin-like compounds. III. Endocrine effects

    SciTech Connect

    Feeley, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    Studies involving endocrine effects in humans and experimental animals resulting from the exposure to dioxin-like (non-ortho-substituted PCBs, PCDDs/PCDFs) and nondioxin-like (PCBs, OC pesticides) compounds (DLCs and NDLCs) were presented. A variety of reproductive and hormonal parameters, including androgen status, sexual differentiation, and thyroid functionality, were discussed. As in utero and lactational exposure of the human fetus/neonate to these environmental contaminants is inevitable, continued research to identify sensitive biomarkers of effect and susceptibility as well as to define dose-response relationships is required. 15 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Effects of aluminium(III) and fluoride on the demineralization of bovine enamel powder and hydroxyapatite; in vitro kinetic studies showing synergistic inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersen, Jørgen; Christoffersen, Margaret R.; Arends, Joop; Höök, Merete

    1994-04-01

    The effect of Al(III) and fluoride on the rate of dissolution of powdered enamel in 0.1M lactate solution has been studied at pH 4.5 and 5.0. The dissolution rate of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) microcrystals in similar solutions is reported for pH 5.0. A combination of Al(III) and fluoride has a stronger inhibitory effect on dissolution of enamel and HAP at pH 5.0 than that of these substances separately, even though the concentration of free fluoride ions decreases in the presence of Al(III). The effects on dissolution of enamel at pH 4.5 are similar, but less pronounced. It is suggested that Al(III) and its major complexes in slightly acidic solution, being positively charged, are adsorbed at different sites on the mineral surface from fluoride, thereby producing a synergistic effect. When the dissolution process takes place far from equilibrium, inhibitor concentrations greater than about 100μM ( ˜ 3 ppm for Al(III) and ˜ 2 ppm for F -) show significant inhibition under the conditions studied. In such solutions the real concentration of Al 3+ is of the order 1μM. Close to equilibrium, the total inhibitor concentration need only be of the order 1μM (i.e. 0.03 ppm for Al(III), 0.02 ppm for F -) for a strong effect. In such solutions, the real concentration of Al 3+ is in the nanomolar range.

  11. Antimicrobial effect of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid esters containing substituted N-phenylpiperazine moiety

    PubMed Central

    Malík, Ivan; Bukovský, Marián; Andriamainty, Fils; Gališinová, Jana

    2013-01-01

    In current research, nine basic esters of para-alkoxyphenylcarbamic acid with incorporated 4-(4-fluoro-/3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazin-1-yl fragment, 6i–6m and 8f–8i, were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, respectively. Taking into account the minimum inhibitory concentration assay (MIC), as the most active against given yeast was evaluated 8i (MIC = 0.20 mg/mL), the most lipophilic structure containing para-butoxy and trifluoromethyl substituents. Investigating the efficiency of the compounds bearing only a single atom of fluorine and appropriate para-alkoxy side chain against Candida albicans, the cut-off effect was observed. From evaluated homological series, the maximum of the effectiveness was noticed for the stucture 6 k (MIC = 0.39 mg/mL), containing para-propoxy group attached to phenylcarbamoyloxy fragment, beyond which the compounds ceased to be active. On the contrary, all the tested molecules were against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (MICs > 1.00 mg/mL) practically inactive. PMID:24294237

  12. Effects of foliar sprays containing calcium, magnesium and titanium on plum (Prunus domestica L.) fruit quality.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz-Lopez, Carlos; Botia, Maria; Alcaraz, Carlos F; Riquelme, Fernando

    2003-12-01

    An experiment was performed in which Ti(4+)-ascorbate was sprayed onto plum trees in several combinations with other commercial compounds containing Ca2+ and Mg2+ to study the effects on the commercial quality of fruits, with special focus on improving their resistance against postharvest handling damage. All the treatments containing titanium increased the tree performance (branch elongation, flowering and fruit setting intensities) and fruit size. At harvest fruits from the Ti-treated trees showed improved resistance to compression and penetration, as well as a decrease in weight-loss during postharvest storage. A similar response was obtained for the external colour, though all the treatments seemed to delay somewhat the apparent ripening status. Nevertheless, the fruits from Ti-treated trees showed a better behaviour in the evolution of the colour parameters during storage than did the control fruits. Titanium application significantly increased the calcium, iron, copper and zinc concentrations in peel and flesh. This improvement in the calcium absorption is explained as a consequence of the beneficial effect of titanium on the absorption, translocation and assimilation processes.

  13. The Effect of Micro-Spicule Containing Epidermal Growth Factor on Periocular Wrinkles

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jeong-Min; Lim, Cho-Ah; Han, Kyuboem; Ha, Jong-Cheon; Lee, Hae-Eul; Lee, Young; Seo, Young-Joon; Kim, Chang-Deok; Lee, Jeung-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Background Micro-needle patches have been recently used to increase skin permeability, which improves drug delivery, and for cosmetic purposes. However, these patches may often have limited efficacy due to insufficient skin penetration and reduced compliance caused by discomfort. Objective We evaluated the efficacy and the safety of soluble micro-spicule containing epidermal growth factor (MS-EGF) for the treatment of periocular wrinkles. Methods Twenty healthy volunteers aged 33 to 54 years were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, split-face study. For 4 weeks, a periocular wrinkle was treated daily with either a soluble MS-EGF cream or a cream containing EGF alone. All subjects underwent 8 weeks of follow-up. Efficacy was assessed using an ultrasonic measurement of dermal depth and density, digital skin image analysis, 5-point photonumeric scale for periocular wrinkles and subjective satisfaction. Results MS-EGF group showed statistically significant increase of dermal depth and density compared to EGF alone group after 4 and 8 weeks. In addition, there was a marked improvement shown in clinical and 3-dimensional skin image in MS-EGF group. The treatments were well-tolerated; no significant side-effect was noted. Conclusion The MS-EGF formulation may represent an effective and biocompatible advance in the treatment of periocular wrinkles. PMID:28392646

  14. Odontogenic effects of a fast-setting calcium-silicate cement containing zirconium oxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-A; Yang, Yeon-Mi; Kwon, Young-Sun; Hwang, Yun-Chan; Yu, Mi-Kyung; Min, Kyung-San

    2015-01-01

    A fast-setting calcium-silicate cement (Endocem) was introduced in the field of dentistry for use in vital pulp therapy. Similar to mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), it contains bismuth oxide to provide radiopacity. Recently, another product, EndocemZr, which contains zirconium oxide (ZrO2) as a radiopacifier, was developed by the same company. In this study, the biological/odontogenic effects of EndocemZr were investigated in human primary dental pulp cells (hpDPCs) in vitro and on capped rat teeth in vivo. The biocompatibility of EndocemZr was similar to that of ProRoot and Endocem on the basis of cell viability tests and cell morphological analysis. The mineralization nodule formation, expression of odontogenic-related markers, and reparative dentin formation of EndocemZr group was similar to those of other material groups. Our results suggest that EndocemZr has the potential to be used as an effective material for vital pulp therapy, similar to ProRoot and Endocem.

