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Sample records for contaminated florida lake

  1. Contaminants in American alligator eggs from Lake Apopka, Lake Griffin, and Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, Gary H.; Percival, H. Franklin; Jennings, Michael L.

    1991-01-01

    Residues of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 16 elements were measured in American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) eggs collected in 1984 from Lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Okeechobee in central and south Florida. Organochlorine pesticides were highest in eggs from Lake Apopka. None of the elements appeared to be present at harmful concentrations in eggs from any of the lakes. A larger sample of eggs was collected in 1985, but only from Lakes Griffin, a lake where eggs were relatively clean, and Apopka, where eggs were most contaminated. In 1985, hatching success of artificially incubated eggs was lower for Lake Apopka, and several organochlorine pesticides were higher than in eggs from Lake Griffin. However, within Lake Apopka, higher levels of pesticides in chemically analyzed eggs were not associated with reduced hatching success of the remaining eggs in the clutch. Therefore, it did not appear that any of the pesticides we measured were responsible for the reduced hatching success of Lake Apopka eggs.

  2. Developmental abnormalities of the gonad and abnormal sex hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators from contaminated and control lakes in Florida.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, L J; Gross, T S; Masson, G R; Matter, J M; Percival, H F; Woodward, A R

    1994-01-01

    The reproductive development of alligators from a contaminated and a control lake in central Florida was examined. Lake Apopka is adjacent to an EPA Superfund site, listed due to an extensive spill of dicofol and DDT or its metabolites. These compounds can act as estrogens. Contaminants in the lake also have been derived from extensive agricultural activities around the lake that continue today and a sewage treatment facility associated with the city of Winter Garden, Florida. We examined the hypothesis that an estrogenic contaminant has caused the current failure in recruitment of alligators on Lake Apopka. Supporting data include the following: At 6 months of age, female alligators from Lake Apopka had plasma estradiol-17 beta concentrations almost two times greater than normal females from the control lake, Lake Woodruff. The Apopka females exhibited abnormal ovarian morphology with large numbers of polyovular follicles and polynuclear oocytes. Male juvenile alligators had significantly depressed plasma testosterone concentrations comparable to levels observed in normal Lake Woodruff females but more than three times lower than normal Lake Woodruff males. Additionally, males from Lake Apopka had poorly organized testes and abnormally small phalli. The differences between lakes and sexes in plasma hormone concentrations of juvenile alligators remain even after stimulation with luteinizing hormone. Our data suggest that the gonads of juveniles from Lake Apopka have been permanently modified in ovo, so that normal steroidogenesis is not possible, and thus normal sexual maturation is unlikely. Images p680-a Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 4. A Figure 4. B Figure 4. C Figure 4. D Figure 5. A Figure 5. B Figure 5. C PMID:7895709

  3. Sex-steroid and thyroid hormone concentrations in juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from contaminated and reference lakes in Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grain, D.A.; Guillette, L.J.; Pickford, D.B.; Percival, H.F.; Woodward, A.R.

    1998-01-01

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-171?? (E2), testosterone (T), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) in juvenile alligators (60-140 cm total length) from two contaminated lakes and one reference lake in Florida. First, the data were analyzed by comparing hormone concentrations among males and females from the different lakes. Whereas there were no differences in plasma E2 concentrations among animals of the three lakes, male alligators from the contaminated lakes (Lake Apopka and Lake Okeechobee) had significantly lower plasma T concentrations compared 10 males from the reference take (Lake Woodruff). Concentrations of thyroid hormones also differed in animals of the three lakes, with T4 concentrations being elevated in Lake Okeechobee males compared to Lake Woodruff males. Second, the relationship between body size and hormone concentration was examined using regression analysis. Most notably for steroid hormones, no clear relationship was detected between E2 and total length in Apopka females (r2 0.09, p = 0.54) or between T and total length in Apopka males (r2 = 0.007, p = 0.75). Females from Apopka (r2 = 0.318, p = 0.09) and Okeechobee (r2 = 0.222, p = 0.09) exhibited weak correlations between T3 and total length. Males from Apopka (r2 = 0.015, p = 0.66) and Okeechobee (r2 = 0.128, p = 0.19) showed no correlation between T4 and total length. These results indicate: some of the previously reported abnormalities in steroid hormones of hatchling alligators persist, at least, through the juvenile years; steroid and thyroid hormones are related to body size in juvenile alligators from the reference lake, whereas alligators living in lakes Apopka and Okeechobee experience alterations in circulating thyroid and steroid

  4. POPS IN ALLIGATOR LIVERS FROM LAKE APOPKA, FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive disorders in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida, have been observed for several years. Such disorders are hypothesized to be caused by endocrine disrupting contaminants occurring in the Lake due to pesticide spills and ...

  5. Assessment of sources of human pathogens and fecal contamination in a Florida freshwater lake.

    PubMed

    Staley, Christopher; Reckhow, Kenneth H; Lukasik, Jerzy; Harwood, Valerie J

    2012-11-01

    We investigated the potential for a variety of environmental reservoirs to harbor or contribute fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), DNA markers of human fecal contamination, and human pathogens to a freshwater lake. We hypothesized that submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), sediments, and stormwater act as reservoirs and/or provide inputs of FIB and human pathogens to this inland water. Analysis included microbial source tracking (MST) markers of sewage contamination (Enterococcus faecium esp gene, human-associated Bacteroides HF183, and human polyomaviruses), pathogens (Salmonella, Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and enteric viruses), and FIB (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci). Bayesian analysis was used to assess relationships among microbial and physicochemical variables. FIB in the water were correlated with concentrations in SAV and sediment. Furthermore, the correlation of antecedent rainfall and major rain events with FIB concentrations and detection of human markers and pathogens points toward multiple reservoirs for microbial contaminants in this system. Although pathogens and human-source markers were detected in 55% and 21% of samples, respectively, markers rarely coincided with pathogen detection. Bayesian analysis revealed that low concentrations (<45 CFU × 100 ml(-1)) of fecal coliforms were associated with 93% probability that pathogens would not be detected; furthermore the Bayes net model showed associations between elevated temperature and rainfall with fecal coliform and enterococci concentrations, but not E. coli. These data indicate that many under-studied matrices (e.g. SAV, sediment, stormwater) are important reservoirs for FIB and potentially human pathogens and demonstrate the usefulness of Bayes net analysis for water quality assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Necropsy findings in American alligator late-stage embryos and hatchlings from northcentral Florida lakes contaminated with organochlorine pesticides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Del, Piero F.; Wiebe, J.J.; Rauschenberger, H.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2006-01-01

    Increased American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) embryo and neonatal mortality has been reported from several northcentral Florida lakes contaminated with old-use organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). However, a clear relationship among these contaminants and egg viability has not been established, suggesting the involvement of additional factors in these mortalities. Thus, the main objective of this study was to determine the ultimate cause of mortality of American alligator late-stage embryos and hatchlings through the conduction of detailed pathological examinations, and to evaluate better the role of OCPs in these mortalities. Between 2000 and 2001, 236 dead alligators were necropsied at or near hatching (after ???65 days of artificial incubation and up to 1 mo of age posthatch). Dead animals were collected from 18 clutches ranging in viability from 0% to 95%. Total OCP concentrations in yolk ranged from ???100 to 52,000 ??g/kg, wet weight. The most common gross findings were generalized edema (34%) and organ hyperemia (29%), followed by severe emaciation (14%) and gross deformities (3%). Histopathologic examination revealed lesions in 35% of the animals, with over half of the cases being pneumonia, pulmonary edema, and atelectasis. Within and across clutches, dead embryos and hatchlings compared with their live cohorts were significantly smaller and lighter. Although alterations in growth and development were not related to yolk OCPs, there was an increase in prevalence of histologic lesions in clutches with high OCPs. Overall, these results indicate that general growth retardation and respiratory abnormalities were a major contributing factor in observed mortalities and that contaminants may increase the susceptibility of animals to developing certain pathologic conditions. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  7. Altered Sex Hormone Concentrations and Gonadal mRNA Expression Levels of Activin Signaling Factors in Hatchling Alligators From a Contaminated Florida Lake

    PubMed Central

    MOORE, BRANDON C.; KOHNO, SATOMI; COOK, ROBERT W.; ALVERS, ASHLEY L.; HAMLIN, HEATHER J.; WOODRUFF, TERESA K.; GUILLETTE, LOUIS J.

    2014-01-01

    Activins and estrogens participate in regulating the breakdown of ovarian germ cell nests and follicle assembly in mammals. In 1994, our group reported elevated frequencies of abnormal, multioocytic ovarian follicles in 6 month old, environmental contaminant-exposed female alligators after gonadotropin challenge. Here, we investigated if maternal contribution of endocrine disrupting contaminants to the egg subsequently alters estrogen/inhibin/activin signaling in hatchling female offspring, putatively predisposing an increased frequency of multioocytic follicle formation. We quantified basal and exogenous gonadotropin-stimulated concentrations of circulating plasma steroid hormones and ovarian activin signaling factor mRNA abundance in hatchling alligators from the same contaminated (Lake Apopka) and reference (Lake Woodruff) Florida lakes, as examined in 1994. Basal circulating plasma estradiol and testosterone concentrations were greater in alligators from the contaminated environment, whereas activin/inhibin βA subunit and follistatin mRNA abundances were lower than values measured in ovaries from reference lake animals. Challenged, contaminant-exposed animals showed a more robust increase in plasma estradiol concentration following an acute follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) challenge compared with reference site alligators. Aromatase and follistatin mRNA levels increased in response to an extended FSH challenge in the reference site animals, but not in the contaminant-exposed animals. In hatchling alligators, ovarian follicles have not yet formed; therefore, these endocrine differences are likely to affect subsequent ovarian development, including ovarian follicle assembly. PMID:20166196

  8. Hydrology of Central Florida Lakes - A Primer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, Donna M.

    1998-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Lakes are among the most valued natural resources of central Florida. The landscape of central Florida is riddled with lakeswhen viewed from the air, it almost seems there is more water than land. Florida has more naturally formed lakes than other southeastern States, where many lakes are created by building dams across streams. The abundance of lakes on the Florida peninsula is a result of the geology and geologic history of the State. An estimated 7,800 lakes in Florida are greater than 1 acre in surface area. Of these, 35 percent are located in just four counties (fig. 1): Lake, Orange, Osceola, and Polk (Hughes, 1974b). Lakes add to the aesthetic and commercial value of the area and are used by many residents and visitors for fishing, boating, swimming, and other types of outdoor recreation. Lakes also are used for other purposes such as irrigation, flood control, water supply, and navigation. Residents and visitors commonly ask questions such as Whyare there so many lakes here?, Why is my lake drying up (or flooding)?, or Is my lake spring-fed? These questions indicate that the basic hydrology of lakes and the interaction of lakes with ground water and surface water are not well understood by the general population. Because of the importance of lakes to residents of central Florida and the many questions and misconceptions about lakes, this primer was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District and the South Florida Water Management District. The USGS has been collecting hydrologic data in central Florida since the 1920s, obtaining valuable information that has been used to better understand the hydrology of the water resources of central Florida, including lakes. In addition to data collection, as of 1994, the USGS had published 66 reports and maps on central Florida lakes (Garcia and Hoy, 1995). The main purpose of this primer is to describe the hydrology of lakes in central

  9. Persistent Organochlorine Pesticides and their Metabolites in Alligator Livers from Lakes Apopka and Woodruff, Florida, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reproductive disorders in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) inhabiting Lake Apopka, Florida, have been observed for several years. Such disorders are hypothesized to be caused by endocrine disrupting contaminants occurring in the Lake due to pesticide spills and ...

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTION AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS IN LARGE-MOUTH BASS FROM FLORIDA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous efforts from this laboratory, have documented altered endocrine function and sexual differentiation for alligators and turtles from Lake Apopka in Central Florida. This lake has been exposed to a variety of contaminants which are potentially endocrine-disrupting. Therefo...

  11. THYROID STATUS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE SITES ON LAKE OKEECHOBEE, FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to environmental contaminants has been shown to alter normal thyroid function in various wildlife species, including the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Abnormalities in circulating levels of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) have been reported in juven...

  12. Hydrology of Lake Butler, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, James L.; Schiffer, Donna M.

    1984-01-01

    Lake Butler is one of the lakes that collectively make up the Butler chain of lakes in the headwaters of the Kissimmee River, Florida. The bottom configuration of the lake is typical of relict karst features formed during lower stages in sea level. The top of the Floridan aquifer is 50 to 100 feet below the land surface. The drainage area of Lake Butler is approximately 14.5 sq mi and is comprised of sub-basins of other lakes in the vicinity. Surface outflow from Lake Butler is generally southward to Cypress Creek, a tributary of the Kissimmee River. The extremes in lake stage for the period 1933-81 are 94.67 ft on June 23, 1981 and 101.78 ft on September 13, 1960. The median lake stage for this period was 99.28 ft above sea level. The quality of water in Lake Butler is excellent, based on studies of physical, chemical, and biological conditions by the Orange County Pollution Control Department. The lake water is slightly acidic and soft (48 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate). Pesticides in water were below detection levels at two sites sampled in the lake, but were detected in the bottom sediments. (USGS)

  13. Geochemical history of Lake Miccosukee, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Z.Q.; Donoghue, J.F.; Hess, D.W.

    1994-03-01

    Lake Miccosukee is a 2,500 hectare karst lake in northwest Florida. The lake draws water from a 65,000 hectare watershed, although groundwater seepage appears to be the principal water source to the lake. Like many of the large lakes of north Florida it periodically drains via sinkholes, becoming nearly dry in the process. The result of the natural drawdowns is a large reduction of the organic matter content of the bottom sediments. The water level in the lake was stabilized after 1954 with the construction of a dike and weir. Drawdowns have been managed since then and have been fewermore » and less drastic. The lake bottom has been exposed for only about six months since 1954. The result has been an increase in aquatic vegetation and a diminishment in fish populations. A set of two dozen sediment cores was analyzed for sedimentation rate (using lead-210 and Cs-137), percent organics, C, N, P and trace metals. The effect of the lake level stabilization appears to be an increase in organic matter deposited in the bottom sediments. Anthropogenic metals, including Hg, Zn, Pb, Cu and V have been found to increase considerably near the tops of the cores, by a factor of two or more over long-term background levels.« less

  14. Hydrology of Lake Tohopekaliga, Osceola County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    Lake Tohopekaliga, one of the major lakes in central Florida, provides flood control in the upper Kissimmee River basin, recreation for fishermen and boaters, water for live-stock, esthetic surroundings for homesites, and serves as a receiving body for treated effluent from municipal sewage treatment plants. The purpose of this map report is to provide a general reconnaissance of the lake, based primarily on existing geologic , hydrologic and water-quality data. The lake has a surface area of about 30 square miles and a mean depth of about 5 feet. Maximum depth measured was about 13 feet. Inflow to the lake comes from Shingle Creek and St. Cloud canal and outflow is through the South-port canal. Regulation of lake levels for flood control began in the early 1960 's and has resulted in a decrease in the range of lake stage of about 3 feet. Concentrations of pesticide residues in lake bottom sediments do not appear to have increased from 1972 to 1980. The lake has abundant aquatic vegetation, the amount and extent of which varies with fluctuating water levels. Water-quality data collected between 1954-77 are summarized in the report and additional data collected in 1980 are also shown. The range of plant nutrient concentrations measured in May 1980 are: Total organic nitrogen 0.71-2.2 milligrams per liter. Most water-quality parameters vary from one area of the lake to another because of restricted areal circulation due to the shape of the lake. (USGS)

  15. Plasma steroid concentrations and male phallus size in juvenile alligators from seven Florida lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillette, L.J.; Woodward, A.R.; Crain, D.A.; Pickford, D.B.; Rooney, A.A.; Percival, H.F.

    1999-01-01

    Neonatal and juvenile alligators from contaminated Lake Apopka in central Florida exhibit abnormal plasma sex steroid concentrations as well as morphological abnormalities of the gonad and phallus. This study addresses whether similar abnormalities occur in juvenile alligators inhabiting six other lakes in Florida. For analysis, animals were partitioned into two subsets, animals 40-79 cm total length (1-3 years old) and juveniles 80-130 cm total length (3-7 years old). Plasma testosterone (T) concentrations were lower in small males from lakes Apopka, Griffin, and Jessup than from Lake Woodruff National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). Similar differences were observed in the larger juveniles, with males from lakes Jessup, Apopka, and Okeechobee having lower plasma T concentrations than Lake Woodruff males. Plasma estradiol-17?? (E2) concentrations were significantly elevated in larger juvenile males from Lake Apopka compared to Lake Woodruff NWR. When compared to small juvenile females from Lake Woodruff NWR, females from lakes Griffin, Apopka, Orange, and Okeechobee had elevated plasma E2 concentrations. Phallus size was significantly smaller in males from lakes Griffin and Apopka when compared to males from Lake Woodruff NWR. An association existed between body size and phallus size on all lakes except Lake Apopka and between phallus size and plasma T concentration on all lakes except lakes Apopka and Orange. Multiple regression analysis, with body size and plasma T concentration as independent covariables, explained the majority of the variation in phallus size on all lakes. These data suggest that the differences in sex steroids and phallus size observed in alligators from Lake Apopka are not limited to that lake, nor to one with a history of a major pesticide spill. Further work examining the relationship of sex steroids and phallus size with specific biotic and abiotic factors, such as antiandrogenic or estrogenic contaminants, is needed.

  16. DISTURBED SEXUAL CHARACTERISITCS IN MALE MOSQUITOFISH (GAMBUSIA HOLBROOKI) FROM A LAKE CONTAMINATED WITH ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous laboratory studies have demonstrated that estrogenic and antiandrogenic chemicals can alter several sexual characteristics in male poeciliid fishes. Whether similar disturbances occur under field conditions remains to be confirmed. Lake Apopka, Florida, is contaminated w...

  17. Characterization of endocrine-disruption and clinical manifestations in large-mouth bass from Florida lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, D.A.; Gross, T.S.; Johnson, B.

    1995-12-31

    Previous efforts from this laboratory have documented altered endocrine function and sexual differentiation for alligators and turtles from Lake Apopka in Central Florida. This lake has been exposed to a variety of contaminants which are potentially endocrine-disrupting. Therefore, a survey of large mouth bass populations was conducted on several lakes in North Central Florida to examine reproductive and clinical health. Large-mouth bass were collected from lakes Apopka, Griffin, Jessup and Woodruff. Approximately 24 fish (12 males and 12 females) were collected from each lake during the spawning (March--April) and non-reproductive (July--August) seasons. Plasma samples were collected for analysis of estrogen,more » testosterone and 11-keto-testosterone concentrations. Gonadal and liver tissues were collected for histological analysis. General blood chemistry analyses and parasite surveys were also conducted to estimate general health. Additionally, fillet samples were collected and analyzed for pesticide levels. Fish from Lake Apopka had unusual concentrations of estrogen and 11-keto-testosterone in plasma when compared to bass from Lakes Woodruff, Jessup and Griffin. Parasites loads were significantly higher for bass from lake Apopka than from the other lakes. Male bass on Apopka had depressed concentrations of 11-keto-testosterone, skewing the E/T ratios upward while female bass had higher concentrations of estrogens than females from the other lakes, again resulting in skewed E/T ratios. These skewed E/T ratios are similar to those observed for alligators on the same lake and raise the possibility that they are caused by contaminants. However, contaminant levels in fillets did not differ significantly between lakes. These studies indicate potentially altered reproductive and immunological function for large-mouth bass living in a contaminated lake.« less

  18. The hydrology of Lake Rousseau, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Lake Rousseau, about 4 miles southwest of Inglis, Florida, was formed in 1909 by impoundment of the Withlacooche River by Inglis Dam, west of Dunnellon, Florida. The lake was to have been part of the Cross-Florida Barge Canal; a lock and channel associated with the presently inactive project were completed in 1969. Lake Rousseau is about 11 miles long, covers about 4,000 acres, and contains about 34,000 acre-feet of water at the normal pool elevation of 27.5 feet above mean sea level. Inflow to the lake is relatively constant and responds slowly to rainfall. The estimated 100-year peak inflow, 10,400 cubic feet per second, is only 19 percent higher than the 100-year high monthly inflow. Water in Lake Rousseau is a calcium-bicarbonate type and is hard. Mean total phosphorus and organic nitrogen concentrations are considerably lower in Lake Rousseau than in north-central Florida lakes which have been considered to be eutrophic by other investigators, however, the lake supports of prolific aquatic plant community. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations near the water surface are occasionally less than 3 mg/liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Geology and evolution of lakes in north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, J.L.; Davis, J.B.; Flocks, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    Fluid exchange between surficial waters and groundwater in karst environments, and the processes that control exchange, are of critical concern to water management districts and planners. High-resolution seismic data were collected from 30 lakes of north-central Florida. In each case study, lake structure and geomorphology were controlled by solution and/or mechanical processes. Processes that control lake development are twofold: (1) karstification or dissolution of the underlying limestone, and (2) the collapse, subsidence, or slumping of overburden to form sinkholes. Initial lake formation is directly related to the karst topography of the underlying host limestone. Case studies have shown that lakes can be divided by geomorphic types into progressive developmental phases: (1) active subsidence or collapse phase (young); (2) transitional phase (middle age); (3) baselevel phase (mature); and (4) polje (drowned prairie) - broad flat-bottom that have one or all phases of sinkhole. Using these criteria, Florida lakes can be classified by size, fill, subsurface features, and geomorphology.Fluid exchange between surficial waters and groundwater in karst environments, and the processes that control exchange, are of critical concern to water management districts and planners. High-resolution seismic data were collected from 30 lakes of north-central Florida. In each case study, lake structure and geomorphology were controlled by solution and/or mechanical processes. Processes that control lake development are twofold: (1) karstification or dissolution of the underlying limestone, and (2) the collapse, subsidence, or slumping of overburden to form sinkholes. Initial lake formation is directly related to the karst topography of the underlying host limestone. Case studies have shown that lakes can be divided by geomorphic types into progressive developmental phased: (1) active subsidence or collapse phase (young); (2) transitional phase (middle age); (3) baselevel phase

  20. Contaminated Sediment in the Great Lakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors pose risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans.

  1. Isolation and identification of Pathogenic Naegleria from Florida lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Wellings, F.M.; Amuso, P.T.; Chang, S.L.

    1977-12-01

    Five cases of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis associated with swimming in freshwater lakes have been recorded in Florida over the past 14 years. The present study demonstrated that pathogenic naegleria, the causative agent, is relatively widespread. Twelve of 26 lakes sampled only once yielded the amoeba. Populations in three of five lakes sampled routinely reached levels of one amoeba per 25 ml of water tested during the hot summer months. Overwintering in freshwater lake bottom sediments was demonstrated, showing that thermal-discharge pollution of waters plays a miniscule, if any, role in the maintenance of pathogenic naegleria in nature in this semitropicalmore » area.« less

  2. Hydrology of Lake Carroll, Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henderson, S.E.; Hayes, R.D.; Stoker, Y.E.

    1985-01-01

    Lakeshore property around Lake Carroll has undergone extensive residential development since 1960. This development increased the lake shoreline, altered surface water flow to and from the lake, and may have affected lake-stage characteristics. Some areas of the lake were dredged to provide fill material for lakefront property. Water-balance analyses for 1952-60, a predevelopment period, and 1961-80, a period of residential development, indicate that both net surface water flow to the lake and downward leakage from the lake to the Floridan aquifer were greater after 1960. These changes were due more to changes in the regional climate and related changes in ground-water levels than to changes associated with residential development. Results of water quality analyses in 1980-81 are within State limits for surface waters used for recreation and wildlife propagation. (USGS)

  3. Hydrologic reconnaissance of Tsala Apopka Lake, Citrus County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    The swamps, marshes, and open waters of Tsala Apopka Lake, Florida, were mapped and the hydrologic connection between the lake and the Floridan limestone aquifer was studied from October 1975 to September 1976. Tsala Apopka Lake is a series of shallow , interconnected lakes, ponds, and marshes whose water surface slopes northward at 0.5 foot per mile. According to aerial photographs of December 1972, only 6 percent of the 103 square miles of study area is covered by open water. Open water is abundant along the western side of the lake, dense and sparse marshes occupy most of the lake area, and swamps occupy a thick zone around the Withlacoochee River which borders the lake to the east. Only a small fraction of the total surface flow occurs through the lake. The average lake outflow through S-351 canal is 23.6 cfs; while the average river flow at Holder is 714 cfs. Tsala Apopka Lake is hydraulically connected to the Floridan aquifer. At low flow, the major source of water in the river is ground water from the Floridan aquifer. The specific conductance of water in the Floridan aquifer averages 250-350 umho/cm (micromhos per centimeter) at 25C in this area. The specific conductance of water in the Withlacoochee River near Holder averages 268 umho/cm at 25C, while water in Tsala Apopka Lake at Hernando averages 139 umho/cm at 25C. (Woodard-USGS)

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION IN HATCHLING AMERICAN ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM THREE FLORIDA LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Morphological variation of 508 hatchling alligators from three lakes in north central Florida (Lakes Woodruff, Apopka, and Orange) was analyzed using multivariate statistics. Morphological variation was found among clutches as well as among lakes. Principal components analysis wa...

  5. Hydrogeologic controls on the groundwater interactions with an acidic lake in karst terrain, Lake Barco, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    Transient groundwater interactions and lake stage were simulated for Lake Barco, an acidic seepage lake in the mantled karst of north central Florida. Karst subsidence features affected groundwater flow patterns in the basin and groundwater fluxes to and from the lake. Subsidence features peripheral to the lake intercepted potential groundwater inflow and increased leakage from the shallow perimeter of the lake bed. Simulated groundwater fluxes were checked against net groundwater flow derived from a detailed lake hydrologic budget with short-term lake evaporation computed by the energy budget method. Discrepancies between modeled and budget-derived net groundwater flows indicated that the model underestimated groundwater inflow, possibly contributed to by transient water table mounding near the lake. Recharge from rainfall reduced lake leakage by 10 to 15 times more than it increased groundwater inflow. As a result of the karst setting, the contributing groundwater basin to the lake was 2.4 ha for simulated average rainfall conditions, compared to the topographically derived drainage basin area of 81 ha. Short groundwater inflow path lines and rapid travel times limit the contribution of acid-neutralizing solutes from the basin, making Lake Barco susceptible to increased acidification by acid rain.

  6. Hydrology of the Lake Deaton and Lake Okahumpka area, Northeast Sumter County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simonds, Edward P.; German, E.R.

    1980-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer in the Lake Deaton and Lake Okahumpka area is 50 to 130 feet below land surface. During the 16-year period 1963-78 lake evaporation exceeded rainfall by 0.4 inches. Drainage from Lake Deaton and its surrounding area goes into Chitty Chatty Creek and on the Hogeye Sink when the altitude of the potentiometric surface of the Floridan aquifer is low. During a higher altitude of the Floridan potentiometric surface, Hogeye Sink may discharge water; this water, along with the normal runoff, goes into Lake Okahumpka. Average lake fluctuation is 1.5 to 2.0 feet per year. Lake Deaton supports a large population of blue-green algae and Lake Okahumpka is choked with aquatic plants. The water quality of the two lakes differ, with Lake Deaton having a sodium chloride water and Lake Okahumpka having a calcium bicarbonate water. Analysis of water and bottom material samples showed that only cadmium and mercury exceeded the Florida Department of Environmental Regulation 's criteria for Class III waters; however, the amounts detected were at or slightly above the limits of the analytical method. (USGS)

  7. Microplastic contamination in Lake Winnipeg, Canada.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Philip J; Warrack, Sarah; Langen, Victoria; Challis, Jonathan K; Hanson, Mark L; Rennie, Michael D

    2017-06-01

    Microplastics are an emerging contaminant of concern in aquatic ecosystems. To better understand microplastic contamination in North American surface waters, we report for the first time densities of microplastics in Lake Winnipeg, the 11th largest freshwater body in the world. Samples taken 2014 to 2016 revealed similar or significantly greater microplastic densities in Lake Winnipeg compared with those reported in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Plastics in the lake were largely of secondary origin, overwhelmingly identified as fibres. We detected significantly greater densities of microplastics in the north basin compared to the south basin of the lake in 2014, but not in 2015 or 2016. Mean lake-wide densities across all years were comparable and not statistically different. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that 23% of isolated particles on average were not plastic. While the ecological impact of microplastics on aquatic ecosystems is still largely unknown, our study contributes to the growing evidence that microplastic contamination is widespread even around sparsely-populated freshwater ecosystems, and provides a baseline for future study and risk assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Geophysical investigation of sentinel lakes in Lake, Seminole, Orange, and Volusia Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reich, Christopher; Flocks, James; Davis, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    This study was initiated in cooperation with the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) to investigate groundwater and surface-water interaction in designated sentinel lakes in central Florida. Sentinel lakes are a SJRWMD established set of priority water bodies (lakes) for which minimum flows and levels (MFLs) are determined. Understanding both the structure and lithology beneath these lakes can ultimately lead to a better understanding of the MFLs and why water levels fluctuate in certain lakes more so than in other lakes. These sentinel lakes have become important water bodies to use as water-fluctuation indicators in the SJRWMD Minimum Flows and Levels program and will be used to define long-term hydrologic and ecologic performance measures. Geologic control on lake hydrology remains poorly understood in this study area. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated 16 of the 21 water bodies on the SJRWMD priority list. Geologic information was obtained by the tandem use of high-resolution seismic profiling (HRSP) and direct-current (DC) resistivity profiling to isolate both the geologic framework (structure) and composition (lithology). Previous HRSP surveys from various lakes in the study area have been successful in identifying karst features, such as subsidence sinkholes. However, by using this method only, it is difficult to image highly irregular or chaotic surfaces, such as collapse sinkholes. Resistivity profiling was used to complement HRSP by detecting porosity change within fractured or collapsed structures and increase the ability to fully characterize the subsurface. Lake Saunders (Lake County) is an example of a lake composed of a series of north-south-trending sinkholes that have joined to form one lake body. HRSP shows surface depressions and deformation in the substrate. Resistivity data likewise show areas in the southern part of the lake where resistivity shifts abruptly from approximately 400 ohm meters (ohm-m) along the

  9. Epigenetic programming alterations in alligators from environmentally contaminated lakes

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, Louis J.; Parrott, Benjamin B.; Nilsson, Eric; Haque, M.M.; Skinner, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies examining the reproductive health of alligators in Florida lakes indicate that a variety of developmental and health impacts can be attributed to a combination of environmental quality and exposures to environmental contaminants. The majority of these environmental contaminants have been shown to disrupt normal endocrine signaling. The potential that these environmental conditions and contaminants may influence epigenetic status and correlate to the health abnormalities was investigated in the current study. The red blood cell (RBC) (erythrocyte) in the alligator is nucleated so was used as an easily purified marker cell to investigate epigenetic programming. RBCs were collected from adult male alligators captured at three sites in Florida, each characterized by varying degrees of contamination. While Lake Woodruff (WO) has remained relatively pristine, Lake Apopka (AP) and Merritt Island (MI) convey exposures to different suites of contaminants. DNA was isolated and methylated DNA immuno-precipitation (MeDIP) was used to isolate methylated DNA that was then analyzed in a competitive hybridization using a genome-wide alligator tiling array for a MeDIP-Chip analysis. Pairwise comparisons of alligators from AP and MI to WO revealed alterations in the DNA methylome. The AP vs. WO comparison identified 85 differential DNA methylation regions (DMRs) with ⩾3 adjacent oligonucleotide tiling array probes and 15,451 DMRs with a single oligo probe analysis. The MI vs. WO comparison identified 75 DMRs with the ⩾3 oligo probe and 17,411 DMRs with the single oligo probe analysis. There was negligible overlap between the DMRs identified in AP vs. WO and MI vs. WO comparisons. In both comparisons DMRs were primarily associated with CpG deserts which are regions of low CpG density (1–2 CpG/100 bp). Although the alligator genome is not fully annotated, gene associations were identified and correlated to major gene class functional categories and pathways of

  10. Associations between degraded benthic communities and contaminated sediments: Sabine Lake, Lake Pontchartrain, and Choctawhatchee Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, V.D.; Summers, J.K.; Macauley, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Estuaries (EMAP-E) in the Gulf of Mexico supplements its base sampling effort each year with localized, intensive spatial sampling in selected large estuarine systems. By selecting random locations within 70 km{sup 2} hexagonal areas, individual estuaries were sampled using EMAP methods but at four times the density as base sampling. In 1992, 19 sites were sampled in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana. In 1 993, 18 sites were sampled in Sabine Lake, Texas and 12 sites were sampled in Choctawhatchee Bay, Florida. At all sites, sediment grabs were taken and analyzed for benthic species compositionmore » and abundance, for toxicity to Ampelisca, and for organic and inorganic sediment contaminants. An indicator of biotic integrity, the benthic index, was calculated to represent the status of benthic communities. A series of statistical techniques, such as stepwise regression analysis, were employed to determine whether the variation in the benthic index could be associated with variation in sediment contaminants, sediment toxicity, or levels of dissolved oxygen. Spatial distributions of these parameters were examined to determine the geographical co-occurrence of degraded benthic communities and environmental stressors. In Lake Pontchartrain, for example, 85% of the variation in the benthic index was associated with decreased levels of dissolved oxygen, and increased concentrations of PCBs, alkanes, copper, tin, and zinc in the sediments.« less

  11. Bathymetry of Lake Manatee, Manatee County, Florida, 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellino, Jason C.; Pfeiffer, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Manatee, located in central Manatee County, Florida, is the principal drinking-water source for Manatee and Sarasota Counties. The drainage basin of Lake Manatee encompasses about 120 square miles, and the reservoir covers a surface area of about 1,450 acres at an elevation of 38.8 feet above NAVD 88 or 39.7 feet above NGVD 29. The full pool water-surface elevation is 39.1 feet above NAVD 88 (40.0 feet above NGVD 29), and the estimated minimum usable elevation is 25.1 feet above NAVD 88 (26.0 feet above NGVD 29). The minimum usable elevation is based on the elevation of water intake structures. Manatee County has used the stage/volume relation that was developed from the original survey in the 1960s to estimate the volume of water available for consumption. Concerns about potential changes in storage capacity of the Lake Manatee reservoir, coupled with a recent drought, led to this bathymetry mapping effort.

  12. PLASMA STEROID CONCENTRATIONS IN RELATION TO SIZE AND AGE IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS FROM TWO FLORIDA LAKES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies have reported a number of physiological differences among juvenile alligators from two well-studied populations (Lake Apopka and Lake Woodruff) in north central Florida. These studies obtained alligators of similar size from each lake under the assumption that th...

  13. Survival of young American alligators on a Florida lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, A.R.; Hines, T.C.; Abercrombie, C.L.; Nichols, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    A capture-recapture study was conducted on Orange Lake, Florida, from 1979 through 1984 to estimate survival rates of young in an American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) populations. Hatchlings remained together in sibling groups (pods) for at least their 1st year and then began to disperse during their 2nd spring and summer. Mortality through mid-November of their 1st year was negligible. Jolly-Seber (JS) survival estimates of hatchlings for 6 and 12 months were 76 and 41%, respectively. The 2-year JS estimate for the 1980 cohort was 8%. Minimum-Known-Alive (MKA) survival values were 72 and 46% of JS estimates for 6 months and 1 year of age. Survival during the 2nd 6 months of life (spring-summer) tended to be lower than survival during the 1st 6 months (fall-winter).

  14. Gonadal steroidogenesis in vitro from juvenile alligators obtained from contaminated or control lakes.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, L J; Gross, T S; Gross, D A; Rooney, A A; Percival, H F

    1995-01-01

    The ubiquitous distribution of many contaminants and the nonlethal, multigenerational effects of such contaminants on reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems have led to concerns that wildlife worldwide are affected. Although the causal agents and effects are known for some species, the underlying physiological mechanisms associated with contaminant-induced reproductive modifications are still poorly understood and require extensive research. We describe a study examining the steroidogenic activity of gonads removed from juvenile alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) obtained from contaminated or control lakes in central Florida. Synthesis of estradiol-17 beta (E2) was significantly different when ovaries from the contaminated and control lakes were compared in vitro. Additionally, testes from males obtained from the contaminated lake. Lake Apopka, synthesized significantly higher concentrations of E2 when compared to testes obtained from control males. In contrast, testosterone (T) synthesis from all testes examined in this study displayed a normal pattern and produced concentrations greater than that observed from ovaries obtained from either lake. Interestingly, the pattern of gonadal steroidogenesis differs from previously reported plasma concentrations of these hormones obtained from the same individuals. We suggest that the differences between the in vivo and in vitro patterns are due to modifications in the hepatic degradation of plasma sex steroid hormones. PMID:7556021

  15. Hydrology and water quality of East Lake Tohopekaliga, Osceola County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, Donna M.

    1987-01-01

    East Lake Tohopekaliga, one of the major lakes in central Florida, is located in the upper Kissimmee River basin in north-east Osceola County. It is one of numerous lakes in the upper basin used for flood control, in addition to recreation and some irrigation of surrounding pasture. This report is the fourth in a series of lake reconnaissance studies in the Kissimmee River basin prepared in cooperation with the South Florida Water Management District. The purpose of the report is to provide government agencies and the public with a brief summary of the lake 's hydrology and water quality. Site information is given and includes map number, site name, location, and type of data available (specific conductivity, pH, alkalinity, turbidity, color, dissolved oxygen, hardness, dissolved chlorides, dissolved sodium, dissolved calcium, dissolved magnesium, dissolved potassium, nitrogen, ammonia, nitrates, carbon and phosphorus). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintained a lake stage gaging station on East Lake Tohopekaliga from 1942 to 1968. The South Florida Water Management District has recorded lake stage since 1963. Periodic water quality samples have been collected from the lake by the South Florida Water Management District and USGS. Water quality and discharge data have been collected for one major tributary to the lake, Boggy Creek. Although few groundwater data are available for the study area, results of previous studies of the groundwater resources of Osceola County are included in this report. To supplement the water quality data for East Lake Tohopekaliga, water samples were collected at selected sites in November 1982 (dry season) and in August 1983 (rainy season). Samples were taken at inflow points, and in the lake, and vertical profiles of dissolved oxygen and temperature were measured in the lake. A water budget from an EPA report on the lake is also included. (Lantz-PTT)

  16. Use of MODIS Terra Imagery to Estimate Surface Water Quality Standards, Using Lake Thonotosassa, Florida, as a Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreno, Max J.; Al-Hamdan, Mohammad Z.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Rickman, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    Lake Thonotosassa is a highly eutrophied lake located in an area with rapidly growing population in the Tampa Bay watershed, Florida. The Florida Administrative Code has designated its use for "recreation, propagation and maintenance of a healthy, well-balanced population of fish and wildlife." Although this lake has been the subject of efforts to improve water quality since 1970, overall water quality has remained below the acceptable state standards, and has a high concentration of nutrients. This condition is of great concern to public health since it has favored episodic blooms of Cyanobacteria. Some Cyanobacterial species release toxins that can reach humans through drinking water, fish consumption, and direct contact with contaminated water. The lake has been historically popular for fishing and water sports, and its overflow water drains into the Hillsborough River, the main supply of municipal water for the City of Tampa, this explains why it has being constantly monitored in situ for water quality by the Environmental Protection Commission of Hillsborough County (EPC). Advances in remote sensing technology, however, open the possibility of facilitating similar types of monitoring in this and similar lakes, further contributing to the implementation of surveillance systems that would benefit not just public health, but also tourism and ecosystems. Although traditional application of this technology to water quality has been focused on much larger coastal water bodies like bays and estuaries, this study evaluates the feasibility of its application on a 46.6 km2 freshwater lake. Using surface reflectance products from Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra, this study evaluates associations between remotely sensed data and in situ data from the EPC. The parameters analyzed are the surface water quality standards used by the State of Florida and general indicators of trophic status.

  17. 77 FR 29271 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    .... Entities discharging nitrogen or phosphorus to lakes and flowing waters of Florida could be indirectly.../phosphorus pollution in Florida's waters may be affected through implementation of Florida's water quality... phosphorus, nitrate+nitrite, and chlorophyll a for the different types of Florida's inland waters to assure...

  18. Patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Michael A.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Masnado, Robert G.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination in lake trout from Wisconsin waters of the Great Lakes, we examined laboratory contaminant analysis data of muscle tissue samples from Lake Michigan (n=317) and Lake Superior (n=53) fish. Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlordane, and dieldrin, reported as mg/kg wet weight in 620 mm to 640 mm mean length Lake Michigan lake trout, decreased over time. Mean total PCB concentration declined exponentially from 9.7 in 1975 to 1.9 in 1990. Total chlordane concentration declined 63 percent from 0.48 in 1983 to 0.18 in 1990, and dieldrin declined 52 percent during this same period, from 0.21 to 0.10. The bioaccumulation rate of PCBs is significantly lower for lake trout inhabiting Lake Michigan's midlake reef complex, compared to lake trout from the nearshore waters of western Lake Michigan. Organochlorine compound concentrations were greater in Lake Michigan lake trout than Lake Superior fish. Lake Superior lean lake trout and siscowet exhibited similar rates of PCB bioaccumulation despite major differneces in muscle tissue lipid content between the two subspecies. The lack of a significant difference in the PCB bioaccumulation rates of lean trout and siscowet suggests that lipid content may not be an important factor influencing PCB bioaccumulation in lake trout, within the range of lipid concentrations observed. Relative concentrations of the various organochlorine contaminants found in lake trout were highly correlated, suggesting similar mass balance processes for these compounds. Evidence presented revealing spatial and temporal patterns of organochlorine contamination may be of value in reestablishing self-sustaining populations of lake trout in Lake Michigan.

  19. Comparison of energy-budget evaporation losses from two morphometrically different Florida seepage lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, L.A.; Lee, T.M.; Radell, M.J.

    1994-01-01

    Evaporation was computed by the energy-budget method for two north Florida lakes with similar surface areas but different depths, for the period May 1989 to December 1990. Lake Barco, in north-central Florida, is shallow, with an average depth of 3 m; Lake Five-O, in the Florida panhandle, is considerably deeper, with an average depth of 9.5 m. As a result, the thermal regime and seasonal evaporation rates of the lakes are different. Evaporation from the shallower lake was higher than that from the deeper lake in the winter and spring. In the late summer and autumn, however, the situation is reversed. Evaporation from the shallow lake is directly related to the amount of incoming shortwave radiation because of its limited ability to store energy. The lag in evaporation at the deeper lake is a function of the greater amount of heat that it seasonally stores and releases. The difference in annual evaporation between Lake Barco (151 cm year-1) and Lake Five-O (128 cm year-1) is related to differences in regional climatic conditions between the two sites. Additionally, higher than normal evaporation rates at the two lakes are probably related to drought conditions experienced in north Florida during 1990, which resulted in higher temperatures and more incoming radiation. Monthly evaporation at Lake Barco could usually be estimated within 10% of the energy-budget evaporation using a constant pan coefficient. This lake may be representative of other shallow lakes that do not store considerable heat. Monthly evaporation at Lake Five-O, however, could not be estimated accurately by using an annual pan coefficient because of the large seasonal influence of change in stored heat. Monthly mass-transfer evaporation compared well with energy-budget evaporation at Lake Barco, but did not compare well at Lake Five-O. These errors may also be associated with changes in heat storage. Thus, the thermal regime of the lake must be considered to estimate accurately the seasonal

  20. Evaluation of ground-water flow and hydrologic budget for Lake Five-O, a seepage lake in northwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubbs, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Temporal and spatial distributions of ground-water inflow to, and leakage from Lake Five-O, a softwater, seepage lake in northwestern Florida, were evaluated using hydrologic data and simulation models of the shallow ground-water system adjacent to the lake. The simulation models indicate that ground-water inflow to the lake and leakage from the lake to the ground-water system are the dominant components in the total inflow (precipitation plus ground-water inflow) and total outflow (evaporation plus leakage) budgets of Lake Five-O. Simlulated ground-water inflow and leakage were approximately 4 and 5 times larger than precipitation inputs and evaporative losses, respectively, during calendar years 1989-90. Exchanges of water between Lake Five-O and the ground-water system were consistently larger than atmospheric-lake exchanges. A consistent pattern of shallow ground-water inflow and deep leakage was also evident throughout the study period. The mean time of travel from ground-water that discharges at Lake Five-O (time from recharge at the water table to discharge at the lake) was estimated to be within a range of 3 to 6 years. Flow-path evaluations indicated that the intermediate confining unit probably has a negligible influence on the geochemistry of ground-water inflow to Lake Five-O. The hydrologic budgets and flow-path evaluations provide critical information for developing geochemical budgets for Lake Five-O and for improving the understanding of the relative importance of various processes that regulate the acid-neutralizing capacity of softwater seepage lakes in Florida.

