Science.gov

Sample records for containment of biohazards

  1. The Use of Bioluminescence in Detecting Biohazardous Substances in Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomulka, Kenneth William; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, reproducible alternative assay that requires minimal preparation and equipment for water testing. It provides students with a direct method of detecting potentially biohazardous material in water by observing the reduction in bacterial luminescence. (PR)

  2. The Use of Bioluminescence in Detecting Biohazardous Substances in Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomulka, Kenneth William; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive, reproducible alternative assay that requires minimal preparation and equipment for water testing. It provides students with a direct method of detecting potentially biohazardous material in water by observing the reduction in bacterial luminescence. (PR)

  3. Biohazardous waste management plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Todd W.

    2004-01-01

    This plan describes the process for managing non-medical biohazardous waste at Sandia National Laboratories California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of biohazardous waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to non-medical biohazardous waste.

  4. Medical and Biohazardous Waste Generator's Guide (Revision2)

    SciTech Connect

    Waste Management Group

    2006-11-29

    These guidelines describe procedures to comply with all Federal and State laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) policy applicable to State-regulated medical and unregulated, but biohazardous, waste (medical/biohazardous waste). These guidelines apply to all LBNL personnel who: (1) generate and/or store medical/biohazardous waste, (2) supervise personnel who generate medical/biohazardous waste, or (3) manage a medical/biohazardous waste pickup location. Personnel generating biohazardous waste at the Joint Genome Institute/Production Genomics Facility (JGI/PGF) are referred to the guidelines contained in Section 9. Section 9 is the only part of these guidelines that apply to JGI/PGF. Medical/biohazardous waste referred to in this Web site includes biohazardous, sharps, pathological and liquid waste. Procedures for proper storage and disposal are summarized in the Solid Medical/Biohazardous Waste Disposal Procedures Chart. Contact the Waste Management Group at 486-7663 if you have any questions regarding medical/biohazardous waste management.

  5. Tell ';Em Early and Often: Communicating About Mars Sample Return Containment and Biohazard Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.; Race, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    The recent report of the Mars 2020 Science Definition Team recommended that the mission accomplish broad and rigorous in situ science, including seeking biosignatures and acquiring a diverse set of samples intended to be stored in a cache for potential return to Earth at a later time. In developing the Mars 2020 mission NASA and its partners are beginning at least the promise (uncertainty #1) of a later sample return and will need to address important uncertainties with implications not only for the integrity of science, but also for public communication about the mission and associated decision making. In particular, they will have to address the requirement, reaffirmed by multiple US National Research Council reports, to contain such a sample when it is returned (uncertainty #2) and not release it, unsterilized (uncertainty #3), until tests prove that it does not contain a biohazard (uncertainty #4). And of course we won't know what the samples are like until they are collected (uncertainty #5, et al.). In an ongoing process of scientific analysis and protocol development, NASA and its partners (such as the European Space Agency) have continued to discuss the requirements for containment and how it should be defined and implemented at a high (how high?) degree of certainty. How the protocol and requirements will be finalized, and how the decision process to approve them will be structured are all part of a communications picture that changes not only based on the technical aspects of the mission, but on other public events that may have little or nothing to do with the exploration of space. Now that the Mars 2020 mission has been moved forward as the first step in a sample-return train, NASA will face a robust communications challenge that will not only be complicated by the uncertainties numbered above, but by the uncertainties associated with any large-budget science program that depends on public funding, a situation fraught with its own uncertainties, to be

  6. Biohazard potential of putative Martian organisms during missions to Mars.

    PubMed

    Warmflash, David; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey; Fox, George E; McKay, David S

    2007-04-01

    Exploration Class missions to Mars will require precautions against potential contamination by any native microorganisms that may be incidentally pathogenic to humans. While the results of NASA's Viking biology experiments of the 1970s have been generally interpreted as inconclusive for surface organisms, and attributed to active but nonbiological chemistries, the possibility of native surface life has never been ruled out completely. It is possible that, prior to the first human landing on Mars, robotic craft and sample return missions will provide enough data to know with certainty whether future human landing sites harbor extant life forms. If native life were found to exist, it would be problematic to determine whether any of its species might present a medical danger to astronauts. Therefore, it will become necessary to assess empirically the risk that the planet contains pathogens based on terrestrial examples of pathogenicity and to take a reasonably cautious approach to biohazard protection. A survey of terrestrial pathogens was conducted with special emphasis on those whose evolution has not depended on the presence of animal hosts. The history of the development and implementation of Apollo anti-contamination protocol and recommendations of the National Research Council's Space Studies Board regarding Mars were reviewed. Organisms can emerge in Nature in the absence of indigenous animal hosts and both infectious and non-infectious human pathogens are therefore theoretically possible on Mars. Although remote, the prospect of Martian surface life, together with the existence of a diversity of routes by which pathogenicity has emerged on Earth, suggests that the probability of human pathogens on Mars, while low, is not zero. Still, since the discovery and study of Martian life can have long-term benefits for humanity, the risk that Martian life might include pathogens should not be an obstacle to human exploration. As a precaution, it is recommended that EVA

  7. A study of biohazard protection for farming modules of lunar base CELSS.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Midorikawa, Y; Shiba, M; Terai, M; Omasa, K; Nitta, K

    1992-01-01

    For the Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) of a manned lunar base which is planned to be built on the moon early in the 21st century, several proposed programs exist to grow vegetables inside a farming module. At the 40th IAF (Malaga, 1989) the author et al presented a proposal for supplying food and nutrients to a crew of eight members, a basic concept which is based on growing four kinds of vegetables. This paper describes measures for biohazard protection in farming modules. In this study, biohazard protection means prevention of the dispersion of plant diseases to other plant species or other portions of farming beds.

  8. Microwave as an emerging technology for the treatment of biohazardous waste: A mini-review.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Klaus

    2017-05-01

    Microwave is an emerging technology to treat biohazardous waste, including material from healthcare facilities. A screen of the peer-reviewed literature shows that only limited information may be found in this area of work and, furthermore, analysis of the references reveals that sometimes not all necessary aspects for the appropriate use of the technology are considered. Very often conventional microwave technology is applied for the inactivation of pathogens, which might make sense for certain applications but, on the other hand, may lead to the misbelief that microwave systems cannot be used for the inactivation of a solid "dry" waste. However, conventional microwave units have no means to control the inactivation process, and especially moisture content. But there are a few sophisticated microwave technologies with appropriate measurements allowing a validated inactivation of biohazardous materials. These technologies are an effective tool for inactivation and some of them are commercially available. It must also be considered that the waste should be preferably inactivated either directly at the place where it is generated or biohazardous waste should be transported only in closed systems. Moreover, microwave technology presents a possibility to save energy costs in comparison to the more widely used autoclaves. This mini-review will discuss important aspects for the use of microwave technology for the treatment of biohazardous waste.

  9. A study of biohazard protection for farming modules of lunar base CELSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, T.; Midorikawa, Y.; Shiba, M.; Terai, M.; Omasa, K.; Nitta, K.

    For the Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) of a manned lunar base which is planned to be built on the moon early in the 21st century, several proposed programs exist to grow vegetables inside a farming module. 1)2)3)4)5) At the 40th IAF (Malaga, 1989) the author et al presented a proposal for supplying food and nutrients to a crew of eight members, a basic concept which is based on growing four kinds of vegetables. 6) This paper describes measures for biohazard protection in farming modules. In this study, biohazard protection means prevention of the dispersion of plant diseases to other plant species or other portions of farming beds.

  10. [Protection of medical diagnostic laboratory workers against biohazards].

    PubMed

    Kozajda, Anna; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Medical diagnostic laboratories form a particular occupational environment, in which workers have contact with patients and potentially infectious biological materials thus it should be acknowledged that it poses a significantly increased risk to health of laboratory workers. The risk directly depends on the kind of microbes present in a biological material and natural resistance to infections of individual workers. Therefore, the adopted technical and organizational solutions, properly worked out and obeyed procedures assuring safety work with biological material and microbes and properly trained laboratory staff play an essential role in reducing the risk. The risk of contact with microbes among laboratory workers is higher in Poland than in a number of other countries because hermetic devices for diagnostic analyzes and safety blood sampling systems are not always in use. The most important methods of infectious diseases prevention among laboratory workers are to protect them against direct contact with biological material, to apply vaccinations and to implement proper post-exposure procedures. Appropriate qualifications and habits of workers are of relevance to prevent infections in laboratories. A difficult financial situation of health care in Poland and other economic reasons can significantly increase the risk of infections and endanger health and safety of laboratory workers. It is necessary to develop practical instructions aimed at improving occupational safety to protect this occupational group against harmful effects of biological agents.

  11. Assessing the Biohazard Potential of Putative Martian Organisms for Exploration Class Human Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warmflash, David; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Jones, Jeffrey; Fox, George E.; McKay, David S.

    2007-01-01

    Exploration Class missions to Mars will require precautions against potential contamination by any native microorganisms that may be incidentally pathogenic to humans. While the results of NASA's Viking biology experiments of 1976 have been generally interpreted as inconclusive for surface organisms, the possibility of native surface life has never been ruled out and more recent studies suggest that the case for biological interpretation of the Viking Labeled Release data may now be stronger than it was when the experiments were originally conducted. It is possible that, prior to the first human landing on Mars, robotic craft and sample return missions will provide enough data to know with certainty whether or not future human landing sites harbor extant life forms. However, if native life is confirmed, it will be problematic to determine whether any of its species may present a medical risk to astronauts. Therefore, it will become necessary to assess empirically the risk that the planet contains pathogens based on terrestrial examples of pathogenicity and to take a reasonably cautious approach to bio-hazard protection. A survey of terrestrial pathogens was conducted with special emphasis on those pathogens whose evolution has not depended on the presence of animal hosts. The history of the development and implementation of Apollo anticontamination protocol and recent recommendations of the NRC Space Studies Board regarding Mars were reviewed. Organisms can emerge in nature in the absence of indigenous animal hosts and both infectious and non-infectious human pathogens are theoretically possible on Mars. The prospect of Martian surface life, together with the existence of a diversity of routes by which pathogenicity has emerged on Earth, suggests that the possibility of human pathogens on Mars, while low, is not zero. Since the discovery and study of Martian life can have long-term benefits for humanity, the risk that Martian life might include pathogens should not

  12. The Heroes' Problems: Exploring the Potentials of Google Glass for Biohazard Handling Professionals

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Jack Shen-Kuen; Henry, Michael J.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Love, Oriana J.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2015-06-23

    In “white powder incidents” or other suspicious and risky situations relating to deadly diseases or chemicals (e.g., Ebola investigation), those who handle the potentially hazardous materials are the heroes who spearhead the first responder’s operations. Although well trained, these heroes need to manage complex problems and make life-or-death decisions while handling the unknown and dangerous. We are motivated to explore how Google Glass can facilitate those heroes’ missions. To this end, we conducted contextual inquiry on six biohazard-handling, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)-wearing professionals. With an inductive thematic analysis, we summarized the heroes’ workflow and four groups of “Heroes’ Problems”. A unique “A3 Model” (Awareness, Analysis, Action) was generated to encapsulate our qualitative findings and proposed Glass features. The findings serve as the groundwork for our future development.

  13. Defining and managing biohazardous waste in U.S. research-oriented universities: a survey of environmental health and safety professionals.

    PubMed

    Mecklem, Robin Lyn; Neumann, Catherine M

    2003-01-01

    A survey was conducted of environmental health and safety professionals responsible for biohazardous waste management at 122 institutions. The overall response rate was 82.6 percent (100 out of 122). Results indicate that university policies for biohazardous waste are heavily influenced by state environmental regulations, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration Bloodborne Pathogens Standard, and the biosafety guidelines of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health. With respect to definition of waste, 84 percent of the universities treat non-infectious human-cell-culture waste as biohazardous. Sharp items, including hypodermic needles, syringes with needles, and scalpel blades, are commonly treated (by 85 percent of universities) as biohazardous sharps regardless of contamination status. Importantly, while 90 percent of universities use autoclave sterilization for waste treatment, only 52 percent use a biological indicator to validate the process. On-site incineration is currently used by 42 percent of universities. Twenty-two of 42 incinerators are hospital/medical/infectious-waste incinerators, and 10 of these will continue to operate under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's revised incinerator regulations. Eighty-seven percent of the respondents indicated that some portion of their university's biohazardous waste is treated and disposed of through a licensed medical waste hauler (MWH). To ensure compliance with institutional policy, most universities segregate and package waste, train waste generators, and conduct inspections.

  14. Nanoparticles eyed as biohazard treatment.

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, M. D.; Chemical Engineering

    2003-11-10

    Nanoparticles may someday come to the rescue of people exposed to chemical, biological or radiological hazards. Argonne researchers are in the early testing stages of a system that would cleanse the blood of contaminants using tiny magnetic particles and a portable, external magnetic separator. Current methods of cleaning the blood of radioactive and other hazardous materials are mainly limited to dialysis and filtration techniques. Unfortunately, current medical procedures to detoxify human blood are restricted to only a few types of toxins, drastically limiting treatment options for exposed victims. Also, several important shortcomings exist with the currently available technology. Treatments can take several hours to complete, require the turnover and filtration of large volumes of blood, are rather inefficient at removing toxins and can be risky for the patient. For these reasons, current methods are mostly restricted to patients with kidney failure and certain types of drug overdoses. Alternative treatments exist, such antibodies and chelators, substances that combine with and neutralize toxins. These treatments can be used for specific kinds of toxins, but are not efficient. In addition, they can cause serious side effects, such as allergic reactions and organ failure. 'The best that doctors can do for most biohazard exposure is supportive treatment,' Kaminski said. 'This new system will be designed to directly remove the toxic agents from the bloodstream, quickly and efficiently.' The biohazard detoxification system will use biodegradable nanoparticles between 100 and 5,000 nanometers (one nanometer is one ten-millionth of a centimeter) in size, small enough to pass through tiny blood vessels and yet large enough to avoid being filtered from the bloodstream by the kidneys.

  15. Assessment of the Biohazards of the Blackfly Problem in Northeastern Panama, Including Possible Presence of Onchocerciasis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    A study to investigate a serious blackfly problem in eastern Panama was conducted during the period 1 April 1976 to 30 September 1976. Following is a...summary of the findings: (a) Intense blackfly activity in eastern Panama took place inside a belt in the watershed of the Bayano, Chucunaque and...Sabanas rivers in eastern Panama and in Darien province. (b) The only species of blackfly collected biting man in numbers was Simulium sanguineum. (c

  16. [Detection of biohazardous materials in water upon the characteristics of fluorescent sensor Frex].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Wang, Zhao; Cai, Qiang; Ou, Wen-Bin; Meng, Fan-Guo

    2014-06-01

    Luminescent bacteria have attracted more and more attention in recent years as an effective mean for biological toxicity of water environment monitoring. First of all, fluorescent protein Frex was correctly expressed in Escherichia coli, and then the effect of toxic substances on microbial metabolism in the water was monitored through the determination of the changes in the fluorescence intensity in bacteria caused by the change of NADH level in the bacteria. Then the effects of culture temperature, inducing time and the final concentration of inductor isopropyl beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) on the expression level and fluorescent activity of the fusion protein Frex were studied. The recombinant fluorescent bacteria was then applied in the initial detection of toxic substances in water environment. Four international standard substances of biological toxicity test including HgCl2, 3,5-dichlorophenol, potassium dichromate, and zinc sulfate heptahydrate were chosen to conduct experimental assay. The results suggested that all of these substances can cause a rapid decrease in the fluorescence of the bacteria. This test method has advantages of rapid reaction and high sensitivity. Meanwhile, the optimization of the conditions for the biological toxicity test lays foundation for subsequent application, and expands the application scope of luminescent bacteria in other aspects.

  17. [Differences of occupational biohazard protection risk in relation to company size].

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Elena, Raúl; Campo-Barrio, Alberto; Morchón, Rodrigo; Martínez-Merino, Víctor

    2015-04-01

    Objective To obtain information on the level of exposure and protection of workers to biological agents working in the health sector, farms, meat industry, laboratories, sewage treatment plants, food industry and veterinary centers, valuing their differences in relation to the size of the company. Method A study in which 590 workers belonging to 59 Spanish companies. An initial questionnaire with 3 questions was sent to companies and answered by those responsible for prevention, and another questionnaire with 34 questions to be answered by exposed workers was also sent. Validation was performed by analysis of overall alpha of the second questionnaire to assess the internal consistency and reliability of Cronbach of the questionnaires. Results The final sample included 518 workers in 51 companies in which there was exposure to biological agents. The questionnaire obtained a Cronbach's alpha greater than 0.7. Significant differences in biological risk management work depending on the size of the company (p-value <0.05) were found. Conclusions Our results provide an adequate internal consistency of the questionnaire. Furthermore occupational exposure to biological agents is a factor to be taken into account since it is not fully developed. This is because neither businesses nor prevention professionals have tools available that allow easy implementation, and, therefore, management of overall biological hazards is inadequate.

  18. Medical and biohazardous waste generator`s guide: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Guide describes the procedures required to comply with all federal and state laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) policy applicable to medical and biohazardous waste. The members of the LBL Biological Safety Subcommittee participated in writing these policies and procedures. The procedures and policies in this Guide apply to LBL personnel who work with infectious agents or potentially infectious agents, publicly perceived infectious items or materials (e.g., medical gloves, culture dishes), and sharps (e.g., needles, syringes, razor blades). If medical or biohazardous waste is contaminated or mixed with a hazardous chemical or material, with a radioactive material, or with both, the waste will be handled in accordance with the applicable federal and State of California laws and regulations for hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste.

  19. Advantages of combined touch screen technology and text hyperlink for the pathology grossing manual: a simple approach to access instructive information in biohazardous environments.

    PubMed

    Qu, Zhenhong; Ghorbani, Rhonda P; Li, Hongyan; Hunter, Robert L; Hannah, Christina D

    2007-03-01

    Gross examination, encompassing description, dissection, and sampling, is a complex task and an essential component of surgical pathology. Because of the complexity of the task, standardized protocols to guide the gross examination often become a bulky manual that is difficult to use. This problem is further compounded by the high specimen volume and biohazardous nature of the task. As a result, such a manual is often underused, leading to errors that are potentially harmful and time consuming to correct-a common chronic problem affecting many pathology laboratories. To combat this problem, we have developed a simple method that incorporates complex text and graphic information of a typical procedure manual and yet allows easy access to any intended instructive information in the manual. The method uses the Object-Linking-and-Embedding function of Microsoft Word (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) to establish hyperlinks among different contents, and then it uses the touch screen technology to facilitate navigation through the manual on a computer screen installed at the cutting bench with no need for a physical keyboard or a mouse. It takes less than 4 seconds to reach any intended information in the manual by 3 to 4 touches on the screen. A 3-year follow-up study shows that this method has increased use of the manual and has improved the quality of gross examination. The method is simple and can be easily tailored to different formats of instructive information, allowing flexible organization, easy access, and quick navigation. Increased compliance to instructive information reduces errors at the grossing bench and improves work efficiency.

  20. Biohazards Assessment in Large-Scale Zonal Centrifugation

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, C. L.; Lemp, J. F.; Barbeito, M. S.

    1975-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the biohazards associated with use of the large-scale zonal centrifuge for purification of moderate risk oncogenic viruses. To safely and conveniently assess the hazard, coliphage T3 was substituted for the virus in a typical processing procedure performed in a National Cancer Institute contract laboratory. Risk of personnel exposure was found to be minimal during optimal operation but definite potential for virus release from a number of centrifuge components during mechanical malfunction was shown by assay of surface, liquid, and air samples collected during the processing. High concentration of phage was detected in the turbine air exhaust and the seal coolant system when faulty seals were employed. The simulant virus was also found on both centrifuge chamber interior and rotor surfaces. Images PMID:1124921

  1. Biohazards assessment in large-scale zonal centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, C L; Lemp, J F; Barbeito, M S

    1975-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine the biohazards associated with use of the large-scale zonal centrifuge for purification of moderate risk oncogenic viruses. To safely and conveniently assess the hazard, coliphage T3 was substituted for the virus in a typical processing procedure performed in a National Cancer Institute contract laboratory. Risk of personnel exposure was found to be minimal during optimal operation but definite potential for virus release from a number of centrifuge components during mechanical malfunction was shown by assay of surface, liquid, and air samples collected during the processing. High concentration of phage was detected in the turbine air exhaust and the seal coolant system when faulty seals were employed. The simulant virus was also found on both the centrifuge chamber interior and rotor surfaces.

  2. Facility Safety Plan B360 Complex Biohazardous Operations CMLS-412r0

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, G

    2007-01-08

    This Addendum to the Facility Safety Plan (FSP) 360 Complex describes the safety requirements for the safe conduct of all biohazardous research operations in all buildings within the 360 complex program areas. These requirements include all the responsibilities and authorities of building personnel, operational hazards, and environmental concerns and their controls. In addition, this Addendum prescribes facility-specific training requirements and emergency controls, as well as maintenance and quality assurance requirements for ES&H-related building systems.

  3. A Draft Protocol for Detecting Possible Biohazards in Martian Samples Returned to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viso, M.; DeVincenzi, D. L.; Race, M. S.; Schad, P. J.; Stabekis, P. D.; Acevedo, S. E.; Rummel, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    In preparation for missions to Mars that will involve the return of samples, it is necessary to prepare for the safe receiving, handling, testing, distributing, and archiving of martian materials here on Earth. Previous groups and committees have studied selected aspects of sample return activities, but a specific protocol for handling and testing of returned -=1 samples from Mars remained to be developed. To refine the requirements for Mars sample hazard testing and to develop criteria for the subsequent release of sample materials from precautionary containment, NASA Planetary Protection Officer, working in collaboration with CNES, convened a series of workshops to produce a Protocol by which returned martian sample materials could be assessed for biological hazards and examined for evidence of life (extant or extinct), while safeguarding the samples from possible terrestrial contamination. The Draft Protocol was then reviewed by an Oversight and Review Committee formed specifically for that purpose and composed of senior scientists. In order to preserve the scientific value of returned martian samples under safe conditions, while avoiding false indications of life within the samples, the Sample Receiving Facility (SRF) is required to allow handling and processing of the Mars samples to prevent their terrestrial contamination while maintaining strict biological containment. It is anticipated that samples will be able to be shipped among appropriate containment facilities wherever necessary, under procedures developed in cooperation with international appropriate institutions. The SRF will need to provide different types of laboratory environments for carrying out, beyond sample description and curation, the various aspects of the protocol: Physical/Chemical analysis, Life Detection testing, and Biohazard testing. The main principle of these tests will be described and the criteria for release will be discussed, as well as the requirements for the SRF and its

  4. A draft protocol for detecting possible biohazards in martian samples returned to Earth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viso, M.; Devincenzi, D.; Race, M.; Schad, P.; Stabekis, P.; Acevedo, S.; Rummel, J.

    In preparation for missions to Mars that will involve the return of samples, it is necessary to prepare for the safe receiving, handling, testing, distributing, and archiving of martian materials here on Earth. Previous groups and committees have studied selected aspects of sample return activities, b t a specific protocol foru handling and testing of returned samples from Mars remained to be developed. To refine the requirements for Mars sample hazard testing and to develop criteria for the subsequent release of sample materials from precautionary containment, NASA Planetary Protection Officer, working in collaboration with CNES, convened a series of workshops to produce a Protocol by which returned martian sample materials could be assessed for biological hazards and examined for evidence of life (extant or extinct), while safeguarding the samples from possible terrestrial contamination. The Draft Protocol was then reviewed by an Oversight and Review Committee formed specifically for that purpose and composed of senior scientists. In order to preserve the scientific value of returned martian samples under safe conditions, while avoiding false indications of life within the samples, the Sample Receiving Facility (SRF) is required to allow handling and processing of the Mars samples to prevent their terrestrial contamination while maintaining strict biological containment. It is anticipated that samples will be able to be shipped among appropriate containment facilities wherever necessary, under procedures developed in cooperation with international appropriate institutions. The SRF will need to provide different types of laboratory environments for carrying out, beyond sample description and curation, the various aspects of the protocol: Physical/Chemical analysis, Life Detection testing, and Biohazard testing. The main principle of these tests will be described and the criteria for release will be discussed, as well as the requirements for the SRF and its

  5. A Draft Test Protocol for Detecting Possible Biohazards in Martian Samples Returned to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D. (Editor); Race, Margaret S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L.; Schad, P. Jackson; Stabekis, Pericles D.; Viso, Michel; Acevedo, Sara E.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the first complete draft of a protocol for detecting possible biohazards in Mars samples returned to Earth: it is the final product of the Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series. convened in 2000-2001 by NASA's Planetary Protection Officer. The goal of the five-workshop Series vas to develop a comprehensive protocol by which returned martian sample materials could be assessed k r the presence of any biological hazard(s) while safeguarding the purity of the samples from possible terrestrial contamination.

  6. A Draft Test Protocol for Detecting Possible Biohazards in Martian Samples Returned to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D.; Race, Margaret S.; DeVinenzi, Donald L.; Schad, P. Jackson; Stabekis, Pericles D.; Viso, Michel; Acevedo, Sara E.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the first complete draft of a protocol for detecting possible biohazards in Mars samples returned to Earth; it is the final product of the Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series, convened in 2000-2001 by NASA's Planetary Protection Officer. The goal of the five-workshop Series vas to develop a comprehensive protocol by which returned martian sample materials could be assessed for the presence of any biological hazard(s) while safeguarding the purity of the samples from possible terrestrial contamination The reference numbers for the proceedings from the five individual Workshops.

  7. A Draft Test Protocol for Detecting Possible Biohazards in Martian Samples Returned to Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rummel, John D. (Editor); Race, Margaret S.; DeVincenzi, Donald L.; Schad, P. Jackson; Stabekis, Pericles D.; Viso, Michel; Acevedo, Sara E.

    2002-01-01

    This document presents the first complete draft of a protocol for detecting possible biohazards in Mars samples returned to Earth: it is the final product of the Mars Sample Handling Protocol Workshop Series. convened in 2000-2001 by NASA's Planetary Protection Officer. The goal of the five-workshop Series vas to develop a comprehensive protocol by which returned martian sample materials could be assessed k r the presence of any biological hazard(s) while safeguarding the purity of the samples from possible terrestrial contamination.

  8. Energy-related pollutants in the environment: Use of short-term tests for mutagenicity in the isolation and identification of biohazards

    PubMed Central

    Epler, J. L.; Larimer, F. W.; Rao, T. K.; Nix, C. E.; Ho, T.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to gather information on the potential genetic hazards of existing or proposed energy-generating or -conversion systems, we have begun a correlated analytical and genetic analysis of a number of technologies. The work is divided into two phases: one deals with known compounds expected to occur in the environment through energy production, conversion, or use; the other deals with actual samples from existing or experimental processes. To approach the problems of coping with and testing large numbers of compounds, we set up a form of the “tier system.” Operating units utilizing Salmonella, Escherichia coli, yeast, human leukocytes, mammalian cells, and Drosophila have been initiated. Various liquid-liquid extraction methods and column chromatographic separations have been applied to crude products and effluents from oil-shale, coal-liquefaction, and coal-gasification processes. Mutagenicity of the various fractions is assayed by means of reversion of histidine-requiring auxotrophs of Salmonella typhimurium; comparative studies are carried out with the other genetic systems. In order to incorporate metabolic activation of these fractions and compounds, rat liver homogenates (S-9) are used in the various assays. Results implicate chemicals occurring in the basic (ether-soluble) and the neutral fractions as potential genetic hazards. Chemical constituents of these fractions (identified or predicted) were tested individually for their mutagenic activity. PMID:367762

  9. Biohazards for human activities on the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kminek, G.; Schmitt, D.

    system malfunction. In addition, contingency operations (decontamination of the whole habitat) can be carried out on the Moon under realistic conditions, but again, without the real danger of introducing any biohazard. Thus, using the Moon as test-bed for developing technologies and procedures for crew-safety and planetary protection has to be seriously considered.

  10. Vermistabilization of sewage sludge (biosolids) by earthworms: converting a potential biohazard destined for landfill disposal into a pathogen-free, nutritive and safe biofertilizer for farms.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajiv K; Herat, Sunil; Bharambe, Gokul; Brahambhatt, Ashish

    2010-10-01

    Earthworms feed readily upon sludge components, rapidly converting them into vermicompost, reduce the pathogens to safe levels and ingest the heavy metals. Volume is significantly reduced from 1 m³ of wet sludge (80% moisture) to 0.5 m³ of vermicompost (30% moisture). Earthworms have real potential both to increase the rate of aerobic decomposition and composting of organic matter and also to stabilize the organic residues in the sludge--removing the harmful pathogens (by devouring them and also by discharge of antibacterial coelomic fluid) and heavy metals (by bio-accumulation). They also mineralize the essential nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from the sludge. It may not be possible to remove toxic substances completely, but at least change the 'chemical make-up' of the sludge to make it harmless to the soil and enable its use as a nutritive organic fertilizer. This method has been found to comply with grade A standards for sludge stabilization.

  11. Disposable Membrane Sensors for Biohazardous Substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, Alexander G.

    The concept of bilayer lipid membrane sensing is elaborated. Disposable bilayer lipid membrane sensors permit both stochastic and deterministic sensing regimes. Technology for membrane sensor preparation is described in details. Stochastic membrane sensing using ion channels is described. Detection of cyano-bacterial toxins in waters by means of a stochastic sensing (ion channel induction) reveals a signature for a particular toxin type. This signature is especially well revealed by using the method of current-voltage surfaces, which establishes a bridge between stochastic and deterministic sensing by applying a time-averaging procedure. Flexoelectricity of membranes provides another way of deterministic sensing, of a stimulus-response type. The flexoelectric response is modulated by adsorption of the analyte over the membrane surface. Detection of environmental pollution of waters by heavy metal ions (Cd++ and Hg++) is thereby rendered possible. This approach is confronted with a stochastic sensing of the same metal ions by alteration of the channel open/closed probability and average channel current of two familiar channels, gramicidin and alamethicin.

  12. Multiphoton tomography to detect chemo- and biohazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    In vivo high-resolution multiphoton/CARS tomography provides optical biopsies with 300 nm lateral resolution with chemical fingerprints. Thousands of volunteers and patients have been investigated for early cancer diagnosis, evaluation of anti-ageing cosmetic products, and changes of cellular metabolism by UV exposure and decreased oxygen supply. The skin as the outermost and largest organ is also the major target of CB agents. Current UV-based sensors are useful for bio-aerosol sensing but not for evaluating exposed in vivo skin. Here we evaluate the use of 4D multiphoton/CARS tomographs based on near infrared femtosecond laser radiation, time-correlated single photon counting (FLIM) and white light generation by photonic crystal fibers to detect bio- and chemohazards in human in vivo skin using twophoton fluorescence, SHG, and Raman signals.

  13. Biohazard Detoxification Method Utilizing Magnetic Particles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    polar and nonpolar carrier liquids. 3.1.2. Supplement II: Synthesis and Characterization of Highly-Magnetic Biodegradable Poly(D,L lactide- co-glycolide...be well dispersed both in polar and nonpolar carrier liquids. Keywords: Magnetic gel; preparation; magnetite; superparamagnetism; FT-IR spectroscopy...temperature and could be well dispersed directly into nonpolar or weakly polar hydrocarbon solvents such as hexane or ethyl acetate. The hydrophobic

  14. Controlling ambient biohazards; what you can't see can hurt.

    PubMed

    1994-03-01

    The effective control of ambient biohazards is clearly a team effort. This team includes the EM, the risk manager, the infection control practitioner, purchasing, facilities management, and others. Control measures relate to many different risk factors, such as the environment at the healthcare facility, the healthcare personnel, the procedure, the use of certain devices, or the actual infection host (patient). Usually, only environment-related risk factors are of concern to the EM. For fungal infections, such as Aspergillus, CDC recommends that control of environmental risk factors requires routine maintenance of hospital air-handling systems and the rooms of immunosuppressed patients, as well as extra protection designs when there is new construction. This can be very costly. For Legionella infections, CDC recommends proper design, placement, and maintenance of cooling towers; routine maintenance of water-supply systems; and when contaminated water supplies are identified, appropriate decontamination. CHEM believes that the CDC recommendations are a good way to control these ambient biohazards, but is concerned about some of the costs to meet all the Aspergillus recommendations. Hospitals must weigh costs before proceeding, especially with Category II recommendations that are only "suggested for ... many hospitals." For example, at facilities with no cases of infection, if following the CDC recommendations means that filters need to be changed and ducts cleaned more frequently than usual, the costs may not be worth it. On the other hand, if there have been a series of confirmed cases of nosocomial Aspergillus pneumonia, the cost of HVAC retrofitting or using a portable HEPA filtration systems may be worth it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. A two-hypothesis approach to establishing a life detection/biohazard protocol for planetary samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conley, Catharine; Steele, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The COSPAR policy on performing a biohazard assessment on samples brought from Mars to Earth is framed in the context of a concern for false-positive results. However, as noted during the 2012 Workshop for Life Detection in Samples from Mars (ref. Kminek et al., 2014), a more significant concern for planetary samples brought to Earth is false-negative results, because an undetected biohazard could increase risk to the Earth. This is the reason that stringent contamination control must be a high priority for all Category V Restricted Earth Return missions. A useful conceptual framework for addressing these concerns involves two complementary 'null' hypotheses: testing both of them, together, would allow statistical and community confidence to be developed regarding one or the other conclusion. As noted above, false negatives are of primary concern for safety of the Earth, so the 'Earth Safety null hypothesis' -- that must be disproved to assure low risk to the Earth from samples introduced by Category V Restricted Earth Return missions -- is 'There is native life in these samples.' False positives are of primary concern for Astrobiology, so the 'Astrobiology null hypothesis' -- that must be disproved in order to demonstrate the existence of extraterrestrial life is 'There is no life in these samples.' The presence of Earth contamination would render both of these hypotheses more difficult to disprove. Both these hypotheses can be tested following a strict science protocol; analyse, interprete, test the hypotheses and repeat. The science measurements undertaken are then done in an iterative fashion that responds to discovery with both hypotheses testable from interpretation of the scientific data. This is a robust, community involved activity that ensures maximum science return with minimal sample use.

  16. Mobile/Modular BSL-4 Facilities for Meeting Restricted Earth Return Containment Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, M. J.; McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Zeigler, R. A.; Pace, L. F.

    2017-01-01

    NASA robotic sample return missions designated Category V Restricted Earth Return by the NASA Planetary Protection Office require sample containment and biohazard testing in a receiving laboratory as directed by NASA Procedural Requirement (NPR) 8020.12D - ensuring the preservation and protection of Earth and the sample. Currently, NPR 8020.12D classifies Restricted Earth Return for robotic sample return missions from Mars, Europa, and Enceladus with the caveat that future proposed mission locations could be added or restrictions lifted on a case by case basis as scientific knowledge and understanding of biohazards progresses. Since the 1960s, sample containment from an unknown extraterrestrial biohazard have been related to the highest containment standards and protocols known to modern science. Today, Biosafety Level (BSL) 4 standards and protocols are used to study the most dangerous high-risk diseases and unknown biological agents on Earth. Over 30 BSL-4 facilities have been constructed worldwide with 12 residing in the United States; of theses, 8 are operational. In the last two decades, these brick and mortar facilities have cost in the hundreds of millions of dollars dependent on the facility requirements and size. Previous mission concept studies for constructing a NASA sample receiving facility with an integrated BSL-4 quarantine and biohazard testing facility have also been estimated in the hundreds of millions of dollars. As an alternative option, we have recently conducted an initial trade study for constructing a mobile and/or modular sample containment laboratory that would meet all BSL-4 and planetary protection standards and protocols at a faction of the cost. Mobile and modular BSL-2 and 3 facilities have been successfully constructed and deployed world-wide for government testing of pathogens and pharmaceutical production. Our study showed that a modular BSL-4 construction could result in approximately 90% cost reduction when compared to

  17. Containment canister for capturing hazardous waste debris during piping modifications

    DOEpatents

    Dozier, Stanley B.

    2001-07-24

    The present invention relates to a capture and containment canister which reduces the risk of radiation and other biohazard exposure to workers, the need for a costly containment hut and the need for the extra manpower associated with the hut. The present invention includes the design of a canister having a specially designed magnetic ring that attracts and holds the top of the canister in place during modifications to gloveboxes and other types of radiological and biochemical hoods. The present invention also provides an improved hole saw that eliminates the need for a pilot bit.

  18. Biohazard hood to prevent infection during microbiological procedures.

    PubMed

    Coriell, L L; McGarrity, G J

    1968-12-01

    A microbiological hood was designed to reduce the danger of airborne infection of laboratory workers. The hood uses absolute filters to deliver sterile air in a laminar flow to the work area. An air curtain across the hood opening permits easy access but separates the worker from aerosols produced in the hood, and protects material inside the hood from contamination by room air. Tests with bacterial and viral aerosols showed that the air curtain is at least 99.96% effective in preventing airborne particles from entering the work area.

  19. Using an international workshop to develop functional requirements and a Biohazard Assessment Protocol (BAP) with which to develop a preferred concept for a Mars Sample Return (MSR) Sample Receiving Facility (SRF).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrublevskis, John; Guest, Michael; Bennett, Allan; Walker, James; Smith, Caroline; Baker, Robert; Grant, Colin

    COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy places very stringent requirements on Sample Return missions and `breaking the chain of contact' between Earth and the celestial body from which the sample is returned. This must be continued after return to Earth and -at the same time-any contamination or damage to the sample must be avoided until such time as it can be confirmed as not presenting a biohazard and available for subsequent curation and scientific investigation. Such a facility has never before been built and an investigation has been made to determine the requirements for a Mars Sample Return (MSR) Sample Receiving Facility (SRF) from first principles based on a Biohazard Assessment Protocol (BAP) rather than the modification of an existing BSL-4 facility. This approach fully takes in to account cleanliness requirements to avoid sample contamination. This paper will present the results from the first part of an ESA funded study, which derived the top level functional requirements by reviewing published scientific literature from all expert domains i.e.; biocontainment, science curation, space technology, infrastructure and equipment. These functional requirements were then examined by invited attendees from all expert domains in a 2 day international workshop. From the results of the international workshop an existing Biohazard Assessment Protocol (BAP) was modified and a trade off was conducted to derive a preferred concept which allowed early indications of future technological direction of study. The results of the MSR SRF study by SEA (as well as the results of another parallel study) will be taken into account by ESA to define the requirements for a follow-on procurement action in the future. There will be a review of the results from both studies and an agreement on the requirements based on these parallel studies. Therefore, the views expressed herein should not be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Space Agency.

  20. Association of container reconditioners

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, P.W. )

    1993-03-01

    By providing high-quality drums for the storage and transport of industrial materials, container reconditioners not only help protect the environment but also help create jobs. Members of the Association of Container Reconditioners (ACR; Landover, MD), have shown an exemplary commitment to recycling. Established in 1941 as the National Barrel Drum Association (NABADA), ACR represents more than 90% of the North American reconditioning industry and many of the largest reconditioners worldwide. The association in 1992 changed its name to reflect industry's trend to recondition for reuse all types of non-bulk containers. ACR is comprised of about 100 companies, which collectively operate thousands of trucks and trailers. Every day, they transport tens of thousands of empty containers from emptying locations to reconditioning facilities strategically located throughout the US. ACR promotes the reuse of industrial containers. Thus, the reconditioning industry is an important environmental partner of many manufacturing industries, including chemicals, paints and coatings, and adhesives. Through safe and environmentally secure container management services, ACR members help their customers comply with waste management and recycling regulations, as well as with industry codes of practice.

  1. Prenatal Experiences of Containment in the Light of Bion's Model of Container/Contained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiello, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of possible proto-experiences of the prenatal child in the context of Bion's model of container/contained. The physical configuration of the embryo/foetus contained in the maternal uterus represents the starting point for an enquiry into the unborn child's possible experiences of its state of being contained in a…

  2. Prenatal Experiences of Containment in the Light of Bion's Model of Container/Contained

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiello, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the idea of possible proto-experiences of the prenatal child in the context of Bion's model of container/contained. The physical configuration of the embryo/foetus contained in the maternal uterus represents the starting point for an enquiry into the unborn child's possible experiences of its state of being contained in a…

  3. A Snapshot of the EPA Pesticide Container and Containment Rule

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This brochure provides an overview of the EPA pesticide container and containment rule for registrants, retailers, distributors, commercial applicators, custom blenders and pesticide users It describes who must comply and provides requirement information.

  4. METHOD OF TESTING HERMETIC CONTAINERS

    DOEpatents

    Borst, L.B.

    1959-02-17

    A method is presented for testing hermetic containers enclosing a material capable of chemically combining with a fluid at elevated temperatures. In accordance with the invention, the container to be tested is weighed together with the material therein. The container and its contents are then immersed in the fluid and heated to a temperature sufficiently high to cause a reaction to take place between the contents and the fluid and maintained under such conditions for a definite period of time. The container and its contents are then cooled and re-weighed. The rate of change in weight is determined and utilized as an index to determine the possibility of container failure.

  5. Containment of subsurface contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Corey, J.C.

    1994-09-06

    A barrier is disclosed for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates. 5 figs.

  6. Containment of subsurface contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Corey, John C.

    1994-01-01

    A barrier for reducing the spread of a plume of subsurface contaminants. The apparatus includes a well system for injecting a fluid, such as air, just outside and below the periphery of the plume. The fluid is injected at a pressure sufficient to lower the hydraulic conductivity of the soil from the point of injection to the surface thus establishing a curtain-like barrier to groundwater movement. The barrier is established upgradient of the plume to divert groundwater away, or preferably completely around the plume to reduce the flow of groundwater into or out of the plume. The barrier enables the remediation of the confined contamination and then, when the injection of the fluid is halted, the barrier quickly dissipates.

  7. Containment of composite fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppa, A. P.; Stotler, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    The development of containment concepts for use with large composite fan blades, taking into account the frangible nature of composite blades is considered. Aspects of the development program include; (1) an analysis to predict the interaction between a failed fan blade and the blade containment structure; (2) scaling factors to allow impact testing using subscale containment rings and simulated blades; (3) the design and fabrication of containment systems for further evaluation in a rotating rig test facility; (4) evaluate the test data against the analytically predicted results; and (5) determine overall systems weights and design characteristics of a composite fan stage installation and compare to the requirements of an equivalent titanium fan blade system. Progress in the blade impact penetration tests and the design and fabrication of blade containment systems is reported.

  8. Falling trees, fractals, and sophistry: some philosophical "biohazards" en route to reconciling biomedicine and homeopathy.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Lionel R

    2009-11-01

    Reconciling biomedical science and homeopathy might usefully begin by examining their various observational stances. This depends significantly on preconceptions about the nature of reality (e.g., whether it exists externally, independent of observers, or whether it is to some extent correlated nondeterministically with observation). Based on known observables, a rudimentary fractal model of the universe is proposed consisting of a series of self-similar integrated levels of reality, or "wholes" contained one within another like a set of Russian dolls. This model suggests possible contextualization of homeopathy and biomedicine's observational stances. The fractal model bears compelling similarities to the ancient Hermetic tradition encapsulated in the phrase, "As above; so below." In the context of this model, homeopathy's observational stance includes a multidimensional range of symptoms from across several "levels of wholeness." In contrast, biomedicine's stance corresponds to exclusive observation of separate symptoms, each originating from one physical level of reality. Pragmatic reconciliation of these two viewpoints is possible if it is realized that they are not contradictory but complementary; that each has its place in the therapeutic scheme of things, and that it should be possible to move freely between each type of observational stance as the patient's circumstances dictate.