  15. Effects of Risperidone on Destructive Behavior of Persons with Developmental Disabilities: III. Functional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Lindauer, Steven E.; Morse, Paige S.; Crosland, Kimberly A.; Valdovinos, Maria G.; McKerchar, Todd L.; Reese, R. Matthew; Hellings, Jessica A.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2004-01-01

    Functional analyses were conducted during a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the atypical antipsychotic medication risperidone with 13 individuals. Risperidone was effective in reducing destructive behavior (compared to placebo) for 10 participants. For 7 of these responders, an undifferentiated pattern of responding occurred across their…

  16. Effects of a novel class III antiarrhythmic agent, NIP-142, on canine atrial fibrillation and flutter.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Hidehiko; Fujiki, Akira; Fujikura, Naoki; Matsuda, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Toru; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    The effects of a new benzopyran derivative, NIP-142, on atrial fibrillation (AF) and flutter (AFL) and on electrophysiological variables were studied in the dog. NIP-142 (3mg/kg) was administered intravenously to pentobarbital-anesthetized beagles during vagally-induced AF and during AFL induced after placement of an intercaval crush. Isolated canine atrial tissues were studied using standard microelectrode technique. NIP-142 terminated AF in 5 of 6 dogs after an increase in fibrillation cycle length (CL) and prevented reinitiation of AF in all 6 dogs. NIP-142 terminated AFL in all 6 dogs without any appreciable change in flutter CL, and prevented reinitiation of AFL in all 6 dogs. NIP-142 prolonged atrial effective refractory periods (11+/-5%, 3+/-3%, 12+/-3%, and 10+/-5% from the baseline value at basic CLs of 150, 200, 300, and 350ms, respectively) without changes in intraatrial conduction time. The prolongation of the atrial effective refractory period was greater in the presence of vagal stimulation. NIP-142 decreased action potential phase-1 notch and increased phase-2 plateau height without making any changes in the action potential duration, although it did reverse carbachol-induced shortening of the action potential duration. In conclusion, NIP-142 is effective in treating AFL and vagally-induced AF by prolonging atrial refractoriness.

  17. Nonlinear theory of surface-helical instability of a semiconductor plasma. III. Analysis of nonlinear effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karavaev, F. G.; Uspenskii, B. A.; Chuprikov, N. L.

    1980-05-01

    Results obtained earlier in [1, 2] are used to calculate the nonlinear parameters of the helical instability of a semiconductor plasma that fills a half-space. It is found that in semiconductors with intrinsic or almost intrinsic conduction an “explosive” type of instability development occurs, this being due to the effect of the electric self-field of the wave.

  18. Effectiveness and Efficiency of Nursing Education Programs. Volume III: Analysis of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresap, McCormick, and Paget, Inc., Washington, DC.

    The three volume study is a review of the available literature to determine the relative effectiveness and efficiency of diploma, associate degree, and baccalaureate nursing education programs in producing the number and quality of registered nurses needed in the nation; and to analyze the cost of nursing education. Volume three notes that a mild…

  19. WORKGROUP III SYNOPSIS: CONTAMINANT FATE AND EFFECTS IN COASTAL AND ESTUARINE WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wetlands of the ocean coasts and estuaries are characterized by the influence of frequent water-level fluctuations as effected by astronomic tides as well as by meterologically forced changes in the level of coastal waters. Some coastal wetlands experience extremely wide water-le...

  20. Detecting effects of filaments on galaxy properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yen-Chi; Ho, Shirley; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Freeman, Peter E.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Schneider, Donald P.; Wasserman, Larry

    2017-04-01

    We study the effects of filaments on galaxy properties in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 12 using filaments from the 'Cosmic Web Reconstruction' catalogue, a publicly available filament catalogue for SDSS. Since filaments are tracers of medium- to high-density regions, we expect that galaxy properties associated with the environment are dependent on the distance to the nearest filament. Our analysis demonstrates that a red galaxy or a high-mass galaxy tends to reside closer to filaments than a blue or low-mass galaxy. After adjusting the effect from stellar mass, on average, early-forming galaxies or large galaxies have a shorter distance to filaments than late-forming galaxies or small galaxies. For the main galaxy sample, all signals are very significant (>6σ). For the LOWZ and CMASS sample, the stellar mass and size are significant (>2σ). The filament effects we observe persist until z = 0.7 (the edge of the CMASS sample). Comparing our results to those using the galaxy distances from redMaPPer galaxy clusters as a reference, we find a similar result between filaments and clusters. Moreover, we find that the effect of clusters on the stellar mass of nearby galaxies depends on the galaxy's filamentary environment. Our findings illustrate the strong correlation of galaxy properties with proximity to density ridges, strongly supporting the claim that density ridges are good tracers of filaments.

  1. The Effect of Grade Norms in College Students: Using the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cressman, Markus N.; Liljequist, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The "Woodcock-Johnson III" Tests of Achievement grade norms versus age norms were examined in the calculation of discrepancy scores in 202 college students. Difference scores were calculated between the "Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd Edition" Full Scale IQ and the "Woodcock-Johnson III" Total Achievement,…

  2. The Effects of Phosphatidylserine and Omega-3 Fatty Acid-Containing Supplement on Late Life Depression

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Teruhisa

    2015-01-01

    Late life depression is often associated with a poor response to antidepressants; therefore an alternative strategy for therapy is required. Although several studies have reported that phosphatidylserine (PS) may be effective for late life depression and that omega-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA have also proven beneficial for many higher mental functions, including depression, no concrete conclusion has been reached. This study was performed to clarify the effect of PS and omega-3 fatty acid-containing supplement for late life depression by not only clinical evaluation but also salivary cortisol levels. Eighteen elderly subjects with major depression were selected for the study. In all, insufficient improvement had been obtained by antidepressant therapy for at least 6 months. The exclusion criteria from prior brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) included the presence of structural MRI findings compatible with stroke or other gross brain lesions or malformations, but not white matter hypersensitivities. They took a supplement containing PS 100 mg, DHA 119 mg and EPA 70 mg three times a day for 12 weeks. The effects of the supplement were assessed using the 17-item Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D17) and the basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol. The study adopted them as indices because: salivary cortisol levels are high in patients with depression, their circadian rhythm related to salivary cortisol is often irregular, and these symptoms are alleviated as depression improves. The mean HAM-D17 in all subjects taking the supplement was significantly improved after 12 weeks of taking the supplement. These subjects were divided into 10 non-responders and 8 responders. The basal levels and circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol were normalized in the responders while not in non-responders. PS and omega-3 fatty acids, or other elements of the supplement, may be effective for late life depression, associated with the correction of basal levels and circadian

  3. Dilute nitric or nitrous acid solution containing halide ions as effective media for pure gold dissolution.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Masashi; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Okamura, Kei