  1. Algal Populations and Water Quality in Florida Lakes: Sedimentary Evidence of Anthropogenic Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, M. R.; Whitmore, T. J.; Brenner, M.; Smoak, J.; Curtis, J.

    2004-05-01

    Cyanobacteria and other algae dominate many highly productive Florida (U.S.A.) lakes. Algal proliferation is often attributed to eutrophication during the last century, but it is poorly documented because Florida's water-quality monitoring programs became common only after 1980. We examined sediment cores from 14 hypereutrophic Florida lakes. Study lakes have been subjected to urbanization, agriculture, and to inputs of municipal sewage effluent and food-processing wastes. Major algal-pigment groups were analyzed in sediments using pigment-extraction and spectrophotometric techniques. We compared myxoxanthophyll, oscillaxanthin, total carotenoid, and total chlorophyll pigment profiles with WACALIB-derived limnetic total-P and chlorophyll a inferences based on fossil diatoms, sediment chemistry, and stable isotope (δ 13C & δ 15N) signatures of organic matter. Sedimentary evidence showed that cyanobacterial and algal proliferation appeared during recent decades in 10 study lakes in response to eutrophication. Cyanobacterial increase was very recent and abrupt in 7 lakes. Six lakes showed recovery following nutrient-mitigation programs that reduced sewage and other point-source effluent inputs. Four lakes showed long-term presence of cyanobacterial populations because edaphic nutrient supply causes these lakes to be naturally productive. Three of these naturally eutrophic lakes remained unchanged, but one demonstrated eutrophication followed by subsequent recovery. Correlations were particularly strong among sedimented pigment profiles and diatom-inferred limnetic water-quality profiles. Paleolimnological methods provide informative assessment of anthropogenic influence on lakes when long-term water-quality data are lacking. Historic studies also are useful for evaluating the feasibility of improving water quality through lake-management programs, and for defining appropriate lake restoration goals.

  2. Relative cancer risks of chemical contaminants in the great lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bro, Kenneth M.; Sonzogni, William C.; Hanson, Mark E.

    1987-08-01

    Anyone who drinks water or eats fish from the Great Lakes consumes potentially carcinogenic chemicals. In choosing how to respond to such pollution, it is important to put the risks these contaminants pose in perspective. Based on recent measurements of carcinogens in Great Lakes fish and water, calculations of lifetime risks of cancer indicate that consumers of sport fish face cancer risks from Great Lakes contaminants that are several orders of magnitude higher than the risks posed by drinking Great Lakes water. But drinking urban groundwater and breathing urban air may be as hazardous as frequent consumption of sport fish from the Great Lakes. Making such comparisons is difficult because of variation in types and quality of information available and in the methods for estimating risk. Much uncertainty pervades the risk assessment process in such areas as estimating carcinogenic potency and human exposure to contaminants. If risk assessment is to be made more useful, it is important to quantify this uncertainty.

  3. History of metal contamination in Lake Illawarra, NSW, Australia.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Larissa; Maher, William; Potts, Jaimie; Batley, Graeme; Taylor, Anne; Krikowa, Frank; Chariton, Anthony; Zawadzki, Atun; Heijnis, Henk; Gruber, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Lake Illawarra has a long history of sediment contamination, particularly by metals, as a result of past and current industrial operations and land uses within the catchment. In this study, we examined the history of metal contamination in sediments using metal analysis and (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating. The distributions of copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, cadmium and lead concentrations within sediment cores were in agreement with historical events in the lake, and indicated that metal contamination had been occurring since the start of industrial activities in Port Kembla in the late 1800 s. Most metal contamination, however, has occurred since the 1960s. Sedimentation rates were found to be 0.2 cm year(-1) in Griffins Bay and 0.3 cm year(-1) in the centre of the lake. Inputs from creeks bringing metals from Port Kembla in the northeast of the lake and a copper slag emplacement from a former copper refinery on the Windang Peninsula were the main sources of metal inputs to Lake Illawarra. The metals of highest concern were zinc and copper, which exceeded the Australian and New Zealand sediment quality guideline values at some sites. Results showed that while historical contamination persists, current management practices have resulted in reduced metal concentrations in surface sediments in the depositional zones in the centre of the lake. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contaminant trends in lake trout and walleye from the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeVault, David S.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Rodgers, Paul W.; Feist, Timothy J.

    1996-01-01

    Trends in PCBs, DDT, and other contaminants have been monitored in Great Lakes lake trout and walleye since the 1970s using composite samples of whole fish. Dramatic declines have been observed in concentrations of PCB, ΣDDT, dieldrin, and oxychlordane, with declines initially following first order loss kinetics. Mean PCB concentrations in Lake Michigan lake trout increased from 13 μg/g in 1972 to 23 μg/g in 1974, then declined to 2.6 μg/g by 1986. Between 1986 and 1992 there was little change in concentration, with 3.5 μg/g observed in 1992. ΣDDT in Lake Michigan trout followed a similar trend, decreasing from 19.2 μg/g in 1970 to 1.1 μg/g in 1986, and 1.2 μg/g in 1992. Similar trends were observed for PCBs and ΣDDT in lake trout from Lakes Superior, Huron and Ontario. Concentrations of both PCB and ΣDDT in Lake Erie walleye declined between 1977 and 1982, after which concentrations were relatively constant through 1990. When originally implemented it was assumed that trends in the mean contaminant concentrations in open-lake fish would serve as cost effective surrogates to trends in the water column. While water column data are still extremely limited it appears that for PCBs in lakes Michigan and Superior, trends in lake trout do reasonably mimic those in the water column over the long term. Hypotheses to explain the trends in contaminant concentrations are briefly reviewed. The original first order loss kinetics used to describe the initial decline do not explain the more recent leveling off of contaminant concentrations. Recent theories have examined the possibilities of multiple contaminant pools. We suggest another hypothesis, that changes in the food web may have resulted in increased bioaccumulation. However, a preliminary exploration of this hypothesis using a change point analysis was inconclusive.

  5. Geologic controls on the formation of lakes in north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Flocks, James G.; Pitman, Janet K.; Carroll, Alan R.

    1998-01-01

    Fluid exchange between surficial waters and groundwater, as well as the processes that control this exchange, are of critical concern to water management districts and planners. Digital high-resolution seismic systems were used to collect geophysical data from 30 lakes of north-central Florida. Although using seismic profile data in the past has been less than successful, the use of digital technology has increased the potential for success. Seismic profiles collected from the lakes of north-central Florida have shown the potential application of these techniques in understanding the formation of individual lakes. In each case study, lake structure and geomorphology were controlled by solution and/or mechanical processes. Processes that control lake development are twofold: 1) karstification or dissolution of the underlying limestone, and 2) me collapse, subsidence, or slumping of overburden to form sinkholes. Initial lake formation is directly related to the karst topography of the underlying host limestone. Lake size and shape are a factor of the thickness of overburden and size of the collapse or subsidence and/or clustering of depressions allowing for lake development. Lake development is through progressive sequence stages to maturity that can be delineated into geomorphic types. Case studies have shown that lakes can be divided by geomorphic types into progressive developmental phases: (1) active subsidence or collapse phase (young) - the open to partially filled collapse structures typically associated with sink holes; (2) transitional phase (middle age) - the sinkhole is plugged as the voids within the collapse are filled with sediment, periodic reactivation may occur; (3) baselevel phase (mature) - active sinkholes are progressively plugged by the continual erosion of material into the basin, and eventually sediment fills the basins; and (4) polje (drowned prairie) - broad flat-bottom basins located within the epiphreatic zone that are inundated at high

  6. Spatiotemporal Pattern Validation of Chlorophyll-a Concentrations in Lake Okeechobee, Florida using a Comparative MODIS Image Mining Approach

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Okeechobee, Florida, is the second largest freshwater lake in the U.S. The lake has been threatened in recent decades by excessive phosphorus loading, harmful high and low water levels, and rapid expansion of exotic plants (Folks, 2005). Environmental impacts of hurricanes o...

  7. Coastal Lake Record of Holocene Paleo-Storms from Northwest Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donoghue, J. F.; Coor, J. L.; Wang, Y.; Das, O.; Kish, S.; Elsner, J.; Hu, X. B.; Niedoroda, A. W.; Ye, M.

    2009-12-01

    The northwest Florida coast of the Gulf of Mexico has an unusually active storm history. Climate records for a study area in the mid-region of the Florida panhandle coast show that 29 hurricanes have made landfall within a 100-km radius during historic time. These events included 9 major storms (category 3 or higher). A longer-term geologic record of major storm impacts is essential for better understanding storm climatology and refining morphodynamic models. The Florida panhandle region contains a series of unique coastal lakes which are long-lived and whose bottom sediments hold a long-term record of coastal storm occurrence. The lakes are normally isolated from the open Gulf, protected behind a near-continuous dune barrier. Lake water is normally fresh to brackish. Lake bottom sediments consist of organic-rich muds. During major storms the dunes are breached and the lakes are temporarily open to marine water and the possibility of sandy overwash. Both a sedimentologic and geochemical signature is imparted to the lake sediments by storm events. Bottom sediment cores have been collected from the lakes. The cores have been subsampled and subjected to sedimentologic, stable isotopic and geochronologic analyses. The result is a sediment history of the lakes, and a record of storm occurrence during the past few millennia. The outcome is a better understanding of the long-term risk of major storms. The findings are being incorporated into a larger model designed to make reliable predictions of the effects of near-future climate change on natural coastal systems and on coastal infrastructure, and to enable cost-effective mitigation and adaptation strategies.

  8. Inventory of drainage wells and potential sources of contaminants to drainage-well inflow in Southwest Orlando, Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, George Fred

    1993-01-01

    Potential sources of contaminants that could pose a threat to drainage-well inflow and to water in the Floridan aquifer system in southwest Orlando, Florida, were studied between October and December 1990. Drainage wells and public-supply wells were inventoried in a 14-square-mile area, and available data on land use and activities within each drainage well basin were tabulated. Three public-supply wells (tapping the Lower Floridan aquifer) and 38 drainage wells (open to the Upper Floridan aquifer) were located in 17 drainage basins within the study area. The primary sources of drainage-well inflow are lake overflow, street runoff, seepage from the surficial aquifer system, and process-wastewater disposal. Drainage-well inflow from a variety of ares, including resi- dential, commercial, undeveloped, paved, and industrial areas, are potential sources of con- taminants. The four general types of possible contaminants to drainage-well inflow are inorganic chemicals, organic compounds, turbidity, and microbiological contaminants. Potential contami- nant sources include plant nurseries, citrus groves, parking lots, plating companies, auto- motive repair shops, and most commonly, lake- overflow water. Drainage wells provide a pathway for contaminants to enter the Upper Floridan aquifer and there is a potential for contaminants to move downward from the Upper Floridan to the Lower Floridan aquifer.

  9. Hydrologic relations between lakes and aquifer in a recharge area near Orlando, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lichtler, William F.; Hughes, G.H.; Pfischner, F.L.

    1976-01-01

    The three lakes investigated in Orange County, Florida, gain water from adjoining water-table aquifer and lose water to Floridan aquifer by downward leakage. Net seepage (net exchange of water between lake and aquifers) can be estimated by equation S = AX + BY, where S is net seepage, X represents hydraulic gradient between lake and water-table aquifer, A is lumped parameter representing effect of hydraulic conductivity and cross-sectional area of materials in flow section of water-table aquifer, Y is head difference between lake level and potentiometric surface of Floridan aquifer, and B is lumped parameter representing effect of hydraulic conductivity, area, and thickness of materials between lake bottom and Floridan aquifer. If values of S, X, and Y are available for two contrasting water-level conditions, coefficients A and B are determinable by solution of two simultaneous equations. If the relation between lake and ground-water level is the same on all sides of the lake--with regard to each aquifer--and if X and Y are truly representative of these relations, then X and Y terms of equation provide valid estimates of inflow to lake from water-table aquifer and outflow from lake to Floridan aquifer. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, Using NDVI Derived from Modis Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Kate; Brozen, Madeline; Malik, Sadaf; Maki, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, located in southern Florida, encompasses approximately 1,700 sq km and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystem. Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce have been documented in the lake and continue to threaten the ecosystem by their rapid growth. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) calculated on MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool (TSPT), a MATLAB-based program developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms, and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to assist in water quality management.

  11. Regression Analysis of Stage Variability for West-Central Florida Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, Laura A.; Ellison, Donald L.; Swancar, Amy

    2008-01-01

    -water exchange in controlling the stage of karst lakes in Florida. Regression equations were used to predict lake-stage variability for the recent period for 12 additional lakes, and the median difference between predicted and observed values ranged from 11 to 23 percent. Coefficients of determination for the historical period were considerably lower (maximum R2 of 0.28) than for the recent period. Reasons for these low R2 values are probably related to the small number of lakes (20) with stage data for an equivalent time period that were unaffected by ground-water pumping, the similarity of many of the lake types (large surface-water drainage lakes), and the greater uncertainty in defining historical basin characteristics. The lack of lake-stage data unaffected by ground-water pumping and the poor regression results obtained for that group of lakes limit the ability to predict natural lake-stage variability using this method in west-central Florida.

  12. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and catchment size for Florida lakes in mantled karst terrain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2002-01-01

    In the mantled karst terrain of Florida, the size of the catchment delivering ground-water inflow to lakes is often considerably smaller than the topographically defined drainage basin. The size is determined by a balance of factors that act individually to enhance or diminish the hydraulic connection between the lake and the adjacent surficial aquifer, as well as the hydraulic connection between the surficial aquifer and the deeper limestone aquifer. Factors affecting ground-water exchange and the size of the ground-water catchment for lakes in mantled karst terrain were examined by: (1) reviewing the physical and hydrogeological characteristics of 14 Florida lake basins with available ground-water inflow estimates, and (2) simulating ground-water flow in hypothetical lake basins. Variably-saturated flow modeling was used to simulate a range of physical and hydrogeologic factors observed at the 14 lake basins. These factors included: recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, thickness of the unsaturated zone, size of the topographically defined basin, depth of the lake, thickness of the surficial aquifer, hydraulic conductivity of the geologic units, the location and size of karst subsidence features beneath and onshore of the lake, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Catchment size and the magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with increases in recharge rate to the surficial aquifer, the size of the topographically defined basin, hydraulic conductivity in the surficial aquifer, the degree of confinement of the deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, and the head in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The catchment size and magnitude of ground-water inflow increased with decreases in the number and size of karst subsidence features in the basin, and the thickness of the unsaturated zone near the lake. Model results, although qualitative, provided insights into: (1) the types of lake basins in mantled karst terrain that have the potential to generate small and large

  13. Timescales for nitrate contamination of spring waters, northern Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Böhlke, J.K.; Hornsby, H.D.

    2001-01-01

    Residence times of groundwater, discharging from springs in the middle Suwannee River Basin, were estimated using chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), tritium (3H), and tritium/helium-3 (3H/3He) age-dating methods to assess the chronology of nitrate contamination of spring waters in northern Florida. During base-flow conditions for the Suwannee River in 1997–1999, 17 water samples were collected from 12 first, second, and third magnitude springs discharging groundwater from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Extending age-dating techniques, using transient tracers to spring waters in complex karst systems, required an assessment of several models [piston-flow (PFM), exponential mixing (EMM), and binary-mixing (BMM)] to account for different distributions of groundwater age. Multi-tracer analyses of four springs yielded generally concordant PFM ages of around 20±2 years from CFC-12, CFC-113, 3H, and 3He, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation. The EMM gave a reasonable fit to CFC-113, CFC-12, and 3H data, but did not reproduce the observed 3He concentrations or 3H/3He ratios, nor did a combination PFM–EMM. The BMM could reproduce most of the multi-tracer data set only if both endmembers had 3H concentrations not much different from modern values. CFC analyses of 14 additional springs yielded apparent PFM ages from about 10 to 20 years from CFC-113, with evidence of partial CFC-11 degradation and variable CFC-12 contamination. While it is not conclusive, with respect to the age distribution within each spring, the data indicate that the average residence times were in the order of 10–20 years and were roughly proportional to spring magnitude. Applying similar models to recharge and discharge of nitrate based on historical nitrogen loading data yielded contrasting trends for Suwanee County and Lafayette County. In Suwanee County, spring nitrate trends and nitrogen isotope data were consistent with a peak in fertilizer input in the 1970s and a relatively high overall ratio

  14. Water Quality and Evaluation of Pesticides in Lakes in the Ridge Citrus Region of Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choquette, Anne F.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2009-01-01

    Water chemistry, including major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and pesticide compounds, was compared between seven lakes surrounded by citrus agriculture and an undeveloped lake on the Lake Wales Ridge (herein referred to as the Ridge) in central Florida. The region has been recognized for its vulnerability to the leaching of agricultural chemicals into the subsurface due to factors including soils, climate, and land use. About 40 percent of Florida's citrus cultivation occurs in 'ridge citrus' areas characterized by sandy well drained soils, with the remainder in 'flatwoods citrus' characterized by high water tables and poorly drained soils. The lakes on the Ridge are typically flow-through lakes that exchange water with adjacent and underlying aquifer systems. This study is the first to evaluate the occurrence of pesticides in lakes on the Ridge, and also represents one of the first monitoring efforts nationally to focus on regional-scale assessment of current-use pesticides in small- to moderate-sized lakes (5 to 393 acres). The samples were collected between December 2003 and September 2005. The lakes in citrus areas contained elevated concentrations of major inorganic constituents (including alkalinity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate), total nitrogen, pH, and pesticides compared to the undeveloped lake. Nitrate (as N) and total nitrogen concentrations were typically elevated in the citrus lakes, with maximum values of 4.70 and 5.19 mg/L (milligrams per liter), respectively. Elevated concentrations of potassium, nitrate, and other inorganic constituents in the citrus lakes likely reflect inputs from the surficial ground-water system that originated predominantly from agricultural fertilizers, soil amendments, and inorganic pesticides. A total of 20 pesticide compounds were detected in the lakes, of which 12 compounds exceeded the standardized reporting level of 0.06 ug/L (microgram per liter). Those

  15. 77 FR 39949 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... Florida may be interested in this rulemaking. Entities discharging nitrogen or phosphorus to lakes and..., such as nonpoint source contributors to nitrogen/phosphorus pollution in Florida's waters may be... numeric nutrient criteria in the form of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate+nitrite, and...

  16. Monitoring Invasive Aquatic Vegetation in Lake Okeechobee, Florida, using NDVI Derived from MODIS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, K. A.; Brozen, M.; Pelkie, A.; Malik, S.

    2009-12-01

    Lake Okeechobee is the second largest freshwater lake located entirely within the continental United States. The lake encompasses approximately 1,700 km2 in South Florida and is a vital part of the Lake Okeechobee and Everglades ecosystems. Lake Okeechobee has been plagued by invasive aquatic floating vegetation and in-water blooms of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria). Major cyanobacterial blooms have been documented in Lake Okeechobee since the 1970s and have continued to plague the ecosystem. Similarly, invasive hydrilla, water hyacinth, and water lettuce frequently overgrow in the lake and threaten the ecosystem. This study examines invasive aquatic vegetation occurrence through the use of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index calculated on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) MOD09 surface reflectance imagery. Occurrence during 2008 was analyzed using the Time Series Product Tool developed at John C. Stennis Space Center. This project tracked spatial and temporal variability of cyanobacterial blooms and overgrowth of water lettuce, water hyacinth, and hydrilla. In addition, this study presents an application of MODIS data to assist in water quality management.

  17. STIMULATION OF DEFENSE FACTORS FOR OYSTERS DEPLOYED TO CONTAMINATED SITES IN PENSACOLA BAY, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A positive association between chemical contaminants and defense factors has been established for eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from Florida, but it is unknown whether such factors can be stimulated through short-term exposure to contaminants in the field. Hatchery oyst...

  18. Exploring the long-term balance between net precipitation and net groundwater exchange in Florida seepage lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Terrie M.; Sacks, Laura A.; Swancar, Amy

    2014-01-01

    The long-term balance between net precipitation and net groundwater exchange that maintains thousands of seepage lakes in Florida’s karst terrain is explored at a representative lake basin and then regionally for the State’s peninsular lake district. The 15-year water budget of Lake Starr includes El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related extremes in rainfall, and provides the longest record of Bowen ratio energy-budget (BREB) lake evaporation and lake-groundwater exchanges in the southeastern United States. Negative net precipitation averaging -25 cm/yr at Lake Starr overturns the previously-held conclusion that lakes in this region receive surplus net precipitation. Net groundwater exchange with the lake was positive on average but too small to balance the net precipitation deficit. Groundwater pumping effects and surface-water withdrawals from the lake widened the imbalance. Satellite-based regional estimates of potential evapotranspiration at five large lakes in peninsular Florida compared well with basin-scale evaporation measurements from seven open-water sites that used BREB methods. The regional average lake evaporation estimated for Lake Starr during 1996-2011 was within 5 percent of its measured average, and regional net precipitation agreed within 10 percent. Regional net precipitation to lakes was negative throughout central peninsular Florida and the net precipitation deficit increased by about 20 cm from north to south. Results indicate that seepage lakes farther south on the peninsula receive greater net groundwater inflow than northern lakes and imply that northern lakes are in comparatively leakier hydrogeologic settings. Findings reveal the peninsular lake district to be more vulnerable than was previously realized to drier climate, surface-water withdrawals from lakes, and groundwater pumping effects.

  19. BIOGEOCHEMICAL CONTROLS ON REACTION OF SEDIMENTARY ORGANIC MATTER AND AQUEOUS SULFIDES IN HOLOCENE SEDIMENTS OF MUD LAKE FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The distribution and quantity of organic sulfur and iron sulfur species were determined in the
    Holocene sediments from Mud Lake, Florida. The sediments of this shallow, sinkhole lake are characterized by high sulfur and organic carbon contents as well as active sulfate reducti...

  20. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) contamination of fish in urban lakes: a prioritization methodology for lake management.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Feng; Gulliver, John S; Simcik, Matt F

    2013-12-15

    The contamination of urban lakes by anthropogenic pollutants such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a worldwide environmental problem. Large-scale, long-term monitoring of urban lakes requires careful prioritization of available resources, focusing efforts on potentially impaired lakes. Herein, a database of PFOS concentrations in 304 fish caught from 28 urban lakes was used for development of an urban-lake prioritization framework by means of exploratory data analysis (EDA) with the aid of a geographical information system. The prioritization scheme consists of three main tiers: preliminary classification, carried out by hierarchical cluster analysis; predictor screening, fulfilled by a regression tree method; and model development by means of a neural network. The predictive performance of the newly developed model was assessed using a training/validation splitting method and determined by an external validation set. The application of the model in the U.S. state of Minnesota identified 40 urban lakes that may contain elevated levels of PFOS; these lakes were not previously considered in PFOS monitoring programs. The model results also highlight ongoing industrial/commercial activities as a principal determinant of PFOS pollution in urban lakes, and suggest vehicular traffic as an important source and surface runoff as a primary pollution carrier. In addition, the EDA approach was further compared to a spatial interpolation method (kriging), and their advantages and disadvantages were discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Preliminary Analysis of the Hydrologic and Geochemical Controls on Acid-Neutralizing Capacity in Two Acidic Seepage Lakes in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollman, Curtis D.; Lee, T. M.; Andrews, W. J.; Sacks, L. A.; Gherini, S. A.; Munson, R. K.

    1991-09-01

    In late 1988, parallel studies of Lake Five-O (pH 5.14) in the Florida panhandle and Lake Barco (pH 4.50) in north central Florida were initiated to develop hydrologic and major ion budgets of these lakes as part of an overall effort to improve understanding of the hydrologic, depositional, and biogeochemical factors that control acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC) in seepage lakes. Preliminary findings from these studies indicate that earlier perceptions of lake hydrology and mechanisms of ANC regulation in Florida seepage lakes may have to be revised. The traditional perspective of seepage lakes in the Florida panhandle views these systems as dominated by precipitation inputs and that ANC regulation is due largely to in-lake processes. Our results for Lake Five-O show modest to steep hydraulic gradients almost entirely around the lake. In addition, the horizontal hydraulic conductivity of the surficial aquifer is high (8-74 m day-1), indicating that large quantities of groundwater flow into Lake Five-O. Calculations of net groundwater flow from hydrologic budgets also indicate that groundwater may comprise at least 38 to 46% of the total inflow. For Lake Barco, net flow estimates of the minimum groundwater inflow range from 5 to 14% of total inflow. Enrichment factor and ion flux calculations for Lake Five-O and Lake Barco indicate that terrestrial as well as in-lake processes contribute significantly to ANC regulation. The extent that terrestrial processes contribute to ANC generation is directly related to the magnitude of groundwater inflow as well as the degree of ion enrichment or depletion that occurs in the surficial aquifer. Net ANC generation in both study lakes was dominated by anion retention (NO3- and SO42-). Where previous studies concluded that in-lake reduction was the primary sink for SO42-, our preliminary calculations show that adsorption of SO42- within the watershed is perhaps twice as important as in-lake reduction as a source of ANC. Net base

  2. Comparison of the hydrogeology and water quality of a ground-water augmented lake with two non-augmented lakes in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metz, Patricia A.; Sacks, Laura A.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrologic effects associated with augmenting a lake with ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer were examined in northwest Hillsborough County, Florida, from June 1996 through May 1999. The hydrogeology, ground-water flow patterns, water budgets, and water-quality characteristics were compared between a lake that has been augmented for more than 30 years (Round Lake) and two nearby nonaugmented lakes (Dosson Lake and Halfmoon Lake). Compared to the other study lakes, Round Lake is in a more leakage-dominated hydrogeologic setting. The intermediate confining unit is thin or highly breached, which increases the potential for vertical ground-water flow. Round Lake has the least amount of soft, organic lake-bottom sediments and the lake bottom has been dredged deeper and more extensively than the other study lakes, which could allow more leakage from the lake bottom. The area around Round Lake has experienced more sinkhole activity than the other study lakes. During this study, three sinkholes developed around the perimeter of the lake, which may have further disrupted the intermediate confining unit.Ground-water flow patterns around Round Lake were considerably different than the nonaugmented lakes. For most of the study, groundwater augmentation artificially raised the level of Round Lake to about 2 to 3 feet higher than the adjacent water table. As a result, lake water recharged the surficial aquifer around the entire lake perimeter, except during very wet periods when ground-water inflow occurred around part of the lake perimeter. The non-augmented lakes typically had areas of ground-water inflow and areas of lake leakage around their perimeter, and during wet periods, ground-water inflow occurred around the entire lake perimeter. Therefore, the area potentially contributing ground water to the non-augmented lakes is much larger than for augmented Round Lake. Vertical head loss within the surficial aquifer was greater at Round Lake than the other study

  3. Dermal exposure to environmental contaminants in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed Central

    Moody, R P; Chu, I

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature to determine the importance of the dermal route of exposure for swimmers and bathers using Great Lakes waters and summarizes the chemical water contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes along with relevant dermal absorption data. We detail in vivo and in vitro methods of quantifying the degree of dermal absorption and discuss a preference for infinite dose data as opposed to finite dose data. The basic mechanisms of the dermal absorption process, routes of chemical entry, and the environmental and physiological factors affecting this process are also reviewed, and we discuss the concepts of surface slick exposure to lipophilic compounds and the adsorption of contaminants to water sediment. After presenting mathematical constructs for calculating the degree of exposure, we present in vitro data concerning skin absorption of polyaromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to Great Lakes water sediment to show that in a worst-case scenario exposure via the dermal route can be equally important to the oral route. We have concluded that prolonged exposure of the skin, especially under conditions that may enhance dermal absorption (e.g., sunburn) may result in toxicologically significant amounts of certain water contaminants being absorbed. It is recommended that swimming should be confined to public beaches, people should refrain from swimming if they are sunburned, and skin should be washed with soap as soon as possible following exposure. Future studies should be conducted to investigate the importance of the dermal exposure route to swimmers and bathers. PMID:8635434

  4. Estimating ground-water inflow to lakes in central Florida using the isotope mass-balance approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, Laura A.

    2002-01-01

    The isotope mass-balance approach was used to estimate ground-water inflow to 81 lakes in the central highlands and coastal lowlands of central Florida. The study area is characterized by a subtropical climate and numerous lakes in a mantled karst terrain. Ground-water inflow was computed using both steady-state and transient formulations of the isotope mass-balance equation. More detailed data were collected from two study lakes, including climatic, hydrologic, and isotopic (hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratio) data. For one of these lakes (Lake Starr), ground-water inflow was independently computed from a water-budget study. Climatic and isotopic data collected from the two lakes were similar even though they were in different physiographic settings about 60 miles apart. Isotopic data from all of the study lakes plotted on an evaporation trend line, which had a very similar slope to the theoretical slope computed for Lake Starr. These similarities suggest that data collected from the detailed study lakes can be extrapolated to the rest of the study area. Ground-water inflow computed using the isotope mass-balance approach ranged from 0 to more than 260 inches per year (or 0 to more than 80 percent of total inflows). Steady-state and transient estimates of ground-water inflow were very similar. Computed ground-water inflow was most sensitive to uncertainty in variables used to calculate the isotopic composition of lake evaporate (isotopic compositions of lake water and atmospheric moisture and climatic variables). Transient results were particularly sensitive to changes in the isotopic composition of lake water. Uncertainty in ground-water inflow results is considerably less for lakes with higher ground-water inflow than for lakes with lower ground-water inflow. Because of these uncertainties, the isotope mass-balance approach is better used to distinguish whether ground-water inflow quantities fall within certain ranges of values, rather than for precise

  5. Sublake geologic structure from high-resolution seismic-reflection data from four sinkhole lakes in the Lake Wales Ridge, Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tihansky, A.B.; Arthur, J.D.; DeWitt, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    Seismic-reflection profiles from Lake Wales, Blue Lake, Lake Letta, and Lake Apthorp located along the Lake Wales Ridge in central Florida provide local detail within the regional hydrogeologic framework as described by litho- and hydrostratigraphic cross sections. Lakes located with the mantled karst region have long been considered to be sinkhole lakes, originating from subsidence activity. High-resolution seismic- reflection data confirm this origin for these four lakes. The geologic framework of the Lake Wales Ridge has proven to be a suitable geologic setting for continuous high-resolution seismic-reflection profiling in lakes; however, the nature of the lake-bottom sediments largely controls the quality of the seismic data. In lakes with significant organic-rich bottom deposits, interpretable record was limited to areas where organic deposits were minimal. In lakes with clean, sandy bottoms, the seismic-reflection methods were highly successful in obtaining data that can be correlated with sublake subsidence features. These techniques are useful in examining sublake geology and providing a better understanding of how confining units are affected by subsidence in a region where their continuity is of significant importance to local lake hydrology. Although local geologic control around each lake generally corresponds to the regional geologic framework, local deviations from regional geologic trends occur in sublake areas affected by subsidence activity. Each of the four lakes examined represents a unique set of geologic controls and provides some degree of structural evidence of subsidence activity. Sublake geologic structures identified include: (1) marginal lake sediments dipping into bathymetric lows, (2) lateral discontinuity of confining units including sags and breaches, (3) the disruption and reworking of overlying unconsolidated siliciclastic sediments as they subside into the underlying irregular limestone surface, and (4) sublake regions where

  6. Comparison of Radiocarbon Ages of Sediments, Plants, and Shells From Coastal Lakes in North Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Das, O.; Liu, J.; Xu, X.; Roy, R.; Donoghue, J. F.; Means, G. H.

    2017-12-01

    Coastal lakes sediments are valuable archives of paleo-hurricanes and environmental changes during the late Quaternary provided that they can be accurately dated. Here, we report new radiocarbon (14C) dates derived from various organic and inorganic substrates, including bulk sediment organic matter, plants, shells, particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), from three coastal lakes in Florida, and compare these ages to evaluate the "reservoir effect" on 14C dating of both organic and inorganic carbon in these lakes. Bulk sediment organic matter yielded consistently older 14C ages than contemporaneous plants and shell fragments, indicating significant radiocarbon deficiencies in sedimentary organic matter in these coastal lakes, caused by influx of old organic carbon from terrestrial sources (such as soils and ancient peat deposits) in the watershed. Several reversals are observed in the 14C ages of bulk sediment organic matter in sediment cores from these lakes, indicating that input of aged organic matter from terrestrial sources into these lakes can vary considerably over time. DOM and POM samples collected at different times also yielded variable 14C signatures, further confirming the temporal variability in the contribution of old organic carbon from terrestrial sources to the lakes. The 14C age discrepancy between bulk sediment organic matter and co-occurring plant fragments or shells varies from less than one hundred years to nearly three thousand years in sediment cores examined in this study. The results show that 14C ages obtained from bulk sediment organic matter in these coastal lakes are unreliable. Analyses of both modern and fossil shells from one of the lakes suggest that the 14C reservoir effect on inorganic carbon in the lake is small and thus freshwater shells (if preserved in the sediment cores) may serve as a good substrate for 14C dating in the absence of plant fragments. However, unidentifiable shell fragments

  7. Rainbow trout embryotoxicity of a complex contaminant mixture extracted from Lake Michigan lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    Persistent Hydrophobic contaminants such as poly chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyl congeners are present in aquatic systems, and are known to produce adverse effects in fish. Reproductive failure in fish populations has been observed in aquatic systems contaminated with persistent hydrophobic compounds. In order to mimic maternal transfer of environmental contaminants to newly fertilized fish eggs, a complex environmental extract was tested for embryotoxicity in a nanoinjection bioassay with embryos of rainbow trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988. The tissue extraction involved blending and dehydration with sodium sulfate, column extraction, dialysis separation, reactive cleanup and, finally, high-performance gel permeation chromatography. Egg gram-equivalent doses (g tissue/g egg normalized for egg % lipid) of the final extract (0.02, 0.10, 0.20, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 10.0, 20.0 eggEQ) were injected into newly fertilized rainbow trout eggs using triolein as the vehicle. The extract of the lake trout was embryotoxic to rainbow trout, with an LD50 of 35 eggEQ, based on total cumulative mortality. Gross physical abnormalities characteristic of dioxin exposure, such as hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema and craniofacial deformities, were observed and showed significant dose-related increases. Sublethal effects in the rainbow trout, such as delayed time to hatch, mild hemorrhaging and moderate yolk-sac edema, resulted from estimated total PCB exposure as low as 8.8 ng/g, and this may have significant implications on Great Lakes lake trout fry and juvenile mortality.

  8. The contamination of Lake Superior with amphibole gangue minerals.

    PubMed

    Langer, A M; Maggiore, C M; Nicholson, W J; Rohl, A N; Rubin, I B; Selikoff, I J

    1979-01-01

    Iron ore called taconite is mined in the Biwabik Iron Formation in the Eastern Mesabi region of the Mesabi Range, in eastern Minnesota. After mining, ore is shipped to Silver Bay, Minnnesota for processing and wet magnetic extraction. Tailings from the process are dumped, as a slurry, into a man-made containment delta constructed in Lake Superior. Submicroscopic amphibole fibers and/or cleavage fragments, a component of the gangue, apparently escape from the delta at Silver Bay, and enter Lake Superior. These particles contaiminate the potable water supplies of municipalities drawing directly from the lake. One of the gangue minerals is the amphibole grunerite, whose asbestiform variety is called amosite. Major emphasis of this study was directed at identification of submicroscopic particle pollutants, based on morphology, structure and chemical composition. Quantitative determination of fibrous amphibole phases, present in a range of water samples, was undertaken. Transmission electron microscopy, selected area electron diffraction, and an electron microprobe technique was used for identification and enumeration and this information was compared with data sets determined from standards. Grunerite fiber and/or acicular cleavage fragments, in some instances indistinguishable from asbestiform grunerite, are present in the tailings, lake water and drinking water of a number of municipalities, a result of contamination of the lake at the Silver Bay milling operation. This amphibole is found in drinking water in concentrations which range from 0.6 to 2.8 X 10(6) fiber/liter. The risk to health, associated with direct ingestion of grunerite fiber is unknown and is extrapolated from the asbestiform grunerite (amosite) data base. The biological activity of other fibrous amphiboles observed, unrelated to any asbestiform silicate variety, is presently unknown and warrants investigation.

  9. Chemical Evolution of Groundwater Near a Sinkhole Lake, Northern Florida: 1. Flow Patterns, Age of Groundwater, and Influence of Lake Water Leakage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Brian G.; Lee, Terrie M.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    1995-06-01

    Leakage from sinkhole lakes significantly influences recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer in poorly confined sediments in northern Florida. Environmental isotopes (oxygen 18, deuterium, and tritium), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs: CFC-11, CCl3F; CFC-12, CCl2F2; and CFC-113, C2Cl3F3), and solute tracers were used to investigate groundwater flow patterns near Lake Barco, a seepage lake in a mantled karst setting in northern Florida. Stable isotope data indicated that the groundwater downgradient from the lake contained 11-67% lake water leakage, with a limit of detection of lake water in groundwater of 4.3%. The mixing fractions of lake water leakage, which passed through organic-rich sediments in the lake bottom, were directly proportional to the observed methane concentrations and increased with depth in the groundwater flow system. In aerobic groundwater upgradient from Lake Barco, CFC-modeled recharge dates ranged from 1987 near the water table to the mid 1970s for water collected at a depth of 30 m below the water table. CFC-modeled recharge dates (based on CFC-12) for anaerobic groundwater downgradient from the lake ranged from the late 1950s to the mid 1970s and were consistent with tritium data. CFC-modeled recharge dates based on CFC-11 indicated preferential microbial degradation in anoxic waters. Vertical hydraulic conductivities, calculated using CFC-12 modeled recharge dates and Darcy's law, were 0.17, 0.033, and 0.019 m/d for the surficial aquifer, intermediate confining unit, and lake sediments, respectively. These conductivities agreed closely with those used in the calibration of a three-dimensional groundwater flow model for transient and steady state flow conditions.

  10. Florida

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ...     View Larger Image Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) images of Florida ... Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Photo credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Science Team Other formats ...

  11. Florida

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... eastern (Atlantic) coast, partially obscured by clouds, are Palm Beach, Fort Lauderdale, and Miami. Further to the east, the shallow waters ... MISR category:  gallery date:  Oct 18, 2000 Images:  Florida ...

  12. Monitoring Multitemporal Soil Moisture, Rainfall, and ET in Lake Manatee Watershed, South Florida under Global Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, N.

    2009-12-01

    Ni-Bin Chang1, Ammarin Daranpob 1, and Y. Jeffrey Yang2 1Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando FL, USA 2Water Supply and Water Resources Division, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA ASBTRACT: Global climate change and its related impacts on water supply are universally recognized. The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), which is based on long term changes in the temperature of the surface of the North Atlantic Ocean, is a source of changes in river flow patterns in Florida. The AMO has a multi-decadal frequency. Under its impact, several distinct types of river patterns were identified within Florida, including a Southern River Pattern (SRP), a Northern River Pattern (NRP), a Bimodal River Pattern (BRP), etc. (Kelley and Gore, 2008). Some SRPs are present in the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD). Changes in river flows occur because significant sea surface temperature (SST) changes affect continental rainfall patterns. It had been observed that, between AMO warm (i.e., from 1939 to 1968) and cold phases (i.e., from 1969 to 1993), the average daily inflow to Lake Okeechobee varies by 40% in the transition from the warm to cold phases in South Florida. The Manatee County is located in the Southern Water Use Caution Area (SWUCA) due to the depletion of the Upper Floridian Aquifer and its entire western portion of the County is designated as part of the Most Impacted Area (MIA) within the Eastern Tampa Bay Water Use Caution Area relative to the SWUCA. Major source of Manatee County’s water is an 332 Km2 (82,000-acre) watershed (i.e., Lake Manatee Watershed) that drains into the man-made Lake Manatee Reservoir. The lake has a total volume of 0.21 billion m3 (7.5 billion gallons) and will cover 7.3 Km2 (1,800 acres) when full. The proper use of remote sensing images and sensor network technologies can provide information on both spatial and

  13. 77 FR 13496 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters AGENCY... Protection Agency (EPA) is finalizing an extension of the March 6, 2012 effective date of the ``Water Quality... INFORMATION: I. General Information Does this action apply to me? Citizens concerned with water quality in...

  14. 75 FR 11079 - Extension of Public Comment Period for Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Extension of Public Comment Period for Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing... comment period. SUMMARY: On January 14, 2010, EPA signed a proposed rule entitled ``Water Quality.... Mail to: Water Docket, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Mail code: 2822T, 1200 Pennsylvania Avenue...

  15. 77 FR 74449 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Proposed Rule; Stay

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-14

    ... in this rulemaking. Entities discharging nitrogen or phosphorus to lakes and flowing waters of... nitrogen and phosphorus pollution in Florida's waters may be indirectly affected through implementation of... criteria in the form of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate+nitrite, and chlorophyll a for the...

  16. Recent paleorecords document rising mercury contamination in Lake Tanganyika

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conaway, C.H.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Cohen, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Recent Lake Tanganyika Hg deposition records were derived using 14C and excess 210Pb geochronometers in sediment cores collected from two contrasting depositional environments: the Kalya Platform, located mid-lake and more removed from watershed impacts, and the Nyasanga/Kahama River delta region, located close to the lake's shoreline north of Kigoma. At the Kalya Platform area, pre-industrial Hg concentrations are 23??0.2ng/g, increasing to 74ng/g in modern surface sediment, and the Hg accumulation rate has increased from 1.0 to 7.2??g/m 2/a from pre-industrial to present, which overall represents a 6-fold increase in Hg concentration and accumulation. At the Nyasanga/Kahama delta region, pre-industrial Hg concentrations are 20??3ng/g, increasing to 46ng/g in surface sediment. Mercury accumulation rate has increased from 30 to 70??g/m 2/a at this site, representing a 2-3-fold increase in Hg concentration and accumulation. There is a lack of correlation between charcoal abundance and Hg accumulation rate in the sediment cores, demonstrating that local biomass burning has little relationship with the observed Hg concentration or Hg accumulation rates. Examined using a sediment focusing-corrected mass accumulation rate approach, the cores have similar anthropogenic atmospheric Hg deposition profiles, suggesting that after accounting for background sediment concentrations the source of accumulating Hg is predominantly atmospheric in origin. In summary, the data document an increase of Hg flux to the Lake Tanganyika ecosystem that is consistent with increasing watershed sediment delivery with background-level Hg contamination, and regional as well as global increases in atmospheric Hg deposition. ?? 2011.