  9. Containment of composite fan blades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stotler, C. L.; Coppa, A. P.

    1979-01-01

    A lightweight containment was developed for turbofan engine fan blades. Subscale ballistic-type tests were first run on a number of concepts. The most promising configuration was selected and further evaluated by larger scale tests in a rotating test rig. Weight savings made possible by the use of this new containment system were determined and extrapolated to a CF6-size engine. An analytical technique was also developed to predict the released blades motion when involved in the blade/casing interaction process. Initial checkout of this procedure was accomplished using several of the tests run during the program.

  10. The pitfalls of container production

    Treesearch

    Wayne Bell

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes ten of the biggest “pitfalls” or challenges I have encountered in my experience growing southern pine seedlings in containers over the past 30 years. Learning from challenges is an important part of growing successful nursery operations.

  11. Characterization of aerosols containing microcystin.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Zhou, Yue; Irvin, C Mitch; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C

    2007-10-12

    Toxic blooms of cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in both freshwater and brackish water sources throughout the world. One class of cyanobacterial toxins, called microcystins, is cyclic peptides. In addition to ingestion and dermal, inhalation is a likely route of human exposure. A significant increase in reporting of minor symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms was associated with exposure to higher levels of cyanobacteria during recreational activities. Algae cells, bacteria, and waterborne toxins can be aerosolized by a bubble-bursting process with a wind-driven white-capped wave mechanism. The purposes of this study were to: evaluate sampling and analysis techniques for microcystin aerosol, produce aerosol droplets containing microcystin in the laboratory, and deploy the sampling instruments in field studies. A high-volume impactor and an IOM filter sampler were tried first in the laboratory to collect droplets containing microcystins. Samples were extracted and analyzed for microcystin using an ELISA method. The laboratory study showed that cyanotoxins in water could be transferred to air via a bubble-bursting process. The droplets containing microcystins showed a bimodal size distribution with the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 1.4 and 27.8 mum. The sampling and analysis methods were successfully used in a pilot field study to measure microcystin aerosol in situ.

  12. Characterization of Aerosols Containing Microcystin

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yung Sung; Zhou, Yue; Irvin, C. Mitch; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Backer, Lorraine C.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic blooms of cyanobacteria are ubiquitous in both freshwater and brackish water sources throughout the world. One class of cyanobacterial toxins, called microcystins, is cyclic peptides. In addition to ingestion and dermal, inhalation is a likely route of human exposure. A significant increase in reporting of minor symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms was associated with exposure to higher levels of cyanobacteria during recreational activities. Algae cells, bacteria, and waterborne toxins can be aerosolized by a bubble-bursting process with a wind-driven white-capped wave mechanism. The purposes of this study were to: evaluate sampling and analysis techniques for microcystin aerosol, produce aerosol droplets containing microcystin in the laboratory, and deploy the sampling instruments in field studies. A high-volume impactor and an IOM filter sampler were tried first in the laboratory to collect droplets containing microcystins. Samples were extracted and analyzed for microcystin using an ELISA method. The laboratory study showed that cyanotoxins in water could be transferred to air via a bubble-bursting process. The droplets containing microcystins showed a bimodal size distribution with the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 1.4 and 27.8 μm. The sampling and analysis methods were successfully used in a pilot field study to measure microcystin aerosol in situ. PMID:18463733

  13. Treatments of asbestos containing wastes.

    PubMed

    Spasiano, D; Pirozzi, F

    2017-12-15

    Since the second half of the twentieth century, many studies have indicated inhalation of asbestos fibers as the main cause of deadly diseases including fibrosis and cancer. Consequently, since the beginning of the 80s, many countries started banning production and use of asbestos containing products (ACP), although still present in private and public buildings. Due to some extraordinary catastrophic events and/or the aging of these products, people's health and environmental risk associated with the inhalation of asbestos fibers keeps being high even in those countries where it was banned. For these reasons, many communities are developing plans for an environmental and sanitary safe asbestos removal and management. Asbestos containing wastes (ACW) are usually disposed in controlled landfills, but this practice does not definitively eliminate the problems related with asbestos fiber release and conflicts with the ideas of sustainable land use, recycling, and closing material cycles. Consequently, many scientific papers and patents proposed physical, chemical, and biological treatments aimed to the detoxification of ACW (or the reduction of their health effects) and looking for the adoption of technologies, which allow the reuse of the end-products. By including recent relevant bibliography, this report summarizes the status of the most important and innovative treatments of ACW, providing main operating parameters, advantages, and disadvantages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Treatment of mercury containing waste

    DOEpatents

    Kalb, Paul D.; Melamed, Dan; Patel, Bhavesh R; Fuhrmann, Mark

    2002-01-01

    A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

  15. The odorant-binding protein from Canis familiaris: purification, characterization and new perspectives in biohazard assessment.

    PubMed

    D'Auria, Sabato; Staiano, Maria; Varriale, Antonio; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Rossi, Mosè; Parracino, Antonietta; Campopiano, Stefania; Cennamo, Nunzio; Zeni, Luigi

    2006-01-01

    In this report we show the purification to homogeneity and a partial characterization of a new odorant-binding protein from Canis familiar (CfOBP) nasal mucosa. In addition, we report preliminary data on the utilization of CfOBP as a probe for the development of a refractive index-based biosensor.

  16. Boundary control of container cranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hahn; Hong, Keum-Shik

    2005-12-01

    The control objectives in this paper are to move the gantry of a container crane to its target position and to suppress the transverse vibration of the payload. The crane system is modeled as an axially moving nonlinear string, in which control inputs are applied at both ends, through the gantry and the payload. The dynamics of the moving string are derived using Hamilton's principle. The Lyapunov function method is used in deriving a boundary control law, in which the Lyapunov function candidate is introduced from the total mechanical energy of the system. The performance of the proposed control law is compared with other two control algorithms available in the literature. Experimental results are given.

  17. Physiological and biochemical defense reactions of Vicia faba L.-Rhizobium symbiosis face to chronic exposure to cyanobacterial bloom extract containing microcystins.

    PubMed

    Lahrouni, Majida; Oufdou, Khalid; El Khalloufi, Fatima; Baz, Mohamed; Lafuente, Alejandro; Dary, Mohammed; Pajuelo, Eloisa; Oudra, Brahim

    2013-08-01

    The presence of cyanotoxins, mainly microcystins (MCs), in surface freshwater represents a serious health risk to aquatic organisms living in the water body, as well as terrestrial animals and plants that are in contact with contaminated water. Consequently, the use of MCs contaminated water for irrigation represents a hazard for cultivated plants and could induce severe economical losses due to crops' yield reduction. The experimental approach undertaken in this work was exposing Vicia faba seedlings (inoculated with a Rhizobium strain resistant to MCs), to water supplemented with cyanobacterial crude extract containing total microcystins at a concentration of 50 and 100 μg/L (environmental relevant concentrations of MCs dissolved in the raw irrigation water from Lalla Takerkoust Lake-Marrakesh region). After chronic MCs exposure (2 months), biological and physiological parameters (plant growth, nitrogen uptake, mineral assimilation, and oxidative defense mechanisms) were evaluated. The results obtained showed evidence that chronic exposure to cyanobacterial bloom extract containing MCs strongly affected the physiological and biological plants activities; reduction of dry matter, photosynthetic activity, nodule number, and nitrogen assimilation. At the same time, an increase of oxidative stress was observed, as deduced from a significant increase of the activities of peroxidase, catalase, polyphenoloxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia lyase in leaves, roots, and nodules of faba bean plants exposed to cyanotoxins, especially at 100 μg/L of MCs. This experimentation constitutes a simulation of the situation related to cyanotoxins chronic exposure of seedlings-plants via the contaminated irrigation water. For this reason, once should take into consideration the possibility of contamination of agricultural crops and the quality of irrigation water should be by the way monitored for cyanotoxins biohazard.

  18. Repair and cell cycle response in cells exposed to environmental biohazards. Progress report, June 1, 1980-May 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Billen, D.; Hadden, C.T.

    1981-01-01

    Research progress for the period June 1, 1980 through May 31, 1981 is reported. Topics include: (1) repair of damage by psoralen plus near-uv light; (2) in vitro repair of transforming DNA; (3) photobiology of halogenated DNA; and (4) DNA repair in toluene-treated Escherichia coli containing BU-DNA. (ACR)

  19. IP-1 Certification of Cargo Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Hagler, Lisle

    2010-10-05

    The purpose and scope of this engineering note is to demonstrate that the structural design of the cargo container complies with the IP-1 container requirements of 49 CFR 173.410 as required by CFR 173.411.

  20. Containment of Bioaerosol Infection Risk by the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay and Its Applicability to Point-of-Care Settings ▿

    PubMed Central

    Banada, Padmapriya P.; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K.; Blakemore, Robert; Boehme, Catharina; Perkins, Mark D.; Fennelly, Kevin; Alland, David

    2010-01-01

    The recently introduced Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert) has point-of-care potential, but its capacity for biohazard containment remained to be studied. We compared the bioaerosols generated by the Xpert assay to acid-fast bacillus (AFB) microscope slide smear preparation. The Xpert assay sample treatment reagent (SR) was also studied for its sterilizing capacity, stability, and effect on assay sensitivity after prolonged treatment. During the preparation of AFB smears, sputum samples spiked with Mycobacterium bovis BCG at 5 × 108 CFU/ml produced 16 and 325 CFU/m3 air measured with an Andersen impactor or BioSampler, respectively. In contrast, neither the sample preparation steps for the Xpert assay nor its automated processing produced any culturable bioaerosols. In testing of SR sterilizing capacity, clinical sputum samples from strongly smear-positive tuberculosis patients treated with SR at a 2:1 ratio eliminated Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth in all but 1/39 or 3/45 samples cultured on solid or liquid medium, respectively. These few unsterilized samples had a mean 13.1-day delay in the time to positive culture. SR treatment at a 3:1 ratio eliminated growth in all samples. SR retained a greater than 6-log-unit killing capacity despite storage at temperatures spanning 4 to 45°C for at least 3 months. The effect of prolonged SR sample treatment was also studied. Spiked sputum samples could be incubated in SR for up to 3 days without affecting Xpert sensitivity for M. tuberculosis detection and up to 8 h without affecting specificity for rifampin resistance detection. These results suggest that benchtop use of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay limits infection risk to the user. PMID:20720033

  1. An analysis of blood specimen container leakage.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S M; Wardle, J M

    1978-01-01

    Procedures have been designed to test specimen containers for leakage, using blood and aqueous fluorescein solution as indicators. They have been used in a trial evaluation of a number of commercially available containers intended for medical specimens. Glass bijou bottles, evacuated container systems, and several types of plastic container showed no significant leakage rate with either blood or aqueous solution when they were tested at room temperature, but a large proportion of the plastic containers leaked after being subjected to -20 degrees. C. These would thus be suitable and satisfactory for blood count specimens but not for specimens of serum and other body fluids, which are usually stored frozen. With all types of container tested there was spontaneous discharge of contents (blood or aqueous solution) on opening in a proportion of them; thus no container at present available seems to be entirely free from hazard. PMID:711921

  2. Residual Stress Testing of Outer 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, K.

    2004-02-12

    A Gas Tungsten Arc Welded (GTAW) outer 3013 container and a laser welded outer 3013 container have been tested for residual stresses according to the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) Standard G-36-94 [1]. This ASTM standard describes a procedure for conducting stress-corrosion cracking tests in boiling magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution. Container sections in both the as-fabricated condition as well as the closure welded condition were evaluated. Significantly large residual stresses were observed in the bottom half of the as-fabricated container, a result of the base to can fabrication weld because through wall cracks were observed perpendicular to the weld. This observation indicates that regardless of the closure weld technique, sufficient residual stresses exist in the as-fabricated container to provide the stress necessary for stress corrosion cracking of the container, at the base fabrication weld. Additionally, sufficiently high residual stresses were observed in both the lid and the body of the GTAW as well as the laser closure welded containers. The stresses are oriented perpendicular to the closure weld in both the container lid and the container body. Although the boiling MgCl2 test is not a quantitative test, a comparison of the test results from the closure welds shows that there are noticeably more through wall cracks in the laser closure welded container than in the GTAW closure welded container.

  3. Performance of Sequoyah Containment Anchorage System

    SciTech Connect

    Fanous, F.; Greimann, L.; Wassef, W.; Bluhm, D.

    1993-01-01

    Deformation of a steel containment anchorage system during a severe accident may result in a leakage path at the containment boundaries. Current design criteria are based on either ductile or brittle failure modes of headed bolts that do not account for factors such as cracking of the containment basemat or deformation of the anchor bolt that may affect the behavior of the containment anchorage system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of a typical ice condenser containment`s anchorage system. This was accomplished by analyzing the Sequoyah Containment Anchorage System. Based on a strength of materials approach and assuming that the anchor bolts are resisting the uplift caused by the internal pressure, one can estimate that the failure of the anchor bolts would occur at a containment pressure of 79 psig. To verify these results and to calibrate the strength of materials equation, the Sequoyah containment anchorage system was analyzed with the ABAQUS program using a three-dimensional, finite-element model. The model included portions of the steel containment building, shield building, anchor bolt assembly, reinforced concrete mat and soil foundation material.

  4. Baseline Microstructural Characterization of Outer 3013 Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, Phillip E.; Dunn, Kerry A

    2005-07-31

    Three DOE Standard 3013 outer storage containers were examined to characterize the microstructure of the type 316L stainless steel material of construction. Two of the containers were closure-welded yielding production-quality outer 3013 containers; the third examined container was not closed. Optical metallography and Knoop microhardness measurements were performed to establish a baseline characterization that will support future destructive examinations of 3013 outer containers in the storage inventory. Metallography revealed the microstructural features typical of this austenitic stainless steel as it is formed and welded. The grains were equiaxed with evident annealing twins. Flow lines were prominent in the forming directions of the cylindrical body and flat lids and bottom caps. No adverse indications were seen. Microhardness values, although widely varying, were consistent with annealed austenitic stainless steel. The data gathered as part of this characterization will be used as a baseline for the destructive examination of 3013 containers removed from the storage inventory.

  5. Geologic containment of radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we present results of our work and outline our thoughts on resolving the uncertainties associated with the nature of the solubilities and speciation of actinides, the formation of radiocolloids, the sorption behavior of fission products and actinides and the transport mechanisms of advection, diffusion, and dispersion for radionuclides under environmental conditions though to exist at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. 27 refs.

  6. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, Stephen

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  7. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, J.L.

    1996-12-31

    Corrosion damage to a nuclear power plant containment structure can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. For the low-carbon, low- strength steels used in containments, the effect of corrosion on material properties is discussed. Strain-to-failure tests, in uniaxial tension, have been performed on corroded material samples. Results were used to select strain-based failure criteria for corroded steel. Using the ABAQUS finite element analysis code, the capacity of a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment with corrosion damage has been studied. Multiple analyses were performed with the locations of the corrosion the containment, and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis.

  8. Testing containment of laboratory hoods

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, G.W.

    1987-06-01

    Laboratory fume hoods often do not adequately provide protection to a chemist or technician at the hood. The reason for failure of the hoods to perform adequately are varied and, in many instances, difficult to determine. In some cases, the laboratory hood manufacturer has provided equipment that does not reflect the state of art in controlling laboratory exposures. In other cases, the architect or engineer has disregarded the function of the hood thus the design of the installation is faulty and the hood will not work. The contractor may have installed the system so poorly that it will not adequately function. Finally, the chemist or technician may misuse the hood, causing poor performance. This paper considers a method of evaluating the performance of laboratory fume hoods. Using the method, the paper examines several instances where the laboratory fume hood performed inadequately, quantifies the performance and identifies the cause of poor performance.

  9. 76 FR 46805 - Notice of Utah Adoption by Reference of the Pesticide Container Containment Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... AGENCY Notice of Utah Adoption by Reference of the Pesticide Container Containment Rule AGENCY... the State of Utah's adoption by reference of the federal Pesticide Container Containment (PCC) Rule... EPA Region 8, is formally announcing the adoption by reference with no modifications. FOR FURTHER...

  10. Laboratory Investigation of Containment of Underground Explosions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    the mechanics of containing gases in cavities formed by underground nuclear explosions. One experimental technique uses constant flow rate...30 2.3 Containment Experiment Apparatus...........................31 2.4 Constant Flow -Rate Hydrofracture System ................... 32 2.5 Overall...charge size (3/8 gram PETN), overburden pressure [1000 psi (6.895 MPa). viscosity of the hydrofracture fluid (I centipoise), and rate of fluid 0 flow

  11. Identification of uncommon objects in containers

    DOEpatents

    Bremer, Peer-Timo; Kim, Hyojin; Thiagarajan, Jayaraman J.

    2017-09-12

    A system for identifying in an image an object that is commonly found in a collection of images and for identifying a portion of an image that represents an object based on a consensus analysis of segmentations of the image. The system collects images of containers that contain objects for generating a collection of common objects within the containers. To process the images, the system generates a segmentation of each image. The image analysis system may also generate multiple segmentations for each image by introducing variations in the selection of voxels to be merged into a segment. The system then generates clusters of the segments based on similarity among the segments. Each cluster represents a common object found in the containers. Once the clustering is complete, the system may be used to identify common objects in images of new containers based on similarity between segments of images and the clusters.

  12. Corrosion assessment of dry fuel storage containers

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The structural stability as a function of expected corrosion degradation of 75 dry fuel storage containers located in the 200 Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds was evaluated. These containers include 22 concrete burial containers, 13 55-gal (208-l) drums, and 40 Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) transport/storage casks. All containers are buried beneath at least 48 in. of soil and a heavy plastic tarp with the exception of 35 of the EBR-II casks which are exposed to atmosphere. A literature review revealed that little general corrosion is expected and pitting corrosion of the carbon steel used as the exterior shell for all containers (with the exception of the concrete containers) will occur at a maximum rate of 3.5 mil/yr. Penetration from pitting of the exterior shell of the 208-l drums and EBR-II casks is calculated to occur after 18 and 71 years of burial, respectively. The internal construction beneath the shell would be expected to preclude containment breach, however, for the drums and casks. The estimates for structural failure of the external shells, large-scale shell deterioration due to corrosion, are considerably longer, 39 and 150 years respectively for the drums and casks. The concrete burial containers are expected to withstand a service life of 50 years.

  13. Adhesives for assembly of lightweight wood containers

    Treesearch

    R. S. Kurtenacker

    1964-01-01

    This report discusses the screening of various adhesive and mastic systems for possible use in assembling lightweight wood containers. Results showed that dynamic tests of simulated box corners correlated reasonably well with rough handling evaluations of eight selected systems when used to assemble lightweight wood boxes made from a Group I container wood....

  14. Selection of 3013 Containers for Field Surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Peppers, Elizabeth Kelly, James McClard, Gary Friday, Theodore Venetz, and Jerry Stakebade

    2007-01-01

    This report revises and combines three earlier reports dealing with the binning, statistical sampling, and sample selection of 3013 containers for field surveillance. It includes changes to the binning specification resulting from completion of the Savannah River Site packaging campaign and new information from the shelf-life program and field surveillance activities. The revised bin assignments result in changes to the random sample specification. These changes are necessary to meet the statistical requirements of the surveillance program. This report will be reviewed regularly and revised as needed. Section 1 of this report summarizes the results of an extensive effort to assign all of the current and projected 3013 containers in the Department of Energy (DOE) inventory to one of three bins (Innocuous, Pressure and Corrosion, or Pressure) based on potential failure mechanisms. Grouping containers into bins provides a framework to make a statistical selection of individual containers from the entire population for destructive and nondestructive field surveillance. The binning process consisted of three main steps. First, the packaged containers were binned using information in the Integrated Surveillance Program database and a decision tree. The second task was to assign those containers that could not be binned using the decision tree to a specific bin using container-by-container engineering review. The final task was to evaluate containers not yet packaged and assign them to bins using process knowledge. The technical basis for the decisions made during the binning process is included in Section 1. A composite decision tree and a summary table show all of the containers projected to be in the DOE inventory at the conclusion of packaging at all sites. Decision trees that provide an overview of the binning process and logic are included for each site. Section 2 of this report describes the approach to the statistical selection of containers for surveillance and

  15. Development of characterization of plutonium storage containers

    SciTech Connect

    James, D.; Stevkovski, S.

    1999-02-01

    As a result of the end of the Cold War, at least 11,000 (possibly 20,000 or more) plutonium pits are projected to be stored at Pantex for up to fifty years. The current pit container, the ALR8 was not designed for this length of storage duration. As a result, Pantex officials have searched for alternative container options. The objective of this research is to develop and validate a model to predict the temperature distribution within the stored components and the internal structure of the proposed ALR8(SI) container, and to consider and analyze the safety features of the ALR8(SI) container as seen from the thermal performance view. Due to the time scale involved with the current simulations, the radioactive decay of the plutonium may be assumed to provide a uniform rate of heat generation. This heat is conducted to the surroundings through the solid structures of the assembly. In addition to conduction, the inert gas that fills the volume within the steel container convects a fraction of the generated heat from the plutonium to the colder steel surfaces. Radiation must also be accounted for as natural convection and limited conduction paths are present within the container. The research efforts in this project have been directed into two paths, numerical and experimental. First, the temperature distribution within the stored components are being determined experimentally as a function of fill gases, energy generation rate, and boundary conditions. Second, a finite element model of the ALR8 container has been developed so that the temperature distribution can be predicted as a function of the same experimental parameters. This paper presents the experimental method and data that have been obtained thus far, as well as the finite element model created using SDRC I-DEAS.

  16. Studies of sulphur containing model interstellar ices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, W. A.; Burke, D. J.; Edridge, J. L.

    2011-05-01

    Sulphur bearing species have long been proposed as good evolutionary tracers of star forming regions. The abundance of sulphur containing molecules varies by large amounts during the evolution of a proto-star and hence astronomical models are very sensitive to the amount of sulphur present and to its chemical composition. Interstellar observations have identified a range of sulphur containing species including SO, SO2, H2S, CS and OCS (amongst others). To try to understand the role of sulphur containing species in interstellar ices, we have undertaken a detailed investigation of the adsorption and desorption of a range of sulphur-containing model ices on a carbonaceous dust grain analogue surface (graphite) held at 14 K. Ices consisting of pure sulphur-containing molecules, sulphur-containing molecules adsorbed on top of amorphous solid water ice, mixed ices containing water ices and sulphur-species, all adsorbed on graphite, have been investigated. Ultra-high vacuum techniques have been used to model the low pressure conditions of interstellar space and a combination of surface infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS - reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) have been used to investigate the behaviour of the ices.

  17. Reducibility of Matrix Equations Containing Several Parameters.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    AD-AI15 568 AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOO;-ETC EF G 12 1ADA1551 REDUCIBILITY OF MATRIX EQUATIONS CONTAINING SEVERAL...PARAMETERS.E U)CA E UNCLASSIFIED AFIT/GE/RA/81D-1 N P11111111II soonhh Eu;o I. ’Trm * a, ~t- NMI 4 i’- 00Nt. met r~ REDUCIBILITY OF MATRIX EQUATIONS CONTAINING...1 REDUCIBILITY OF MATRIX EQUATIONS CONTAINING SEVERAL PARAMETERS THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the School of Engineering of the Air Force

  18. Simplified dynamic buckling assessment of steel containments

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Renick, D.H.

    1993-02-01

    A simplified, three-degree-of-freedom analytical procedure for performing a response spectrum buckling analysis of a thin containment shell is developed. Two numerical examples with R/t values which bound many existing steel containments are used to illustrate the procedure. The role of damping on incipient buckling acceleration level is evaluated for a regulatory seismic spectrum using the two numerical examples. The zero-period acceleration level that causes incipient buckling in either of the two containments increases 31% when damping is increased from 1% to 4% of critical. Comparisons with finite element results on incipient buckling levels are favorable.

  19. Design and development of diborane shipping container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and tests of a 200 pound container for the shipment of liquid diborane are reported. A record of the correspondence with the DOT to obtain a permit for liquid diborane shipment is presented.

  20. PIC-container for containment and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araki, K.; Shinji, Y.; Maki, Y.; Ishizaki, K.; Minegishi, K.; Sudoh, G.

    1981-03-01

    Steel fiber reinforced polymer impregnated concrete (SFPIC) was investigated for low and intermediate level radioactive waste containers. The 60 L and 200 L containers were designed as pressure container (without equalizer) for 500 kg/square cm and 700 kg/square cm. Polymerization of impregnated methylmethacrylate monomer was performed by 60 Co-gamma ray radiation and thermal catalytic polymerization respectively. Under the loading of 500 kg/square cm and 700 kg/square cm-outside hydraulic pressure, these containers were kept in their good condition. The observed maximum strains were about .001380 and .003950 at the outside central position of container body for circumferential direction of the 60 L and 200 L container, respectively. The containers were immersed in deionized water for 400 days, nuclides were not leached from the container. The SFPIC container was suitable for containment and disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive wastes.

  1. Testing of a steel containment vessel model

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Costello, J.F.

    1997-04-01

    A mixed-scale containment vessel model, with 1:10 in containment geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness, was fabricated to represent an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment vessel. A contact structure, installed over the model and separated at a nominally uniform distance from it, provided a simplified representation of a reactor shield building in the actual plant. This paper describes the pretest preparations and the conduct of the high pressure test of the model performed on December 11-12, 1996. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Proper use of beryllium-containing alloys.

    PubMed

    2003-04-01

    To assist dentists in providing a safe and healthful workplace, the ADA Council on Scientific Affairs developed this advisory statement on the proper use of beryllium-containing alloys in the dental operatory and laboratory. Recommendations are made for reducing the potential risk of beryllium exposure for employees working in dental operatories or laboratories who fabricate or manipulate beryllium-containing alloys in dental prostheses. The Council recommends that practitioners adhere to the Ocupational Safety and Health Administration's recommendations for reducing beryllium exposure in the dental operatory and laboratory. These include the recommendation that--where possible--practitioners use alloys that do not contain beryllium in the fabrication of dental prostheses.

  3. Preparation of Hemoglobin-Containing Microcapsules.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    L -i2 801 PREPARRTION OF HEMOGLOBIN-CONTAINING MICROCAPSULES (U) i/i I SRI INTERNATIONAL MENLO PRK CA Z REYES APR 82 UNLSSFE SRI1-2254-2 DRMDi,7-8@-C...R oI• _ AD I PREPARATION OF HEMOGLOBIN- /2 o ) CONTAINING MICROCAPSULES . 00 ANNUAL AND FINAL REPORT ZOILA REYES, Ph.D. APRIL 1982 Supported by U.S...1/31/82) PREPARATION OF HEMOGLOBIN-CONTAINING MICROCAPSULES 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPOR’ NUMBER 2254-2 7. AUTHOR(s) 8. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(s) Zoila

  4. Conversion of asphaltene-containing charge stocks

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, A.J.; Hutchings, L.E.

    1982-11-09

    A process is claimed for the conversion of an asphaltene-containing, hydrocarbonaceous black oil in a catalytic slurry reaction zone wherein an admixture of converted hydrocarbonaceous oil and unconverted asphaltenes is recycled to the reaction zone.

  5. Abatement of Marine Coatings Containing Heavy Metals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-06-01

    in the abatement of heavy metal containing marine coatings. Funding for this...shipyards to be proactive in the area of heavy metal coating systems abatement as current regulations were not "user friendly" in shipboard applications.

  6. Development of advanced lightweight containment systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stotler, C.

    1981-01-01

    Parametric type data were obtained on advanced lightweight containment systems. These data were used to generate design methods and procedures necessary for the successful development of such systems. The methods were then demonstrated through the design of a lightweight containment system for a CF6 size engine. The containment concept evaluated consisted basically of a lightweight structural sandwich shell wrapped with dry Kevlar cloth. The initial testing was directed towards the determination of the amount of Kevlar required to result in threshold containment for a specific set of test conditions. A relationship was then developed between the thickness required and the energy of the released blade so that the data could be used to design for conditions other than those tested.

  7. Structural response of rectilinear containment to overpressurization

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Kulak, R.F.

    1995-07-01

    Containment structures for nuclear reactors are the final barrier between released radionuclides and the public. Containment structures are constructed from steel, reinforced concrete, or prestressed concrete. US nuclear reactor containment geometries tend to be cylindrical with elliptical or hemispherical heads. The older Soviet designed reactors do not use a containment building to mitigate the effects of accidents. Instead, they employ a sealed set of rectilinear, interconnected compartments, collectively called the accident localization system (ALS), to reduce the release of radionuclides to the atmosphere during accidents. The purpose of this paper is to present a methodology that can be used to find the structural capacity of reinforced concrete structures. The method is applicable to both cylindrical and rectilinear geometries. As an illustrative example, the methodology is applied to a generic VVER-440/V213 design.

  8. Encapsulation of Friable Insulation Materials Containing Asbestos.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    1) fibrous insulation, (2) granular/cementitious insulation, and (3) insulating/ fireproofing concrete. Typical fibrous insulation that contains...Insulating/ fireproofing concrete FIM often has a foamy appearance " and may contain vermiculite or mica. It can vary in feel from soft and spongy to very...hard. This type of FIM is used for fireproofing of steel and concrete structural members. Although it is often out of sight behind furred walls and

  9. Feasibility of Magnetostrictive Sensor Inspection of Containments

    SciTech Connect

    Kwun, H.

    1999-03-01

    This report describes the results of a study on the feasibility of using guided waves for long-range global inspection of containment metallic pressure boundaries (i.e., steel containments and liners of reinforced concrete containments) in nuclear power plants. Of particular concern in this study was the potential of the guided-wave approach for remotely inspecting the regions that are inaccessible; for example, regions where the metallic pressure boundary is backed by concrete on one or both sides. The study includes a literature review on long-range guided-wave inspection techniques, a modeling study of the behavior of guided waves in plates with different boundary conditions (e.g., freestanding and backed by concrete on one or both sides), and an experimental investigation of the feasibility of a guided-wave technique called ''magnetostrictive sensor (MsS)'' for (1) generating and detecting guided waves in plates and (2) detecting a defect over a long range. Results of the study showed (1) that it is feasible to achieve long-range global inspection of plates, including regions that are inaccessible, using low-frequency guided waves and (2) that the MsS technique is well suited for this application. Recommendations are made to further test and develop the MsS technique for practical implementation for containment inspection in nuclear power plants.

  10. The containment of cost of health care.

    PubMed

    Gordts, B

    1996-04-01

    The cost of health care services has become increasingly important to society. Although hospital physicians are traditionally not involved in cost calculation and cost containment, they bear the consequences of budget restrictions. Since 1987, the reimbursement for clinical laboratories in Belgian hospitals has changed towards an envelope based system. Clinical biologists became aware that new resources can only be obtained mainly through cost reductions. But to contain cost, one must understand how it is generated. Activity based costing (ABC) is a new technique developed for strategic management in the industry. By analyzing the cost of all activities involved in the production process, this technique is very well suited to calculate cost in service organizations like medical departments. Using the principles of ABC, we performed a detailed analysis of the cost of a microbiology laboratory, determining the full cost as well as the proportion of each cost sorts (materials, labor, ...) for each laboratory test. This analysis illustrates that cost can effectively be calculated in a hospital department and guide doctors in the evaluation of alternative medical techniques, investments in automation, and the decision on medical priorities. In our opinion, cost containment of hospital care must start from within each medical department. Responsibility and participation of physicians in the discussion on budget allocation are essential in the process of cost containment of the hospital health care.

  11. Resolution of the direct containment heating issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry containments or subatmospheric containments

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.; Klamerus, E.W.

    1996-03-01

    This report uses the methodology and scenarios described in NUREG/CR-6075 and NUREG/CR-6075, Supplement 1, to address the direct containment heating (DCH) issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry or subatmospheric containments. DCH is considered resolved if the conditional containment failure probability (CCFP) is less than 0.1. The methodology calls for an initial screening phase in which the CCFP for each plant is calculated based on loads versus strength evaluations using plant-specific information. The DCH issue is considered resolved for a plant if the CCFP calculated in the screening phase is less than 0.01. This value is more stringent than the overall success criterion of 0.1. The CCFPs for all of the Westinghouse plants with dry containments were less than 0.01 in the screening phase calculations, and thus, the DCH issue is resolved for these plants based on containment loads alone. No additional analyses are required.

  12. Latest generation of halogen-containing pesticides.

    PubMed

    Jeschke, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Agriculture is confronted with enormous challenges, from production of enough high-quality food to water use, environmental impacts and issues combined with a continually growing world population. Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrichemicals, used in applied agriculture. In this context, the introduction of halogen atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool to modulate the properties of new crop protection compounds. Since 2010, around 96% of the launched products (herbicides, fungicides, insecticides/acaricides and nematicides) contain halogen atoms. The launched nematicides contain the largest number of halogen atoms, followed by insecticides/acaricides, herbicides and fungicides. In this context, fungicides and herbicides contain in most cases fluorine atoms, whereas nematicides and insecticides contain in most cases 'mixed' halogen atoms, for example chlorine and fluorine. This review gives an overview of the latest generation of halogen-containing pesticides launched over the past 6 years and describes current halogen-containing development candidates. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Investigation of some topical formulations containing dexpanthenol.

    PubMed

    Stozkowska, Wiesława; Piekoś, Ryszard

    2004-01-01

    Owing to its ability to regenerate epidermal cells Dexpanthenol (D-panthenol; chemically known as (+)-2,4-dihydroxy-N-(3-hydroxypropyl)-3,3-dimethylbutyramide) has found use for the treatment of patholytic ileus and postoperative distention. The purpose of research was to develop a gel containing dexpanthenol by monitoring the effect of various concentrations of a gelating agent on the activity of the ciliary apparatus. A system containing 2.5% of hydroxyethylcellulose was optimal for the preparation of the gel. Together with a formulation containing 5% of dexpanthenol, drops with equal concentration of the active compound were tested for comparison. Physical characteristics, such as osmotic pressure, acidity, density and viscosity of the preparation were determined as well as its microbiological sterility. The anti-inflammatory activity of the gel was determined following its topical application. Epidermal tests showed its good tolerance after topical application to the shaved skin of guinea pigs.

  14. Optical properties of coumarins containing copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowronski, L.; Krupka, O.; Smokal, V.; Grabowski, A.; Naparty, M.; Derkowska-Zielinska, B.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the optical properties such as absorption coefficient, refractive index, real and imaginary parts of dielectric function and energy band gap of coumarin-containing copolymers thin films by means of spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) combined with transmittance measurements (T) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found that the optical properties of coumarin-containing copolymers strongly depend from length of alkyl spacer as well as the type of substitution in coumarin moiety. In our case the refractive index as well as the energy band gap of coumarin-containing copolymer decrease with increase the length of alkyl spacer. Additionally, the lengthening of the alkyl spacer brings the bathochromic shifts of the absorption spectra towards longer wavelengths.

  15. JUNIOR JADE - containment phenomenology of decoupled events

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.W.

    1995-02-01

    With five 8 pound high-explosive experiments, the author has investigated aspects of the containment phenomenology of partially decoupled events. In three experiments he observed multiple fractures and little cavity growth. In the final two experiments there were no fractures and cavity volumes grew by factors of approximately two and three. With the five experiments a spectrum of results ranging from hydraulic fracture - like crack propagation through multiple fracture propagation to the no fracture, or fully contained, case, was observed. For the multiple fracture experiments a partial residual stress field may have controlled the release of the cavity pressure. Measurements of cavity pressure versus time provided containment diagnostics; post event mining allowed visual observation of the cavities and fractures.

  16. Blends of cysteine-containing proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Justin

    2005-03-01

    Many agricultural wastes are made of proteins such as keratin, lactalbumin, gluten, and albumin. These proteins contain the amino acid cysteine. Cysteine allows for the formation of inter-and intra-molecular sulfur-sulfur bonds. Correlations are made between the properties of films made from the proteins and the amino acid sequence. Blends of cysteine-containing proteins show possible synergies in physical properties at intermediate concentrations. FT-IR spectroscopy shows increased hydrogen bonding at intermediate concentrations suggesting that this contributes to increased physical properties. DSC shows limited miscibility and the formation of new crystalline phases in the blends suggesting that this too contributes.

  17. Resolution of the direct containment heating issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry containments or subatmospheric containments

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.; Klamerus, E.W.

    1996-02-01

    This report uses the scenarios described in NUREG/CR-6075 and NUREG/CR-6075, Supplement 1, to address the direct containment heating (DCH) issue for all Westinghouse plants with large dry or subatmospheric containments. DCH is considered resolved if the conditional containment failure probability (CCFP) is less than 0.1. Loads versus strength evaluations of the CCFP were performed for each plant using plant-specific information. The DCH issue is considered resolved for a plant if a screening phase results in a CCFP less than 0.01, which is more stringent than the overall success criterion. If the screening phase CCFP for a plant is greater than 0.01, then refined containment loads evaluations must be performed and/or the probability of high pressure at vessel breach must be analyzed. These analyses could be used separately or could be integrated together to recalculate the CCFP for an individual plant to reduce the CCFP to meet the overall success criterion of less than 0.1. The CCFPs for all of the Westinghouse plants with dry containments were less than 0.01 at the screening phase, and thus, the DCH issue is resolved for these plants based on containment loads alone. No additional analyses are required.

  18. Democratic Pedagogy and the Discourse of Containment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popen, Shari

    2002-01-01

    Discusses application of a discourse of containment in pedagogical practice, asserting that this discourse limits democratic possibilities in the classroom. Analyzes the stakes in political struggles over control of the production of meaning within the classroom, examining the mythologized version of Rosa Parks' story and the current agenda of…

  19. Democratic Pedagogy and the Discourse of Containment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popen, Shari

    2002-01-01

    Discusses application of a discourse of containment in pedagogical practice, asserting that this discourse limits democratic possibilities in the classroom. Analyzes the stakes in political struggles over control of the production of meaning within the classroom, examining the mythologized version of Rosa Parks' story and the current agenda of…

  20. Inspection of cargo containers using gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Esam M. A.; Gokhale, Prasad; Arendtsz, Nina V.; Lawrence, Andre H.

    1997-02-01

    This paper investigate, with the aid of Monte Carlo simulations and laboratory experiments, a technique for the detection of narcotics in large cargo containers using gamma-radiation. The transmission and back-scattering of photons, at different energies, is used to provide information useful for identifying the presence of bulk quantities of commonly encountered narcotics.

  1. Treatment of spent solutions containing tributylphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Barinova, Ella A.; Diordiy, Mikhail N.; Karlina, Olga K.

    2013-07-01

    The realization of the process of treatment of organic radioactive waste (RW) containing tributylphosphate (TBP) in hydrocarbon solvent under the laboratory conditions is considered in this work. The main parameters of the process have been investigated as well as the characteristics of the final process product - sodium-aluminium-phosphate glass matrix. (authors)

  2. Development of a Whole Container Seal

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhn, Michael J; Pickett, Chris A; Stinson, Brad J; Rowe, Nathan C

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a technique for utilizing electrically conductive textiles as a whole container seal. This method has the potential to provide more robustness for ensuring that the container has not been breached versus conventional sealing methods that only provide tamper indication at the area used for normal access. The conductive textile is used as a distributed sensor for detecting and localizing container tamper or breach. For sealing purposes, the conductive fabric represents a bounded, near-infinite grid of resistors. The well-known infinite resistance grid problem was used to model and confirm the expected accuracy and validity of this approach. An experimental setup was built that uses a multiplexed Wheatstone bridge measurement to determine the resistances of a coarse electrode grid across the conductive fabric. Non-uniform resistance values of the grid infer the presence of damage or tears in the fabric. Results suggest accuracy proportional to the electrode spacing in determining the presence and location of disturbances in conductive fabric samples. Current work is focused on constructing experimental prototypes for field and environmental testing to gauge the performance of these whole container seals in real world conditions. We are also developing software and hardware to interface with the whole container seals. The latest prototypes are expected to provide more accuracy in detecting and localizing events, although detection of a penetration should be adequate for most sealing applications. We are also developing smart sensing nodes that integrate digital hardware and additional sensors (e.g., motion, humidity) into the electrode nodes within the whole container seal.

  3. Shark cartilage contains inhibitors of tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lee, A; Langer, R

    1983-09-16

    Shark cartilage contains a substance that strongly inhibits the growth of new blood vessels toward solid tumors, thereby restricting tumor growth. The abundance of this factor in shark cartilage, in contrast to cartilage from mammalian sources, may make sharks an ideal source of the inhibitor and may help to explain the rarity of neoplasms in these animals.

  4. Microbial production of lactate-containing polyesters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, So Young; Shin, Jae Ho; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-01-01

    Due to our increasing concerns on environmental problems and limited fossil resources, biobased production of chemicals and materials through biorefinery has been attracting much attention. Optimization of the metabolic performance of microorganisms, the key biocatalysts for the efficient production of the desired target bioproducts, has been achieved by metabolic engineering. Metabolic engineering allowed more efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a family of microbial polyesters. More recently, non-natural polyesters containing lactate as a monomer have also been produced by one-step fermentation of engineered bacteria. Systems metabolic engineering integrating traditional metabolic engineering with systems biology, synthetic biology, protein/enzyme engineering through directed evolution and structural design, and evolutionary engineering, enabled microorganisms to efficiently produce natural and non-natural products. Here, we review the strategies for the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the in vivo biosynthesis of lactate-containing polyesters and for the optimization of whole cell metabolism to efficiently produce lactate-containing polyesters. Also, major problems to be solved to further enhance the production of lactate-containing polyesters are discussed. PMID:23718266

  5. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion damage that has been found in a number of nuclear power plant containment structures can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. This has prompted concerns regarding the capacity of corroded containments to withstand accident loadings. To address these concerns, finite element analyses have been performed for a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment structure. Using ABAQUS, the pressure capacity was calculated for a typical vessel with no corrosion damage. Multiple analyses were then performed with the location of the corrosion and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis. Using a strain-based failure criterion, a {open_quotes}lower bound{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}best estimate{close_quotes}, and {open_quotes}upper bound{close_quotes} failure level was predicted for each case. These limits were established by: determining the amount of variability that exists in material properties of typical containments, estimating the amount of uncertainty associated with the level of modeling detail and modeling assumptions, and estimating the effect of corrosion on the material properties.

  6. Predictability of steel containment response near failure

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.F.; Ludwigsen, J.S.; Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F.

    2000-01-06

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, are co-sponsoring and jointly funding a Cooperative Containment Research Program at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. As a part of this program, a steel containment vessel model and contact structure assembly was tested to failure with over pressurization at Sandia on December 11--12, 1996. The steel containment vessel model was a mixed-scale model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment for an improved Mark-II Boiling Water Reactor plant in Japan. The contact structure, which is a thick, bell-shaped steel shell separated at a nominally uniform distance from the model, provides a simplified representation of features of the concrete reactor shield building in the actual plant. The objective of the internal pressurization test was to provide measurement data of the structural response of the model up to its failure in order to validate analytical modeling, to find its pressure capacity, and to observe the failure model and mechanisms.