    2015-08-14

    The greatly enhanced oxidation ability of dilute aqueous nitric acid (0.10-2.0 mol L(-1)) containing bromide and iodide salts as well as chloride salts has been examined based on the dissolution kinetics of pure gold at 30-60 °C. It has been found that bromide salts are more effective than chloride salts in gaining the ability of dissolving gold in dilute aqueous nitric acid solution. At 60 °C, a piece of gold-wire (ca. 20 mg) is dissolved in 20 mL of as low as 0.10 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution containing 1.0-5.0 mol L(-1) NaBr and the dissolution rate constant, log(k/s(-1)), increases linearly (from -5.78 to -4.52) with the increasing NaBr concentration. The addition of organic solvents, such as acetonitrile and acetic acid, causes acceleration of gold dissolution in LiBr and NaBr solutions. With increasing MeCN contents, for instance, the log(k/s(-1)) value of 0.10 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution containing 2.0 mol L(-1) NaBr increases linearly from -5.30 to -4.61 at 30% (v/v) MeCN. The bromide salts affect the gold dissolution rate constant in the order of KBr < NaBr < LiBr < CaBr2. With increasing NaI concentration (0.20-3.0 mol L(-1)), some acceleration in log(k/s(-1)) of 0.50 or 1.0 mol L(-1) HNO3 solution has been observed; however, the slope of acceleration as the function of NaI concentration is much smaller than that of NaCl or NaBr. The gold dissolution ability has been examined also for nitrous acid containing chloride and bromide ions at 35 °C. The NaNO2 solution containing twice or more amounts of HX (X = Cl, Br) gives the maximum efficiency for gold dissolution, according to the log(k/s(-1)) values of the mixed solutions of NaNO2 (0.10-2.0 mol L(-1)) and HX of various concentrations. The influence of oxidation by dilute nitric and nitrous acids on the gold dissolution is discussed from the standpoint of the redox potentials in "modified" aqueous solutions and not of the changes in the activity coefficients of ions.

  4. Effects of microbial iron reduction and oxidation on the immobilization and mobilization of copper in synthesized Fe(III) minerals and Fe-rich soils.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chaohua; Zhang, Youchi; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Wensui

    2014-04-01

    The effects of microbial iron reduction and oxidation on the immobilization and mobilization of copper were investigated in a high concentration of sulfate with synthesized Fe(III) minerals and red earth soils rich in amorphous Fe (hydr)oxides. Batch microcosm experiments showed that red earth soil inoculated with subsurface sediments had a faster Fe(III) bioreduction rate than pure amorphous Fe(III) minerals and resulted in quicker immobilization of Cu in the aqueous fraction. Coinciding with the decrease of aqueous Cu, SO4(2-) in the inoculated red earth soil decreased acutely after incubation. The shift in the microbial community composite in the inoculated soil was analyzed through denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Results revealed the potential cooperative effect of microbial Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction on copper immobilization. After exposure to air for 144 h, more than 50% of the immobilized Cu was remobilized from the anaerobic matrices; aqueous sulfate increased significantly. Sequential extraction analysis demonstrated that the organic matter/sulfide-bound Cu increased by 52% after anaerobic incubation relative to the abiotic treatment but decreased by 32% after oxidation, indicating the generation and oxidation of Cu-sulfide coprecipitates in the inoculated red earth soil. These findings suggest that the immobilization of copper could be enhanced by mediating microbial Fe(III) reduction with sulfate reduction under anaerobic conditions. The findings have an important implication for bioremediation in Cucontaminated and Fe-rich soils, especially in acid-mine-drainage-affected sites.

  5. Recombination line intensities for hydrogenic ions. III - Effects of finite optical depth and dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hummer, D. G.; Storey, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The effect on the recombination spectrum of hydrogen arising from: (1) finite optical thickness in the Lyman lines; (2) the overlapping of Lyman lines near the series limit; (3) the absorption of Lyman lines by dust or photoionization, and (4) the long-wave radiation emitted by dust is examined. Full account is taken of electron and heavy particle collisions in redistributing energy and angular momentum. It is seen that each of these deviations from the classical Case B leads to observable effects, and that dust influences the recombination spectrum in characteristic ways that may make possible new observational constraints on dust properties in nebulosities. On the basis of these calculations it is believed that the uncertainty in the determination of the helium-to-hydrogen abundance ratio in the universe may be larger than currently claimed.

  6. Part III: Principal component analysis: bridging the gap between strain, sex and drug effects.

    PubMed

    Keeley, R J; McDonald, R J

    2015-07-15

    Previous work has identified the adolescent period as particularly sensitive to the short- and long-term effects of marijuana and its main psychoactive component Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, other studies have identified certain backgrounds as more sensitive than others, including the sex of the individual or the strain of the rat used. Further, the effects of THC may be specific to certain behavioural tasks (e.g. measures of anxiety), and the consequences of THC are not seen equally across all behavioural measures. Here, data obtained from adolescent male and female Long-Evans and Wistar rats exposed to THC and tested as adults, which, using standard ANOVA testing, showed strain- and sex-specific effects of THC, was analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA allowed for the examination of the relative contribution of our variables of interest to the variance in the data obtained from multiple behavioural tasks, including the skilled reaching task, the Morris water task, the discriminative fear-conditioning to context task, the elevated plus maze task and the conditioned place preference task to a low dose of amphetamine, as well as volumetric estimates of brain volumes and cfos activation. We observed that early life experience accounted for a large proportion of variance across data sets, although its relative contribution varied across tasks. Additionally, THC accounted for a very small proportion of the variance across all behavioural tasks. We demonstrate here that by using PCA, we were able to describe the main variables of interest and demonstrate that THC exposure had a negligible effect on the variance in the data set.

  7. GCR Environmental Models III: GCR Model Validation and Propagated Uncertainties in Effective Dose

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Xu, Xiaojing; Blattnig, Steve R.; Norman, Ryan B.

    2014-01-01

    This is the last of three papers focused on quantifying the uncertainty associated with galactic cosmic rays (GCR) models used for space radiation shielding applications. In the first paper, it was found that GCR ions with Z>2 and boundary energy below 500 MeV/nucleon induce less than 5% of the total effective dose behind shielding. This is an important finding since GCR model development and validation have been heavily biased toward Advanced Composition Explorer/Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer measurements below 500 MeV/nucleon. Weights were also developed that quantify the relative contribution of defined GCR energy and charge groups to effective dose behind shielding. In the second paper, it was shown that these weights could be used to efficiently propagate GCR model uncertainties into effective dose behind shielding. In this work, uncertainties are quantified for a few commonly used GCR models. A validation metric is developed that accounts for measurements uncertainty, and the metric is coupled to the fast uncertainty propagation method. For this work, the Badhwar-O'Neill (BON) 2010 and 2011 and the Matthia GCR models are compared to an extensive measurement database. It is shown that BON2011 systematically overestimates heavy ion fluxes in the range 0.5-4 GeV/nucleon. The BON2010 and BON2011 also show moderate and large errors in reproducing past solar activity near the 2000 solar maximum and 2010 solar minimum. It is found that all three models induce relative errors in effective dose in the interval [-20%, 20%] at a 68% confidence level. The BON2010 and Matthia models are found to have similar overall uncertainty estimates and are preferred for space radiation shielding applications.