  17. Effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and time scale on simulated ground-water exchange with Lake Starr, a seepage lake in central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swancar, Amy; Lee, Terrie Mackin

    2003-01-01

    Lake Starr and other lakes in the mantled karst terrain of Florida's Central Lake District are surrounded by a conductive surficial aquifer system that receives highly variable recharge from rainfall. In addition, downward leakage from these lakes varies as heads in the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer change seasonally and with pumpage. A saturated three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water flow model was used to simulate the effects of recharge, Upper Floridan aquifer heads, and model time scale on ground-water exchange with Lake Starr. The lake was simulated as an active part of the model using high hydraulic conductivity cells. Simulated ground-water flow was compared to net ground-water flow estimated from a rigorously derived water budget for the 2-year period August 1996-July 1998. Calibrating saturated ground-water flow models with monthly stress periods to a monthly lake water budget will result in underpredicting gross inflow to, and leakage from, ridge lakes in Florida. Underprediction of ground-water inflow occurs because recharge stresses and ground-water flow responses during rainy periods are averaged over too long a time period using monthly stress periods. When inflow is underestimated during calibration, leakage also is underestimated because inflow and leakage are correlated if lake stage is maintained over the long term. Underpredicted leakage reduces the implied effect of ground-water withdrawals from the Upper Floridan aquifer on the lake. Calibrating the weekly simulation required accounting for transient responses in the water table near the lake that generated the greater range of net ground-water flow values seen in the weekly water budget. Calibrating to the weekly lake water budget also required increasing the value of annual recharge in the nearshore region well above the initial estimate of 35 percent of the rainfall, and increasing the hydraulic conductivity of the deposits around and beneath the lake. To simulate the total

  18. Hydrology of the Floral City Pool of Tsala Apopka Lake, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradner, L.A.

    1988-01-01

    Tsala Apopka Lake, in west-central Florida, has an area of about 19,000 acres and is divided into three water-management pools, with the Floral City Pool, the most upgradient. The Floral City Pool, which has a surface area of approximately 4,750 acres, contains an extensive combination of lakes, wetlands, and connecting canals. The Pool receives inflow from the Withlacoochee River through two canals. Outflow is through one manmade canal and one natural slough. Canal flow is partially controlled by manmade structures. A cumulative deficit of 19.4 inches of rainfall from August 1984 through May 1985 reduced surface-water inflow to the Floral City Pool to about 0.5 cu ft/sec by May 1985. During May 1985, pool levels declined approximately 0.04 ft/day. By the end of May, there was no observable outflow. From June 1985 through September 1985, 39.8 inches of rainfall caused above-average inflow to the Floral City Pool and a pool-level increase of 6.2 ft. The inflow of 340 CFS nearly equaled the outflow of 338 CFS by the end of September. (USGS)

  19. Reconstruction of paleostorm history using geochemical proxies in sediment cores from Eastern Lake, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, O.; Wang, Y.; Donoghue, J. F.; Coor, J. L.; Kish, S.; Elsner, J.; Hu, X. B.; Niedoroda, A. W.; Ye, M.; Xu, Y.

    2009-12-01

    Analysis of geochemical proxies of coastal lake sediments provides a useful tool for reconstructing paleostorm history. Such paleostorm records can help constrain models that are used to predict future storm events. In this study, we collected two sediment cores (60 and 103 cm long, respectively) from the center of Eastern Lake located on the Gulf coast of NW Florida. These cores, which are mainly composed of organic-rich mud and organic-poor sand, were sub-sampled at 2-3mm intervals for analyses of their organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations as well as δ13C and δ15N isotopic signatures. Selected samples were submitted for radiocarbon dating in order to establish a chronological framework for the interpretation of the geochemical data. There are significant variations in δ13C, δ15N, C%, N% and C/N with depth. The δ13C and δ15N values vary from -21.8‰ to -26.7‰ and 2.6‰ to 5‰, respectively. The stable isotopic signatures of carbon and nitrogen indicate that the sources of organic matter in sediments include terrestrial C3 type vegetation, marine input from Gulf of Mexico and biological productivity within the lake, such as phytoplankton and zooplankton growing in the lacustrine environment. The δ13C and δ15N values exhibit significant negative excursions by 2‰ in a 30 cm thick sand layer, bounded by a rapid return to the base value. A positive shift in the δ15N record observed in the upper part of the cores likely reflects increased anthropogenic input of N such as sewage or septic tank effluents associated with recent development of areas around the lake for human habitation. Similarly, organic C% and N% range from 5.8 to 0.4 and 0.4 to 0.1, respectively. A prominent negative shift by 2σ relative to the baseline in C% and N% has been observed at approx. 55 to 58 cm depth, consisting of an organic-poor sand layer. This shift in C% and N% can be correlated with the negative shift in the δ13C and δ15N values, indicating a major storm event

  20. An optimized network for phosphorus load monitoring for Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gain, W.S.

    1997-01-01

    Phosphorus load data were evaluated for Lake Okeechobee, Florida, for water years 1982 through 1991. Standard errors for load estimates were computed from available phosphorus concentration and daily discharge data. Components of error were associated with uncertainty in concentration and discharge data and were calculated for existing conditions and for 6 alternative load-monitoring scenarios for each of 48 distinct inflows. Benefit-cost ratios were computed for each alternative monitoring scenario at each site by dividing estimated reductions in load uncertainty by the 5-year average costs of each scenario in 1992 dollars. Absolute and marginal benefit-cost ratios were compared in an iterative optimization scheme to determine the most cost-effective combination of discharge and concentration monitoring scenarios for the lake. If the current (1992) discharge-monitoring network around the lake is maintained, the water-quality sampling at each inflow site twice each year is continued, and the nature of loading remains the same, the standard error of computed mean-annual load is estimated at about 98 metric tons per year compared to an absolute loading rate (inflows and outflows) of 530 metric tons per year. This produces a relative uncertainty of nearly 20 percent. The standard error in load can be reduced to about 20 metric tons per year (4 percent) by adopting an optimized set of monitoring alternatives at a cost of an additional $200,000 per year. The final optimized network prescribes changes to improve both concentration and discharge monitoring. These changes include the addition of intensive sampling with automatic samplers at 11 sites, the initiation of event-based sampling by observers at another 5 sites, the continuation of periodic sampling 12 times per year at 1 site, the installation of acoustic velocity meters to improve discharge gaging at 9 sites, and the improvement of a discharge rating at 1 site.

  1. A Holocene Sediment Record of Phosphorus Accumulation in Shallow Lake Harris, Florida (USA) Offers New Perspectives on Recent Cultural Eutrophication

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, William F.; Brenner, Mark; Curtis, Jason H.; Arnold, T. Elliott; Schelske, Claire L.

    2016-01-01

    We studied a complete Holocene sediment record from shallow (zmax = 9.7 m) Lake Harris, Florida (USA) to infer the historical development of the lake and its current eutrophic status. We used 210Pb and 14C to date the 5.9-m sediment sequence (core LH-6-13) and determined accumulation rates for bulk sediment, organic matter, calcium carbonate, phosphorus fractions and biogenic silica fractions. The chronology of changes in sediment characteristics for LH-6-13 is consistent with the general paleoenvironmental framework established by core studies from other Florida lakes. Lake Harris began to fill with water in the early Holocene, ca. 10,680 cal a BP. A shift from carbonate-dominated to organic-rich sediments ca. 5,540 cal a BP corresponds to a transition to wetter climate in the middle Holocene. A rapid increase in diatom biogenic silica concentrations and accumulation rates ca. 2,600 cal a BP signals that the lake had deepened to its modern limnetic state. In LH-6-13, an up-core decrease in rates of accumulation for several sediment variables indicates time-course oligotrophication of the lake through the Holocene. In near-surface sediments, abrupt increases in the accumulation rates of these same variables indicate progressive cultural eutrophication after ca. AD 1900. Comparison of the modern state of Lake Harris to its condition 50–100 years ago provides a measure of the impact of recent cultural eutrophication. Because the pre-disturbance trajectory of this lake was one of oligotrophication, the true impact of cultural eutrophication is even greater than what is inferred from the changes over the past century. PMID:26789518

  2. Ground-water quality of the surficial aquifer system and the upper Floridan Aquifer, Ocala National Forest and Lake County, Florida, 1990-99

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adamski, J.C.; Knowles, Leel

    2001-01-01

    Data from 217 ground-water samples were statistically analyzed to assess the water quality of the surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer in the Ocala National Forest and Lake County, Florida. Samples were collected from 49 wells tapping the surficial aquifer system, 141 wells tapping the Upper Floridan aquifer, and from 27 springs that discharge water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. A total of 136 samples was collected by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1995 through 1999. These data were supplemented with 81 samples collected by the St. Johns River Water Management District and Lake County Water Resources Management from 1990 through 1998. In general, the surficial aquifer system has low concentrations of total dissolved solids (median was 41 milligrams per liter) and major ions. Water quality of the surficial aquifer system, however, is not homogeneous throughout the study area. Concentrations of total dissolved solids, many major ions, and nutrients are greater in samples from Lake County outside the Ocala National Forest than in samples from within the Forest. These results indicate that the surficial aquifer system in Lake County outside the Ocala National Forest probably is being affected by agricultural and (or) urban land-use practices. High concentrations of dissolved oxygen (less than 0.1 to 8.2 milligrams per liter) in the surficial aquifer system underlying the Ocala National Forest indicate that the aquifer is readily recharged by precipitation and is susceptible to surface contamination. Concentrations of total dissolved solids were significantly greater in the Upper Floridan aquifer (median was 182 milligrams per liter) than in the surficial aquifer system. In general, water quality of the Upper Floridan aquifer was homogeneous, primarily being a calcium or calciummagnesium- bicarbonate water type. Near the St. Johns River, the water type of the Upper Floridan aquifer is sodium-chloride, corresponding to an increase in total dissolved

  3. Discrimination of fluoride and phosphate contamination in central Florida for analyses of environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coker, A. E.; Marshall, R.; Thomson, F.

    1972-01-01

    A study was made of the spatial registration of fluoride and phosphate pollution parameters in central Florida by utilizing remote sensing techniques. Multispectral remote sensing data were collected over the area and processed to produce multispectral recognition maps. These processed data were used to map land areas and waters containing concentrations of fluoride and phosphate. Maps showing distribution of affected and unaffected vegetation were produced. In addition, the multispectral data were processed by single band radiometric slicing to produce radiometric maps used to delineate areas of high ultraviolet radiance, which indicates high fluoride concentrations. The multispectral parameter maps and radiometric maps in combination showed distinctive patterns, which are correlated with areas known to be affected by fluoride and phosphate contamination. These remote sensing techniques have the potential for regional use to assess the environmental impact of fluoride and phosphate wastes in central Florida.

  4. Genetic impoverishment and cross-incompatibility in remnant genotypes of Ziziphus celata (Rhamnaceae), a rare shrub endemic to the Lake Wales Ridge, Florida

    Treesearch

    C.W. Weekley; Thomas L. Kubisiak; T.M. Race

    2002-01-01

    The loss of genetic diversity in fragmented populations of self-incompalible plant species may result in sexual reproductive failure and local extinctions. Florida ziziphus (Ziziphus celata)is a self-incompetiblc clonal shrub known only from five genetically depauperate populations on the Lake Wales Ridge. Florida, USA. Recovery of this species...

  5. Comparative data mining analysis for information retrieval of MODIS images: monitoring lake turbidity changes at Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Daranpob, Ammarin; Yang, Y. Jeffrey; Jin, Kang-Ren

    2009-09-01

    In the remote sensing field, a frequently recurring question is: Which computational intelligence or data mining algorithms are most suitable for the retrieval of essential information given that most natural systems exhibit very high non-linearity. Among potential candidates might be empirical regression, neural network model, support vector machine, genetic algorithm/genetic programming, analytical equation, etc. This paper compares three types of data mining techniques, including multiple non-linear regression, artificial neural networks, and genetic programming, for estimating multi-temporal turbidity changes following hurricane events at Lake Okeechobee, Florida. This retrospective analysis aims to identify how the major hurricanes impacted the water quality management in 2003-2004. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Terra 8-day composite imageries were used to retrieve the spatial patterns of turbidity distributions for comparison against the visual patterns discernible in the in-situ observations. By evaluating four statistical parameters, the genetic programming model was finally selected as the most suitable data mining tool for classification in which the MODIS band 1 image and wind speed were recognized as the major determinants by the model. The multi-temporal turbidity maps generated before and after the major hurricane events in 2003-2004 showed that turbidity levels were substantially higher after hurricane episodes. The spatial patterns of turbidity confirm that sediment-laden water travels to the shore where it reduces the intensity of the light necessary to submerged plants for photosynthesis. This reduction results in substantial loss of biomass during the post-hurricane period.

  6. Hydrology and water quality of lakes and streams in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, Edward R.; Adamski, James C.

    2005-01-01

    Orange County, Florida, is continuing to experience a large growth in population. In 1920, the population of Orange County was less than 20,000; in 2000, the population was about 896,000. The amount of urban area around Orlando has increased considerably, especially in the northwest part of the County. The eastern one-third of the County, however, had relatively little increase in urbanization from 1977-97. The increase of population, tourism, and industry in Orange County and nearby areas changed land use; land that was once agricultural has become urban, industrial, and major recreation areas. These changes could impact surface-water resources that are important for wildlife habitat, for esthetic reasons, and potentially for public supply. Streamflow characteristics and water quality could be affected in various ways. As a result of changing land use, changes in the hydrology and water quality of Orange County's lakes and streams could occur. Median runoff in 10 selected Orange County streams ranges from about 20 inches per year (in/yr) in the Wekiva River to about 1.1 in/yr in Cypress Creek. The runoff for the Wekiva River is significantly higher than other river basins because of the relatively constant spring discharge that sustains streamflow, even during drought conditions. The low runoff for the Cypress Creek basin results from a lack of sustained inflow from ground water and a relatively large area of lakes within the drainage basin. Streamflow characteristics for 13 stations were computed on an annual basis and examined for temporal trends. Results of the trend testing indicate changes in annual mean streamflow, 1-day high streamflow, or 7-day low streamflow at 8 of the 13 stations. However, changes in 7-day low streamflow are more common than changes in annual mean or 1-day high streamflow. There is probably no single reason for the changes in 7-day low streamflows, and for most streams, it is difficult to determine definite reasons for the flow

  7. ALTERATIONS IN SEXUALLY DIMORPHIC BIOTRANSFORMATION OF TESTOSTERONE IN JUVENILE AMERICAN ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this study was to determine whether hepatic biotransformation of testosterone is normally sexually dimorphic in juvenile alligators and whether living in a contaminated environment affects hepatic dimorphism. Lake Woodruff served as our reference site. Moonshine Bay, ...

  8. PARENTAL CONSUMPTION OF CONTAMINATED SPORT FISH FROM LAKE ONTARIO AND PREDICTED FECUNDABILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife studies suggest that consumption of contaminated fish from the Great Lakes may expose humans to polychlorinated biphenyls and persistent chlorinated pesticides. To assess whether time to pregnancy or fecundability is affected, we conducted a telephone survey in 1993 with...

  9. Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Identification of watersheds and chemicals of greatest concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace organic contaminant concentrations in some Great Lakes tributaries indicate potential for adverse effects on aquatic organisms. Chemicals used in agriculture, industry, and households enter surface waters via variety of sources, including urban and agricultural runoff, sewa...

  10. Simulated Effects of Ground-Water Augmentation on the Hydrology of Round and Halfmoon Lakes in Northwestern Hillsborough County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Richard M.; Metz, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    Pumpage from the Upper Floridan aquifer in northwest Hillsborough County near Tampa, Florida, has induced downward leakage from the overlying surficial aquifer and lowered the water table in many areas. Leakage is highest where the confining layer separating the aquifers is breached, which is common beneath many of the lakes in the study area. Leakage of water to the Upper Floridan aquifer has lowered the water level in many lakes and drained many wetlands. Ground water from the Upper Floridan aquifer has been added (augmented) to some lakes in an effort to maintain lake levels, but the resulting lake-water chemistry and lake leakage patterns are substantially different from those of natural lakes. Changes in lake-water chemistry can cause changes in lake flora, fauna, and lake sediment composition, and large volumes of lake leakage are suspected to enhance the formation of sinkholes near the shoreline of augmented lakes. The leakage rate of lake water through the surficial aquifer to the Upper Floridan aquifer was estimated in this study using ground-water-flow models developed for an augmented lake (Round Lake) and non-augmented lake (Halfmoon Lake). Flow models developed with MODFLOW were calibrated through nonlinear regression with UCODE to measured water levels and monthly net ground-water-flow rates from the lakes estimated from lake-water budgets. Monthly estimates of ground-water recharge were computed using an unsaturated flow model (LEACHM) that simulated daily changes in storage of water in the soil profile, thus estimating recharge as drainage to the water table. Aquifer properties in the Round Lake model were estimated through transient-state simulations using two sets of monthly recharge rates computed during July 1996 to February 1999, which spanned both average conditions (July 1996 through October 1997), and an El Ni?o event (November 1997 through September 1998) when the recharge rate doubled. Aquifer properties in the Halfmoon Lake model were

  11. NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB - CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN A FRESH WATER LAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: An ongoing study of natural recovery of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), is being pursued at the Sangamo-Weston/Twelvemile Creek/Lake Hartwell Superfund Site (i.e., the Lake Hart...

  12. Survey design for lakes and reservoirs in the United States to assess contaminants in fish tissue

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Lake Fish Tissue Study (NLFTS) was the first survey of fish contamination in lakes and reservoirs in the 48 conterminous states based on probability survey design. This study included the largest set (268) of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals ev...

  13. Caged Fish Studies to Detect and Monitor Contaminants of Emerging Concern in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects-based monitoring studies were conducted in the St. Louis Harbor, Lake Superior, in support of the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI). The overall goal of the research was to develop and validate methods using caged fish exposures to detect and monitor contaminants...

  14. ARSENIC CYCLING WITHIN THE WATER COLUMN OF A SMALL LAKE RECEIVING CONTAMINATED GROUND WATER DISCHARGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of arsenic discharged from contaminated ground water to a small, shallow lake at a hazardous waste site is controlled, in part, by the rate of ferrous iron oxidation-precipitation and arsenic sorption occurring near the lake chemocline. Laboratory experiments were condu...

  15. Identification of hot spot area of sediment contamination in a lake system using texture characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sheela, A M; Letha, J; Joseph, Sabu; Thomas, Jobin

    2013-04-01

    Texture plays an important role in the identification of polluted stretch in a lake system. The organic matter as well as toxic elements get accumulated in the finer sediments. The aim of the work is to show the spatio-temporal distribution of texture of the lake sediment (Akkulam-Veli lake, Kerala) and to identify the hot spot areas of contamination. Hot spot areas vary with seasons. During PRM, (premonsoon), the upstream portion of the Akkulam lake is the hot spot. During MON (monsoon), the downstream portion of the Akkulam lake and the upstream portion of the Veli lake are the hot spots. During POM (postmonsoon), hot spot area is the downstream portion of the Akkulam lake. This methodology can be used for the quick identification of hot spots in water bodies.

  16. Contaminants in wood stork eggs and their effects on reproduction, Florida, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Rodgers, J.A.; Stafford, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    One egg was removed from five Wood Stork (Mycteria americana) nests at each of eight colonies in central and northern Florida in 1982. DDE and mercury were present in all eggs with concentrations ranging up to 9.4 and 0.73 ppm wet weight, respectively. PCBs occurred in 25 eggs with a high value of 3.5 ppm. No other organochlorine compounds occurred in more than 307. of the eggs. Contaminant concentrations were remarkably similar among colonies. DDE was negatively correlated with eggshell thickness (r=-0.48 P < 0.01). Eggshell thickness averaged 4.2% less than for eggs collected before 1947. Contaminants showed no significant link to hatching or fledging success. However, eggs from nests with less than 100 percent hatching success showed a tendency toward higher DDE and PCB concentrations (P= 0.09 and 0.12, respectively).

  17. Characterization of turbidity in Florida's Lake Okeechobee and Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuaries using MODIS-Aqua measurements.

    PubMed

    Wang, Menghua; Nim, Carl J; Son, Seunghyun; Shi, Wei

    2012-10-15

    This paper describes the use of ocean color remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard the Aqua satellite to characterize turbidity in Lake Okeechobee and its primary drainage basins, the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuaries from 2002 to 2010. Drainage modification and agricultural development in southern Florida transport sediments and nutrients from watershed agricultural areas to Lake Okeechobee. As a result of development around Lake Okeechobee and the estuaries that are connected to Lake Okeechobee, estuarine conditions have also been adversely impacted, resulting in salinity and nutrient fluctuations. The measurement of water turbidity in lacustrine and estuarine ecosystems allows researchers to understand important factors such as light limitation and the potential release of nutrients from re-suspended sediments. Based on a strong correlation between water turbidity and normalized water-leaving radiance at the near-infrared (NIR) band (nL(w)(869)), a new satellite water turbidity algorithm has been developed for Lake Okeechobee. This study has shown important applications with satellite-measured nL(w)(869) data for water quality monitoring and measurements for turbid inland lakes. MODIS-Aqua-measured water property data are derived using the shortwave infrared (SWIR)-based atmospheric correction algorithm in order to remotely obtain synoptic turbidity data in Lake Okeechobee and normalized water-leaving radiance using the red band (nL(w)(645)) in the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuaries. We found varied, but distinct seasonal, spatial, and event driven turbidity trends in Lake Okeechobee and the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuary regions. Wind waves and hurricanes have the largest influence on turbidity trends in Lake Okeechobee, while tides, currents, wind waves, and hurricanes influence the Caloosahatchee and St. Lucie estuarine areas. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Hydrology of the Wolf Branch sinkhole basin, Lake County, east-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    A 4-year study of the hydrology of the Wolf Branch sinkhole basin in Lake County, Florida, was conducted from 1991-95 by the U.S. Geological Survey to provide information about the hydrologic characteristics of the drainage basin in the vicinity of Wolf Sink. Wolf Branch drains a 4.94 square mile area and directly recharges the Upper Floridan aquifer through Wolf Sink. Because of the direct connection of the sinkhole with the aquifer, a contaminant spill in the basin could pose a threat to the aquifer. The Wolf Branch drainage basin varies in hydrologic characteristics from its headwaters to its terminus at Wolf Sink. Ground- water seepage provides baseflow to the stream north of Wolf Branch Road, but the stream south of State Road 46 is intermittent and the stream can remain dry for months. A single culvert under a railroad crossing conducts flow from wetlands just south of State Road 46 to a well-defined channel which leads to Wolf Sink. The basin morphology is characterized by karst terrain, with many closed depressions which can provide intermittent surface-water storage. Wetlands in the lower third of the basin (south of State Road 46) also provide surface water storage. The presence of numerous water-control structures (impoundments, canals, and culverts), and the surface-water storage capacity throughout the basin affects the flow characteristics of Wolf Branch. Streamflow records for two stations (one above and one below major wetlands in the basin) indicate the flow about State Road 46 is characterized by rapid runoff and continuous baseflow, whereas below State Road 46, peak discharges are much lower but of longer duration than at the upstream station. Rainfall, discharge, ground-water level, and surface-water level data were collected at selected sites in the basin. Hydrologic conditions during the study ranged from long dry periods when there was no inflow to Wolf Sink, to very wet periods, as when nearly 7 inches of rain fell in a 2-day period in

  19. Tissue contaminants and associated transcriptional response in trout liver from high elevation lakes of Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, P.W.; Aluru, N.; Black, R.W.; Vijayan, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    The consistent cold temperatures and large amount of precipitation in the Olympic and Cascade ranges of Washington State are thought to enhance atmospheric deposition of contaminants. However, little is known about contaminant levels in organisms residing in these remote high elevation lakes. We measured total mercury and 28 organochlorine compounds in trout collected from 14 remote lakes in the Olympic, Mt. Rainer, and North Cascades National Parks. Mercury was detected in trout from all lakes sampled (15 to 262 ??g/kg ww), while two organochlorines, total polychlorinated biphenyls (tPCB) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), were also detected in these fish tissues (<25 ??g/kg ww). In sediments, organochlorine levels were below detection, while median total and methyl mercury were 30.4 and 0.34 ??g/ kg dry weight (ww), respectively. Using fish from two lakes, representing different contaminant loading levels (Wilcox lake: high; Skymo lake: low), we examined transcriptional response in the liver using a custom-made low-density targeted rainbow trout cDNA microarray. We detected significant differences in liver transcriptional response, including significant changes in metabolic, endocrine, and immune-related genes, in fish collected from Wilcox Lake compared to Skymo Lake. Overall, our results suggest that local urban areas contribute to the observed contaminant patterns in these high elevation lakes, while the transcriptional changes point to a biological response associated with exposure to these contaminants in fish. Specifically, the gene expression pattern leads us to hypothesize a role for mercury in disrupting the metabolic and reproductive pathways in fish from high elevation lakes in western Washington. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  20. Viral Tracer Studies Indicate Contamination of Marine Waters by Sewage Disposal Practices in Key Largo, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Paul, J. H.; Rose, J. B.; Brown, J.; Shinn, E. A.; Miller, S.; Farrah, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    Domestic wastewater disposal practices in the Florida Keys are primarily limited to on-site disposal systems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacteriophages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated injection well in Key Largo, Florida. Transport of bacteriophage (Phi)HSIC-1 from the septic tank to adjacent surface canal waters and outstanding marine waters occurred in as little as 11 and 23 h, respectively. Transport of the Salmonella phage PRD1 from the simulated injection well to a canal adjacent to the injection site occurred in 11.2 h. Estimated rates of migration of viral tracers ranged from 0.57 to 24.2 m/h, over 500-fold greater than flow rates measured previously by subsurface flow meters in similar environments. These results suggest that current on-site disposal practices can lead to contamination of the subsurface and surface marine waters in the Keys. PMID:16535046

  1. Contaminants in wood stork eggs and their effects on reproduction, Florida, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleming, W.J.; Rodgers, J.A.; Stafford, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    One egg was removed from five Wood Stork (Mycteria americana) nests at each of eight colonies in central and northern Florida in 1982. DDE and mercury were present in all eggs with concentrations ranging up to 9.4 and 0.73 ppm wet weight, respectively. PCBs were detected in 25 eggs (63%) with a high value of 3.5 ppm. Other organochlorine compounds occurred in less than 30% of the eggs. Contaminant concentrations were remarkably similar among colonies. Overall, DDE and PCB concentrations were significantly less (P < 0.05) in Wood Stork eggs collected in Florida in 1982 vs. those collected in 1973. DDE was negatively correlated with eggshell thickness (r = -0.48 P <.0.01). Eggshell thickness was greater in 1982 than it was during the period 1967-73 (P.< 0.09) but was still 4.3% less than in eggs collected before 1947 (P < 0.05). Eggs from nests with less than 100% hatching success were linked with higher DDE concentrations (2.92 ppm vs 1.01; P = 0.09), but contaminants showed no significant link to fledging success. Although it is possible that a few individuals may have been affected by DDE, we found no evidence that organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, or mercury were significantly depressing Wood Stork populations.

  2. Viral tracer studies indicate contamination of marine waters by sewage disposal practices in key largo, Florida.

    PubMed

    Paul, J H; Rose, J B; Brown, J; Shinn, E A; Miller, S; Farrah, S R

    1995-06-01

    Domestic wastewater disposal practices in the Florida Keys are primarily limited to on-site disposal systems such as septic tanks, injection wells, and illegal cesspits. Poorly treated sewage is thus released into the highly porous subsurface Key Largo limestone matrix. To investigate the fate and transport of sewage in the subsurface environment and the potential for contamination of marine surface waters, we employed bacteriophages as tracers in a domestic septic system and a simulated injection well in Key Largo, Florida. Transport of bacteriophage (Phi)HSIC-1 from the septic tank to adjacent surface canal waters and outstanding marine waters occurred in as little as 11 and 23 h, respectively. Transport of the Salmonella phage PRD1 from the simulated injection well to a canal adjacent to the injection site occurred in 11.2 h. Estimated rates of migration of viral tracers ranged from 0.57 to 24.2 m/h, over 500-fold greater than flow rates measured previously by subsurface flow meters in similar environments. These results suggest that current on-site disposal practices can lead to contamination of the subsurface and surface marine waters in the Keys.

  3. Survey design for lakes and reservoirs in the United States to assess contaminants in fish tissue.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Anthony R; Snyder, Blaine D; Stahl, Leanne L; Pitt, Jennifer L

    2009-03-01

    The National Lake Fish Tissue Study (NLFTS) was the first survey of fish contamination in lakes and reservoirs in the 48 conterminous states based on a probability survey design. This study included the largest set (268) of persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) chemicals ever studied in predator and bottom-dwelling fish species. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) implemented the study in cooperation with states, tribal nations, and other federal agencies, with field collection occurring at 500 lakes and reservoirs over a four-year period (2000-2003). The sampled lakes and reservoirs were selected using a spatially balanced unequal probability survey design from 270,761 lake objects in USEPA's River Reach File Version 3 (RF3). The survey design selected 900 lake objects, with a reserve sample of 900, equally distributed across six lake area categories. A total of 1,001 lake objects were evaluated to identify 500 lake objects that met the study's definition of a lake and could be accessed for sampling. Based on the 1,001 evaluated lakes, it was estimated that a target population of 147,343 (+/-7% with 95% confidence) lakes and reservoirs met the NLFTS definition of a lake. Of the estimated 147,343 target lakes, 47% were estimated not to be sampleable either due to landowner access denial (35%) or due to physical barriers (12%). It was estimated that a sampled population of 78,664 (+/-12% with 95% confidence) lakes met the NLFTS lake definition, had either predator or bottom-dwelling fish present, and could be sampled.

  4. Characteristics of petroleum contaminants and their distribution in Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jixiang; Fang, Jia; Cao, Jingjing

    2012-08-31

    Taihu Lake is a typical plain eutrophic shallow lake. With rapidly economic development of the lake area, the petroleum products and oil wastewater produced in various processes have been inevitably discharged into Taihu Lake. As the major fresh water resource in the economically developed region of Yangtze River Delta, the water quality and environmental condition of Taihu Lake have the direct bearing on the natural environment and sustainable development of economy in this region. For this reason we carried out the study to explore the composition, distribution characteristics and sources of petroleum contaminants in Taihu Lake. The aim of this study was to provide the basis for standard management and pollution control of the Taihu Lake environment. The result showed that water samples from near industrial locations were of relatively higher petroleum contaminants concentrations. The oil pollutants concentrations in different areas of Lake Taihu ranged from 0.106 mg/L to 1.168 mg/L, and the sequence of total contents distribution characteristics of petroleum pollutants from high to low in different regions of Taihu Lake was: "Dapu", "Xiaomeikou", "Zhushan Bay", "Lake center", "Qidu". The results showed that total concentrations of n-alkanes and PAHs ranged from 0.045 to 0.281 mg/L and from 0.011 to 0.034 mg/L respectively. In the same region, the concentrations of hydrocarbon pollutants in the surface and bottom of the lake were higher than that in the middle. This paper reached a conclusion that the petroleum contaminants in Taihu Lake mainly derived from petroleum pollution caused by human activities as indicated by OEP, bimodal distribution, CPI, Pr/Ph ratio, the LMW/HMW ratio and other evaluation indices for sources of n-alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

  5. Simulation of the interaction of karstic lakes Magnolia and Brooklyn with the upper Floridan Aquifer, southwestern Clay County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    The stage of Lake Brooklyn, in southwestern Clay County, Florida, has varied over a range of 27 feet since measurements by the U.S. Geological Survey began in July 1957. The large stage changes have been attributed to the relation between highly transient surface-water inflow to the lake and subsurface conduits of karstic origin that permit a high rate of leakage from the lake to the Upper Floridan aquifer. After the most recent and severe stage decline (1990-1994), the U.S. Geological Survey began a study that entailed the use of numerical ground-water flow models to simulate the interaction of the lake with the Upper Floridan aquifer and the large fluctuations of stage that were a part of that process. A package (set of computer programs) designed to represent lake/aquifer interaction in the U.S. Geological Survey Modular Finite-Difference Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-96) and the Three-Dimensional Method-of-Characteristics Solute-Transport Model (MOC3D) simulators was prepared as part of this study, and a demonstration of its capability was a primary objective of the study. (Although the official names are Brooklyn Lake and Magnolia Lake (Florida Geographic Names), in this report the local names, Lake Brooklyn and Lake Magnolia, are used.) In the simulator of lake/aquifer interaction used in this investigation, the stage of each lake in a simulation is updated in successive time steps by a budget process that takes into account ground-water seepage, precipitation upon and evaporation from the lake surface, stream inflows and outflows, overland runoff inflows, and augmentation or depletion by artificial means. The simulator was given the capability to simulate both the division of a lake into separate pools as lake stage falls and the coalescence of several pools into a single lake as the stage rises. This representational capability was required to simulate Lake Brooklyn, which can divide into as many as 10 separate pools at sufficiently low stage. In the

  6. Contaminants in fish tissue from US lakes and reservoirs: A ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    An unequal probability design was used to develop national estimates for 268 persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals in fish tissue from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes and Great Salt Lake). Predator (fillet) and bottom-dweller (whole-body) composites were collected from 500 lakes selected randomly from the target population of 147,343 lakes in the lower 48 states. Each of these composite types comprised nationally representative samples whose results were extrapolated to the sampled population of an estimated 76,559 lakes for predators and 46,190 lakes for bottom dwellers. Mercury and PCBs were detected in all fish samples. Dioxins and furans were detected in 81% and 99% of predator and bottom-dweller samples, respectively. Cumulative frequency distributions showed that mercury concentrations exceeded the EPA 300 ppb mercury fish tissue criterion at nearly half of the lakes in the sampled population. Total PCB concentrations exceeded a 12 ppb human health risk-based consumption limit at nearly 17% of lakes, and dioxins and furans exceeded a 0.15 ppt (toxic equivalent or TEQ) risk-based threshold at nearly 8% of lakes in the sampled population. In contrast, 43 target chemicals were not detected in any samples. No detections were reported for nine organophosphate pesticides, one PCB congener, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or 17 other semivolatile organic chemicals. An unequal prob

  7. Assessment of ground-water contamination near Lantana landfill, Southeast Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, G.M.; Higer, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Lantana landfill located in Palm Beach County rises 40 to 50 feet above normal ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash, some below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate a contaminant plume along the eastern perimeter of the landfill that has migrated about 300 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride, ammonia, and nitrate were elevated within the plume. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of sand from 0 to about 68 feet, and sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone from 68 to 220 feet. A slight hydraulic gradient exists, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Analyses of geoelectric, lithologic, and water-quality data indicate that surface geophysical techniques were successful in determining the areal and vertical extent of leachate migration at this location.The Lantana landfill located in Palm Beach County rises 40 to 50 feet above normal ground level and consists of about 250 acres of compacted garbage and trash, some below the water table. Surface-resistivity measurements and water-quality analyses indicate a contaminant plume along the eastern perimeter of the landfill that has migrated about 300 feet eastward toward an adjacent lake. Concentrations of chloride, ammonia, and nitrate were elevated within the plume. The surficial aquifer consists primarily of sand from 0 to about 68 feet, and sand interbedded with sandstone and limestone from 68 to 220 feet. A slight hydraulic gradient exists, indicating ground-water movement from the landfill toward a lake to the east. Analyses of geoelectric, lithologic, and water-quality data indicate that surface geophysical techniques were successful in determining the areal and vertical extent of leachate migration at this location.

  8. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  9. Comparison of evaporation at two central Florida lakes, April 2005–November 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swancar, Amy

    2015-09-25

    Both lakes are seepage lakes (no surface-water inflow or outflows) that are dependent on groundwater inflow from their basins to offset an atmospheric deficit, because long-term rainfall in this area is less than evaporation. The Lake Starr basin, where sandy, well-drained ridges surround the lake, has a greater capacity to store infiltrating rain than the Lake Calm basin, which is flat and has poorly drained soils. The storage capacities of the basins affect groundwater exchange with the lakes. Rainfall and net groundwater exchange, which is related to basin characteristics, varied more between these two lakes than did evaporation during this study.

  10. Hydrogeologic setting, water budget, and preliminary analysis of ground-water exchange at Lake Starr, a seepage lake in Polk County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swancar, Amy; Lee, T.M.; O'Hare, T. M.

    2000-01-01

    Lake Starr, a 134-acre seepage lake of multiple-sinkhole origin on the Lake Wales Ridge of central Florida, was the subject of a detailed water-budget study from August 1996 through July 1998. The study monitored the effects of hydrogeologic setting, climate, and ground-water pumping on the water budget and lake stage. The hydrogeologic setting of the Lake Starr basin differs markedly on the two sides of the lake. Ground water from the surficial aquifer system flows into the lake from the northwest side of the basin, and lake water leaks out to the surficial aquifer system on the southeast side of the basin. Lake Starr and the surrounding surficial aquifer system recharge the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer. The rate of recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer is determined by the integrity of the intermediate confining unit and by the downward head gradient between the two aquifers. On the inflow side of the lake, the intermediate confining unit is more continuous, allowing ground water from the surficial aquifer system to flow laterally into the lake. Beneath the lake and on the southeast side of the basin, breaches in the intermediate confining unit enhance downward flow to the Upper Floridan aquifer, so that water flows both downward and laterally away from the lake through the ground-water flow system in these areas. An accurate water budget, including evaporation measured by the energy-budget method, was used to calculate net ground-water flow to the lake, and to do a preliminary analysis of the relation of net ground-water fluxes to other variables. Water budgets constructed over different timeframes provided insight on processes that affect ground-water interactions with Lake Starr. Weekly estimates of net ground-water flow provided evidence for the occurrence of transient inflows from the nearshore basin, as well as the short-term effects of head in the Upper Floridan aquifer on ground-water exchange with the lake. Monthly water budgets showed the effects

  11. High contaminant loads in Lake Apopka's riparian wetland disrupt gene networks involved in reproduction and immune function in largemouth bass.

    PubMed

    Martyniuk, Christopher J; Doperalski, Nicholas J; Prucha, Melinda S; Zhang, Ji-Liang; Kroll, Kevin J; Conrow, Roxanne; Barber, David S; Denslow, Nancy D

    2016-09-01

    Lake Apopka (FL, USA) has elevated levels of some organochlorine pesticides in its sediments and a portion of its watershed has been designated a US Environmental Protection Agency Superfund site. This study assessed reproductive endpoints in Florida largemouth bass (LMB) (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) after placement into experimental ponds adjacent to Lake Apopka. LMB collected from a clean reference site (DeLeon Springs) were stocked at two periods of time into ponds constructed in former farm fields on the north shore of the lake. LMB were stocked during early and late oogenesis to determine if there were different effects of contamination on LMB that may be attributed to their reproductive stage. LMB inhabiting the ponds for ~4months had anywhere from 2 to 800 times higher contaminant load for a number of organochlorine pesticides (e.g. p, p'-DDE, methoxychlor) compared to control animals. Gonadosomatic index and plasma vitellogenin were not different between reproductively-stage matched LMB collected at reference sites compared to those inhabiting the ponds. However, plasma 17β-estradiol was lower in LMB inhabiting the Apopka ponds compared to ovary stage-matched LMB from the St. Johns River, a site used as a reference site. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that genes related to reproduction (granulosa function, oocyte development), endocrine function (steroid metabolism, hormone biosynthesis), and immune function (T cell suppression, leukocyte accumulation) were differentially expressed in the ovaries of LMB placed into the ponds. These data suggest that (1) LMB inhabiting the Apopka ponds showed disrupted reproduction and immune responses and that (2) gene expression profiles provided site-specific information by discriminating LMB from different macro-habitats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of groundwater pathways and contaminant transport in Florida and Georgia using multiple chemical and microbiological indicators

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahon, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrogeology of Florida, especially in the northern part of the state, and southwestern Georgia is characterized by a predominance of limestone aquifers overlain by varying amounts of sands, silts, and clays. This karstic system of aquifers and their associated springs is particularly vulnerable to contamination from various anthropogenic activities at the land surface. Numerous sinkholes, disappearing streams, and conduit systems or dissolution pathways, often associated with large spring systems, allow rapid movement of contaminants from the land surface to the groundwater system with little or no attenuation or degradation. The fate of contaminants in the groundwater system is not fully understood, but traveltimes from sources are greatly reduced when conduits are intercepted by pumping wells and springs. Contaminant introduction to groundwater systems in Florida and Georgia is not limited to seepage from land surface, but can be associated with passive (drainage wells) and forced subsurface injection (aquifer storage and recovery, waste-water disposal).

  13. Assessing contamination in Great Lakes sediments using benthic invertebrate communities and the sediment quality triad approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Canfield, Timothy J.; Dwyer, F. James; Fairchild, James F.; Haverland, Pamela S.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Mount, David R.; La Point, Thomas W.; Burton, G. Allen; Swift, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    Sediments in many Great Lakes harbors and tributary rivers are contaminated. As part of the USEPA's Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediment (ARCS) program, a number of studies were conducted to determine the nature and extent of sediment contamination in Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOC). This paper describes the composition of benthic invertebrate communities in contaminated sediments and is one in a series of papers describing studies conducted to evaluate sediment toxicity from three AOC's (Buffalo River, NY; Indiana Harbor, IN; Saginaw River, MI), as part of the ARCS Program. Oligochaeta (worms) and Chironomidae (midge) comprised over 90% of the benthic invertebrate numbers in samples collected from depositional areas. Worms and midge consisted of taxa identified as primarily contaminant tolerant organisms. Structural deformities of mouthparts in midge larvae were pronounced in many of the samples. Good concurrence was evident between measures of laboratory toxicity, sediment contaminant concentration, and benthic invertebrate community composition in extremely contaminated samples. However, in moderately contaminated samples, less concordance was observed between the benthos community composition and either laboratory toxicity test results or sediment contaminant concentration. Laboratory sediment toxicity tests may better identify chemical contamination in sediments than many commonly used measures of benthic invertebrate community composition. Benthic measures may also reflect other factors such as habitat alteration. Evaluation of non-contaminant factors are needed to better interpret the response of benthic invertebrates to sediment contamination.

  14. High-resolution single-channel seismic reflection surveys of Orange Lake and other selected sites of north central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kindinger, Jack G.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Flocks, James G.

    1994-01-01

    The potential fluid exchange between lakes of north central Florida and the Floridan aquifer and the process by which exchange occurs is of critical concern to the St. Johns Water Management District. High-resolution seismic tools with relatively new digital technology were utilized in collecting geophysical data from Orange, Kingsley, Lowry and Magnolia Lakes, and the Drayton Island area of St. Johns River. The data collected shows the application of these techniques in understanding the formation of individual lakes, thus aiding in the management of these natural resources by identifying breaches or areas where the confining units are thin or absent between the water bodies and the Floridan aquifer. Orange Lake, the primary focus of the study, is a shallow flooded plain that was formed essentially as an erosional depression in the clayey Hawthorn formation. The primary karstic features identified in the lake were cover subsidence, cover collapse and buried sinkholes structures in various sizes and stages of development. Orange Lake was divided into three areas southeast, southwest, and north-central. Karst features within the southeast area of Orange Lake are mostly cover subsidence sinkholes and associated features. Many of the subsidence features found are grouped together to form larger composite sinkholes, some greater than 400 m in diameter. The size of these composite sinkholes and the number of buried subsidence sinkholes distinguish the southeast area from the others. The potential of lake waters leaking to the aquifer in the southeast area is probably controlled by the permeability of the cover sediments or by fractures that penetrate the lake floor. The lake bottom and subsurface of the north-central areas are relatively subsidence sinkholes that have no cover sediments overlying them, implying that the sinks have been actively subsiding with some seepage into the aquifer from the lake in this area due to the possible presence of the active subsidence

  15. SURVEY OF OYSTERS CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA FROM TAMPA BAY, FLORIDA: ASSOCIATIONS OF INTERNAL DEFENSE MEASUREMENTS WITH CONTAMINANT BURDENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oysters from 16 sites in Tampa Bay, Florida, were collected during a 6-week period in winter 1993 and analyzed for both biological characteristics and tissue chemical concentrations. Using previous sediment contamination and toxicity data, oyster tissues from the selected sites w...