  7. Valuation effects of health cost containment measures.

    PubMed

    Strange, M L; Ezzell, J R

    2000-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research into the valuation effects of health cost containment activities by publicly traded corporations. The motivation for this study was employers' increasing cost of providing health care insurance to their employees and employers' efforts to contain those costs. A 1990 survey of corporate health benefits indicated that these costs represented 25 percent of employers' net earnings and this would rise by the year 2000 if no actions were taken to reduce cost. Health cost containment programs that are implemented by firms should be seen by shareholders as a wealth maximizing effort. As such, this should be reflected in share price. This study employed standard event study methodology where the event is a media announcement or report regarding an attempt by a firm to contain the costs of providing health insurance and other health related benefits to employees. It examined abnormal returns on a number of event days and for a number of event intervals. Of the daily and interval returns that are least significant at the 10 percent level, virtually all are negative. Cross-sectional analysis shows that the abnormal returns are related negatively to a unionization variable.

  8. Preservation of Mercury in Polyethylene Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolino, Samuel Paul

    1983-01-01

    Reports results of experiments favoring use of 0.5 percent nitric acid with an oxidant (potassium dichromate or potassium permanganate) to preserve samples in polyethylene containers for mercury analysis. Includes procedures used and statistical data obtained from the experiments. (JN)

  9. Response analysis of an automobile shipping container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, L.; Lee, S. H.; Johnstone, B.

    1973-01-01

    The design and development of automobile shipping containers to reduce enroute damage are discussed. Vibration tests were conducted to determine the system structural integrity. A dynamic analysis was made using NASTRAN and the results of the test and the analysis are compared.

  10. Study of audio speakers containing ferrofluid.

    PubMed

    Rosensweig, R E; Hirota, Y; Tsuda, S; Raj, K

    2008-05-21

    This work validates a method for increasing the radial restoring force on the voice coil in audio speakers containing ferrofluid. In addition, a study is made of factors influencing splash loss of the ferrofluid due to shock. Ferrohydrodynamic analysis is employed throughout to model behavior, and predictions are compared to experimental data.

  11. Preservation of Mercury in Polyethylene Containers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piccolino, Samuel Paul

    1983-01-01

    Reports results of experiments favoring use of 0.5 percent nitric acid with an oxidant (potassium dichromate or potassium permanganate) to preserve samples in polyethylene containers for mercury analysis. Includes procedures used and statistical data obtained from the experiments. (JN)

  12. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM-CONTAINING FUEL ELEMENTS

    DOEpatents

    Horn, F.L.

    1961-12-12

    Uranium is recovered from spent uranium fuel elements containing or clad with zirconium. These fuel elements are placed in an anhydrous solution of hydrogen fluoride and nitrogen dioxide. Within this system uranium forms a soluble complex and zirconium forms an insoluble complex. The uranium can then be separated, treated, and removed from solution as uranium hexafluoride. (AEC)

  13. 40 CFR 264.171 - Condition of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Condition of containers. 264.171... Use and Management of Containers § 264.171 Condition of containers. If a container holding hazardous... leak, the owner or operator must transfer the hazardous waste from this container to a container...

  14. 40 CFR 265.171 - Condition of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Condition of containers. 265.171... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.171 Condition of containers. If a container... transfer the hazardous waste from this container to a container that is in good condition, or manage...

  15. Reservoir storage and containment of greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, G.J.; White, S.P.; Kissling, W.M.

    1995-03-01

    This paper considers the injection of CO{sub 2} into underground reservoirs. Computer models are used to investigate the disposal of CO{sub 2} generated by an 800 MW power station. A number of scenarios are considered, some of which result in containment of the CO{sub 2} over very long time scales and others result in the escape of the CO{sub 2} after a few hundred years.

  16. Synthesis of Oxides Containing Transition Metals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-09

    prepare a number of vanadium spinels by electrolyzing melts of | ) sodium tetraborate and sodium fluoride in which were dissolved the appropriate... sodium hydroxide melts contained in alumina crucibles. Electrodes of iron, cobalt or nickel were used, depending on the desired composition of the final...product. Crystals of tungsten and molybdenum oxide "bronzes" have been grown by electrolytic reduction of tungstate or molybdate melts. Extensive

  17. PRODUCTION OF FLUORINE-CONTAINING HYDROCARBON

    DOEpatents

    Sarsfield, N.F.

    1949-08-01

    This patent relates to improvements in the production of fluorine- containing hydrocarbon derivatives. The process for increasing the degree of fluorination of a fluorochlorohydrocarbon comprises subjecting a highly fluorinated fluorochlorohydrocarbon to the action of a dehydrochlorinating agent, and treating the resulting unsaturated body with fluorine, cobalt trifluoride, or silver difluoride. A number of reagents are known as dehydrochlorinaling agents, including, for example, the caustic alkalies, either in an anhydrous condition or dissolved in water or a lower aliphatic alcohol.

  18. SULPHUR DIOXIDE LEACHING OF URANIUM CONTAINING MATERIAL

    DOEpatents

    Thunaes, A.; Rabbits, F.T.; Hester, K.D.; Smith, H.W.

    1958-12-01

    A process is described for extracting uranlum from uranium containing material, such as a low grade pitchblende ore, or mill taillngs, where at least part of the uraniunn is in the +4 oxidation state. After comminuting and magnetically removing any entrained lron particles the general material is made up as an aqueous slurry containing added ferric and manganese salts and treated with sulfur dioxide and aeration to an extent sufficient to form a proportion of oxysulfur acids to give a pH of about 1 to 2 but insufficient to cause excessive removal of the sulfur dioxide gas. After separating from the solids, the leach solution is adjusted to a pH of about 1.25, then treated with metallic iron in the presence of a precipitant such as a soluble phosphate, arsonate, or fluoride.

  19. Development of Mullite Substrates and Containers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibold, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The mullite-molten silicon interaction was evaluated through fabrication of a series of bodies made with variations in density, alumina-silica ratio, and glass-crystalline ratio. The materials were tested in a sessile drop technique. None of the variations stood up to extended exposure to molten silicon sufficiently to be recommended as a container material. However, directional solidification experiments suggest that, under proper conditions, contamination of the silicon by mullite containers can be minimized. To improve an already good thermal expansion match between mullite and silicon, compositional variations were studied. Altering of the alumina-silica ratio was determined to give a continuously varying thermal expansion. A standard mullite composition was selected and substrates 40 x 4 x .040 inches were fabricated. Slotted substrates of various configurations and various compositions were also fabricated.

  20. CONTAIN assessment of the NUPEC mixing experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Stamps, D.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ability of the CONTAIN code to predict the thermal hydraulics of five experiments performed in the NUPEC 1/4-scale model containment was assessed. These experiments simulated severe accident conditions in a nuclear power plant in which helium (as a nonflammable substitute for hydrogen) and steam were coinjected at different locations in the facility with and without the concurrent injection of water sprays in the dome. Helium concentrations, gas temperatures and pressures, and wall temperatures were predicted and compared with the data. The use of different flow solvers, nodalization schemes, and analysis methods for the treatment of water sprays was emphasized. As a result, a general procedure was suggested for lumped-parameter code analyses of problems in which the thermal hydraulics are dominated by water sprays.

  1. Stoichiometry of δ subunit containing GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Patel, B; Mortensen, M; Smart, T G

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the stoichiometry of the major synaptic αβγ subunit-containing GABAA receptors has consensus support for 2α:2β:1γ, a clear view of the stoichiometry of extrasynaptic receptors containing δ subunits has remained elusive. Here we examine the subunit stoichiometry of recombinant α4β3δ receptors using a reporter mutation and a functional electrophysiological approach. Experimental Approach Using site-directed mutagenesis, we inserted a highly characterized 9′ serine to leucine mutation into the second transmembrane (M2) region of α4, β3 and δ subunits that increases receptor sensitivity to GABA. Whole-cell, GABA-activated currents were recorded from HEK-293 cells co-expressing different combinations of wild-type (WT) and/or mutant α4(L297S), β3(L284S) and δ(L288S) subunits. Key Results Recombinant receptors containing one or more mutant subunits showed increased GABA sensitivity relative to WT receptors by approximately fourfold, independent of the subunit class (α, β or δ) carrying the mutation. GABA dose–response curves of cells co-expressing WT subunits with their respective L9′S mutants exhibited multiple components, with the number of discernible components enabling a subunit stoichiometry of 2α, 2β and 1δ to be deduced for α4β3δ receptors. Varying the cDNA transfection ratio by 10-fold had no significant effect on the number of incorporated δ subunits. Conclusions and Implications Subunit stoichiometry is an important determinant of GABAA receptor function and pharmacology, and δ subunit-containing receptors are important mediators of tonic inhibition in several brain regions. Here we demonstrate a preferred subunit stoichiometry for α4β3δ receptors of 2α, 2β and 1δ. PMID:24206220

  2. Laser Initiation of PETN containing Nickel Inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aduev, B. P.; Zvekov, A. A.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Nikitin, A. P.

    2017-01-01

    The spectral and kinetic characteristics of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) containing nickel nanoparticles glow initiated by laser pulses was studied with high temporal resolution. It was shown that glow which is chemiluminescence arises as a result of chemical reaction initiation. We suggest that the glow is concerned on excited nitrogen dioxide NO2 luminescence. The reaction propagation leads to the explosion in the microsecond time range that is accompanied by thermal glow of the reaction products with temperature T=4300 K.

  3. Models of iodine behavior in reactor containments

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.; Beahm, E.C.; Kress, T.S.

    1992-10-01

    Models are developed for many phenomena of interest concerning iodine behavior in reactor containments during severe accidents. Processes include speciation in both gas and liquid phases, reactions with surfaces, airborne aerosols, and other materials, and gas-liquid interface behavior. Although some models are largely empirical formulations, every effort has been made to construct mechanistic and rigorous descriptions of relevant chemical processes. All are based on actual experimental data generated at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) or elsewhere, and, hence, considerable data evaluation and parameter estimation are contained in this study. No application or encoding is attempted, but each model is stated in terms of rate processes, with the intention of allowing mechanistic simulation. Taken together, this collection of models represents a best estimate iodine behavior and transport in reactor accidents.

  4. Rocking response of tanks containing two liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A study on the dynamic response of upright circular cylindrical liquid-storage tanks containing two different liquids under a rocking base motion with an arbitrary temporal variation is presented. Only rigid tanks were studied. The response quantities examined include the hydrodynamic pressure, sloshing wave height and the associated frequencies, base shear and moments. Each of these response quantities is expressed as the sum of the so-called impulsive component and convective component. Unlike the case of tanks containing one liquid, in which the response is controlled by one parameter, height-to-radius ratio, the response of tanks containing two different liquids are controlled by three parameters: height-to-radius ratio, and mass density ratio and height ratio of the two liquids. The interrelationship of the responses of the tank-liquid system to rocking and lateral base excitations is established by examining numerical results extensively. The study shows that some of the response quantities for tank-liquid system under a rocking base motion can be determined from the available data for the response of an identical tank under a horizontal base motion. Base rocking motion can occur in a ground-supported tank or in an elevated tank under earthquake motions.

  5. Singularity: Scientific containers for mobility of compute.

    PubMed

    Kurtzer, Gregory M; Sochat, Vanessa; Bauer, Michael W

    2017-01-01

    Here we present Singularity, software developed to bring containers and reproducibility to scientific computing. Using Singularity containers, developers can work in reproducible environments of their choosing and design, and these complete environments can easily be copied and executed on other platforms. Singularity is an open source initiative that harnesses the expertise of system and software engineers and researchers alike, and integrates seamlessly into common workflows for both of these groups. As its primary use case, Singularity brings mobility of computing to both users and HPC centers, providing a secure means to capture and distribute software and compute environments. This ability to create and deploy reproducible environments across these centers, a previously unmet need, makes Singularity a game changing development for computational science.

  6. Energy implications of glass-container recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L L; Mintz, M M

    1994-03-01

    This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

  7. Mineralogical conversion of asbestos containing materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsford, S.K.; Foltz, A.D.; Ek, R.B.

    1996-12-31

    The principal objective of the Technical Task Plan (TTP) is to demonstrate a thermal-chemical mineralogical asbestos conversion unit at the Hanford Site, which converts non-radiological asbestos containing materials (ACMs) into an asbestos-free material. The permanent thermal-chemical mineralogical conversion of ACMs to a non-toxic, non-hazardous, potentially marketable end product should not only significantly reduce the waste stream volumes but terminate the {open_quotes}cradle to grave{close_quotes} ownership liabilities.

  8. Physics of systems containing neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaham, Jacob

    1995-01-01

    This grant deals with several topics related to the dynamics of systems containing a compact object. Most of our research in 1994 dealt with systems containing Neutron Stars (NS's), but we also addressed systems containing a Black Hole (BH) or a White Dwarf (WD) in situations relevant to NS systems. Among the systems were isolated regular pulsars, Millisecond Pulsars (MSP's) that are either Single (SMP's) or in a binary (BMP's) Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMX's) and Cataclysmic Variables (CV's). We also dealt with one aspect of NS structure, namely NS superfluidity. A large fraction of our research dealt with irradiation-driven winds from companions. These winds turned out to be of some importance in the evolution of LMXB's and MSP's, be they SMP's or BMP's. While their role during LMXB evolution (i.e. during the accretion phase) is not yet clear, they may play an important role in turning BMP's into SMP's and also in bringing about the formation of planets around MSP's.

  9. Physics of systems containing neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaham, Jacob

    1995-01-01

    This grant deals with several topics related to the dynamics of systems containing a compact object. Most of our research in 1994 dealt with systems containing Neutron Stars (NS's), but we also addressed systems containing a Black Hole (BH) or a White Dwarf (WD) in situations relevant to NS systems. Among the systems were isolated regular pulsars, Millisecond Pulsars (MSP's) that are either Single (SMP's) or in a binary (BMP's) Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMX's) and Cataclysmic Variables (CV's). We also dealt with one aspect of NS structure, namely NS superfluidity. A large fraction of our research dealt with irradiation-driven winds from companions. These winds turned out to be of some importance in the evolution of LMXB's and MSP's, be they SMP's or BMP's. While their role during LMXB evolution (i.e. during the accretion phase) is not yet clear, they may play an important role in turning BMP's into SMP's and also in bringing about the formation of planets around MSP's.

  10. Metal dusting of nickel-containing alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, B.A.; Smith, G.D.

    1998-12-31

    Metal dusting is a catastrophic form of carburization which leads to pitting and grooves as the affected metal disintegrates into a mixture of powdery carbon, metallic particles, and possibly oxides and carbides. This high temperature carburization mode is not yet well understood and while relatively infrequent, can be economically disastrous when it does occur in large and complex chemical and petrochemical process streams. References in the literature show that all classes of heat resistant alloys are prone to metal dusting, given the necessary and specific environmental conditions. These same references describe the environments that plague nickel-containing alloys and are used as the basis for postulation on the probable corrosion mechanisms responsible for metal dusting. Using alloy 800 and other nickel-containing alloys and metal dusting atmospheres, an effort is made to examine the steps in the metal dusting process and the temperature ranges over which metal dusting occurs.

  11. Dehydration resistance of liposomes containing trehalose glycolipids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyberg, Kendra; Goulding, Morgan; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer

    2010-03-01

    The pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has an unusual outer membrane containing trehalose glycolipids that may contribute to its ability to survive freezing and dehydration. Based on our recent discovery that trehalose glycolipids confer dehydration resistance to supported lipid monolayers (Biophys. J. 94: 4718-4724 (2008); Langmuir 25: 5193-5198, (2009)), we hypothesized that liposomes containing synthetic trehalose glycolipids may be dehydration-resistant as well. To test this, we measured the leakage of encapsulated fluorophores and larger macromolecular cargo from such liposomes subject to freeze drying. Both leakage assays and size measurements show that the liposomes are dehydration-resistant. In addition to demonstrating a possibly technologically useful encapsulation platform, our results corroborate the view that encapsulation in a trehalose-glycolipid-rich membrane is a biophysically viable route to protection of mycobacteria from environmental stresses.

  12. Pioneer fauna of nepheline-containing tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkova, I. V.; Kalmykova, V. V.; Liskovaya, A. A.

    2009-08-01

    The zoological analysis of nepheline-containing sands deposited in tailings 10-40 years ago showed that the pioneer colonists of this technogenic substrate are collembolan and mites, whose proportions depend on the succession of the bacterial and fungal components of the microbiota. The pioneer groups of mesofauna on 10- to 30-year-old tailings include carnivorous herpetobiontic arthropods and phytophagous insects. An impoverished version of the fauna of northern-taiga podzols is developed in the sands rehabilitated more than 40 years ago.

  13. Odor binding protein as probe for a refractive index-based biosensor: new perspectives in biohazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Auria, Sabato; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Rossi, Mosè; Staiano, Maria; Campopiano, Stefania; Cennamo, Nunzio; Zeni, Luigi

    2004-07-01

    The odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are abundant low-molecular weight soluble proteins, which are secreted by the olfactory epithelium in the nasal mucus of vertebrates. These protein reversibly bind odorants with dissociation constants in the micromolar range. For this reason, they are good candidates as biological elements in the development of biosensors. Vertebrate OBPs belong to the lipocalin superfamily. Even if the members of this superfamily display low sequence similarity, all of them show a conserved folding pattern, that is an 8-stranded β-barrel flanked by an α-helix at the C-terminal end of the protein chain. The β-barrel defines a central apolar cavity, called calyx, whose role is to bind and transport hydrophobic odorant molecules. The detection of hazard exposure is becoming a priority in the third millennium, and OBPs are good candidates for detecting traces of explosive molecules in different environments such as luggage's storage rooms and public places. In this context, the measurement of refractive index of odor-binding protein in absence and in presence of odorant molecules have been performed in order to assess its usefulness as a probe for detection of hazardous agents. The work is instrumental to explore the possibility to realize a biosensor where the concentration of searched for substances is analyzed as a variation of the protein refractive index by means of suitable optoelectronic devices.

  14. Repair and cell cycle response in cells exposed to environmental biohazards. Progress report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Billen, D.; Hadden, C.T.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following research areas: (1) DNA repair in Bacillus subtilis; (2) postreplication repair in Rec/sup -/ mutants of B. subtilis; (3) photobiology of halogenated DNA; (4) effects of caffeine on pyrimidine dimer excision and postreplication repair in B. subtilis; and (5) DNA repair in toluene-treated Escherichia coli. (ACR)

  15. Containment performance of prototypical reactor containments subjected to severe accident conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Klamerus, E.W.; Bohn, M.P.; Wesley, D.A.; Krishnaswamy, C.N.

    1996-12-01

    In SECY-90-016, the NTRC proposed a safety goal of a conditional containment failure probability (CCFP) of 0.1 and the alternative acceptance criteria allowed for steel containments, which specifies that the stresses should not exceed ASNE Level C allowables for severe accident pressures and temperatures. In this work, the need for an equivalent criterion for concrete containments was studied. Six surrogate containments were designed and analyzed in order to compare the margins between design pressure, pressure resulting in exceedance of Level C (or yield) stress limits, and ultimate pressure. For comparability, each containment has an identical internal volume and design pressure. Results from the analysis showed margins to yield are comparable and display a similar margin for both steel and concrete containments. In addition, the margin to failure, although slightly higher in the steel containments, were also comparable. Finally, a CCFP for code design was determined based on general membrane behavior and imposing an upper bound severe accident curve developed in the DCH studies. The resulting CCFP`s were less then 0.02 (or 2%) for all the surrogate containments studied, showing that these containment designs all achieved the NRC safety goal.

  16. 10 CFR 35.75 - Release of individuals containing unsealed byproduct material or implants containing byproduct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Release of individuals containing unsealed byproduct material or implants containing byproduct material. 35.75 Section 35.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.75 Release of...

  17. 10 CFR 35.75 - Release of individuals containing unsealed byproduct material or implants containing byproduct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Release of individuals containing unsealed byproduct material or implants containing byproduct material. 35.75 Section 35.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.75 Release of...

  18. 10 CFR 35.75 - Release of individuals containing unsealed byproduct material or implants containing byproduct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Release of individuals containing unsealed byproduct material or implants containing byproduct material. 35.75 Section 35.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.75 Release of...

  19. 10 CFR 35.75 - Release of individuals containing unsealed byproduct material or implants containing byproduct...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Release of individuals containing unsealed byproduct material or implants containing byproduct material. 35.75 Section 35.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION MEDICAL USE OF BYPRODUCT MATERIAL General Technical Requirements § 35.75 Release of...

  20. Reliability evaluation of prestressed concrete containment structures

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, J.; Hwang, H.; Reich, M.

    1985-01-01

    The probabilistic safety evaluation of a realistic unbonded prestressed concrete containment building subjected to combinations of static and dynamic loads is presented. Loads considered include dead load, prestressing, accidental internal pressure, tornado and earthquake loads. Pertinent load parameters are the occurrence rate, duration and intensity. These parameters are treated as random variables for most of the loads. Limit state probabilities conditional on a specific load combination are calculated using the analytical procedure developed at BNL, which makes use of the finite element method and random vibration theory. Lifetime limit state probabilities are calculated using a load coincidence formulation. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Activation of calcineurin by phosphotidylserine containing vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Politino, M.; King, M.M.

    1986-05-01

    Calcineurin (CaN) is a Ca/sup 2 +/- and calmodulin-regulated phosphatase. Recent findings suggested an association of CaN with biological membranes and prompted the present investigation into the interactions of the phosphatase with phospholipids in vitro. In the absence of calmodulin, sonicated preparations of phosphatidylserine (PS) provided a five-fold activation of the Ni- and Mn-supported activities of CaN towards (/sup 32/P) histone Hl; activation in the presence of calmodulin was much less pronounced. Half-maximal activation in the absence of calmodulin required approximately 0.1 mg/ml of PS. Activation of CaN was also observed with mixed vesicles of phosphatidylcholine (PC) containing 20% PS but not with PC alone, or with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Molecular sieve chromatography on Ultrogel AcA 34 provided further evidence that CaN associates with phospholipid vesicles composed of PS, or PC containing 20% PS, but not with vesicles of PC or PE. Complete association with medium sized vesicles of PS and PC/PS required Ca/sup 2 +/ ions; in the absence of the metal ion at least 60% of the enzyme failed to interact with the lipids while the remainder preferentially migrated with larger vesicles. These results suggest a role for Ca/sup 2 +/ in regulating CaN's interaction with phospholipids.

  2. Shear modulus of kaolin containing methane bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, S.M. ); Wheeler, S.J. . Dept. of Engineering Science); Bennell, J.D. )

    1994-05-01

    Measurements of undrained shear moduli are reported from a program of laboratory tests on reconstituted kaolin samples containing relatively large bubbles of methane gas. The experimental program included low-frequency torsional stress-strain loops and torsional resonant column tests, providing values of shear moduli for shear-strain similitudes from 0.0004% to 0.1%. At all values of strain amplitude, the reduction of shear moduli caused by the presence of gas bubbles was greater than predicted by a theoretical elastic expression. This pattern of behavior was attributed to te formation of local yield zones around the gas-bubble cavities during consolidation prior to shear testing (a phenomenon that would also occur in-situ within offshore sediments). The results of the research program suggest that reductions in shear moduli of up to 50% could be caused by relatively small volumes of gas bubbles, occupying just a few percent of the total soil volume. This would have considerable significance for the displacements of offshore foundations constructed on sediments containing undissolved gas.

  3. Synthesis of tin-containing polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezzell, S. A.; Taylor, L. T.

    1984-01-01

    A series of tin-containing polyimide films derived from either 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride or pyromellitic dianhydride and 4,4'-oxydianiline have been synthesized and their electrical properties examined. Highest quality materials (i.e., homogeneous, smooth surface, flexible) with the best electrical properties were doped with either SnCl2.2H2O or (n-Bu)2SnCl2. In all cases, extensive reactivity of the tin dopant with water, air or polyamic acid during imidization is observed. Lowered electrical surface resistivities appear to be correlatable with the presence of surface tin oxide on the film surface.

  4. SOLUBILIZATION OF ACTINIDE METAL-CONTAINING SLAG

    DOEpatents

    Hopkins, H.H. Jr.

    1959-08-01

    This patent relates to solubilization of the actinide rare earths valves contained in the slag materials resulting from the reduction of actinide salts, such as plutonium tetrafluoride. According to the invention the slag is subjected to a high temperature chloridizing roast, preferably from the reduction of actinide salts, such as plutonium tetrafluoride. According to the invention the slag is subjected to a high temperature chloridizing roast, preferably at about 700 deg C with gaseous hydrogen chloride, until the actinides within the slag are substantially convented to the chlorides. The resultant chlorinated actinides are then leached from the cooled roasted mass by treating with aqueous 0.01 M nitric acid.

  5. Containing the secret of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

    2012-04-01

    This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as one of containing the secret of child sexual abuse. Three key dynamics were identified: the active withholding of the secret on the part of the child, the experience of a 'pressure cooker effect' reflecting a conflict between the wish to tell and the wish to keep the secret, and the confiding itself which often occurs in the context of an intimacy being shared. Children's experiences of disclosure were multidetermined and suggest the need for multifaceted and multisystemic approaches to prevention and intervention. The need for the secret to be contained, individually and interpersonally in appropriate safeguarding and therapeutic contexts needs to be respected in helping children tell.

  6. Comparison of Students Classified ED in Self-Contained Classrooms and a Self-Contained School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattison, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Middle school students classified with Emotional Disturbance in two levels of least restrictive environments (LRE)--self-contained classes (SCC) and a self-contained school (SCS)--were compared at the beginning and the end of a school year, using demographics, IQ and achievement testing, a teacher checklist for DSM-IV psychopathology, and standard…

  7. Performance of Particulate Containment at Nanotechnology Workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Li-Ming; Tsai, Candace S.-J.; Dunn, Kevin H.; Hammond, Duane; Marlow, David; Topmiller, Jennifer; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of engineering controls for the production or use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated at two facilities. These controls assessments are necessary to evaluate the current status of control performance and to develop proper control strategies for these workplaces. The control systems evaluated in these studies included ventilated enclosures, exterior hoods, and exhaust filtration systems. Activity-based monitoring with direct-reading instruments and filter sampling for microscopy analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures at study sites. Our study results showed that weighing CNTs inside the biological safety cabinet can have a 37% reduction on the particle concentration in the worker’s breathing zone, and produce a 42% lower area concentration outside the enclosure. The ventilated enclosures used to reduce fugitive emissions from the production furnaces exhibited good containment characteristics when closed, but they failed to contain emissions effectively when opened during product removal/harvesting. The exhaust filtration systems employed for exhausting these ventilated enclosures did not provide promised collection efficiencies for removing engineered nanomaterials from furnace exhaust. The exterior hoods were found to be a challenge for controlling emissions from machining nanocomposites: the downdraft hood effectively contained and removed particles released from the manual cutting process, but using the canopy hood for powered cutting of nanocomposites created 15%–20% higher ultrafine (<500 nm) particle concentrations at the source and at the worker’s breathing zone. The microscopy analysis showed that CNTs can only be found at production sources but not at the worker breathing zones during the tasks monitored. PMID:26705393

  8. Performance of particulate containment at nanotechnology workplaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Li-Ming; Tsai, Candace S.-J.; Dunn, Kevin H.; Hammond, Duane; Marlow, David; Topmiller, Jennifer; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The evaluation of engineering controls for the production or use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated at two facilities. These control assessments are necessary to evaluate the current status of control performance and to develop proper control strategies for these workplaces. The control systems evaluated in these studies included ventilated enclosures, exterior hoods, and exhaust filtration systems. Activity-based monitoring with direct-reading instruments and filter sampling for microscopy analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures at study sites. Our study results showed that weighing CNTs inside the biological safety cabinet can have a 37 % reduction on the particle concentration in the worker's breathing zone, and produce a 42 % lower area concentration outside the enclosure. The ventilated enclosures used to reduce fugitive emissions from the production furnaces exhibited good containment characteristics when closed, but they failed to contain emissions effectively when opened during product removal/harvesting. The exhaust filtration systems employed for exhausting these ventilated enclosures did not provide promised collection efficiencies for removing engineered nanomaterials from furnace exhaust. The exterior hoods were found to be a challenge for controlling emissions from machining nanocomposites: the downdraft hood effectively contained and removed particles released from the manual cutting process, but using the canopy hood for powered cutting of nanocomposites created 15-20 % higher ultrafine (<500 nm) particle concentrations at the source and at the worker's breathing zone. The microscopy analysis showed that CNTs can only be found at production sources but not at the worker breathing zones during the tasks monitored.

  9. Performance of Particulate Containment at Nanotechnology Workplaces.

    PubMed

    Lo, Li-Ming; Tsai, Candace S-J; Dunn, Kevin H; Hammond, Duane; Marlow, David; Topmiller, Jennifer; Ellenbecker, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The evaluation of engineering controls for the production or use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was investigated at two facilities. These controls assessments are necessary to evaluate the current status of control performance and to develop proper control strategies for these workplaces. The control systems evaluated in these studies included ventilated enclosures, exterior hoods, and exhaust filtration systems. Activity-based monitoring with direct-reading instruments and filter sampling for microscopy analysis were used to evaluate the effectiveness of control measures at study sites. Our study results showed that weighing CNTs inside the biological safety cabinet can have a 37% reduction on the particle concentration in the worker's breathing zone, and produce a 42% lower area concentration outside the enclosure. The ventilated enclosures used to reduce fugitive emissions from the production furnaces exhibited good containment characteristics when closed, but they failed to contain emissions effectively when opened during product removal/harvesting. The exhaust filtration systems employed for exhausting these ventilated enclosures did not provide promised collection efficiencies for removing engineered nanomaterials from furnace exhaust. The exterior hoods were found to be a challenge for controlling emissions from machining nanocomposites: the downdraft hood effectively contained and removed particles released from the manual cutting process, but using the canopy hood for powered cutting of nanocomposites created 15%-20% higher ultrafine (<500 nm) particle concentrations at the source and at the worker's breathing zone. The microscopy analysis showed that CNTs can only be found at production sources but not at the worker breathing zones during the tasks monitored.

  10. 40 CFR 265.173 - Management of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of containers. 265.173... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.173 Management of containers. (a) A container... waste. (b) A container holding hazardous waste must not be opened, handled, or stored in a manner...

  11. 40 CFR 264.173 - Management of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of containers. 264.173... Use and Management of Containers § 264.173 Management of containers. (a) A container holding hazardous... container holding hazardous waste must not be opened, handled, or stored in a manner which may rupture...

  12. Observations of mercury-containing aerosols.

    PubMed

    Murphy, D M; Hudson, P K; Thomson, l D S; Sheridan, P J; Wilson, J C

    2006-05-15

    In situ analyses with a laser ionization mass spectrometer have shown that a large fraction of aerosols in the bottom few kilometers of the stratosphere contain small amounts of mercury (1). Electron microscopy of particles collected near the tropopause has also detected mercury. The distribution of mercury onto many particles, including those less than 20 nm in diameter, indicates that the mercury is from local condensation of mercury compounds onto particles rather than transport of mercury-rich aerosols from surface sources. Although the results are only semiquantitative, they suggest that most of the mercury in the lower stratosphere is converted into the particulate phase. Mercury-containing particles were present at both middle latitudes and the tropics in two seasons. There is therefore good reason to believe that particulate mercury above the tropopause is global and could affect the atmospheric lifetime of mercury. There are indications that bromine and/ or iodine may be involved in the conversion of mercury from the gas to particle phase. Measurements at altitudes below 5 km did not find mercury in any particles despite sampling some particles that clearly originated in the stratosphere. This indicates that the particulate mercury from the lower stratosphere may be volatile enough to evaporate or decompose once particles reach warmer temperatures.

  13. Ribosomal synthesis of dehydroalanine-containing peptides.

    PubMed

    Seebeck, Florian P; Szostak, Jack W

    2006-06-07

    Dehydroalanine is a nonproteinogenic amino acid, but it is a component of a wide variety of natural products with therapeutic activities. Indeed, this alpha,beta-unsaturated residue is a highly versatile building block due to its rigidifying effect on peptide backbones and its electrophilicity which allows site-specific thiol ligations of peptides with small molecules or proteins. To harness such versatility in genetically encoded, combinatorial peptide libraries, we report a simple and robust method for the ribosomal synthesis of dehydroalanine-containing peptides. Selenalysine, a selenium-containing lysine analogue, was recruited as a masked dehydroalanine equivalent. This residue is efficiently incorporated by a reconstituted Escherichia coli translation system at high fidelity and efficiency despite the presence of low levels of lysine. Mild oxidative conditions were used to convert selenalysine into dehydroalanine post-translationally. Using this method, we demonstrate the preparation of polyunsaturated and highly decorated peptides. This report is an important step toward the preparation and selection of large libraries of protein-reactive compounds with potential use as novel drugs or as analytical tools.

  14. Physics of systems containing neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, Malvin

    1996-01-01

    This grant dealt with several topics related to the dynamics of systems containing a compact object. Most of the research dealt with systems containing Neutron Stars (NS's), but a Black Hole (BH) or a White Dwarf (WD) in situations relevant to NS systems were also addressed. Among the systems were isolated regular pulsars, Millisecond Pulsars (MSP's) that are either Single (SMP's) or in a binary (BMP's), Low Mass X-Ray Binaries (LMXB's) and Cataclysmic Variables (CV's). Also dealt with was one aspect of NS structure, namely NS superfluidity. A large fraction of the research dealt with irradiation-driven winds from companions which turned out to be of importance in the evolution of LMXB's and MSP's, be they SMP's or BMP's. While their role during LMXB evolution (i.e. during the accretion phase) is not yet clear, they may play an important role in turning BMP's into SMP's and also in bringing about the formation of planets around MSP's. Work was concentrated on the following four problems: The Windy Pulsar B197+20 and its Evolution; Wind 'Echoes' in Tight Binaries; Post Nova X-ray Emission in CV's; and Dynamics of Pinned Superfluids in Neutron Stars.

  15. Microanalysis of nonoriented P containing silicon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Puru; Li, Fulin; Chen, Liang; People'S Republic Of China, Zhenchun Li Steel Research Institute Wuhan Iron; Steel Company Wuhan The

    1988-04-01

    Texture determination, Si, P distribution, and microstructural analyses were made for the nonoriented P containing silicon steel (DW1) by x-ray diffractometer (XRD), electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), and transmission-electron microscope (TEM), respectively. DW1 is a new electrical steel designed by WISCo. It contains about 0.05% Si and 0.11% P [L. He, D. Fei, and P. Liu, in the Second International Conference on the Physical Metallurgy of Electrical Steel, New York, 1985 (unpublished)]. The textures were measured for samples decarburization-annealed at different temperatures such as 710, 750, 820, and 860 °C. According to the ratio of (100) and the magnetic properties of DW1, we found that the optimum result was obtained at 820 °C. It was found from the result of EPMA measurements that the distribution of Si and P is homogeneous without any grain boundary segregation. The microstructure shows that coarse precipitates of AlN an MnS were present in the hot rolled strip and remained in the strip after 1020 °C solid solution treatment but dissolved after 1120 °C. It also shows that 710 °C isn't the efficient decarburizing annealing temperature because there are some inclusions precipitated along grain boundaries in the sheet after decarburization-annealed at that temperature. The structure of this type must be harmful to the properties of materials.

  16. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTION OF NITROGEN-CONTAINING STEROIDS.

    PubMed

    SMITH, R F; SHAY, D E; DOORENBOS, N J

    1963-06-01

    Smith, Rodney F. (University of Maryland, Baltimore), Donald E. Shay, and Norman J. Doorenbos. Antimicrobial action of nitrogen-containing steroids. J. Bacteriol. 85:1295-1299. 1963.-A new group of 16 synthetic nitrogen-containing steroids have been tested against a variety of microorganisms for antimicrobial properties. The gradient plate screening method, serial dilution, and dry weight techniques were used in the studies. The organisms tested consisted of 14 gram-negative bacteria, 10 gram-positive bacteria, 2 actinomycetes, 7 yeasts, and 8 molds. Inhibitory properties were found to be specific and potent in four compounds, with inhibitory concentrations as low as 0.37 mug/ml. Three of the active steroids are 4-aza cholestanes and one is a 4-nor-3,5-secocholestane amide. Sensitivity to the compounds was greatest in the gram-positive bacteria, followed by the yeasts and molds. The gram-negative bacteria were not inhibited. All 16 steroids interfered to some extent with pigmentation in Serratia marcescens but not with pigment production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In a few instances, some of the molds were stimulated by the steroids at a concentration of 250 mug/ml.

  17. Electronic Structure of Small Lanthanide Containing Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafader, Jared O.; Ray, Manisha; Topolski, Josey E.; Chick Jarrold, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Lanthanide-based materials have unusual electronic properties because of the high number of electronic degrees of freedom arising from partial occupation of 4f orbitals, which make these materials optimal for their utilization in many applications including electronics and catalysis. Electronic spectroscopy of small lanthanide molecules helps us understand the role of these 4f electrons, which are generally considered core-like because of orbital contraction, but are energetically similar to valence electrons. The spectroscopy of small lanthanide-containing molecules is relatively unexplored and to broaden this understanding we have completed the characterization of small cerium, praseodymium, and europium molecules using photoelectron spectroscopy coupled with DFT calculations. The characterization of PrO, EuH, EuO/EuOH, and CexOy molecules have allowed for the determination of their electron affinity, the assignment of numerous anion to neutral state transitions, modeling of anion/neutral structures and electron orbital occupation.

  18. Electronic properties of sulfur containing conjugated polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brédas, J. L.; Elsenbaumer, R. L.; Chance, R. R.; Silbey, Robert

    1983-05-01

    Valence effective Hamiltonian (VEH) calculations are performed on a number of sulfur containing organic conjugated polymers of interest to the conducting polymers area. Theoretical results for parameters related to conductivity such as ionization potentials, bandwidths, and bandgaps are presented. Systems considered include various derivatives of poly (p-phenylene sulfide), polybenzothiophene, and polythiophene, as well as potentially interesting compounds such as polythieno [3,2-b] thiophene and polyvinylene sulfide. The electronic structure description afforded by the VEH method for sulfur containing polymers is demonstrated to be of the same quality as that presented previously for hydrocarbon polymers. In particular, for ionization potentials, good agreement with available experimental data on poly (p-phenylene sulfide) and polybenzothiophene is obtained, after scaling downward the VEH values by a 1.9 eV polarization correction. The comparison between the theoretical and experimental XPS spectra for polybenzothiophene is excellent with use of the same energy scaling factor previously employed for polyacetylene, poly(p-phenylene), and poly(p-phenylene sulfide). These results, in conjuction with previous results obtained on hydrocarbon polymers, lend confidence in the predictive capabilities of this purely theoretical technique. Calculations show that polyvinylene sulfide, as yet unsynthesized, should display very promising characteristics as a conducting polymer.

  19. Instabilities of vibroequilibria in rectangular containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, J.; Tinao, I.; Porter, J.; Laverón-Simavilla, A.

    2017-02-01

    Vibroequilibria theory, based on minimizing an averaged energy functional, predicts the quasi-equilibrium shape that a fluid volume will take when subjected to high-frequency vibrations. Here we present a detailed comparison of the predictions of vibroequilibria theory with the results of direct numerical simulations in horizontally vibrated rectangular containers, finding very good agreement over a range of parameters. The calculations also reveal an important difference in the behavior between small and large fluid volumes. With dimensionless volume larger than about 0.36, the symmetric vibroequilibria solution suffers a saddle-node instability prior to contact with the container bottom. This saddle-node bifurcation is analyzed using a simplified family of surfaces and shown to persist when gravity is included. Finally, an investigation of dynamic effects is presented, where a strong correlation is found between modulated subharmonic surface waves and the first odd sloshing mode. At large enough amplitude, this sloshing destroys the underlying vibroequilibria state and thus represents a possible instability for vibroequilibria in low viscosity fluids.

  20. Properties of polypropylene nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jang, Myung Wook; Kim, Ju-Young; Ihn, Kyo Jin

    2007-11-01

    Silver/polypropylene (PP) nanocomposites containing silver nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm were prepared using a new synthetic method. AgNO3 crystals were dissolved into hydrophilic domain of polyoxyethylene maleate-based surfactant (PEOM), which gives self-assembly nano-structures. The AgNO3 in the nano-domains of PEOM was reduced by NaBH4 to form nanoparticles. The colloidal solutions with silver nanoparticles were diluted with ethanol and were mixed with PP pellets. Silver nanocomposites were prepared by extrusion compounding process after drying the pellets. Contents of silver nanoparticles dispersed within PP resin were changed from 100 to 1000 ppm. Formation of silver nanoparticles within PP was confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy and TEM. Size and distribution of dispersed silver nanoparticles were also measured by TEM. Silver/PP nanocomposites films showed not only improved thermal stability but also increased mechanical properties compared to neat PP film. Tensile properties of PP nanocomposites were largely improved compared with neat PP resin, and elongation increased also by 175% for the nanocomposites containing 1000 ppm silver nanoparticles.

  1. Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing chromium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, A. M. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing about one quadrillon atoms cu cm of chromium is improved about 26% by thermal annealing of the silicon wafer at a temperature of 200 C to form chromium precipitates having a diameter of less than 1 Angstrom. Further improvement in efficiency is achieved by scribing laser lines onto the back surface of the wafer at a spacing of at least 0.5 mm and at a depth of less than 13 micrometers to preferentially precipitate chromium near the back surface and away from the junction region of the device. This provides an economical way to improve the deleterious effects of chromium, one of the impurities present in metallurgical grade silicon mateial.

  2. Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing chromium

    DOEpatents

    Frosch, Robert A. Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space; Salama, Amal M.

    1982-01-01

    Efficiency of silicon solar cells containing about 10.sup.15 atoms/cm.sup.3 of chromium is improved about 26% by thermal annealing of the silicon wafer at a temperature of 200.degree. C. to form chromium precipitates having a diameter of less than 1 Angstrom. Further improvement in efficiency is achieved by scribing laser lines onto the back surface of the wafer at a spacing of at least 0.5 mm and at a depth of less than 13 micrometers to preferentially precipitate chromium near the back surface and away from the junction region of the device. This provides an economical way to improve the deleterious effects of chromium, one of the impurities present in metallurgical grade silicon material.

  3. Method of determining a content of a nuclear waste container

    DOEpatents

    Bernardi, Richard T.; Entwistle, David

    2003-04-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for identifying contents of a nuclear waste container. The method includes the steps of forming an image of the contents of the container using digital radiography, visually comparing contents of the image with expected contents of the container and performing computer tomography on the container when the visual inspection reveals an inconsistency between the contents of the image and the expected contents of the container.

  4. Analysis of Cd44-Containing Lipid Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Oliferenko, Snezhana; Paiha, Karin; Harder, Thomas; Gerke, Volker; Schwärzler, Christoph; Schwarz, Heinz; Beug, Hartmut; Günthert, Ursula; Huber, Lukas A.