  8. Dissolution of cerium(IV)-lanthanide(III) oxides: Comparative effect of chemical composition, temperature, and acidity

    SciTech Connect

    Horlait, D.; Clavier, N.; Szenknect, S.; Dacheux, N.; Dubois, V.

    2012-03-15

    The dissolution of Ce{sub 1-x}Ln{sub x}O{sub 2-x/2} solid solutions was undertaken in various acid media in order to evaluate the effects of several physicochemical parameters such as chemical composition, temperature, and acidity on the reaction kinetics. The normalized dissolution rates (R{sub L,0}) were found to be strongly modified by the trivalent lanthanide incorporation rate, due to the presence of oxygen vacancies decreasing the samples cohesion. Conversely, the nature of the trivalent cation considered only weakly impacted the R{sub L,0} values. The dependence of the normalized dissolution rates on the temperature then appeared to be of the same order of magnitude than that of chemical composition. Moreover, it allowed determining the corresponding activation energy (E{sub A} ≅ 60-85 kJ.mol{sup -1}) which accounts for a dissolution driven by surface-controlled reactions. A similar conclusion was made regarding the acidity of the solution: the partial order related to (H{sub 3}O{sup +}) reaching about 0.7. Finally, the prevailing effect of the incorporation of aliovalent cations in the fluorite-type CeO{sub 2} matrix on the dissolution kinetics precluded the observation of slight effects such as those linked to the complexing agents or to the crystal structure of the samples. (authors)

  9. Exploring the temporal effects of seasonal water availability on the snail kite of Florida: Part III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mooij, Wolf M.; Martin, Julien; Kitchens, Wiley M.; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Bissonette, John A.; Storch, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    The Florida snail kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis) is an endangered raptor that occurs as an isolated population, currently of about 2,000 birds, in the wetlands of southern and central Florida, USA. Its exclusive prey species, the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) is strongly influenced by seasonal changes in water abundance. Droughts during the snail kite breeding season have a direct negative effect on snail kite survival and reproduction, but droughts are also needed to maintain aquatic vegetation types favorable to snail kite foraging for snails. We used a spatially explicit matrix model to explore the effects of temporal variation in water levels on the viability of the snail kite population under different temporal drought regimes in its wetland breeding habitat. We focused on three aspects of variations in water levels that were likely to affect kites: (1) drought frequency; (2) drought duration; and (3) drought timing within the year. We modeled a 31-year historical scenario using four different scenarios in which the average water level was maintained constant, but the amplitude of water level fluctuations was modified. Our results reveal the complexity of the effects of temporal variation in water levels on snail kite population dynamics. Management implications of these results are discussed. In particular, management decisions should not be based on annual mean water levels alone, but must consider the intra-annual variability.

  10. Inhibitory effect of curcumin on the Al(III)-induced Aβ₄₂ aggregation and neurotoxicity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Teng; Zhi, Xiu-Ling; Zhang, Yue-Hong; Pan, Luan-Feng; Zhou, Ping

    2012-08-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves a key event which changes the morphology of amyloid-β 42 (Aβ)₄₂ peptide from its soluble monomeric form into the fibrillated aggregates in the brain. Aluminum ion, Al(III), is known to act as a pathological chaperone of the Aβ₄₂ in this process; curcumin, a natural phenolic compound, is considered capable of binding Al(III) and Aβ₄₂; nevertheless, little is known about the combined action of curcumin and Al(III) on the Aβ₄₂ fibrillation and neurotoxicity. Here, combinations of circular dichroism spectroscopy, thioflavin T fluorescence, atomic force microscopy, Bradford and MTT assays, it is demonstrated that although Al(III) can promote the Aβ₄₂ fibrillation dose-dependently, leading to the high neurotoxicity to PC12 cells, curcumin can inhibit the events. Besides, we found that curcumin is able not only to inhibit the formation of Al(III)-induced Aβ₄₂ fibrillation, but also to form the Al(III)-curcumin complexes which in turn can remold the preformed, mature, ordered Aβ₄₂ fibrils into the low toxic amorphous aggregates. These findings suggest that curcumin could block the binding of Al(III) with Aβ₄₂ and form the Al(III)-curcumin complexes, so as to inhibit the Al(III)-induced Aβ₄₂ fibrillation and neurotoxicity. The Al(III)-curcumin complexes are worth potentially developing as a therapy agent against the neurodegenerative disorders in the future.

  11. Effects of a novel Hungarian antacid containing Al and Mg (Tisacid) on mucosal prostaglandin generation and oxygen free radicals in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Nagy, L; Mózsik, G; Vincze, A; Süto G; Hunyady, B; Rinfel, J; Past, T; Jávor, T

    1990-01-01

    A new patented chemical agent (Al-Mg-hydroxy-carbonate; acid-binding capacity greater than 30 mmol/g) was produced by our work-team. After our preliminary pharmacological and some prospective, randomized, multicentre, controlled clinical studies, this antacid was registered (Tisacid tablet and suspension; Alkaloida, Hungary). A cumulative ulcer healing rate of 80-85% was proved by Tisacid monotherapy applied in low doses (from 80 to 160 mmol/day) in patients with duodenal ulcer. The aims of this study were: (i) to determine the role of different antacids on the genesis of mucosal prostaglandins (PGs) (PGE2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha) in normal rats; (ii) to evaluate the effects of indomethacin pre-treatment (20 mg/kg b.w.,s.c.) on the Tisacid-induced alterations of gastric mucosal PG-contents; (iii) to analyse the generation of oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in the rat oxyntic mucosa by the application of different doses of Tisacid (activities of CAT, GSH-px and SOD, contents of MDA and red. GSH). It was found that: Tisacid has a potent gastroproprotective effect in gastric mucosa, via (a) an increase in the mucosal levels of PGs, and (b) a scavenging-like effect in normal rat gastric mucosa. It is concluded that the gastroprotective effect of Tisacid appears because of the following: (i) excellent acid-neutralizing capacity; (ii) mucosal generation of PGs (PGE2 and PGI2); (iii) free radical scavenging; (iv) its possible activity as a Ca-antagonist (Mg-containing compound).