  16. MODELING WAVE-INDUCED ENTRAINMENT OF MUD IN NEWNANS LAKE, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many shallow lakes in the southeastern US are eutrophic, and as such, the water quality in these lakes is of concern to state and federal environmental regulatory agencies. Some of these lakes have been classified as impaired with one or more nutrients being the stressor. For the...

  17. Ecological responses of a large shallow lake (Okeechobee, Florida) to climate change and potential future hydrologic regimes.

    PubMed

    Havens, Karl E; Steinman, Alan D

    2015-04-01

    We considered how Lake Okeechobee, a large shallow lake in Florida, USA, might respond to altered hydrology associated with climate change scenarios in 2060. Water budgets and stage hydrographs were provided from the South Florida Water Management Model, a regional hydrologic model used to develop plans for Everglades restoration. Future scenarios include a 10% increase or decrease in rainfall (RF) and a calculated increase in evapotranspiration (ET), which is based on a 1.5 °C rise in temperature. Increasing RF and ET had counter-balancing effects on the water budget and when changing concurrently did not affect hydrology. In contrast, when RF decreased while ET increased, this resulted in a large change in hydrology. The surface elevation of the lake dropped by more than 2 m under this scenario compared to a future base condition, and extreme low elevation persisted for multiple years. In this declining RF/increasing ET scenario, the littoral and near-shore zones, areas that support emergent and submerged plants, were dry 55% of the time compared to less than 4% of the time in the future base run. There also were times when elevation increased as much as 3 m after intense RF events. Overall, these changes in hydrologic conditions would dramatically alter ecosystem services. Uncertainty about responses is highest at the pelagic-littoral interface, in regard to whether an extremely shallow lake could support submerged vascular plants, which are critical to the recreational fishery and for migratory birds. Along with improved regional climate modeling, research in that interface zone is needed to guide the adaptive process of Everglades restoration.

  18. Ecological Responses of a Large Shallow Lake (Okeechobee, Florida) to Climate Change and Potential Future Hydrologic Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havens, Karl E.; Steinman, Alan D.

    2015-04-01

    We considered how Lake Okeechobee, a large shallow lake in Florida, USA, might respond to altered hydrology associated with climate change scenarios in 2060. Water budgets and stage hydrographs were provided from the South Florida Water Management Model, a regional hydrologic model used to develop plans for Everglades restoration. Future scenarios include a 10 % increase or decrease in rainfall (RF) and a calculated increase in evapotranspiration (ET), which is based on a 1.5 °C rise in temperature. Increasing RF and ET had counter-balancing effects on the water budget and when changing concurrently did not affect hydrology. In contrast, when RF decreased while ET increased, this resulted in a large change in hydrology. The surface elevation of the lake dropped by more than 2 m under this scenario compared to a future base condition, and extreme low elevation persisted for multiple years. In this declining RF/increasing ET scenario, the littoral and near-shore zones, areas that support emergent and submerged plants, were dry 55 % of the time compared to less than 4 % of the time in the future base run. There also were times when elevation increased as much as 3 m after intense RF events. Overall, these changes in hydrologic conditions would dramatically alter ecosystem services. Uncertainty about responses is highest at the pelagic-littoral interface, in regard to whether an extremely shallow lake could support submerged vascular plants, which are critical to the recreational fishery and for migratory birds. Along with improved regional climate modeling, research in that interface zone is needed to guide the adaptive process of Everglades restoration.

  19. Biochemistry and metabolism of lake trout: laboratory and field studies on the effects of contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino, Dora R. May

    1981-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of ambient and higher concentrations of PCB's (Aroclor 1254) and DDE in food and water on fry of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Michigan, I measured several biochemical indicators of stress in exposed and unexposed (control) fry. No differences between treatments were observed in oxygen consumption rates or lactate concentrations of unexercised fry, but apparent differences in specific swimming speed and lactate response in fry that swam to exhaustion suggested that exposed fry had lower stamina. Observed differences between biochemical profiles of 1-day-old sac fry reared from eggs originating from lake trout collected off Saugatuck and those originating from eggs of brood stock at the Marquette (Michigan) hatchery may have been caused by organochlorine contamination or by genetic and dietary differences between the parental stocks. Activity of the enzyme allantoinase was measured in juvenile and adult lake trout as an indicator of sublethal effects of Great Lakes contaminants. The 50% inhibition of allantoinase in vitro occurred at 6.0 mg/L Cu++, 6.7 mg/L Cd++, 34 mg/L Hg++, and 52 mg/L Pb++. Allantoinase was not affected by in vitro exposure to PCB's up to 7 μg/g, or DDE or DDT up to 10 μg/g; however, in vivo exposure resulting in 2.6 μg/g PCB's in the whole fish activated allantoinase slightly (10% significance level). Allantoinase activity was negatively correlated with total length for fish from Lake Michigan but not for fish from Lake Superior or from laboratory stocks. Mercury, PCB's, and DDT, possibly acting in combination with each other and with additional contaminants, may be the cause of the negative correlation of allantoinase activity with size in Lake Michigan lake trout.

  20. Bacteria and emerging chemical contaminants in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Since the enactment of the Clean Water Act in 1972, awareness of the quality of the Nation's water has continued to improve. Despite improvements to wastewater-treatment systems and increased regulation on waste discharge, bacterial and chemical contamination is still a problem for many rivers and lakes throughout the United States. Pathogenic microorganism and newly recognized chemical contaminants have been found in waters that are used for drinking water and recreation (Rose and Grimes, 2001; Kolpin and others, 2002). This summary of bacteria and emerging-chemical-contaminant monitoring in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin (fig. 1) was initiated by the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project (LSCRMP) in 2003, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), the Counties of Macomb, Oakland, St. Clair, and Wayne, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  1. Heavy metal contamination of sediments in the upper connecting channels of the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, S. Jerrine; Manny, Bruce A.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Edsall, Thomas A.

    1991-01-01

    In 1985, sampling at 250 stations throughout the St. Marys, St. Clair, and Detroit rivers and Lake St. Clair — the connecting channels of the upper Great Lakes — revealed widespread metal contamination of the sediments. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc each exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sediment pollution guidelines at one or more stations throughout the study area. Sediments were polluted more frequently by copper, nickel, zinc, and lead than by cadmium, chromium, or mercury. Sediments with the highest concentrations of metals were found (in descending order) in the Detroit River, the St. Marys River, the St. Clair River, and Lake St. Clair. Although metal contamination of sediments was most common and sediment concentrations of metals were generally highest near industrial areas, substantial contamination of sediments by metals was present in sediment deposition areas up to 60 km from any known source of pollution.

  2. Ground-water and surface-water flow and estimated water budget for Lake Seminole, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalton, Melinda S.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Torak, Lynn J.

    2004-01-01

    Lake Seminole is a 37,600-acre impoundment formed at the confluence of the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers along the Georgia?Florida State line. Outflow from Lake Seminole through Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam provides headwater to the Apalachicola River, which is a major supply of freshwater, nutrients, and detritus to ecosystems downstream. These rivers,together with their tributaries, are hydraulically connected to karst limestone units that constitute most of the Upper Floridan aquifer and to a chemically weathered residuum of undifferentiated overburden. The ground-water flow system near Lake Seminole consists of the Upper Floridan aquifer and undifferentiated overburden. The aquifer is confined below by low-permeability sediments of the Lisbon Formation and, generally, is semiconfined above by undifferentiated overburden. Ground-water flow within the Upper Floridan aquifer is unconfined or semiconfined and discharges at discrete points by springflow or diffuse leakage into streams and other surface-water bodies. The high degree of connectivity between the Upper Floridan aquifer and surface-water bodies is limited to the upper Eocene Ocala Limestone and younger units that are in contact with streams in the Lake Seminole area. The impoundment of Lake Seminole inundated natural stream channels and other low-lying areas near streams and raised the water-level altitude of the Upper Floridan aquifer near the lake to nearly that of the lake, about 77 feet. Surface-water inflow from the Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers and Spring Creek and outflow to the Apalachicola River through Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam dominate the water budget for Lake Seminole. About 81 percent of the total water-budget inflow consists of surface water; about 18 percent is ground water, and the remaining 1 percent is lake precipitation. Similarly, lake outflow consists of about 89 percent surface water, as flow to the Apalachicola River through Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam, about 4 percent ground water

  3. Sulfur Contamination in the Florida Everglades: Initial Examination of Mitigation Strategies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orem, William H.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Sulfate contamination of the Everglades is a serious water quality issue facing restoration of this ecosystem. Sulfate concentrations in some marsh areas are more than 60 times background concentrations, and sulfate in excess of background levels covers an estimated 60% of the freshwater Everglades (Orem et al., 1997; Stober et al., 1996 and 2001; Orem et al., 2004). The excess sulfate enters the Everglades in the discharge of canal water from the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). Excess phosphorus also enters the ecosystem in EAA canal water discharge (Koch and Reddy, 1992; Craft and Richardson, 1993; DeBusk et al. 1994; Zielinski et al., 1999). Existing data suggest that sulfur in fertilizer and soil amendments used in the EAA (both new additions and legacy sulfur in the soil) is a major source of excess sulfate entering the ecosystem (Bates et al., 2001 and 2002). Other potential sources of sulfate (including groundwater), however, need further investigation. The report by Gilmour et al. (2007b) in the 2007 South Florida Environmental Report provides a complete examination of the current state of knowledge of the sulfur contamination issue in the Everglades. Sulfate discharged from canals or leaking through levees into the ecosystem spreads out over a large area since, unlike phosphorus, it is not removed to any great extent by plant uptake. Sulfate slowly diffuses into the anoxic soils (peats) underlying the Everglades and stimulates microbial sulfate reduction (MSR), producing toxic hydrogen sulfide as a byproduct (Goldhaber and Kaplan, 1974; Berner, 1980; Rheinheimer, 1994). Hydrogen sulfide at contaminated sites may build up in sediments to concentrations thousands of times background levels (Gilmour et al., 2007b). The excess sulfate and sulfide has numerous deleterious impacts on the Everglades. One of the more environmentally important impacts is the link between sulfate contamination and methylmercury (MeHg) production in the ecosystem

  4. Contaminant effects on Great Lakes' fish-eating birds: a population perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Kendall, Ronald J.; Dickerson, Richard L.; Giesy, John P.; Suk, William P.

    1998-01-01

    Preventing environmental contaminants from reducing wildlife populations is the greatest concern in wildlife toxicology. In the Great Lakes, environmental contaminants have a history of reducing populations of many species of fish-eating birds. Endocrine effects may have contributed to declines in fish-eating bird populations, but the overriding harm was caused by DDE-induced eggshell thinning. Toxic effects may still be occurring today, but apparently they are not of a sufficient magnitude to depress populations of most fish-eating birds. Once DDE levels in the Great Lakes declined, eggshells of birds began to get thicker and reproductive success improved. Populations of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) and ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) have increased dramatically since the bans on DDT and other organochlorine pesticides. Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) are still not reproducing at a normal rate along the shores of the Great Lakes, but success is much improved compared to earlier records when eggshell thinning was worse. Other species, such as herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and black-crowned night-herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), seem to be having improved reproductive success, but data on Great Lakes'-wide population changes are incomplete. Reproductive success of common terns (Sterna hirundo), Caspian terns (Sterna caspia), and Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) seems to have improved in recent years, but, again, data on population changes are not very complete, and these birds face many habitat related problems as well as contaminant problems. Although contaminants are still producing toxic effects, and these effects may include endocrine disfunction, fish-eating birds in the Great Lakes seem to be largely weathering these effects, at least as far as populations are concerned. A lack of obvious contaminant effects on populations of fish-eating birds in the Great Lakes, however, should not be equated with a lack of any harm to

  5. Protocol to Reconstruct Historical Contaminant Loading to Large Lakes: The Lake Michigan Sediment Record of Mercury

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of opportunity from Pb-210 dated sediment cores collected from Lake Michigan between 1994 and 1996 were analyzed for mercury. The storage of both anthropogenic and total (post-1850) mercury in the lake was calculated to be 186 and 228 metric tons, respectively. By setti...

  6. Use of thermal inertia determined by HCMM to predict nocturnal cold prone areas in Florida. [The Everglades agricultural area, Lake Okeechobee, and the Suwanee River basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, L. H., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Chen, E.; Martsolf, J. D.; Jones, P. H.

    1981-01-01

    Transparencies, prints, and computer compatible tapes of temperature differential and thermal inertia for the winter of 1978 to 1979 were obtained. Thermal inertial differences in the South Florida depicted include: drained organic soils of the Everglades agricultural area, undrained organic soils of the managed water conservation areas of the South Florida water management district, the urbanized area around Miami, Lake Okeechobee, and the mineral soil west of the Everglades agricultural area. The range of wetlands and uplands conditions within the Suwanee River basin was also identified. It is shown that the combination of wetlands uplands surface features of Florida yield a wide range of surface temperatures related to wetness of the surface features.

  7. Are walleye from Lake Roosevelt contaminated with mercury?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, Martha L.; Munn, Mark D.

    1997-01-01

    To find out, scientists from the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) tested walleye and other sport fish from the upper Columbia River and Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (Lake Roosevelt), the largest reservoir in Washington and a popular fishing spot.Findings:Walleye had higher concentrations of mercury than other sport fish.Larger walleye had higher mercury concentrations than smaller walleye.Mercury concentrations in walleye fillets ranged from 0.11 to 0.44 parts per million (ppm). These concentrations do not exceed the current Federal standard (1.0 ppm of mercury) designed to protect the health of people who eat small amounts of fish.After reviewing these findings, the Washington State Department of Health concluded that people who regularly consume large amounts of Lake Roosevelt walleye may be at risk of adverse health effects from mercury and should limit their consumption of these fish.

  8. Organochlorine contaminants in eggs of common terns from the Canadian Great Lakes 1981

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weseloh, D.V.; Custer, T.W.; Braune, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    To determine if contaminant levels in common terns had changed over the last decade, we collected and analyzed eggs from four nesting colonies on the three lower Great lakes during 1981. DDE and PCBs were detected in every egg from the four colonies. Dieldrin, mirex and trans-nonachlor were detected in more than 45% of the eggs. Seven other organochlorine contaminants (DDD, DDT, hexachlorobenzene, oxychlordane, cis-chlordane, cis-nonachlor and toxaphene) were detected in less than 25% of the eggs. Eggs from the Lake Ontario colony were generally the most heavily contaminated. Comparisons of DDE and PCB data with earlier studies of common terns indicated that contaminant levels in eggs from the four sampled colonies, or nearby sites, have decreased by up to 80-90% from 1969-73 to 1981. Interspecies comparisons showed that common tern eggs have lower organochlorine residue levels than eggs of caspian terns or herring gulls. Dietary variation and migratory status are possible explanations for the differences in residue levels among species. Eggshell thickness, log-PCBs, and log-DDE were not significantly intercorrelated. Elevated contaminant levels in the early 1970s might be at least partly responsible for the decline of the Great Lakes Common Tern population over the past decade. Stabilization of population numbers during the early 1980s suggests that organochlorine pollution levels have been reduced to a point where they are no longer an important factor in the population dynamics of this species on the Great Lakes.

  9. Environmental magnetic methods for detecting and mapping contaminated sediments in lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, J. I.

    2009-05-01

    The remediation of contaminated sediments is an urgent environmental priority in the Great Lakes and requires detailed mapping of impacted sediment layer thickness, areal distribution and pollutant levels. Magnetic property measurements of sediment cores from two heavily polluted basins in Lake Ontario (Hamilton Harbour, Frenchman's Bay) show that concentrations of hydrocarbons (PAH) and a number of heavy metals (Pb, As, Ni, Cu, Cr, Zn, Cd, Fe) are strongly correlated with magnetic susceptibility. The magnetic susceptibility contrast between the contaminated sediment and underlying 'pre-colonial' sediments is sufficient to generate a total field anomaly (ca. 2-20 nT) that can be measured with a magnetometer towed above the lake bed. Systematic magnetic surveying (550 line km) of Hamilton Harbour using a towed marine magnetometer clearly identifies a number of well-defined magnetic anomalies that coincide with known accumulations of contaminated lake sediment. When calibrated against in-situ magnetic property measurements, the modeled apparent susceptibility from magnetic survey results can be used to classify the relative contaminant impact levels. The results demonstrate the potential of magnetic property measurements for rapid reconnaissance mapping of large areas of bottom contamination prior to detailed coring and sediment remediation.

  10. 76 FR 72444 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Resolving Claims for Contamination of Mountain Lake in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Resolving Claims for Contamination of Mountain Lake in the Presidio of San Francisco Notice is hereby given that on November 10, 2011, a proposed... of Mountain Lake sediment contamination, to pay $4 million for repair or replacement of the overflow...

  11. Methane Bubbles Transport Particles From Contaminated Sediment to a Lake Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delwiche, K.; Hemond, H.

    2017-12-01

    Methane bubbling from aquatic sediments has long been known to transport carbon to the atmosphere, but new evidence presented here suggests that methane bubbles also transport particulate matter to a lake surface. This transport pathway is of particular importance in lakes with contaminated sediments, as bubble transport could increase human exposure to toxic metals. The Upper Mystic Lake in Arlington, MA has a documented history of methane bubbling and sediment contamination by arsenic and other heavy metals, and we have conducted laboratory and field studies demonstrating that methane bubbles are capable of transporting sediment particles over depths as great as 15 m in Upper Mystic Lake. Methane bubble traps were used in-situ to capture particles adhered to bubble interfaces, and to relate particle mass transport to bubble flux. Laboratory studies were conducted in a custom-made 15 m tall water column to quantify the relationship between water column height and the mass of particulate transport. We then couple this particle transport data with historical estimates of ebullition from Upper Mystic Lake to quantify the significance of bubble-mediated particle transport to heavy metal cycling within the lake. Results suggest that methane bubbles can represent a significant pathway for contaminated sediment to reach surface waters even in relatively deep water bodies. Given the frequent co-occurrence of contaminated sediments and high bubble flux rates, and the potential for human exposure to heavy metals, it will be critical to study the significance of this transport pathway for a range of sediment and contaminant types.

  12. Trends of chlorinated organic contaminants in Great Lakes trout and walleye from 1970-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.P.; Batterman, S.A.; Chernyak, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Levels of chlorinated organic contaminants in predator fish have been monitored annually in each of the Great Lakes since the 1970s. This article updates earlier reports with data from 1991 to 1998 for lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and (Lake Erie only) walleye (Sander vitreus) to provide a record that now extends nearly 30 years. Whole fish were analyzed for a number of industrial contaminants and pesticides, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT), dieldrin, toxaphene, and mirex, and contaminant trends were quantified using multicompartment models. As in the past, fish from Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron have the highest levels of PCBs, DDT, and dieldrin; Superior has the highest levels of toxaphene; and Ontario has the highest levels of mirex. In the period after curtailment of chemical use, concentrations rapidly decreased, represented by relatively short half-lives from approximately 1 to 9 years. Although trends depend on both the contaminant and the lake, in many cases the rate of decline has been decreasing, and concentrations are gradually approaching an irreducible concentration. For dioxin-like PCBs, levels have not been decreasing during the most recent 5-year period (1994 to 1998). In some cases, the year-to-year variation in contaminant levels is large, mainly because of food-web dynamics. Although this variation sometimes obscures long-term trends, the general pattern of a rapid decrease followed by slowing or leveling-off of the downward trend seems consistent across the Great Lakes, and future improvements of the magnitude seen in the 1970s and early 1980s likely will take much longer.

  13. Turbidity in extreme western Lake Superior. [contamination of Duluth, Minnesota water intake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sydor, M.

    1975-01-01

    Data were obtained from ERTS images for western Lake Superior for 1972-74. Data examination showed that for easterly winds the turbidity originating along the Wisconsin shore and the resuspension areas are transported northward then out along a N.E. path where it disperses, and often, for large storms, contaminates the Duluth water intake. Contaminants such as dredging fines anywhere along these paths would likewise find their way to the intake areas in concentrations comparable to the relative red clay concentration.

  14. THE CONTAMINANT-ASSOCIATED STRESS RESPONSE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO PLASMA STRESS AND SEX STERIOD CONCENTRATIONS IN THE FLORIDA GAR, LEPISOSTEUS PLATYRHINCUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminants can alter the stress response. This study examined the stress response, defined by plasma cortisol concentration, and its relationship to plasma estradiol-17b and testosterone concentrations in adult gar collected from Lake Apopka, Orange Lake and Lake Woodruff NWR, ...

  15. Contaminant loading in remote Arctic lakes affects cellular stress-related proteins expression in feral charr.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiseman, Steve; Jorgensen, Even H.; Maule, Alec G.; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2011-01-01

    The remote Arctic lakes on Bjornoya Island, Norway, offer a unique opportunity to study possible affect of lifelong contaminant exposure in wild populations of landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). This is because Lake Ellasjoen has persistent organic pollutant (POP) levels that are significantly greater than in the nearby Lake Oyangen. We examined whether this differential contaminant loading was reflected in the expression of protein markers of exposure and effect in the native fish. We assessed the expressions of cellular stress markers, including cytochrome P4501A (Cyp1A), heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in feral charr from the two lakes. The average polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) load in the charr liver from Ellasjoen was approximately 25-fold higher than in individuals from Oyangen. Liver Cyp1A protein expression was significantly higher in individuals from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen, confirming differential PCB exposure. There was no significant difference in hsp70 protein expression in charr liver between the two lakes. However, brain hsp70 protein expression was significantly elevated in charr from Ellasjoen compared with Oyangen. Also, liver GR protein expression was significantly higher in the Ellasjoen charr compared with Oyangen charr. Taken together, our results suggest changes to cellular stress-related protein expression as a possible adaptation to chronic-contaminant exposure in feral charr in the Norwegian high-Arctic.

  16. Arsenic Movement From Sediment to Water: Microbes and Mobilization in a Contaminated Lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keimowitz, A. R.; Mailloux, B. J.; Chillrud, S. N.; Ross, J.; Wovkulich, K.; McNamara, P.; Alexandrova, E.; Thompson, L.

    2008-12-01

    Union Lake (Millville, NJ), a reservoir downstream from the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site, has bottom sediments that are highly contaminated with arsenic (>1 g/kg). Offsite As transport was investigated. Because the lake is a result of damming, it is perched above the water table and therefore As transport may occur via downward movement of porewaters and/or groundwaters. Preliminary evidence for this was found in the form of iron flocculates enriched in As which were found in surface seeps downgradient of the dam. The possibility of As remobilization and/or off-site transport by seasonal anoxia of lake bottom- waters was also explored. Although historically, appreciable As was found in the water column of the lake (up to approximately 200 micrograms/L), As releases over the summers of 2007 and 2008 were negligible to modest with a maximum [As] of 23 micrograms/L. Arsenic mobilization from the contaminated sediments into surface waters of the reservoir are limited in part due to incomplete eutrophication and frequent overturning (approximately 1x/month in summer 2007) of this shallow lake, therefore conditions which promoted greater As release were explored in the laboratory. Field and laboratory samples were examined for changes in the microbial community using a variety of genetic techniques; these changes in microbial community were both a result of, and influenced, seasonal lake cycles.

  17. PREDICTION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN THE MAURICE RIVER-UNION LAKE, NEW JERSEY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a sediment and contaminant transport model and its application to the Maurice River-Union Lake system in southern New Jersey, USA for the purpose of characterizing and forecasting sediment and arsenic distributions before and after proposed dredging activitie...

  18. PREDICTION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN THE MAURICE RIVER-UNION LAKE, NEW JERSEY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sediment and contaminant transport model and its application to the Maurice River-Union Lake system in southern New Jersey, USA is described. The application is meant to characterize and forecast sediment and arsenic (As) distributions before and after proposed dredging activit...

  19. Groundwater levels, geochemistry, and water budget of the Tsala Apopka Lake system, west-central Florida, 2004–12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, W. Scott; Metz, Patricia A.; Ryan, Patrick J.; Fulkerson, Mark; Downing, Harry C.

    2017-12-18

    Tsala Apopka Lake is a complex system of lakes and wetlands, with intervening uplands, located in Citrus County in west-central Florida. It is located within the 2,100 square mile watershed of the Withlacoochee River, which drains north and northwest towards the Gulf of Mexico. The lake system is managed by the Southwest Florida Water Management District as three distinct “pools,” which from upstream to downstream are referred to as the Floral City Pool, Inverness Pool, and Hernando Pool. Each pool contains a mixture of deep-water lakes that remain wet year round, ephemeral (seasonal) ponds and wetlands, and dry uplands. Many of the major deep-water lakes are interconnected by canals. Flow from the Withlacoochee River, when conditions allow, can be diverted into the lake system. Flow thorough the canals can be used to control the distribution of water between the three pools. Flow in the canals is controlled using structures, such as gates and weirs.Hydrogeologic units in the study area include a surficial aquifer consisting of Quaternary-age sediments, a discontinuous intermediate confining unit consisting of Miocene- and Pliocene-age sediments, and the underlying Upper Floridan aquifer, which consists of Eocene- and Oligocene-age carbonates. The fine-grained quartz sands that constitute the surficial aquifer are generally thin, typically less than 25 feet thick, within the vicinity of Tsala Apopka Lake. A thin, discontinuous, sandy clay layer forms the intermediate confining unit. The Upper Floridan aquifer is generally unconfined in the vicinity of Tsala Apopka Lake because the intermediate confining unit is discontinuous and breached by numerous karst features. In the study area, the Upper Floridan aquifer includes the upper Avon Park Formation and Ocala Limestone. The Ocala Limestone is the primary source of drinking water and spring flow in the area.The objectives of this study are to document the interaction of Tsala Apopka Lake, the surficial aquifer

  20. Chemical evolution of groundwater near a sinkhole lake, northern Florida: 1. Flow patterns, age of groundwater, and influence of lakewater leakage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Brian G.; Lee, Terrie M.; Plummer, Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    1995-01-01

    Leakage from sinkhole lakes significantly influences recharge to the Upper Floridan aquifer in poorly confined sediments in northern Florida. Environmental isotopes (oxygen 18, deuterium, and tritium), chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs: CFC-11, CCl3F; CFC-12, CCl2F2; and CFC-113, C2Cl3F3), and solute tracers were used to investigate groundwater flow patterns near Lake Barco, a seepage lake in a mantled karst setting in northern Florida. Stable isotope data indicated that the groundwater downgradient from the lake contained 11–67% lake water leakage, with a limit of detection of lake water in groundwater of 4.3%. The mixing fractions of lake water leakage, which passed through organic-rich sediments in the lake bottom, were directly proportional to the observed methane concentrations and increased with depth in the groundwater flow system. In aerobic groundwater upgradient from Lake Barco, CFC-modeled recharge dates ranged from 1987 near the water table to the mid 1970s for water collected at a depth of 30 m below the water table. CFC-modeled recharge dates (based on CFC-12) for anaerobic groundwater downgradient from the lake ranged from the late 1950s to the mid 1970s and were consistent with tritium data. CFC-modeled recharge dates based on CFC-11 indicated preferential microbial degradation in anoxic waters. Vertical hydraulic conductivities, calculated using CFC-12 modeled recharge dates and Darcy's law, were 0.17, 0.033, and 0.019 m/d for the surficial aquifer, intermediate confining unit, and lake sediments, respectively. These conductivities agreed closely with those used in the calibration of a three-dimensional groundwater flow model for transient and steady state flow conditions.

  1. Rodent neurotoxicity bioassays for screening contaminated Great Lakes fish

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, M.K.; Hoffman, R.; Gerstenberger, S.

    1996-03-01

    Standard laboratory rat neurotoxicity protocols were used to study the consequences resulting from the consumption of walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), and lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Superior (LS) and the consumption of carp (Cyprinus carpio) from Little Lake Butte des Morte (LLBM) near Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. Two 90-d subchronic studies are described, including a 45-d exposure to fish diets using male Sprague-Dawley hooded rats, and a 90-d exposure to fish diets using female rats of the same species. Behavioral alterations were tested using a battery of behavioral tests. In addition, pharmacologic challenges using apomorphine and D-amphetamine weremore » administered to the rats to reveal latent neurotoxic effects. Cumulative fish consumption data were recorded daily, weight gain recorded weekly, and behavior data collected prior to exposure, and on days 7, 14, 55 {+-} 2, 85 {+-} 2. Motor activity data were collected on days 30 {+-} 2, 60 {+-} 2, and 90 {+-} 2 of the feeding protocols. Brain tissue from rodents fed these fish were subsequently analyzed for either mercury (Hg) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). Mercury concentrations were increased in the brains of the walleye-fed rats, and PCB concentrations ranged from 0.5 nl/L to 10 nl/L in the brains of rats fed carp from LLBM, a Lake Michigan tributary. Adult male rats fed LLBM carp for 45 d exhibited the greatest behavior responses to the dopaminergic agonist apomorphine on the accelerating rotarod, although these differences were not significant. The 90-d exposure of LS walleye or Hg-spiked LS walleye resulted in behavior alterations on tactile startle response and second footsplay. D-Amphetamine challenge caused changes in tactile startle response, second footsplay, and accelerating rotarod performance after consuming walleye diets. Rats fed LLBM carp had altered behavioral responses to apomorphine on the accelerating rotarod.« less

  2. PRELIMINARY SURVEY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN WATER, SEDIMENT, AND AQUATIC BIOTA AT SELECTED SITES IN NORTHEASTERN FLORIDA BAY AND CANAL C-111

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several actions are under way to alter water management capabilities and practices in south Florida in order to restore a more natural hydroperiod for the Everglades. Because relatively little research has been conducted on contaminants entering Florida Bay, we undertook a prelim...

  3. Chemical contamination and physical characteristics of sediments in the upper Great Lakes connecting channels 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bertram, Paul E.; Edsall, Thomas A.; Manny, Bruce A.; Nichols, Susan J.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1991-01-01

    Contamination of sediments by toxic organic substances and heavy metals was widespread throughout the connecting channels of the upper Great Lakes in 1985. Sediments at 250 stations in the connecting channels were analyzed for total PCBs, oil and grease, phenols, total cyanide, total volatile solids, mercury, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, and the results were evaluated according to U.S. EPA guidelines for polluted sediments. Sediments were most heavily contaminated near industrialized areas, although some areas more than 40 km downstream from known point sources of pollution were moderately contaminated by oil and metals.

  4. Multi-contamination (heavy metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) of littoral sediments and the associated ecological risk assessment in a large lake in France (Lake Bourget).

    PubMed

    Lécrivain, Nathalie; Aurenche, Vincent; Cottin, Nathalie; Frossard, Victor; Clément, Bernard

    2018-04-01

    The lake littoral sediment is exposed to a large array of contaminants that can exhibit significant spatial variability and challenge our ability to assess contamination at lake scale. In this study, littoral sediment contamination was characterized among ten different sites in a large peri-alpine lake (Lake Bourget) regarding three groups of contaminants: 6 heavy metals, 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and 7 polychlorinated biphenyls. The contamination profiles significantly varied among sites and differed from those previously reported for the deepest zone of the lake. An integrative approach including chemical and biological analyses was conducted to relate site contamination to ecological risk. The chemical approach consisted in mean PEC quotient calculation (average of the ratios of the contaminants concentration to their corresponding Probable Effect Concentration values) and revealed a low and heterogeneous toxicity of the contaminant mixture along the littoral. Biological analysis including both laboratory (microcosm assays) and in situ (Acetylcholine Esterase (AChE) and Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity measurements) experiments highlighted significant differences among sites both in the field and in laboratory assays suggesting a spatial variation of the biota response to contamination. Linear regressions were performed between mean PEC quotients and biological results to assess whether littoral ecological risk was explained by the contamination profiles. The results highly depended on the study benthic or pelagic compartment. Regarding autochthonous Corbicula fluminea, no significant relationship between mean PEC quotients and biomarker activity was found while a significant increase in AChE was observed on autochthonous chironomids, suggesting different stress among benthic organisms. Both AChE and GST in caged pelagic Daphnia magna showed a significant positive relationship with mean PEC quotients. This study underlines the importance of

  5. An energy-circuit population model for great egrets (Ardea alba) at Lake Okeechobee, Florida, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Jeff P.

    1997-01-01

    I simulated the annual population cycles of Great Egrets (Ardea alba) at Lake Okeechobee, Florida, to provide a framework for evaluating the local population dynamics of nesting and foraging wading birds. The external forcing functions were solar energy, minimum air temperature, water depth, surface-water drying rate, and season. Solar input controlled the production of prey at moderate to high lake stages, but water area exerted primary control during a two-year drought. Modeling prey production as a linear function of water area resulted in underestimation of prey density during the drought, suggesting that prey organisms maintained high fecundity while concentrated in submerged vegetation at the lakeward fringe of the littoral zone. Simulation confirmed that large influxes of wading birds during the drought were the combined result of a regional refuge response and the availability of concentrated prey. Modeling immigration and emigration as primarily functions of the surface-water drying rate, rather than lake stage, resulted in a closer match of observed and simulated population trends for foraging birds, suggesting that the pattern of surface-water fluctuations was a more important factor than water depth. Simulation indicated an abrupt-threshold response rather than a linear association between foraging efficiency and low temperatures, which reduce activity levels of forage fishes. Great Egret breeder recruitment is primarily a function of prey availability, climate, and hydrologic trends, but simulation confirmed the concurrent involvement of a seasonal or physiological-readiness factor. An attractor function driven by high winter lake stages was necessary to reproduce observed patterns of breeder recruitment, suggesting that Great Egrets initiate nesting based on environmental cues that lead to peak food availability when nestlings are present. Poor correspondence of reproductive effort and nest productivity suggested that the drought compromised the birds

  6. Pathology, physiologic parameters, tissue contaminants, and tissue thiamine in morbid and healthy central Florida adult American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Honeyfield, D.C.; Ross, J.P.; Carbonneau, D.A.; Terrell, S.P.; Woodward, A.R.; Schoeb, T.R.; Perceval, H.F.; Hinterkopf, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation of adult alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) mortalities in Lake Griffin, central Florida, was conducted from 1998-2004. Alligator mortality was highest in the months of April and May and annual death count peaked in 2000. Bacterial pathogens, heavy metals, and pesticides were not linked with the mortalities. Blood chemistry did not point to any clinical diagnosis, although differences between impaired and normal animals were noted. Captured alligators with signs of neurologic impairment displayed unresponsive and uncoordinated behavior. Three of 21 impaired Lake Griffin alligators were found to have neural lesions characteristic of thiamine deficiency in the telencephalon, particularly the dorsal ventricular ridge. In some cases, lesions were found in the thalamus, and parts of the midbrain. Liver and muscle tissue concentrations of thiamine (vitamin B"1) were lowest in impaired Lake Griffin alligators when compared to unimpaired alligators or to alligators from Lake Woodruff. The consumption of thiaminase-positive gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum) is thought to have been the cause of the low tissue thiamine and resulting mortalities. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  7. Metal contaminations impact archaeal community composition, abundance and function in remote alpine lakes.

    PubMed

    Compte-Port, Sergi; Borrego, Carles M; Moussard, Hélène; Jeanbille, Mathilde; Restrepo-Ortiz, Claudia Ximena; de Diego, Alberto; Rodriguez-Iruretagoiena, Azibar; Gredilla, Ainara; Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Silvia; Galand, Pierre E; Kalenitchenko, Dimitri; Rols, Jean-Luc; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Gonzalez, Aridane G; Camarero, Lluis; Muñiz, Selene; Navarro-Navarro, Enrique; Auguet, Jean-Christophe

    2018-04-24

    Using the 16S rRNA and mcrA genes, we investigated the composition, abundance and activity of sediment archaeal communities within 18 high-mountain lakes under contrasted metal levels from different origins (bedrock erosion, past-mining activities and atmospheric depositions). Bathyarchaeota, Euryarchaeota and Woesearchaeota were the major phyla found at the meta-community scale, representing 48%, 18.3% and 15.2% of the archaeal community respectively. Metals were equally important as physicochemical variables in explaining the assemblage of archaeal communities and their abundance. Methanogenesis appeared as a process of central importance in the carbon cycle within sediments of alpine lakes as indicated by the absolute abundance of methanogen 16S rRNA and mcrA gene transcripts (10 5 to 10 9 copies g -1 ). We showed that methanogen abundance and activity were significantly reduced with increasing concentrations of Pb and Cd, two indicators of airborne metal contaminations. Considering the ecological importance of methanogenesis in sediment habitats, these metal contaminations may have system wide implications even in remote area such as alpine lakes. Overall, this work was pioneer in integrating the effect of long-range atmospheric depositions on archaeal communities and indicated that metal contamination might significantly compromise the contribution of Archaea to the carbon cycling of the mountain lake sediments. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. 75 FR 75761 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... widespread, persistent, and growing problem. Nitrogen/phosphorus pollution in fresh water systems can... Florida's regulated drinking water systems and a 10 mg/L criteria for nitrate in Class I waters. FDEP..., kidney, and central nervous system problems. 44 45 \\44\\ USEPA. 2009. National Primary Drinking Water...

  9. Physical and hydrochemical evidence of lake leakage near Jim Woodruff lock and dam and ground-water inflow to Lake Seminole, and an assessment of karst features in and near the lake, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torak, Lynn J.; Crilley, Dianna M.; Painter, Jaime A.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogeologic data and water-chemistry analyses indicate that Lake Seminole leaks into the Upper Floridan aquifer near Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam, southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida, and that ground water enters Lake Seminole along upstream reaches of the lake's four impoundment arms (Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers, Spring Creek, and Fishpond Drain). Written accounts by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers geologists during dam construction in the late 1940s and early 1950s, and construction-era photographs, document karst-solution features in the limestone that comprise the lake bottom and foundation rock to the dam, and confirm the hydraulic connection of the lake and aquifer. More than 250 karst features having the potential to connect the lake and aquifer were identified from preimpoundment aerial photographs taken during construction. An interactive map containing a photomosaic of 53 photographic negatives was orthorectfied to digital images of 1:24,000-scale topographic maps to aid in identifying karst features that function or have the potential to function as locations of water exchange between Lake Seminole and the Upper Floridan aquifer. Some identified karst features coincide with locations of mapped springs, spring runs, and depressions that are consistent with sinkholes and sinkhole ponds. Hydrographic surveys using a multibeam echosounder (sonar) with sidescan sonar identified sinkholes in the lake bottom along the western lakeshore and in front of the dam. Dye-tracing experiments indicate that lake water enters these sinkholes and is transported through the Upper Floridan aquifer around the west side of the dam at velocities of about 500 feet per hour to locations where water 'boils up' on land (at Polk Lake Spring) and in the channel bottom of the Apalachicola River (at the 'River Boil'). Water discharging from Polk Lake Spring joins flow from a spring-fed ground-water discharge zone located downstream of the dam; the combined flow disappears into

  10. Sources of nitrate contamination and age of water in large karstic springs of Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.

    2004-01-01

    In response to concerns about the steady increase in nitrate concentrations over the past several decades in many of Florida's first magnitude spring waters (discharge ???2.8 m3/s), multiple isotopic and other chemical tracers were analyzed in water samples from 12 large springs to assess sources and timescales of nitrate contamination. Nitrate-N concentrations in spring waters ranged from 0.50 to 4.2 mg/L, and ??15N values of nitrate in spring waters ranged from 2.6 to 7.9 per mil. Most ??15N values were below 6 per mil indicating that inorganic fertilizers were the dominant source of nitrogen in these waters. Apparent ages of groundwater discharging from springs ranged from 5 to about 35 years, based on multi-tracer analyses (CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 3H/3He) and a piston flow assumption; however, apparent tracer ages generally were not concordant. The most reliable spring-water ages appear to be based on tritium and 3He data, because concentrations of CFCs and SF6 in several spring waters were much higher than would be expected from equilibration with modern atmospheric concentrations. Data for all tracers were most consistent with output curves for exponential and binary mixing models that represent mixtures of water in the Upper Floridan aquifer recharged since the early 1960s. Given that groundwater transit times are on the order of decades and are related to the prolonged input of nitrogen from multiple sources to the aquifer, nitrate could persist in groundwater that flows toward springs for several decades due to slow transport of solutes through the aquifer matrix.

  11. Assessing the Vulnerability of Public-Supply Wells to Contamination: Floridan Aquifer System Near Tampa, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Katz, Brian G.; Crandall, Christy A.; Eberts, Sandra M.

    2009-01-01

    This fact sheet highlights findings from the vulnerability study of a public-supply well in Temple Terrace, Florida, northeast of Tampa. The well selected for study typically produces water at the rate of 700 gallons per minute from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Water samples were collected at the public-supply well and at monitoring wells installed in or near the simulated zone of contribution to the supply well. Samples of untreated water from the public-supply wellhead contained the undesirable constituents nitrate, arsenic, uranium, radon-222, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and pesticides, although all were detected at concentrations less than established drinking-water standards, where such standards exist. Overall, study findings point to four primary factors that affect the movement and fate of contaminants and the vulnerability of the public-supply well in Temple Terrace: (1) groundwater age (how long ago water entered, or recharged, the aquifer); (2) short-circuiting of contaminated water through sinkholes; (3) natural geochemical processes within the aquifer; and (4) pumping stress. Although the public-supply well is completed in the Upper Floridan aquifer, it produces water with concentrations of nitrate, VOCs, and the natural contaminant radon that are intermediate between the typical composition of water from the Upper Floridan aquifer and that of the overlying surficial aquifer system. Mixing calculations show that the water produced by the public-supply well could consist of upwards of 50 percent water from the surficial aquifer system mixed with water from the Upper Floridan aquifer. Anthropogenically affected water from the surficial aquifer system travels rapidly to depth through sinkholes that must be directly connected to the cavernous zone intersected by the public-supply well (and several other production wells in the region). Such solution features serve as fast pathways to the well and circumvent the natural attenuation of nitrate and

  12. Impact of Lake Okeechobee Sea Surface Temperatures on Numerical Predictions of Summertime Convective Systems over South Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Splitt, Michael E.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Santos, Pablo; Lazarus, Steven M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, the Florida Institute of Technology, and the NOAA/NWS Weather Forecast Office at Miami, FL (MFL) are collaborating on a project to investigate the impact of using high-resolution, 2-km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sea surface temperature (SST) composites within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) prediction system. The NWS MFL is currently running WRF in real-time to support daily forecast operations, using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model dynamical core within the NWS Science and Training Resource Center's Environmental Modeling System (EMS) software. Twenty-seven hour forecasts are run daily initialized at 0300, 0900, 1500, and 2100 UTC on a domain with 4-km grid spacing covering the southern half of Florida and adjacent waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. The SSTs are initialized with the NCEP Real-Time Global (RTG) analyses at 1/12deg resolution. The project objective is to determine whether more accurate specification of the lower-boundary forcing over water using the MODIS SST composites within the 4-km WRF runs will result in improved sea fluxes and hence, more accurate e\\olutiono f coastal mesoscale circulations and the associated sensible weather elements. SPoRT conducted parallel WRF EMS runs from February to August 2007 identical to the operational runs at NWS MFL except for the use of MODIS SST composites in place of the RTG product as the initial and boundary conditions over water. During the course of this evaluation, an intriguing case was examined from 6 May 2007, in which lake breezes and convection around Lake Okeechobee evolved quite differently when using the high-resolution SPoRT MODIS SST composites versus the lower-resolution RTG SSTs. This paper will analyze the differences in the 6 May simulations, as well as examine other cases from the summer 2007 in which the WRF

  13. Contamination and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Lake Bed Sediment of a Large Lake Scenic Area in China

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Li; Xu, Liang; Fu, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of heavy metals to lake bed sediment of scenic areas may pose risks on aquatic ecosystems and human health, however very few studies on risk assessment have been reported for scenic areas. Accordingly, this study determined concentration levels, and assessed contamination characteristics and risks, of heavy metals in lake bed sediment of National Scenic Areas Songhuahu (NSAS) in China. The concentrations of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were determined in 29 bed sediment samples. Results showed that the mean values of Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni, and Cu were 92.69, 90.73, 38.29, 46.77, and 49.44 mg/kg, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients indicated that organic matter was a major factor influencing distribution of heavy metals. The results for enrichment factors indicated that contamination rates and anthropogenic inputs of single heavy metals decreased in the order Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn; results of Nemerow integrated pollution index suggested that 72.41% of sampling sites were exposed to low to moderately integrated pollution, and 27.59% of sampling sites were exposed to strongly integrated pollution. According to results for potential ecological risk index, ecological risks of single and all the heavy metals in bed sediment from all the sampling sites were low. Human risks were assessed with hazardous quotients, and the results suggested that exposure of heavy metals to bed sediment posed no or little risk to human health, and the pathway of ingestion significantly contributed to human health risks. PMID:27455296

  14. Assessing the effects of legacy contaminants on egg and nestling survival of tree swallows in Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are affected by many stressors, some of which are environmental contaminants including PCBs, PBDEs, persistent organochlorine pesticides, dioxins, benzenes, and other chemicals. These toxicants can accumulate in aquatic biota and ultimately tra...