    1999-01-01

    CD44, the major cell surface receptor for hyaluronic acid (HA), was shown to localize to detergent-resistant cholesterol-rich microdomains, called lipid rafts, in fibroblasts and blood cells. Here, we have investigated the molecular environment of CD44 within the plane of the basolateral membrane of polarized mammary epithelial cells. We show that CD44 partitions into lipid rafts that contain annexin II at their cytoplasmic face. Both CD44 and annexin II were released from these lipid rafts by sequestration of plasma membrane cholesterol. Partition of annexin II and CD44 to the same type of lipid rafts was demonstrated by cross-linking experiments in living cells. First, when CD44 was clustered at the cell surface by anti-CD44 antibodies, annexin II was recruited into the cytoplasmic leaflet of CD44 clusters. Second, the formation of intracellular, submembranous annexin II–p11 aggregates caused by expression of a trans-dominant mutant of annexin II resulted in coclustering of CD44. Moreover, a frequent redirection of actin bundles to these clusters was observed. These basolateral CD44/annexin II–lipid raft complexes were stabilized by addition of GTPγS or phalloidin in a semipermeabilized and cholesterol-depleted cell system. The low lateral mobility of CD44 in the plasma membrane, as assessed with fluorescent recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), was dependent on the presence of plasma membrane cholesterol and an intact actin cytoskeleton. Disruption of the actin cytoskeleton dramatically increased the fraction of CD44 which could be recovered from the light detergent-insoluble membrane fraction. Taken together, our data indicate that in mammary epithelial cells the vast majority of CD44 interacts with annexin II in lipid rafts in a cholesterol-dependent manner. These CD44-containing lipid microdomains interact with the underlying actin cytoskeleton. PMID:10459018

  5. Synthesis of diacetylene-containing polyimides

    SciTech Connect

    Thuo, A.N.; Beckham, H.W.

    1995-12-31

    Polyimides with diacetylenes incorporated along their backbones have been prepared by two different routes: (1) polyimidization of a dianhydride with a diacetylene-containing diamine, and (2) oxidative coupling of an {alpha},{omega}-diyne diimide. The route for a specific polyimide was chosen to facilitate synthesis and molecular-weight control (necessary to ensure processability). Systematic analyses of polymer structures are being conducted to evaluate their influences on diacetylene reactivity, material processability, and thermal stability. It is found that the chain structure of the aliphatic unit connecting the diacetylene group to the remainder of the chain plays a critical role in determining these properties of the system. The goal is to use these materials as processable high-temperature gas-separation membranes in which gas permeability/selectivity may be tailored by controlling the degree and spatial distribution of diacetylene crosslinking.

  6. Preparation and evaluation of proliposomes containing clotrimazole.

    PubMed

    Ning, Mei-Ying; Guo, Ying-Zhi; Pan, Huai-Zhong; Yu, He-Ming; Gu, Zhong-Wei

    2005-06-01

    Clotrimazole (CT)-containing proliposomes were prepared by penetrating an ethanol solution of CT and Egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) into microporous sorbitol particles, followed by vacuum evaporation of the solvent. As a result, CT proliposomes with free-flowing flowability were obtained. On contact with water, the proliposomes were rapidly converted into a liposomal dispersion, in which a certain amount of CT was entrapped by the liposomes. The result in scanning electronic micrograph confirmed the formation of liposomes structures from proliposomes, and the particles revealed round or ellipse. The ratio of drug to total lipid, ratio of PC to cholesterol and ratio of lipid to sorbitol affected the entrapment efficiency (EE%). The EE% of optimized formulation (CT 10 mg, 0.1 g total lipid, PC/CH ratio is 60 : 40 and 1 g sorbitol) in this investigation was 96.2+/-1.5%. The proliposomes system can provide sustaining release in simulated vaginal fluid at 37+/-1 degrees C for 24 h. In-vivo performance of blank proliposomes, a physical mixture of sorbitol and drug, clotrimazole proliposomes and commercial ointment formulation were evaluated using antifungal activity test. At 7 d post-dose, the c.f.u. of C. albicans decreased in proliposomes-treated groups than ointment and the physical mixture (t-Student, p<0.05). The results indicated that CT-containing vaginal proliposomes prolonged drug release and may increase amount of drug retention into the mucosa to result in more antifungal efficacy. In addition, CT-proliposomes did not affect the morphology of vaginal tissues. Therefore, the dosage form might be further developed for safe, convenient, and effective treatment of vaginal candidasis with reduced dosing interval.

  7. Ground freezing for containment of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Sayles, F.N.; Iskandar, I.K.

    1998-07-01

    The freezing of ground for the containment of subsurface hazardous waste is a promising method that is environmentally friendly and offers a safe alternative to other methods of waste retention in many cases. The frozen soil method offers two concepts for retaining waste. One concept is to freeze the entire waste area into a solid block of frozen soil thus locking the waste in situ. For small areas where the contaminated soil does not include vessels that would rupture from frost action, this concept may be simpler to install. A second concept, of course, is to create a frozen soil barrier to confine the waste within prescribed unfrozen soil boundaries; initial research in this area was funded by EPA, Cincinnati, OH, and the Army Corps of Engineers. The paper discusses advantages and limitations, a case study from Oak Ridge, TN, and a mesh generation program that simulates the cryogenic technology.

  8. Spectroscopic studies of microwave plasmas containing hexamethyldisiloxane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nave, A. S. C.; Mitschker, F.; Awakowicz, P.; Röpcke, J.

    2016-10-01

    Low-pressure microwave discharges containing hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) with admixtures of oxygen and nitrogen, used for the deposition of silicon containing films, have been studied spectroscopically. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in the visible spectral range has been combined with infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS). The experiments were carried out in order to analyze the dependence of plasma chemical phenomena on power and gas mixture at relatively low pressures, up to 50 Pa, and power values, up to 2 kW. The evolution of the concentration of the methyl radical, CH3, and of seven stable molecules, HMDSO, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, C2H6, CO and CO2, was monitored in the plasma processes by in situ IRLAS using tunable lead salt diode lasers (TDL) and external-cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL) as radiation sources. To achieve reliable values for the gas temperature inside and outside the plasma bulk as well as for the temperature in the plasma hot and colder zones, which are of great importance for calculation of species concentrations, three different methods based on emission and absorption spectroscopy data of N2, CH3 and CO have been used. In this approach line profile analysis has been combined with spectral simulation methods. The concentrations of the various species, which were found to be in the range between 1011 to 1015 cm-3, are in the focus of interest. The influence of the discharge parameters power, pressure and gas mixture on the molecular concentrations has been studied. To achieve further insight into general plasma chemical aspects the dissociation of the HMDSO precursor gas including its fragmentation and conversion to the reaction products was analyzed in detail.

  9. Reuse of Material Containing Natural Radionuclides - 12444

    SciTech Connect

    Metlyaev, E.G.; Novikova, N.J.

    2012-07-01

    Disposal of and use of wastes containing natural radioactive material (NORM) or technologically enhanced natural radioactive material (TENORM) with excessive natural background as a building material is very important in the supervision body activity. At the present time, the residents of Octyabrsky village are under resettlement. This village is located just near the Priargunsky mining and chemical combine (Ltd. 'PPGHO'), one of the oldest uranium mines in our country. The vacated wooden houses in the village are demolished and partly used as a building material. To address the issue of potential radiation hazard of the wooden beams originating from demolition of houses in Octyabrsky village, the contents of the natural radionuclides (K-40, Th-232, Ra-226, U- 238) are being determined in samples of the wooden beams of houses. The NORM contents in the wooden house samples are higher, on average, than their content in the reference sample of the fresh wood shavings, but the range of values is rather large. According to the classification of waste containing the natural radionuclides, its evaluation is based on the effective specific activity. At the effective specific activity lower 1.5 kBq/kg and gamma dose rate lower 70 μR/h, the material is not considered as waste and can be used in building by 1 - 3 classes depending upon A{sub eff} value. At 1.5 kBq/kg < A{sub eff} ≤ 4 kBq/kg (4 class), the wooden beams might be used for the purpose of the industrial building, if sum of ratios between the radionuclide specific activity and its specific activity of minimum significance is lower than unit. The material classified as the waste containing the natural radionuclides has A{sub eff} higher 1.5 kBq /kg, and its usage for the purpose of house-building and road construction is forbidden. As for the ash classification and its future usage, such usage is unreasonable, because, according to the provided material, more than 50% of ash samples are considered as radioactive

  10. Studies of phthalocyanine-containing polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Pui Sze Priscilla

    This thesis reports the synthesis, spectroscopic and photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of several series of phthalocyanine-containing polymers including poly(norbornene), poly(anhydride), and poly(epsilon-caprolactone). Chapter 1 gives a general overview of phthalocyanines including their synthesis and applications. Special emphasis has been placed on hydrophilic and non-aggregated phthalocyanines and their use in photodynamic therapy. In addition, different classes of phthalocyanine-containing polymers will also be mentioned. Chapter 2 discusses the synthesis, characterization, and photophysical properties of a series of poly(norbornene)s with zinc(II) phthalocyanine and amino acid moieties. The copolymers were prepared by copolymerization of 2-(2-norbornenylmethoxy)phthalocyaninatozinc(II) with 5-norbornenes substituted with phenylalanine and tyrosine. As shown by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, phthalocyanines in this series of polymer exhibit a rather strong aggregation tendency. Chapter 3 presents the synthesis, characterization, photophysical properties, and in vitro photodynamic activities of a related series of amino acid- and sugar-containing poly(norbornene)s connected axially to a silicon(IV) phthalocyanine core. These polymers exhibit a good solubility in common organic solvents. Due to the axial polymeric substituents, these compounds are free from aggregation and give a high singlet oxygen quantum yield. These polymers in Cremophor EL emulsions also show a high photodynamic activity against HepG2 cells, in particular the polymer with protected galactose moieties. Chapter 4 reports a series of silicon(IV) phthalocyanines substituted with two poly(sebacic anhydride) chains as the axial ligands. The polymers form nanoparticles in water in the presence of surfactants cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS). The degradation of the nanoparticles was carried out in alkaline media and was

  11. Adhesive Properties of Cured Phenylethynyl containing Imides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Alice C.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a program to develop structural adhesives for high performance aerospace applications, several phenylethynyl containing oligomer blends of Larc(TM) MPEI and a reactive plasticizer designated LaRC LV-1 21 were prepared and evaluated. The fully imidized blends exhibited minimum melt viscosity as low as 1000 poise at 371 C. Ti/Ti lap shear specimens fabricated at 316 C under 15 psi gave RT strength of approx. 4300 psi and no change in strength was observed at 177 C. The chemistry and properties of this new MPEI as well as some blends of MPEI with LV-121 are presented and compared to the linear version, LARC(TM)-PETI-5.

  12. Proof testing of an explosion containment vessel

    SciTech Connect

    Esparza, E.D.; Stacy, H.; Wackerle, J.

    1996-10-01

    A steel containment vessel was fabricated and proof tested for use by the Los Alamos National Laboratory at their M-9 facility. The HY-100 steel vessel was designed to provide total containment for high explosives tests up to 22 lb (10 kg) of TNT equivalent. The vessel was fabricated from an 11.5-ft diameter cylindrical shell, 1.5 in thick, and 2:1 elliptical ends, 2 in thick. Prior to delivery and acceptance, three types of tests were required for proof testing the vessel: a hydrostatic pressure test, air leak tests, and two full design charge explosion tests. The hydrostatic pressure test provided an initial static check on the capacity of the vessel and functioning of the strain instrumentation. The pneumatic air leak tests were performed before, in between, and after the explosion tests. After three smaller preliminary charge tests, the full design charge weight explosion tests demonstrated that no yielding occurred in the vessel at its rated capacity. The blast pressures generated by the explosions and the dynamic response of the vessel were measured and recorded with 33 strain channels, 4 blast pressure channels, 2 gas pressure channels, and 3 displacement channels. This paper presents an overview of the test program, a short summary of the methodology used to predict the design blast loads, a brief description of the transducer locations and measurement systems, some of the hydrostatic test strain and stress results, examples of the explosion pressure and dynamic strain data, and some comparisons of the measured data with the design loads and stresses on the vessel.

  13. Flammability of Epoxy Resins Containing Phosphorus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hergenrother, P. M.; Thompson, C. M.; Smith, J. G.; Connell, J. W.; Hinkley, J. A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a program to develop fire-resistant exterior composite structures for future subsonic commercial and general aviation aircraft, flame-retardant epoxy resins are under investigation. Epoxies and their curing agents (aromatic diamines) containing phosphorus were synthesized and used to prepare epoxy formulations. Phosphorus was incorporated within the backbone of the epoxy resin and not used as an additive. The resulting cured neat epoxy formulations were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, propane torch test, elemental analysis, microscale combustion calorimetry, and fire calorimetry. Several formulations showed excellent flame retardation with phosphorous contents as low as 1.5% by weight. The fracture toughness and compressive strength of several cured formulations showed no detrimental effect due to phosphorus content. The chemistry and properties of these new epoxy formulations are discussed.

  14. Local magnitudes of small contained explosions.

    SciTech Connect

    Chael, Eric Paul

    2009-12-01

    The relationship between explosive yield and seismic magnitude has been extensively studied for underground nuclear tests larger than about 1 kt. For monitoring smaller tests over local ranges (within 200 km), we need to know whether the available formulas can be extrapolated to much lower yields. Here, we review published information on amplitude decay with distance, and on the seismic magnitudes of industrial blasts and refraction explosions in the western U. S. Next we measure the magnitudes of some similar shots in the northeast. We find that local magnitudes ML of small, contained explosions are reasonably consistent with the magnitude-yield formulas developed for nuclear tests. These results are useful for estimating the detection performance of proposed local seismic networks.

  15. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Jankowski, Alan F.

    1999-01-01

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition.

  16. Method of fabricating boron containing coatings

    DOEpatents

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1999-04-27

    Hard coatings are fabricated from boron nitride, cubic boron nitride, and multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, and the fabrication thereof involves magnetron sputtering in a selected atmosphere. These hard coatings may be applied to tools and engine and other parts, as well to reduce wear on tribological surfaces and electronic devices. These boron coatings contain no morphological growth features. For example, the boron is formed in an inert (e.g. argon) atmosphere, while the cubic boron nitride is formed in a reactive (e.g. nitrogen) atmosphere. The multilayer boron/cubic boron nitride, is produced by depositing alternate layers of boron and cubic boron nitride, with the alternate layers having a thickness of 1 nanometer to 1 micrometer, and at least the interfaces of the layers may be discrete or of a blended or graded composition. 3 figs.

  17. Evaluation of static eliminators containing polonium-210

    SciTech Connect

    Czajkowski, C.J.

    1999-01-01

    Six static eliminators containing radioactive polonium-210 microspheres were examined subsequent to a contamination incident at a commercial facility. It was found that cracked and broken microspheres were being produced and incorporated into new devices and even as received devices were potential sources of contamination. It is shown that rough handling of the devices may initiate polonium-210 leakage during or prior to service. The epoxy binder used in the devices appears to suffer significant environmental and material damage even under ambient conditions. The effects of solvents, heat, moisture, or vibration during service may accelerate this damage. The breakdown of the epoxy binder appears to be a significant contributor to the contamination by loose microspheres or microsphere fragments.

  18. DISSOLUTION OF FISSILE MATERIALS CONTAINING TANTALUM METAL

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T; Mark Crowder, M; Michael Bronikowski, M

    2007-05-29

    The dissolution of composite materials containing plutonium (Pu) and tantalum (Ta) metals is currently performed in Phase I of the HB-Line facility. The conditions for the present flowsheet are the dissolution of 500 g of Pu metal in the 15 L dissolver using a 4 M nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution containing 0.2 M potassium fluoride (KF) at 95 C for 4-6 h.[1] The Ta metal, which is essentially insoluble in HNO{sub 3}/fluoride solutions, is rinsed with process water to remove residual acid, and then burned to destroy classified information. During the initial dissolution campaign, the total mass of Pu and Ta in the dissolver charge was limited to nominally 300 g. The reduced amount of Pu in the dissolver charge coupled with significant evaporation of solution during processing of several dissolver charges resulted in the precipitation of a fluoride salt contain Pu. Dissolution of the salt required the addition of aluminum nitrate (Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}) and a subsequent undesired 4 h heating cycle. As a result of this issue, HB-Line Engineering requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to optimize the dissolution flowsheet to reduce the cycle time, reduce the risk of precipitating solids, and obtain hydrogen (H{sub 2}) generation data at lower fluoride concentrations.[2] Using samples of the Pu/Ta composite material, we performed three experiments to demonstrate the dissolution of the Pu metal using HNO{sub 3} solutions containing 0.15 and 0.175 M KF. When 0.15 M KF was used in the dissolving solution, 95.5% of the Pu in the sample dissolved in approximately 6 h. The undissolved material included a small amount of Pu metal and plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) solids. Complete dissolution of the metal would have likely occurred if the dissolution time had been extended. This assumption is based on the steady increase in the Pu concentration observed during the last several hours of the experiment. We attribute the formation of PuO{sub 2} to the complexation

  19. Study of Stellar Clusters Containing Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costado, Teresa; Alfaro, E. J.; Delgado, A. J.; Djupvik, A. A.; Maíz Apellániz, J.

    2013-06-01

    Most stars form in clusters, but the percentage of stars born in dense stellar systems is currently matter of controversy and depends very much on the own definition of cluster. The cluster definition and hence the morphologies of individual clusters appear to vary significantly from region to region, as well as with age, which suggests that either, star formation in clusters is not universal and may depend on the local environment, or that all clusters form with the same morphology but early dynamical evolution quickly modifies the structure of the phase space distribution. In addition, young populated clusters containing massive stars are excellent labs for the study of the formation of the massive stellar component of the Galactic disk. Three main scenarios have been proposed for the formation of high-mass stars (M > 7-8 M_{⊙}): a) monolithic collapse of proto-stellar nuclei; b) competitive accretion inside the proto-cluster molecular cloud; and c) coalescence of proto-stellar nuclei and low-mass stars in very dense atmospheres. Both scientific questions: a) cluster formation and b) formation of high mass stars in clusters are intimately connected via the structural description of the phase space distribution of cluster stars and their Mass Function (MF). Models of static clusters with different initial spatial and kinematic distributions show how the spatial distribution dynamically evolves with time, allowing a characterization of their dynamical state from snapshots of their spatial distribution. Four are the main variables (and their distribution with mass and position) needed for a reliable characterization of the cluster dynamical state: a) Mass segregation parameter; b) Mapping of surface density for different ranges of masses; c) Q morphological parameter based on the minimum spanning tree graph and its variation with mass and cluster age, and d) MF of the cluster members. Two years ago, the Stellar System Group of IAA has begun an observational

  20. The probability of containment failure by direct containment heating in Zion

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, M.M.; Yan, H.; Theofanous, T.G.

    1994-12-01

    This report is the first step in the resolution of the Direct Containment Heating (DCH) issue for the Zion Nuclear Power Plant using the Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology (ROAAM). This report includes the definition of a probabilistic framework that decomposes the DCH problem into three probability density functions that reflect the most uncertain initial conditions (UO{sub 2} mass, zirconium oxidation fraction, and steel mass). Uncertainties in the initial conditions are significant, but our quantification approach is based on establishing reasonable bounds that are not unnecessarily conservative. To this end, we also make use of the ROAAM ideas of enveloping scenarios and ``splintering.`` Two causal relations (CRs) are used in this framework: CR1 is a model that calculates the peak pressure in the containment as a function of the initial conditions, and CR2 is a model that returns the frequency of containment failure as a function of pressure within the containment. Uncertainty in CR1 is accounted for by the use of two independently developed phenomenological models, the Convection Limited Containment Heating (CLCH) model and the Two-Cell Equilibrium (TCE) model, and by probabilistically distributing the key parameter in both, which is the ratio of the melt entrainment time to the system blowdown time constant. The two phenomenological models have been compared with an extensive database including recent integral simulations at two different physical scales. The containment load distributions do not intersect the containment strength (fragility) curve in any significant way, resulting in containment failure probabilities less than 10{sup {minus}3} for all scenarios considered. Sensitivity analyses did not show any areas of large sensitivity.

  1. Temperature variations in eyebank containers: comparative study of corneal transport containers and packing methods.

    PubMed

    York, K K; Ward, D E; Smith, R E

    Two containers ("Iowa" and "Virginia") commonly used for transporting donor corneas, and various packing methods were evaluated for constancy of temperature maintenance. The larger Iowa container was found to be superior for extended storage. Packing methods that allowed the vials (containing McCarey-Kaufman medium) to be in direct contact with wet ice or with ice water resulted in the best cooling. Direct contact with supercooled ice may cause freezing of the medium. Separating the vials from the ice water slush by dry foam rubber or Styrofoam did not allow adequate cooling. Heat sealing the vials in a plastic bag containing minimal air permitted proper cooling and may reduce the risk of contamination from the ice water.

  2. Stabilization of methanol-containing gasolines

    SciTech Connect

    Lykov, O.P.

    1994-09-01

    In other countries, methanol is used quite extensively as a component of automotive gasolines. The possibility of using methanol-containing gasolines in this country is currently under investigation. One of the basic problems in using such gasolines is their separation into phases at low temperatures when even traces of water are present. The temperature at which layer separation occurs can be lowered by the use of stabilizers such as isopropanol, isobutanol, 2-ethylhexanol, and other lower alcohols. The considerable difference between gasoline and methanol in physicochemical properties makes it necessary to use stabilizers in large amounts, up to 50% of the methanol content. The cost of stabilizers (C{sub 3}-C{sub 8} alcohols) is more than an order of magnitude higher than the cost of gasoline, and the availability of such alcohols in this country is quite limited. Because of this situation, it is of definite interest to develop new, effective stabilizers. The curtailment of oil production in this country has created a need for alternative fuels, including automotive gasolines. One possibility is the use of stabilized hydrocarbon-methanol blends (HMBs) based on waste materials from certain large-scale petrochemical production operations.

  3. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bickford, Dennis F.

    1997-01-01

    A process for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate from the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile.

  4. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bickford, D.F.

    1997-09-02

    A process is described for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process is also disclosed. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate from the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile. 1 fig.

  5. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    DOEpatents

    Bickford, D.F.

    1995-01-01

    A process for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovery metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process are described. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate form the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile.

  6. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  7. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  8. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  9. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  10. 27 CFR 26.106 - Marking containers of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marking containers of beer... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Beer § 26.106 Marking containers of beer. Containers of beer of Puerto... brewer; the serial number, capacity, and size of the container; the kind of beer; and the serial...

  11. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  12. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  13. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  14. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  15. 27 CFR 26.97 - Marking containers of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Marking containers of wine... Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Wine § 26.97 Marking containers of wine. Containers of wine of Puerto... winemaker, the serial number of the container, the kind and taxable grade of the wine, the gallon content...

  16. Ultrafiltration of micellar solutions containing phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Adamczak, H.; Materna, K.; Urbanski, R.; Szymanowski, J.

    1999-10-15

    Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration represents a potentially attractive tool for the removal of different contaminants from wastewaters. The ultrafiltration of micellar solutions containing phenol or 4-nitrophenol was studied. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), hexadecylrimethyl ammonium sulfate, alkyl polyglucoside Glucopon 215 SC UP, and oxyethylated methyl dodecanoates with the average degree of oxyethylation equal to 5 and 9 were used as surfactants and NaHCO{sub 3} as an electrolyte and alkalizing agent. Filtration and phenol rejection depends on the presence of NaHCO{sub 3} and the type of surfactant. NaHCO{sub 3} depresses to the filtration rate, especially in the case of SDS and hydrophobic oxyethylated methyl dodecanoate. The highest filtration rates are obtained for hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and alkyl polyglucoside micellar solutions. The best separations, both of phenol and 4-nitrophenol (almost 100% rejection), are obtained for CTAB micellar solutions at the pH range from 3 to 11. Nonionic surfactants are not effective enough for the separation of phenol and 4-nitrophenol. SDS solutions permit only the separation of phenol.

  17. Adhesive Properties of Cured Phenylethynyl Containing Imides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, Brian J.; Chang, Alice C.

    1997-01-01

    Considerable attention has been directed towards acetylene terminated oligomers over the last 20 years' and recent work has focused on phenylethynyl terminated imide (PETI) oligomers. These reactive oligomers possess several features which make them attractive candidates for use as composite matrices and adhesives. The phenylethynyl group can be readily incorporated into many different functionalized oligomers. The reactive oligomers possess relatively low melt viscosities and thermally cure without the evolution of volatile by-products. Once cured, they typically display high glass transition temperatures (Tgs), excellent solvent resistance and high mechanical properties. new modified phenylethynyl-terminated imide (LaRC MPEI) oligomers were synthesized at various molecular weights utilizing a small amount of trifunctional amine. As long as the amount of triamine is relatively small, this approach produces a mixture of linear, star-shaped and branched polymer chains that has lower melt and solution viscosity than an equivalent molecular weight linear phenylethynyl terminated imide oligomers. The work reported herein involves the synthesis and characterization of a copolymer using this approach and the preparation of blends utilizing a phenylethynyl containing reactive plasticizer of lower molecular weight called LaRC LV-121. The chemistry and properties of this new MPEI as well as some blends of MPEI with LV-121, are presented and compared to the linear version, LARC-PETI-5.

  18. An interpretation of passive containment cooling phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Bum-Jin; Kang, Chang-Sun,

    1995-09-01

    A simplified interpretation model for the cooling capability of the Westinghouse type PCCS is proposed in this paper. The PCCS domain was phenomenologically divided into 3 regions; water entrance effect region, asymptotic region, and air entrance effect region. The phenomena in the asymptotic region is focused in this paper. Due to the very large height to thickness ratio of the water film, the length of the asymptotic region is estimated to be over 90% of the whole domain. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation, a new dependent variable combining temperature and vapor mass fraction was defined. The similarity between the PCCS phenomena, which contains the sensible and latent heat transfer, and the buoyant air flow on a vertical heated plate is derived. The modified buoyant coefficient and thermal conductivity were defined. Using these newly defined variable and coefficients, the modified correlation for the interfacial heat fluxes and the ratios of latent heat transfer to sensible heat transfer is established. To verify the accuracy of the correlation, the results of this study were compared with the results of other numerical analyses performed for the same configuration and they are well within the range of 15% difference.

  19. 7 CFR 52.774 - Fill of container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Fill of Container § 52.774 Fill of container. (a) FDA requirements. Canned red tart pitted cherries shall meet the fill of container... red tart pitted cherries is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S. Standard...

  20. 7 CFR 52.774 - Fill of container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Fill of Container § 52.774 Fill of container. (a) FDA requirements. Canned red tart pitted cherries shall meet the fill of container... red tart pitted cherries is determined by emptying the contents of the container upon a U.S. Standard...

  1. Properties of liposomal membranes containing lysolecithin.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, T; Inoue, K; Nojima, S

    1976-06-01

    Liposomes have been prepared with lysolecithin (1-acyl-sn-3-glycerylphosphorylcholine), egg lecithin (3-sn-phosphatidylcholine), dicetyl phosphate, and cholesterol. The ability to function as a barrier to the diffusion of glucose marker and the sensitivities of the liposomes to hypotonic treatment and other reagents which modified the permeability were examined. Generally, lysolecithin incorporation decreased the effectiveness of the membranes as a barrier to glucose and made the membranes more "osmotically fragile." Cholesterol incorporation counteracted the effect of incorporated lysolecithin. The more cholesterol incorporated into liposomes, the more lysolecthin could be incorporated into the membrane without loss of function as a barrier. With more than 50 mole% of colesterol, lysolecithin alone could form membranes which were practically impermeable to glucose. The hemolytic activity of lysolecithin was affected by mixing with various lecithins or cholesterol. Liposomes containing lysolecithin, which have the ability to trap glucose marker, showed poor hemolytic activity, while lipid micelles with lysolecithin (which could trap little glucose) showed almost the same hemolytic activity as lysolecithin itself. There seems to be a close correlation between hemolytic activity and barrier function of lipid micelles.

  2. Ultrasonic testing of plates containing edge cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Lee, S. S.; Karagulle, H.

    1986-01-01

    The stress wave factor (SWF) signal is utilized for the nondestructive evaluation of plates containing perpendicular edge cracks. The effects of the existence lateral location and depth of the crack on the magnitude spectra of individual reflections in the SWF signal are studied. If the reflections in the SWF signal are not overlapped the short time Fourier analysis is applied. If the reflections are overlapped the short time homomorphic analysis (cepstrum analysis) is applied. Several reflections which have average resonant frequencies approximately at 0.9, 1.3, and 1.7 MHz are analyzed. It is observed that the magnitude ratios evaluated at average resonant frequencies decrease more with increasing d/h if the crack is located between the transducers, where h is plate thickness and d is crack depth. Moreover, for the plates, crack geometries, reflections, and frequencies considered, the average decibel drop depends mainly on the dimensionless parameter d/h and it is approximately -1 dB per 0.07 d/h. Changes in the average resonant frequencies of the magnitude spectra are also observed due to changes in the location of the crack.

  3. Ultrasonic testing of plates containing edge cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. H., Jr.; Karagulle, H.; Lee, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    The stress wave factor (SWF) signal is utilized for the nondestructive evaluation of plates containing perpendicular edge cracks. The effects of the existence lateral location and depth of the crack on the magnitude spectra of individual reflections in the SWF signal are studied. If the reflections in the SWF signal are not overlapped the short time Fourier analysis is applied. If the reflections are overlapped the short time homomorphic analysis (cepstrum analysis) is applied. Several reflections which have average resonant frequencies approximately at 0.9, 1.3, and 1.7 MHz are analyzed. It is observed that the magnitude ratios evaluated at average resonant frequencies decrease more with increasing d/h if the crack is located between the transducers, where h is plate thickness and d is crack depth. Moreover, for the plates, crack geometries, reflections, and frequencies considered, the average decibel drop depends mainly on the dimensionless parameter d/h and it is approximately -1 dB per 0.07 d/h. Changes in the average resonant frequencies of the magnitude spectra are also observed due to changes in the location of the crack.

  4. Synthesis of microcapsules containing different extractant agents.

    PubMed

    Alcázar, Ángela; Carmona, Manuel; Borreguero, Ana M; de Lucas, Antonio; Rodríguez, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is one of the most toxic pollutants, with high capacity of accumulation in living organism, causing important human health problems. Therefore, the mercury removal from water is an important research goal. In a previous work, an extractant agent [di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid] was microencapsulated in poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) by means of suspension polymerisation using toluene as diluent. In this study, this recipe has been modified changing the toluene by heptane and extended to four additional extractants (trioctylamine, trioctylmethylammonium chloride [TOMAC], tributyl phosphate and trioctylphosphine oxide). The polluting potential of the waste liquid from the process was measured by total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand analyses. The morphology, particle size and distribution were studied by scanning electron microscopy and low angle laser light scattering. The amount of extractant agent into the microcapsules and the microencapsulation efficiency were determined by thermogravimetric analysis and the mercury removal capacity by equilibrium studies. Microcapsules containing TOMAC demonstrated to be the best material for the mercury removal and retention.

  5. Characterization of Oversized Crates containing Nuclear Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, Randal K.; Haggard, Daniel L.; Hilliard, Jim; Mozhayev, Andrey V.

    2007-11-01

    The 212-N Building at the Hanford Site held fifteen large crates containing glove boxes and process equipment associated with the development and fabrication of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel. The gloveboxes and associated equipment originated from the 308 Building of the Hanford Site and had been placed in the crates after a process upset in the 1960s. The crates were transported to the 212-N Building and had been in storage since 1972. In an effort to reduce the hazard categorization of 212-N the crates were removed from the building and Nondestructive Assay (NDA) was performed to characterize the crate contents meeting both Safeguards and Waste Management interests. A measurement system consisting of four configurable neutron slab detectors and high purity germanium (HPGe) detectors was deployed. Since no viable information regarding the waste matrix and configuration was available it was essential to correct for attenuation with a series of transmission measurements using californium and europium sources for both neutron and gamma applications. The gamma and neutron results obtained during this measurement campaign are compared and discussed in the paper.

  6. Photochemical Formation of Sulfur-Containing Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroll, Jay A.; Vaida, Veronica

    2017-06-01

    In order to understand planetary climate systems, modeling the properties of atmospheric aerosols is vital. Aerosol formation plays an important role in planetary climates and is tied to feedback loops that can either warm or cool a planet. Sulfur compounds are known to play an important role in new particle aerosol formation and have been observed in a number of planetary atmospheres throughout our solar system. Our current understanding of sulfur chemistry explains much of what we observe in Earth's atmosphere; however, several discrepancies arise when comparing observations of the Venusian atmosphere with model predictions. This suggests that there are still problems in our fundamental understanding of sulfur chemistry. This is concerning given recent renewed interest in sulfate injections in the stratosphere for solar radiation management geo-engineering schemes. We investigate the role of sunlight as a potential driver of the formation of sulfur-containing aerosols. I will present recent work investigating the generation of large quantities of aerosol from the irradiation of mixtures of SO_2 with water and organic species, using a solar simulator that mimics the light that is available in the Earth's troposphere and the Venusian middle atmosphere. I will present on recent work done in our lab suggesting the formation of sulfurous acid, H_2SO_3, and describe experimental work that supports this proposed mechanism. Additionally I will present on new work showing the highly reactive nature of electronically excited SO_2 with saturated alkane species. The implications of this photochemically induced sulfur aerosol formation in the atmosphere of Earth and other planetary atmospheres will be discussed.

  7. Validation of CONTAIN-LMR code for accident analysis of sodium-cooled fast reactor containments

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeev, S.; Hering, W.; Schikorr, M.; Stieglitz, R.

    2012-07-01

    CONTAIN-LMR 1 is an analytical tool for the containment performance of sodium cooled fast reactors. In this code, the modelling for the sodium fire is included: the oxygen diffusion model for the sodium pool fire, and the liquid droplet model for the sodium spray fire. CONTAIN-LMR is also able to model the interaction of liquid sodium with concrete structure. It may be applicable to different concrete compositions. Testing and validation of these models will help to qualify the simulation results. Three experiments with sodium performed in the FAUNA facility at FZK have been used for the validation of CONTAIN-LMR. For pool fire tests, calculations have been performed with two models. The first model consists of one gas cell representing the volume of the burn compartment. The volume of the second model is subdivided into 32 coupled gas cells. The agreement between calculations and experimental data is acceptable. The detailed pool fire model shows less deviation from experiments. In the spray fire, the direct heating from the sodium burning in the media is dominant. Therefore, single cell modeling is enough to describe the phenomena. Calculation results have reasonable agreement with experimental data. Limitations of the implemented spray model can cause the overestimation of predicted pressure and temperature in the cell atmosphere. The ability of the CONTAIN-LMR to simulate the sodium pool fire accompanied by sodium-concrete reactions was tested using the experimental study of sodium-concrete interactions for construction concrete as well as for shielding concrete. The model provides a reasonably good representation of chemical processes during sodium-concrete interaction. The comparison of time-temperature profiles of sodium and concrete shows, that the model requires modifications for predictions of the test results. (authors)

  8. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  9. Polyimides containing oxyethylene units. Part 4: Polymerization of dianhydrides containing ether linkages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, F. W.; Karnavas, A. J.; Das, S.; Cucuras, C. N.; Hergenrother, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    The development of new composite resins for various aerospace applications is attempted. Although it is highly desirable that these polymers be soluble in order to facilitate processing, they must display considerable solvent-resistance in use. A recent approach has involved the synthesis of a new series of polyimides containing flexible linkages. The polymers were prepared by the polymerization of aromatic dianhydrides with diamines containing oxyethylene linkages. For example, the polymerization of 3,3',4,4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) with 1,2-bis(4-aminophenoxy)ethane (1a) and bis2-(4-aminophenoxy)ethylether (lb), afforded highly crystalline polyimides that were completely insoluble. However, a polyimide that was amorphous and soluble was obtained from the polymerization of BTDA and an isomer of lb, i.e., bis2-(3-aminophenoxy)ethyl ether (4b). In an attempt to obtain a soluble, amorphous polyimide that could be annealed into a crysalline state, block copolymers of 1b and 4b and BTDA were prepared. Copolymers containing less than 20 weight % 1b were soluble in organic solvents. However, these polymers did not crystallize when heated above their Tg's. Copolymers containing higher levels of 1b were semicrystalline and insoluble. The polymerization of the diamines containing oxyethylene linkages with 4,4'-oxydiphthalic anhydride (ODPA) and a new dianhydride, i.e., 4,4'-oxyethyleneoxyethyleneoxydiphthalic anhydride (OEDA) was investigated. It was postulated that the use of these more flexible dianhydrides would result in more processable polyimides.

  10. Evaluation of self-contained HEPA filter

    SciTech Connect

    Arndt, T.E.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of a self-contained high-efficiency particulate air filter (SCHEPA) used in nuclear applications. A SCHEPA consists of filter medium encapsulated in a casing that is part of the system boundary. The SCHEPA filter serves as a combination of filter housing and filter. The filter medium is attached directly to the casing using adhesive as a bonding agent. A cylindrical connection in the middle of the end caps connects the filter assembly to adjoining ductwork. The SCHEPA must perform the functions of a filter housing, filter frame, and filter. It was recognized that the codes and standards do not address the SCHEPA specifically. Therefore, the investigation evaluated the SCHEPA against current codes and standards related to the functional requirements of an air-cleaning system. The specific standards used are required by DOE Order 6430.1A and include ASME N509, ASME N510, ERDA 76-21, MIL-F-51068F, NFPA 90A, and NFPA 91. The evaluation does not address whether the SCHEPA as a standard (off-the-shelf) filter could be upgraded to meet the current code requirements for an air-cleaning unit. The evaluation also did not consider how the SCHEPA was used in a system (e.g., whether it was under positive or negative pressure or whether it served as an air inlet filter to prevent contamination releases under system pressurization). The results of the evaluation show that, the SCHEPA filter does not meet design, fabrication, testing, and documentation requirements of ASME N509 and ASME N510. The paper will identify these deficiencies. Specific exhaust system requirements and application should be considered when an evaluation of the SCHEPA filter is being performed in existing systems. When new designs are being contemplated, other types of HEPA filter housings can be used in lieu of the SCHEPA filter.

  11. CONTAIN code analyses of direct containment heating (DCH) experiments: Model assessment and phenomenological interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, D.C.; Griffith, R.O.; Tadios, E.L.; Washington, K.E.

    1995-05-12

    Models for direct containment heating (DCH) in the CONTAIN code for severe accident analysis have been reviewed and a standard input prescription for their use has been defined. The code has been exercised against a large subset of the available DCH data base. Generally good agreement with the experimental results for containment pressurization ({Delta}P) and hydrogen generation has been obtained. Extensive sensitivity studies have been performed which permit assessment of many of the strengths and weaknesses of specific model features. These include models for debris transport and trapping, DCH heat transfer and chemistry, atmosphere-structure heat transfer, interactions between nonairborne debris and blowdown steam, potential effects of debris-water interactions, and hydrogen combustion under DCH conditions. Containment compartmentalization is an important DCH mitigator in the calculations, in agreement with experimental results. The CONTAIN model includes partially parametric treatments for some processes that are not well understood. The importance of the associated uncertainties depends upon the details of the DCH scenario being analyzed. Recommended sensitivity studies are summarized that allow the user to obtain a reasonable estimate of the uncertainties in the calculated results.

  12. Reforming catalyst of separate platinum-containing and iridium-containing particles

    SciTech Connect

    Schoennagel, H.J.

    1981-04-21

    Catalyst compositions are provided comprising a refractory support, about 0.1 to about 2 percent by weight of platinum, about 0.1 to about 2 percent by weight of iridium and about 0.1 to about 5 weight percent of halogen where the platinum and iridium are contained on separate particles of said support. The relative weight ratio of the particles containing platinum and those containing iridium is between about 10:1 to about 1:10. The compositions are useful as hydrocarbon conversion catalysts and are especially applicable for use in catalyzing the reforming of naphtha petroleum fractions. There is also disclosed a reforming process conducted in the presence of hydrogen, under reforming conditions, in the presence of the above catalyst.

  13. The probability of containment failure by direct containment heating in surry

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.; Bergeron, K.D.; Tadios, E.L.; Stamps, D.W.; Spencer, B.W.; Quick, K.S.; Knudson, D.L.

    1995-05-01

    In a light-water reactor core melt accident, if the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) fails while the reactor coolant system (RCS) at high pressure, the expulsion of molten core debris may pressurize the reactor containment building (RCB) beyond its failure pressure. A failure in the bottom head of the RPV, followed by melt expulsion and blowdown of the RCS, will entrain molten core debris in the high-velocity steam blowdown gas. This chain of events is called a high-pressure melt ejection (HPME). Four mechanisms may cause a rapid increase in pressure and temperature in the reactor containment: (1) blowdown of the RCS, (2) efficient debris-to-gas heat transfer, (3) exothermic metal-steam and metal-oxygen reactions, and (4) hydrogen combustion. These processes, which lead to increased loads on the containment building, are collectively referred to as direct containment heating (DCH). It is necessary to understand factors that enhance or mitigate DCH because the pressure load imposed on the RCB may lead to early failure of the containment.

  14. Durability of polymers for containment barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, J.; Milian, L.; Clinton, J.; Colombo, P.

    1994-12-31

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has been involved in several tasks to develop, demonstrate, and implement advanced polymer materials for use in subsurface barriers throughout the US Department of Energy complex. Binders investigated as barrier composites include polyester styrenes, vinylester styrenes, high-molecular-weight acrylics, sulfur polymer cement, bitumen, and a furfuryl-alcohol-based furan polymer. These materials have been extensively used in many commercial applications, e.g., in sewage and brine handling systems and electrolytic baths. They have also been used by the US Army Corps of Engineers to repair dams and canal locks, and by the Federal highway Administration for bridge deck and highway repairs. Their impermeability to gases and liquids, combined with resistance to radiation and to acidic and alkaline environments, make polymer grouts candidates for high-quality, durable barriers. Laboratory testing and evaluation of polymer composites has been ongoing since early 1992. A series of resistance tests were used to determine the performance and durability characteristics of a variety of polymer composites. This paper details the results of this characterization that pertain to the Hanford Site underground storage tanks. Testing includes wet-dry cycling, chemical resistivity to ground water, base, solvent and a surrogate nitrate tank brine, resistance to irradiation, and hydraulic conductivity. Performance values indicate that polymers can meet the requirements for containment barriers for underground storage tanks at the Hanford tank farm, including the high-heat tanks. Appropriate choices of binder and aggregate, followed by appropriate, site-specific compatibility testing will result in a durable, high-strength, low-permeability barrier.

  15. The Retrograde of Shipping Containers from Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    War, (New York, New York: The Random House Publishing Group, 1993), Page 78. 2 MAJ Tony Velazquez , 1st TSC, SPO Mobility and Mark LaRue, Global...mail to author, March 23, 2013 25 Ibid. 26 Ibid. 27 MAJ Tony Velazquez , 1st TSC, SPO Mobility and Mark LaRue, Global Container Manager, Surface...Late Fees for Military Shipping Containers Soar”, USA Today, October 4, 2012 33 MAJ Tony Velazquez , 1st TSC, SPO Mobility and Mark LaRue, Global

  16. A Study of Weld Porosity in Containers for the Storage of Plutonium Containing Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.L.