  12. Effects of Sulfate Reduction on Trichloroethene Dechlorination by Dehalococcoides-Containing Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xinwei; Polasko, Alexandra; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2017-04-15

    In order to elucidate interactions between sulfate reduction and dechlorination, we systematically evaluated the effects of different concentrations of sulfate and sulfide on reductive dechlorination by isolates, constructed consortia, and enrichments containing Dehalococcoides sp. Sulfate (up to 5 mM) did not inhibit the growth or metabolism of pure cultures of the dechlorinator Dehalococcoides mccartyi 195, the sulfate reducer Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough, or the syntroph Syntrophomonas wolfei In contrast, sulfide at 5 mM exhibited inhibitory effects on growth of the sulfate reducer and the syntroph, as well as on both dechlorination and growth rates of D. mccartyi Transcriptomic analysis of D. mccartyi 195 revealed that genes encoding ATP synthase, biosynthesis, and Hym hydrogenase were downregulated during sulfide inhibition, whereas genes encoding metal-containing enzymes involved in energy metabolism were upregulated even though the activity of those enzymes (hydrogenases) was inhibited. When the electron acceptor (trichloroethene) was limiting and an electron donor (lactate) was provided in excess to cocultures and enrichments, high sulfate concentrations (5 mM) inhibited reductive dechlorination due to the toxicity of generated sulfide. The initial cell ratio of sulfate reducers to D. mccartyi (1:3, 1:1, or 3:1) did not affect the dechlorination performance in the presence of sulfate (2 and 5 mM). In contrast, under electron donor limitation, dechlorination was not affected by sulfate amendments due to low sulfide production, demonstrating that D. mccartyi can function effectively in anaerobic microbial communities containing moderate sulfate concentrations (5 mM), likely due to its ability to outcompete other hydrogen-consuming bacteria and archaea.IMPORTANCE Sulfate is common in subsurface environments and has been reported as a cocontaminant with chlorinated solvents at various concentrations. Inconsistent results for the effects of sulfate

  13. Blueberry Improves the Therapeutic Effect of Etanercept on Patients with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: Phase III Study.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Yingjie; Wang, Ye; Guo, Jun; Chu, Haifeng; Gao, Yong; Pang, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common arthritis in the adolescents under the age of 16. Etanercept, an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor, is often used to treat JIA despite its significant side effects. Homeopathic remedies, such as blueberries, have anti-inflammatory properties with fewer unwanted effects and should be considered as a primary treatment. We aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of combination therapy of blueberry and etanercept for JIA. Two hundred and one JIA patients were selected, and randomly and evenly assigned to three groups: ETA (50 mg of etanercept twice weekly), ETABJ (matched etanercept and 50 ml blueberry juice daily) and ETAPJ (matched etanercept and placebo juice). The severity of JIA was measured using American College of Rheumatology scales (ACR) 20, 50 and 70. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, interleukin-1 (IL1) alpha and IL1 beta, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RA) were measured by qRT-PCR and ELISA. After a 6-month follow-up, the ACR20, ACR50 and ACR70 in an ETABJ group were higher than those in other two groups (P < 0.05), suggesting clinically meaningful improvement in JIA. Meanwhile, the symptoms and side effects were reduced significantly or absent in an ETABJ group, including mental diseases, retrobulbar optic neuritis, gaining weight, infection, cutaneous vasculitis, diarrhea, uveitis and pancytopenia. Blueberries reduced the levels of IL1 alpha and beta, and increased the level of IL1RA. Thus, a combination therapy of blueberry and etanercept can reduce the severity of JIA and should be developed as a new method for JIA therapy.

  14. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants.

  15. POLARIZED LINE FORMATION IN MULTI-DIMENSIONAL MEDIA. III. HANLE EFFECT WITH PARTIAL FREQUENCY REDISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Anusha, L. S.; Nagendra, K. N.

    2011-09-01

    In two previous papers, we solved the polarized radiative transfer (RT) equation in multi-dimensional (multi-D) geometries with partial frequency redistribution as the scattering mechanism. We assumed Rayleigh scattering as the only source of linear polarization (Q/I, U/I) in both these papers. In this paper, we extend these previous works to include the effect of weak oriented magnetic fields (Hanle effect) on line scattering. We generalize the technique of Stokes vector decomposition in terms of the irreducible spherical tensors T{sup K}{sub Q}, developed by Anusha and Nagendra, to the case of RT with Hanle effect. A fast iterative method of solution (based on the Stabilized Preconditioned Bi-Conjugate-Gradient technique), developed by Anusha et al., is now generalized to the case of RT in magnetized three-dimensional media. We use the efficient short-characteristics formal solution method for multi-D media, generalized appropriately to the present context. The main results of this paper are the following: (1) a comparison of emergent (I, Q/I, U/I) profiles formed in one-dimensional (1D) media, with the corresponding emergent, spatially averaged profiles formed in multi-D media, shows that in the spatially resolved structures, the assumption of 1D may lead to large errors in linear polarization, especially in the line wings. (2) The multi-D RT in semi-infinite non-magnetic media causes a strong spatial variation of the emergent (Q/I, U/I) profiles, which is more pronounced in the line wings. (3) The presence of a weak magnetic field modifies the spatial variation of the emergent (Q/I, U/I) profiles in the line core, by producing significant changes in their magnitudes.

  16. Combined Effects of Lanthanum (III) and Acid Rain on Antioxidant Enzyme System in Soybean Roots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuanbo; Du, Yuping; Wang, Lihong; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua; Sun, Zhaoguo

    2015-01-01

    Rare earth element pollution (REEs) and acid rain (AR) pollution simultaneously occur in many regions, which resulted in a new environmental issue, the combined pollution of REEs and AR. The effects of the combined pollution on the antioxidant enzyme system of plant roots have not been reported. Here, the combined effects of lanthanum ion (La3+), one type of REE, and AR on the antioxidant enzyme system of soybean roots were investigated. In the combined treatment of La3+ (0.08 mM) and AR, the cell membrane permeability and the peroxidation of cell membrane lipid of soybean roots increased, and the superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase and reduced ascorbic acid served as scavengers of reactive oxygen species. In other combined treatments of La3+ (0.40 mM, 1.20 mM) and AR, the membrane permeability, malonyldialdehyde content, superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content increased, while the catalase activity decreased. The increased superoxide dismutase activity, peroxidase activity and reduced ascorbic acid content were inadequate to scavenge the excess hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, leading to the damage of the cell membrane, which was aggravated with the increase in the concentration of La3+ and the level of AR. The deleterious effects of the combined treatment of La3+ and AR were stronger than those of the single treatment of La3+ or AR. Moreover, the activity of antioxidant enzyme system in the combined treatment group was affected directly and indirectly by mineral element content in soybean plants. PMID:26230263

  17. Aspects of psychodynamic neuropsychiatry III: magic spells, the placebo effect, and neurobiology.

    PubMed

    Brockman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Through a case study, the importance of supporting the positive transference is stressed-from both a psychological and neurobiological perspective. The article argues that the neurobiology of expectation underlies transference. This neurobiology has been investigated particularly over the past several decades in work concerning the placebo effect. By understanding the neurobiology of expectation, one gains a better understanding of the neurobiology of the transference. This enables clinical predictions-and decisions-that are informed not just by the teachings of psychology but also by the science of biology.