  15. Linking field-based metabolomics and chemical analyses to identify contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes ecosystem

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although research has focused on remediating ecological impacts of environmental contaminants on the Great Lakes and other aquatic ecosystems, there exists a continuing need for additional biologically-based tools for monitoring success. Profiling of endogenous metabolites (i.e....

  16. The Legacy of Arsenic Contamination from Giant Mine, Northern Canada: An Assessment of Impacts Based on Lake Water and Lake Sediment Core Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais, J. M.; Korosi, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Giant Mine, which operated between 1948 and 2004 and located near the City of Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), has left a legacy of arsenic, antimony, and mercury contamination extending to the present day. Over 20,000 tonnes of arsenic trioxide dust was released from roaster stack emissions during its first 10 years of operations, leading to a significant contamination of the surrounding landscape. Here we present a summary of impacts by the recent contamination from Giant Mine on the surrounding region. A survey we conducted of 25 lakes of the region in 2010 revealed that most lake water within a 15 km radius of the roaster stack had arsenic concentrations in water > 10 mg/L, the standard for drinking water, with concentrations declining exponentially with increasing distance from the roaster stack. Sediment cores from lakes were collected near the Giant Mine roaster stack and radiometrically dated by 137Cs and excess 210Pb. Arsenic concentrations in these sediments increased by 1700% during the 1950s and 60s, consistent with the history of arsenic releases from roaster emissions. Correspondingly, pelagic diatoms and cladocerans were extirpated from one lake during this period, based on microfossil analysis of lake sediment deposits. Sediment core analysis further showed that this lake ecosystem has not recovered, even ten years after closure of the mine. Likely causes for the lack of recent recovery are explored with the use of sediment toxicity bioassays, using a novel paleo-ecotoxicological approach of using toxicity assessments of radiometrically dated lake sediment horizons.

  17. Biostratigraphy and chronostratigraphy of the area between Sarasota and Lake Okeechobee, southern Florida: An integrated approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wingard, G.L.; Edwards, L.E.; McCartan, L.

    1993-03-01

    Preliminary analysis of paleontologic and isotopic data from 15 coreholes, integrated with the lithostratigraphic framework, has revealed three chronostratigraphic depositional units in the subsurface of the Arcadia and Sarasota 30 [times] 60-minute quadrangles, in the southern Florida peninsula. (1) An upper Oligocene depositional unit unconformably overlies the lower Oligocene Suwannee Formation and has been dated by using [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr values and molluscs. (2) A lower and middle Miocene depositional unit has been dated on the basis of [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr values, molluscs, and dinoflagellates. The upper boundary of this unit is marked by the top of the Venice Claymore » in the western part of the study area. (3) A Pliocene and Pleistocene depositional unit, dated on the basis of [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr values, molluscs, dinoflagellates, foraminifera, ostracodes, and pollen, unconformably overlies the lower and middle Miocene beds; this unconformity represents approximately a 13-million-year gap in the record. The Pliocene and Pleistocene unit is seen in the surficial deposits of the Caloosahatchee, Tamiami, Bermont, and Fort Thompson Formations. The interpretation of Florida's geologic history is hampered by the interfingering of onlap/offlap cycles from two coastlines, a unique situation in southeastern coastal plain geology. In addition, a complex diagenetic history, mixing of carbonate and siliciclastic regimes, and lack of surface exposures make interpretation of the stratigraphic sequences difficult. The chronostratigraphic depositional units identified cut across lithofacies boundaries and allow correlation across the Florida peninsula, thus leading to the development of coherent, well-defined lithostratigraphic units.« less

  18. Estimating ground-water exchange with lakes using water-budget and chemical mass-balance approaches for ten lakes in ridge areas of Polk and Highlands counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sacks, L.A.; Swancar, Amy; Lee, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Water budget and chemical mass-balance approaches were used to estimate ground-water exchange with 10 lakes in ridge areas of Polk and Highlands Counties, Florida. At each lake, heads were monitored in the surficial aquifer system and deeper Upper Floridan aquifer, lake stage and rainfall were measured continuously, and lakes and wells were sampled three times between October 1995 and December 1996. The water-budget approach computes net ground-water flow (ground-water inflow minus outflow) as the residual of the monthly waterbudget equation. Net ground-water flow varied seasonally at each of the 10 lakes, and was notably different between lakes, illustrating short-term differences in ground-water fluxes. Monthly patterns in net ground-water flow were related to monthly patterns of other hydrologic variables such as rainfall, ground-water flow patterns, and head differences between the lake and the Upper Floridan aquifer. The chemical mass-balance approach combines the water budget and solute or isotope mass-balance equations, and assumes steady-state conditions. Naturally occurring tracers that were analyzed for include calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and bromide, the isotopes deuterium and oxygen-18. Chloride and sodium were the most successful solute tracers; however, their concentrations in ground water typically varied spatially, and in places were similar to that in lake water, limiting their sensitivity as tracers. In contrast, the isotopes were more robust tracers because the isotopic composition of ground water was relatively uniform and was distinctly different from the lake water. Groundwater inflow computed using the chemical massbalance method varied significantly between lakes, and ranged from less than 10 to more than 150 inches per year. Both water-budget and chemical mass-balance approaches had limitations, but the multiple lines of evidence gained using both approaches improved the understanding of the role of ground water in the

  19. The distance that contaminated aquatic subsidies extend into lake riparian zones.

    PubMed

    Raikow, David F; Walters, David M; Fritz, Ken M; Mills, Marc A

    2011-04-01

    Consumption of emergent aquatic insects by terrestrial invertebrates is a poorly resolved, but potentially important, mechanism of contaminant flux across ecosystem borders leading to contaminant exposure in terrestrial invertivores. We characterized the spatial extent and magnitude of contaminant transfer from aquatic sediments to terrestrial invertebrate predators by examining riparian araneid spiders, terrestrial insects, and emergent aquatic insects for stable isotopes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, sum of 141 congeners) at Lake Hartwell, (Clemson, South Carolina, USA). PCB concentrations in aquatic insects were orders of magnitude higher than in terrestrial insects. Aquatic insect consumption by spiders (as indicated by delta13C and delta15N), PCB concentrations in spiders, and aquatic prey availability were greatest at the shoreline and declined inland, while terrestrial prey availability was invariant with distance. These patterns indicate PCB transfer to spiders through consumption of emergent aquatic insects extending to a distance of 5 m inland. Measurable, but much lower, PCBs were present in insect predators dominated by social wasps up to 30 m inland. These results illustrate the importance of emergent insects as vectors of contaminant transfer from lake sediments to riparian food webs, and that spiders are key predators in this process.

  20. Removal of emerging perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate contaminants from lake water.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Sarker, Dipok Chandra; Suja, Fatihah

    2017-08-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are the major polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) contaminating global water environment. This study investigated the efficiency of granular activated carbon (GAC), ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) treatment for removing PFOS and PFOA contaminants from lake water. NF gave greater removal of all contaminant types (in terms of organic matter, PFOS and PFOA) than GAC treatment which in turn was greater than UF treatment. The lower removal by UF was due to larger pore size of the membrane compared to the size of the target contaminants. For all treatment processes, lower pH (4) in the feedwater showed greater rejection of the organics and selected PFASs. This was likely due to increase in the electrostatic repulsion between solute and sorbent. It could be observed that on increasing the concentration of organics in the feed solution, the rejection of PFOA/PFOS decreased which was due to competition between organics and PFOS/PFOA for binding sites on the membrane/activated carbon surface. It was also noted that protein content led to greater influence for lower rejection of the PFOA/PFOS than carbohydrate or DOC content. This study demonstrated the potential use of membrane processes for removing emerging persistent organic pollutant removal from lake water.

  1. The distance that contaminated aquatic subsidies extend into lake riparian zones

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raikow, D.F.; Walters, D.M.; Fritz, K.M.; Mills, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of emergent aquatic insects by terrestrial invertebrates is a poorly resolved, but potentially important, mechanism of contaminant flux across ecosystem borders leading to contaminant exposure in terrestrial invertivores. We characterized the spatial extent and magnitude of contaminant transfer from aquatic sediments to terrestrial invertebrate predators by examining riparian araneid spiders, terrestrial insects, and emergent aquatic insects for stable isotopes and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, sum of 141 congeners) at Lake Hartwell, (Clemson, South Carolina, USA). PCB concentrations in aquatic insects were orders of magnitude higher than in terrestrial insects. Aquatic insect consumption by spiders (as indicated by ??13C and ??15N), PCB concentrations in spiders, and aquatic prey availability were greatest at the shoreline and declined inland, while terrestrial prey availability was invariant with distance. These patterns indicate PCB transfer to spiders through consumption of emergent aquatic insects extending to a distance of ???5 m inland. Measurable, but much lower, PCBs were present in insect predators dominated by social wasps up to 30 m inland. These results illustrate the importance of emergent insects as vectors of contaminant transfer from lake sediments to riparian food webs, and that spiders are key predators in this process. ?? 2011 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. Development, evaluation, and application of sediment quality targets for assessing and managing contaminated sediments in Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, D.D.; Carr, R.S.; Eckenrod, D.; Greening, H.; Grabe, S.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Janicki, S.; Janicki, T.; Lindskoog, R.A.; Long, E.R.; Pribble, R.; Sloane, G.; Smorong, D.E.

    2004-01-01

    Tampa Bay is a large, urban estuary that is located in west central Florida. Although water quality conditions represent an important concern in this estuary, information from numerous sources indicates that sediment contamination also has the potential to adversely affect aquatic organisms, aquatic-dependent wildlife, and human health. As such, protecting relatively uncontaminated areas of the bay from contamination and reducing the amount of toxic chemicals in contaminated sediments have been identified as high-priority sediment management objectives for Tampa Bay. To address concerns related to sediment contamination in the bay, an ecosystem-based framework for assessing and managing sediment quality conditions was developed that included identification of sediment quality issues and concerns, development of ecosystem goals and objectives, selection of ecosystem health indicators, establishment of metrics and targets for key indicators, and incorporation of key indicators, metrics, and targets into watershed management plans and decision-making processes. This paper describes the process that was used to select and evaluate numerical sediment quality targets (SQTs) for assessing and managing contaminated sediments. These SQTs included measures of sediment chemistry, whole-sediment and pore-water toxicity, and benthic invertebrate community structure. In addition, the paper describes how the SQTs were used to develop site-specific concentration-response models that describe how the frequency of adverse biological effects changes with increasing concentrations of chemicals of potential concern. Finally, a key application of the SQTs for defining sediment management areas is discussed.

  3. Distribution of organic contamination of sediments from Ichkeul Lake and Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Fida; Ben Said, Olfa; Mahmoudi, Ezzeddine; Duran, Robert; Monperrus, Mathilde

    2017-10-15

    Analyses of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and butyl tins (BuSn) were conducted on sediments from Ichkeul Lake-Bizerte Lagoon watershed (Tunisia). A total of 59 compounds (16 PAHs, 12 PCBs, 22 OCPs and 9 BuSn) were measured in 40 surface sediment samples collected during two campaigns. High concentrations of total PAHs were identified in the lagoon ranging from 122 to 19600ng·g -1 . Several OCPs, including endrin, dieldrin, and lindane (Hexachlorocyclohexane or HCH or BHC) were found in high concentrations in Ichkeul Lake, ranging from 28 to 2012ngg -1 . PAHs and OCPs varied seasonally, in response to the complex hydrology of the watershed. The concentrations of total PCBs ranged between 0.04 and 10.653ngg -1 and suggests low total PCBs sediment contamination, when compared to most international criteria. Total BuSn concentrations range between 67 and 526ng·g -1 , which are relatively low when compared to most international criteria and ecological risk assessments. This is the first study of organic contamination in Ichkeul Lake (RAMSAR and UNESCO World Heritage site). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Production of Hexagenia limbata nymphs in contaminated sediments in the Upper Great Lakes connecting channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Manny, Bruce A.; Schloesser, Donald W.; Nichols, Susan J.; Frank, Anthony M.

    1991-01-01

    In April through October 1986, we sampled sediments and populations of nymphs of the burrowing mayfly, Hexagenia limbata (Serville), at 11 locations throughout the connecting channels of the upper Great Lakes, to determine if sediment contaminants adversely affected nymph production. Production over this period was high (980 to 9231 mg dry wt m-2) at the five locations where measured sediment levels of oil, cyanide, and six metals were below the threshold criteria of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Ontario Ministry of Environment for contaminated or polluted sediments, and also where the criterion for visible oil given in the Water Quality Agreement between the U.S.A. and Canada for connecting waters of the Great Lakes was not exceeded. At the other six locations where sediments were polluted, production was markedly lower (359 to 872 mg dry wt m-2). This finding is significant because it indicates that existing sediment quality criteria can be applied to protect H. limbata from oil, cyanide, and metals in the Great Lakes and connecting channels where the species fulfills a major role in secondary production and trophic transfer of energy.

  5. Osprey: worldwide sentinel species for assessing and monitoring environmental contamination in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries.

    PubMed

    Grove, Robert A; Henny, Charles J; Kaiser, James L

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, many fish and wildlife species have been used nationwide to monitor environmental contaminant exposure and effects, including carcasses of the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), the only top avian predator regularly used in the past. Unfortunately, bald eagles are sensitive to investigator intrusion at the nest. Thus, the osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is evaluated as a potential sentinel species for aquatic ecosystems. Several characteristics support the choice of the osprey as a sentinel species, including: (1) fish-eating diet atop the aquatic food web, (2) long-lived with strong nest fidelity, (3) adapts to human landscapes (potentially the most contaminated), (4) tolerates short-term nest disturbance, (5) nests spatially distributed at regular intervals, (6) highly visible nests easily located for study, (7) ability to accumulate most, if not all, lipophilic contaminants, (8) known sensitivity to many contaminants, and (9) nearly a worldwide distribution. These osprey traits have been instrumental in successfully using the species to understand population distribution, abundance, and changes over time; the effects of various contaminants on reproductive success; how contaminants in prey (fish on biomass basis) contribute to egg concentrations (i.e., biomagnification factors); and spatial residue patterns. Data summarized include nesting population surveys, detailed nesting studies, and chemical analyses of osprey egg, organ, blood, and feather samples for contaminants that bioaccumulate and/or biomagnify in aquatic food webs; and biochemical evaluations of blood and various organs. Studies in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Europe, and elsewhere have shown the osprey to be a useful sentinel species for monitoring selected environmental contaminants, including some emerging contaminants in lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and estuaries.

  6. Areal distribution and concentrations of contaminants of concern in surficial streambed and lakebed sediments, Lake Erie-Lake Saint Clair Drainages, 1990-97

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rheaume, S.J.; Button, D.T.; Myers, Donna N.; Hubbell, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Concerns about elevated concentrations of contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls and mercury in aquatic bed sediments throughout the Great Lakes Basin have resulted in a need for better understanding of the scope and severity of the problem. Various organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, trace metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a concern because of their ability to persist and accumulate in aquatic sediments and their association with adverse aquatic biological effects. The areal distribution and concentrations in surficial bed sediments of 20 contaminants of concern with established bed-sediment-toxicity guidelines were examined in relation to their potential effects on freshwater aquatic biota. Contaminants at more than 800 sampling locations are characterized in this report. Surficial bed-sediment-quality data collected from 1990 to 1997 in the Lake Erie?Lake Saint Clair Drainages were evaluated to reflect recent conditions. In descending order, concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenanthrene, total polychlorinated biphenyls, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, cadmium, lead, zinc, arsenic, and mercury were the contaminants that most commonly exceeded levels associated with probable adverse effects on aquatic benthic organisms. The highest concentrations of most of these contaminants in aquatic bed sediments are confined to the 12 specific geographic Areas of Concern identified in the 1987 Revisions to the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1972. An exception is arsenic, which was detected at concentrations exceeding threshold effect levels at many locations outside Areas of Concern.

  7. Chemical Evolution of Groundwater Near a Sinkhole Lake, Northern Florida: 2. Chemical Patterns, Mass Transfer Modeling, and Rates of Mass Transfer Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Brian G.; Plummer, L. Niel; Busenberg, Eurybiades; Revesz, Kinga M.; Jones, Blair F.; Lee, Terrie M.

    1995-06-01

    Chemical patterns along evolutionary groundwater flow paths in silicate and carbonate aquifers were interpreted using solute tracers, carbon and sulfur isotopes, and mass balance reaction modeling for a complex hydrologic system involving groundwater inflow to and outflow from a sinkhole lake in northern Florida. Rates of dominant reactions along defined flow paths were estimated from modeled mass transfer and ages obtained from CFC-modeled recharge dates. Groundwater upgradient from Lake Barco remains oxic as it moves downward, reacting with silicate minerals in a system open to carbon dioxide (CO2), producing only small increases in dissolved species. Beneath and downgradient of Lake Barco the oxic groundwater mixes with lake water leakage in a highly reducing, silicate-carbonate mineral environment. A mixing model, developed for anoxic groundwater downgradient from the lake, accounted for the observed chemical and isotopic composition by combining different proportions of lake water leakage and infiltrating meteoric water. The evolution of major ion chemistry and the 13C isotopic composition of dissolved carbon species in groundwater downgradient from the lake can be explained by the aerobic oxidation of organic matter in the lake, anaerobic microbial oxidation of organic carbon, and incongruent dissolution of smectite minerals to kaolinite. The dominant process for the generation of methane was by the CO2 reduction pathway based on the isotopic composition of hydrogen (δ2H(CH4) = -186 to -234‰) and carbon (δ13C(CH4) = -65.7 to -72.3‰). Rates of microbial metabolism of organic matter, estimated from the mass transfer reaction models, ranged from 0.0047 to 0.039 mmol L-1 yr-1 for groundwater downgradient from the lake.

  8. Simulated effects of impoundment of lake seminole on ground-water flow in the upper Floridan Aquifer in southwestern Georgia and adjacent parts of Alabama and Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, L. Elliott; Torak, Lynn J.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrologic implications of the impoundment of Lake Seminole in southwest Georgia and its effect on components of the surface- and ground-water flow systems of the lower Apalachicola?Chattahoochee?Flint (ACF) River Basin were investigated using a ground-water model. Comparison of simulation results of postimpoundment drought conditions (October 1986) with results of hypothetical preimpoundment conditions (a similar drought prior to 1955) provides a qualitative measure of the changes in hydraulic head and ground-water flow to and from streams and Lake Seminole, and across State lines caused by the impoundment. Based on the simulation results, the impoundment of Lake Seminole changed ground-water flow directions within about 20?30 miles of the lake, reducing the amount of ground water flowing from Florida to Georgia southeast of the lake. Ground-water storage was increased by the impoundment, as indicated by a simulated increase of as much as 26 feet in the water level in the Upper Floridan aquifer. The impoundment of Lake Seminole caused changes to simulated components of the ground-water budget, including reduced discharge from the Upper Floridan aquifer to streams (315 million gallons per day); reduced recharge from or increased discharge to regional ground-water flow at external model boundaries (totaling 183 million gallons per day); and reduced recharge from or increased discharge to the undifferentiated overburden (totaling 129 million gallons per day).

  9. Sources and chronology of nitrate contamination in spring waters, Suwannee River basin, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Brian G.; Hornsby, H.D.; Bohlke, J.K.; Mokray, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    A multi-tracer approach, which consisted of analyzing water samples for n aturally occurring chemical and isotopic indicators, was used to better understand sources and chronology of nitrate contamination in spring wate rs discharging to the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers in northern Florida. Dur ing 1997 and 1998, as part of a cooperative study between the Suwannee River Water Management District and the U.S. Geological Survey, water samples were collected and analyzed from 24 springs and two wells for major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and selected environmental isotopes [18O/16O, D/H, 13C/12C, 15N/14N]. To better understand when nitrate entered the ground-water system, water samples were analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs; CCl3F, CCl2F2, and C2Cl3F3) and tritium (3H); in this way, the apparent ages and residence times of spring waters and water from shallow zones in the Upper Floridan aquifer were determined. In addition to information obtained from the use of isotopic and other chemical tracers, information on changes in land-use activities in the basin during 1954-97 were used to estimate nitrogen inputs from nonpoint sources for five counties in the basin. Changes in nitrate concentrations in spring waters with time were compared with estimated nitrogen inputs for Lafayette and Suwannee Counties. Agricultural activities [cropland farming, animal farming operations (beef and dairy cows, poultry, and swine)] along with atmospheric deposition have contributed large quantities of nitrogen to ground water in the Suwannee River Basin in northern Florida. Changes in agricultural land use during the past 40 years in Alachua, Columbia, Gilchrist, Lafayette, and Suwannee Counties have contributed variable amounts of nitrogen to the ground-water system. During 1955-97, total estimated nitrogen from all nonpoint sources (fertilizers, animal wastes, atmospheric deposition, and septic tanks) increased continuously in Gilchrist and Lafayette Counties. In

  10. Multi-trophic level response to extreme metal contamination from gold mining in a subarctic lake.

    PubMed

    Thienpont, Joshua R; Korosi, Jennifer B; Hargan, Kathryn E; Williams, Trisha; Eickmeyer, David C; Kimpe, Linda E; Palmer, Michael J; Smol, John P; Blais, Jules M

    2016-08-17

    Giant Mine, located in the city of Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), is a dramatic example of subarctic legacy contamination from mining activities, with remediation costs projected to exceed $1 billion. Operational between 1948 and 2004, gold extraction at Giant Mine released large quantities of arsenic and metals from the roasting of arsenopyrite ore. We examined the long-term ecological effects of roaster emissions on Pocket Lake, a small lake at the edge of the Giant Mine lease boundary, using a spectrum of palaeoenvironmental approaches. A dated sedimentary profile tracked striking increases (approx. 1700%) in arsenic concentrations coeval with the initiation of Giant Mine operations. Large increases in mercury, antimony and lead also occurred. Synchronous changes in biological indicator assemblages from multiple aquatic trophic levels, in both benthic and pelagic habitats, indicate dramatic ecological responses to extreme metal(loid) contamination. At the peak of contamination, all Cladocera, a keystone group of primary consumers, as well as all planktonic diatoms, were functionally lost from the sediment record. No biological recovery has been inferred, despite the fact that the bulk of metal(loid) emissions occurred more than 50 years ago, and the cessation of all ore-roasting activities in Yellowknife in 1999. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Multi-trophic level response to extreme metal contamination from gold mining in a subarctic lake

    PubMed Central

    Korosi, Jennifer B.; Hargan, Kathryn E.; Williams, Trisha; Eickmeyer, David C.; Kimpe, Linda E.; Palmer, Michael J.; Smol, John P.; Blais, Jules M.

    2016-01-01

    Giant Mine, located in the city of Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada), is a dramatic example of subarctic legacy contamination from mining activities, with remediation costs projected to exceed $1 billion. Operational between 1948 and 2004, gold extraction at Giant Mine released large quantities of arsenic and metals from the roasting of arsenopyrite ore. We examined the long-term ecological effects of roaster emissions on Pocket Lake, a small lake at the edge of the Giant Mine lease boundary, using a spectrum of palaeoenvironmental approaches. A dated sedimentary profile tracked striking increases (approx. 1700%) in arsenic concentrations coeval with the initiation of Giant Mine operations. Large increases in mercury, antimony and lead also occurred. Synchronous changes in biological indicator assemblages from multiple aquatic trophic levels, in both benthic and pelagic habitats, indicate dramatic ecological responses to extreme metal(loid) contamination. At the peak of contamination, all Cladocera, a keystone group of primary consumers, as well as all planktonic diatoms, were functionally lost from the sediment record. No biological recovery has been inferred, despite the fact that the bulk of metal(loid) emissions occurred more than 50 years ago, and the cessation of all ore-roasting activities in Yellowknife in 1999. PMID:27534958

  12. Pollution-induced community tolerance in benthic macroinvertebrates of a mildly lead-contaminated lake.

    PubMed

    Oguma, Andrew Y; Klerks, Paul L

    2017-08-01

    Pollution-induced community tolerance (PICT) has been used to demonstrate effects of sediment contamination on microbes and meiofauna. Our study explored the potential to detect PICT in benthic macroinvertebrates of a lake with long-term mild lead (Pb) contamination. We collected macrobenthos from two areas in Caddo Lake, Texas, a control area (CO) with a mean sediment Pb level of 11 μg/g and Goose Prairie (GP) where sediment Pb levels averaged 74 μg/g. Upon return to the laboratory, we exposed macroinvertebrates to a lethal lead concentration and assessed 48-h mortality. Mortality of CO macrobenthos was significantly higher than that of GP macrobenthos, providing evidence that these communities differed in their tolerance to lead. A comparison of macrobenthos community composition between the areas showed that the GP macrobenthos lacked metal-sensitive taxa such as gastropods and amphipods (which were present at CO). Similarly, a higher proportion of the GP benthos belonged to metal-tolerant taxa such as isopods and chironomids. Thus, changes in community composition appeared to be at least partly responsible for differences in community tolerance. Our results showed that a sediment Pb concentration below effect-based sediment quality guidelines had a measurable impact on macrobenthos, thus demonstrating that results from single-species toxicity tests may underestimate impacts on communities. This study also confirms that the PICT approach with macroinvertebrates is a feasible and potentially powerful approach for detecting contaminant impacts.

  13. Bioremediation of Contaminated Lake Sediments and Evaluation of Maturity Indicies as Indicators of Compost Stability

    PubMed Central

    Rekha, P.; Suman Raj, D. S.; Aparna, C.; Bindu, V. Hima; Anjaneyulu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Land contamination is one of the widely addressed problems, which is gaining importance in many developed and developing countries. International efforts are actively envisaged to remediate contaminated sites as a response to adverse health effects. Popular conventional methodologies only transfer the phase of the contaminant involving cost intensive liabilities besides handling risk of the hazardous waste. Physico-chemical methods are effective for specific wastes, but are technically complex and lack public acceptance for land remediation. “Bioremediation”, is one of the emerging low-cost technologies that offer the possibility to destroy various contaminants using natural biological activities. Resultant non -toxic end products due to the microbial activity and insitu applicability of this technology is gaining huge public acceptance. In the present study, composting is demonstrated as a bioremediation methodology for the stabilization of contaminated lake sediments of Hyderabad, A.P, India. Lake sediment contaminated with organics is collected from two stratums – upper (0.25 m) and lower (0.5m) to set up as Pile I (Upper) and Pile II (Lower) in the laboratory. Lime as a pretreatment to the lake sediments is carried out to ensure metal precipitation. The pretreated sediment is then mixed with organic and inorganic fertilizers like cow dung, poultry manure, urea and super phosphate as initial seeding amendments. Bulking agents like sawdust and other micronutrients are provided. Continuous monitoring of process control parameters like pH, moisture content, electrical conductivity, total volatile solids and various forms of nitrogen were carried out during the entire course of the study. The stability of the compost was evaluated by assessing maturity indices like C/N, Cw (water soluble carbon), CNw (Cw/Nw), nitrification index (NH4/NO−3), Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), germination index, humification ratio, compost mineralization index (ash content

  14. Congener Patterns of Persistent Organic Pollutants Establish the Extent of Contaminant Biotransport by Pacific Salmon in the Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Gerig, Brandon S; Chaloner, Dominic T; Janetski, David J; Rediske, Richard R; O'Keefe, James P; Moerke, Ashley H; Lamberti, Gary A

    2016-01-19

    In the Great Lakes, introduced Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) can transport persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), to new environments during their spawning migrations. To explore the nature and extent of POP biotransport by salmon, we compared 58 PCB and 6 PBDE congeners found in spawning salmon directly to those in resident stream fish. We hypothesized that stream fish exposed to salmon spawners would have congener patterns similar to those of salmon, the presumed contaminant source. Using permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) and nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS), we found that POP congener patterns of Pacific salmon varied among regions in the Great Lakes basin (i.e., Lake Huron, Lake Michigan, or Lake Superior), tissue type (whole fish or eggs), and contaminant type (PCB or PBDE). For stream-resident fish, POP congener pattern was influenced by the presence of salmon, location (i.e., Great Lakes Basin), and species identity (i.e., brook trout [Salvelinus fontinalis] or mottled sculpin [Cottus bairdii]). Similarity in congener patterns indicated that salmon are a source of POPs to brook trout in stream reaches receiving salmon spawners from Lake Michigan and Lake Huron but not from Lake Superior. Congener patterns of mottled sculpin differed from those of brook trout and salmon, suggesting that brook trout and mottled sculpin either use salmon tissue to differing degrees, acquire POPs from different dietary sources, or bioaccumulate or metabolize POPs differently. Overall, our analyses identified the important role of salmon in contaminant biotransport but also demonstrated that the extent of salmon-mediated POP transfer and uptake in Great Lakes tributaries is location- and species-specific.

  15. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the sediments of Nansihu Lake Catchment, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enfeng; Shen, Ji; Yang, Liyuan; Zhang, Enlou; Meng, Xianghua; Wang, Jianjun

    2010-02-01

    At present, anthropogenic contribution of heavy metals far exceeds natural input in some aquatic sediment, but the proportions are difficult to differentiate due to the changes in sediment characters. In this paper, the metal (Al, Fe, K, Mg, Ca, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) concentrations, grain size, and total organic carbon (TOC) content in the surface and core sediments of Nansihu Lake Catchment (the open lake and six inflow rivers) were determined. The chemical speciations of the metals (Al, Fe, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in the surface sediments were also analyzed. Approaches of factor analysis, normalized enrichment factor (EF) and the new non-residual fractions enrichment factor (K(NRF)) were used to differentiate the sources of the metals in the sediments, from detrital clastic debris or anthropogenic input, and to quantify the anthropogenic contamination. The results indicate that natural processes were more dominant in concentrating the metals in the surface and core sediments of the open lake. High concentration of Ca and deficiency of other metals in the upper layers of the sediment core were attributed to the input of carbonate minerals in the catchment with increasing human activities since 1980s. High TOC content magnified the deficiency of the metals. Nevertheless, the EF and K(NRF) both reveal moderate to significant anthropogenic contamination of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in the surface sediments of Laoyun River and the estuary and Cr in the surface sediments of Baima River. The proportion of non-residual fractions (acid soluble, reducible, and oxidizable fractions) of Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn in the contaminated sediments increased to 37-99% from the background levels less than 30%.

  16. Massive Microbiological Groundwater Contamination Associated with a Waterborne Outbreak in Lake Erie, South Bass Island, Ohio

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Theng-Theng; Mansfield, Linda S.; Wilson, David L.; Schwab, David J.; Molloy, Stephanie L.; Rose, Joan B.

    2007-01-01

    Background A groundwater-associated outbreak affected approximately 1,450 residents and visitors of South Bass Island, Ohio, between July and September 2004. Objectives To examine the microbiological quality of groundwater wells located on South Bass Island, we sampled 16 wells that provide potable water to public water systems 15–21 September 2004. Methods We tested groundwater wells for fecal indicators, enteric viruses and bacteria, and protozoa (Cryptosporidium and Giardia). The hydrodynamics of Lake Erie were examined to explore the possible surface water–groundwater interactions. Results All wells were positive for both total coliform and Escherichia coli. Seven wells tested positive for enterococci and Arcobacter (an emerging bacterial pathogen), and F+-specific coliphage was present in four wells. Three wells were positive for all three bacterial indicators, coliphages, and Arcobacter; adenovirus DNA was recovered from two of these wells. We found a cluster of the most contaminated wells at the southeast side of the island. Conclusions Massive groundwater contamination on the island was likely caused by transport of microbiological contaminants from wastewater treatment facilities and septic tanks to the lake and the subsurface, after extreme precipitation events in May–July 2004. This likely raised the water table, saturated the subsurface, and along with very strong Lake Erie currents on 24 July, forced a surge in water levels and rapid surface water–groundwater interchange throughout the island. Landsat images showed massive influx of organic material and turbidity surrounding the island before the peak of the outbreak. These combinations of factors and information can be used to examine vulnerabilities in other coastal systems. Both wastewater and drinking water issues are now being addressed by the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency and the Ohio Department of Health. PMID:17589591

  17. Acute bioassays and hazard evaluation of representative contaminants detected in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino, Dora R. May; Smith, Stephen B.

    1987-01-01

    We have provided a hazard ranking for 19 classes of compounds representing many of the nearly 500 organic compounds identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and walleye (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) from the Great Lakes and Lake St. Clair. We initially made a provisional hazard ranking based on available published and unpublished information on aquatic toxicity, bioaccumulation, occurrence and sources. Acute toxicity tests with Daphnia pulex at 17A°C in reconstituted hard water were performed with 30 compounds representative of the 19 classes that were highest in the provisional ranking. The resulting toxicity data, along with information on the compounds' occurrence in Great Lakes fish and their sources, were ranked and weighted and then used in calculating the revised hazard ranking. The 10 most hazardous classes, in descending order, are as follows (values shown are mean 48-h EC50s, in μ/ml): arene halides (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT), 0.0011; phthalate esters, 0.133; chlorinated camphenes (toxaphene), 0.0082; polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; e.g., dimethylnaphthalene) and reduced derivatives, 1.01; chlorinated fused polycyclics (e.g., trans-nonachlor), 0.022; nitrogen-containing compounds (e.g., O-methylhydroxyl-amine), 1.35; alkyl halides (e.g., (bromomethyl)cyclohexene), 10.1; cyclic alkanes (e.g., cyclododecane), 20.9; silicon-containing compounds (e.g., dimethyldiethoxy silane), 1.25; and heterocyclic nitrogen compounds (e.g., nicotine), 2.48. We recommend that chronic bioassays be conducted with fish and invertebrates to determine the sublethal effects of the following classes of compounds, for which few toxicity data are available: PAHs, heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, other nitrogen-containing compounds, alkyl halides, cyclic alkanes and silicon-containing compounds. Information from these types of studies will aid researchers in determining the possible causal role these contaminants play in

  18. 76 FR 79604 - Effective Date for the Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-22

    ... quality in Florida may be interested in this rulemaking. Entities discharging nitrogen or phosphorus to.../phosphorus pollution in Florida's waters may be affected through implementation of Florida's water quality... inland waters rule established numeric nutrient criteria in the form of total nitrogen, total phosphorus...

  19. LOW-LEVEL EMERGING CONTAMINANTS IN LAKE HAVASU, ARIZONA AND CALIFORNIA AND THEIR ACCESS TO LAKE HAVASU CITY'S DRINKING WATER SUPPLY

    EPA Science Inventory

    In preparation of a wastewater effluent re-charge and recovery program, involving alluvial fan sediments, the City of Lake Havasu initiated a survey to evaluate possible waterborne sources of emerging contaminants in the water/wastewater distribution cycle. This distribution cyc...

  20. Algal conditions in the Caloosahatchee River (1975-79), Lake Okeechobee to Franklin Lock, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Benjamin F.; La Rose, Henry R.

    1982-01-01

    Maximum numbers of suspended algae occurred in late spring and early summer, in each of the years 1975-79, in the Caloosahatchee River. Numbers exceeded 100,000 cells per milliliter at all stations sometime during the study. Concentrations decreased during late summer and autumn and were low during winter, except in January 1979 when numbers at most sites exceeded 100,000 cells per milliliter. The January 1979 bloom coincided with large discharges from Lake Okeechobee. During previous winters, discharges and algal numbers were lower. During other seasons, algal blooms occurred most frequently under low-flow or stagnant conditions. The upstream site at Moore Haven, which had the least discharge and was most stagnant, had consistently higher algal concentrations than downstream sites. Blue-green algae were dominant in the river during the summer at the upstream site throughout the year. The percentage of blue-green algae decreased downstream. Concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen were inversely correlated with concentrations of algae and decreased to near zero during algal blooms. The low concentrations of these forms of inorganic nitrogen relative to other major nutrients probably favor blue-green algae and limit growth of other algae. Contributions by the basin tributaries to the nutritive condition of the river were small because concentrations of nutrients, algal growth potential, and algae in the tributaries were generally less than those in the river. (USGS)

  1. Elemental contaminants in livers of mute swans on lakes Erie and St. Clair.

    PubMed

    Schummer, Michael L; Petrie, Scott A; Badzinski, Shannon S; Deming, Misty; Chen, Yu-Wei; Belzile, Nelson

    2011-11-01

    Contaminant inputs to the lower Great Lakes (LGL) have decreased since the 1960s and 1970s, but elemental contaminants continue to enter the LGL watershed at levels that are potentially deleterious to migratory waterfowl. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) using the LGL primarily eat plants, are essentially nonmigratory, forage exclusively in aquatic systems, and have increased substantially in number in the last few decades. Therefore, mute swans are an ideal sentinel species for monitoring elemental contaminants available to herbivorous and omnivorous waterfowl that use the LGL. We investigated hepatic concentrations, seasonal dynamics, and correlations of elements in mute swans (n = 50) collected at Long Point, Lake Erie, and Lake St. Clair from 2001 to 2004. Elements detected in liver at levels potentially harmful to waterfowl were copper (Cu) [range 60.3 to 6063.0 μg g(-1) dry weight (dw)] and selenium (SE; range 1.6 to 37.3 μg g(-1) dw). Decreases in aluminum, Se, and mercury (Hg) concentrations were detected from spring (nesting) through winter (nonbreeding). Elemental contaminants may be more available to waterfowl during spring than fall and winter, but study of seasonal availability of elements within LGL aquatic systems is necessary. From April to June, 68% of mute swans had Se levels >10 μg g(-1), whereas only 18% of swans contained these elevated levels of Se from July to March. An increase in the number of mute swans at the LGL despite elevated levels of Cu and Se suggests that these burdens do not substantially limit their reproduction or survival. Se was correlated with Cu (r = 0.85, p < 0.01) and Hg (r = 0.65, p < 0.01), which might indicate interaction between these elements. Some element interactions decrease the toxicity of both elements involved in the interaction. We recommend continued research of elemental contaminant concentrations, including detailed analyses of biological pathways and element forms (e.g., methylmercury) in LGL waterfowl to help

  2. Nesting season food habits of 4 species of Herons and Egrets at Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    managing the Lake Okeechobce ecosystem.

  3. Nesting season food habits of 4 species of herons and egrets at Lake Okeechobee, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Jeff P.

    1997-01-01

    managing the Lake Okeechobee ecosystem.

  4. Evaluation of a Florida coastal golf complex as a local and watershed source of bioavailable contaminants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lewis, Michael A., Robert L. Quarles, Darrin D. Dantin and James C. Moore. 2004. Evaluation of a Coastal Golf Complex as a Local and Watershed Source of Bioavailable Contaminants. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 48(3-4):254-262. (ERL,GB 1183).

    Contaminant fate in coastal areas impacte...

  5. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contamination in osprey eggs and nestlings from the Canadian Great Lakes basin, 1991-1995.

    PubMed

    Martin, Pamela A; De Solla, Shane R; Ewins, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Populations of osprey (Pandion haliaetus) in the Great Lakes basin declined dramatically during the 1950s-1970s due largely to adverse effects of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons, ingested in their fish prey, on eggshell thickness and adult survival. Nevertheless, these contaminants were not measured in osprey tissues during the decades of decline on the Canadian Great Lakes. Between 1991 and 1995, we monitored recovering osprey populations on the Great Lakes, including Georgian Bay and the St. Marys River area on Lake Huron and the St. Lawrence Islands National Park, as well as at two inland sites within the basin. Current OC levels, even from the most contaminated lakes, were typically lower than those associated with reproductive effects. DDE levels in fresh eggs averaged 1.2-2.9 microg/g, well below the 4.2 microg/g level associated with significant eggshell thinning and shell breakage. Nevertheless, a proportion of eggs from all study areas did exceed this level. PCB levels in eggs seldom exceeded 5 microg/g except in one lake of high breeding density in the Kawartha Lakes inland study area, where the mean sum PCB level was 7.1 microg/g and the maximum concentration measured was 26.5 microg/g. On average, mean reproductive output (0.78-2.75 young per occupied nest) of breeding populations in Great Lakes basin study areas exceeded the threshold of 0.8 young thought necessary to maintain stable populations. We concluded that, although eggs and especially nestling plasma, are useful in reflecting local contaminant levels, ospreys are relatively insensitive, at least at the population level, to health effects of current levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons on the Canadian Great Lakes.

  6. Dynamic coupled metal transport-speciation model: application to assess a zinc-contaminated lake.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Satyendra P; Diamond, Miriam L; Gandhi, Nilima; Nilsen, Joel

    2004-10-01

    A coupled metal transport and speciation/complexation model (TRANSPEC) has been developed to estimate the speciation and fate of multiple interconverting species in surface aquatic systems. Dynamic-TRANSPEC loosely, sequentially couples the speciation/complexation and fate modules that, for the unsteady state formulation, run alternatively at every time step. The speciation module first estimates species abundance using, in this version, MINEQL+ considering time-dependent changes in water and pore-water chemistry. The fate module is based on the quantitative water air sediment interaction (QWASI) model and fugacity/aquivalence formulation, with the option of using a pseudo-steady state solution to account for past discharges. Similarly to the QWASI model for organic contaminants, TRANSPEC assumes the instantaneous equilibrium distribution of metal species among dissolved, colloidal, and particulate phases based on ambient chemistry parameters that can be collected through conventional field methods. The model is illustrated with its application to Ross Lake (Manitoba, Canada) that has elevated Zn concentrations due to discharges over 70 years from a mining operation. Using measurements from field studies, the model reproduces year-round variations in Zn water concentrations. A 10-year projection for current conditions suggests decreasing Zn remobilization and export from the lake. Decreasing Zn loadings increases sediment-to-water transport but decreases water concentrations, and vice versa. Species distribution is affected by pH such that a decrease in pH increases metal export from the lake and vice versa.