    2003-04-21

    An autogenous GTAW closure weld was developed for the Department of Energy's (DOE) primary container for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials. The occurrence of porosity at the tie-in point of the closure weld was investigated. The primary cause of the porosity was linked to the geometry at the root of the closure weld joint. This paper describes the mechanistic model that was developed to describe and predict the porosity.

  17. Containers of DS-2 Decontaminating Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    Polyethylene bottles in 404 X 900 tinplate cans for 1-1/3-quart container. E. INVESTMENT COST: 1. Alternative A - SO 2. Alternative B - SI...Commander Naval Weapons Center ATTN: Technical Library, Code 343 China Lake, CA 93555 US MARINE CORPS Director, Development Center Marine Corps

  18. Evaluation of self-contained HEPA filter

    SciTech Connect

    Arndt, T.E.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of a self-contained high-efficiency particulate air filter (SHEPA) used in nuclear applications. A SCHEPA consists of filter medium encapsulated in a casing that is part of the system boundary. The SCHEPA filter serves as a combination of filter housing and filter. The filter medium is attached directly to the casing using adhesive as a bonding agent. A cylindrical connection in the middle of the end caps connects the filter assembly to adjoining ductwork. The SCHEPA must perform the functions of a filter housing, filter frame, and filter. It was recognized that the codes and standards do not address the SCHEPA specifically. Therefore, the investigation evaluated the SCHEPA against current codes and standards related to the functional requirements of an air-cleaning system. The specific standards used are required by DOE Order 6430.1A{sup 1} and include ASME N509{sup 3}, ASME N510{sup 4}, ERDA 76-21{sup 5}, MIL-F-51068F{sup 6}, NFPA 90A, {sup 7} and NFPA 91{sup 8}. The evaluation does not address whether the SCHEPA as a standard (off-the-shelf) filter could be upgraded to meet the current code requirements for an air-cleaning unit. The evaluation also did not consider how the SCHEPA was used in a system (e.g., whether it was under positive or negative pressure or whether it served as an air inlet filter to prevent contamination releases under system pressurization). The results of the evaluation show that, the SCHEPA filter does not meet design, fabrication, testing, and documentation requirements of ASME N509{sup 3} and ASME N510{sup 4}. The paper will identify these deficiencies. Specific exhaust system requirements and application should be considered when an evaluation of the SCHEPA filter is being performed in existing systems. When new designs are being comtemplated, other types of HEPA filter housings can be used in lieu of the SCHEPA filter.

  19. Management of hazardous waste containers and container storage areas under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    DOE`s Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division, has prepared this guidance document to assist waste management personnel in complying with the numerous and complex regulatory requirements associated with RCRA hazardous waste and radioactive mixed waste containers and container management areas. This document is designed using a systematic graphic approach that features detailed, step-by-step guidance and extensive references to additional relevant guidance materials. Diagrams, flowcharts, reference, and overview graphics accompany the narrative descriptions to illustrate and highlight the topics being discussed. Step-by-step narrative is accompanied by flowchart graphics in an easy-to-follow, ``roadmap`` format.

  20. Identification and assessment of containment and release management strategies for a BWR Mark I containment

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.C.; Lehner, J.R. )

    1991-09-01

    This report identifies and assesses accident management strategies which could be important for preventing containment failure and/or mitigating the release of fission products during a severe accident in a BWR plant with a Mark 1 type of containment. Based on information available from probabilistic risk assessments and other existing severe accident research, and using simplified containment and release event trees, the report identifies the challenges a Mark 1 containment could face during the course of a severe accident, the mechanisms behind these challenges, and the strategies that could be used to mitigate the challenges. A safety objective tree is developed which provides the connection between the safety objectives, the safety functions, the challenges, and the strategies. The strategies were assessed by applying them to certain severe accident sequence categories which have one or more of the following characteristics: have high probability of core damage or high consequences, lead to a number of challenges, and involve the failure of multiple systems. 59 refs., 55 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. The probability of containment failure by direct containment heating in Zion. Supplement 1

    SciTech Connect

    Pilch, M.M.; Allen, M.D.; Stamps, D.W.; Tadios, E.L.; Knudson, D.L.

    1994-12-01

    Supplement 1 of NUREG/CR-6075 brings to closure the DCH issue for the Zion plant. It includes the documentation of the peer review process for NUREG/CR-6075, the assessments of four new splinter scenarios defined in working group meetings, and modeling enhancements recommended by the working groups. In the four new scenarios, consistency of the initial conditions has been implemented by using insights from systems-level codes. SCDAP/RELAP5 was used to analyze three short-term station blackout cases with Different lead rates. In all three case, the hot leg or surge line failed well before the lower head and thus the primary system depressurized to a point where DCH was no longer considered a threat. However, these calculations were continued to lower head failure in order to gain insights that were useful in establishing the initial and boundary conditions. The most useful insights are that the RCS pressure is-low at vessel breach metallic blockages in the core region do not melt and relocate into the lower plenum, and melting of upper plenum steel is correlated with hot leg failure. THE SCDAP/RELAP output was used as input to CONTAIN to assess the containment conditions at vessel breach. The containment-side conditions predicted by CONTAIN are similar to those originally specified in NUREG/CR-6075.

  2. [Forensic chemical investigation of alcohol-containing liquids contained polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride and diethylphthalate].

    PubMed

    Tsisanova, E S; Salomatin, E M

    2010-01-01

    Alcoholism remains one of the main causes of premature death in the population of Russia. Hence, the importance of the problem of uncontrolled distribution and consumption of surrogate alcoholic products, such as alcohol-containing liquids of uncertain origin. The objective of the present study was to detect ethyl alcohol, polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride, and diethylphthalate in disinfectant liquids, biological fluids and human tissues and to analyse qualitative and quantitative composition of these materials.

  3. 40 CFR 264.172 - Compatibility of waste with containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compatibility of waste with containers... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.172 Compatibility of waste with containers. The owner...

  4. 40 CFR 264.172 - Compatibility of waste with containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Compatibility of waste with containers... WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 264.172 Compatibility of waste with containers. The owner...

  5. STABILIZATION AND TESTING OF MERCURY CONTAINING WASTES: BORDEN SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details the stability assessment of a mercury containing sulfide treatment sludge. Information contained in this report will consist of background data submitted by the geneerator, landfill data supplied by EPA and characterization and leaching studies conducted by UC...

  6. Selective medium for growth of Campylobacter in containers incubated aerobically

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction. Campylobacter are traditionally cultured in primary containers inside of secondary containers filled with microaerobic atmospheres. Recent findings indicated that media supplemented with optimal concentrations of amino acids, organic acids, and bicarbonate support Campylobacter growth ...

  7. STABILIZATION AND TESTING OF MERCURY CONTAINING WASTES: BORDEN SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report details the stability assessment of a mercury containing sulfide treatment sludge. Information contained in this report will consist of background data submitted by the geneerator, landfill data supplied by EPA and characterization and leaching studies conducted by UC...

  8. 21 CFR 1230.48 - Relabeling of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Imports § 1230.48 Relabeling of containers. (a) If containers are to be... requirements of the Federal Caustic Poison Act and all regulations and instructions issued thereunder....

  9. 21 CFR 1230.48 - Relabeling of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Imports § 1230.48 Relabeling of containers. (a) If containers are to be... requirements of the Federal Caustic Poison Act and all regulations and instructions issued thereunder....

  10. 21 CFR 1230.48 - Relabeling of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Imports § 1230.48 Relabeling of containers. (a) If containers are to be... requirements of the Federal Caustic Poison Act and all regulations and instructions issued thereunder....

  11. 21 CFR 1230.48 - Relabeling of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Imports § 1230.48 Relabeling of containers. (a) If containers are to be... requirements of the Federal Caustic Poison Act and all regulations and instructions issued thereunder....

  12. 21 CFR 1230.48 - Relabeling of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Imports § 1230.48 Relabeling of containers. (a) If containers are to be... requirements of the Federal Caustic Poison Act and all regulations and instructions issued thereunder....

  13. Separation and Sealing of a Sample Container Using Brazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Rivellini, Tommaso P.; Wincentsen, James E.; Gershman, Robert

    2007-01-01

    A special double-wall container and a process for utilizing the container are being developed to enable (1) acquisition of a sample of material in a dirty environment that may include a biological and/or chemical hazard; (2) sealing a lid onto the inner part of the container to hermetically enclose the sample; (3) separating the resulting hermetic container from the dirty environment; and (4) bringing that hermetic container, without any biological or chemical contamination of its outer surface, into a clean environment. The process is denoted S(exp 3)B (separation, seaming, and sealing using brazing) because sealing of the sample into the hermetic container, separating the container from the dirty environment, and bringing the container with a clean outer surface into the clean environment are all accomplished simultaneously with a brazing operation.

  14. Report of Drop Test Container Offshore Transfer System (COTS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    5 Ii Summary of Tests Conducted at Each Configuration ..................................... 36 III Minimum Demonstrated Container... Figura 5 - Test Loads In Double Tier Confi gurat ion The test loads were placed in the container bare on the container floor with the exception of...types of containers evaluated is shown in Tables III and IV, respectively. Minimum endurance at impact velo- cities other than 6 fps and 10 fps can be

  15. 21 CFR 1230.41 - Delivery of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delivery of containers. 1230.41 Section 1230.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Imports § 1230.41 Delivery of containers. Containers shall not be delivered...

  16. 21 CFR 1230.41 - Delivery of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Delivery of containers. 1230.41 Section 1230.41 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Imports § 1230.41 Delivery of containers. Containers shall not be delivered...

  17. EVALUATION OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS USING HYDRAULIC HEAD DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subsurface vertical barriers have been used as components of containment systems to prevent or reduce the impact of containment sources on ground-water resources. Many containment systems also include a low permeability cover to prevent the infiltration-/recharge of precipitatio...

  18. EVALUATION OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS USING HYDRAULIC HEAD DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subsurface vertical barriers have been used as components of containment systems to prevent or reduce the impact of containment sources on ground-water resources. Many containment systems also include a low permeability cover to prevent the infiltration-/recharge of precipitatio...

  19. Survey of Technologies for Monitoring Containment Liners and Covers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report provides information on innovative long-term monitoring technologies to detect contaminant releases beneath a liner containment system and identify potential problems with the integrity of final containment covers.

  20. Russian Containers for Transportation of Solid Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Petrushenko, V. G.; Baal, E. P.; Tsvetkov, D. Y.; Korb, V. R.; Nikitin, V. S.; Mikheev, A. A.; Griffith, A.; Schwab, P.; Nazarian, A.

    2002-02-28

    The Russian Shipyard ''Zvyozdochka'' has designed a new container for transportation and storage of solid radioactive wastes. The PST1A-6 container is cylindrical shaped and it can hold seven standard 200-liter (55-gallon) drums. The steel wall thickness is 6 mm, which is much greater than standard U.S. containers. These containers are fully certified to the Russian GOST requirements, which are basically identical to U.S. and IAEA standards for Type A containers. They can be transported by truck, rail, barge, ship, or aircraft and they can be stacked in 6 layers in storage facilities. The first user of the PST1A-6 containers is the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy, under a program sponsored jointly by the U.S. DoD and DOE. This paper will describe the container design and show how the first 400 containers were fabricated and certified.

  1. PROCESS OF ELIMINATING HYDROGEN PEROXIDE IN SOLUTIONS CONTAINING PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Barrick, J.G.; Fries, B.A.

    1960-09-27

    A procedure is given for peroxide precipitation processes for separating and recovering plutonium values contained in an aqueous solution. When plutonium peroxide is precipitated from an aqueous solution, the supernatant contains appreciable quantities of plutonium and peroxide. It is desirable to process this solution further to recover plutonium contained therein, but the presence of the peroxide introduces difficulties; residual hydrogen peroxide contained in the supernatant solution is eliminated by adding a nitrite or a sulfite to this solution.

  2. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic...

  3. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic...

  4. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic...

  5. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic...

  6. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic...

  7. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic...

  8. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic...

  9. 36 CFR 4.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... INTERIOR VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a..., can or other receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic...

  10. 36 CFR 1004.14 - Open container of alcoholic beverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SAFETY § 1004.14 Open container of alcoholic beverage. (a) Each person within a motor vehicle is... receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage that is open, or has been opened, or whose seal is broken or the... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Open container of alcoholic...

  11. Shade periodicity affects growth of container grown dogwoods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Container-grown dogwoods rank third in the US in nursery sales of ornamental trees. However, Dogwoods are a challenging crop to produce in container culture, especially when bare root liners are used as the initial transplant into containers due unacceptable levels of mortality and poor growth. This...

  12. Process for the production of superconductor containing filaments

    SciTech Connect

    Tuominen, Olli P.; Hoyt, Matthew B.; Mitchell, David F.; Morgan, Carol W.; Roberts, Clyde Gordon; Tyler, Robert A.

    2002-01-01

    Superconductor containing filaments having embedments of superconducting material surrounded by a rayon matrix are formed by preparing a liquid suspension which contains at least 10 weight percent superconducting material; forming a multicomponent filament having a core of the suspension and a viscose sheath which contains cellulose xanthate; and thereafter, regenerating cellulose from the cellulose xanthate to form a rayon matrix.

  13. Comparative evaluation of collapsible versus semi-rigid intravenous containers.

    PubMed

    Gabay, Michael; von Martius, Konstantin

    2008-01-01

    Comparative information related to the properties of intravenous containers is lacking. Information is important as healthcare providers weigh the strengths and weaknesses of various competing products. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare three different intravenous containers: two closed-system fully collapsible bags that do not require external venting to empty (containers A and B) and one semi-rigid "bottle pack" that partially collapses unvented (container C). Through an observational study design, these containers were subjected to the following tests in order to evaluate their performance: determination of total and residual volume, air volume, admixture volume, presence of particulate matter, and a drop test. The mean residual volume of container C was higher compared to containers A and B: between 0.6% and 11.7% with a closed administration set and between 0.7% and 10.8% with an open administration set. The mean air volume measured was increased relative to the nominal volume for container C. In addition, containers A and B exhibited no visible particulate matter after puncture, satisfied the drop test more frequently, and had relatively higher admixture volumes in comparison to container C. The results of these examinations reveal that containers A and B outperformed container C; however, caution must be used when interpreting these observational results in the clinical setting.

  14. 3D impurity inspection of cylindrical transparent containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kragh, Mikkel; Bjerge, Kim; Ahrendt, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a method for automatically detecting and three-dimensionally positioning particles based on sequences of 2D images of rotating cylindrical transparent containers. The method can be used in the manufacturing industry by distinguishing between particles residing inside or outside a closed container. A foreign particle on the inside is a cause of rejection, whereas a particle on the outside might represent harmless dirt. The proposed method detects, tracks and positions particles and classifies containers accordingly as either rejected or accepted. Experimental results have shown an accuracy of 85% on a test set of 20 containers and an average execution time per container of 1 s.

  15. Strippable containment and decontamination coating composition and method of use

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.; Tucker, Mark D.; Jones, Joseph A.

    2009-04-07

    A method for containing at least a portion of radioisotopes, radionuclides, heavy metal or combination thereof contaminating a substrate wherein a containment composition is applied to the substrate. The ingredients within the containment composition interact with the contaminants on the surface of the substrate until the containment composition has polymerized to a water insoluble form containing at least a portion of the contaminates enmeshed therein. The dried composition is removed from the contaminated surface removing with the composition at least a portion of the contaminate.

  16. The Limits of Containment: Text-as-Container in Composition Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, Darsie

    1993-01-01

    Discusses similarities among writing, texts, and containers. Claims that containerization is a central metaphor in composition studies. Argues that this metaphor constrains the way texts are understood and treated. Examines alternatives to the text-as-container metaphor. (HB)

  17. Effects of container cavity size and copper coating on field performance of container-grown longleaf pine seedlings

    Treesearch

    Shi-Jean Susana Sung; James D. Haywood; Mary A. Sword-Sayer; Kristina F. Connor; D. Andrew Scott

    2010-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) seedlings were grown for 27 weeks in 3 container cavity sizes [small (S), medium (M), and large (L)], and half the containers were coated with copper (Cu). In November 2004, we planted 144 seedlings from each of 6 container treatments in each of 4 replications in central LA. All plots were burned in February 2006...

  18. Strange behavior of rapidity dependent strangeness enhancement of particles containing and not containing leading quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Kalyan; Bhattacharjee, B.

    2017-09-01

    Rapidity dependent strangeness enhancement factors for the identified particles have been studied with the help of a string based hadronic transport model UrQMD-3.3 (Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics) at FAIR energies. A strong rapidity dependent strangeness enhancement could be observed with our generated data for Au + Au collisions at the beam energy of 30A GeV. The strangeness enhancement is found to be maximum at mid-rapidity for the particles containing leading quarks while for particles consisting of produced quarks only, the situation is seen to be otherwise. Such rapidity dependent strangeness enhancement could be traced back to the dependence of rapidity width on centrality or otherwise on the distribution of net-baryon density.

  19. Process for the preparation of metal-containing nanostructured films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Yunfeng (Inventor); Wang, Donghai (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Metal-containing nanostructured films are prepared by electrodepositing a metal-containing composition within the pores of a mesoporous silica template to form a metal-containing silica nanocomposite. The nanocomposite is annealed to strengthen the deposited metal-containing composition. The silica is then removed from the nanocomposite, e.g., by dissolving the silica in an etching solution to provide a self-supporting metal-containing nanostructured film. The nanostructured films have a nanowire or nanomesh architecture depending on the pore structure of the mesoporous silica template used to prepare the films.

  20. NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIAL CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Yerger, L.; Mcclard, J.; Traver, L.; Grim, T.

    2010-02-01

    The first nondestructive examination (NDE) of 3013-type containers as part of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Integrated Surveillance Program (ISP) was performed in February, 2005. Since that date 280 NDE surveillances on 255 containers have been conducted. These containers were packaged with plutonium-bearing materials at multiple DOE sites. The NDE surveillances were conducted at Hanford, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Savannah River Site (SRS). These NDEs consisted of visual inspection, mass verification, radiological surveys, prompt gamma analysis, and radiography. The primary purpose of performing NDE surveillances is to determine if there has been a significant pressure buildup inside the inner 3013 container. This is done by measuring the lid deflection of the inner 3013 container using radiography images. These lid deflection measurements are converted to pressure measurements to determine if a container has a pressure of a 100 psig or greater. Making this determination is required by Surveillance and Monitoring Plan (S&MP). All 3013 containers are designed to withstand at least 699 psig as specified by DOE-STD-3013. To date, all containers evaluated have pressures under 50 psig. In addition, the radiography is useful in evaluating the contents of the 3013 container as well as determining the condition of the walls of the inner 3013 container and the convenience containers. The radiography has shown no signs of degradation of any container, but has revealed two packaging anomalies. Quantitative pressure measurements based on lid deflections, which give more information than the 'less than or greater than 100 psig' (pass/fail) data are also available for many containers. Statistical analyses of the pass/fail data combined with analysis of the quantitative data show that it is extremely unlikely that any container in the population of 3013 containers considered in this study (e.g., containers packaged according to the DOE-STD-3013 by

  1. Managing breaches of containment and eradication of invasive plant populations

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Cameron S; Westcott, David A; Murphy, Helen T; Grice, Anthony C; Clarkson, John R

    2015-01-01

    Containment can be a viable strategy for managing invasive plants, but it is not always cheaper than eradication. In many cases, converting a failed eradication programme to a containment programme is not economically justified. Despite this, many contemporary invasive plant management strategies invoke containment as a fallback for failed eradication, often without detailing how containment would be implemented. We demonstrate a generalized analysis of the costs of eradication and containment, applicable to any plant invasion for which infestation size, dispersal distance, seed bank lifetime and the economic discount rate are specified. We estimate the costs of adapting eradication and containment in response to six types of breach and calculate under what conditions containment may provide a valid fallback to a breached eradication programme. We provide simple, general formulae and plots that can be applied to any invasion and show that containment will be cheaper than eradication only when the size of the occupied zone exceeds a multiple of the dispersal distance determined by seed bank longevity and the discount rate. Containment becomes proportionally cheaper than eradication for invaders with smaller dispersal distances, longer lived seed banks, or for larger discount rates. Both containment and eradication programmes are at risk of breach. Containment is less exposed to risk from reproduction in the ‘occupied zone’ and three types of breach that lead to a larger ‘occupied zone’, but more exposed to one type of breach that leads to a larger ‘buffer zone’. For a well-specified eradication programme, only the three types of breach leading to reproduction in or just outside the buffer zone can justify falling back to containment, and only if the expected costs of eradication and containment were comparable before the breach. Synthesis and applications. Weed management plans must apply a consistent definition of containment and provide sufficient

  2. Managing breaches of containment and eradication of invasive plant populations.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Cameron S; Westcott, David A; Murphy, Helen T; Grice, Anthony C; Clarkson, John R

    2015-02-01

    Containment can be a viable strategy for managing invasive plants, but it is not always cheaper than eradication. In many cases, converting a failed eradication programme to a containment programme is not economically justified. Despite this, many contemporary invasive plant management strategies invoke containment as a fallback for failed eradication, often without detailing how containment would be implemented.We demonstrate a generalized analysis of the costs of eradication and containment, applicable to any plant invasion for which infestation size, dispersal distance, seed bank lifetime and the economic discount rate are specified. We estimate the costs of adapting eradication and containment in response to six types of breach and calculate under what conditions containment may provide a valid fallback to a breached eradication programme.We provide simple, general formulae and plots that can be applied to any invasion and show that containment will be cheaper than eradication only when the size of the occupied zone exceeds a multiple of the dispersal distance determined by seed bank longevity and the discount rate. Containment becomes proportionally cheaper than eradication for invaders with smaller dispersal distances, longer lived seed banks, or for larger discount rates.Both containment and eradication programmes are at risk of breach. Containment is less exposed to risk from reproduction in the 'occupied zone' and three types of breach that lead to a larger 'occupied zone', but more exposed to one type of breach that leads to a larger 'buffer zone'.For a well-specified eradication programme, only the three types of breach leading to reproduction in or just outside the buffer zone can justify falling back to containment, and only if the expected costs of eradication and containment were comparable before the breach.Synthesis and applications. Weed management plans must apply a consistent definition of containment and provide sufficient implementation detail

  3. Aging of steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    Aging of the containment pressure boundary in light water reactor plants is being addressed to understand the significant factors relating occurrence of corrosion efficacy of inspection and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and liners of concrete containments. and to make recommendations on use of risk models in regulatory decisions. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of containment related degradation experience is presented. Current and emerging nondestructive examination techniques and a degradation assessment methodology for characterizing and quantifying the amount of damage present are described. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures using time dependent structural reliability analysis methods are summarized. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process. Results of this research provide a means for establishing current and estimating future structural capacity margins of containments, and to address the significance of incidences of reported containment degradation.

  4. An overview of BWR Mark-1 containment venting risk implications: An evaluation of potential Mark-1 containment improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, K.C.; Dallman, R.J.; Galyean, W.J.

    1989-06-01

    This report supplements containment venting risk evaluations performed for the Mark-I Containment Performance Improvement (CPI) Program. Quantitative evaluations using simplified containment event trees for station blackout sequences were performed to evaluate potential risk reduction offered by containment venting, and improved automatic depressurization system with a dedicated power source, and an additional supply of water to either the containment sprays or the vessel with a dedicated power source. The risk calculations were based on the Draft NUREG-1150 results for Peach Bottom with selected enhancements. Several sensitivity studies were performed to investigate phenomenological, operational, and equipment performance uncertainties. Qualitative risk evaluations were provided for loss of long-term containment heat removal and anticipated transients without scram for the same set of improvements. A limited discussion is provided on the generic applicability of these results to other plants with Mark-I containments. 23 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. Instrumentation and testing of a prestressed concrete containment vessel model

    SciTech Connect

    Hessheimer, M.F.; Pace, D.W.; Klamerus, E.W.

    1997-04-01

    Static overpressurization tests of two scale models of nuclear containment structures - a steel containment vessel (SCV) representative of an improved, boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II design and a prestressed concrete containment vessel (PCCV) for pressurized water reactors (PWR) - are being conducted by Sandia National Laboratories for the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation of Japan and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This paper discusses plans for instrumentation and testing of the PCCV model. 6 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Characterization of Settler Tank, KW Container and KE Container Sludge Simulants

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, Carolyn A.; Luna, Maria L.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2011-04-01

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed by CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) has specified base formulations for non-radioactive sludge simulants for use in the development and testing of equipment for sludge sampling, retrieval, transport, and processing. In general, the simulant formulations are based on the average or design-basis physical and chemical properties obtained by characterizing sludge samples. The simulants include surrogates for uranium metal, uranium oxides (agglomerates and fine particulate), and the predominant chemical phases (iron and aluminum hydroxides, sand). Specific surrogate components were selected to match the nominal particle-size distribution and particle-density data obtained from sludge sample analysis. Under contract to CHPRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed physical and rheological characterization of simulants, and the results are reported here. Two base simulant types (dry) were prepared by STP staff at the Maintenance and Storage Facility and received by PNNL in February 2009: Settler Tank Simulant and KW Container Sludge Simulant. A third simulant, KE Container Sludge Simulant was received by PNNL in December 2010. The objectives of this simulant characterization effort were to provide baseline characterization data on simulants being used by STP for process development and equipment testing and provide a high-level comparison of the simulant characteristics to the targets used to formulate the simulants.

  7. PERFORMANCE OF A CONTAINMENT VESSEL CLOSURE FOR RADIOACTIVE GAS CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, P.; Eberl, K.

    2010-07-09

    This paper presents a summary of the design and testing of the containment vessel closure for the Bulk Tritium Shipping Package (BTSP). This package is a replacement for a package that has been used to ship tritium in a variety of content configurations and forms since the early 1970s. The containment vessel closure incorporates features specifically designed for the containment of tritium when subjected to the normal and hypothetical conditions required of Type B radioactive material shipping Packages. The paper discusses functional performance of the containment vessel closure of the BTSP prototype packages and separate testing that evaluated the performance of the metallic C-Rings used in a mock BTSP closure.

  8. Development of Enzyme-Containing Functional Nanoparticles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    hydrolysis of paraoxon. OPH activity was assayed at room temperature by determining the increase of p- nitrophenol concentration in the presence of excess...paraoxon. For each mole of paraoxon degraded, a mole of p- nitrophenol and a mole of phosphonic acid are produced. The rate of the reaction is...directly proportional to the production of p- nitrophenol measured at 405nm. Catalytic activity was measured throughout the modification and nanoparticle

  9. Containing the Secret of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as…

  10. Containing the Secret of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as…

  11. REACTIONS OF FREE RADICALS CONTAINING NITROGEN.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    deduced. The reactions of methyl and ethyl radicals with a variety of amino compounds were studied. The reactions of difluoroamino radicals in the...Hydrazines, Anilines and Cyanides were pyrolysed and the heats of formation of the resultant radicals and the strengths of the bonds formed by them

  12. Coaxial cavity for measuring level of liquid in a container

    DOEpatents

    Booman, Glenn L.; Phelps, Frank R.

    1979-01-01

    A method and means for measuring the level of a liquid in a container. A coaxial cavity having a perforated outer conductor is partially submerged in the liquid in the container wherein the liquid enters and terminates the annular region of the coaxial cavity. The fundamental resonant frequency of the portion of the coaxial cavity which does not contain liquid is determined experimentally and is used to calculate the length of the liquid-free portion of the coaxial cavity and thereby the level of liquid in the container.

  13. Container effect in nanocasting synthesis of mesoporous metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaohong; Shi, Yifeng; Zhang, Peng; Zheng, Chunming; Zheng, Xinyue; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Yichi; Guan, Naijia; Zhao, Dongyuan; Stucky, Galen D

    2011-09-21

    We report a general reaction container effect in the nanocasting synthesis of mesoporous metal oxides. The size and shape of the container body in conjunction with simply modifying the container opening accessibility can be used to control the escape rate of water and other gas-phase byproducts in the calcination process, and subsequently affect the nanocrystal growth of the materials inside the mesopore space of the template. In this way, the particle size, mesostructure ordering, and crystallinity of the final product can be systemically controlled. The container effect also explain some of the problems with reproducibility in previously reported results.

  14. Six-Month-Old Infants’ Categorization of Containment Spatial Relations

    PubMed Central

    Casasola, Marianella; Cohen, Leslie B.; Chiarello, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Six-month-old infants’ ability to form an abstract category of containment was examined using a standard infant categorization task. Infants were habituated to 4 pairs of objects in a containment relation. Following habituation, infants were tested with a novel example of the familiar containment relation and an example of an unfamiliar relation. Results indicate that infants look reliably longer at the unfamiliar versus familiar relation, indicating that they can form a categorical representation of containment. A second experiment demonstrated that infants do not rely on object occlusion to discriminate containment from a support or a behind spatial relation. Together, the results indicate that by 6 months, infants can recognize a containment relation from different angles and across different pairs of objects. PMID:12795384

  15. THE PREPARATION OF FLUORINE-CONTAINING COMPOUNDS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    reaction was the condensation of perfluoroalkyl amidines to form triazines. Other reactions discussed include: (1) the addition of N2H4 to perfluoroalkyl ...nitriles with production of perfluoroalkyl hydrazidines and 2,5 bis( perfluoroalkyl )1-N-amino-1,3,5-triazoles; (2) the reaction of perfluoropropene with...S to form the 1,4 dithane ring; (3) dimerization, trimerization and polymerization of unsaturated fluorocarbons; (4) synthesis of perfluoroalkyl and

  16. Axially perpendicular offset Raman scheme for reproducible measurement of housed samples in a noncircular container under variation of container orientation.

    PubMed

    Duy, Pham K; Chang, Kyeol; Sriphong, Lawan; Chung, Hoeil

    2015-03-17

    An axially perpendicular offset (APO) scheme that is able to directly acquire reproducible Raman spectra of samples contained in an oval container under variation of container orientation has been demonstrated. This scheme utilized an axially perpendicular geometry between the laser illumination and the Raman photon detection, namely, irradiation through a sidewall of the container and gathering of the Raman photon just beneath the container. In the case of either backscattering or transmission measurements, Raman sampling volumes for an internal sample vary when the orientation of an oval container changes; therefore, the Raman intensities of acquired spectra are inconsistent. The generated Raman photons traverse the same bottom of the container in the APO scheme; the Raman sampling volumes can be relatively more consistent under the same situation. For evaluation, the backscattering, transmission, and APO schemes were simultaneously employed to measure alcohol gel samples contained in an oval polypropylene container at five different orientations and then the accuracies of the determination of the alcohol concentrations were compared. The APO scheme provided the most reproducible spectra, yielding the best accuracy when the axial offset distance was 10 mm. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to study the characteristics of photon propagation in the APO scheme and to explain the origin of the optimal offset distance that was observed. In addition, the utility of the APO scheme was further demonstrated by analyzing samples in a circular glass container.

  17. Use of containers with sterilizing filter in autologous serum eyedrops.

    PubMed

    López-García, José S; García-Lozano, Isabel

    2012-11-01

    To assess the effect of the use of containers with an adapted sterilizing filter on the contamination of autologous serum eyedrops. Prospective, consecutive, comparative, and randomized study. Thirty patients with Sjögren syndrome. One hundred seventy-six autologous serum containers used in home therapy were studied; 48 of them included an adapted filter (Hyabak; Thea, Clermont-Ferrand, France), and the other 128 were conventional containers. Containers equipped with a filter were tested at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of use, whereas conventional containers were studied after 7 days of use. In addition, testing for contamination was carried out in 14 conventional containers used during in-patient therapy every week for 4 weeks. In all cases, the preparation of the autologous serum was similar. Blood agar and chocolate agar were used as regular culture media for the microbiologic studies, whereas Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol was the medium for fungal studies. Microbiologic contamination of containers with autologous serum eyedrops. Only one of the containers with an adapted sterilizing filter (2.1%) became contaminated with Staphylococcus epidermidis after 1 month of treatment, whereas the contamination rate among conventional containers reached 28.9% after 7 days of treatment. The most frequent germs found in the samples were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (48.6%). With regard the containers used in the in-patient setting, 2 (14.3%) became contaminated after 2 weeks, 5 (35.7%) became contaminated after 3 weeks, and 5 (50%) became contaminated after 4 weeks, leaving 7 (50%) that did not become contaminated after 1 month of treatment. Using containers with an adapted filter significantly reduces the contamination rates in autologous serum eyedrops, thus extending the use of such container by the patients for up to 4 weeks with virtually no contamination risks. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Design and characterization of fenretinide containing organogels.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Elisabetta; Menegatti, Enea; Cortesi, Rita

    2013-01-01

    The stable, transparent, organogels, which are prepared by adding a minute amount of water to a solution of lecithin in biocompatible oil, are here studied as matrices for solubilization and percutaneous delivery of fenretinide (4 hydroxypropyl phenyl retinamide, 4HPR), a retinoic acid derivative. The influence of different types of oil, content of water and presence of hyaluronic acid was studied on gel properties. Rheology studies were carried out in order to detect the effect of these variables on gel viscosity. 4HPR diffusion from the different organogels was determined by in vitro Franz cell. It was found that diffusion coefficients (Jn) of 4HPR incorporated in organogels are about five fold lower than Jn of 4HPR in organic solution. Stability and shelf life stability studies demonstrate that 4HPR incorporated in organogels does not degrade and that organogels maintain 90% of 4HPR stability for periods up to 4 months. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrorheology of suspensions containing interfacially active constituents.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Carl; Yang, Hengxi; Green, Peter F

    2013-09-25

    We recently showed that a suspension of micrometer-sized polystyrene (PS) particles in a PDMS liquid, mixed with small (1 wt %) amounts of a nanocage, sulfonated polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (s-POSS), exhibited significant electrorheological (ER) behavior. This behavior was associated with the formation of a thin adsorbed layer of s-POSS onto the surfaces of PS and the subsequent formation of polarization-induced aggregates, or structures, responsible for the ER effect in an applied electric, E, field. Current theory suggests that the ER effect would largely be determined by the dielectric and conductive properties of the conductive layer of core/shell particles in ER suspensions. We show here that sulfonated-PS (s-PS)/PDMS suspensions exhibit further increases in the yield stress of over 200%, with the addition of s-POSS. The yield stress of this system, moreover, scales as τy [proportionality] E(2). The dielectric relaxation studies reveal the existence of a new relaxation peak in the s-POSS/s-PS/PDMS system that is absent in the s-POSS/PS/PDMS suspension. The relative sizes of these peaks are sensitive to the concentration of s-POSS and are associated with changes in the ER behavior. The properties of this class of ER fluids are not appropriately rationalized in terms of current theories.

  20. Reforming of sulfur-containing charge stock

    SciTech Connect

    McHale, W.D.; Schoennagel, H.

    1981-06-30

    A process is disclosed for reforming a hydrocarbon charge under reforming conditions in a reforming zone wherein added sulfur is introduced into said zone to counteract excessive hydrocracking of said charge utilizing a catalyst consisting essentially of a minor proportion of platinum on a support and a minor proportion of iridium on a separate support.

  1. Conductive Circuit Containing a Polymer Composition Containing Thermally Exfoliated Graphite Oxide and Method of Making the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A conductive circuit containing a polymer composite, which contains at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide having a surface area of from about 300 m(sup.2)/g to 2600 m(sup.2)/g, and a method of making the same.

  2. Conductive Circuit Containing a Polymer Composition Containing Thermally Exfoliated Graphite Oxide and Method of Making the Same

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A conductive circuit containing a polymer composite, which contains at least one polymer and a modified graphite oxide material, containing thermally exfoliated graphite oxide having a surface area of from about 300 sq m/g to 2600 sq m/g, and a method of making the same.

  3. Granulation of zeolite-containing aluminosilicate hydrogel

    SciTech Connect

    Galimov, Z.F.; Vinkel'man, A.P.

    1987-09-01

    The granulation of aluminosilicate hydrogel as an intermediate for the synthesis of cracking catalysts was investigated from the standpoint of eliminating the splitting cone from the granulator and eliminating coagulation directly on the cone surface. A method for forming the gel without a cone was developed by dispersion of jets of sol issuing directly from the mixer. Gel quality was considerably higher in dispersions of time-constant jets of the sol. The experimental mixer can be used as a design basis for a multijet granulator with a capacity equivalent to one or several splitting cones in commercial units.

  4. Photosensitization of bioinspired thymine-containing polymers.

    PubMed

    Martino, Debora M; Reyna, Dalila; Estenoz, Diana A; Trakhtenberg, Sofia; Warner, John C

    2008-05-29

    Here, we report a sensitization study on a family of water-soluble photopolymers based on thymine. The goal of this study was to determine whether the presence of sensitizer molecules would promote photocrosslinking/immobilization of the polymers using low-energy irradiation (520 nm) as compared to the UV irradiation (approximately 280 nm) necessary for the standard photoinduced process to take place. With the aid of Eosin Y Spirit Soluble (EY) as a sensitizer, water-soluble polystyrene copolymers of vinylbenzylthymine-vinylbenzyltriethylammonium chloride (VBT-VBA) were immobilized after exposure to visible irradiation. By exciting the sensitizer molecule in the presence of VBT copolymers at a wavelength where absorption by the latter does not occur, the triplet state of the sensitizer is generated in high yields, and consequently, polymer photocross-linking takes place. UV-vis spectroscopy has been used to study the effect of irradiation dose, copolymer composition, and sensitizer concentration on the photoreactivity of VBT polymers. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using Eosin Y as a sensitizer to achieve the thymine photodimer formation, resulting in immobilization of VBT-VBA-EY films on PET substrate. This provides complementary information on photoinduced immobilization of VBT-VBA films that are crucial for developing new classes of environmentally benign materials and new energy-saving methods.

  5. Enzymatic synthesis of polymers containing nicotinamide mononucleotide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Rihe

    1995-01-01

    Nicotinamide mononucleoside 5'-diphosphate in its reduced form is an excellent substrate for polynucleotide phosphorylase from Micrococcus luteus both in de novo polymerization reactions and in primer extension reactions. The oxidized form of the diphosphate is a much less efficient substrate; it can be used to extend primers but does not oligomerize in the absence of a primer. The cyanide adduct of the oxidized substrate, like the reduced substrate, polymerizes efficiently. Loss of cyanide yields high molecular weight polymers of the oxidized form. Terminal transferase from calf thymus accepts nicotinamide mononucleoside 5'-triphosphate as a substrate and efficiently adds one residue to the 3'-end of an oligodeoxynucleotide. T4 polynucleotide kinase accepts oligomers of nicotinamide mononucleotide as substrates. However, RNA polymerases do not incorporate nicotinamide mononucleoside 5'-triphosphate into products on any of the templates that we used.

  6. Enzymatic Synthesis of Polymers Containing Nicotinamide Mononucleotide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Rihe; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1995-01-01

    Nicotinamide mononucleoside 5'-diphosphate in its reduced form is an excellent substrate for polynucleotide phosphorylase from Micrococcus luteus both in de novo polymerization reactions and in primer extension reactions. The oxidized form of the diphosphate is a much less efficient substrate; it can be used to extend primers but does not oligomerize in the absence of a primer. The cyanide adduct of the oxidized substrate, like the reduced substrate, polymerizes efficiently. Loss of cyanide yields high molecular weight polymers of the oxidized form. Terminal transferase from calf thymus accepts nicotinamide mononucleoside 5'-triphosphate as a substrate and efficiently adds one residue to the 3'-end of an oligodeoxynucleotide. T4 polynucleotide kinase accepts oligomers of nicotinamide mononucleotide as substrates. However, RNA polymerases do not incorporate nicotinamide mononucleoside 5'-triphosphate into products on any of the templates that we used.

  7. Physics of systems containing neutron stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaham, Jacob

    1989-01-01

    The following is a summary of work done during the period of Mar. to Oct. 1989. Three major topics were extensively looked into during this time: the reported 2,000 Hz optical signal from the direction of SNR1987A, the possibility that neutron stellar surface magnetic fields do not decay except when the star is accreting, and the 6 Hz QPOs of LMXBs.

  8. Development and Performance Evaluation of an Ozone-Contained Ice Making Machine Employing Pressurized Air Tight Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimura, Kenji; Akiyama, Tomoaki; Hirofuji, Yushi; Koyama, Shigeru

    Ozone has the capability of sterilization and deodorization due to high oxidation power. It is also effective for the conservation of perishable foods and purification of water. However, ozone has a disadvantage, that is, conservation of ozone is difficult because it reacts to oxygen. Recently, ozone-contained ice is taken attention for the purpose of its conservation. The use of ozone-contained ice seems to keep food fresher when we conserve and transport perishable foods due to the effects of cooling and sterilization of ozone-contained ice. In the present study, we have developed an ozone-contained ice making machine employing pressurized air tight containers with commercially available size. And the performance evaluation of the system is also carried out. Furthermore, we investigated the sterilization effect of ozone-contained ice on conservation of fish. It was seen that ozone-contained ice is effective for sterilization of surface of fish.

  9. Containment Safety Of Super Phenix : Essai Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgayrettes, M. F.; Fiche, C.; Hamon, P.

    1985-02-01

    The protection of people and property must be assured by every situation around an industrial power plant. That is why the FRENCH Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique has defined the size of the confinement of Super Phenix to withstand the worst highly hypothetical accident. The study of the strength of the confinement has been carried out by two complementary means : - Calculation (Display poster # 491 188), - Experiment : reactor mock-up. The latter is presented in the film. The solution which have been adopted for the problems encountered are emphasied ; the work with high speed camera is presented. The film is illustrated with some fast movie sequences.

  10. Simple models for containment of a pandemic

    PubMed Central

    Arino, Julien; Brauer, Fred; van den Driessche, P; Watmough, James; Wu, Jianhong

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic simulations of network models have become the standard approach to studying epidemics. We show that many of the predictions of these models can also be obtained from simple classical deterministic compartmental models. We suggest that simple models may be a better way to plan for a threatening pandemic with location and parameters as yet unknown, reserving more detailed network models for disease outbreaks already underway in localities where the social networks are well identified. We formulate compartmental models to describe outbreaks of influenza and attempt to manage a disease outbreak by vaccination or antiviral treatment. The models give an important prediction that may not have been noticed in other models, namely that the number of doses of antiviral treatment required is extremely sensitive to the number of initial infectives. This suggests that the actual number of doses needed cannot be estimated with any degree of reliability. The model is applicable to pre-epidemic vaccination, such as annual vaccination programs in anticipation of an ‘ordinary’ influenza outbreak with limited drift, and as a combination of treatment both before and during an epidemic. PMID:16849273

  11. The containment of world population growth.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J C

    1975-12-01

    The world has reached the present position of unprecedentedly rapid population growth not by achieving uniquely high fertility but by bringing about extraordinarily low mortality. The high growth rate and the built-in momentum of the age structure are obstacles to achievement of an acceptable standard of living for most of the world's population. Although government population programs have the potential to curb this growth rate, this potential has not been realized, and such programs are too often perceived both by their administrators and the population concerned as an end in themselves rather than a means toward a better standard of living. It is in this latter perspective, and in the context of the total development process, that population programs should be implemented.