  18. Resonant behaviour of MHD waves on magnetic flux tubes. III - Effect of equilibrium flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossens, Marcel; Hollweg, Joseph V.; Sakurai, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    The Hollweg et al. (1990) analysis of MHD surface waves in a stationary equilibrium is extended. The conservation laws and jump conditions at Alfven and slow resonance points obtained by Sakurai et al. (1990) are generalized to include an equilibrium flow, and the assumption that the Eulerian perturbation of total pressure is constant is recovered as the special case of the conservation law for an equilibrium with straight magnetic field lines and flow along the magnetic field lines. It is shown that the conclusions formulated by Hollweg et al. are still valid for the straight cylindrical case. The effect of curvature is examined.

  19. Radiative transfer in dusty nebulae. III - The effects of dust albedo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrosian, V.; Dana, R. A.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of an albedo of internal dust, such as ionization structure and temperature of dust grain, were studied by the quasi-diffusion method with an iterative technique for solving the radiative heat transfer equations. It was found that the generalized on-the-spot approximation solution is adequate for most astrophysical applications for a zero albedo; for a nonzero albedo, the Eddington approximation is more accurate. The albedo increases the average energy of the diffuse photons, increasing the ionization level of hydrogen and heavy elements if the Eddington approximation is applied; the dust thermal gradient is reduced so that the infrared spectrum approaches blackbody spectrum with an increasing albedo.

  20. Optical antenna gain. III - The effect of secondary element support struts on transmitter gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, B. J.; Degnan, J. J.

    1976-01-01

    The effect of a secondary-element spider support structure on optical antenna transmitter gain is analyzed. An expression describing the influence of the struts on the axial gain, in both the near and far fields, is derived as a function of the number of struts and their width. It is found that, for typical systems, the struts degrade the on-axis gain by less than 0.4 dB, and the first side-lobe level is not increased significantly. Contour plots have also been included to show the symmetry of the far-field distributions for three- and four-support members.

  1. Microturbulence in DIII-D tokamak pedestal. III. Effects of collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, X.; Lin, Z.; Holod, I.; Xiao, Y.; Li, B.; Snyder, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Gyrokinetic simulations of the H-mode pedestal in DIII-D discharge 145701 find that the kinetic ballooning mode (KBM) is the most unstable mode for low toroidal numbers (n ≤ 25) and that the trapped electron mode (TEM) dominates over the KBM at higher toroidal mode numbers for realistic pressure gradients in the pedestal. Collisions reduce the TEM growth rate but have little effects on the KBM. KBM has the conventional ballooning mode structure peaking at the outer mid-plane, while TEM has an unconventional mode structure peaking at the top and bottom of the poloidal plane.

  2. Effect of added zinc on the properties of cobalt-containing ceramic pigments prepared from layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Bernal, M.E.; Ruano-Casero, R.J.; Rives, V.

    2009-09-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the hydrotalcite-type structure containing Co and Al, or Zn, Co and Al in the brucite-like layers and carbonate in the interlayer have been prepared by coprecipitation. The Zn/Co molar ratio was kept to 1 in all samples, while the divalent/trivalent molar ratio was varied from 2/1 to 1/2. The samples have been characterised by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed reduction and FT-IR spectroscopy. A single hydrotalcite-like phase is formed for samples with molar ratio 2/1, which crystallinity decreases as the Al content is increased, developing small amounts of diaspore and dawsonite and probably an additional amorphous phase. Calcination at 1200 deg. C in air led to formation of spinels; a small amount of NaAlO{sub 2} was observed in the Al-rich samples, which was removed by washing. The nature of the spinels formed (containing Co{sup II}, Co{sup III}, Al{sup III} and Zn{sup II}) strongly depends on the cations molar ratio in the starting materials and the calcination treatment, leading to a partial oxidation of Co{sup II} species to Co{sup III} ones. Colour properties (L*a*b*) of the original and calcined solids have been measured. While the original samples show a pink colour (lighter for the series containing Zn), the calcined Co,Al samples show a dark blue colour and the Zn,Co,Al ones a green colour. Changes due to the different molar ratios within a given calcined series are less evident than between samples with the same composition in different series. These calcined materials could be usable as ceramic pigments. - Abstract: Mixed oxides from layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the hydrotalcite-type structure containing Co and Al or Zn, Co and Al in the brucite-like layers are potential candidates for ceramic pigments with tunable colour properties. Display Omitted

  3. Cyclic Deformation Behavior of a Rare-Earth Containing Extruded Magnesium Alloy: Effect of Heat Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, F. A.; Chen, D. L.; Li, D. J.; Zeng, X. Q.

    2015-03-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating strain-controlled cyclic deformation behavior of a rare-earth (RE) element containing Mg-10Gd-3Y-0.5Zr (GW103K) alloy in different states (as-extruded, peak-aged (T5), and solution-treated and peak-aged (T6)). The addition of RE elements led to an effective grain refinement and weak texture in the as-extruded alloy. While heat treatment resulted in a grain growth modestly in the T5 state and significantly in the T6 state, a high density of nano-sized and bamboo-leaf/plate-shaped β' (Mg7(Gd,Y)) precipitates was observed to distribute uniformly in the α-Mg matrix. The yield strength and ultimate tensile strength, as well as the maximum and minimum peak stresses during cyclic deformation in the T5 and T6 states were significantly higher than those in the as-extruded state. Unlike RE-free extruded Mg alloys, symmetrical hysteresis loops in tension and compression and cyclic stabilization were present in the GW103K alloy in different states. The fatigue life of this alloy in the three conditions, which could be well described by the Coffin-Manson law and Basquin's equation, was equivalent within the experimental scatter and was longer than that of RE-free extruded Mg alloys. This was predominantly attributed to the presence of the relatively weak texture and the suppression of twinning activities stemming from the fine grain sizes and especially RE-containing β' precipitates. Fatigue crack was observed to initiate from the specimen surface in all the three alloy states and the initiation site contained some cleavage-like facets after T6 heat treatment. Crack propagation was characterized mainly by the characteristic fatigue striations.

  4. [Effect of sucrose-containing gum and fluoridated dentifrice on in situ remineralization of artificial caries].

    PubMed

    de Freitas, R R; de Oliveira, J A; Taga, E M; Buzalaf, M A

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the remineralization of incipient carious lesions in bovine enamel in situ. Artificial carious lesions were produced and fixed in removable lower appliances in the region of the lingual surfaces of first molars, in six volunteers with ages between 18 and 22 years, who were subjected to 3 distinct experimental periods of 1 week each. In the first period (control group), patients brushed their teeth with a non-fluoridated dentifrice 4 times a day (after meals), and, in the second period (group I), patients used a dentifrice containing 1,500 ppm of fluorine (in the form of MFP). In the third period (group II) volunteers brushed their teeth with non-fluoridated dentifrice and used chewing gum containing 60% of sucrose during 20 minutes, 4 times a day (after meals). Before and after each treatment, the specimens underwent Vicker's hardness test (200 g of load), and the remineralization percentage (alpha) was calculated. The control group showed 2.78% of demineralization, and groups I and II showed 3.36 and 5.21% of remineralization, respectively. Statistical analysis (with Kruskal-Wallis and Miller's tests) showed significant difference (p < 0.05) between the control and experimental groups (I and II). Group II showed greater alpha than group I, but this difference was not significant. These results suggest that the use of sucrose-containing chewing gum and fluoridated dentifrice has a considerable effect on the remineralization of incipient carious lesions and may be a valuable alternative for their prevention.