  7. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: I. Patterns of occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, Sarah M.; Brigham, Mark E.; Lee, Kathy E.; Banda, Jo A.; Choy, Steven J.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.

    2017-01-01

    Human activities introduce a variety of chemicals to the Laurentian Great Lakes including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, plasticizers, and solvents (collectively referred to as contaminants of emerging concern or CECs) potentially threatening the vitality of these valuable ecosystems. We conducted a basin-wide study to identify the presence of CECs and other chemicals of interest in 12 U.S. tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes during 2013 and 2014. A total of 292 surface-water and 80 sediment samples were collected and analyzed for approximately 200 chemicals. A total of 32 and 28 chemicals were detected in at least 30% of water and sediment samples, respectively. Concentrations ranged from 0.0284 (indole) to 72.2 (cholesterol) μg/L in water and 1.75 (diphenhydramine) to 20,800 μg/kg (fluoranthene) in sediment. Cluster analyses revealed chemicals that frequently co-occurred such as pharmaceuticals and flame retardants at sites receiving similar inputs such as wastewater treatment plant effluent. Comparison of environmental concentrations to water and sediment-quality benchmarks revealed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations often exceeded benchmarks in both water and sediment. Additionally, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dichlorvos concentrations exceeded water-quality benchmarks in several rivers. Results from this study can be used to understand organism exposure, prioritize river basins for future management efforts, and guide detailed assessments of factors influencing transport and fate of CECs in the Great Lakes Basin.

  8. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: I. Patterns of occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kathy E.; Banda, Jo A.; Choy, Steven J.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.

    2017-01-01

    Human activities introduce a variety of chemicals to the Laurentian Great Lakes including pesticides, pharmaceuticals, flame retardants, plasticizers, and solvents (collectively referred to as contaminants of emerging concern or CECs) potentially threatening the vitality of these valuable ecosystems. We conducted a basin-wide study to identify the presence of CECs and other chemicals of interest in 12 U.S. tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes during 2013 and 2014. A total of 292 surface-water and 80 sediment samples were collected and analyzed for approximately 200 chemicals. A total of 32 and 28 chemicals were detected in at least 30% of water and sediment samples, respectively. Concentrations ranged from 0.0284 (indole) to 72.2 (cholesterol) μg/L in water and 1.75 (diphenhydramine) to 20,800 μg/kg (fluoranthene) in sediment. Cluster analyses revealed chemicals that frequently co-occurred such as pharmaceuticals and flame retardants at sites receiving similar inputs such as wastewater treatment plant effluent. Comparison of environmental concentrations to water and sediment-quality benchmarks revealed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations often exceeded benchmarks in both water and sediment. Additionally, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dichlorvos concentrations exceeded water-quality benchmarks in several rivers. Results from this study can be used to understand organism exposure, prioritize river basins for future management efforts, and guide detailed assessments of factors influencing transport and fate of CECs in the Great Lakes Basin. PMID:28953889

  9. Bottom sediment as a source of organic contaminants in Lake Mead, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, David A.; Rosen, Michael R.; Perkins, Stephanie D.; Cranor, Walter L.; Schroeder, Vickie L.; Jones-Lepp, Tammy L.

    2012-01-01

    Treated wastewater effluent from Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities' flow through Las Vegas Wash (LVW) into the Lake Mead National Recreational Area at Las Vegas Bay (LVB). Lake sediment is a likely sink for many hydrophobic synthetic organic compounds (SOCs); however, partitioning between the sediment and the overlying water could result in the sediment acting as a secondary contaminant source. Locating the chemical plumes may be important to understanding possible chemical stressors to aquatic organisms. Passive sampling devices (SPMDs and POCIS) were suspended in LVB at depths of 3.0, 4.7, and 6.7 (lake bottom) meters in June of 2008 to determine the vertical distribution of SOCs in the water column. A custom sediment probe was used to also bury the samplers in the sediment at depths of 0–10, 10–20, and 20–30 cm. The greatest number of detections in samplers buried in the sediment was at the 0–10 cm depth. Concentrations of many hydrophobic SOCs were twice as high at the sediment–water interface than in the mid and upper water column. Many SOCs related to wastewater effluents, including fragrances, insect repellants, sun block agents, and phosphate flame retardants, were found at highest concentrations in the middle and upper water column. There was evidence to suggest that the water infiltrated into the sediment had a different chemical composition than the rest of the water column and could be a potential risk exposure to bottom-dwelling aquatic organisms.

  10. Hydrogeology and flow of water in a sand and gravel aquifer contaminated by wood-preserving compounds, Pensacola, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franks, B.J.

    1988-01-01

    The sand and gravel aquifer in southern Escambia County, Florida , is a typical surficial aquifer composed of quartz sands and gravels interbedded locally with silts and clays. Problems of groundwater contamination from leaking surface impoundments are common in surficial aquifers and are a subject of increasing concern and attention. A potentially widespread contamination problem involves organic chemicals from wood-preserving processes. Because creosote is the most extensively used industrial preservative in the United States, an abandoned wood-treatment plant near Pensacola was chosen for investigation. This report describes the hydrogeology and groundwater flow system of the sand and gravel aquifer near the plant. A three-dimensional simulation of groundwater flow in the aquifer was evaluated under steady-state conditions. The model was calibrated on the basis of observed water levels from January 1986. Calibration criteria included reproducing all water levels within the accuracy of the data (one-half contour interval in most cases). Sensitivity analysis showed that the simulations were most sensitive to recharge and vertical leakance of the confining units between layers 1 and 2, and relatively insensitive to changes in hydraulic conductivity and transmissivity and to other changes in vertical leakance. Applications of the results of the calibrated flow model in evaluation of solute transport may require further discretization of the contaminated area, including more sublayers, than were needed for calibration of the groundwater flow system itself. (USGS)

  11. Cyanobacteria-/cyanotoxin-contaminations and eutrophication status before Wuxi drinking water crisis in Lake Taihu, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongmei; Chen, Wei; Li, Dunhai; Huang, Zebo; Shen, Yinwu; Liu, Yongding

    2011-01-01

    After the appalling "Wuxi Drinking Water Crisis", increasing investigations concerning the contaminations of cyanobacterial blooms and their toxins in Lake Taihu have been performed and reported in the last two years. However, information regarding these issues before the crisis in 2007 remained insufficient. To provide some background data for further comparisons, the present study reported our investigations conducted in 2004, associated with the cyanotoxin contaminations as well as the eutrophication status in Lake Taihu. Results from the one-year-study near a drinking water resource for Wuxi City indicated that, unlike the status in recent two years, cyanobacteria and chlorophyta are the co-dominance species throughout the year. The highest toxin concentration (34.2 ng/mL) in water columns occurred in August. In bloom biomass, the peak value of intracellular toxin (0.59 microg/mg DW) was determined in October, which was lag behind that in water column. In addition, MC-RR was the major toxin variant throughout the year. During the study period, nutrients levels of total nitrogen and phosphorus were also recorded monthly. Results from the present study will lead to a better understanding of the eutrophication status and the potential risks before "Wuxi Drinking Water Crisis".

  12. Water budgets, water quality, and analysis of nutrient loading of the Winter Park chain of lakes, central Florida, 1989-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.; German, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    nutrients nitrogen and phosphorus, and chlorophyll (collected at lake sites only). Specific conductance ranged from about 190 to 230 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius in Lakes Maitland, Virginia and Osceola and from about 226 to 260 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius in Lake Mizell. The median concentrations of total ammonia-plus-organic nitrogen in all the lakes ranged from 0.79 to 0.99 milligrams per liter. Median total phosphorus concentrations ranged from less than 0.02 to 0.20 milligrams per liter. Stormwater samples were collected for 17 storms at one storm-drain site and 16 storms at another storm-drain site on Lake Osceola. Median total nitrogen concentrations at the sites were 2.23 and 3.06 milligrams per liter and median total phosphorus concentrations were 0.34 and 0.40 milligrams per liter. The water quality in the Winter Park lakes generally is fair to good, based on a trophic-state index used by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection for assessing the tropic state of Florida lakes. This index was determined from median total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and chlorophyll-a concentrations, and median Secchi-disk transparency for all lakes for the period September 1989 to June 1992. Based on a one-time sampling of 20 sites around the lakes, surficial ground-water quality is highly variable. Nutrient concentrations were highly variable and could not be correlated to the proximity of septic tanks. Fertilizer probably is the primary source of nutrients in the surficial ground water. Nutrient budgets were calculated for the lakes for the 3 years of the study. The most variable source of nutrient loading to the lakes is stormwater. Nutrient-loading modeling indicates that reduction of nutrients in stormflow probably would improve lake-water quality. However, even with complete removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from stormwater, the lakes might still be mesotrophic with respect to both nutrients during periods of below ave

  13. The effect of contaminated sediments on fecundity of the brown bullhead in three Lake Erie tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesko, Lynn T.; Smith, Stephen B.; Blouin, Marc A.

    1996-01-01

    Female brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) were collected from three Lake Erie tributaries (Ohio) from 8 to 25 May 1989, to determine the effects of contaminated sediments on reproductive potentials. Fish obtained from the Black and Cuyahoga rivers, which contain sediments with elevated concentrations of metals, PCBs, and PAHs, were compared with fish collected in Mud Brook, a tributary of the Huron River, which was selected as our reference site. Fecundity, egg diameter, fish length and weight, and the presence of external abnormalities were recorded for each fish. Brown bullhead from the contaminated sites were larger then those from the reference site and fecundity was significantly (P < 0.05) different in all three river systems. Those from the most polluted river (Cuyahoga River) had the greatest number of eggs per individual female. The high frequency of external abnormalities observed on brown bullhead from the contaminated sites did not appear to have a detrimental influence on fecundity. These results suggest that fecundity of the brown bullhead was not adversely affected in ecosystems altered by the presence of contaminated sediments. Increased fecundity of the brown bullhead from impacted rivers may be the result of reduced competition for an abundant invertebrate food source and limited predation by other fish species whose numbers are largely depleted in these degraded systems.

  14. Mercury and selenium contamination in waterbird eggs and risk to avian reproduction at Great Salt Lake, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Herzog, Mark P.; Hartman, Christopher A.; Isanhart, John P.; Herring, Garth; Vaughn, Sharon; Cavitt, John F.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Browers, Howard; Cline, Chris; Vest, Josh

    2015-01-01

    The wetlands of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem are recognized regionally, nationally, and hemispherically for their importance as breeding, wintering, and migratory habitat for diverse groups of waterbirds. Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge is the largest freshwater component of the Great Salt Lake ecosystem and provides critical breeding habitat for more than 60 bird species. However, the Great Salt Lake ecosystem also has a history of both mercury and selenium contamination, and this pollution could reduce the health and reproductive success of waterbirds. The overall objective of this study was to evaluate the risk of mercury and selenium contamination to birds breeding within Great Salt Lake, especially at Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, and to identify the waterbird species and areas at greatest risk to contamination. We sampled eggs from 33 species of birds breeding within wetlands of Great Salt Lake during 2010 ̶ 2012 and focused on American avocets (Recurvirostra americana), black-necked stilts (Himantopus mexicanus), Forster’s terns (Sterna forsteri), white-faced ibis (Plegadis chihi), and marsh wrens (Cistothorus palustris) for additional studies of the effects of contaminants on reproduction.

  15. Pesticides and nitrate in groundwater underlying citrus croplands, Lake Wales Ridge, central Florida, 1999-2005.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choquette, Anne F.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes pesticide and nitrate (as nitrogen) results from quarterly sampling of 31 surficial-aquifer wells in the Lake Wales Ridge Monitoring Network during April 1999 through January 2005. The wells, located adjacent to citrus orchards and used for monitoring only, were generally screened (sampled) within 5 to 40 feet of the water table. Of the 44 citrus pesticides and pesticide degradates analyzed, 17 were detected in groundwater samples. Parent pesticides and degradates detected in quarterly groundwater samples, ordered by frequency of detection, included norflurazon, demethyl norflurazon, simazine, diuron, bromacil, aldicarb sulfone, aldicarb sulfoxide, deisopropylatrazine (DIA), imidacloprid, metalaxyl, thiazopyr monoacid, oxamyl, and aldicarb. Reconnaissance sampling of five Network wells yielded detection of four additional pesticide degradates (hydroxysimazine, didealkylatrazine, deisopropylhydroxyatrazine, and hydroxyatrazine). The highest median concentration values per well, based on samples collected during the 1999–2005 period (n=14 to 24 samples per well), included 3.05 µg/L (micrograms per liter) (simazine), 3.90 µg/L (diuron), 6.30 µg/L (aldicarb sulfone), 6.85 µg/L (aldicarb sulfoxide), 22.0 µg/L (demethyl norflurazon), 25.0 µg/ (norflurazon), 89 µg/ (bromacil), and 25.5 mg/L (milligrams per liter) (nitrate). Nitrate concentrations exceeded the 10 mg/L (as nitrogen) drinking water standard in one or more groundwater samples from 28 of the wells, and the median nitrate concentration among these wells was 14 mg/L. Sampled groundwater pesticide concentrations exceeded Florida’s health-guidance benchmarks for aldicarb sulfoxide and aldicarb sulfone (4 wells), the sum of aldicarb and its degradates (6 wells), simazine (2 wells), the sum of simazine and DIA (3 wells), diuron (2 wells), bromacil (1 well), and the sum of norflurazon and demethyl norflurazon (1 well). The magnitude of fluctuations in groundwater pesticide

  16. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: II. Biological consequences of exposure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Linnea M.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Brigham, Mark E.; Choy, Steven J.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, D.J.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain one fifth of the world’s surface freshwater and have been impacted by human activity since the Industrial Revolution. In addition to legacy contaminants, nitrification and invasive species, this aquatic ecosystem is also the recipient of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) with poorly understood biological consequences. In the current study, we documented the presence, concentrations, and biological effects of CECs across 27 field sites in six Great Lakes tributaries by examining over 2250 resident and caged sunfish (Lepomis ssp.) for a variety of morphological and physiological endpoints and related these results to CEC occurrence. CEC were ubiquitous across studies sites and their presence and concentrations in water and sediment were highest in effluent dominated rivers and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges. However, even putative upstream reference sites were not free of CEC presence and fish at these sites exhibited biological effects consistent with CEC exposure. Only the Fox River exhibited consistent adverse biological effects, including increased relative liver size, greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles and increased plasma glucose concentrations. Canonical Redundancy Analysis revealed consistent patterns of biological consequences of CEC exposure across all six tributaries. Increasing plasma glucose concentrations, likely as a result of pollutant-induced metabolic stress, were associated with increased relative liver size and greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles. These indicators of pollutant exposure were inversely correlated with indicators of reproductive potential including smaller gonad size and less mature gametes. The current study highlights the need for greater integration of chemical and biological studies and suggests that CECs in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin may adversely affect the reproductive potential of exposed fish populations.

  17. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: II. Biological consequences of exposure

    PubMed Central

    Brigham, Mark E.; Choy, Steven J.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Banda, Jo A.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Minarik, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain one fifth of the world’s surface freshwater and have been impacted by human activity since the Industrial Revolution. In addition to legacy contaminants, nitrification and invasive species, this aquatic ecosystem is also the recipient of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) with poorly understood biological consequences. In the current study, we documented the presence, concentrations, and biological effects of CECs across 27 field sites in six Great Lakes tributaries by examining over 2250 resident and caged sunfish (Lepomis ssp.) for a variety of morphological and physiological endpoints and related these results to CEC occurrence. CEC were ubiquitous across studies sites and their presence and concentrations in water and sediment were highest in effluent dominated rivers and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges. However, even putative upstream reference sites were not free of CEC presence and fish at these sites exhibited biological effects consistent with CEC exposure. Only the Fox River exhibited consistent adverse biological effects, including increased relative liver size, greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles and increased plasma glucose concentrations. Canonical Redundancy Analysis revealed consistent patterns of biological consequences of CEC exposure across all six tributaries. Increasing plasma glucose concentrations, likely as a result of pollutant-induced metabolic stress, were associated with increased relative liver size and greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles. These indicators of pollutant exposure were inversely correlated with indicators of reproductive potential including smaller gonad size and less mature gametes. The current study highlights the need for greater integration of chemical and biological studies and suggests that CECs in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin may adversely affect the reproductive potential of exposed fish populations. PMID:28953953

  18. Contaminants of emerging concern in tributaries to the Laurentian Great Lakes: II. Biological consequences of exposure.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Linnea M; Jorgenson, Zachary G; Brigham, Mark E; Choy, Steven J; Moore, Jeremy N; Banda, Jo A; Gefell, Daniel J; Minarik, Thomas A; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2017-01-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes contain one fifth of the world's surface freshwater and have been impacted by human activity since the Industrial Revolution. In addition to legacy contaminants, nitrification and invasive species, this aquatic ecosystem is also the recipient of Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs) with poorly understood biological consequences. In the current study, we documented the presence, concentrations, and biological effects of CECs across 27 field sites in six Great Lakes tributaries by examining over 2250 resident and caged sunfish (Lepomis ssp.) for a variety of morphological and physiological endpoints and related these results to CEC occurrence. CEC were ubiquitous across studies sites and their presence and concentrations in water and sediment were highest in effluent dominated rivers and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges. However, even putative upstream reference sites were not free of CEC presence and fish at these sites exhibited biological effects consistent with CEC exposure. Only the Fox River exhibited consistent adverse biological effects, including increased relative liver size, greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles and increased plasma glucose concentrations. Canonical Redundancy Analysis revealed consistent patterns of biological consequences of CEC exposure across all six tributaries. Increasing plasma glucose concentrations, likely as a result of pollutant-induced metabolic stress, were associated with increased relative liver size and greater prominence of hepatocyte vacuoles. These indicators of pollutant exposure were inversely correlated with indicators of reproductive potential including smaller gonad size and less mature gametes. The current study highlights the need for greater integration of chemical and biological studies and suggests that CECs in the Laurentian Great Lakes Basin may adversely affect the reproductive potential of exposed fish populations.

  19. Linking field-based metabolomics and chemical analyses to prioritize contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, John M.; Ekman, Drew R.; Teng, Quincy; Ankley, Gerald T.; Berninger, Jason P.; Cavallin, Jenna E.; Jensen, Kathleen M.; Kahl, Michael D.; Schroeder, Anthony L.; Villeneuve, Daniel L.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Collette, Timothy W.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to focus on the most biologically relevant contaminants affecting aquatic ecosystems can be challenging because toxicity-assessment programs have not kept pace with the growing number of contaminants requiring testing. Because it has proven effective at assessing the biological impacts of potentially toxic contaminants, profiling of endogenous metabolites (metabolomics) may help screen out contaminants with a lower likelihood of eliciting biological impacts, thereby prioritizing the most biologically important contaminants. The authors present results from a study that utilized cage-deployed fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) at 18 sites across the Great Lakes basin. They measured water temperature and contaminant concentrations in water samples (132 contaminants targeted, 86 detected) and used 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure endogenous metabolites in polar extracts of livers. They used partial least-squares regression to compare relative abundances of endogenous metabolites with contaminant concentrations and temperature. The results indicated that profiles of endogenous polar metabolites covaried with at most 49 contaminants. The authors identified up to 52% of detected contaminants as not significantly covarying with changes in endogenous metabolites, suggesting they likely were not eliciting measurable impacts at these sites. This represents a first step in screening for the biological relevance of detected contaminants by shortening lists of contaminants potentially affecting these sites. Such information may allow risk assessors to prioritize contaminants and focus toxicity testing on the most biologically relevant contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2493–2502.

  20. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus) as vectors of contaminants to human consumers in northwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Snyder, Richard A.; Lange, Ted; Gibson, Suzanne; Allison, Jeffrey G.; Wagner, Matthew E.; Rao, K. Ranga

    2011-01-01

    The health benefits of regular consumption of fish and seafood have been espoused for many years. However, fish are also a potential source of environmental contaminants that have well known adverse effects on human health. We investigated the consumption risks for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides; n = 104) and striped mullet (Mugil cephalus; n = 170), two commonly harvested and consumed fish species inhabiting fresh and estuarine waters in northwest Florida. Skinless fillets were analyzed for total mercury, inorganic arsenic, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. Contaminant levels were compared to screening values (SV) calculated using U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendations for establishing consumption advisories. Largemouth bass were found to contain high levels of total mercury at all sampling locations (0.37-0.89 ug/g) and one location exhibited elevated total PCBs (39.4 ng/g). All of the samples exceeded Florida fish consumption advisory trigger levels for total mercury and one location exceeded the U.S. EPA SV for total PCBs. As a result of the high mercury levels, the non-cancer health risks (hazard index-HI) for bass were above 1 for all locations. Striped mullet from several locations with known point sources contained elevated levels of PCBs (overall range 3.4-59.3 ng/g). However, total mercury levels in mullet were low. Eight of the 16 mullet sampling locations exceeded the U.S. EPA SV for total PCBs and two locations exceeded an HI of 1 due to elevated PCBs. Despite the elevated levels of total PCBs in some samples, only two locations exceeded the acceptable cancer risk range and therefore cancer health risks from consumption of bass and mullet were determined to be low at most sampling locations.

  1. Hydrogeology and simulation of the effects of reclaimed-water application in west Orange and southeast Lake counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.

    1998-01-01

    Wastewater reclamation and reuse has become increasingly popular as water agencies search for alternative water-supply and wastewater-disposal options. Several governmental agencies in central Florida currently use the land-based application of reclaimed water (wastewater that has been treated beyond secondary treatment) as a management alternative to surface-water disposal of wastewater. Water Conserv II, a water reuse project developed jointly by Orange County and the City of Orlando, began operation in December 1986. In 1995, the Water Conserv II facility distributed approximately 28 Mgal/d of reclaimed water for discharge to rapid-infiltration basins (RIBs) and for use as agricultural irrigation. The Reedy Creek Improvement District (RCID) began operation of RIBs in September 1990, and in 1995 these RIBs received approximately 6.7 Mgal/d of reclaimed water. Analyses of existing data and data collected during the course of this study were combined with ground-water flow modeling and particle-tracking analyses to develop a process-oriented evaluation of the regional effects of reclaimed water applied by Water Conserv II and the RCID RIBs on the hydrology of west Orange and southeast Lake Counties. The ground-water flow system beneath the study area is a multi-aquifer system that consists of a thick sequence of highly permeable carbonate rocks overlain by unconsolidated sediments. The hydrogeologic units are the unconfined surficial aquifer system, the intermediate confining unit, and the confined Floridan aquifer system, which consists of two major permeable zones, the Upper and Lower Floridan aquifers, separated by the less permeable middle semiconfining unit. Flow in the surficial aquifer system is dominated regionally by diffuse downward leakage to the Floridan aquifer system and is affected locally by lateral flow systems produced by streams, lakes, and spatial variations in recharge. Ground water generally flows laterally through the Upper Floridan aquifer

  2. Migration of wood-preserving chemicals in contaminated groundwater in a sand aquifer at Pensacola, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goerlitz, D.F.; Troutman, D.E.; Godsy, E.M.; Franks, B.J.

    1985-01-01

    Operation of a wood-preserving facility for nearly 80 years at Pensacola, FL, contaminated the near-surface groundwater with creosote and pentachlorophenol. The major source of aquifer contamination was unlined surface impoundments that were in direct hydraulic contact with the groundwater. Episodes of overtopping the impoundments and overland flow of treatment liquor and waste were also significant to the migration and contamination of the groundwater. Solutes contaminating the ground-water are mainly naphthalene and substituted phenols. Sorption did not influence retardation of solutes in transport in the groundwater. Phenol and the mono substituted methylphenols appear to be undergoing bio-transformation. Pentachlorophenol (PCP) was not found in significant concentrations in the groundwater possibly because the solubility of PCP is approximately 5 mg/L at pH 6, near the average acidity for the groundwater.

  3. Novel associations between contaminant body burdens and biomarkers of reproductive condition in male Common Carp along multiple gradients of contaminant exposure in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Orsak, Erik; Jenkins, Jill A.; Echols, Kathy R.; Rosen, Michael R.; Torres, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    Adult male Common Carp were sampled in 2007/08 over a full reproductive cycle at Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Sites sampled included a stream dominated by treated wastewater effluent, a lake basin receiving the streamflow, an upstream lake basin (reference), and a site below Hoover Dam. Individual body burdens for 252 contaminants were measured, and biological variables assessed included physiological [plasma vitellogenin (VTG), estradiol-17β (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT)] and organ [gonadosomatic index (GSI)] endpoints. Patterns in contaminant composition and biological condition were determined by Principal Component Analysis, and their associations modeled by Principal Component Regression. Three spatially distinct but temporally stable gradients of contaminant distribution were recognized: a contaminant mixture typical of wastewaters (PBDEs, methyl triclosan, galaxolide), PCBs, and DDTs. Two spatiotemporally variable patterns of biological condition were recognized: a primary pattern consisting of reproductive condition variables (11KT, E2, GSI), and a secondary pattern including general condition traits (condition factor, hematocrit, fork length). VTG was low in all fish, indicating low estrogenic activity of water at all sites. Wastewater contaminants associated negatively with GSI, 11KT and E2; PCBs associated negatively with GSI and 11KT; and DDTs associated positively with GSI and 11KT. Regression of GSI on sex steroids revealed a novel, nonlinear association between these variables. Inclusion of sex steroids in the GSI regression on contaminants rendered wastewater contaminants nonsignificant in the model and reduced the influence of PCBs and DDTs. Thus, the influence of contaminants on GSI may have been partially driven by organismal modes-of-action that include changes in sex steroid production. The positive association of DDTs with 11KT and GSI suggests that lifetime, sub-lethal exposures to DDTs have effects on male carp opposite of those

  4. Novel associations between contaminant body burdens and biomarkers of reproductive condition in male Common Carp along multiple gradients of contaminant exposure in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, USA.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M; Goodbred, Steven L; Orsak, Erik; Jenkins, Jill A; Echols, Kathy; Rosen, Michael R; Torres, Leticia

    2015-08-01

    Adult male Common Carp were sampled in 2007/08 over a full reproductive cycle at Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Sites sampled included a stream dominated by treated wastewater effluent, a lake basin receiving the streamflow, an upstream lake basin (reference), and a site below Hoover Dam. Individual body burdens for 252 contaminants were measured, and biological variables assessed included physiological [plasma vitellogenin (VTG), estradiol-17β (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT)] and organ [gonadosomatic index (GSI)] endpoints. Patterns in contaminant composition and biological condition were determined by Principal Component Analysis, and their associations modeled by Principal Component Regression. Three spatially distinct but temporally stable gradients of contaminant distribution were recognized: a contaminant mixture typical of wastewaters (PBDEs, methyl triclosan, galaxolide), PCBs, and DDTs. Two spatiotemporally variable patterns of biological condition were recognized: a primary pattern consisting of reproductive condition variables (11KT, E2, GSI), and a secondary pattern including general condition traits (condition factor, hematocrit, fork length). VTG was low in all fish, indicating low estrogenic activity of water at all sites. Wastewater contaminants associated negatively with GSI, 11KT and E2; PCBs associated negatively with GSI and 11KT; and DDTs associated positively with GSI and 11KT. Regression of GSI on sex steroids revealed a novel, nonlinear association between these variables. Inclusion of sex steroids in the GSI regression on contaminants rendered wastewater contaminants nonsignificant in the model and reduced the influence of PCBs and DDTs. Thus, the influence of contaminants on GSI may have been partially driven by organismal modes-of-action that include changes in sex steroid production. The positive association of DDTs with 11KT and GSI suggests that lifetime, sub-lethal exposures to DDTs have effects on male carp opposite of those

  5. Relationships of environmental contaminants to reproductive success in red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator) from Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Haseltine, S.D.; Reichel, W.L.; Hensler, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    In 1977 and 1978, we studied red-breasted mergansers Mergus serrator nesting on islands in northwestern Lake Michigan to determine whether environmental contaminants were having effects on reproduction. Seventeen contaminants were measured in randomly chosen eggs from 206 nests under study. Using a variety of statistical approaches, we looked for effects of individual contaminants and combinations of contaminants on reproductive measurements such as nest desertion, failure of eggs to hatch, death of newly hatched ducklings, percentage hatching success, number of ducklings leaving the nest and eggshell thickness. We also looked for relationships between the levels of some contaminants in blood samples of 39 incubating females and reproductive success. A small degree of eggshell thinning was attributed to DDE and a few other statistical tests were significant, but no contaminant or combination of contaminants we measured seemed to have a pronounced effect on the aspects of reproduction we followed.

  6. Mountain Lake, Presidio National Park, San Francisco: Paleoenvironment, heavy metal contamination, sedimentary record rescue, remediation, and public outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrbo, A.; Rodysill, J. R.; Jones, K.; Reidy, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Sediment cores from Mountain Lake, a small natural lake in Presidio National Park, San Francisco, CA, provide a record of Bay Area environmental change spanning the past 2000 years, and of unusually high heavy metal contamination in the last century (Reidy 2001). In 2013, partial dredging of the lake removed the upper two meters of lake sediment as part of a remediation effort. Prior to dredging, long and short cores spatially covering the lake and representing deep and shallow environments were recovered from the lake to preserve the paleoenvironmental record of one of the only natural lakes on the San Francisco Peninsula. The cores are curated at LacCore and are available for research by the scientific community. Mountain Lake formed in an interdunal depression and was shallow and fluctuating in its first few hundred years. Lake level rise and inundation of a larger area was followed by lowstands under drier conditions around 550-700 and 1300 CE. Nonnative taxa and cultivars appeared at the time of Spanish settlement in the late 18th century, and the lake underwent eutrophication due to livestock pasturing. U.S. Army landscaping introduced trees to the watershed in the late 19th century. The upper ~1m of sediments document unusually high heavy metal contamination, especially for lead and zinc, caused by the construction and heavy use of Highway 1 on the lake shore. Lead levels peak in 1975 and decline towards the surface, reflecting the history of leaded gasoline use in California. Zinc is derived mainly from automobile tires, and follows a pattern similar to that of lead, but continues to increase towards the surface. Ongoing research includes additional radiocarbon dating and detailed lithological analysis to form the basis of lake-level reconstruction and archeological investigations. Because the Presidio archaeological record does not record human habitation in the area until approximately 1300 years before present, the core analysis also has the potential to

  7. Arsenic Speciation in Plankton Organisms from Contaminated Lakes: Transformations at the Base of the Freshwater Food Chain

    SciTech Connect

    Caumette, Guilhem; Koch, Iris; Estrada, Esteban

    2012-02-06

    The two complementary techniques high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis were used to assess arsenic speciation in freshwater phytoplankton and zooplankton collected from arsenic-contaminated lakes in Yellowknife (Northwest Territories, Canada). Arsenic concentrations in lake water ranged from 7 {micro}g L{sup -1} in a noncontaminated lake to 250 {micro}g L{sup -1} in mine-contaminated lakes, which resulted in arsenic concentrations ranging from 7 to 340 mg kg{sup -1} d.w. in zooplankton organisms (Cyclops sp.) and from 154 to 894 mg kg{sup -1} d.w. in phytoplankton. The main arsenic compounds identified by HPLC-ICP-MSmore » in all plankton were inorganic arsenic (from 38% to 98% of total arsenic). No other arsenic compounds were found in phytoplankton, but zooplankton organisms showed the presence of organoarsenic compounds, the most common being the sulfate arsenosugar, up to 47% of total arsenic, with traces of phosphate sugar, glycerol sugar, methylarsonate (MMA), and dimethylarsinate (DMA). In the uncontaminated Grace Lake, zooplankton also contained arsenobetaine (AB). XANES characterization of arsenic in the whole plankton samples showed AsV-O as the only arsenic compound in phytoplankton, and AsIII-S and AsV-O compounds as the two major inorganic arsenic species in zooplankton. The proportion of organoarsenicals and inorganic arsenic in zooplankton depends upon the arsenic concentration in lakes and shows the impact of arsenic contamination: zooplankton from uncontaminated lake has higher proportions of organoarsenic compounds and contains arsenobetaine, while zooplankton from contaminated area contains mostly inorganic arsenic.« less

  8. Biogeochemistry of three small Eutrophic Lakes Differentially Influenced by Marine Waters from Bayou Chico Bay, Pensacola, Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogeochemical models predict microbial mediated pathways but generally do not account for microorganisms. This study was undertaken to better understand relationships among microbial communities and N, S, Fe and C cycling in three lakes. Jackson Lakes formed from abandoned sand...

  9. Accumulation and distribution of heavy metals in sediments and fish in the Kola Peninsula lakes under airborne contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Dauvalter, V.A.; Kashulin, N.A.; Lukin, A.A.

    1996-12-31

    The copper-nickel smelter complexes of Kola Peninsula are powerful sources of atmospheric contamination by heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Co, Cd, etc.) and acidic oxides (SO{sub 2}) deposited in precipitation and caused negative effects on local freshwater ecosystems. The rise of background levels occurs over large areas in the region. The aim of the investigations is to assess effects of the air contamination on lake ecosystems at different distances (from 15 to 120 km) from one of the main heavy metal pollution sources of the Kola Peninsula - smelters of the Pechenganickel Company. Negative effects of air pollution by the smeltersmore » on the freshwater ecosystems were recorded. Lake sediments accumulate very intensively heavy metals. Heavy metal contamination factors calculated as the quotient of concentration from the uppermost (0-1 cm) sediment to the mean preindustrial background value (concentrations from 20-30 cm sediment layers) for the investigated region reach up 120 for Ni and 76 for Cu in the lakes within a distance of 40 km from the smelters. The lakes in this region have very high contamination degree according classification by Hakanson (1980). Concentrations of Ni in organs and tissues of all studied fishes (whitefish, pike, perch, arctic char, brown trout) were considerably higher in the investigated lakes than in remote unpolluted lakes. There is tight positive correlation between Ni concentrations in surficial sediment (0-1 cm) and fish kidney (r = +0.854), as well as between values of contamination degree and Ni content in fish (r = +0.871).« less

  10. Effects of seasonal climatic variability on several toxic contaminants in urban lakes: Implications for the impacts of climate change.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Xia, Xinghui; Mou, Xinli; Zhu, Baotong; Zhao, Pujun; Dong, Haiyang

    2014-12-01

    Climate change is supposed to have influences on water quality and ecosystem. However, only few studies have assessed the effect of climate change on environmental toxic contaminants in urban lakes. In this research, response of several toxic contaminants in twelve urban lakes in Beijing, China, to the seasonal variations in climatic factors was studied. Fluorides, volatile phenols, arsenic, selenium, and other water quality parameters were analyzed monthly from 2009 to 2012. Multivariate statistical methods including principle component analysis, cluster analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed to study the relationship between contaminants and climatic factors including temperature, precipitation, wind speed, and sunshine duration. Fluoride and arsenic concentrations in most urban lakes exhibited a significant positive correlation with temperature/precipitation, which is mainly caused by rainfall induced diffuse pollution. A negative correlation was observed between volatile phenols and temperature/precipitation, and this could be explained by their enhanced volatilization and biodegradation rates caused by higher temperature. Selenium did not show a significant response to climatic factor variations, which was attributed to low selenium contents in the lakes and soils. Moreover, the response degrees of contaminants to climatic variations differ among lakes with different contamination levels. On average, temperature/precipitation contributed to 8%, 15%, and 12% of the variations in volatile phenols, arsenic, and fluorides, respectively. Beijing is undergoing increased temperature and heavy rainfall frequency during the past five decades. This study suggests that water quality related to fluoride and arsenic concentrations of most urban lakes in Beijing is becoming worse under this climate change trend. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Sampling history and 2009--2010 results for pesticides and inorganic constituents monitored by the Lake Wales Ridge Groundwater Network, central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choquette, Anne F.; Freiwald, R. Scott; Kraft, Carol L.

    2012-01-01

    The Lake Wales Ridge Monitoring (LWRM) Network was established to provide a long-term record of water quality of the surficial aquifer in one of the principal citrus-production areas of Florida. This region is underlain by sandy soils that contain minimal organic matter and are highly vulnerable to leaching of chemicals into the subsurface. This report documents the 1989 through May 2010 sampling history of the LWRM Network and summarizes monitoring results for 38 Network wells that were sampled during the period January 2009 through May 2010. During 1989 through May 2010, the Network’s citrus land-use wells were sampled intermittently to 1999, quarterly from April 1999 to October 2009, and thereafter quarterly to semiannually. The water-quality summaries in this report focus on the period January 2009 through May 2010, during which the Network’s citrus land-use wells were sampled six times and the non-citrus land-use wells were sampled two times. Within the citrus land-use wells sampled, a total of 13 pesticide compounds (8 parent pesticides and 5 degradates) were detected of the 37 pesticide compounds analyzed during this period. The most frequently detected compounds included demethyl norflurazon (83 percent of wells), norflurazon (79 percent), aldicarb sulfoxide (41 percent), aldicarb sulfone (38 percent), imidacloprid (38 percent), and diuron (28 percent). Agrichemical concentrations in samples from the citrus land-use wells during the 2009 through May 2010 period exceeded Federal drinking-water standards (maximum contaminant levels, MCLs) in 1.5 to 24 percent of samples for aldicarb and its degradates (sulfone and sulfoxide), and in 68 percent of the samples for nitrate. Florida statutes restrict the distance of aldicarb applications to drinking-water wells; however, these statutes do not apply to monitoring wells. Health-screening benchmark levels that identify unregulated chemicals of potential concern were exceeded for norflurazon and diuron in 29 and

  12. Phenolic contamination in the sand-and-gravel aquifer from a surface impoundment of wood treatment wastes, Pensacola, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, D.E.; Godsy, E.M.; Goerlitz, D.F.; Ehrlich, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    Creosote and pentachlorophenol wastewaters discharged to unlined surface impoundments have resulted in groundwater contamination in the vicinity of an industrial site near Pensacola, Florida. Total phenol concentrations of 36,000 microgm/liter have been detected 40 ft below land surface in a test hole 100 ft south of an overflow impoundment but less than 10 microgm/liter 90 ft below land surface. Samples collected in test holes 1,350 ft downgradient from the surface impoundments and 100 ft north of Pensacola Bay, above and immediately below a clay lens, indicate that phenol contaminated groundwater may not be discharging directly into Pensacola Bay. Phenol concentrations exceeding 20 microgm/liter were detected in samples from a drainage ditch discharging directly into Bayou Chico. Microbiological data collected near the test site suggest that an anaerobic methanogenic ecosystem contributes to a reduction in phenol concentrations in groundwater. A laboratory study using bacteria isolated from the study site indicates that phenol, 2-methylphenol, and 3-methylphenol are significantly degraded and that methanogenesis reduces total phenol concentrations in laboratory digestors by 45%. Pentachlorophenol may inhibit methanogenesis at concentrations exceeding 0.45 milligm/liter. (USGS)

  13. Quality of water and bottom sediments, and nutrient and dissolved-solids loads in the Apopka-Beauclair Canal, Lake County, Florida, 1986-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schiffer, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    Nutrient-rich water enters Lake Beauclair and other lakes downstream from Lake Apopka in the Ocklawaha River chain of lakes in central Florida. Two sources of the nutrient-rich water are Lake Apopka outflow and drainage from farming operations adjacent to the Apopka-Beauclair Canal. Two flow and water- quality monitoring sites were established to measure nutrient and dissolved-solids loads at the outflow from lake Apopka and at a control structure on the Apopka-Beauclair Canal downstream from farming activities. Samples were collected biweekly for analysis of nutrients and monthly for analysis of major ions for 4 years. Most of the nutrient load transported through the lock and dam on the Apopka-Beauclair Canal was transported during periods of high discharge. In April 1987, when discharges were as high as 589 cubic feet per second, loads transported through the lock and dam accounted for 59 percent of the ammonia-plus- organic nitrogen load, 61 percent of the total nitrogen load, and 59 percent of the phosphorus load transported during the 1987 water year. Constituent concentrations in annual bottom sediment samples from the canal indicated that most of the constituent load is not being transported down- stream. An alternative approach was derived for determining the relative constituent load from farm input along the canal: Load computations using this approach indicated that, with the exception of phosphorus, nutrient and dissolved-solids loads due to farm activity along the canal account for 10 percent or less of the total load at the Apopka-Beauclair canal lock and dam. (USGS)

  14. Mercury contamination in free-ranging great egret nestlings (Ardea albus) from southern Florida, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.

    1999-05-01

    Between March and June of 1994 and 1995, mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined from 393 blood and 164 growing scapular feathers from 252 great egret nestlings (Ardea albus). Nestlings came from eight colonies located in Water Conservation Area 3 in the Everglades region in southern Florida. The ages of these birds ranged from 1 to 44 d (bill length 1.1 to 10.2 cm). Mercury concentrations in blood and feathers of first-hatched great egret nestlings sampled during 1994 averaged 1.2 {micro}g/g (range = 0.07--3.9) wet weight and 16 {micro}g/g (4.5--40) dry weight, respectively. During 1995, first-hatched chicks had blood and feathermore » Hg concentrations that averaged 0.8 {micro}g/g (0.2--1.7) and 9.7 {micro}g/g (2.3--26), respectively. In both years, Hg concentrations in blood and feathers were significantly correlated, and a significant correlation also was found between Hg in blood and age of the chicks. Blood and feather Hg concentrations differed significantly between years, with higher concentrations during 1994. Birds from JW1 and L67 colonies had the highest concentrations of Hg in blood and feathers. Mercury concentrations did not differ between chicks of different hatch order Mercury in feathers of great egret nestlings from southern Florida are approximately six times higher than when compared to feather Hg concentrations of nestlings wading birds sampled elsewhere.« less

  15. Analysis of water-level fluctuations of Lakes Winona and Winnemissett-- two landlocked lakes in a karst terrane in Volusia County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The water levels of Lakes Winona and Winnemissett in Volusia County, Fla., correlate reasonably well during dry spells but only poorly during wet spells. Disparities develop mostly at times when the lake levels rise abruptly owing to rainstorms passing over the lake basins. The lack of correlation is attributed to the uneven distribution of the storm rainfall, even though the average annual rainfall at National Weather Service gages in the general area of the lakes is about the same. Analyses of the monthly rainfall data show that the rainfall variability between gages is sufficient to account for most of the disparity between monthly changes in the levels of the two lakes. The total annual rainfall at times may differ between rainfall gages by as much as 15 to 20 inches. Such differences tend to balance over the long term but may persist in the same direction for two or more years, causing apparent anomalies in lake-level fluctuations. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Contaminants in fish tissue from US lakes and reservoirs: A national probabilistic study

    EPA Science Inventory

    An unequal probability design was used to develop national estimates for 268 persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals in fish tissue from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes and Great Salt Lake). Predator (fillet) ...

  17. GOLF COURSES AS A SOURCE OF COASTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICITY: A FLORIDA EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical and biological impacts of two coastal golf courses that receive wastewater spray irrigation were determined during a two-year period. A variety of techniques were used to assess the spatial and temporal variability of contaminant levels and their bioavailability in t...