  12. Analyses of a Reinforced Concrete Containment with Liner Corrosion Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, J.L.; Smith, J.A.

    1998-11-19

    Incidents of liner corrosion in nuclear power containment structures have been recorded. These incidents and concerns of other possible liner corrosion in containment have prompted an interest in determining g the capacity of a degraded containment. Finite element analyses of a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) reinforced concrete containment with liner corrosion were conducted using the A13AQUS finite element code with the ANACAP-U nonlinear concrete constitutive model. The effect of liner corrosion on containment capacity was investigated. A loss of coolant accident was simulated by applying pressure and temperature changes to the structure without corrosion to determine baseline failure limits, followed by multiple analyses of the containment with corrosion at different locations and varying degrees of liner degradation. The corrosion locations were chosen at the base of the containment wall, near the equipment hatch, and at the midheight of the containment wall. Using a strain-based failure criterion the different scenarios were evaluated to prioritize their effect on containment capacity

  13. Reliability of welded structures containing fatigue cracks

    SciTech Connect

    Lanning, D.; Shen, M.H.H.

    1996-11-01

    This study investigates the reliability of a cracked fillet welded T-joint typically found in offshore structures. A formulation for the aspect ratio (a/c) of a propagating semi-elliptical fatigue crack located at the toe of the weld is developed using Newman and Raju`s stress intensity factor for a cracked flat plate in conjunction with a weld magnification factor. The reliability in terms of fatigue lifetime is then calculated using the aspect ratio and Paris`s law of crack propagation with both fracture toughness and elastic-plastic failure criteria. The variation in crack aspect ratio in the T-joint is compared to that in a cracked flat plate, and examples are provided of reliability calculations for tension and bending loads.

  14. Geometric simulation of structures containing rigid units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Stephen

    2005-03-01

    Much insight into the behaviour of the framework silicates can be obtained from the Rigid Unit model. I review results from geometric analyses [1] of framework structures, quantifying the significance of rigid unit motion in thermal disorder and in defect accomodation, and from a method of simulation [2,3] based on a whole-body `geometric potential' rather than on interatomic potentials. I show the application of the geometric potential to the symmetry-constrained generation of hypothetical zeolite frameworks [4], and to the rapid generation of protein conformations using insights from rigid cluster decomposition [5]. 1. Wells, Dove and Tucker, Journal of Applied Crystallography, 37:536--544 (2004). 2. G.D. Gatta and S.A. Wells, Phys. Chem. Min. 31:1--10 (2004). 3. A. Sartbaeva, S. A. Wells, S. A. T. Redfern, J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 16, 8173 (2004) 4. M. M. J. Treacy, I. Rivin, E. Balkovsky, K. H. Randall and M. D. Foster, Micropor. Mesopor. Mater. 74, 121-132 (2004). 5. M.F. Thorpe, Ming Lei, A.J. Rader, Donald J. Jacobs, and Leslie A. Kuhn, Journal of Molecular Graphics and Modelling 19, 1:60 - 69, (2001).

  15. Information for Owners and Managers of Buildings that Contain Asbestos

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Federal requirements for the renovation and demolition of buildings and guidance on developing and maintaining an operations and maintenance program to manage asbestos-containing materials in buildings.

  16. Rheological properties of saliva substitutes containing mucin, carboxymethylcellulose or polyethylenoxide.

    PubMed

    Vissink, A; Waterman, H A; s-Gravenmade, E J; Panders, A K; Vermey, A

    1984-02-01

    Apparent viscosities at different shear rates were measured for 3 types of saliva substitutes: (a) mucin-containing saliva; (b) substitutes based upon carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and (c) solution of polyethylenoxide (PEO). The apparent viscosities were compared with those of human whole saliva. Human whole saliva and mucin-containing saliva substitutes appeared to be similar in their rheological properties. Both types of solution are viscoelastic solutions and adjust their apparent viscosities to their biological functions. Preparations containing CMC or PEO are non-Newtonian liquids. From this study it is concluded that mucin-containing saliva substitutes appear to be the best substitutes for natural saliva, as far as rheological properties are concerned.

  17. Evaluation of containers as a virtualisation alternative for HEP workloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Gareth; Washbrook, Andrew; Crooks, David; Qin, Gang; Cadellin Skipsey, Samuel; Stewart, Gordon; Britton, David

    2015-12-01

    In this paper the emerging technology of Linux containers is examined and evaluated for use in the High Energy Physics (HEP) community. Key technologies required to enable containerisation will be discussed along with emerging technologies used to manage container images. An evaluation of the requirements for containers within HEP will be made and benchmarking will be carried out to asses performance over a range of HEP workflows. The use of containers will be placed in a broader context and recommendations on future work will be given.

  18. Bumblebee Pupae Contain High Levels of Aluminium

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer’s disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline. PMID:26042788

  19. Bumblebee pupae contain high levels of aluminium.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Rotheray, Ellen; Goulson, David

    2015-01-01

    The causes of declines in bees and other pollinators remains an on-going debate. While recent attention has focussed upon pesticides, other environmental pollutants have largely been ignored. Aluminium is the most significant environmental contaminant of recent times and we speculated that it could be a factor in pollinator decline. Herein we have measured the content of aluminium in bumblebee pupae taken from naturally foraging colonies in the UK. Individual pupae were acid-digested in a microwave oven and their aluminium content determined using transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Pupae were heavily contaminated with aluminium giving values between 13.4 and 193.4 μg/g dry wt. and a mean (SD) value of 51.0 (33.0) μg/g dry wt. for the 72 pupae tested. Mean aluminium content was shown to be a significant negative predictor of average pupal weight in colonies. While no other statistically significant relationships were found relating aluminium to bee or colony health, the actual content of aluminium in pupae are extremely high and demonstrate significant exposure to aluminium. Bees rely heavily on cognitive function and aluminium is a known neurotoxin with links, for example, to Alzheimer's disease in humans. The significant contamination of bumblebee pupae by aluminium raises the intriguing spectre of cognitive dysfunction playing a role in their population decline.

  20. Evaluation of concrete containing photocatalytic titanium dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Shannon

    The air pollution inversions in the mountain west are a societal problem that require a large-scale solution. With the more stringent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations established in 2010, and the recent discovery of the photocatalytic pollution reduction capabilities of titanium dioxide (TiO2), interest has developed to create pollution-reducing construction materials. Over the last decade, a number of laboratory studies have been performed and a few field studies have occurred around the world. There are commercially available photocatalytic materials that can be used in concrete construction; however, the materials are often cost prohibitive. This study investigated both practical application techniques and the effects of the climatic environment around the specimens. When concrete specimens were exposed to the weather for 120-days, the specimen's photocatalytic efficiency decreased significantly. Rejuvenation methods were investigated; however, no methods tested were able to increase the photocatalytic efficiency of the specimens to preweathered condition. The final element of this study focused on identifying practical and cost-effective methods of adding TiO2 to current production methods by working with a local precast manufacturer. This research is a stepping stone to develop methodologies to minimize the decline of photocatalytic efficiency due to the exposure to the environment. This element is critical in understanding this complex technology and identifying problems that need to be addressed before products are ready for widespread use.

  1. Decontamination of Water Containing Radiological Warfare Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-03-01

    aLor is filtered through the diatomite filtei !),, tkes place -oncurrently with coagulation, and a positive chlorim residual of 5 milligrams per liter...Carbion 2-10 In regard to tire diatomite filter, the coagulated water passes throtugh the filter cake to the interior of each filter clenrnn. Thre filtrale

  2. Design for containment of hazardous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, R.C. ); McDonald, J.R. )

    1991-03-01

    Department of Energy, (DOE), facilities across the United States, use wind and tornado design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. In addition, other programs such as Advanced Light Water Reactors, New Production Reactors, and Individual Plant Examinations for External Events for commercial nuclear power plants utilize design and evaluation criteria based on probabilistic performance goals. The use of probabilistic performance goals is a departure from design practice for commercial nuclear power plants which have traditionally been designed utilizing a conservative specification of wind and tornado loading combined with deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits. Approaches which utilize probabilistic wind and tornado hazard curves for specification of loading and deterministic response evaluation methods and permissible behavior limits are discussed in this paper. Through the use of such design/evaluation approaches, it may be demonstrated that there is high likelihood that probabilistic performance goals can be achieved. 14 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  3. Final Report Inspection of Aged/Degraded Containments Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J; Ellingwood, B R; Oland, C Barry

    2005-09-01

    The Inspection of Aged/Degraded Containments Program had primary objectives of (1) understanding the significant factors relating corrosion occurrence, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containments and liners of reinforced concrete containments; (2) providing the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) reviewers a means of establishing current structural capacity margins or estimating future residual structural capacity margins for steel containments, and concrete containments as limited by liner integrity; (3) providing recommendations, as appropriate, on information to be requested of licensees for guidance that could be utilized by USNRC reviewers in assessing the seriousness of reported incidences of containment degradation; and (4) providing technical assistance to the USNRC (as requested) related to concrete technology. Primary program accomplishments have included development of a degradation assessment methodology; reviews of techniques and methods for inspection and repair of containment metallic pressure boundaries; evaluation of high-frequency acoustic imaging, magnetostrictive sensor, electromagnetic acoustic transducer, and multimode guided plate wave technologies for inspection of inaccessible regions of containment metallic pressure boundaries; development of a continuum damage mechanics-based approach for structural deterioration; establishment of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessments of steel containments and liners; and fragility assessments of steel containments with localized corrosion. In addition, data and information assembled under this program has been transferred to the technical community through review meetings and briefings, national and international conference participation, technical committee involvement, and publications of reports and journal articles. Appendix A provides a listing of program reports, papers, and publications; and Appendix B contains a listing of

  4. Properties of Open Clusters Containing Blue Stragglers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyun-Uk; Chang, Heon-Young

    2017-06-01

    The presence of blue stragglers pose challenges to standard stellar evolution theory, in the sense that explaining their presence demands a complex interplay between stellar evolution and cluster dynamics. In the meantime, mass transfer in binary systems and stellar collisions are widely studied as a blue straggler formation channel. We explore properties of the Galactic open clusters where blue stragglers are found, in attempting to estimate the relative importance of these two favored processes, by comparing them with those resulting from open clusters in which blue stragglers are absent as of now. Unlike previous studies which require a sophisticated process in understanding the implication of the results, this approach is straightforward and has resulted in a supplementary supporting evidence for the current view on the blue straggler formation mechanism. Our main findings are as follows: (1) Open clusters in which blue stragglers are present have a broader distribution with respect to the Z-axis pointing towards the North Galactic Pole than those in which blue stragglers are absent. The probability that two distributions with respect to the Z-axis are drawn from the same distribution is 0.2%. (2) Average values of log_{10}(t) of the clusters with blue stragglers and those without blue stragglers are 8.58 ± 0.232 and 7.52 ± 0.285, respectively. (3) The clusters with blue stragglers tend to be relatively redder than the others, and are distributed broader in colors. (4) The clusters with blue stragglers are likely brighter than those without blue stragglers. (5) Finally, blue stragglers seem to form in condensed clusters rather than simply dense clusters. Hence, we conclude that mass transfer in binaries seems to be a relatively important physical mechanism of the generation of blue stragglers in open clusters, provided they are sufficiently old.

  5. Method for inhibiting oxidation of metal sulfide-containing material

    DOEpatents

    Elsetinow, Alicia; Borda, Michael J.; Schoonen, Martin A.; Strongin, Daniel R.

    2006-12-26

    The present invention provides means for inhibiting the oxidation of a metal sulfide-containing material, such as ore mine waste rock or metal sulfide taiulings, by coating the metal sulfide-containing material with an oxidation-inhibiting two-tail lipid coating (12) thereon, thereby inhibiting oxidation of the metal sulfide-containing material in acid mine drainage conditions. The lipids may be selected from phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and combinations thereof.

  6. Design of liquid container handles in accordance with user preferences.

    PubMed

    Jung, H S; Jung, H-S

    2008-03-01

    In this study, a prototype liquid container combined with auxiliary handles was designed to increase the safety of manual handling and to protect users of these containers from hand contamination. A Likert summated rating method as well as a pairwise ranking test was applied to evaluate the user preferences for handles provided for the container under the conditions of different shapes and positions. The results show that the participants preferred perpendicular orientation of the handle on the top of the liquid container while carrying the containers and the crosswise position of the handle at the side of the container while pouring the liquid. In order to satisfy both conditions, the container needs to be designed with handles in perpendicular as well as crosswise positions for selective application. A prototype liquid container with provided auxiliary handles was developed based on the results of the evaluation. It is recommended that a liquid container provides extra handles to reduce musculoskeletal stress and in turn increase user satisfaction.

  7. Method of preparing nitrogen containing semiconductor material

    SciTech Connect

    Barber, Greg D.; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2004-09-07

    A method of combining group III elements with group V elements that incorporates at least nitrogen from a nitrogen halide for use in semiconductors and in particular semiconductors in photovoltaic cells.

  8. Using Frozen Barriers for Containment of Contaminants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-09-21

    io ns R es ea rc h an d En gi ne er in g La bo ra to ry Anna M. Wagner and Edward Yarmak, Jr. September 2017 Approved for public...Contaminants Anna M. Wagner Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center 72 Lyme Road...procedure of the system and initial performance was described in detail by Wagner and Yarmak (2012). In brief, the installation procedure consisted of

  9. Repair of DNA-containing pyrimidine dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Grossman, L.; Caron, P.R.; Mazur, S.J.; Oh, E.Y.

    1988-08-01

    Ultraviolet light-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA are recognized and repaired by a number of unique cellular surveillance systems. The most direct biochemical mechanism responding to this kind of genotoxicity involves direct photoreversal by flavin enzymes that specifically monomerize pyrimidine:pyrimidine dimers monophotonically in the presence of visible light. Incision reactions are catalyzed by a combined pyrimidine dimer DNA-glycosylase:apyrimidinic endonuclease found in some highly UV-resistant organisms. At a higher level of complexity, Escherichia coli has a uvr DNA repair system comprising the UvrA, UvrB, and UvrC proteins responsible for incision. There are several preincision steps governed by this pathway, which includes an ATP-dependent UvrA dimerization reaction required for UvrAB nucleoprotein formation. This complex formation driven by ATP binding is associated with localized topological unwinding of DNA. This same protein complex can catalyze an ATPase-dependent 5'----3'-directed strand displacement of D-loop DNA or short single strands annealed to a single-stranded circular or linear DNA. This putative translocational process is arrested when damaged sites are encountered. The complex is now primed for dual incision catalyzed by UvrC. The remainder of the repair process involves UvrD (helicase II) and DNA polymerase I for a coordinately controlled excision-resynthesis step accompanied by UvrABC turnover. Furthermore, it is proposed that levels of repair proteins can be regulated by proteolysis. UvrB is converted to truncated UvrB* by a stress-induced protease that also acts at similar sites on the E. coli Ada protein. Although UvrB* can bind with UvrA to DNA, it cannot participate in helicase or incision reactions. It is also a DNA-dependent ATPase.21 references.

  10. Semi-synthesis of thioamide containing proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanxin J; Szantai-Kis, D Miklos; Petersson, E James

    2015-05-14

    Our laboratory has shown that the thioamide, a single atom O-to-S substitution, can be a versatile fluorescence quenching probe that is minimally-perturbing when placed at many locations in a protein sequence. In order to make these and other thioamide experiments applicable to full-sized proteins, we have developed methods for incorporating thioamides by generating thiopeptide fragments through solid phase synthesis and ligating them to protein fragments expressed in E. coli. To install donor fluorophores, we have adapted unnatural amino acid mutagenesis methods, including the generation of new tRNA synthetases for the incorporation of small, intrinsically fluorescent amino acids. We have used a combination of these two methods, as well as chemoenzymatic protein modification, to efficiently install sidechain and backbone modifications to generate proteins labeled with fluorophore/thioamide pairs.

  11. Polymerization of amino acids containing nucleotide bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben Cheikh, Azzouz; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    The nucleoamino acids 1-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)uracil (3) and 9-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)adenine (4) have been prepared as (L)-en-antiomers and as racemic mixtures. When 3 or 4 is suspended in water and treated with N,N'-carbon-yldiimidazole, peptides are formed in good yield. The products formed from the (L)-enantiomers are hydrolyzed to the monomeric amino acids by pronase. Attempts to improve the efficiency of these oligomerizations by including a polyuridylate template in the reaction mixture were not successful. Similarly, oligomers derived from the (L)-enantiomer of 3 did not act as templates to facilitate the oligomerization of 4.

  12. Polymerization of amino acids containing nucleotide bases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben Cheikh, Azzouz; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1990-01-01

    The nucleoamino acids 1-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)uracil (3) and 9-(3'-amino,3'-carboxypropyl)adenine (4) have been prepared as (L)-en-antiomers and as racemic mixtures. When 3 or 4 is suspended in water and treated with N,N'-carbon-yldiimidazole, peptides are formed in good yield. The products formed from the (L)-enantiomers are hydrolyzed to the monomeric amino acids by pronase. Attempts to improve the efficiency of these oligomerizations by including a polyuridylate template in the reaction mixture were not successful. Similarly, oligomers derived from the (L)-enantiomer of 3 did not act as templates to facilitate the oligomerization of 4.

  13. Preparation of Hemoglobin-Containing Microcapsules.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    were suspended in saline for storage in a refrigerator. Although in these microencapsulation experiments, the Hb was not denatured, the microcapsules ... microencapsulated Hb, l.O-ml sample of the microcapsule suspension was diluted with 10 ml 0.9% NaCI. The absorption spectrum was taken immediately after dilution...AD A135 634 PREPARATION OF HEMOGLOBIN CONTA NING MICROCAPSULES (U) I/ ,R 224 AM OS NTERNATIDNAL MENOPARKO CA REYES AUNN8 SRI-2254-1 DAMD17-80-C-01?7

  14. Container size influences snack food intake independently of portion size.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, David; Corneille, Olivier; Klein, Olivier

    2012-06-01

    While larger containers have been found to increase food intake, it is unclear whether this effect is driven by container size, portion size, or their combination, as these variables are usually confounded. The study was advertised as examining the effects of snack food consumption on information processing and participants were served M&M's for free consumption in individual cubicles while watching a TV show. Participants were served (1) a medium portion of M&M's in a small (n=30) or (2) in a large container (n=29), or (3) a large portion in a large container (n=29). The larger container increased intake by 129% (199 kcal) despite holding portion size constant, while controlling for different confounding variables. This research suggests that larger containers stimulate food intake over and above their impact on portion size.

  15. Method for primary containment of cesium wastes

    DOEpatents

    Angelini, Peter; Lackey, Walter J.; Stinton, David P.; Blanco, Raymond E.; Bond, Walter D.; Arnold, Jr., Wesley D.

    1983-01-01

    A method for producing a cesium-retentive waste form, characterized by a high degree of compositional stability and mechanical integrity, is provided by subjecting a cesium-loaded zeolite to heat under conditions suitable for stabilizing the zeolite and immobilizing the cesium, and coating said zeolite for sufficient duration within a suitable environment with at least one dense layer of pyrolytic carbon to seal therein said cesium to produce a final, cesium-bearing waste form. Typically, the zeolite is stabilized and the cesium immobilized in less than four hours by confinement within an air environment maintained at about 600.degree. C. Coatings are thereafter applied by confining the calcined zeolite within a coating environment comprising inert fluidizing and carbon donor gases maintained at 1,000.degree. C. for a suitable duration.

  16. Radiolysis of solutions containing organo-disulphides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliot, Allen John; Simsons, Anita Sandra; Sopchyshyn, Frederick Charles

    When oxidized dithiothreitol (DTT- ox), oxidized gluthathione (GSSG), or dithiodiproprionic acid is radiolysed in N 2O-saturated sodium formate solutions, a chain reduction of the disulphide to the corresponding thiol occurs. The chain propagating step is the abstraction of the hydrogen atom in the formate ion by the thiyl radical. For the dithiothreitol thiyl radical, the rate constant for the abstraction is ≥ 3.6 × 10 4 mol -1 dm 3 s -1. The more sterically hindered penicillamine disulphide does not undergo this chain reaction. While the (CH 3) 2ĊOH radical does not reduce DTT- ox, it reduces GSSG to glutathione. At pH 9, the acetone radical anion, (CH 3) 2ĊO -, reduces both DTT- ox and GSSG.

  17. Disposal of Hospital Wastes Containing Pathogenic Organisms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    wastes from wards where pathogers may be generated or where exposure to pathogens may occur (the mental health ward, for example, is excluded); and...hospital solid waste. 5.2 M•Wicipal Solid Warte The pathogers identified in municipal solid waste in Table 5-1 were isolated frola municipal solid waste...parasites are retained by filtering. A sufficiently thick layer of the proper soil would pro- tect the groundwater from bacterial and viral contamination

  18. Preparation of Paper Containing Activated Carbon.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    development of charcoal paper. RESUME On a obtenu du papier contenant du charbon actif en dispersant du charbon r~duit en poudre et en versant des agents de...sa capaciti d’adsorption et de ritention du charbon . Ce papier pourrait servir d𔄀crans dans une salle de contr~le de contamination pour le balayage...contenant du charbon . "l-ii:: . ---:.-o * *** * *. .. t C Cd. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 S 2 INTRODUCTION . Activated

  19. Development of a High Stacking Strength Container

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    stiffening agent for packaging. Sodium silicate has been used in the packaging industry for many decades, primarily as an adhesive. Food and Drag...rate than untreated board. Moisture at the surface of the board is necessary for the starch to gelatinize properly. This being true. the proper...linerboard, and dried - with the starch cooking, gelatinizing , in the drying oven. MiPly expects this treatment to have reduced moisture sensitivity

  20. Wear behavior of austenite containing plate steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensley, Christina E.

    As a follow up to Wolfram's Master of Science thesis, samples from the prior work were further investigated. Samples from four steel alloys were selected for investigation, namely AR400F, 9260, Hadfield, and 301 Stainless steels. AR400F is martensitic while the Hadfield and 301 stainless steels are austenitic. The 9260 exhibited a variety of hardness levels and retained austenite contents, achieved by heat treatments, including quench and tempering (Q&T) and quench and partitioning (Q&P). Samples worn by three wear tests, namely Dry Sand/Rubber Wheel (DSRW), impeller tumbler impact abrasion, and Bond abrasion, were examined by optical profilometry. The wear behaviors observed in topography maps were compared to the same in scanning electron microscopy micrographs and both were used to characterize the wear surfaces. Optical profilometry showed that the scratching abrasion present on the wear surface transitioned to gouging abrasion as impact conditions increased (i.e. from DSRW to impeller to Bond abrasion). Optical profilometry roughness measurements were also compared to sample hardness as well as normalized volume loss (NVL) results for each of the three wear tests. The steels displayed a relationship between roughness measurements and observed wear rates for all three categories of wear testing. Nanoindentation was used to investigate local hardness changes adjacent to the wear surface. DSRW samples generally did not exhibit significant work hardening. The austenitic materials exhibited significant hardening under the high impact conditions of the Bond abrasion wear test. Hardening in the Q&P materials was less pronounced. The Q&T microstructures also demonstrated some hardening. Scratch testing was performed on samples at three different loads, as a more systematic approach to determining the scratching abrasion behavior. Wear rates and scratch hardness were calculated from scratch testing results. Certain similarities between wear behavior in scratch testing

  1. 40 CFR 265.172 - Compatibility of waste with container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compatibility of waste with container... WASTES (CONTINUED) INTERIM STATUS STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Use and Management of Containers § 265.172 Compatibility of waste...

  2. Development of the F-22 Canopy Container, CNU-692/E

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-02-27

    E is a sealed , welded aluminum, controlled breathing, reusable container (Appendix 2, Figure 1). The container is engineered for the physical and...Engineer susan.evans@us.af.mil DSN 787-7445 Comm (937) 257-7445 Development of the F-22 Canopy Container, CNU-692/E AFMC LSO/LOP...AIR FORCE PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING FACILITY WRIGHT PATTERSON AFB, OH 45433-5540 27 February 2008 AFPTEF Report No. 08-R-03 F-22 Canopy C

  3. Nuclear Resonance Fluorescence and Isotopic Mapping of Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M S; McNabb, D P

    2008-08-08

    National security programs have expressed interest in developing systems to isotopically map shipping containers, fuel assemblies, and waste barrels for various materials including special nuclear material (SNM). Current radiographic systems offer little more than an ambiguous density silhouette of a container's contents. In this paper we will present a system being developed at LLNL to isotopically map containers using the nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) method. Recent experimental measurements on NRF strengths in SNM are discussed.

  4. 27 CFR 26.38 - Containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.38 Containers of distilled spirits. Containers of distilled spirits brought into the United States from Puerto Rico, having a capacity of not more...

  5. 27 CFR 25.155 - Types of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Types of containers. 25.155 Section 25.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.155 Types of containers....

  6. [The toxicological aspects of poisonings by psilocybine-containing mushrooms].

    PubMed

    Babakhanian, R V; Bushuev, E S; Kazankov, S P; Kostyrko, T A

    1997-01-01

    Cases involving the investigation of psylocybin-containing mushrooms became more frequent in forensic chemical and criminological expert evaluation in recent years. The authors present the data on the main chemical factors contained in these mushrooms, on the mechanism of their toxic effect, clinical picture of poisoning, and methods of chemical and toxicological analysis.

  7. Determining the Coefficient of Discharge for a Draining Container

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Ashley; Slaton, William

    2014-01-01

    The flow of fluids through open containers is a topic studied frequently in introductory physics classes. A fluid mechanics class delves deeper into the topic of fluid flow through open containers with holes or barriers. The flow of a fluid jet out of a sharp-edged orifice rarely has the same area as the orifice due to a fluid flow phenomenon…

  8. 27 CFR 25.155 - Types of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Types of containers. 25.155 Section 25.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.155 Types of containers....

  9. 27 CFR 25.155 - Types of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Types of containers. 25.155 Section 25.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.155 Types of containers....

  10. 27 CFR 25.155 - Types of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Types of containers. 25.155 Section 25.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.155 Types of containers....

  11. 27 CFR 25.155 - Types of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Types of containers. 25.155 Section 25.155 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.155 Types of containers....

  12. Determining the Coefficient of Discharge for a Draining Container

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Ashley; Slaton, William

    2014-01-01

    The flow of fluids through open containers is a topic studied frequently in introductory physics classes. A fluid mechanics class delves deeper into the topic of fluid flow through open containers with holes or barriers. The flow of a fluid jet out of a sharp-edged orifice rarely has the same area as the orifice due to a fluid flow phenomenon…

  13. Iron-Catalyzed Synthesis of Sulfur-Containing Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Bosset, Cyril; Lefebvre, Gauthier; Angibaud, Patrick; Stansfield, Ian; Meerpoel, Lieven; Berthelot, Didier; Guérinot, Amandine; Cossy, Janine

    2016-10-13

    An iron-catalyzed synthesis of sulfur- and sulfone-containing heterocycles is reported. The method is based on the cyclization of readily available substrates and proceeded with high efficiency and diastereoselectivity. A variety of sulfur-containing heterocycles bearing moieties suitable for subsequent functionalization are prepared. Illustrative examples of such postcyclization modifications are also presented.

  14. 7 CFR 52.774 - Fill of container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Fill of Container § 52.774 Fill of container. (a) FDA requirements. Canned red tart pitted... ascertaining drained weight. The drained weight of canned red tart pitted cherries is determined by emptying...

  15. 7 CFR 52.774 - Fill of container.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTAIN OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Fill of Container § 52.774 Fill of container. (a) FDA requirements. Canned red tart pitted... ascertaining drained weight. The drained weight of canned red tart pitted cherries is determined by emptying...

  16. DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF OIL CONTAINER DESIGNED AS PART OF LUBRICATING SYSTEM FOR UNIT #3. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  17. Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of oil container designed as part of lubricating system for unit 43. - Burnsville Natural Gas Pumping Station, Saratoga Avenue between Little Kanawha River & C&O Railroad line, Burnsville, Braxton County, WV

  18. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management.

    PubMed

    Rives, Jesús; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-06-01

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80l to containers of 2400l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60l or 80l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  19. LCA comparison of container systems in municipal solid waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Rives, Jesus; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2010-06-15

    The planning and design of integrated municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems requires accurate environmental impact evaluation of the systems and their components. This research assessed, quantified and compared the environmental impact of the first stage of the most used MSW container systems. The comparison was based on factors such as the volume of the containers, from small bins of 60-80 l to containers of 2400 l, and on the manufactured materials, steel and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Also, some parameters such as frequency of collections, waste generation, filling percentage and waste container contents, were established to obtain comparable systems. The methodological framework of the analysis was the life cycle assessment (LCA), and the impact assessment method was based on CML 2 baseline 2000. Results indicated that, for the same volume, the collection systems that use HDPE waste containers had more of an impact than those using steel waste containers, in terms of abiotic depletion, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acidification, eutrophication, photochemical oxidation, human toxicity and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Besides, the collection systems using small HDPE bins (60 l or 80 l) had most impact while systems using big steel containers (2400 l) had less impact. Subsequent sensitivity analysis about the parameters established demonstrated that they could change the ultimate environmental impact of each waste container collection system, but that the comparative relationship between systems was similar.

  20. A Survey on Security Isolation of Virtualization, Containers, and Unikernels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-01

    virtualization , because both platforms leverage hardware-assisted virtualization and are open source with a greater amount of documentation available. In...ARL-TR-8029 ● MAY 2017 US Army Research Laboratory A Survey on Security Isolation of Virtualization , Containers, and Unikernels...of Virtualization , Containers, and Unikernels by Michael J De Lucia Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL

  1. 78 FR 77327 - Standards for Condition of Food Containers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Rules and Regulations #0; Federal Register #0; #0; #0;This section of the FEDERAL REGISTER contains regulatory documents #0... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 42 Standards for Condition of Food Containers CFR Correction In Title 7 of...

  2. Evaluating performance of container terminal operation using simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawawi, Mohd Kamal Mohd; Jamil, Fadhilah Che; Hamzah, Firdaus Mohamad

    2015-05-01

    A container terminal is a facility where containers are transshipped from one mode of transport to another. Congestion problem leads to the decreasing of the customer's level of satisfaction. This study presents the application of simulation technique with the main objective of this study is to develop the current model and evaluate the performance of the container terminal. The suitable performance measure used in this study to evaluate the container terminal model are the average waiting time in queue, average of process time at berth, number of vessels enter the berth and resource utilization. Simulation technique was found to be a suitable technique to conduct in this study. The results from the simulation model had proved to solve the problem occurred in the container terminal.

  3. HAZARDS OF THERMAL EXPANSION FOR RADIOLOGICAL CONTAINER ENGULFED IN FIRE

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen

    2013-05-01

    Fire accidents pose a serious threat to nuclear facilities. It is imperative that transport casks or shielded containers designed to transport/contain radiological materials have the ability to withstand a hypothetical fire. A numerical simulation was performed for a shielded container constructed of stainless steel and lead engulfed in a hypothetical fire as outlined by 10 CFR §71.73. The purpose of this analysis was to determine the thermal response of the container during and after the fire. The thermal model shows that after 30 minutes of fire, the stainless steel will maintain its integrity and not melt. However, the lead shielding will melt since its temperature exceeds the melting point. Due to the method of construction of the container under consideration, ample void space must be provided to allow for thermal expansion of the lead upon heating and melting, so as to not overstress the weldment.

  4. Dynamic response of a tank containing two liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yu; Chang, Yao

    1992-02-01

    A study on the dynamic response of upright circular cylindrical liquid-storage tanks containing two different liquids under a horizontal base motion with arbitrary temporal variation is presented. Both rigid and flexible tanks are studied. The response functions examined include the base shear, base moments, and hydrodynamic pressure on the tank wall and base. Unlike the cases of tanks containing one liquid in which the response is controlled by one parameter, the responses of tanks that contain two different liquids are controlled by three parameters. For rigid tanks, the response functions are evaluated for a wide range of values for each parameter; the results are presented in tabular and graphic forms. The responses of flexible tanks containing two liquids are evaluated by an approximate approach which is an extension of the method used for evaluation of response functions for flexible tanks that contain only one liquid.

  5. Management of aging of nuclear power plant containment structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Norris, W.E.; Graves, H.L. III

    1998-06-01

    Research addressing aging management of nuclear power plant concrete and steel containment structures is summarized. Accomplishments related to concrete containment structures include formation of a materials` property database; an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors; guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments; and a time-dependent reliability-based methodology for condition assessments and estimations of future performance. Under the steel containments and liners activity, a degradation assessment methodology has been developed, mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in the containment due to aggressive environmental factors have been identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis have been summarized.

  6. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead. 35... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a...

  7. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead....

  8. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead....

  9. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead....

  10. 24 CFR 35.135 - Use of paint containing lead.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Urban Development LEAD-BASED PAINT POISONING PREVENTION IN CERTAIN RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES General Lead-Based Paint Requirements and Definitions for All Programs. § 35.135 Use of paint containing lead. (a... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of paint containing lead....

  11. 30 CFR 56.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contained flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, or explosive solids, the pipelines or... Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4604 Preparation of pipelines or containers... pressure build-up during the application of heat; and (c)(1) Filled with an inert gas or water, where...

  12. 30 CFR 56.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contained flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, or explosive solids, the pipelines or... Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4604 Preparation of pipelines or containers... pressure build-up during the application of heat; and (c)(1) Filled with an inert gas or water, where...

  13. 30 CFR 56.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contained flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, or explosive solids, the pipelines or... Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4604 Preparation of pipelines or containers... pressure build-up during the application of heat; and (c)(1) Filled with an inert gas or water, where...

  14. 30 CFR 56.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contained flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, or explosive solids, the pipelines or... Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4604 Preparation of pipelines or containers... pressure build-up during the application of heat; and (c)(1) Filled with an inert gas or water, where...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... contained flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, or explosive solids, the pipelines or... Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4604 Preparation of pipelines or containers... pressure build-up during the application of heat; and (c)(1) Filled with an inert gas or water, where...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contained flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, or explosive solids, the pipelines or... Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4604 Preparation of pipelines or containers... pressure build-up during the application of heat; and (c)(1) Filled with an inert gas or water, where...

  17. 30 CFR 57.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contained flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, or explosive solids, the pipelines or... Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4604 Preparation of pipelines or containers... pressure build-up during the application of heat; and (c)(1) Filled with an inert gas or water, where...

  18. 30 CFR 57.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contained flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, or explosive solids, the pipelines or... Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4604 Preparation of pipelines or containers... pressure build-up during the application of heat; and (c)(1) Filled with an inert gas or water, where...

  19. 30 CFR 56.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... contained flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, or explosive solids, the pipelines or... Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 56.4604 Preparation of pipelines or containers... pressure build-up during the application of heat; and (c)(1) Filled with an inert gas or water, where...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4604 - Preparation of pipelines or containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contained flammable or combustible liquids, flammable gases, or explosive solids, the pipelines or... Prevention and Control Welding/cutting/compressed Gases § 57.4604 Preparation of pipelines or containers... pressure build-up during the application of heat; and (c)(1) Filled with an inert gas or water, where...

  1. Determining prestressing forces for inspection of prestressed concrete containments

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    General Design Criterion 53, Provisions for Containment Testing and Inspection,'' of Appendix A, General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants,'' to 10 CFR Part 50, Domestic Licensing of Production and Utilization Facilities,'' requires, in part, that the reactor containment be designed to permit (1) periodic inspection of all important areas and (2) an appropriate surveillance program. Regulatory Guide 1.35, Inservice Inspection of Ungrouted Tendons in Prestressed Concrete Containment Structures,'' describes a basis acceptable to the NRC staff for developing an appropriate inservice inspection and surveillance program for ungrouted tendons in prestressed concrete containment structures of light-water-cooled reactors. This guide expands and clarifies the NRC staff position on determining prestressing forces to be used for inservice inspections of prestressed concrete containment structures.

  2. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment.

  3. Design integration of favorable geometry, structural support and containment

    SciTech Connect

    Purcell, J.A.; McGehee, G.A.

    1991-07-01

    In designs for fissile processes at Savannah River site, different approaches have been used to provide engineered margins of safety for criticality with containment and seismic resistance as additional requirements. These requirements are frequently at odds in engineered systems. This paper proposes a plan to take advantage of vessels with favorable geometry to provide seismic resistance and to support a glovebox for containment. Thin slab tanks, small diameter pencil tanks, annular tanks, and other novel designs have been used for criticality safety. The requirement for DBE seismic resistance and rigid control of dimensions leads the designer to consider annular tanks for meeting these requirements. The high strength of annular tanks may logically be used to support secondary containment. Hands-on access to all instruments, piping etc. within containment can be provided through gloveports, thus a specialized glovebox. This paper examines the advantages of using an annular tank design to provide favorable geometry, structural support and containment.

  4. Observations of some oxygen-containing and sulfur-containing organic molecules in cold dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irvine, W. M.; Friberg, P.; Kaifu, N.; Kitamura, Y.; Kawaguchi, K.

    1989-01-01

    Observations of nine oxygen- and sulfur-containing organic molecules have been made toward the cold dark clouds TMC-1 and L134N. The presence of paraketene (H2C2O) in TMC-1 is confirmed for orthoketene, and has been observed for the first time and a total ketene column density of about 10 to the 13th/sq cm is found. Thioformaldehyde (H2CS) is easily detectable in both TMC-1 and L134N, with a column density about five times larger in the former source. The fractional abundance of ketene is comparable to the predictions of ion-molecule chemistry, while that of thioformaldehyde in TMC-1 is one to two orders of magnitude greater than that expected from such models at steady state. Interstellar sulfur chemistry thus continues to be poorly understood. Upper limits are set for the column densities of formic acid (HCOOH), vinyl alcohol (CH2CHOH), methyl formate (HCO2CH3), formamide (NH2CHO), methyl mercaptan (CH3SH), isothiocyanic acid (HNCS), and thioketene (H2C2S) in both sources.

  5. 40 CFR 156.140 - Identification of container types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... statement such as “See container for recycling information.” must be placed on the label under the heading... allow a different (concentrated) product to be diluted in the container.” (3) Recycling or reconditioning statement. One of the following statements is required: (i) “Offer for recycling if available...

  6. 40 CFR 156.140 - Identification of container types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... statement such as “See container for recycling information.” must be placed on the label under the heading... allow a different (concentrated) product to be diluted in the container.” (3) Recycling or reconditioning statement. One of the following statements is required: (i) “Offer for recycling if available...

  7. 40 CFR 156.140 - Identification of container types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... statement such as “See container for recycling information.” must be placed on the label under the heading... allow a different (concentrated) product to be diluted in the container.” (3) Recycling or reconditioning statement. One of the following statements is required: (i) “Offer for recycling if available...

  8. 40 CFR 156.140 - Identification of container types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... statement such as “See container for recycling information.” must be placed on the label under the heading... allow a different (concentrated) product to be diluted in the container.” (3) Recycling or reconditioning statement. One of the following statements is required: (i) “Offer for recycling if available...

  9. 40 CFR 156.140 - Identification of container types.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... statement such as “See container for recycling information.” must be placed on the label under the heading... allow a different (concentrated) product to be diluted in the container.” (3) Recycling or reconditioning statement. One of the following statements is required: (i) “Offer for recycling if available...

  10. Passivation of quartz for halogen-containing light sources

    DOEpatents

    Falkenstein, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    Lifetime of halogen containing VUV, UV, visible or IR light sources can be extended by passivating the quartz or glass gas containers with halogens prior to filling the quartz with the halogen and rare gas mixtures used to produce the light.

  11. Accident response group (ARG) containers for recovery of damaged warheads

    SciTech Connect

    York, A.R. II; Hoffman, J.P.

    1993-09-01

    This report provides an overview of the containers that are currently stored at Pantex and available for use in response to an accident or for use in any other application where a sealed containment vessel and accident resistant overpack may be needed.

  12. Orientation, containment and the emergence of symbolic thinking.

    PubMed

    Di Ceglie, Giovanna Rita

    2013-12-01

    Orientation is viewed in this paper as an important dimension of containment for the development of thinking. Orientation refers to the particular positioning in space and time of mother and infant so they can find one another and then containment can take place. Bion's container-contained model for the development of thinking is based on the capacity of the mother's mind to function as a 'home' for the infant's primitive projections. Containment and orientation are explored in relation to an ancient Greek object called 'σύμβολον' [symbolon], which I use here as a metaphor for the early negotiation between mother and infant to achieve a correct matching to each other's orientation. This is then mobilized and re-enacted between analyst and patient in the psychoanalytic process. Orientation as part of the container-contained model enables us to view the development of thinking from a new perspective with greater integration of cognitive and emotional aspects. The clinical implication of the concept of orientation is explored in relation to the process of engagement/disengagement between analyst and patient and is illustrated by clinical material. Copyright © 2013 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  13. Analysis of Porosity Associated with Hanford 3013 Outer Container Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2002-10-18

    One of the current priorities within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex is the stabilization, packaging and storage of plutonium-bearing materials. The packaging is key to the safe long-term handling and storage of these materials. Packaging consists of placing the stabilized materials into a set of two nested stainless steel containers. The filled and sealed inner container (secondary barrier) is placed into an outer container which is designated as the primary barrier against release to the environment. Together, they provide the required double containment. The outer container and closure weld were intended to comply with the rules for design, fabrication and examination of ASME Section VIII code, to the extent feasible. Post closure-weld hydrostatic testing is not practicable, due to the container contents. In an effort to establish an equivalent level of weld quality, sensitive leak testing of each production closure and periodic (1 in 25 production closures) radiographic and metallographic examination of test containers (production outer containers with non-radioactive surrogate materials) was specified. During production operations, volumetric examination of these periodic test welds identified a trend in which porosity (typically a single pore) may form at the weld tie-in (the point where the leading edge of the advancing weld puddle intercepts the weld start). A limited number of these pores failed to meet specified acceptance criteria (exceeded maximum diameter limit). This paper describes an investigation into the cause (and ultimately the prevention) of the intermittent appearance of unacceptable porosity in closure welds of the outer container made by a GTAW process.

  14. 7 CFR 981.43 - Marking or labeling of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS... or label their containers that are used in packaging or handling of bulk almonds. For purposes of... packaging or handling of bulk almonds. Volume Regulation ...

  15. 7 CFR 981.43 - Marking or labeling of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS... or label their containers that are used in packaging or handling of bulk almonds. For purposes of... packaging or handling of bulk almonds. Volume Regulation ...

  16. 7 CFR 981.43 - Marking or labeling of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS... or label their containers that are used in packaging or handling of bulk almonds. For purposes of... packaging or handling of bulk almonds. Volume Regulation ...

  17. 7 CFR 981.43 - Marking or labeling of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS... or label their containers that are used in packaging or handling of bulk almonds. For purposes of... packaging or handling of bulk almonds. Volume Regulation ...

  18. 7 CFR 981.43 - Marking or labeling of containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ALMONDS... or label their containers that are used in packaging or handling of bulk almonds. For purposes of... packaging or handling of bulk almonds. Volume Regulation ...