  5. Prebiotic effect of fruit and vegetable shots containing Jerusalem artichoke inulin: a human intervention study.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, P; Gaudier, E; Bingham, M; van Bruggen, P; Tuohy, K M; Gibson, G R

    2010-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prebiotic effect of fruit and vegetable shots containing inulin derived from Jerusalem artichoke (JA). A three-arm parallel, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was carried out with sixty-six healthy human volunteers (thirty-three men and thirty-three women, age range: 18-50 years). Subjects were randomised into three groups (n 22) assigned to consume either the test shots, pear-carrot-sea buckthorn (PCS) or plum-pear-beetroot (PPB), containing JA inulin (5 g/d) or the placebo. Fluorescent in situ hybridisation was used to monitor populations of total bacteria, bacteroides, bifidobacteria, Clostridium perfringens/histolyticum subgroup, Eubacterium rectale/Clostridium coccoides group, Lactobacillus/Enterococcus spp., Atopobium spp., Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and propionibacteria. Bifidobacteria levels were significantly higher on consumption of both the PCS and PPB shots (10.0 (sd 0.24) and 9.8 (sd 0.22) log10 cells/g faeces, respectively) compared with placebo (9.3 (sd 0.42) log10 cells/g faeces) (P < 0.0001). A small though significant increase in Lactobacillus/Enterococcus group was also observed for both the PCS and PPB shots (8.3 (sd 0.49) and 8.3 (sd 0.36) log10 cells/g faeces, respectively) compared with placebo (8.1 (sd 0.37) log10 cells/g faeces) (P = 0.042). Other bacterial groups and faecal SCFA concentrations remained unaffected. No extremities were seen in the adverse events, medication or bowel habits. A slight significant increase in flatulence was reported in the subjects consuming the PCS and PPB shots compared with placebo, but overall flatulence levels remained mild. A very high level of compliance (>90 %) to the product was observed. The present study confirms the prebiotic efficacy of fruit and vegetable shots containing JA inulin.

  6. Preparation, Characterization and Evaluation of Sun Protective and Moisturizing Effects of Nanoliposomes Containing Safranal

    PubMed Central

    Golmohammadzadeh, Shiva; Imani, Fatemeh; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) The objective of this study was to prepare, characterize and evaluate the nanoliposomes containing safranal as a natural sunscreen and moisturizer factor. Materials and Methods The experimental formulations included homosalate reference, nanoliposomes containing 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8% safranal and empty liposomes. The liposomes were prepared using fusion method and homogenization. Homosalate reference was prepared according to FDA standard. Sun protection factors (SPF) of the formulations were determined by two in vitro methods; diluted solution transmittance method and transpore tape method. Studies of in vitro penetration of the formulations across mouse skin were carried out with diffusion cells. The percentage of safranal penetrated and retained in the skin was determined for the formulations up to 24 hr. The amount of the moisture contents of the skin before application and after 30-minute, 1, 3 and 5 hr post-application of the formulations were measured in human volunteers using Corneometer. Results The results indicated that, the SPF of liposomes containing 8% safranal (Lip-Safranal 8%) was significantly higher than 8% homosalate reference. The proportion of Lip-Safranal 1% that penetrated the skin was low. There was no significant difference between the skin moisture contents after application of Lip-Safranal 1 and 4% and empty liposomes during the 7 hr post-application period. Conclusion These results showed that in equal concentrations, Lip-Safranal could act as a better antisolar agent compared to homosalate and have no moisturizing effect in 1 and 4% concentrations. PMID:23493792

  7. Effects of pig manure containing copper and zinc on microbial community assessed via phospholipids in soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Luo, Wei; Jia, Junmei; Kong, Peiru; Tong, Xiaojuan; Lu, Yonglong; Xie, Liqiong; Ma, Fulong; Giesy, John P

    2014-08-01

    Pig manure (PM) is widely used as an organic fertilizer to increase yields of crops. Excessive application of compost containing relatively great concentrations of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) can change soil quality. To clarify the effects of different rates of application and to determine the optimal rate of fertilization, PM containing 1,115 mg Cu kg(-1), dry mass (dm) and 1,497 mg Zn kg(-1), dm was applied to alkaline soil at rates of 0, 11, 22, 44, 88, and 222 g PM kg(-1), dm. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were used to assess soil microbial community composition. Application of PM resulted in greater concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), NH4 (+)-N, NO3 (-)-N, total carbon (TC), soil organic matter (SOM) but lesser pH values. Soils with application rates of 88-222 g PM kg(-1), dm had concentrations of total and EDTA-extractable Cu and Zn significantly greater than those in soil without PM, and concentrations of T-Cu and T-Zn in these amended soils exceeded maximum limits set by standards in china. Except in the soil with a rate of 11 g PM kg(-1), dm, total bacterial and fungal PLFAs were directly proportional to rate of application of PM. Biomasses of bacteria and fungi were significantly greater in soils with application rates of 44-222 g PM kg(-1), dm than in the soil without PM. SOM, TC and EDTA-Zn had the most direct influence on soil microbial communities. To improve fertility of soils and maintain quality of soil, rate of application should be 22-44 g PM kg(-1) dm, soil containing Cu and Zn.

  8. Primate translational vestibuloocular reflexes. III. Effects of bilateral labyrinthine electrical stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelaki, D. E.; McHenry, M. Q.; Dickman, J. D.; Perachio, A. A.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of functional, reversible ablation and potential recruitment of the most irregular otolith afferents on the dynamics and sensitivity of the translational vestibuloocular reflexes (trVORs) were investigated in rhesus monkeys trained to fixate near and far targets. Translational motion stimuli consisted of either steady-state lateral and fore-aft sinusoidal oscillations or short-lasting transient lateral head displacements. Short-duration (usually <2 s) anodal (inhibitory) and cathodal (excitatory) currents (50-100 microA) were delivered bilaterally during motion. In the presence of anodal labyrinthine stimulation, trVOR sensitivity and its dependence on viewing distance were significantly decreased. In addition, anodal currents significantly increased phase lags. During transient motion, anodal stimulation resulted in significantly lower initial eye acceleration and more sluggish responses. Cathodal currents tended to have opposite effects. The main characteristics of these results were simulated by a simple model where both regularly and irregularly discharging afferents contribute to the trVORs. Anodal labyrinthine currents also were found to decrease eye velocity during long-duration, constant velocity rotations, although results were generally more variable compared with those during translational motion.