  18. Albino mutation rates in red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle L.) as a bioassay of contamination history in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Proffitt, C.E.; Travis, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the sensitivity of a viviparous estuarine tree species, Rhizophora mangle, to historic sublethal mutagenic stress across a fine spatial scale by comparing the frequency of trees producing albino propagules in historically contaminated (n=4) and uncontaminated (n=11) forests in Tampa Bay, Florida, USA. Data from uncontaminated forests were used to provide estimates of background mutation rates. We also determined whether other fitness parameters were negatively correlated with mutagenic stress (e.g., degree of outcrossing and numbers of reproducing trees km-1). Contaminated sites in Tampa Bay had significantly higher frequencies of trees that were heterozygous for albinism per 1000 total reproducing trees (FHT) than uncontaminated forests (mean ?? SE: 11.4 ?? 4.3 vs 4.3 ?? 0.73, P 25 yrs of subsequent recruitment and tree replacement may have allowed an initial elevation in the FHT to decay. Patterns of FHT were not explained by distance from the bay mouth or the degree of urbanization. However, there was a significant positive relationship between tree size and FHT (r=0.83, P<0.018), which suggests that forests with older or larger trees provide a more lasting record of cumulative mutagenic stress. No other fitness parameters correlated with FHT. There was a difference in FHT between two latitudes, as determined by comparing Tampa Bay with literature values for Puerto Rico. The sensitivity of this bioassay for the effects of mutagens will facilitate future monitoring of contamination events and comparisons of bay-wide recovery in future decades. Development of a database of FHT values for a range of subtropical and tropical estuaries is underway that will provide a baseline against which to compare mutational consequences of global change. ?? 2005, The Society of Wetland Scientists.

  19. An assessment of total and leachable contaminants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from Lake Erie

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, F.G.; Evans, D.W.; Neuhauser, E.F.

    Samples of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, from populations infesting two power generating stations on Lake Erie were subjected to tests assessing the potential for leaching of metals and other (inorganic and organic) contaminants from mussel waste destined for disposal in conventional landfills. These tests revealed that mussels collected from Ontario Hydro's Nanticoke Thermal Generating Station and Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation's Dunkirk Steam Station did not release hazardous materials in excess of limits set forth in Canadian and U.S. regulations, respectively. A variety of metals and inorganic materials leached from Nanticoke mussels at levels significantly lower than the registration limits formore » those analytes. Detectable levels of chloroform (0.080 mg/liter) and barium (3.3 mg/liter) leached from Dunkirk mussels at > 30-fold lower levels than U.S. regulatory action limits for those materials. Whole body analyses revealed a lack of detectable levels of herbicides and pesticides in either population with a variety of metals and inorganic constituents in all samples from both populations. The physiological condition of Dunkirk mussels appeared to be consistent with that of other Lake Erie populations based on percentage water and total fat content of soft tissues.« less

  20. An assessment of total and leachable contaminants in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from Lake Erie.

    PubMed

    Doherty, F G; Evans, D W; Neuhauser, E F

    1993-06-01

    Samples of zebra mussels, Dreissena polymorpha, from populations infesting two power generating stations on Lake Erie were subjected to tests assessing the potential for leaching of metals and other (inorganic and organic) contaminants from mussel waste destined for disposal in conventional landfills. These tests revealed that mussels collected from Ontario Hydro's Nanticoke Thermal Generating Station and Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation's Dunkirk Steam Station did not release hazardous materials in excess of limits set forth in Canadian and U.S. regulations, respectively. A variety of metals and inorganic materials leached from Nanticoke mussels at levels significantly lower than the registration limits for those analytes. Detectable levels of chloroform (0.080 mg/liter) and barium (3.3 mg/liter) leached from Dunkirk mussels at > 30-fold lower levels than U.S. regulatory action limits for those materials. Whole body analyses revealed a lack of detectable levels of herbicides and pesticides in either population with a variety of metals and inorganic constituents in all samples from both populations. The physiological condition of Dunkirk mussels appeared to be consistent with that of other Lake Erie populations based on percentage water and total fat content of soft tissues.

  1. Fractionation of heavy metals and assessment of contamination of the sediments of Lake Titicaca.

    PubMed

    Cáceres Choque, Luis Fernando; Ramos Ramos, Oswaldo E; Valdez Castro, Sulema N; Choque Aspiazu, Rigoberto R; Choque Mamani, Rocío G; Fernández Alcazar, Samuel G; Sracek, Ondra; Bhattacharya, Prosun

    2013-12-01

    Chemical weathering is one of the major geochemical processes that control the mobilization of heavy metals. The present study provides the first report on heavy metal fractionation in sediments (8-156 m) of Lake Titicaca (3,820 m a.s.l.), which is shared by the Republic of Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia. Both contents of total Cu, Fe, Ni, Co, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Zn and also the fractionation of these heavy metals associated with four different fractions have been determined following the BCR scheme. The principal component analysis suggests that Co, Ni, and Cd can be attributed to natural sources related to the mineralized geological formations. Moreover, the sources of Cu, Fe, and Mn are effluents and wastes generated from mining activities, while Pb and Zn also suggest that their common source is associated to mining activities. According to the Risk Assessment Code, there is a moderate to high risk related to Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Co, and Ni mobilization and/or remobilization from the bottom sediment to the water column. Furthermore, the Geoaccumulation Index and the Enrichment Factor reveal that Zn, Pb, and Cd are enriched in the sediments. The results suggest that the effluents from various traditional mining waste sites in both countries are the main source of heavy metal contamination in the sediments of Lake Titicaca.

  2. Lake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wien, Carol Anne

    2008-01-01

    The lake is blue black and deep. It is a glaciated finger lake, clawed out of rock when ice retracted across Nova Scotia in a northerly direction during the last ice age. The lake is narrow, a little over a mile long, and deep, 90 to 190 feet in places according to local lore, off the charts in others. The author loves to swim there, with a sense…

  3. Hg-contaminated terrestrial spiders pose a potential risk to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA).

    PubMed

    Gann, Gretchen L; Powell, Cleveland H; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W

    2015-02-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental contaminant that can have adverse effects on wildlife. Because MeHg is produced by bacteria in aquatic ecosystems, studies of MeHg contamination of food webs historically have focused on aquatic organisms. However, recent studies have shown that terrestrial organisms such as songbirds can be contaminated with MeHg by feeding on MeHg-contaminated spiders. In the present study, the authors examined the risk that MeHg-contaminated terrestrial long-jawed orb weaver spiders (Tetragnatha sp.) pose to songbirds at Caddo Lake (Texas/Louisiana, USA). Methylmercury concentrations in spiders were significantly different in river, wetland, and open-water habitats. The authors calculated spider-based wildlife values (the minimum spider MeHg concentrations causing physiologically significant doses in consumers) to assess exposure risks for arachnivorous birds. Methylmercury concentrations in spiders exceeded wildlife values for Carolina chickadee (Poecile carolinensis) nestlings, with the highest risk in the river habitat. The present study indicates that MeHg concentrations in terrestrial spiders vary with habitat and can pose a threat to small-bodied nestling birds that consume large amounts of spiders at Caddo Lake. This MeHg threat to songbirds may not be unique to Caddo Lake and may extend throughout the southeastern United States. © 2014 SETAC.

  4. Water budget and water quality of Ward Lake, flow and water-quality characteristics of the Braden River estuary, and the effects of Ward Lake on the hydrologic system, west-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trommer, J.T.; DelCharco, M.J.; Lewelling, B.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Braden River is the largest tributary to the Manatee River. The river was dammed in 1936 to provide the city of Bradenton a source of freshwater supply. The resulting impoundment was called Ward Lake and had a storage capacity of about 585 million gallons. Reconstruction in 1985 increased the size of the reservoir to about 1,400 million gallons. The lake has been renamed the Bill Evers Reservoir and drains about 59 square miles. The Braden River watershed can be subdivided into three hydrologic reaches. The upper reach consists of a naturally incised free-flowing channel. The middle reach consists of a meandering channel affected by backwater as a result of the dam. The lower reach is a tidal estuary. Water budgets were calculated for the 1993 through 1997 water years. Mean surface-water inflow to Ward Lake for the 5-year period was 1,645 inches per year (equivalent depth over the surface of the lake), or about 81.8 percent of total inflow. Mean ground-water inflow was 311 inches per year, or about 15.5 percent. A mean of 55 inches of rain fell directly on the lake and accounted for only 2.7 percent. Mean surface-water outflow was 1,736 inches, or about 86.4 percent of total water leaving the lake. There was no net ground-water outflow from the lake. Mean surface-water withdrawal for public supply was 229 inches per year, or about 11.4 percent. Mean evaporation was 45 inches and accounted for only 2.2 percent of the mean outflow. Change in lake storage on the budget was negligible. Most chemical constituents contained in water flowing to Ward Lake meet the standards specified by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Phosphorus is the exception, exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency limits of 0.10 milligram per liter in most samples. However, the source of the phosphorus is naturally occurring phosphate deposits underlying the watershed. Organic nitrogen and orthophosphate are the dominant

  5. Bioaccumulation of PCB Contaminants in Five Fish Species in Utah Lake as Affected by Carp Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanjinez-Guzmán, V. A.; Cadet, E. L.; Crandall, T.; Chamberlain, T.; Rakotoarisaona, H.; Morris, P.

    2017-12-01

    State reports published by the Utah Department of Health (2005) and the Utah Department of Water Quality (2008) determined that there were elevated levels of PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls) that exceeded the EPA's cancer (0.02 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) and non-cancer screening levels (0.08 𝑚𝑔 𝑘𝑔-1) in two fish species from Utah Lake, the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) and the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Fish consumption advisories were issued for both of these fish species due to their health effects of PCBs. The Common Carp is a non-native predatory species that comprise 90% of the biomass in Utah Lake. As of September 2009, an extensive carp removal program was instituted by the Department of Natural Resources and began the removal of 75% of the carp population. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of carp removal on PCB levels in five sport fish species consumed by Utah citizens. The fish being analyzed are the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), Black Bullhead (Ameiurus melas), Walleye (Sander vitreus), and White Bass (Morone chrysops). One-hundred twenty (120) fish were collected from Utah Lake and subcategorized by their gender, tissue type (fillet and offal), weight, and size: small (under 33 cm), medium (33 cm - 43 cm), and large (greater than 43 cm). This was done in order to determine the variation of contaminant levels in each subcategory. PCB analysis was performed by Utility Testing Laboratory in Salt Lake City, Utah. Results show there has been a significant increase in PCB levels in all fish species in comparison with the state reports (2008). All fish species have exceeded the EPA cancer screening level, except for the fillet tissue of the White Bass species. In Common Carp fillet, and offal decreased concentrations of 11.80% and 23.72%, respectively. In Channel catfish: the PCB levels in the fillet increase by 87.93%, however, the offal levels

  6. Occurrence, trends, and sources in particle-associated contaminants in selected streams and lakes in Fort Worth, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Harwell, Glenn R.; Gary, Marcus O.; Heitmuller, Franklin T.; Mahler, Barbara J.

    2003-01-01

    Several lakes and stream segments in Fort Worth, Texas, have fish consumption bans because of elevated levels of chlordane, dieldrin, DDE, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study was undertaken to evaluate current loading, trends, and sources in these long-banned contaminants and other particle-associated contaminants commonly found in urban areas. Sampling included suspended sediments at 11 sites in streams and bottom-sediment cores in three lakes. Samples were analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons, major and trace elements, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). All four legacy pollutants responsible for fish consumption bans were detected frequently. Concentrations of chlordane, lead, and PAHs most frequently exceeded sediment-quality guidelines. Trends in DDE and PCBs since the 1960s generally are decreasing; and trends in chlordane are mixed with a decreasing trend in Lake Como, no trend in Echo Lake, and an increasing trend in Fosdic Lake. All significant trends in trace elements are decreasing, and most significant trends in PAHs are increasing. Sedimentation surveys were conducted on each of the three lakes and used in combination with sediment core data to compute sediment mass balances for the lakes, to estimate long-term-average loads and yields of sediment, and to estimate recent loads and yields of selected contaminants.Concentrations of most trace elements in suspended sediments were similar to those at the tops of cores, but concentrations of many hydrophobic organic contaminants were two to three times larger. As a result, for these fluvial systems, sediment cores probably provide a historical record of trace element contamination but could underestimate historical concentrations of organic contaminants. However, down-core profiles suggest that relative concentration histories are preserved in these sediment cores for many organic contaminants (such as chlordane and total DDT) but not for all (such as dieldrin).Percent urban land use

  7. Nitrogen limitation, toxin synthesis potential, and toxicity of cyanobacterial populations in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie River Estuary, Florida, during the 2016 state of emergency event.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Benjamin J; Davis, Timothy W; Meyer, Kevin A; Rosen, Barry H; Goleski, Jennifer A; Dick, Gregory J; Oh, Genesok; Gobler, Christopher J

    2018-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee, FL, USA, has been subjected to intensifying cyanobacterial blooms that can spread to the adjacent St. Lucie River and Estuary via natural and anthropogenically-induced flooding events. In July 2016, a large, toxic cyanobacterial bloom occurred in Lake Okeechobee and throughout the St. Lucie River and Estuary, leading Florida to declare a state of emergency. This study reports on measurements and nutrient amendment experiments performed in this freshwater-estuarine ecosystem (salinity 0-25 PSU) during and after the bloom. In July, all sites along the bloom exhibited dissolved inorganic nitrogen-to-phosphorus ratios < 6, while Microcystis dominated (> 95%) phytoplankton inventories from the lake to the central part of the estuary. Chlorophyll a and microcystin concentrations peaked (100 and 34 μg L-1, respectively) within Lake Okeechobee and decreased eastwards. Metagenomic analyses indicated that genes associated with the production of microcystin (mcyE) and the algal neurotoxin saxitoxin (sxtA) originated from Microcystis and multiple diazotrophic genera, respectively. There were highly significant correlations between levels of total nitrogen, microcystin, and microcystin synthesis gene abundance across all surveyed sites (p < 0.001), suggesting high levels of nitrogen supported the production of microcystin during this event. Consistent with this, experiments performed with low salinity water from the St. Lucie River during the event indicated that algal biomass was nitrogen-limited. In the fall, densities of Microcystis and concentrations of microcystin were significantly lower, green algae co-dominated with cyanobacteria, and multiple algal groups displayed nitrogen-limitation. These results indicate that monitoring and regulatory strategies in Lake Okeechobee and the St. Lucie River and Estuary should consider managing loads of nitrogen to control future algal and microcystin-producing cyanobacterial blooms.

  8. Mercury contamination level and speciation inventory in Lakes Titicaca & Uru-Uru (Bolivia): Current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Guédron, S; Point, D; Acha, D; Bouchet, S; Baya, P A; Tessier, E; Monperrus, M; Molina, C I; Groleau, A; Chauvaud, L; Thebault, J; Amice, E; Alanoca, L; Duwig, C; Uzu, G; Lazzaro, X; Bertrand, A; Bertrand, S; Barbraud, C; Delord, K; Gibon, F M; Ibanez, C; Flores, M; Fernandez Saavedra, P; Ezpinoza, M E; Heredia, C; Rocha, F; Zepita, C; Amouroux, D

    2017-12-01

    Aquatic ecosystems of the Bolivian Altiplano (∼3800 m a.s.l.) are characterized by extreme hydro-climatic constrains (e.g., high UV-radiations and low oxygen) and are under the pressure of increasing anthropogenic activities, unregulated mining, agricultural and urban development. We report here a complete inventory of mercury (Hg) levels and speciation in the water column, atmosphere, sediment and key sentinel organisms (i.e., plankton, fish and birds) of two endorheic Lakes of the same watershed differing with respect to their size, eutrophication and contamination levels. Total Hg (THg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) concentrations in filtered water and sediment of Lake Titicaca are in the lowest range of reported levels in other large lakes worldwide. Downstream, Hg levels are 3-10 times higher in the shallow eutrophic Lake Uru-Uru than in Lake Titicaca due to high Hg inputs from the surrounding mining region. High percentages of MMHg were found in the filtered and unfiltered water rising up from <1 to ∼50% THg from the oligo/hetero-trophic Lake Titicaca to the eutrophic Lake Uru-Uru. Such high %MMHg is explained by a high in situ MMHg production in relation to the sulfate rich substrate, the low oxygen levels of the water column, and the stabilization of MMHg due to abundant ligands present in these alkaline waters. Differences in MMHg concentrations in water and sediments compartments between Lake Titicaca and Uru-Uru were found to mirror the offset in MMHg levels that also exist in their respective food webs. This suggests that in situ MMHg baseline production is likely the main factor controlling MMHg levels in fish species consumed by the local population. Finally, the increase of anthropogenic pressure in Lake Titicaca may probably enhance eutrophication processes which favor MMHg production and thus accumulation in water and biota. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Associations among Human-Associated Fecal Contamination, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Microcystin at Lake Erie Beaches

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Marion, Jason W.; Cheung, Melissa; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    Lake Erie beaches exhibit impaired water quality due to fecal contamination and cyanobacterial blooms, though few studies address potential relationships between these two public health hazards. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Microcystis aeruginosa was monitored in conjunction with a human-associated fecal marker (Bacteroides fragilis group; g-Bfra), microcystin, and water quality parameters at two beaches to evaluate their potential associations. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 32 times from both Euclid and Villa Angela beaches. The phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS) and the microcystin-producing (mcyA) gene in M. aeruginosa were quantified with qPCR. PC-IGS and mcyA were detected in 50.0% and 39.1% of samples, respectively, and showed increased occurrences after mid-August. Correlation and regression analyses showed that water temperature was negatively correlated with M. aeruginosa markers and microcystin. The densities of mcyA and the g-Bfra were predicted by nitrate, implicating fecal contamination as contributing to the growth of M. aeruginosa by nitrate loading. Microcystin was correlated with mcyA (r = 0.413, p < 0.01), suggesting toxin-producing M. aeruginosa populations may significantly contribute to microcystin production. Additionally, microcystin was correlated with total phosphorus (r = 0.628, p < 0.001), which was higher at Euclid (p < 0.05), possibly contributing to higher microcystin concentrations at Euclid. PMID:26378564

  10. Associations among Human-Associated Fecal Contamination, Microcystis aeruginosa, and Microcystin at Lake Erie Beaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Marion, Jason W; Cheung, Melissa; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jiyoung

    2015-09-11

    Lake Erie beaches exhibit impaired water quality due to fecal contamination and cyanobacterial blooms, though few studies address potential relationships between these two public health hazards. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), Microcystis aeruginosa was monitored in conjunction with a human-associated fecal marker (Bacteroides fragilis group; g-Bfra), microcystin, and water quality parameters at two beaches to evaluate their potential associations. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 32 times from both Euclid and Villa Angela beaches. The phycocyanin intergenic spacer (PC-IGS) and the microcystin-producing (mcyA) gene in M. aeruginosa were quantified with qPCR. PC-IGS and mcyA were detected in 50.0% and 39.1% of samples, respectively, and showed increased occurrences after mid-August. Correlation and regression analyses showed that water temperature was negatively correlated with M. aeruginosa markers and microcystin. The densities of mcyA and the g-Bfra were predicted by nitrate, implicating fecal contamination as contributing to the growth of M. aeruginosa by nitrate loading. Microcystin was correlated with mcyA (r = 0.413, p < 0.01), suggesting toxin-producing M. aeruginosa populations may significantly contribute to microcystin production. Additionally, microcystin was correlated with total phosphorus (r = 0.628, p < 0.001), which was higher at Euclid (p < 0.05), possibly contributing to higher microcystin concentrations at Euclid.

  11. Halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) in sediment from a highly eutrophicated lake, China: occurrence, distribution and mass inventories.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-Zhong; Liu, Liang-Ying; Zhang, Kai; Liang, Bo; Li, Guo-Lian; Chen, Tian-Hu

    2012-11-01

    Halogenated organic contaminants (HOCs) including 16 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 37 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 49 surfacial sediments from Chaohu Lake, a highly eutrophicated lake, China. PBDEs were detected in almost samples with the range of the total concentration (defined as Σ(16)PBDEs) from 0.84 to 86.6 ng g(-1). Compared with the occurrence of PBDEs in Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta in China, lower percentage of BDE-209 over the concentration of Σ(16)PBDEs was inferred by the high-volume application of penta-BDE mixture product for local domestic furniture purpose. The total concentration of 37 PCBs (Σ(37)PCBs) ranged from 0.05 to 3.36 ng g(-1) with the most detection of PCB-1, -4, -52 and -71. Both the concentrations of Σ(16)PBDE and Σ(37)PCB poorly correlated with total organic carbon (TOC), suggesting the significant contribution of phytoplankton organic carbons to sediment TOC. The contamination by PBDEs and PCBs in western region of the lake was significantly more serious than in eastern lake. Our findings about the higher residues of PBDEs and PCBs in sediments at the estuary of Nanfei River compared to the other estuaries also supported the conclusion that urban area (Hefei city) was the main source of PBDEs and PCBs. The comparison with the concentration of HOC in the present study with those in other lacustrine sediments around the world suggested the contamination by PBDEs in Chaohu Lake is at middle of the global concentration range, whereas PCBs is at low end of the global range which could be elucidated by local economic development and historical usage of PBDEs and PCBs. The mass inventories of HOCs in the lake were estimated at 561 and 38 kg, which corresponds to only 0.000006% and 0.0001% of these global historical produce volumes, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Inorganic Contaminant Concentrations and Body Condition in Wintering Waterfowl from Great Salt Lake, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vest, J.; Conover, M.; Perschon, C.; Luft, J.

    2006-12-01

    The Great Salt Lake (GSL) is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world and is an important region for migratory and breeding waterbirds. Because the GSL is a closed basin, contaminants associated with industrial and urban development may accumulate in this system. Recently, water and sediment samples from the GSL revealed high concentrations of Hg and Se and methylmercury concentrations in GSL water samples were among the highest ever recorded in surface water by the USGS Mercury Laboratory. Thus, GSL waterbirds are likely exposed to these contaminants and elevated contaminant concentrations may adversely affect survival and reproduction in waterfowl. Our objectives were to 1) estimate mercury (Hg), selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in wintering waterfowl from GSL and, 2) evaluate relationships between measures of waterfowl body condition and internal organ masses (hereafter body condition) with trace metal concentrations. We collected common goldeneye (COGO), northern shoveler (NSHO), and American green-winged teal (AGWT) from the GSL during early winter. We used ICP-MS to analyze liver and muscle tissue samples for contaminant concentrations. We developed species specific regression models for each of 5 condition indices, including ingesta-free plucked body mass (IFPBM), abdominal fat mass, spleen, liver, and pancreas masses. Independent variables were comprised of Hg, Se, Cd, Cu, and Zn and we included sex and age as covariates in each regression. We used Akaike's Information Criterion adjusted for small sample size to select best and competing models. Subsequently, we used partial correlations to depict inverse relationships identified in competing models. Hg concentrations in COGO and NSHO muscle tissue generally exceeded or approached the 1 ppm wet weight (ww) threshold considered unsafe for human consumption in fish and game. Hg concentrations in liver tissue exceeded or were among the highest reported in published

  13. Linking field-based metabolomics and chemical analyses to prioritize contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes basin.

    PubMed

    Davis, John M; Ekman, Drew R; Teng, Quincy; Ankley, Gerald T; Berninger, Jason P; Cavallin, Jenna E; Jensen, Kathleen M; Kahl, Michael D; Schroeder, Anthony L; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Jorgenson, Zachary G; Lee, Kathy E; Collette, Timothy W

    2016-10-01

    The ability to focus on the most biologically relevant contaminants affecting aquatic ecosystems can be challenging because toxicity-assessment programs have not kept pace with the growing number of contaminants requiring testing. Because it has proven effective at assessing the biological impacts of potentially toxic contaminants, profiling of endogenous metabolites (metabolomics) may help screen out contaminants with a lower likelihood of eliciting biological impacts, thereby prioritizing the most biologically important contaminants. The authors present results from a study that utilized cage-deployed fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) at 18 sites across the Great Lakes basin. They measured water temperature and contaminant concentrations in water samples (132 contaminants targeted, 86 detected) and used 1 H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to measure endogenous metabolites in polar extracts of livers. They used partial least-squares regression to compare relative abundances of endogenous metabolites with contaminant concentrations and temperature. The results indicated that profiles of endogenous polar metabolites covaried with at most 49 contaminants. The authors identified up to 52% of detected contaminants as not significantly covarying with changes in endogenous metabolites, suggesting they likely were not eliciting measurable impacts at these sites. This represents a first step in screening for the biological relevance of detected contaminants by shortening lists of contaminants potentially affecting these sites. Such information may allow risk assessors to prioritize contaminants and focus toxicity testing on the most biologically relevant contaminants. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2493-2502. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America. Published 2016 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US Government

  14. Contamination level, distribution and health risk assessment of heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in a cultivated mushroom Pleurotus florida (Mont.) singer.

    PubMed

    Khani, Rouhollah; Moudi, Maryam; Khojeh, Vahid

    2017-02-01

    There are great concentrations of toxic metallic and metalloid elements such as lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium or silver in many species of mushrooms comparative to other fruits and vegetables. In this study, contamination with heavy and toxic metallic and metalloid elements in the cultivated mushroom of (Pleurotus florida (Mont.) Singer) is investigated. P. florida was cultivated on different substrates; wheat straw (as blank), wheat straw + pine cone, wheat straw + soybean straw and wheat straw + urea and the effects of these substrates on contamination levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were analyzed. The results showed that the concentrations of essential elements (Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn) in the target mushroom are at the typical levels. The estimated daily intakes of studied metallic and metalloid elements were below their oral reference dosage mentioned by the international regulatory bodies. Health risk index (HRI) was calculated to evaluate the consumer's health risk assessment from the metal intake that contaminated in the cultivated mushroom of P. florida on the different nutrient sources. In this study, the individual HRIs were less than 1, which indicates insignificant potential health risk associated with the consumption of target mushroom from the studied substrates. Based on the HRIs values among the toxic metallic and metalloid elements, As in the target mushroom in the substrate of the wheat straw + pine cone is the main sources of risk, and it may cause severe health problems. Thus, this study suggests that the concentrations of heavy and toxic elements should be periodically monitored in cultivated mushrooms.

  15. Particle-associated contaminants in street dust, parking lot dust, soil, lake-bottom sediment, and suspended and streambed sediment, Lake Como and Fosdic Lake watersheds, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Werth, Charles J.; Yang, Yanning

    2006-01-01

    A previous study by the U.S. Geological Survey of impaired water bodies in Fort Worth, Texas, reported elevated but variable concentrations of particle-associated contaminants (PACs) comprising chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and trace elements in suspended and bed sediment of lakes and streams affected by urban land use. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Fort Worth, collected additional samples during October 2004 to investigate sources of PACs in the watersheds of two impaired lakes: Lake Como and Fosdic Lake. Source materials and aquatic sediment were sampled and analyzed for PACs. Source materials sampled consisted of street dust and soil from areas with residential and commercial land use and parking lot dust from sealed and unsealed parking lots. Aquatic sediment sampled consisted of bottom-sediment cores from the two lakes and suspended and streambed sediment from the influent stream of each lake. Samples were analyzed for chlorinated hydrocarbons (organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, major and trace elements, organic carbon, grain size, and radionuclides.

  16. Estimating the designated use attainment decision error rates of US Environmental Protection Agency's proposed numeric total phosphorus criteria for Florida, USA, colored lakes.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Douglas B

    2012-01-01

    The utility of numeric nutrient criteria established for certain surface waters is likely to be affected by the uncertainty that exists in the presence of a causal link between nutrient stressor variables and designated use-related biological responses in those waters. This uncertainty can be difficult to characterize, interpret, and communicate to a broad audience of environmental stakeholders. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has developed a systematic planning process to support a variety of environmental decisions, but this process is not generally applied to the development of national or state-level numeric nutrient criteria. This article describes a method for implementing such an approach and uses it to evaluate the numeric total P criteria recently proposed by USEPA for colored lakes in Florida, USA. An empirical, log-linear relationship between geometric mean concentrations of total P (a potential stressor variable) and chlorophyll a (a nutrient-related response variable) in these lakes-that is assumed to be causal in nature-forms the basis for the analysis. The use of the geometric mean total P concentration of a lake to correctly indicate designated use status, defined in terms of a 20 µg/L geometric mean chlorophyll a threshold, is evaluated. Rates of decision errors analogous to the Type I and Type II error rates familiar in hypothesis testing, and a 3rd error rate, E(ni) , referred to as the nutrient criterion-based impairment error rate, are estimated. The results show that USEPA's proposed "baseline" and "modified" nutrient criteria approach, in which data on both total P and chlorophyll a may be considered in establishing numeric nutrient criteria for a given lake within a specified range, provides a means for balancing and minimizing designated use attainment decision errors. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  17. A 300 year history of lead contamination in northern French Alps reconstructed from distant lake sediment records.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, F; Revel-Rolland, M; Bosch, D; Winiarski, T; Desmet, M; Tribovillard, N; Givelet, N

    2004-05-01

    Lead concentrations and isotopic ratios were measured along two well-dated sediment cores from two distant lakes: Anterne (2100 m a.s.l.) and Le Bourget (270 m a.s.l.), submitted to low and high direct human impact and covering the last 250 and 600 years, respectively. The measurement of lead in old sediment samples (>3000 BP) permits, in using mixing-models, the determination of lead concentration, flux and isotopic composition of purely anthropogenic origin. We thus show that since ca. 1800 AD the regional increase in lead contamination was mostly driven by coal consumption ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.17-1.19; (206)Pb/(204)Pb approximately 18.3-18.6), which peaks around 1915 AD. The increasing usage of leaded gasoline, introduced in the 1920s, was recorded in both lakes by increasing Pb concentrations and decreasing Pb isotope ratios. A peak around 1970 ((206)Pb/(207)Pb approximately 1.13-1.16; (206)Pb/(204)Pb approximately 17.6-18.0) corresponds to the worldwide recorded leaded gasoline maximum of consumption. The 1973 oil crisis is characterised by a drastic drop of lead fluxes in both lakes (from approximately 35 to <20 mg cm(-2) yr(-1)). In the late 1980s, environmental policies made the Lake Anterne flux drop to pre-1900 values (<10 mg cm(-2) yr(-1)) while Lake Le Bourget is always submitted to an important flux (approximately 25 mg cm(-2) yr(-1)). The good match of our distant records, together and with a previously established series in an ice core from Mont Blanc, provides confidence in the use of sediments as archives of lead contamination. The integration of the Mont Blanc ice core results from Rosman et al. with our data highlights, from 1990 onward, a decoupling in lead sources between the high elevation sites (Lake Anterne and Mont Blanc ice core), submitted to a mixture of long-distance and regional contamination and the low elevation site (Lake Le Bourget), where regional contamination is predominant.

  18. Assessing the effects of legacy contaminants on egg and nestling survival of Tree Swallows in Great Lakes Areas of Concern (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) are affected by many stressors, some of which are environmental contaminants including PCBs, PBDEs, persistent organochlorine pesticides, dioxins, benzenes, and other chemicals. These toxicants can accumulate in aquatic biota and ultimately tra...

  19. Archive of Digital Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Field Activity 08LCA04 in Lakes Cherry, Helen, Hiawassee, Louisa, and Prevatt, Central Florida, September 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2009-01-01

    From September 2 through 4, 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey and St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) conducted geophysical surveys in Lakes Cherry, Helen, Hiawassee, Louisa, and Prevatt, central Florida. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, GIS information, FACS logs, and formal FGDC metadata. Filtered and gained digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided.

  20. Some potential hazardous trace elements contamination and their ecological risk in sediments of western Chaohu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liu-Gen; Liu, Gui-Jian; Kang, Yu; Yang, Ren-Kang

    2010-07-01

    The Chaohu is one of the largest five freshwater lakes in China. It provides freshwater for agriculture, life, and part of industry. The quality of water becomes worst and worst due to the toxic matter. In this study, we collected the samples from the sedimentary mud in the lake. The distribution of some potential hazardous trace elements (Cu, Ni, Cr, As, Pb, Cd, and Hg) in the sediments of western Chaohu Lake, has been determined and studied, and the enrichment factors, the index of geoaccumulation, and potential ecological risk were analyzed and calculated. The results show that: the levels of selected potential hazardous trace element vary from different sampling sites and significant anthropogenic impact of Pb and Cd occur in sediments. The contamination rank of Pb and Cd are moderate, and Pb has a light potential ecological risk, but Cd is heavy. The total potential ecological risk of the selected hazardous trace elements in this study in Chaohu Lake is moderate. Cluster and correlation analysis indicate that the selected potential hazardous trace element pollutant has different source and co-contamination also occur in sediments.

  1. Lead contamination and source in Shanghai in the past century using dated sediment cores from urban park lakes.

    PubMed

    Li, H B; Yu, S; Li, G L; Deng, H

    2012-08-01

    Lead contamination becomes of importance to urban resident health worldwide, especially for child health and growth. Undisturbed lake sediment cores are increasingly employed as a useful tool to backdate environmental contamination history. Five intact sediment cores collected from lakes in five urban parks were dated using (210)Pb and analyzed for total Pb content and isotope ratio to reconstruct the Pb contamination history over the last century in Shanghai, China. Total Pb content in the sediment cores increased by about 2- to 3-fold since 1900s. The profile of Pb flux in each sediment core revealed a remarkable increase of Pb contamination in Shanghai over the past century, especially in the latest three decades when China was experiencing a rapid economic and industrial development. Significant correlations were found between Pb fluxes in sediment cores and Pb emission from coal combustion in Shanghai. Coal combustion emission dominated anthropogenic Pb sources during the past century contributing from 52% to 69% of total Pb in cores, estimated by a three-end member model of Pb isotope ratios. Leaded gasoline emission generally contributed <30% of total Pb, which was banned by 1997 in the Shanghai region. Our results implicate that coal combustion-based energy consumption should be replaced, or at least partially replaced, to reduce health risks of Pb contamination in Shanghai. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lead contamination of subarctic lakes and its response to reduced atmospheric fallout: can the recovery process be counteracted by the ongoing climate change?

    PubMed

    Klaminder, Jonatan; Hammarlund, Dan; Kokfelt, Ulla; Vonk, Jorien E; Bigler, Christian

    2010-04-01

    Can a climate-triggered export of old contaminants from the soil alter the lead (Pb) contaminant burden of subarctic lakes? To address this question, we reconstructed the pollution history of three high latitude lakes situated in a region where a recent climatic shift has occurred. Dated sediment records were used as archives of past Pb inputs to the lakes, where the difference in the (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio between atmospheric contaminants ((206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio <1.16) and geogenic Pb in the catchment soil ((206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio >1.22) were used to trace fluxes of Pb contaminants. Lead contaminants were found in sediments deposited since Roman times. A significant export of Pb from the soil contaminant pool is indicated in two of the lakes surrounded by near-shore permafrost soils. Here, levels of Pb contaminants and (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of sediments deposited after the 1970s appear not to have been strongly affected by the >or=90% reduction in atmospheric deposition rates and increasing (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of atmospheric Pb since the 1990s. We concluded that soil processes stimulated by the ongoing climate change at high latitudes might work counteractive to efforts to reduce contaminant levels in subarctic lakes.

  3. Contaminant residues in the bloater (Coregonus hoyi) of Lake Michigan, 1969-1986

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hesselberg, Robert J.; Hickey, James P.; Nortrup, David A.; Willford, Wayne A.

    1990-01-01

    Residues of DDT, PCBs, and dieldrin in Lake Michigan bloaters (Coregonus hoyi) decreased between 1969 and 1986. All values for contaminant residues were measured and reported as μg/g of whole fish, wet weight; the error limits represented the 95% confidence interval half widths. Total DDT content declined 87%, from 9.9 in 1970, when its use was banned, to 1.3 in 1974, and then averaged 0.88 in 1978–1986 with a low of 0.67 in 1986. Between 1976–1986, p,p’DDD averaged 0.08 and p,p’DDT averaged 0.1; p,p’DDE reached a low of 0.48 in 1980, then averaged 0.53 in 1980–1986. Dieldrin averaged 0.25 until 1974, when it was banned, peaked at 0.55 in 1978, and decreased to 0.20 by 1986. PCBs, first analyzed in 1972, declined 64% (from 5.7 to 2.2) between 1972 and 1980 and were at 1.64 in 1986. The great decline in PCBs occurred following the 1976 ban. A 49% decrease in the lipid content of bloaters from 1980 to 1986 suggested a dietary change possibly due to changing food source makeup.

  4. The green alga, Cladophora, promotes Escherichia coli growth and contamination of recreational waters in Lake Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heuvel, A.V.; McDermott, C.; Pillsbury, R.; Sandrin, T.; Kinzelman, J.; Ferguson, J.; Sadowsky, M.; Byappanahalli, M.; Whitman, R.; Kleinheinz, G.T.

    2010-01-01

    A linkage between Cladophora mats and exceedances of recreational water quality criteria has been suggested, but not directly studied. Th is study investigates the spatial and temporal association between Escherichia coli concentrations within and near Cladophora mats at two northwestern Lake Michigan beaches in Door County, Wisconsin. Escherichia coli concentrations in water underlying mats were significantly greater than surrounding water (p < 0.001). Below mat E. coli increased as the stranded mats persisted at the beach swash zone. Water adjacent to Cladophora mats had lower E. coli concentrations, but surpassed EPA swimming criteria the majority of sampling days. A signifi cant positive association was found between E. coli concentrations attached to Cladophora and in underlying water (p < 0.001). The attached E. coli likely acted as a reservoir for populating water underlying the mat. Fecal bacterial pathogens, however, could not be detected by microbiological culture methods either attached to mat biomass or in underlying water. Removal of Cladophora mats from beach areas may improve aesthetic and microbial water quality at affected beaches. These associations and potential natural growth of E. coli in bathing waters call into question the efficacy of using E. coli as a recreational water quality indicator of fecal contaminations. Copyright ?? 2010 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  5. Reconstruction of historical lead contamination and sources in Lake Hailing, Eastern China: a Pb isotope study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Guan, Minglei; Shu, Yujie; Shen, Liya; Chen, Xixi; Zhang, Fan; Li, Tiegang; Jiang, Tingchen

    2016-05-01

    The history records of lead and its stable isotopic ratios were determined in a sediment core to receive anthropogenic impacts on the Lake Hailing in eastern China. The sediment core was dated based on (210)Pb, (137)Cs, and (239+240)Pu. The historical changes of Pb/Al and Pb isotope ratios showed increasing trend upward throughout the core, suggesting changes in energy usage and correlating closely with the experience of a rapid economic and industrial development of the catchment, Linyi City, in eastern China. Based on the mixing end member model of Pb isotope ratios, coal combustion emission dominated anthropogenic Pb sources in the half part of the century contributing 13 to 43 % of total Pb in sediment. Moreover, contributions of chemical and organic fertilizer were 1-13 and 5-14 %, respectively. In contrast, the contribution of leaded gasoline was low than 8 %. The results indicated that historical records of Pb contamination predominantly sourced from coal combustion and chemical and organic fertilizer in the catchment. In addition, an increase of coal combustion source and fertilizers was found throughout the sediment core, whereas the contribution of leaded gasoline had declined after 2000s, which is attributed to the phaseout of leaded gasoline in China.

  6. The green alga, Cladophora, promotes Escherichia coli growth and contamination of recreational waters in Lake Michigan.

    PubMed

    Vanden Heuvel, Amy; McDermott, Colleen; Pillsbury, Robert; Sandrin, Todd; Kinzelman, Julie; Ferguson, John; Sadowsky, Michael; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara; Whitman, Richard; Kleinheinz, Gregory T

    2010-01-01

    A linkage between Cladophora mats and exceedances of recreational water quality criteria has been suggested, but not directly studied. This study investigates the spatial and temporal association between Escherichia coli concentrations within and near Cladophora mats at two northwestern Lake Michigan beaches in Door County, Wisconsin. Escherichia coli concentrations in water underlying mats were significantly greater than surrounding water (p < 0.001). Below mat E. coli increased as the stranded mats persisted at the beach swash zone. Water adjacent to Cladophora mats had lower E. coli concentrations, but surpassed EPA swimming criteria the majority of sampling days. A significant positive association was found between E. coli concentrations attached to Cladophora and in underlying water (p < 0.001). The attached E. coli likely acted as a reservoir for populating water underlying the mat. Fecal bacterial pathogens, however, could not be detected by microbiological culture methods either attached to mat biomass or in underlying water. Removal of Cladophora mats from beach areas may improve aesthetic and microbial water quality at affected beaches. These associations and potential natural growth of E. coli in bathing waters call into question the efficacy of using E. coli as a recreational water quality indicator of fecal contaminations.

  7. Molecular composition and bioavailability of dissolved organic nitrogen in a lake flow-influenced river in south Florida, USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents a large percentage of the total nitrogen in rivers and estuaries, and can contribute to coastal eutrophication and hypoxia. This study reports on the composition and bioavailability of DON along the Caloosahatchee River (Florida), a heavily managed system ...

  8. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Habitat for Humanity of Palm Beach County, Lake Worth, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2012-03-01

    PNNL and Florida Solar Energy Center worked with Habitat for Humanity of Palm Beach County to upgrade an empty 1996 home with a 14.5 SEER AC, heat pump water heater, CFLs, more attic insulation, and air sealing to cut utility bills $872 annually.

  9. 75 FR 45579 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Lakes and Flowing Waters; Supplemental Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) criteria. Streams within each of these regions (Panhandle, Bone Valley, Peninsula and North Central) reflect similar geographical characteristics including phosphorus... phosphorus-rich geological formations in Florida. Based on comments and additional information, this revised...

  10. Using groundwater age to understand sources and dynamics of nutrient contamination through the catchment into Lake Rotorua, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, U.; Daughney, C. J.; Leonard, G.; Gordon, D.; Donath, F. M.; Reeves, R.