  19. Use of outdoor containments at Westinghouse Hanford Company

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.L.; Sparks, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This discussion describes the development and application of outdoor containments at Hanford Site Tank Farm facilities. Tank Farms is a huge facility, spread over the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site. Westinghouse Hanford Company operates the Tank Farms for the US Department of Energy. The operation and maintenance of this facility require routine access to underground storage tanks and above ground support structures. In the past, workers often accessed tanks and structures in the open, without containment. In general this approach worked; however, it relied on the skill of our crafts and calm weather conditions. The current regulatory environment and our increased focus on safety demand use of more stringent and reliable containment techniques. Historically, the use of containments has been limited mostly to indoor activities which support radiological maintenance at facilities such as reactors and process facilities. Expanding the use of these containments to support work at the Tank Farms and other outdoor activities presents many challenges. Westinghouse Hanford is actively pursuing innovative solutions to issues of outdoor containments. The process of evaluating new containment solutions, and our lessons learned are described below.

  20. Laboratory Studies of Containment in Underground Nuclear Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-31

    Summary of containment investigations .. .. ........ 48 3.2 Pressure and volume for explosive products of PETN /Lucite mixture...of PETN was chosen and the cavity was vented. Results of the reproducibility tests provide comparison data for assessing the effects on containment of...design, which consists of 3/8-gram of PETN in a 3/8-inch-OD (9.52-mm) Lucite case with a wall thickness of 34 mils (0.864 mm). A constant explosive

  1. MIL-STD-1660-Tests of DS2 Containers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    AD-A253 400 9 FINAL REPORT JUNE 1991 REPORT NO. EVT 13-90 MIL- STD -1660 TESTS OF DS2 CONTAINERS VIC’ -~ ~ UL P.7~9a Prepared for: Distribution...Classification) MIL- STD - 1660 Tests of DS2 Containers 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Jason B. Solberg 1,U. TYPE OF REPORT I1ft. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT...tests conducted. As tested, the DS2 container passed MIL- STD - 1660, Design Criteria for Ammunition Unit Loads. 20. DISTRIBUTION / AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT

  2. Clinical assessment of a fluoride-containing amalgam.

    PubMed

    Skartveit, L; Tveit, A B; Mjör, I A; Aas, H T

    1986-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the marginal breakdown as a measure of clinical behavior of fillings made with two conventional amalgam alloys, one of which contained 1% stannous fluoride. Children requiring class II restorations in both mandibular molars received conventional amalgam (New True Dentalloy (R] in one molar and a fluoride-containing amalgam (Fluor Alloy (R)) in the other. Impressions of the filled teeth were taken just after polishing and at 1-yr intervals up to a 2-yr period. Plastic models were made and evaluated under a stereomicroscope. The results showed that the fluoride-containing amalgam presented slightly better margins than the conventional amalgam after 2 yr.

  3. Certification of Compliance Audit Checklist for Hazardous Waste Containment Buildings

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Example of a Certification of Compliance Audit Checklist General Information: Containment Buildings, which includes a fillable table with areas to list requirements, federal regulations, descriptions, locations of information, and criteria met.

  4. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received...

  5. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received...

  6. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received...

  7. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received...

  8. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are received...

  9. Analysis of concrete containment structures under severe accident loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, V.L.

    1993-12-31

    One of the areas of current interest in the nuclear power industry is the response of containment buildings to internal pressures that may exceed design pressure levels. Evaluating the response of structures under these conditions requires computing beyond design load to the ultimate load of the containment. For concrete containments, this requirement means computing through severe concrete cracking and into the regime of wide-spread plastic rebar and/or tendon response. In this regime of material response, an implicit code can have trouble converging. This paper describes some of the author`s experiences with Version 5.2 of ABAQUS Standard and the ABAQUS concrete model in computing the axisymmetric response of a prestressed concrete containment to ultimate global structural failure under high internal pressures. The effects of varying the tension stiffening parameter in the concrete material model and variations of the parameters for the CONTROLS option are discussed.

  10. Feasibility of 238U NRF Detection in Shipping Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Ben

    2010-11-01

    Sophisticated detection methods are required to efficiently screen the immense volume of containers imported into the United States for the presence of special nuclear materials. The likelihood of detection of characteristic nuclear resonance fluorescence (NRF) lines for the 238U isotope inside a shipping container is examined. Similarly to atoms, nuclei fluoresce when they are excited by incident photons of particular energies unique to each isotope. Detection of the resulting gamma transitions induced by a γ-source allows for nonintrusive interrogation of materials. The Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit was modified to support detection of NRF. Simulations of a number of typical cargo container geometries containing natural uranium irradiated by a realistic nearly monoenergetic tunable gamma source were developed. The existence of NRF lines in the resulting spectra of exterior detectors will be described.

  11. Reactions of Pyrylium Salts with Nitrogen-containing Nucleophiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zvezdina, E. A.; Zhdanova, M. P.; Dorofeenko, G. N.

    1982-05-01

    New data on reactions of pyrylium salts with nitrogen-containing nucleophiles, occurring both with retention of the pyrylium ring and with recyclisation, are considered. The extensive possibilities for the employment of pyrylium salts in the synthesis of many functional compounds of the aliphatic and aromatic series and of different nitrogen- and oxygen-containing three-, five-, six-, and seven-membered heterocycles, including condensed heterocycles, are demonstrated. The bibliography includes 184 references.

  12. Measuring thermal conductivity of fluids containing oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Choi, S.U.S.; Li, S.; Eastman, J.A.

    1999-05-01

    Oxide nanofluids were produced and their thermal conductivities were measured by a transient hot-wire method. The experimental results show that these nanofluids, containing a small amount of nanoparticles, have substantially higher thermal conductivities than the same liquids without nanoparticles. Comparisons between experiments and the Hamilton and Crosser model show that the model can predict the thermal conductivity of nanofluids containing large agglomerated Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. However, the model appears to be inadequate for nanofluids containing CuO particles. This suggests that not only particle shape but size is considered to be dominant in enhancing the thermal conductivity of nanofluids.

  13. Axial jet mixing of ethanol in spherical containers during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Audelott, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to examine the liquid flow patterns that result from the axial jet mixing of ethanol in 10-centimeter-diameter spherical containers in weightlessness. Complete liquid circulation flow patterns were easily established in containers that were less than half full of liquid, while for higher liquid fill conditions, vapor was drawn into the inlet of the simulated mixer unit. Increasing the liquid-jet or lowering the position at which the liquid jet entered the container caused increasing turbulence and bubble formation.

  14. Development of a fan model for the CONTAIN code

    SciTech Connect

    Pevey, R.E.

    1987-01-08

    A fan model has been added to the CONTAIN code with a minimum of disruption of the standard CONTAIN calculation sequence. The user is required to supply a simple pressure vs. flow rate curve for each fan in his model configuration. Inclusion of the fan model required modification to two CONTAIN subroutines, IFLOW and EXEQNX. The two modified routines and the resulting executable module are located on the LANL mass storage system as /560007/iflow, /560007/exeqnx, and /560007/cont01, respectively. The model has been initially validated using a very simple sample problem and is ready for a more complete workout using the SRP reactor models from the RSRD probabilistic risk analysis.

  15. Sealing and External Sterilization of a Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Sherrit, Stewart; Olorunsola, Ayoola

    2008-01-01

    A method of (1) sealing a sample of material acquired in a possibly b iologically contaminated ("dirty") environment into a hermetic conta iner, (2) sterilizing the outer surface of the container, then (3) d elivering the sealed container to a clean environment has been propos ed. The method now proposed was originally intended to be used to ret urn samples from Mars to Earth, but could also be used on Earth to t ransport material samples acquired in environments that contain biol ogical hazards and/or, in some cases, chemical hazards.

  16. EVALUATION OF HDPE CONTAINERS FOR MACROENCAPSULATION OF MIXED WASTE DEBRIS

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, David; Carlson, Tim; Gardner, Brad; Bushmaker, Robert; Battleson, Dan; Shaw, Mark; Bierce, Lawrence

    2003-02-27

    Macroencapsulation is currently available at facilities permitted by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency for the treatment of radioactively contaminated hazardous waste. The U.S. Department of Energy is evaluating the use of high-density polyethylene containers to provide a simpler means of meeting macroencapsulation requirements. Macroencapsulation is used for the purpose of isolating waste from the disposal environment in order to meet the Land Disposal Restriction treatment standards for debris-like waste. The containers being evaluated have the potential of providing a long-term reduction in the leachability and subsequent mobility of both the hazardous and radioactive contaminants in this waste while at the same allowing treatment by the generator as the waste is being generated. While the testing discussed in this paper shows that further developmental work is necessary, these tests also indicate that these containers have the potential to reduce the cost, schedule, and complexity of meeting the treatment standard for mixed waste debris.

  17. Antibiotic Resistance of Bacteria in Water Containing Ornamental Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Trust, T. J.; Whitby, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    Water containing ornamental fishes was found to frequently contain countable numbers of bacteria that were resistant to one or more antibiotic or chemotherapeutic agents. The multidrug-resistant strains most commonly isolated were lactose-fermenting Citrobacter freundii. The overall resistance of these aquaria strains was greater than the previously described resistance of clinical isolates of C. freundii. Although the strains examined appeared to lack R-factors, this pool of resistant bacteria may have public health implications. PMID:988781

  18. ON IMPROVING THE DISINTEGRATION OF AYURVEDIC PILLS CONTAINING GUGGULU

    PubMed Central

    Chaube, Anjana; Dixit, S.K.; Sharma, P.V.

    1995-01-01

    An attempt is made in this communication to report a better way of preparing guggulu – containing pills. This technique improves the disintegration time of the preparation, thus enhancing its therapeutic value. PMID:22556694

  19. 27 CFR 26.40 - Marking containers of distilled spirits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.40 Marking containers of distilled...

  20. 2. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTACORLISS CROSSCOMPOUND ENGINE, FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING MESTA-CORLISS CROSS-COMPOUND ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  1. 1. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING UNITEDTOD TWINTANDEM ENGINE, FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EXTERIOR OF ENGINE ROOM, CONTAINING UNITED-TOD TWIN-TANDEM ENGINE, FOR 40" BLOOMING MILL - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  2. Radio-absorbing properties of nickel-containing schungite powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyn'kov, L. M.; Borbot'ko, T. V.; Krishtopova, E. A.

    2009-05-01

    A nickel-containing shungite powder has been synthesized by means of chemical reduction from aqueous solutions. The chemical composition and radio-absorbing properties of this powder have been studied.

  3. Holographic imaging of natural-fiber-containing materials

    DOEpatents

    Bunch, Kyle J [Richland, WA; Tucker, Brian J [Pasco, WA; Severtsen, Ronald H [Richland, WA; Hall, Thomas E [Kennewick, WA; McMakin, Douglas L [Richland, WA; Lechelt, Wayne M [West Richland, WA; Griffin, Jeffrey W [Kennewick, WA; Sheen, David M [Richland, WA

    2010-12-21

    The present invention includes methods and apparatuses for imaging material properties in natural-fiber-containing materials. In particular, the images can provide quantified measures of localized moisture content. Embodiments of the invention utilize an array of antennas and at least one transceiver to collect amplitude and phase data from radiation interacting with the natural-fiber-containing materials. The antennas and the transceivers are configured to transmit and receive electromagnetic radiation at one or more frequencies, which are between 50 MHz and 1 THz. A conveyance system passes the natural-fiber-containing materials through a field of view of the array of antennas. A computing device is configured to apply a synthetic imaging algorithm to construct a three-dimensional image of the natural-fiber-containing materials that provides a quantified measure of localized moisture content. The image and the quantified measure are both based on the amplitude data, the phase data, or both.

  4. Containment of a silicone fluid free surface in reduced gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pline, A.; Jacobson, T.

    1988-01-01

    In support of the surface tension driven convection experiment planned for flight aboard the Space Shuttle, tests were conducted under reduced gravity in the 2.2-sec drop tower and the 5.0-sec Zero-G facility at the Lewis Research Center. The dynamics of controlling the test fluid, a 10-centistoke viscosity silicone fluid, in a low-gravity environment were investigated using different container designs and barrier coatings. Three container edge designs were tested without a barrier coating: a square edge, a sharp edge with a 45-deg slope, and a saw-tooth edge. All three edge designs were successful in containing the fluid below the edge.

  5. Dynamic buckling of containments: The influence of damping

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, C.R.; Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, P.A.; Bennett, J.G.

    1993-02-01

    The seismic buckling capacities of representative thin, unstiffened elastic containment shells are investigated to evaluate the sensitivity of buckling to the damping level. The finite element method with transient time integration is utilized with both actual earthquake acceleration-time signals and artificial time histories generated from regulatory spectra. The dynamic response and subsequent buckling of the selected containment shells are found to be highly dependent on both damping level and the degree to which the input signal excites the fundamental shear-bending mode of the shell. Transient stresses and buckling levels for the two containment shells induced by the seismic inputs were reduced in the range of 12% to 111% by increasing the damping level from 1% to 4% of critical.

  6. Corrosion resistance of nickel-containing alloys in petrochemical environments

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.D.

    1997-09-01

    Numerous nickel-containing alloys possess a desirable combination of properties vital to long term dependability within petrochemical and refinery plants. Critical to many operations is the requirement for elevated temperature sulfidation resistance under either reducing or oxidizing environments. This paper surveys the role of materials, environmental factors, alloying elements and the formation of protective scales on the performance of selected nickel-containing alloys.

  7. SIMULATIONS FOR ACTIVE INTERROGATION OF HEU IN CARGO CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    LEE, SANG Y.; BEDDINGFIELD, DAVID H.; PARK, JAEYOUNG

    2007-01-22

    We describe the results of a Monte Carlo simulation 10 investigate the feasibility of using a pulsed deuterium-tritium (D-T) neutron technique for active interrogation of special nuclear material in cargo containers. Time distributions of fission neutrons from highly enriched uranium induced by a pulsed D-T neutron source were calculated for cargo containers with different hydrogen contents. A simple detector system with polyethylene and cadmium was modeled to calculate the two-group neutron flux at the detector.

  8. [Use of zinc-containing dehydrating fixatives for neurohistological studies].

    PubMed

    Korzhevskiĭ, D E; Grigor'ev, I P; Otellin, V A

    2006-01-01

    The suitability of zinc-containing dehydrating fixatives for neurohistological study of paraffin sections using Nissl staining and immunocytochemical techniques was examined. It was found that zinc-containing dehydrating fixatives (zinc-ethanol-formaldehyde and zinc-acetone-isopropanol-formaldehyde) had a capacity for good preservation of both structure and antigenic properties of the nervous tissue and could be recommended for application in neurohistological studies.

  9. PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  10. Chemistry and mass transport of iodine in containment

    SciTech Connect

    Beahm, E.C.; Weber, C.F.; Kress, T.S.; Shockley, W.E.; Daish, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    TRENDS is a computer code for modeling behavior of iodine in containment. It tracks both chemical and physical changes and features such as calculation of radiation dose rates in water pools , radiolysis effects, hydrolysis, and deposition/revaporization on aerosols and structural surfaces. Every attempt has been made to account for all significant processes. Reaction rate constants for iodine hydrolysis and radiolysis were obtained by a variable algorithm that gives values closely modeling experimental data. TRENDS output provides the distribution of iodine in containment and release from containment as a function of time during a severe accident sequence. Initial calculations with TRENDS have shown that the amount of volatile iodine released from containment is sensitive to the value of the liquid-gas (evaporation) mass transport coefficient for I/sub 2/. 7 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. APPLICATION OF NONSPHERICAL FISSILE CONFIGURATION IN WASTE CONTAINERS AT SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Eghbali, D; Michelle Abney, M

    2007-01-03

    Transuranic (TRU) solid waste that has been generated as a result of the production of nuclear material for the United States defense program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) has been stored in more than 30,000 55-gallon drums and carbon steel boxes since 1953. Nearly two thirds of those containers have been processed and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Among the containers assayed so far, the results indicate several drums with fissile inventories significantly higher (600-1000 fissile grams equivalent (FGE) {sup 239}Pu) than their original assigned values. While part of this discrepancy can be attributed to the past limited assay capabilities, human errors are believed to be the primary contributor. This paper summarizes the application of nonspherical fissile material configuration in waste containers, resulting in less restrictive mass and spacing limits, increased storage capacity, and several administrative controls for handling and storage of waste containers being modified without compromising safety.

  12. Pressure Indication of 3013 Inner Containers Using Digital Radiography

    SciTech Connect

    HENSEL, SJ

    2004-04-15

    Plutonium bearing materials packaged for long term storage per the Department of Energy Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) are required to be examined periodically in a non-destructive manner (i.e. without compromising the storage containers) for pressure buildup. Radiography is the preferred technology for performing the examinations. The concept is to measure and record the container lid position. As a can pressurizes the lid will deflect outward and thus provide an indication of the internal pressure. A radiograph generated within 30 days of creation of each storage container serves as the baseline from which future surveillance examinations will be compared. A problem with measuring the lid position was discovered during testing of a digital radiography system. The solution was to provide a distinct feature upon the lower surface of the container lid from which the digital radiography system could easily track the lid position.

  13. In situ remediation integrated program: Development of containment technology

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, M.E.

    1994-08-01

    The In Situ Remediation Integrated Program (ISR IP) is supporting the development of subsurface containment barrier technology for use in site restoration applications at contaminated sites throughout the US Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The types of subsurface barriers being developed include impermeable barriers and sorbent barriers. The specific containment technology projects described in this paper include frozen soil barriers, flowable grout techniques, hydraulic and diffusion barriers, horizontal grout barriers, chemically enhanced barriers, and viscous liquid barriers.

  14. Vibration modes of spherical shells and containment vessels.

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T. A.; Romero, C. D.

    2001-01-01

    Spherical pressure vessels are used to fully contain the effects of high explosions. In this paper, the vibrations of a spherical containment vessel undergoing elastic response are investigated. Vibration modes of containment vessels are of particular interest, as it is the superposition and interaction of different modes of response with closely spaced frequencies that has been reported to be the mechanism of 'strain growth'. First, the modal frequencies of a spherical shell for both axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric response modes are discussed, based on a sequence of papers that have appeared in the open literature. Analytical predictions are then compared with numerical simulations using ABAQUS. It is found that the numerical simulations accurately predict both the axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric modal frequencies for the complete spherical shell. Next, numerical simulations of modal frequencies for the more complex spherical containment vessel (with nozzles) are compared with the spherical shell results. Numerical simulations for the spherical containment vessel reveal that frequencies are somewhat similar to the complete spherical shell. Limited comparisons with experimentally recorded frequencies for participating modes of vessel dynamic response during high explosive containment testing are presented as well.

  15. Absorbent pads for Containment, Neutralization, and Clean-Up of Environmental Spills Containing Chemically-Reactive Agents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Dennis D. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A pad for cleaning up liquid spills is described which contains a porous surface covering, and an absorbent interior containing chemically reactive reagents for neutralizing noxious chemicals within the spilled liquid. The porous surface and the absorbent component would normally consist of chemically resistant materials allowing tentative spill to pass. The absorbent interior which contains the neutralizing reagents can but is not required to be chemically resilient and conducts the liquid chemical spill towards the absorbent interior containing the chemically reactive reagents where the dangerous and undesirable chemicals within the chemical spill are then neutralized as well as removed from the premises.

  16. 6. VIEW OF INSIDE OF RAIL CAR CONTAINING GRAPHITE DELIVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF INSIDE OF RAIL CAR CONTAINING GRAPHITE DELIVERED TO BUILDING 444. THE GRAPHITE WAS FORMED INTO MOLDS AND CRUCIBLE FOR USE IN THE FOUNDRY. (1/12/54) - Rocky Flats Plant, Non-Nuclear Production Facility, South of Cottonwood Avenue, west of Seventh Avenue & east of Building 460, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  17. Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of Bright Angel stone vault, containing condenser, Hoffman condensation pump, Jennings vacuum heating pump, and misc. pipes and valves. - Grand Canyon Village Utilities, Grand Canyon National Park, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  18. Preparation of polypropylene thermoplastic container via thermoforming process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruqiyah Nik Hassan, Nik; Amira Mohd Ghazali, Farah; Aziz Jaafar, Abdul; Mazni Ismail, Noor

    2016-02-01

    In this study, plastic containers made of polypropylene (PP) sheets were fabricated via vacuum thermoforming. Thermoforming is a process used in fabricating plastic parts by changing flat thermoplastic sheet to three dimensional shapes. In preparing these thermoplastic containers, the design and fabrication of mould were first done by using Catia V5 software and CNC milling machine, respectively. The thermoforming process was then performed at various temperatures ranging from 160°C until 200°C on the PP sheet to form the container. From the experiment, it can be suggested that the outcomes of final thermoplastic containers are significantly depends on temperature control during thermoforming process and also the vent holes design of the mould.

  19. Interior of visitor's room at Left Powerhouse, containing terrazzo floor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of visitor's room at Left Powerhouse, containing terrazzo floor depicting a turbine-generator unit. - Columbia Basin Project, Grand Coulee Dam Powerplant Complex, Grand Coulee, Grant County, WA

  20. Antimicrobial and antifungal effects of tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst.

    PubMed

    Uchimaru, Masayuki; Sakai, Takako; Moroi, Ryoji; Shiota, Susumu; Shibata, Yukie; Deguchi, Mikito; Sakai, Hidetaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Terada, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the antimicrobial/antifungal ability of a tissue conditioner containing a photocatalyst for Escherichia coli, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The photocatalyst was mixed with tissue conditioners powders at concentrations of 0, 10, 15, and 20 wt%. Tissue conditioners powders containing a photocatalyst were mixed with liquid to make test specimens. Test specimens inoculated by each microorganism were irradiated by ultraviolet light for 0-, 2- and 4 hours. The antimicrobial/antifungal effects were evaluated by the CFU technique. The CFU values of each microorganism for tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst showed significant decrease following UV-irradiation. The improvement in antimicrobial/antifungal effects was concomitant with the increase of the mixing ratio and the irradiation time. Therefore, the results indicated that tissue conditioners containing a photocatalyst might have photocatalytic ability.

  1. VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH SQUARE SHAPE STRETCH PRESS CONTAINMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH SQUARE SHAPE STRETCH PRESS CONTAINMENT PITS CENTER, FACING NORTH. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH RECTANGULAR SHAPE STRETCH PRESS CONTAINMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF INTERIOR SPACE WITH RECTANGULAR SHAPE STRETCH PRESS CONTAINMENT PIT IN BACKGROUND, FACING NORTH. - Douglas Aircraft Company Long Beach Plant, Aircraft Parts Shipping & Receiving Building, 3855 Lakewood Boulevard, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 9 CFR 316.13 - Marking of outside containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... marked products, as tierces, barrels, drums, boxes, crates, and large-size fiber-board containers... in compliance with part 322 of this subchapter as well as this part. (d) Slack barrels used as...

  4. Growing Media Affect Size of Container-Grown Red Pine

    Treesearch

    Howard M. Phipps

    1974-01-01

    Red pine seedlings were grown in nine different soil media and in two types of containers in a greenhouse. Growth differed significantly among the media after 16 weeks, with the largest seedlings produced in a peat-vermiculite mix

  5. 88. DETAIL OF 'LOCATION 25' EQUIPMENT CABINET CONTAINING AUTOPILOT GYRO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    88. DETAIL OF 'LOCATION 25' EQUIPMENT CABINET CONTAINING AUTOPILOT GYRO MONITORS AND TAPE PUNCH - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  6. 89. DETAIL OF 'LOCATION 26' EQUIPMENT CABINET CONTAINING AUTOPILOT PROGRAMMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    89. DETAIL OF 'LOCATION 26' EQUIPMENT CABINET CONTAINING AUTOPILOT PROGRAMMER PANELS AND TAPE READER - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 12. Detail view, north wall of porch containing the exterior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Detail view, north wall of porch containing the exterior pantry door (note the lintel stone with the abstracted wave motif). - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW LOOKING SOUTH OF CONTAINMENT SYSTEM (TOP), SLAB CASTING MACHINE AND RUN OUT WITH TRAVELING TORCH. MACHINE IS CASTING IN TWIN MOLD. - U.S. Steel, Fairfield Works, Continuous Caster, Fairfield, Jefferson County, AL

  9. 90. DETAIL OF 'LOCATION 24' EQUIPMENT CABINET CONTAINING AUTOPILOT FLIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. DETAIL OF 'LOCATION 24' EQUIPMENT CABINET CONTAINING AUTOPILOT FLIGHT MONITORS - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Operations Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. 10. Photocopy of drawing of missile shipping container from Procedures ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of drawing of missile shipping container from Procedures and Drills for the NIKE Ajax System, Department of the Army Field Manual, FM-44-80 from Institute for Military History, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, PA 1956. - NIKE Missile Battery PR-79, East Windsor Road south of State Route 101, Foster, Providence County, RI

  11. Coordinating and Tracking of Commercial Containers in Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    The identity of each writer and caller is fully protected. Acronyms MCT Movement Control Team MTMC Military Traffic Management Command USFK U.S...Traffic Management Command ( MTMC ) Oceanliner Contract. That contract provides rates, terms, and conditions for services required for movement of...containers from the carrier�s terminal to the location where the container is discharged to the consignee. The carrier shall also provide the MTMC

  12. Design and characterization of sulfobetaine-containing terpolymer biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Heath, Daniel E; Cooper, Stuart L

    2012-08-01

    A methacrylic terpolymer system with non-fouling interfacial properties was synthesized by the random copolymerization of hexyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate and sulfobetaine methacrylate (a monomer bearing a zwitterionic pendant group). Polymers were synthesized from feeds containing 0-15 mol.% of the zwitterion-containing methacrylate. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance verified the incorporation of sulfobetaine methacrylate into the polymer structure. Water absorption studies illustrate that the hydrophilicity of the material increases with increasing zwitterion concentration. The biological properties of the polymer were probed by fibrinogen adsorption, human umbilical vein endothelial cell adhesion and growth, and platelet adhesion. Strong resistance to protein adsorption and cell and platelet attachment was observed on materials synthesized from 15 mol.% sulfobetaine methacrylate. Results were compared to the non-fouling behavior of a PEGylated terpolymer formulation and it was observed that the poly(ethylene glycol)-containing materials were slightly more effective at resisting human umbilical vein endothelial cell adhesion and growth over a 7 day incubation period, but the zwitterion-containing materials were equally effective at resisting fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion. The zwitterion-containing materials were electrospun into three-dimensional random fiber scaffolds. Materials synthesized from 15 mol.% of the zwitterion-containing monomer retained their non-fouling character after fabrication into scaffolds.

  13. Photoreaction of indole-containing mycotoxins to fluorescent products.

    PubMed

    Maragos, C M

    2009-06-01

    Photochemical reaction of the non-fluorescent mycotoxin cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) to fluorescent products was recently reported. Because CPA contains an indole moiety, believed to contribute to the fluorescence, it was of interest to determine whether the effect might be more generally applicable to indole-containing mycotoxins. Three indole-containing tremorgens (penitrem A, paxilline, verruculogen) that have not previously been reported to be fluorescent were rendered fluorescent by exposure to ultraviolet light in a photoreactor. Naturally fluorescent ergot alkaloids, which also contain an indole-moiety, exhibited a diminished response after exposure. This suggests that the phenomenon may be most useful for detection of indole-containing tremorgens that are non-fluorescent, rather than for the enhancement of materials that are already fluorescent, such as the ergot alkaloids. The extent to which fluorescence enhancement was seen was strongly influenced by the reaction environment, in particular the solvent used and whether cyclodextrins were present. In an HPLC format, placement of the photoreactor post-column allowed for the fluorescence detection of penitrem A, paxilline, and verruculogen. The ability to photoreact indole-containing tremorgens and detect them by fluorescence may open up new avenues for detection of these mycotoxins alone or in combination.

  14. Monitoring of Containment in Perthes' Disease: Can Ultrasonography be Helpful?

    PubMed

    Stuecker, Markus H F; Meiss, A Ludwig

    2004-10-30

    Background. Prevention of loss of containment has become an accepted principle in the treatment of Perthes' disease. The pre-requisite is early recognition. It is based on evaluation of plain radiographs and more recently, on the study of Magnetic Resonance (MR) images which allow discrimination of early cartilaginous changes. Ultrasonography (US) allows visualisation of the lateral cartilaginous portion of the femoral head and the acetabular rim including the labrum and measurement of femoral head protrusion/lateralisation. The purpose of this paper is to highlight its potential for monitoring of containment . Materials and methods. We present typical MR and US images to demonstrate the anatomic landmarks of the normal hip joint and to define the parameters of protrusion in Perthes' disease. We selected three illustrative cases that had undergone routine imaging of both hip joints by MR imaging and ultrasound for evaluation of containment. Radiographs of the hips were also available. In radiographs we assessed the coverage of the femoral head, i.e. containment, by the well established Acetabulum-Head Index (AHI) and in MR imaging by the Cartilaginous Acetabulum-Head Index (CAHI). In US we assessed the uncoverage, i. e. protrusion, by the Lateral Cartilage Distance (LCD). Changes in the important morphological MR containment features were also noted. Results. There was a significant increase in the LCD in all Perthes hips (6.2, 7.4, 11.6 mm) when compared to the unaffected side (5.2, 5.1, 4.1 mm) and also when compared to the published mean normal value (5.4 +/- 0.9 mm). Correspondingly, the CAHI values were significantly decreased (75, 69, 67% versus 87, 79, 81%), also in comparison to the published limits (77, 75, and 73% respectively). As for the AHI only the value of 71 % in the third case represented a definite decrease below published normal limits (86 and 80.7% respectively). In the 1st case we diagnosed adequate containment, in the 2nd containment at risk

  15. Simulation of empty container logistic management at depot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sze, San-Nah; Sek, Siaw-Ying Doreen; Chiew, Kang-Leng; Tiong, Wei-King

    2017-07-01

    This study focuses on the empty container management problem in a deficit regional area. Deficit area is the area having more export activities than the import activities, which always have a shortage of empty container. This environment has challenged the trading companies in the decision making in distributing the empty containers. A simulation model that fit to the environment is developed. Besides, a simple heuristic algorithm with some hard and soft constraints consideration are proposed to plan the logistic of empty container supply. Then, the feasible route with the minimum cost will be determined by applying the proposed heuristic algorithm. The heuristic algorithm can be divided into three main phases which are data sorting, data assigning and time window updating.

  16. Method for treatment of water containing low concentrations of mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, D. J.; Kraynik, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    A process employing magnetic filtering techniques has been devised for treating water containing concentrations on the order of 1 microgram/cubic centimeter of atomic or ionic mercury. A laboratory-scale system has been operated and can reduce the mercury content of test solutions by as much as 90 percent.

  17. Risk of impaired condition of watersheds containing National Forest lands

    Treesearch

    Thomas C Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the risk of impaired condition of the nearly 3700 5th-level watersheds in the contiguous 48 states containing the national forests and grasslands that make up the U.S. Forest Service's National Forest System (NFS). The assessment was based on readily available, relatively consistent nationwide data sets for a series of indicators representing watershed...

  18. GAS ANALYSES FROM HEADSPACE OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING MATERIALS CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Almond, P.; Livingston, R.; Traver, L.; Arnold, M.; Bridges, N.; Kessinger, G.; Duffey, J.

    2010-02-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) 3013 destructive examination program performs surveillances on 3013 containers originating from multiple sites across the DOE complex. The bases for the packaging, storage, and surveillance activities are derived from the Department of Energy's 3013 Standard (DOE-STD-3013-2004). During destructive examination, headspace gas samples are obtained from the 3013 inner container and the annulus between the outer and inner containers. To characterize gas species, the samples are analyzed by gas chromatography (GC), direct-inlet mass spectrometry (DIMS), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The GC results, as well as other parameters, are utilized as input into the gas evaluation software tool (GEST) program for computation of pre-puncture gas compositions and pressures. Over 30 containers from the Hanford Site and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) have been examined in the first three years of the surveillance program. Several containers were shown to have appreciable hydrogen content (some greater than 30 mol %), yet little or no oxygen was detected in any of the containers, including those exhibiting high hydrogen concentrations. Characteristics including moisture content, surface area, and material composition, along with the headspace gas composition, are utilized in an attempt to explain the chemical behavior of the packaged materials.

  19. Thermal analysis of the IDENT 1578 fuel pin shipping container

    SciTech Connect

    Ingham, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The IDENT 1578 container, which is a 110-in. long 5.5-in. OD tube, is designed for shipping FFTF fuel elements in T-3 casks between HEDL, HFEF, and other laboratories. The thermal analysis was conducted to evaluate whether or not the container satisfies its thermal design criteria (handle a decay heat load of 600 watts, max fuel pin cladding temperature not exceeding 800/sup 0/F).

  20. Process for the solvent deasphalting of asphaltene containing hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ikematsu, M.; Honzyo, I.; Sakai, K.

    1985-04-30

    A process for the solvent deasphalting of asphaltene-containing hydrocarbons which comprising mixing asphaltene-containing hydrocarbons with a metal compound such as aluminum sulfate or titanium (IV) oxide and also with a solvent such as n-heptane, n-hexane, n-heptane or a mixed n-pentane.n-butanol solvent, to form a mixture which is then allowed to stand still to precipitate and separate the asphaltene therefrom thereby obtaining a deasphalted oil.

  1. Process for the solvent deasphalting of asphaltene-containing hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Ikematsu, M.; Honzyo, I.; Sakai, K.

    1985-06-25

    A process for the solvent deasphalting of asphaltene-containing hydrocarbons which comprising mixing asphaltene-containing hydrocarbons with a metal compound such as aluminum carbonates or titanium (IV) oxide and also with a solvent such as n-heptane, n-hexane, n-heptane or a mixed n-pentane.n-butanol solvent, to form a mixture which is then allowed to stand still to precipitate and separate the asphaltene therefrom thereby obtaining a deasphalted oil.

  2. Complex-wide representation of material packaged in 3013 containers

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua E.; Peppers, Larry G.; Friday, Gary P.

    2009-06-01

    The DOE sites packaging plutonium oxide materials packaged according to Department of Energy 3013 Standard (DOE-STD-3013) are responsible for ensuring that the materials are represented by one or more samples in the Materials Identification and Surveillance (MIS) program. The sites categorized most of the materials into process groups, and the remaining materials were characterized, based on the prompt gamma analysis results. The sites issued documents to identify the relationships between the materials packaged in 3013 containers and representative materials in the MIS program. These “Represented” documents were then reviewed and concurred with by the MIS Working Group. However, these documents were developed uniquely at each site and were issued before completion of sample characterization, small-scale experiments, and prompt gamma analysis, which provided more detailed information about the chemical impurities and the behavior of the material in storage. Therefore, based on the most recent data, relationships between the materials packaged in 3013 containers and representative materials in the MIS program been revised. With the prompt gamma analysis completed for Hanford, Rocky Flats, and Savannah River Site 3013 containers, MIS items have been assigned to the 3013 containers for which representation is based on the prompt gamma analysis results. With the revised relationships and the prompt gamma analysis results, a Master “Represented” table has been compiled to document the linkages between each 3013 container packaged to date and its representative MIS items. This table provides an important link between the Integrated Surveillance Program database, which contains information about each 3013 container to the MIS items database, which contains the characterization, prompt gamma data, and storage behavior data from shelf-life experiments for the representative MIS items.

  3. Reassessing the extent of the Q classification for containment paint

    SciTech Connect

    Spires, G.

    1995-12-31

    A mounting number of site-specific paint debris transport and screen clogging analyses submitted to justify substandard containment paint work have been deemed persuasive by virtue of favorable U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission safety evaluation report (SER) findings. These lay a strong foundation for a standardized approach to redefining the extent to which paint in containment needs to be considered {open_quotes}Q.{close_quotes} This information justifies an initiative by licensees to roll back paint work quality commitments made at the design phase. This paper questions the validity of the basic premise that all primary containment paint can significantly compromise core and containment cooling [emergency core cooling system/engineered safeguard feature (ECCS/ESF)]. It is posited that the physical extent of painted containment surfaces for which extant material qualification and quality control (QC) structures need apply can be limited to zones relatively proximate to ECCS/ESF suction points. For other painted containment surfaces, simplified criteria should be allowed.

  4. Enhancement of Phagocytosis by Interferon-Containing Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kun-Yen; Donahoe, Robert M.; Gordon, Francis B.; Dressler, Harry R.

    1971-01-01

    Exposure of mononuclear cells from the mouse peritoneal cavity to interferon (IF)-containing mouse sera enhanced phagocytosis of colloidal carbon particles by the cells. The same effect was observed when the cells were exposed to IF-containing cell culture harvest free of serum. The magnitude of this effect of IF-containing preparations paralleled the titer of IF and was not related to the dilution of various IF-containing serum specimens tested. The factor responsible for the enhancing effect was stable at pH 2, inactivated by trypsin, and nonsedimentable at 105,000 × g. Heating at 60 C for 1 hr destroyed it, and its kinetics of heat inactivation paralleled that of the antiviral activity of IF. A period of incubation of phagocytic cells with IF-containing serum was necessary before a maximum level of enhancement was reached, and once established was not removable by repeated washing of cells. The kinetics of the production of the enhancing factor in mice injected with Newcastle disease virus was essentially identical to that of the simultaneous production of IF as measured by antiviral activity. Contrary to the effect of mouse IF preparations, human IF preparation did not enhance the activity of mouse phagocytes. It appears, therefore, that the phagocytosis-enhancing factor falls within the present definition of IF. Images PMID:4343410

  5. Production of hydrogen sulphide containing gas from underground formations

    SciTech Connect

    Delude, S.G.; Luinstra, E.A.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a process for the production of at least a gaseous product containing a substantial amount of hydrogen sulphide via a bore-hole from an underground formation containing besides the hydrogen sulphide at least elemental sulphur, comprising (a) injection of a liquid substantially consisting of hydrocarbons into the bore-hole or into the underground formation near to the end of the bore-hole; (b) producing a gaseous and a liquid fraction from the underground formation; (c) separating the gaseous fraction from the liquid fraction (d) if necessary, separating an aqueous fraction of the produced liquid fraction from the hydrocarbons-containing fraction; (e) heating the hydrocarbons-containing fraction in order to remove elemental sulphur by conversion to hydrogen sulphide in the presence of a catalyst comprising sulphides of one of more metals from Group VIB and/or Group VIII of the Periodic Table of Elements deposited on a support of alumina, silica or silica alumina; and (f) reinjection of at least a part of the thus treated hydrocarbons-containing fraction into the bore-hole or into the underground formation near to the end of the bore-hole as described hereinbefore.

  6. Capacity of Prestressed Concrete Containment Vessels with Prestressing Loss

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH,JEFFREY A.

    2001-09-01

    Reduced prestressing and degradation of prestressing tendons in concrete containment vessels were investigated using finite element analysis of a typical prestressed containment vessel. The containment was analyzed during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) with varying levels of prestress loss and with reduced tendon area. It was found that when selected hoop prestressing tendons were completely removed (as if broken) or when the area of selected hoop tendons was reduced, there was a significant impact on the ultimate capacity of the containment vessel. However, when selected hoop prestressing tendons remained, but with complete loss of prestressing, the predicted ultimate capacity was not significantly affected for this specific loss of coolant accident. Concrete cracking occurred at much lower levels for all cases. For cases where selected vertical tendons were analyzed with reduced prestressing or degradation of the tendons, there also was not a significant impact on the ultimate load carrying capacity for the specific accident analyzed. For other loading scenarios (such as seismic loading) the loss of hoop prestressing with the tendons remaining could be more significant on the ultimate capacity of the containment vessel than found for the accident analyzed. A combination of loss of prestressing and degradation of the vertical tendons could also be more critical during other loading scenarios.

  7. Survival of Vibrio cholerae in African domestic water storage containers.

    PubMed

    Patel, M; Isaäcson, M

    1989-10-07

    Although much has been published about growth of Vibrio cholerae in natural sources of water, little or nothing has been written on its survival in common household water storage containers. This study compared the behaviour of the El Tor and Classical biotypes of V. cholerae in different containers commonly used in Africa for domestic water storage. These included traditional clay pots, wooden barrels, galvanised iron drums (corroded and non-corroded) and plastic (polyethylene) drums. The findings are considered to be of public health interest with reference to selection of the most suitable containers for the storage of water drawn from a treated source. Although survival of V. cholerae was much shorter in clay pots than in any of the other containers, the numbers of viable V. cholerae were higher than in non-corroding iron drums and plastic drums. The clay pots, being porous, also showed a tendency to constant outward seepage of water which, when collected, was also shown to harbour cholera bacilli. These containers are therefore considered hazardous as pathogens in the stored water are easily disseminated to contaminate either hands or food prepared in the vicinity. The longest survival occurred in damaged metal drums. Presence of other bacteria greatly inhibited survival of V. cholerae. The response of the two biotypes was much the same in all the experiments.

  8. Aging management of containment structures in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L. III; Norris, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    Research is being conducted by ORNL under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of nuclear power plant containment and other safety-related structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Accomplishments include development of a Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, evaluation of models for potential concrete containment degradation factors, development of a procedure to identify critical structures and degradation factors important to aging management, evaluations of nondestructive evaluation techniques. assessments of European and North American repair practices for concrete, review of parameters affecting corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and development of methodologies for making current condition assessments and service life predictions of new or existing reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants.

  9. An analytical study of seismic threat to containment integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Amin, M.; Agrawal, P.K.; Ahl, T.J.; CBI Na-Con, Inc., Oak Brook, IL )

    1989-07-01

    The methodology used and the results of an analytical scoping study of the seismic capacity of four containment buildings located in the Eastern United States are described in this report. The study was undertaken to provide quantitative information of containment seismic capacity considering a rather complete list of limit states. This type of information was not available previously. The four containments represent a cross-section of containment, reactor, and foundation types. Evaluations included time history analyses, four combinations of seismic with pressure and temperature loading to consider different severe accident conditions, and seismic aftershocks. Containments were evaluated for applicable limit states from a list of sixteen limit states that included structural, penetration, and foundation failures. The results are presented in terms of capacity margin factors at a prescribed value of peak horizontal ground acceleration, or by stating the seismic capacity in the governing limit states when the capacity is smaller than the acceleration value at which margin factors are listed. For certain critical limit states, curves showing the variation of capacity margin factor with peak horizontal ground acceleration are presented. The report also includes a discussion of factors that are significant for determining seismic and provides recommendations for future work. 25 refs., 285 figs., 70 tabs.

  10. PHARMACODYNAMICAL EVALUATION OF MATRIX TYPE TRANSDERMAL THERAPEUTIC SYSTEMS CONTAINING CAPTOPRIL.

    PubMed

    Kerımoğlu, Oya; Şahbaz, Sevınç; Şehırlı, Özer; Ozdemır, Zarıfe Nıgar; Çetınel, Şule; Dortunç, Betül; Şener, Göksel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate pharmacodynamical properties of transdermal therapeutic systems (TTS) containing captopril together with synthetic and pH independent polymers, Eudragit RL 100 and RS 100. Optimum formulation was chosen according to the results of our previous study regarding in vitro dissolution and ex vivo diffusion rate studies through excised human skin by using Franz Diffusion Cell. Control group, hypertension group (HT) and TTS containing captopril hypertension group (HT-CAP) were assessed for the pharmacodynamic activity of the study. Pharmacodynamic activity of transdermal patches containing captopril was evaluated in rats by the measurement of systolic blood pressure for 24 h with the use of the tail cuff method. Blood pressure, heart rate, body and heart weight, heart and body weight ratio were determined. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Na+, K(+)-ATPase were measured in the serum of rats. Histopathological evaluation of the heart tissue was conducted in order to determine any tissue damage. Blood pressure values of the TTS containing captopril hypertension group were decreased significantly and became almost similar with the blood pressure values of the control group. These results indicated that matrix type transdermal patches prepared with Eudragit RL 100 and RS 100 polymers containing captopril can be considered as transdermal therapeutic systems for chronical treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure. However, further in vivo pharmacokinetic studies should be performed in order to determine the blood level of the drug.