  9. Ab initio calculations of the Fe(II) and Fe(III) isotopic effects in citrates, nicotianamine, and phytosiderophore, and new Fe isotopic measurements in higher plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Wang, Kun; Foriel, Julien

    2013-05-01

    Iron is one of the most abundant transition metal in higher plants and variations in its isotopic compositions can be used to trace its utilization. In order to better understand the effect of plant-induced isotopic fractionation on the global Fe cycling, we have estimated by quantum chemical calculations the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation between different Fe species relevant to the transport and storage of Fe in higher plants: Fe(II)-citrate, Fe(III)-citrate, Fe(II)-nicotianamine, and Fe(III)-phytosiderophore. The ab initio calculations show firstly, that Fe(II)-nicotianamine is ˜3‰ (56Fe/54Fe) isotopically lighter than Fe(III)-phytosiderophore; secondly, even in the absence of redox changes of Fe, change in the speciation alone can create up to ˜1.5‰ isotopic fractionation. For example, Fe(III)-phytosiderophore is up to 1.5‰ heavier than Fe(III)-citrate2 and Fe(II)-nicotianamine is up to 1‰ heavier than Fe(II)-citrate. In addition, in order to better understand the Fe isotopic fractionation between different plant components, we have analyzed the iron isotopic composition of different organs (roots, seeds, germinated seeds, leaves and stems) from six species of higher plants: the dicot lentil (Lens culinaris), and the graminaceous monocots Virginia wild rye (Elymus virginicus), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), river oat (Uniola latifolia), and Indian goosegrass (Eleusine indica). The calculations may explain that the roots of strategy-II plants (Fe(III)-phytosiderophore) are isotopically heavier (by about 1‰ for the δ56Fe) than the upper parts of the plants (Fe transported as Fe(III)-citrate in the xylem or Fe(II)-nicotianamine in the phloem). In addition, we suggest that the isotopic variations observed between younger and older leaves could be explained by mixing of Fe received from the xylem and the phloem.

  10. Study of chemical bonding, physical and biological effect of metformin drug as an organized medicine for diabetes patients with chromium(III) and vanadium(IV) ions.

    PubMed

    Adam, Abdel Majid A; Sharshar, T; Mohamed, Mahmoud A; Ibrahim, Omar B; Refat, Moamen S

    2015-01-01

    New vanadium(IV) and chromium(III) complexes of metformin (MFN) were synthesized upon the chemical interaction between vanadyl(II) sulfate monohydrate or chromium(III) chloride hexahydrate with metformin diabetic drug in the media of a pure grade of methanol solvent. The [(VO)2(MFN)2(SO4)2]2H2O and [Cr(MFN)3]·Cl3·6H2O complexes were discussed using microanalytical measurements, molar conductance, spectroscopic (infrared, ESR, XRD, and UV-vis), effective magnetic moment, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermal analyses (TG/DTG). The elemental analysis shows that VO(II) and Cr(III) complexes were associated with 1:1 and 1:3M ratios, respectively. The infrared spectroscopic results data received from the comparison between free MFN free ligand and their vanadyl(II) and chromium(III) complexes were proven that metformin reacted with respected metal ions as a bidentate ligand through its two imino groups. The kinetic thermodynamic parameters were estimated from the DTG curves. The microstructure changes of the VO(II) and Cr(III) complexes have been probed using positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) and positron annihilation Doppler broadening (PADB) techniques. The PAL and PADB line-shape parameters were found to be dependent on the structure, electronic configuration and molecular weight of metal complexes. Antimicrobial activity of the metformin free ligand and its vanadyl(II) and chromium(III) complexes were evaluated against the gram negative and gram positive bacteria strains and different fungal strains. Moderate antimicrobial activity recorded by disk diffusion inhibition growth zone method in vanadyl(II) and chromium(III) complexes compared to metformin free ligand.

  11. Biodegradation of dye solution containing Malachite Green: optimization of effective parameters using Taguchi method.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, N; Khataee, A R; Rasoulifard, M H; Pourhassan, M

    2007-05-08

    In this paper, optimization of biological decolorization of synthetic dye solution containing Malachite Green was investigated. The effect of temperature, initial pH of the solution, type of algae, dye concentration and time of the reaction was studied and optimized using Taguchi method. Sixteen experiments were required to study the effect of parameters on biodegradation of the dye. Each of experiments was repeated three times to calculate signal/noise (S/N). Our results showed that initial pH of the solution was the most effective parameter in comparison with others and the basic pH was favorable. In this study, we also optimized the experimental parameters and chose the best condition by determination effective factors. Based on the S/N ratio, the optimized conditions for dye removal were temperature 25 degrees C, initial pH 10, dye concentration 5 ppm, algae type Chlorella and time 2.5h. The stability and efficiency of Chlorella sp. in long-term repetitive operations were also examined.

  12. Clinical and metabolic effects of a pill containing 30 mcg ethinylestradiol plus 75 mcg gestodene.

    PubMed

    Fioretti, P; Fruzzetti, F; Navalesi, R; Ricci, C; Miccoli, R; Cerri, M; Melis, G B

    1989-12-01

    The clinical and metabolic effects of a short-term treatment with a combination contraceptive pill containing 30 mcg ethinylestradiol and 75 mcg gestodene were evaluated in a group of 31 healthy women. The pill exerted good cycle control and the incidence of irregular bleeding was low. Side effects rarely occurred, and an improvement in premenstrual symptoms was reported during pill intake. Among the different biochemical parameters tested to monitor the coagulatory system, the only modification observed was an increase of fibrinopeptide A plasma levels, confirming that low-dose pills have less effects on the haemostatic system than oral contraceptives with a higher estrogen content. No significant modification in plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-CH), HDL2-CH, nor low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were observed. HDL3-CH levels were significantly increased. Moreover, the pill did not significantly alter the fasting insulin and glucose levels nor their response to an oral glucose tolerance test. It may be suggested that this new formulation has high efficacy and clinical acceptability, primarily due to the total absence of any adverse metabolic effect.

  13. [Inhibitory effects of Lantana camera and its contained phenolic compounds in Eichhornia crassipes growth].

    PubMed

    Yi, Zhen; Zhang, Maoxin; Ling, Bing; Xu, Di; Ye, Jingzhong

    2006-09-01

    This paper studied the effects of Lantana camera fresh leaves aqueous extract and its contained phenolic compounds on the growth and physiologic-biochemical indexes of Eichhornia crassipes. The results showed that this extract had obvious inhibitory effects on the growth and development of E. crassipes. When the concentration was higher than 30 g FW x L(-1), it could kill E. crassipes after 6 days treatment. A total of seven phenolic compounds in the abstract were identified by HPLC, which were salicylic acid, gentisic acid, beta-resorcylic acid , coumarin, ferulic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and 6-methyl coumarin, with the concentrations being, 50.95, 13.46, 5.28, 3.36, 2.92, 2.19 and 0.34 mg x L(-1), respectively. The mixture of the seven compounds had the strongest inhibitory effect, followed by salicylic acid, 6-methyl coumarin, coumarin, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid, while the effects of beta-resorcylic acid and gentisic acid were not sig