  11. A Study of the Pronunciation of Words Containing Adjacent Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Ivo P.

    To determine the usefulness of the commonly taught phonics rule, "only pronounce the first vowel in words that contain adjacent vowels" (the VV rule, with the first "v" pronounced with the long vowel sound), two new studies applied it to words with adjacent vowels in several lists and dictionaries. The first study analyzed words containing…

  12. A Study of the Pronunciation of Words Containing Adjacent Vowels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greif, Ivo P.

    To determine the usefulness of the commonly taught phonics rule, "only pronounce the first vowel in words that contain adjacent vowels" (the VV rule, with the first "v" pronounced with the long vowel sound), two new studies applied it to words with adjacent vowels in several lists and dictionaries. The first study analyzed words containing…

  13. Internalization of paramagnetic phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes by macrophages.

    PubMed

    Geelen, Tessa; Yeo, Sin Yuin; Paulis, Leonie E M; Starmans, Lucas W E; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2012-08-28

    Inflammation plays an important role in many pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological conditions and oncology, and is considered an important predictor for disease progression and outcome. In vivo imaging of inflammatory cells will improve diagnosis and provide a read-out for therapy efficacy. Paramagnetic phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing liposomes were developed for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confocal microscopy imaging of macrophages. These nanoparticles also provide a platform to combine imaging with targeted drug delivery. Incorporation of PS into liposomes did not affect liposomal size and morphology up to 12 mol% of PS. Liposomes containing 6 mol% of PS showed the highest uptake by murine macrophages, while only minor uptake was observed in endothelial cells. Uptake of liposomes containing 6 mol% of PS was dependent on the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Furthermore, these 6 mol% PS-containing liposomes were mainly internalized into macrophages, whereas liposomes without PS only bound to the macrophage cell membrane. Paramagnetic liposomes containing 6 mol% of PS for MR imaging of macrophages have been developed. In vitro these liposomes showed specific internalization by macrophages. Therefore, these liposomes might be suitable for in vivo visualization of macrophage content and for (visualization of) targeted drug delivery to inflammatory cells.

  14. Internalization of paramagnetic phosphatidylserine-containing liposomes by macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays an important role in many pathologies, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological conditions and oncology, and is considered an important predictor for disease progression and outcome. In vivo imaging of inflammatory cells will improve diagnosis and provide a read-out for therapy efficacy. Paramagnetic phosphatidylserine (PS)-containing liposomes were developed for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confocal microscopy imaging of macrophages. These nanoparticles also provide a platform to combine imaging with targeted drug delivery. Results Incorporation of PS into liposomes did not affect liposomal size and morphology up to 12 mol% of PS. Liposomes containing 6 mol% of PS showed the highest uptake by murine macrophages, while only minor uptake was observed in endothelial cells. Uptake of liposomes containing 6 mol% of PS was dependent on the presence of Ca2+ and Mg2+. Furthermore, these 6 mol% PS-containing liposomes were mainly internalized into macrophages, whereas liposomes without PS only bound to the macrophage cell membrane. Conclusions Paramagnetic liposomes containing 6 mol% of PS for MR imaging of macrophages have been developed. In vitro these liposomes showed specific internalization by macrophages. Therefore, these liposomes might be suitable for in vivo visualization of macrophage content and for (visualization of) targeted drug delivery to inflammatory cells. PMID:22929153

  15. Diffusive transport in networks built of containers and tubes.

    PubMed

    Lizana, L; Konkoli, Z

    2005-08-01

    We have developed analytical and numerical methods to study the transport of noninteracting particles in large networks consisting of M d -dimensional containers C1,...,C(M) with radii R(i) linked together by tubes of length l(ij) and radii a(ij) where i,j = 1,2,...,M. Tubes may join directly with each other, forming junctions. It is possible that some links are absent. Instead of solving the diffusion equation for the full problem we formulated an approach that is computationally more efficient. We derived a set of rate equations that govern the time dependence of the number of particles in each container, N1(t), N2(t),...,N(M)(t). In such a way the complicated transport problem is reduced to a set of M first-order integro-differential equations in time, which can be solved efficiently by the algorithm presented here. The workings of the method have been demonstrated on a couple of examples: networks involving three, four, and seven containers and one network with a three-point junction. Already simple networks with relatively few containers exhibit interesting transport behavior. For example, we showed that it is possible to adjust the geometry of the networks so that the particle concentration varies in time in a wave-like manner. Such behavior deviates from simple exponential growth and decay occurring in the two-container system.

  16. Feasibility of High Frequency Acoustic Imaging for Inspection of Containments

    SciTech Connect

    C.N. Corrado; J.E. Bondaryk; V. Godino

    1998-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has a program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide assistance in their assessment of the effects of potential degradation on the structural integrity and Ieaktightness of metal containment vessels and steel liners of concrete containment in nuclear power plants. One of the program objectives is to identify a technique(s) for inspection of inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary. Acoustic imaging has been identified as one of these potential techniques. A numerical feasibility study investigated the use of high-frequency bistatic acoustic imaging techniques for inspection of inaccessible portions of the metallic pressure boundary of nuclear power plant containment. The range-dependent version of the OASES Code developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology was utilized to perform a series of numerical simulations. OASES is a well developed and extensively tested code for evaluation of the acoustic field in a system of stratified fluid and/or elastic layers. Using the code, an arbitrary number of fluid or solid elastic layers are interleaved, with the outer layers modeled as halfspaces. High frequency vibrational sources were modeled to simulate elastic waves in the steel. The received field due to an arbitrary source array can be calculated at arbitrary depth and range positions. In this numerical study, waves that reflect and scatter from surface roughness caused by modeled degradations (e.g., corrosion) are detected and used to identify and map the steel degradation. Variables in the numerical study included frequency, flaw size, interrogation distance, and sensor incident angle.Based on these analytical simulations, it is considered unlikely that acoustic imaging technology can be used to investigate embedded steel liners of reinforced concrete containment. The thin steel liner and high signal losses to the concrete make this application difficult. Results for portions of steel containment

  17. Method for determining processability of a hydrocarbon containing feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2013-09-10

    Disclosed herein is a method involving the steps of (a) precipitating an amount of asphaltenes from a liquid sample of a first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock having solvated asphaltenes therein with one or more first solvents in a column; (b) determining one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; (c) analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes; and (d) correlating a measurement of feedstock reactivity for the first hydrocarbon-containing feedstock sample with a mathematical parameter derived from the results of analyzing the one or more solubility characteristics of the precipitated asphaltenes.

  18. Transformation of substances containing trace elements in coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuilov, E. V.; Lebedeva, L. N.; Faminskaya, M. V.; Pokrovskaya, L. S.

    2010-12-01

    A new complex approach to simulation of phase and chemical transformation of substances containing trace elements in coal burning units is proposed; this approach unites capabilities of geochemistry, chemical thermodynamics, and physical-chemical kinetics. Processes of transformation of these substances in the flow of combustion products of Moscow basin coals along the flow path of the P-59 boiler are studied.

  19. Synthesis and thermal properties of new bionanofluids containing gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; López Gamboa, G.; Gutiérrez Fuentes, R.; Sánchez Ramírez, J. F.; Correa Pacheco, Z. N.; López-y-López, V. E.; Tepech-Carrillo, L.

    2016-10-01

    New bionanofluids containing Au nanoparticles with different concentrations were prepared by chemical reduction method. The nanoparticles were mixed with biodiesel from soybean prepared using alkaline catalysts. Thermal properties of biodiesel containing Au nanoparticles with different volume percentage concentrations were measured by mismatched dual-beam mode thermal lens technique in order to measure the effect of the presence of nanoparticles ( φ = 13.3 nm) on the bionanofluids thermal diffusivity. The characteristic time constant of the transient thermal lens was estimated by fitting the experimental data to the theoretical expression for transient thermal lens. The thermal diffusivity of the bionanofluids (biodiesel containing Au nanoparticles) seems to be strongly dependent on the presence of nanoparticles. It was observed an increase in the thermal diffusivity when volume percentage of nanoparticles increased. A possible explanation for such high thermal diffusivity of the biodiesel with Au nanoparticles is given. UV-Vis spectroscopy and TEM microscopy techniques were used to characterize the bionanofluids.

  20. Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1997-03-18

    A process is described for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes. 3 figs.

  1. Treatment of halogen-containing waste and other waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Forsberg, Charles W.; Beahm, Edward C.; Parker, George W.

    1997-01-01

    A process for treating a halogen-containing waste material. The process provides a bath of molten glass containing a sacrificial metal oxide capable of reacting with a halogen in the waste material. The sacrificial metal oxide is present in the molten glass in at least a stoichiometric amount with respect to the halogen in the waste material. The waste material is introduced into the bath of molten glass to cause a reaction between the halogen in the waste material and the sacrificial metal oxide to yield a metal halide. The metal halide is a gas at the temperature of the molten glass. The gaseous metal halide is separated from the molten glass and contacted with an aqueous scrubber solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to yield a metal hydroxide or metal oxide-containing precipitate and a soluble alkali metal halide. The precipitate is then separated from the aqueous scrubber solution. The molten glass containing the treated waste material is removed from the bath as a waste glass. The process of the invention can be used to treat all types of waste material including radioactive wastes. The process is particularly suited for separating halogens from halogen-containing wastes.

  2. [Phytotoxicity of colloidal solutions of metal-containing nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Konotop, Ie O; Kovalenko, M S; Ulynets', V Z; Meleshko, A O; Batsmanova, L M; Taran, N Iu

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxicity of colloidal solutions of metal-containing nanoparticles (Ag, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn) has been investigated using a standard Allium cepa (L.) test system. Toxicity of experimental solutions at the organism level was evaluated in terms of biomass growth of onion roots, and cytotoxicity was estimated by the mitotic index of root meristem cells. The colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Allium cepa (L.) roots due to their ability to penetrate into cells and interact with their components, and thus to inhibit mitosis. According to our results cytotoxicity of test solutions decreases in the following order: Cu > or = Zn > Ag > or = Fe. Solution of Mn-containing nanoparticles revealed physiological activity according to root growth reaction.

  3. Anaphylactic reaction following administration of nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of anaphylactic reaction in a 46-year-old female post application of decongestant nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC). With some latency, the patient complained of cough, dyspnea, sensation of heat, croakiness and pruritus. Since she showed all of these symptoms, typical of an anaphylactic reaction, we proceeded some weeks later with a prick test with solutions containing BAC, a cationic surfactant commonly used as an antibacterial preservative in many medical solutions. The prick test was positive, confirming the assumption of a hypersensitive reaction to BAC. PMID:23078861

  4. Anaphylactic reaction following administration of nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Mezger, Elke; Wendler, Olaf; Mayr, Susanne; Bozzato, Alessandro

    2012-10-18

    We describe a case of anaphylactic reaction in a 46-year-old female post application of decongestant nose drops containing benzalkonium chloride (BAC). With some latency, the patient complained of cough, dyspnea, sensation of heat, croakiness and pruritus. Since she showed all of these symptoms, typical of an anaphylactic reaction, we proceeded some weeks later with a prick test with solutions containing BAC, a cationic surfactant commonly used as an antibacterial preservative in many medical solutions. The prick test was positive, confirming the assumption of a hypersensitive reaction to BAC.

  5. Holographic Measurement Of Particulate Contamination In Sealed Sterile Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeiss, John C.; Knapp, Julius Z.; Crane, Joe S.; Dunn, Paul; Thompson, Brian J...

    1983-07-01

    The presence of particulates, in injectable: solutions, can be medically hazardous depending on their size and shape. Hence, a. mandatory particulate inspection is performed prior to the release of any injectable drug. However, the determination of realistic quality limits, has been hampered by the absence of any physical non-destructive, measurement or comparison technique. This paper describes a far-field holographic' method for the measurement of particulate, contamination in sealed sterile containers. This application of holography provides to the pharmaceutical industry for the first. time, a non-destructive technique to inspect production containers and to classify the size and quantity of contaminants.

  6. Evaluation of an air drilling cuttings containment system

    SciTech Connect

    Westmoreland, J.

    1994-04-01

    Drilling at hazardous waste sites for environmental remediation or monitoring requires containment of all drilling fluids and cuttings to protect personnel and the environment. At many sites, air drilling techniques have advantages over other drilling methods, requiring effective filtering and containment of the return air/cuttings stream. A study of. current containment methods indicated improvements could be made in the filtering of radionuclides and volatile organic compounds, and in equipment like alarms, instrumentation or pressure safety features. Sandia National Laboratories, Dept. 61 11 Environmental Drilling Projects Group, initiated this work to address these concerns. A look at the industry showed that asbestos abatement equipment could be adapted for containment and filtration of air drilling returns. An industry manufacturer was selected to build a prototype machine. The machine was leased and put through a six-month testing and evaluation period at Sandia National Laboratories. Various materials were vacuumed and filtered with the machine during this time. In addition, it was used in an actual air drive drilling operation. Results of these tests indicate that the vacuum/filter unit will meet or exceed our drilling requirements. This vacuum/filter unit could be employed at a hazardous waste site or any site where drilling operations require cuttings and air containment.

  7. Aging management of nuclear power plant containments for license renewal

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.C.; Kuo, P.T.; Lee, S.S.

    1997-09-01

    In 1990, the Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC), now the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), submitted for NRC review, the industry reports (IRs), NUMARC Report 90-01 and NUMARC Report 90-10, addressing aging management issues associated with PWR containments and BWR containments for license renewal, respectively. In 1996, the Commission amended 10 CFR 50.55a to promulgate requirements for inservice inspection of containment structures. This rule amendment incorporates by reference the 1992 Edition with the 1992 Addenda of Subsections IWE and IWL of the ASME Code addressing the inservice inspection of metal containments/liners and concrete containments, respectively. The purpose of this report is to reconcile the technical information and agreements resulting from the NUMARC IR reviews which are generally described in NUREG-1557 and the inservice inspection requirements of subsections IWE and IWL as promulgated in {section}50.55a for license renewal consideration. This report concludes that Subsections IWE and IWL as endorsed in {section}50.55a are generally consistent with the technical agreements reached during the IR reviews. Specific exceptions are identified and additional evaluations and augmented inspections for renewal are recommended.

  8. Ensuring the 50 year life of a fissile material container

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.E.; Towne, T.L.

    1997-12-01

    Sandia was presented with an opportunity in 1993 to design containers for the long term storage and transport of fissile material. This program was undertaken at the direction of the US Department of Energy and in cooperation with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory which were tasked with developing the internal fixturing for the contents. The hardware is being supplied by Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies, and the packaging will occur at Mason and Hangar Corporation`s Pantex Plant. The unique challenge was to design a container that could be sealed with the fissile material contents; and, anytime during the next 50 years, the container could be transported with only the need for the pre-shipment leak test. This required not only a rigorous design capable of meeting the long term storage and transportation requirements, but also resulted in development of a surveillance program to ensure that the container continues to perform as designed over the 50-year life. This paper addresses the design of the container, the testing that was undertaken to demonstrate compliance with US radioactive materials transport regulations, and the surveillance program that has been initiated to ensure the 50-year performance.

  9. Moving atoms and small molecules out of open containers.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael L

    2013-03-21

    Density functional theory with the M05-2X exchange/correlation functional is used to study the barriers for expulsion of atoms and small molecules (N2, CO, H2, Ar, Kr, Xe, H2O) out of open fullerenes (I20) and related molecular containers (C40H20, [5]beltene, cucurbit[5]uril). The reactions are examples where dispersion plays a critical role in determining the barrier heights. Calculations are compared with experimental kinetic data for N2@I20, CO@I20, and Xe@cucurbit[5]uril (Xe@CB[5]). Comparing the four molecular containers, the activation barriers for escape of an atom or small molecule correlate with the binding energies. A new open-fullerene model container C40H20 (C40) was constructed from C60 with a constriction at both ends formed by five methylene groups around the rim. The activation barriers for escape of N2 and CO from the model container are similar to those from the I20 open-cage fullerene. In the case of H2O@C40, charge analysis reveals an interesting charge transfer at the transition state as the escaping guest is "squeezed" out of the host container.

  10. Verification of knowledge bases based on containment checking

    SciTech Connect

    Levy. A.Y.; Rousset, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Building complex knowledge based applications requires encoding large amounts of domain knowledge. After acquiring knowledge from domain experts, much of the effort in building a knowledge base goes into verifying that the knowledge is encoded correctly. We consider the problem of verifying hybrid knowledge bases that contain both Horn rules and a terminology in a description logic. Our approach to the verification problem is based on showing a close relationship to the problem of query containment. Our first contribution, based on this relationship, is presenting a thorough analysis of the decidability and complexity of the verification problem, for knowledge bases containing recursive rules and the interpreted predicates =, {le}, < and {ne}. Second, we show that important new classes of constraints on correct inputs and outputs can be expressed in a hybrid setting, in which a description logic class hierarchy is also considered, and we present the first complete algorithm for verifying such hybrid knowledge bases.

  11. Control of Liquid Sloshing Container using Active Force Control Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setyo Purnomo, Didik; Rachmad Anom Besari, Adnan; Darojah, Zaqiatud

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a robust control method to relieve the sloshing of liquid container transport using Active Force Control (AFC) method. A model of two degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) liquid container transfer was implemented in this research as the main dynamical system to be controlled. The surface of liquid is maintained in a flat position, so that changes the slope of liquid surface countered by changing the acceleration of container. The focus of this research is how to use AFC method being applied to the system, so that it can suppress liquid sloshing. The control scheme were simulated, compare between PID-AFC and pure PID. Simulations has been conducted, the results show that the PID-AFC have superior performance to suppress the sloshing compared with pure PID, especially if disturbance occurred.

  12. Analyses of corium spreading in Mark I containment geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, J.J.; Chu, C.C.; Farmer, M.T.

    1991-12-31

    An assessment of melt spreading in the Mark I system has been carried out using the MELTSPREAD-1 computer code together with supporting analyses. Application of MELTSPREAD-1 confirms the calculation of shell survival in a wet containment for the most probable melt release conditions from NUREG/CR-5423. According to MELTSPREAD-1, a dry containment also may not be threatened by melt spreading. This reflects the heat losses undergone by the melt in the process of spreading to the shell conservatively neglected in NUREG/CR-5423. However, there exist parameter ranges outside the most probable set where shell failure may be calculated. Accounting for the breakup and quenching of melt relocating through a deep layer of subcooled water also conservatively neglected in NUREG/CR-5423 can reduce the set of parameter variations for which containment failure is calculated in the wet case.

  13. Analyses of corium spreading in Mark I containment geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Sienicki, J.J.; Chu, C.C.; Farmer, M.T.

    1991-01-01

    An assessment of melt spreading in the Mark I system has been carried out using the MELTSPREAD-1 computer code together with supporting analyses. Application of MELTSPREAD-1 confirms the calculation of shell survival in a wet containment for the most probable melt release conditions from NUREG/CR-5423. According to MELTSPREAD-1, a dry containment also may not be threatened by melt spreading. This reflects the heat losses undergone by the melt in the process of spreading to the shell conservatively neglected in NUREG/CR-5423. However, there exist parameter ranges outside the most probable set where shell failure may be calculated. Accounting for the breakup and quenching of melt relocating through a deep layer of subcooled water also conservatively neglected in NUREG/CR-5423 can reduce the set of parameter variations for which containment failure is calculated in the wet case.

  14. Loss of cholecystokinin-containing terminals in temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengsan; Sun, Jianli; Erisir, Alev; Kapur, Jaideep

    2014-02-01

    Altered GABA-mediated inhibition is proposed to play a role in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Previous studies have demonstrated a loss of somatostatin-containing GABAergic interneurons innervating granule cells in epileptic animals. However, the reorganization of synapses between interneurons and granule cells has not been investigated. We studied synapse organization in an animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using continuous hippocampal stimulation. The distribution of axon terminals and inhibitory synapses on granule cell dendrites was studied using a combination of immunohistochemistry and pre-embedding electron microscopy techniques. A whole-cell patch-clamp technique was applied to study the functional changes in GABAergic input from different interneurons. In epileptic animals, the density of cholecystokinin (CCK)-immunoreactive (IR) fibers and α2 subunit containing GABAA receptors in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus was reduced. Quantitative immuno-electron microscopy study revealed that the ratio of CCK-containing symmetric synapses to the total symmetric synapses was reduced. The frequency of GABAergic synaptic currents (sIPSC) was decreased and their amplitude was increased. The inhibitory effect of the activation of cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors was also reduced in epileptic animals. Isolation of CCK- and parvalbumin (PV)-containing GABAergic inputs by N- and P/Q-type calcium channel blockers respectively suggested that GABA release from CCK-containing interneurons was selectively reduced in epileptic rats. This study found that there was a loss of CCK-containing GABAergic synapses to granule cells both morphologically and functionally. These studies add to our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to altering GABAergic inhibition of granule cells in TLE.

  15. Characterization of cyclodextrin containing nanofilters for removal of pharmaceutical residues.

    PubMed

    Jurecska, Laura; Dobosy, Péter; Barkács, Katalin; Fenyvesi, Éva; Záray, Gyula

    2014-09-01

    Due to the increasing amount of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in general and pharmaceutical residues in particular in municipal wastewater, the efficiency of water treatment technologies should be improved. Following the biological treatment of wastewater nanofiltration offers a possible way for the removal of POPs. In this study β-cyclodextrin containing nanofilters having different chemical composition and thickness (1.5-3.5mm) were investigated. For their characterization, their adsorption capacity was determined applying ibuprofen containing model solution and total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer. It could be established that the regeneration of nanofilters with ethanol and the application of inorganic additives (NaCl, NaHCO3, NH4HCO3) increased the adsorption capacity of nanofilters. The best results were achieved with chemical composition of 30m/m% β-cyclodextrin polymer beads and 70m/m% ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene in the presence of 12mmol ammonium hydrogen carbonate/nanofilter.

  16. SOP--Determining the Volume of a Container

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, John G.; Martz, Harry E.

    2010-10-26

    The purpose of this Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is to give guidelines on how to measure the volume of a container for use in radiography studies. This SOP gives details on a recommended method of how exactly to measure the volume of containers used for specimens for Micro CT and EDS measurements. This volume is important in determining accurate densities of the specimens. This SOP is referred to in TP 48 - Preparation of Hydrogen Peroxide/Icing Sugar Specimens for X-ray Measurements by J.G. Reynolds and H.E. Martz

  17. Growth and development of maize that contains mutant tubulin genes

    SciTech Connect

    Susan M. Wick

    2004-07-23

    Mutant maize plants containing a Mu transposon disrupting one of the five beta tubulin genes of interest were followed for several generations and hybridized with each other to produce plants containing disruptions in both copies of a single gene or disruption of more than one tubulin gene. Seedlings of some of these plants were grown under chilling conditions for a few weeks. After DOE funding ended, plants have been assessed to see whether mutant are more or less tolerant to chilling. Other mutant plants will be assessed for their male and female fertility relative to non-mutant siblings or other close relatives.

  18. Silicate nephrolithiasis after ingestion of supplements containing silica dioxide.

    PubMed

    Flythe, Jennifer E; Rueda, Jose F; Riscoe, Michael K; Watnick, Suzanne

    2009-07-01

    Silicate calculi are common in some mammals, such as dogs and sheep, but extremely rare in humans. We report a case of silicate calculi in a woman using oral over-the-counter Uncaria tomentosa, Digestive Advantage and FlexProtex supplements. All 3 contained the excipient silica dioxide. Stone analysis showed composition of 100% silicate. The nephrolithiasis promptly abated after discontinuation of the products containing silica, then returned when the patient restarted her supplements. This case emphasizes the importance of stone analysis when obvious causes of nephrolithiasis are unclear and highlights the concerns of using over-the-counter supplements without substantial oversight.

  19. Preventing the importation of illicit nuclear materials in shipping containers.

    PubMed

    Wein, Lawrence M; Wilkins, Alex H; Baveja, Manas; Flynn, Stephen E

    2006-10-01

    We develop a mathematical model to find the optimal inspection strategy for detecting a nuclear weapon (or nuclear material to make a weapon) from being smuggled into the United States in a shipping container, subject to constraints of port congestion and an overall budget. We consider an 11-layer security system consisting of shipper certification, container seals, and a targeting software system, followed by passive (neutron and gamma), active (gamma radiography), and manual testing at overseas and domestic ports. Currently implemented policies achieve a low detection probability, and improved security requires passive and active testing of trusted containers and manually opening containers that cannot be penetrated by radiography. The annual cost of achieving a high detection probability of a plutonium weapon using existing equipment in traditional ways is roughly several billion dollars if testing is done domestically, and is approximately five times higher if testing is performed overseas. Our results suggest that employing high-energy x-ray radiography and elongating the passive neutron tests at overseas ports may provide significant cost savings, and several developing technologies, radiation sensors inside containers and tamper-resistant electronic seals, should be pursued aggressively. Further effort is critically needed to develop a practical neutron interrogation scheme that reliably detects moderately shielded, highly enriched uranium.

  20. Hydraulic conductivity of landfill liners containing benzyltriethylammonium-bentonite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, James A.; Franklin, Pamela M.; Jaffe, Peter R.

    1992-01-01

    Varying weight percentages of an Ottawa sand, benzyltriethylammonium-bentonite (BTEA-clay), Wyoming bentonite (Na-clay), and water were mixed uniformly and compacted to simulate sand-and-clay liners for waste-disposal facilities. The hydraulic conductivities of the compacted soil cores were measured in triplicate. The hydraulic conductivities of cores containing 92 percent sand and 8 percent BTEA-clay were about of 10-4 cm/s. The hydraulic conductivities of cores containing 92 percent sand and 8 percent Na-clay and of cores containing 88 percent sand, 8 percent Na-clay, and 4 percent BTEA-clay were about 10-8 cm/s.

  1. The directory of P450-containing systems in 1996.

    PubMed Central

    Fábián, P; Degtyarenko, K N

    1997-01-01

    The Directory of P450-containing Systems on WorldWide Web has been designed to facilitate access to electronic resources for all researchers working in the field of P450-containing and related enzyme systems. Currently, it contains the most up-to-date list of sequences of both the P450 superfamily and proteins mediating electron transfer to P450, i.e. NADPH:P450 reductases, specific NAD(P)H:ferredoxin reductases, cytochromeb5 reductases, ferredoxins and cytochromesb5, and their homologues. All the referenced sequences are provided with accession numbers and links to major sequence databanks: PIR, SWISS-PROT, EMBL/GenBank and PRF. An associated database of steroid substrates and products of P450-dependent reactions has also been developed. PMID:9016553

  2. Identification and assessment of containment and release management strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Lehner, J.R.; Lin, C.C.; Neogy, P.

    1990-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory, under the auspices of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is investigating accident management strategies which could help preserve containment integrity or minimize releases during a severe accident. The objective is to make use of existing plant systems and equipment in innovative ways to reduce the likelihood of containment failure or to mitigate the release of fission products to the environment if failure cannot be prevented. Many of the strategies would be implemented during the later stages of a severe accident. The identification and assessment process for containment and release strategies is described, and some insights derived from its application to a BWR Mark 1 plant are presented here. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Design and Testing of Prototypic Elements Containing Monolithic Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; M.K. Meyer; D.M. Wachs

    2011-10-01

    The US fuel development team has performed numerous irradiation tests on small to medium sized specimens containing low enriched uranium fuel designs. The team is now focused on qualification and demonstration of the uranium-molybdenum Base Monolithic Design and has entered the next generation of testing with the design and irradiation of prototypic elements which contain this fuel. The designs of fuel elements containing monolithic fuel, such as AFIP-7 (which is currently under irradiation) and RERTR-FE (which is currently under fabrication), are appropriate progressions relative to the technology life cycle. The culmination of this testing program will occur with the design, fabrication, and irradiation of demonstration products to include the base fuel demonstration and design demonstration experiments. Future plans show that design, fabrication, and testing activities will apply the rigor needed for a demonstration campaign.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of toothpastes containing natural extracts, chlorhexidine or triclosan.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Andiara; Ferreira, Danielly Cunha Araújo; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of toothpastes containing natural extracts, chlorhexidine or triclosan. The effectiveness of toothpastes containing natural extracts (Parodontax®), 0.12% chlorhexidine (Cariax®), 0.3% triclosan (Sanogil®) or fluoride (Sorriso®, control) was evaluated against yeasts, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using the disk diffusion method. Water was used as a control. Disks impregnated with the toothpastes were placed in Petri dishes containing culture media inoculated with 23 indicative microorganisms by the pour plate method. After incubation, the inhibition growth halos were measured and statistical analyses (α=0.05) were performed. The results indicated that all formulations, except for conventional toothpaste (Sorriso®), showed antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts. The toothpaste containing natural extracts (Parodontax®) was the only product able to inhibit the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The toothpastes containing chlorhexidine, triclosan or natural extracts presented antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and yeasts.

  5. Wear Performance of Calcium Carbonate-Containing Knee Spacers.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Ulrike; Reinders, Joern; Smith-Romanski, Sydney; Kretzer, Jan Philippe

    2017-07-15

    Articulating spacers should be wear-resistant and load-bearing to avoid prolonged immobilization of the patient and to reduce morbidity. However, due to the articulation of both components, a release of cement wear particles is to be expected. The aim of this study was to investigate the wear performance of a new spacer cement that contains calcium carbonate as a radio-opaque substance, in comparison to an established barium sulphate-containing spacer material, and also to characterize the amount, morphology, and size distributions of the released cement particles in detail. Force-controlled simulation was carried out on an AMTI knee simulator. The test parameters were in accordance with the standard ISO 14243-1 with a 50% reduced axial force. Tests were run for 500,000 cycles at a frequency of 1 Hz. For wear analysis, photographic documentation of the wear scars, gravimetric wear measurements and wear particle analysis were performed. The barium sulphate spacer material showed a total articular wear of 375.53 ± 161.22 mg. For the calcium carbonate-containing cement, reduced articular wear of 136.32 ± 37.58 mg was determined. Isolated cement wear particles of the barium sulphate-containing cement had a diameter of 0.429 ± 0.224 μm and were significantly larger compared to the calcium carbonate-containing cement (0.380 ± 0.216 μm, p = 0.02). The calcium carbonate-containing cement showed better wear performance in terms of gravimetric wear and particle release. Thus, calcium carbonate seems to be a promising material as a radio-opaque substrate in cement spacers.

  6. [Health risks of residual fumigants in international transport containers].

    PubMed

    Baur, X; Budnik, L T; Preisser, A M

    2010-03-01

    The increasing transport of goods worldwide is mainly carried in standard containers. These containers are frequently fumigated in order to protect freight from pests and to follow regulations of importing countries. Fumigants as well as toxic industrial chemicals can adsorb to goods and be emitted from them over various periods of time. This review is based on a literature search, analyses of air samples from a randomized selection of import containers at the port of Hamburg and clinical investigations of intoxicated subject. These data indicate that about 70% of imported containers exceed national or international threshold levels, about one sixth exceeding occupational exposure limits of fumigants and/or toxic industrial chemical, 0.5% had concentrations immediately dangerous to life or health. Intoxications by inhalation mainly occur in workers in the logistics area. No information exists on possible fumigation in small and medium-sized companies where the container units are unloaded. Neurological and respiratory ailments dominated in patients from our outpatient clinic and those reported in the literature: symptoms were often misdiagnosed. Our results confirm findings of other investigators that subjects who unload containers or have otherwise intensive contact with imported goods are frequently exposed to toxic or very toxic volatile chemicals. It can be assumed that there are many unrecognized cases and also health risks to the ultimate consumers of transported goods. History taking targeted on potential exposure is of great diagnostic importance in elucidating typical temporal relationship between exposure by inhalation and symptoms such as headache, skin irritation, cough, dyspnea, diarrhoea and neurological deficits. Detailed investigations by medical specialists is necessary to confirm suspected diagnoses. This should be combined with immediate special analyses of air samples and laboratory tests (biological monitoring). Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  7. Syntheses and Reactions of Chalcogen-containing Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Sashida, Haruki

    2016-01-01

    The advances in my laboratory for the past 20-25 years concerning the chemistry of chalcogen-containing heterocycles are reviewed. The intramolecular cyclization of the chalcogenols (-TeH, -SeH, -SH) into a triple bond or appropriate leaving group produced various chalcogen-containing heterocycles. The reactions of the obtained products were examined: the reactions of 1-benzo- and 2-benzopyrylium salts containing a tellurium or selenium element with several nucleophiles, including alkoxides, amines, the cyanide ion, an active methyl compound (acetone), Grignard reagents, copper reagents, and tin reagents, along with hydrogenation and hydrolysis reactions, provided corresponding chromes or isochromes having various functional groups at the 2- or 1-C position. Isothiocyanate and isoselenocyanate were used as chalcogen sources for the preparation of five- or six-membered heterocycles. In addition, double intramolecular cyclization, ring-expansion reactions, electrophilic cyclization and iodocyclization were also carried out.

  8. A survey of kinetic data of compounds containing flourine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, D. A.

    1976-01-01

    Chlorofluoromethanes may have a significant effect on the level of ozone in the atmosphere. However, the role of fluroine-containing compounds has not been examined fully. A tabulation of a search of the chemical kinetic literature published between 1953 and July 1975, is presented. The data are then evaluated with respect to acceptability and importance to the overall reaction balance in the atmosphere. Possible future research to elucidate important reaction processes is discussed.

  9. Assessment of current criteria for dynamic stability of container vessels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanca, C.; Ancuta, C.; Acomi, N.; Andrei, C.

    2016-08-01

    Container vessels sailing through heavy weather are exposed to a significant variation of stability due to specific shape of the hull combined with the action of the waves. Even if the weather forecast is transmitted to vessels, the way of acting it is a matter of officers’ experience. The Maritime Safety Committee, under the International Maritime Organization, has approved the Guidance to the master for avoiding dangerous situations in adverse weather and sea conditions. Adverse weather conditions include wind induced waves or heavy swell. The development of dangerous phenomena such as surf-riding and broaching to, syncronious and parametric rollings is a result of a these adverse conditions which has to be encountered by the vessels. Understanding the dynamic stability of the vessel in the waves and ship's behaviour based on mathematical and physical rules is a difficult task, any effort in order to assess these components are salutary. To avoid excessive acceleration and forces which can damage the hull of the vessel, lashing and integrity of containers, course and speed may need to be changed for the vessel's motion in heavy seas. Specific software have been developed as aids for evaluating the response of the vessel in heavy seas according to parameters variations. The paper aims at assessing of current criteria for dynamic stability of a container vessel model ship in order to determine the ways for avoiding dangerous conditions. The results should be regarded as a supporting tool during the decision making process.

  10. Sintering of Mullite-Containing Materials: I, Effect of Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Sacks, Michael D.; Pask, Joseph A.

    1982-02-01

    Sintering behavior of mullite-containing powders was studied over a range of chemical compositions (Al203/Si02 ratio). Densification measurements were made for both liquid phase-containing and solid state systems. Small amounts of liquid phase were observed to have a significant effect on densification rate. A linear relationship was obtained between the percent of theoretical density and the logarithm of time for compositions in the range 73-75 wt% Al2O3. Currently available models for intermediate stage sintering kinetics were considered to be inadequate for these systems. Lastly, grain boundary transport or diffusion appeared to be the primary mechanism of densification.

  11. Process for disposal of aqueous solutions containing radioactive isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Colombo, Peter; Neilson, Jr., Robert M.; Becker, Walter W.

    1979-01-01

    A process for disposing of radioactive aqueous waste solutions whereby the waste solution is utilized as the water of hydration to hydrate densified powdered portland cement in a leakproof container; said waste solution being dispersed without mechanical inter-mixing in situ in said bulk cement, thereafter the hydrated cement body is impregnated with a mixture of a monomer and polymerization catalyst to form polymer throughout the cement body. The entire process being carried out while maintaining the temperature of the components during the process at a temperature below 99.degree. C. The container containing the solid polymer-impregnated body is thereafter stored at a radioactive waste storage dump such as an underground storage dump.

  12. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-04-10

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) must ensure that the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) or safety-related containment spray system (CSS) remains capable of performing its design safety function throughout the life of the plant. This requires ensuring that long-term core cooling can be maintained following a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Adequate safety operation can be impaired if the protective coatings which have been applied to the concrete and steel structures within the primary containment fail, producing transportable debris which could then accumulate on BWR ECCS suction strainers or PWR ECCS sump debris screens located within the containment. This document will present the data collected during the investigation of coating specimens from plants.

  13. Role of container vessels in the introduction of exotic species.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Arthur J

    2004-11-01

    Ballast water exchange practices were monitored on 28 incoming container vessels at the Port of Montreal. Measurements on 15 vessels indicated 13 of 32 tanks had salinities of <30 per thousand. The 16 transits with a North Atlantic route visited 31 of 37 ports located on freshwater or near freshwater outflows. Ballast carried by this vessel type represents an important means for the introduction of species on a global scale because of its transit routes, dockside discharge and moving ballast between tanks. Container vessels represent about 15% of the world fleet, but account for 32% of all visits to global ports, and 46% of visits to the 25 largest ports. The 10 ports that handled the largest volumes of international cargo also included 8 that handled the most cargo containers. Large ports can receive over 100,000 visits by all vessel types annually, and serve as hubs for over 500 ports in 100 countries. Secondary transport of exotic species is also a concern because of frequent visits by regional vessels.

  14. Development and characterization of an orodispersible film containing drug nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bao-de; Shen, Cheng-ying; Yuan, Xu-dong; Bai, Jin-xia; Lv, Qing-yuan; Xu, He; Dai, Ling; Yu, Chao; Han, Jin; Yuan, Hai-long

    2013-11-01

    In this study, a novel orodispersible film (ODF) containing drug nanoparticles was developed with the goal of transforming drug nanosuspensions into a solid dosage form and enhancing oral bioavailability of drugs with poor water solubility. Nanosuspensions were prepared by high pressure homogenization and then transformed into ODF containing drug nanoparticles by mixing with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose solution containing microcrystalline cellulose, low substituted hydroxypropylcellulose and PEG-400 followed by film casting and drying. Herpetrione, a novel and potent antiviral agent with poor water solubility that extracted from Herpetospermum caudigerum, was chosen as a model drug and studied systematically. The uniformity of dosage units of the preparation was acceptable according to the criteria of Japanese Pharmacopoeia 15. The ODF was disintegrated in water within 30s with reconstituted nanosuspensions particle size of 280 ± 11 nm, which was similar to that of drug nanosuspensions, indicating a good redispersibility of the fast dissolving film. Result of X-ray diffraction showed that HPE in the ODF was in the amorphous state. In the in vitro dissolution test, the ODF containing HPE nanoparticles showed an increased dissolution velocity markedly. In the pharmacokinetics study in rats, compared to HPE coarse suspensions, the ODF containing HPE nanoparticles exhibited significant increase in AUC0-24h, Cmax and decrease in Tmax, MRT. The result revealed that the ODF containing drug nanoparticles may provide a potential opportunity in transforming drug nanosuspensions into a solid dosage form as well as enhancing the dissolution rate and oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Stability of noxythiolin solutions stored in plastic and glass containers.

    PubMed

    McCafferty, D F; Furness, K; Anderson, L

    1984-09-01

    The stability of two different concentrations (1% and 2.5% w/v) of noxythiolin (Noxyflex and Noxyflex S) stored at a variety of temperatures (4, 20 and 37 degrees C) in both plastic and glass bottles has been examined over a period of 40 days. During this period noxythiolin solutions held at 20 degrees and 37 degrees C attained equilibrium (K = 0.285 +/- 0.015 mol/l). Neither noxythiolin nor its degradation products (N-methylthiourea and formaldehyde) were absorbed by the plastic (polypropylene) containers used. Therefore, noxythiolin solutions can be stored in certain plastic (polypropylene) containers under the same conditions as recommended for glass bottles.

  16. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S.; Costello, J.F.

    1998-04-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11--12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented.

  17. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Theobald Schön, Tobias Sukowski, Frank; Dittmann, Jonas; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-03-31

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today’s 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  18. Improved synthesis of 3-aryl isoxazoles containing fused aromatic rings

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaei, Yousef R.; Weaver, Matthew J.; Steiger, Scott A.; Kearns, Alison K.; Gajewski, Mariusz P.; Rider, Kevin C.; Beall, Howard D.; Natale, N.R.

    2012-01-01

    A critical comparison of methods to prepare sterically hindered 3-aryl isoxazoles containing fused aromatic rings using the nitrile oxide cycloaddition (NOC) reveal that modification of the method of Bode, Hachisu, Matsuura, and Suzuki (BHMS), utilizing either triethylamine as base or sodium enolates of the diketone, ketoester, and ketoamide dipolarophiles, respectively, was the method of choice for this transformation. PMID:23526841

  19. Stability of cosmetic emulsion containing different amount of hemp oil.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, M; Ziomek, M; Żbikowska, A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the optimal conditions, that is the content of hemp oil and time of homogenization to obtain stable dispersion systems. For this purpose, six emulsions were prepared, their stability was examined empirically and the most correctly formulated emulsion composition was determined using a computer simulation. Variable parameters (oil content and homogenization time) were indicated by the optimization software based on Kleeman's method. Physical properties of the synthesized emulsions were studied by numerous techniques involving particle size analysis, optical microscopy, Turbiscan test and viscosity of emulsions. The emulsion containing 50 g of oil and being homogenized for 6 min had the highest stability. Empirically determined parameters proved to be consistent with the results obtained using the computer software. The computer simulation showed that the most stable emulsion should contain from 30 to 50 g of oil and should be homogenized for 2.5-6 min. The computer software based on Kleeman's method proved to be useful for quick optimization of the composition and production parameters of stable emulsion systems. Moreover, obtaining an emulsion system with proper stability justifies further research extended with sensory analysis, which will allow the application of such systems (containing hemp oil, beneficial for skin) in the cosmetic industry. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  20. [Effect of low concentration of asbestos-containing dust].

    PubMed

    Kogan, F M; Kashanskiĭ, S V; Plotko, E G; Berzin, S A; Bogdanov, G B

    1993-01-01

    Dust, particularly fibrous, in atmosphere of Asbest town was characterized. Pulmonary cancer mortality in Asbest town and towns of nearby area were compared and no significant difference was found. Overall pulmonary cancer mortality was higher in the region than in Asbest. Obtained data served as a basis for discussion on the action threshold of asbestos-containing dust. MAC for asbestos fibers in atmosphere is reported to be 0.06 respirable fibers per ml.