    2014-08-01

    The water quality of Lake Rotorua has declined continuously over the past 50 yr despite mitigation efforts over recent decades. Delayed response of the groundwater discharges to historic land-use intensification 50 yr ago was the reason suggested by early tritium measurements, which indicated large transit times through the groundwater system. We use the isotopic and chemistry signature of the groundwater for detailed understanding of the origin, fate, flow pathways, lag times, and future loads of contaminants. A unique set of high-quality tritium data over more than four decades, encompassing the time when the tritium spike from nuclear weapons testing moved through the groundwater system, allows us to determine detailed age distribution parameters of the water discharging into Lake Rotorua. The Rotorua volcanic groundwater system is complicated due to the highly complex geology that has evolved through volcanic activity. Vertical and steeply-inclined geological contacts preclude a simple flow model. The extent of the Lake Rotorua groundwater catchment is difficult to establish due to the deep water table in large areas, combined with inhomogeneous groundwater flow patterns. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the water chemistry parameters provided evidence of the recharge source of the large springs near the lake shore, with discharge from the Mamaku ignimbrite through lake sediment layers. Groundwater chemistry and age data show clearly the source of nutrients that cause lake eutrophication, nitrate from agricultural activities and phosphate from geologic sources. With a naturally high phosphate load reaching the lake continuously via all streams, the only effective way to limit algae blooms and improve lake water quality in such environments is by limiting the nitrate load. The groundwater in the Rotorua catchment, once it has passed through the soil zone, shows no further decrease in dissolved oxygen, indicating absence of electron donors in the aquifer that

  11. Use of Spatial Sampling and Microbial Source-Tracking Tools for Understanding Fecal Contamination at Two Lake Erie Beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Bertke, Erin E.; Finnegan, Dennis P.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Sheets, Rodney A.; Rhoades, John; Stumpe, Lester

    2006-01-01

    Source-tracking tools were used to identify potential sources of fecal contamination at two Lake Erie bathing beaches: an urban beach (Edgewater in Cleveland, Ohio) and a beach in a small city (Lakeshore in Ashtabula, Ohio). These tools included identifying spatial patterns of Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations in each area, determining weather patterns that caused elevated E. coli, and applying microbial source tracking (MST) techniques to specific sites. Three MST methods were used during this study: multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indexing of E. coli isolates and the presence of human-specific genetic markers within two types of bacteria, the genus Bacteroides and the species Enterococcus faecium. At Edgewater, sampling for E. coli was done during 2003-05 at bathing-area sites, at nearshore lake sites, and in shallow ground water in foreshore and backshore areas. Spatial sampling at nearshore lake sites showed that fecal contamination was most likely of local origin; E. coli concentrations near the mouths of rivers and outfalls remote to the beach were elevated (greater than 235 colony-forming units per 100 milliliters (CFU/100 mL)) but decreased along transport pathways to the beach. In addition, E. coli concentrations were generally highest in bathing-area samples collected at 1- and 2-foot water depths, midrange at 3-foot depths, and lowest in nearshore lake samples typically collected 150 feet from the shoreline. Elevated E. coli concentrations at bathing-area sites were generally associated with increased wave heights and rainfall, but not always. E. coli concentrations were often elevated in shallow ground-water samples, especially in samples collected less than 10 feet from the edge of water (near foreshore area). The interaction of shallow ground water and waves may be a mechanism of E. coli storage and accumulation in foreshore sands. Infiltration of bird feces through sand with surface water from rainfall and high waves may be concentrating

  12. Productivity, embryo and eggshell characteristics, and contaminants in bald eagles from the Great Lakes, USA, 1986 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Best, David A.; Elliott, Kyle; Bowerman, William; Shieldcastle, Mark C.; Postupalsky, Sergej; Kubiak, Timothy J.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Elliott, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon concentrations in eggs of fish-eating birds from contaminated environments such as the Great Lakes of North America tend to be highly intercorrelated, making it difficult to elucidate mechanisms causing reproductive impairment, and to ascribe cause to specific chemicals. An information- theoretic approach was used on data from 197 salvaged bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs (159 clutches) that failed to hatch in Michigan and Ohio, USA (1986–2000). Contaminant levels declined over time while eggshell thickness increased, and by 2000 was at pre-1946 levels. The number of occupied territories and productivity increased during 1981 to 2004. For both the entire dataset and a subset of nests along the Great Lakes shoreline, polychlorinated biphenyls (ΣPCBs, fresh wet wt) were generally included in the most parsimonious models (lowest-Akaike's information criterion [AICs]) describing productivity, with significant declines in productivity observed above 26 µg/g ΣPCBs (fresh wet wt). Of 73 eggs with a visible embryo, eight (11%) were abnormal, including three with skewed bills, but they were not associated with known teratogens, including ΣPCBs. Eggs with visible embryos had greater concentrations of all measured contaminants than eggs without visible embryos; the most parsimonious models describing the presence of visible embryos incorporated dieldrin equivalents and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE). There were significant negative correlations between eggshell thickness and all contaminants, with ΣPCBs included in the most parsimonious models. There were, however, no relationships between productivity and eggshell thickness or Ratcliffe's index. The ΣPCBs and DDE were negatively associated with nest success of bald eagles in the Great Lakes watersheds, but the mechanism does not appear to be via shell quality effects, at least at current contaminant levels, while it is not clear what other mechanisms were involved.

  13. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal development in adult common carp from contaminated and reference sites in Lake Mead, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, R.; Goodbred, S.L.; Draugelis-Dale, R.; Barry, C.E.; Scott, Foott J.; Wainscott, M.R.; Gross, T.S.; Covay, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that exposure to sublethal concentrations of contaminants alters the gonadal condition of feral common carp Cyprinus carpio. Adult common carp in Lake Mead, Nevada, were collected from a contaminated site (Las Vegas Bay) that receives municipal and industrial effluent and from a reference site (Overton Arm) with a relatively low level of contamination. Fish were sampled seven times over a 1-year period extending over two separate spawning seasons. Morphometric and histopathological parameters of gonadal and germ cell development were determined. In males, the pattern of seasonal changes in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) was similar between the sites and showed no clear association with site-specific seasonal temperature profiles. However, Las Vegas Bay males had consistently lower GSI values and, on one of the sampling dates, a lower proportion of sperm relative to other germ cell stages (determined histologically). Further, Las Vegas Bay males had a higher incidence of gonadal macrophage aggregates, which are putative tissue biomarkers of contaminant exposure in fishes. In females, seasonal GSI profiles, the frequency of fish with postovulatory follicles (an index of spawning activity), and the timing of new follicle recruitment all showed differences between sites, but these differences generally matched differences in water temperature profile. Also, the peak size-frequency of full-grown follicles did not differ between sites, and estimates of fecundity for the second spawning season indicated that females from the reference site unexpectedly produced a lower number of gametes, Overall, site differences in gonadal condition were observed in carp of both sexes but they seemed to be associated with site differences in contaminant levels only in males. The apparent lack of association between contaminant level and gonadal condition in female carp from mildly mesotrophic Lake Mead may indicate a lack of contaminant effects in

  14. Archive of Digital Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Field Activity 96LCA04 in Lakes Mabel and Starr, Central Florida, August 1996

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Swancar, Amy; Tihansky, Ann B.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2008-01-01

    In August of 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted geophysical surveys of Lakes Mabel and Starr, central Florida, as part of the Central Highlands Lakes project, which is part of a larger USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, observer's logbook; and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. For detailed information about the hydrologic setting of Lake Starr and the interpretation of some of these seismic reflection data, see Swancar and others (2000) at http://fl.water.usgs.gov/publications/Abstracts/wri00_4030_swancar.html. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided. The USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) - St. Petersburg assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 96LCA04 tells us the data were collected in 1996 for the Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study and the data were collected during the fourth field activity for that project in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. The boomer plate is an acoustic energy source that consists of capacitors charged to a high voltage and discharged through a transducer in the water. The transducer is towed on a sled floating on the water surface and when

  15. Contaminants in fish tissue from US lakes and reservoirs: a national probabilistic study.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Leanne L; Snyder, Blaine D; Olsen, Anthony R; Pitt, Jennifer L

    2009-03-01

    An unequal probability design was used to develop national estimates for 268 persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic chemicals in fish tissue from lakes and reservoirs of the conterminous United States (excluding the Laurentian Great Lakes and Great Salt Lake). Predator (fillet) and bottom-dweller (whole body) composites were collected from 500 lakes selected randomly from the target population of 147,343 lakes in the lower 48 states. Each of these composite types comprised nationally representative samples whose results were extrapolated to the sampled population of an estimated 76,559 lakes for predators and 46,190 lakes for bottom dwellers. Mercury and PCBs were detected in all fish samples. Dioxins and furans were detected in 81% and 99% of predator and bottom-dweller samples, respectively. Cumulative frequency distributions showed that mercury concentrations exceeded the EPA 300 ppb mercury fish tissue criterion at nearly half of the lakes in the sampled population. Total PCB concentrations exceeded a 12 ppb human health risk-based consumption limit at nearly 17% of lakes, and dioxins and furans exceeded a 0.15 ppt (toxic equivalent or TEQ) risk-based threshold at nearly 8% of lakes in the sampled population. In contrast, 43 target chemicals were not detected in any samples. No detections were reported for nine organophosphate pesticides, one PCB congener, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or 17 other semivolatile organic chemicals.

  16. Organic contamination in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings at United States and binational great Lakes Areas of Concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian; Erickson, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    Contaminant exposure of tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, nesting in 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) in the Great Lakes basin was assessed from 2010 to 2014 to assist managers and regulators in their assessments of Great Lakes AOCs. Contaminant concentrations in nestlings from AOCs were compared with those in nestlings from nearby non-AOC sites. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations in tree swallow nestling carcasses at 30% and 33% of AOCs, respectively, were below the mean concentration for non-AOCs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in nestling stomach contents and perfluorinated compound concentrations in nestling plasma at 67% and 64% of AOCs, respectively, were below the mean concentration for non-AOCs. Concentrations of PCBs in nestling carcasses were elevated at some AOCs but modest compared with highly PCB-contaminated sites where reproductive effects have been documented. Concentrations of PAHs in diet were sufficiently elevated at some AOCs to elicit a measurable physiological response. Among AOCs, concentrations of the perfluorinated compound perfluorooctane sulfonate in plasma were the highest on the River Raisin (MI, USA; geometric mean 330 ng/mL) but well below an estimated toxicity reference value (1700 ng/mL). Both PAH and PCB concentrations in nestling stomach contents and PCBs in carcasses were significantly correlated with concentrations in sediment previously reported, thereby reinforcing the utility of tree swallows to assess bioavailability of sediment contamination.

  17. Effects of dissolved organic matter from a eutrophic lake on the freely dissolved concentrations of emerging organic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yi-Hua; Huang, Qing-Hui; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Li, Fei-Peng; Chen, Ling

    2014-08-01

    The authors studied the effects of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the bioavailability of bisphenol A (BPA) and chloramphenicol by measuring the freely dissolved concentrations of the contaminants in solutions containing DOM that had been isolated from a mesocosm in a eutrophic lake. The abundance and aromaticity of the chromophoric DOM increased over the 25-d mesocosm experiment. The BPA freely dissolved concentration was 72.3% lower and the chloramphenicol freely dissolved concentration was 56.2% lower using DOM collected on day 25 than using DOM collected on day 1 of the mesocosm experiment. The freely dissolved concentrations negatively correlated with the ultraviolent absorption coefficient at 254 nm and positively correlated with the spectral slope of chromophoric DOM, suggesting that the bioavailability of these emerging organic contaminants depends on the characteristics of the DOM present. The DOM-water partition coefficients (log KOC ) for the emerging organic contaminants positively correlated with the aromaticity of the DOM, measured as humic acid-like fluorescent components C1 (excitation/emission=250[313]/412 nm) and C2 (excitation/emission=268[379]/456 nm). The authors conclude that the bioavailability of emerging organic contaminants in eutrophic lakes can be affected by changes in the DOM. © 2014 SETAC.

  18. Arcobacter in Lake Erie beach waters: an emerging gastrointestinal pathogen linked with human-associated fecal contamination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheonghoon; Agidi, Senyo; Marion, Jason W; Lee, Jiyoung

    2012-08-01

    The genus Arcobacter has been associated with human illness and fecal contamination by humans and animals. To better characterize the health risk posed by this emerging waterborne pathogen, we investigated the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in Lake Erie beach waters. During the summer of 2010, water samples were collected 35 times from the Euclid, Villa Angela, and Headlands (East and West) beaches, located along Ohio's Lake Erie coast. After sample concentration, Arcobacter was quantified by real-time PCR targeting the Arcobacter 23S rRNA gene. Other fecal genetic markers (Bacteroides 16S rRNA gene [HuBac], Escherichia coli uidA gene, Enterococcus 23S rRNA gene, and tetracycline resistance genes) were also assessed. Arcobacter was detected frequently at all beaches, and both the occurrence and densities of Arcobacter spp. were higher at the Euclid and Villa Angela beaches (with higher levels of fecal contamination) than at the East and West Headlands beaches. The Arcobacter density in Lake Erie beach water was significantly correlated with the human-specific fecal marker HuBac according to Spearman's correlation analysis (r = 0.592; P < 0.001). Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that most of the identified Arcobacter sequences were closely related to Arcobacter cryaerophilus, which is known to cause gastrointestinal diseases in humans. Since human-pathogenic Arcobacter spp. are linked to human-associated fecal sources, it is important to identify and manage the human-associated contamination sources for the prevention of Arcobacter-associated public health risks at Lake Erie beaches.

  19. Toxicity to Daphnia pulex and QSAR predictions for polycyclic hydrocarbons representative of Great Lakes contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, D.R.; Hickey, J.P.; Ogilvie, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to determine the toxicity of several types of polycyclic hydrocarbons characteristic of Great Lakes samples to Daphnia pulex, a Great Lakes zooplankter, (2) to investigate the influence of different structural characteristics on toxicity, and (3) to determine the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) parameters and model that describe these compounds. These results will be related to comparative toxicity of other Great Lakes environmental compounds and to their application in site specific risk assessment.

  20. Effects of surface-water and groundwater inflows and outflows on the hydrology of the Tsala Apopka Lake Basin in Citrus County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepúlveda, Nicasio; Fulkerson, Mark; Basso, Ron; Ryan, Patrick J.

    2018-05-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Southwest Florida Water Management District, initiated a study to quantify the inflows and outflows in the Floral City, Inverness, and Hernando pools of the Tsala Apopka Lake Basin in Citrus County, Florida. This study assesses hydrologic changes in pool stages, groundwater levels, spring flows, and streamflows caused by the diversion of streamflow from the Withlacoochee River to the Tsala Apopka Lake Basin through water-control structures. A surface-water/groundwater flow model was developed using hydraulic parameters for lakes, streams, the unsaturated zone, and the underlying surficial and Upper Floridan aquifers estimated using an inverse modeling calibration technique. After calibration, the model was used to assess the relation between inflows and outflows in the Tsala Apopka Lake Basin and changes in pool stages.Simulation results using the calibrated surface-water/groundwater flow model showed that leakage rates from the pools to the Upper Floridan aquifer were largest at the deep lake cells and that these leakage rates to the Upper Floridan aquifer were the highest in the model area. Downward leakage to the Upper Floridan aquifer occurred beneath most of the extent of the Floral City, Inverness, and Hernando pools. These leakage rates depended on the lakebed leakance and the difference between lake stages and heads in the Upper Floridan aquifer. Leakage rates were higher for the Floral City pool than for the Inverness pool, and higher for the Inverness pool than for the Hernando pool. Lakebed leakance was higher for the Floral City pool than for the Hernando pool, and higher for the Hernando pool than for the Inverness pool.Simulation results showed that the average recharge rate to the surficial aquifer was 10.3 inches per year for the 2004 to 2012 simulation period. Areas that recharge the surficial aquifer covered about 86 percent of the model area. Simulations identified areas along segments of the

  1. Simulation of the effects of rainfall and groundwater use on historical lake water levels, groundwater levels, and spring flows in central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Roehl, Edwin A.; Conrads, Paul; Daamen, Ruby C.; Petkewich, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    The urbanization of central Florida has progressed substantially in recent decades, and the total population in Lake, Orange, Osceola, Polk, and Seminole Counties more than quadrupled from 1960 to 2010. The Floridan aquifer system is the primary source of water for potable, industrial, and agricultural purposes in central Florida. Despite increases in groundwater withdrawals to meet the demand of population growth, recharge derived by infiltration of rainfall in the well-drained karst terrain of central Florida is the largest component of the long-term water balance of the Floridan aquifer system. To complement existing physics-based groundwater flow models, artificial neural networks and other data-mining techniques were used to simulate historical lake water level, groundwater level, and spring flow at sites throughout the area. Historical data were examined using descriptive statistics, cluster analysis, and other exploratory analysis techniques to assess their suitability for more intensive data-mining analysis. Linear trend analyses of meteorological data collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration at 21 sites indicate 67 percent of sites exhibited upward trends in air temperature over at least a 45-year period of record, whereas 76 percent exhibited downward trends in rainfall over at least a 95-year period of record. Likewise, linear trend analyses of hydrologic response data, which have varied periods of record ranging in length from 10 to 79 years, indicate that water levels in lakes (307 sites) were about evenly split between upward and downward trends, whereas water levels in 69 percent of wells (out of 455 sites) and flows in 68 percent of springs (out of 19 sites) exhibited downward trends. Total groundwater use in the study area increased from about 250 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 1958 to about 590 Mgal/d in 1980 and remained relatively stable from 1981 to 2008, with a minimum of 559 Mgal/d in 1994 and a maximum of 773

  2. In vitro toxicity and interactions of environmental contaminants (Arochlor 1254 and mercury) and immunomodulatory agents (lipopolysaccharide and cortisol) on thymocytes from lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Gregory G.; Sweet, Leonard I.; Adams, Jean V.; Omann, Geneva M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.

    2002-01-01

    The immunotoxicity of chemical combinations commonly encountered by the lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) immune system was the focus of this study. It was hypothesised that combinations of an environmental contaminant (mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254) and an immunomodulatory agent (bacterial endotoxin or cortisol) might interact to produce a greater toxicity than that of the environmental contaminant alone at concentrations typically encountered in piscine blood and other tissues. Thus lake trout thymocytes were isolated and treated with mercuric chloride or Aroclor 1254 in the presence and absence of cortisol or lipopolysaccharide. Incubations were performed for 6 or 20 h at 4° C or 10° C. Lipopolysaccharide did not affect the toxicity of either contaminant. In contrast, cortisol enhanced the toxicity of both environmental contaminants. Hence, stressors that lead to increased cortisol production, but not lipopolysaccharide directly, may increase the toxicity of mercury and Aroclor 1254 to lake trout thymocytes.

  3. Bottom Sediment as a Source of Organic Contaminants in Lake Mead, Nevada, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Treated wastewater effluent from Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities’ flow through Las Vegas Wash (LVW) into the Lake Mead National Recreational Area at Las Vegas Bay (LVB). Lake sediment is a likely sink for many hydrophobic synthetic organic compounds (SOCs); however,...

  4. Current status and historical variations of phthalate ester (PAE) contamination in the sediments from a large Chinese lake (Lake Chaohu).

    PubMed

    Kang, Lei; Wang, Qing-Mei; He, Qi-Shuang; He, Wei; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Yang, Bin; Yang, Chen; Jiang, Yu-Jiao; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2016-06-01

    The residual levels of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the surface and two core sediments from Lake Chaohu were measured with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The temporal-spatial distributions, compositions of PAEs, and their effecting factors were investigated. The results indicated that di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were three dominant PAE components in both the surface and core sediments. The residual level of total detected PAEs (∑PAEs) in the surface sediments (2.146 ± 2.255 μg/g dw) was lower than that in the western core sediments (10.615 ± 9.733 μg/g) and in the eastern core sediments (5.109 ± 4.741 μg/g). The average content of ∑PAEs in the surface sediments from the inflow rivers (4.128 ± 1.738 μg/g dw) was an order of magnitude higher than those from the lake (0.323 ± 0.093 μg/g dw), and there were similar PAE compositions between the lake and inflow rivers. This finding means that there were important effects of PAE input from the inflow rivers on the compositions and distributions of PAEs in the surface sediments. An increasing trend was found for the residual levels of ΣPAEs, DnBP, and DIBP from the bottom to the surface in both the western and eastern core sediments. Increasing PAE usage with the population growth, urbanization, and industrial and agricultural development in Lake Chaohu watershed would result in the increasing production of PAEs and their resulting presence in the sediments. The significant positive relationships were also found between the PAE contents and the percentage of sand particles, as well as TOC contents in the sediment cores.

  5. Concentrations and loads of nutrients in the tributaries of the Lake Okeechobee watershed, south-central Florida, water years 2004-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byrne, Michael J.; Wood, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Lake Okeechobee in south-central Florida is the second largest freshwater lake in the contiguous United States. Excessive phosphorus loading, harmful high and low water levels, and rapid expansion of non-native vegetation have threatened the health of the lake in recent decades. A study was conducted to monitor discharge and nutrient concentrations from selected tributaries into Lake Okeechobee and to evaluate nutrient loads. The data analysis was performed at 16 monitoring stations from December 2003 to September 2008. Annual and seasonal discharge measured at monitoring stations is affected by rainfall. Hurricanes affected three wet years (2004, 2005, and the latter part of 2008) and resulted in substantially greater discharge than the drought years of 2006, 2007, and the early part of 2008. Rainfall supplies about 50 percent of the water to Lake Okeechobee, discharge from the Kissimmee River supplies about 25 percent, and discharge from tributaries and groundwater seepage along the lake perimeter collectively provide the remaining 25 percent. Annually, tributary discharge from basins located on the west side of the Kissimmee River is about 5 to 6 times greater than that from basins located on the east side. For the purposes of this study, the basins on the east side of the Kissimmee River are called "priority basins" because of elevated phosphorus concentrations, while those on the west side are called "nonpriority" basins. Total annual discharge in the non-priority basins ranged from 245,000 acre-feet (acre-ft) in 2007 to 1,322,000 acre-ft in 2005, while annual discharge from the priority basins ranged from 41,000 acre-ft in 2007 to 219,000 acre-ft in 2005. Mean total phosphorus concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 0.54 milligrams per liter (mg/L) at the 16 tributaries during 2004–2008. Mean concentrations were significantly higher at priority basin sites than at non-priority basin sites, particularly at Arbuckle Creek and C 41A Canal. Concentrations of organic

  6. Hydrologic and land-cover features of the Caloosahatchee River Basin, Lake Okeechobee to Franklin Lock, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaRose, Henry R.; McPherson, Benjamin F.

    1980-01-01

    The freshwater part of the Caloosahatchee River basin, Fla., from Franklin Lock to Lake Okeechobee, is shown at a scale of 1 inch equals 1 mile on an aerial photomosaic, dated January 1979. The basin is divided into 16 subbasins, and the land cover and land use in each subbasin are given. The basin is predominantly rangeland and agricultural land. Surface-water flow in the basin is largely controlled. Some selected data on water quality are given. (USGS)

  7. Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzen, A; Moon, T W; Kennedy, S W; Glen, G A

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:10064546

  8. Biochemical indicators of contaminant exposure in birds and turtles of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.; Trudeau, S.; Kennedy, S.

    1995-12-31

    Pre-fledgling chicks of tree swallows, double-crested cormorants, herring gulls, common terns and hatchling snapping turtles were collected from contaminated Areas of Concern and reference sites in the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River to determine the geographic and species variation in biomarker responses. EROD activity in colonial waterbirds was generally an order of magnitude above EROD activity in tree swallows and snapping turtles. Notably, EROD activity in colonial waterbirds did not correlate with organochlorine contamination in livers at one industrialized site suggesting that exposure to other contaminants, possibly PAHs, may be an important factor. Retinol concentrations in cormorants were non-detectablemore » and retinyl palmitate concentrations were equal or greater than those in herring gulls. In tree swallows, there was a significant negative correlation between vitamin A concentration in liver and kidney and EROD activity. In snapping turtles, there was a significant induction in EROD activity and significantly higher cytochrome P450 IAI level in livers from the Great Lakes site relative to a clean inland location. There were no significant differences in porphyrin concentrations between sites.« less

  9. Occurrence of and trends in selected sediment-associated contaminants in Caddo Lake, East Texas, 1940-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2003-01-01

    Bottom-sediment cores were collected from four sites in Caddo Lake in East Texas during May 2002 for analyses of radionuclides (for age dating), organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and major and trace elements, and to describe the occurrence and trends of these sediment-associated contaminants. The Goose Prairie Creek and Harrison Bayou sites receive drainage from an area that includes parts of the now-closed Longhorn Army Ammunitions Plant. The mid-lake site is relatively close to dense oil and gas operations in the lake. The Carter Lake site receives minimal discharge from developed areas. Sediment age (deposition) dates represented in the cores ranged from 1940 to 2002. The only organochlorine compounds detected in all core samples were the DDT degradation products DDE or DDD, and PCB Aroclors 1242, 1254, and 1260 were detected only at the Goose Prairie Creek site. One or more of the DDE concentrations at all sites exceeded a consensus-based threshold effect concentration (on benthic biota), but none exceeded a consensus-based probable effect concentration. The Goose Prairie Creek site had significant downward trends in concentrations of organochlorine compounds, except for no trend in DDE concentrations. The Ammunitions Plant is a possible historical source of the few organochlorine compounds detected at the Goose Prairie Creek and Harrison Bayou sites. PAH concentrations at all sites were below respective threshold effect concentrations. Highest PAH concentrations at all four sites were of C2- alkylated naphthalenes. Nearly all statistically significant PAH trends in the cores were downward. On the basis of PAH source-indicator ratios, the majority of PAH compounds appear to have originated from uncombusted sources such as leaks or spills from oil and gas operations or vehicles (automobiles, boats, aircraft) in the Caddo Lake area. Concentrations of several of the eight trace elements with

  10. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants; Report 1: Baseline Studies. Volume III. The Plankton and Benthos of Lake Conway, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-01

    Monthly monitoring of the phytoplankton , periphyton , zooplankton, and benthic invertebrates of Lake Conway, Florida, indicates that no serious water...macrophytes. The phytoplankton community is dominated by green algae (Chlorophyta) during most of the year, with the exception of summer and early fall when...destratification and associated nutrient regeneration from the hypolimnion. Production of periphyton is highest in summer and fall and lowest in winter. Blue-greens

  11. Orlando, Florida, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Much of central Florida, including this detailed view of Orlando (28.5N, 81.0W) can be seen in this single photo. Disney World is at the top center of the scene and the crescent shaped Lake Tohopekaliga is near the bottom. The large round lakes are believed to be sinkholes formed during glacial times when ocean levels were several hundred feet lower than the present. Linear patterns east of Orlando are thought to be ancient shoreline ridges.

  12. GREATER HEMOCYTE BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY IN OYSTERS (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) FROM A RELATIVELY CONTAMINATED SITE IN PENSACOLA BAY, FLORIDA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bivalve mollusks such as Crassostrea virginica inhabiting polluted estuaries and coastal areas may bioaccumulate high concentrations of contaminants without apparent ill effects. However, changes in putative internal defense activities have been associated with contaminant accumu...

  13. Systems approach to detect and evaluate contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The release of chemicals of emerging concern threatens near shore health in the Great Lakes, particularly in regions already suffering from degradation of water and environmental quality due to past and present anthropogenic activities. Critical issues remain in delisting Areas ...

  14. Estimating aquatic toxicity as determined through laboratory tests of great lakes sediments containing complex mixtures of environmental contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1996-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a total toxic units modeling approach for predicting mean toxicity as measured in laboratory tests for Great Lakes sediments containing complex mixtures of environmental contaminants (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, chlorinated dioxins, and metals). The approach incorporates equilibrium partitioning and organic carbon control of bioavailability for organic contaminants and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) control for metals, and includes toxic equivalency for planar organic chemicals. A toxic unit is defined as the ratio of the estimated pore-water concentration of a contaminant to the chronic toxicity of that contaminant, as estimated by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC). The toxic unit models we developed assume complete additivity of contaminant effects, are completely mechanistic in form, and were evaluated without any a posteriori modification of either the models or the data from which the models were developed and against which they were tested. A linear relationship between total toxic units, which included toxicity attributable to both iron and un-ionized ammonia, accounted for about 88% of observed variability in mean toxicity; a quadratic relationship accounted for almost 94%. Exclusion of either bioavailability components (i.e., equilibrium partitioning control of organic contaminants and AVS control of metals) or iron from the model substantially decreased its ability to predict mean toxicity. A model based solely on un-ionized ammonia accounted for about 47% of the variability in mean toxicity. We found the toxic unit approach to be a viable method for assessing and ranking the relative potential toxicity of contaminated sediments.

  15. The distance that contaminated aquatic subsidies extend into lake riparian zones

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consumption of emergent aquatic insects by terrestrial invertebrates is a poorly resolved, but potentially important, mechanism of contaminant flux across ecosystem borders leading to contaminant exposure in terrestrial invertevores. We characterized the spatial extent and magnit...

  16. EVALUATING MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION FOR RADIONUCLIDE & ORGANIC CONTAMINATION IN GROUNDWATER (SALT LAKE CITY, UT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) for radionuclides and inorganic contaminants is dependent on naturally occurring processes in the subsurface that act without human intervention to reduce the mass, toxicity, mobility, volume or concentration of contaminants. EPA is developing ...

  17. Movement and fate of creosote waste in ground water, Pensacola, Florida; U.S. Geological Survey toxic waste-ground-water contamination program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, Harold C.; Franks, Bernard J.

    1986-01-01

    Ground- and surface-water contamination by pesticides used in the wood-preserving industry is widespread in the United States. Pine poles were treated with wood preservatives from 1902 to 1981 at a creosote works near Pensacola, Florida. Diesel fuel, creosote, and pentachlorophenol were discharged to two unlined impoundments that had a direct hydraulic connection to the sand-and-gravel aquifer. Evidence of wood-preserving waste contamination appears to be confined to the upper 30 meters of the aquifer. The waste plume extends downgradient approximately 300 meters south toward Pensacola Bay. In 1983, the creosote works site was selected by the U.S. Geological Survey's Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology as a national research demonstration area to apply the latest techniques for characterizing hazardous waste problems. The multidisciplinary research effort is aimed at studying processes that affect the occurrence, transport, transformations, and fate of the toxic contaminants associated with wood preservatives in the environment. Clusters of two to five wells were constructed at different depths at nine sites to define the depth of contamination. Research studies are investigating sorption, dispersion, dilution, chemical reactions, bacterially mediated transformations, quality assurance, plume hydrodynamics, and the ultimate fate of these complex organic wastes.

  18. Water-quality characteristics and contaminants in the rural karst-dominated Spring Mill Lake watershed, southern Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hasenmueller, N.R.; Buehler, M.A.; Krothe, N.C.; Comer, J.B.; Branam, T.D.; Ennis, M.V.; Smith, R.T.; Zamani, D.D.; Hahn, L.; Rybarczyk, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The Spring Mill Lake watershed is located in the Mitchell Plateau, a karst area that developed on Mississippian carbonates in southern Indiana. Spring Mill Lake is a reservoir built in the late 1930s and is located in Spring Mill State Park. Within the park, groundwater from subsurface conduits issues as natural springs and then flows in surface streams to the lake. From 1998 to 2002, surface and subsurface hydrology and water quality were investigated to determine the types and sources of potential contaminants entering the lake. Water samples collected during base flow and a February 2000 storm event were analyzed for selected cations, anions, trace elements, selected U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) primary and secondary drinkingwater contaminants, nitrogen isotopes, suspended solids, Escherichia coli, and pesticides. All of the water samples met the EPA drinking-water standards for inorganic constituents, except those collected at five sites in August 1999 during a drought. Nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N) concentrations were highest during base-flow conditions and displayed a dilutional trend during peak-flow periods. The NO3-N concentrations in water samples collected during the 2001 spring fertilizer applications tended to increase from early to late spring. All of the ??15N values were low, which is indicative of either an inorganic source or soil organic matter. Storm discharge contained increased concentrations of total suspended solids; thus, storms are responsible for most of the sediment accumulation in the lake. E. coli levels in 24% of the samples analyzed contained a most probable number (MPN) greater than 235/100 mL, which is the maximum acceptable level set for recreational waters in Indiana. E. coli does appear to be a potential health risk, particularly at Rubble spring. The sources of E. coli found at this spring may include barnyard runoff from a horse barn or wastes from a wastewater treatment facility. The pesticides atrazine, metolachlor

  19. Florida Everglades

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    A "river of grass" extending south of Lake Okeechobee shows how the area was modified by man with visible areas of dense agriculture, urban sprawl and water conservation areas delineated by a series of waterways that crisscross Southern Florida. The image was created March 18-24, 2013 from the Visible-Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership or Suomi NPP satellite, a partnership between NASA and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. Credit: NASA/NOAA To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/NPP/news/vegetation.html NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  20. Archive of Digital Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Field Activity 02LCA02 in Lakes Ada, Crystal, Jennie, Mary, Rice, and Sylvan, Central Florida, July 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2008-01-01

    In July of 2002, the U.S. Geological Survey and St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) conducted geophysical surveys in Lakes Ada, Crystal, Jennie, Mary, Rice, and Sylvan, central Florida, as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided. The USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) - St. Petersburg assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 02LCA02 tells us the data were collected in 2002 for the Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study and the data were collected during the second field activity for that study in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. The boomer plate is an acoustic energy source that consists of capacitors charged to a high voltage and discharged through a transducer in the water. The transducer is towed on a sled floating on the water surface and when discharged emits a short acoustic pulse, or shot, which propagates through the water, sediment column, or rock beneath. The acoustic energy is reflected at density boundaries (such as the seafloor, sediment, or rock layers beneath the

  1. Hydrogeologic framework and geologic structure of the Floridan aquifer system and intermediate confining unit in the Lake Okeechobee area, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2014-01-01

    The successful implementation of aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) as a water-management tool requires detailed information on the hydrologic and hydraulic properties of the potential water storage zones. This report presents stratigraphic and hydrogeologic sections of the upper part of the Floridan aquifer system and the overlying confining unit or aquifer system in the Lake Okeechobee area, and contour maps of the upper contacts of the Ocala Limestone and the Arcadia Formation, which are represented in the sections. The sections and maps illustrate hydrogeologic factors such as confinement of potential storage zones, the distribution of permeability within the zones, and geologic features that may control the efficiency of injection, storage, and recovery of water, and thus may influence decisions on ASR activities in areas of interest to the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan.

  2. Targeting the Sources of Fecal Contamination using Dog-, Human-, and Ruminant- Specific Markers in the Lake Herrick Watershed, Georgia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saintil, T.; Radcliffe, D. E.; Rasmussen, T. C.; Habteselassie, M.; Sowah, R.; Kannan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Lake Herrick Watershed is about 1.5 km2 and covers portions of the University of Georgia's East campus, the Oconee Forest, residential and commercial landuse. Lake Herrick, a recreational site on the University of Georgia campus, was closed in 2002 due to fecal contamination. Subsequent monitoring confirmed persistent contamination, which led to a permanent closure to swimming, boating, and fishing. While fecal coliform abundance is a standard metric for determining human health risks, Geldreich (1970) showed that fecal abundance does not necessarily correlate with the presence of pathogens. Nor does it identify pollution sources, which are needed to mitigate health risks. Two inflow tributaries and the outlet stream were monitored for discharge, fecal coliform, forms of nitrogen and phosphorus and other water-quality data to quantify lake influent and effluent bacteria loads. Fecal sources were identified using the human HF183 genetic marker (Seurinck et al., 2005), the ruminant BacR marker (Reischer et al., 2006), and the dog mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker (Tambalo et al., 2012). Preliminary results confirm high concentrations of E. coli and Enterococci, above the State's limit of 124 MPN/100 mL, in both baseflows and stormflows. The findings also suggest that the E. coli and Enterococci loads from the inlet tributaries are on average higher compared to the bacteria loads coming out of the outlet stream. The human markers were detectable at all three sites but most of the samples were not quantifiable. The ruminant markers were quantifiable at both inlets but no ruminant markers were found at the outlet. The dog markers were detectable but not quantifiable at both inlets and no dog markers were detected at the outlet. Statistical analyses will be used to establish relationships between the nutrients data, the fecal concentrations, and the gene-specific markers.

  3. Evaluation of human health risks posed by carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic multiple contaminants associated with consumption of fish from Taihu Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yingxin; Wang, Xinxin; Yang, Dan; Lei, Bingli; Zhang, Xiaolan; Zhang, Xinyu

    2014-07-01

    The present study estimated the human daily intake and uptake of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and toxic trace elements [mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As)] due to consumption of fish from Taihu Lake, China, and the associated potential health risks posed by these contaminants. The health risks posed by the contaminants were assessed using a risk quotient of the fish consumption rate to the maximum allowable fish consumption rate considering the contaminants for carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effect endpoints. The results showed that fish consumption would not pose non-cancer risks. However, some species would cause a cancer risk. Relative risks of the contaminants were calculated to investigate the contaminant which posed the highest risk to humans. As a result, in view of the contaminants for carcinogenic effects, As was the contaminant which posed the highest risk to humans. However, when non-carcinogenic effects of the contaminants were considered, Hg posed the highest risk. The risk caused by PBDEs was negligible. The results demonstrated that traditional contaminants, such as As, Hg, DDTs (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites), and PCBs, require more attention in Taihu Lake than the other target contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The effects of phosphorus additions on the sedimentation of contaminants in a uranium mine pit-lake.

    PubMed

    Dessouki, Tarik C E; Hudson, Jeff J; Neal, Brian R; Bogard, Matthew J

    2005-08-01

    We investigated the usefulness of phytoplankton for the removal of surface water contaminants. Nine large mesocosms (92.2m(3)) were suspended in the flooded DJX uranium pit at Cluff Lake (Saskatchewan, Canada), and filled with highly contaminated mine water. Each mesocosm was fertilized with a different amount of phosphorus throughout the 35 day experiment to stimulate phytoplankton growth, and to create a range in phosphorus load (g) to examine how contaminants may be affected by different nutrient regimes. Algal growth was rapid in fertilized mesocosms (as demonstrated by chlorophyll a profiles). As phosphorus loads increased there were significant declines (p<0.05) in the surface water concentrations of As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. This decline was near significant for uranium (p=0.065). The surface water concentrations of Ra-226, Mo, and Se showed no relationship to phosphorus load. Contaminant concentrations in sediment traps suspended at the bottom of each mesocosm generally showed the opposite trend to that observed in the surface water, with most contaminants (As, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Ra-226, U, and Zn) exhibiting a significant positive relationship (p<0.05) with phosphorus load. Selenium and Mo did not respond to nutrient treatments. Our results suggest that phytoremediation has the potential to lower many surface water contaminants through the sedimentation of phytoplankton. Based on our results, we estimate that the Saskatchewan Surface Water Quality Objectives (SSWQO) for DJX pit would be met in approximately 45 weeks for Co, 65 weeks for Ni, 15 weeks for U, and 5 weeks for Zn.

  5. Contaminants of emerging concern presence and adverse effects in fish: A case study in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Zachary G; Thomas, Linnea M; Elliott, Sarah M; Cavallin, Jenna E; Randolph, Eric C; Choy, Steven J; Alvarez, David A; Banda, Jo A; Gefell, Daniel J; Lee, Kathy E; Furlong, Edward T; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2018-05-01

    The Laurentian Great Lakes are a valuable natural resource that is affected by contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including sex steroid hormones, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, and new generation pesticides. However, little is known about the fate and biological effects of CECs in tributaries to the Great Lakes. In the current study, 16 sites on three rivers in the Great Lakes basin (Fox, Cuyahoga, and Raquette Rivers) were assessed for CEC presence using polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and grab water samplers. Biological activity was assessed through a combination of in vitro bioassays (focused on estrogenic activity) and in vivo assays with larval fathead minnows. In addition, resident sunfish, largemouth bass, and white suckers were assessed for changes in biological endpoints associated with CEC exposure. CECs were present in all water samples and POCIS extracts. A total of 111 and 97 chemicals were detected in at least one water sample and POCIS extract, respectively. Known estrogenic chemicals were detected in water samples at all 16 sites and in POCIS extracts at 13 sites. Most sites elicited estrogenic activity in bioassays. Ranking sites and rivers based on water chemistry, POCIS chemistry, or total in vitro estrogenicity produced comparable patterns with the Cuyahoga River ranking as most and the Raquette River as least affected by CECs. Changes in biological responses grouped according to physiological processes, and differed between species but not sex. The Fox and Cuyahoga Rivers often had significantly different patterns in biological response Our study supports the need for multiple lines of evidence and provides a framework to assess CEC presence and effects in fish in the Laurentian Great Lakes basin. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Nitrate Contamination in the groundwater of the Lake Acıgöl Basin, SW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karaman, Muhittin; Budakoǧlu, Murat; Taşdelen, Suat

    2017-04-01

    The lacustrine Acıgöl basin, formed as an extensional half-graben, hosts various bodies of water, such as cold-hot springs, lakes, streams, and wells. The hydrologically closed basin contains a hypersaline lake (Lake Acıgöl) located in the southern part of the basin. The brackish springs and deep waters discharged along the Acıgöl fault zone in the southern part of the basin feed the hypersaline lake. Groundwater is used as drinking, irrigation, and domestic water in the closed Acıgöl Basin. Groundwater flows into the hypersaline lake from the highland. The Acıgöl basin hosts large plains (Hambat, Başmakçı, and Evciler). Waters in agricultural areas contain high amounts of nitrate; groundwater samples in agricultural areas contain nitrate levels higher than 10 mg/L. Nitrate concentrations in the groundwater samples varied from 0 to 487 mg/L (n=165); 25.4 % of the groundwater samples from the basin had nitrate concentrations above 10 mg/L (the WHO drinking guideline) and 52.2% of the groundwater samples from the basin had nitrate concentrations above 3.0 mg/L, and these high values were regarded as the result of human activity. The highest nitrate values were measured in the Hambat plain (480 and 100 mg/L) and Yirce Pinari spring (447 mg/L), which discharges along the Acıgöl fault zone in the southern part of the basin. The average multi-temporal nitrate concentration of the Yirce Pınarı spring was 3.3 mg/L. Extreme nitrate values were measured in the Yirce Pınarı spring during periods when sheep wool was washed (human activity). The lowest nitrate concentrations were observed in some springs that discharged along the Acıgöl fault zone in the southern part of the basin. Nitrate was not detected in deep groundwater discharged along the Acıgöl fault zone. Nitrate concentrations in deep groundwater and some springs discharged along the Acıgöl fault zone and those feeding the hypersaline lake were significantly affected by redox conditions

  7. Analysis of Nonpoint-Source Ground-Water Contamination in Relation to Land Use: Assessment of Nonpoint-Source Contamination in Central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, Edward R.

    1996-01-01

    In central Florida, activities that might affect the quality of ground water include disposal of stormwater through drainage wells, citrus cultivation, and mining and processing of phosphate ore. Possible effects of these and other land-use activities include high concentrations of nitrogen compounds and the pesticide bromacil in the citrus area, and high concentrations of most of the major-dissolved constituents and some organic compounds in the mining area.

  8. 78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY... safety zone on Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm Beach, Florida, to provide for the safety of life and vessels..., dredging operations will be conducted on Lake Worth Inlet in West Palm Beach, Florida. These operations...

  9. Potential urban runoff impacts and contaminant distributions in shoreline and reservoir environments of Lake Havasu, southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Doyle C

    2018-04-15

    Heavy metal, nutrient, and hydrocarbon levels in and adjacent to Lake Havasu, a regionally significant water supply reservoir with a highly controlled, dynamic flow regime, are assessed in relation to possible stormwater runoff impacts from an arid urban center. Shallow groundwater and sediment analyses from ephemeral drainage (wash) mouths that convey stormwater runoff from Lake Havasu City, Arizona to the reservoir, provided contaminant control points and correlation ties with the reservoir environment. Fine-grain sediments tend to contain higher heavy metal concentrations whereas nutrients are more evenly distributed, except low total organic carbon levels from young wash mouth surfaces devoid of vegetation. Heavy metal and total phosphate sediment concentrations in transects from wash mouths into the reservoir have mixed and decreasing trends, respectively. Both series may indicate chemical depositional influences from urban runoff, yet no statistically significant concentration differences occur between specific wash mouths and corresponding offshore transects. Heavy metal pollution indices of all sediments indicate no discernible to minor contamination, indicating that runoff impacts are minimal. Nevertheless, several heavy metal concentrations from mid-reservoir sediment sites increase southward through the length of the reservoir. Continual significant water flow through the reservoir may help to disperse locally derived runoff particulates, which could mix and settle down gradient with chemical loads from upriver sources and local atmospheric deposition. Incorporating the shoreline environment with the reservoir investigation provides spatial continuity in assessing contaminant sources and distribution patterns. This is particularly acute in the investigation of energetic, flow-through reservoirs in which sources may be overlooked if solely analyzing the reservoir environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Use of dissolved chloride concentrations in tributary streams to support geospatial estimates of Cl contamination potential near Skiatook Lake, northeastern Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.A.; Abbott, M.M.; Zielinski, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    Releases of NaCl-rich (>100 000 mg/L) water that is co-produced from petroleum wells can adversely affect the quality of ground and surface waters. To evaluate produced water impacts on lakes, rivers and streams, an assessment of the contamination potential must be attainable using reliable and cost-effective methods. This study examines the feasibility of using geographic information system (GIS) analysis to assess the contamination potential of Cl to Skiatook Lake in the Hominy Creek drainage basin in northeastern Oklahoma. GIS-based predictions of affects of Cl within individual subdrainages are supported by measurements of Cl concentration and discharge in 19 tributaries to Skiatook Lake. Dissolved Cl concentrations measured in October, 2004 provide a snapshot of conditions assumed to be reasonably representative of typical inputs to the lake. Chloride concentrations ranged from 5.8 to 2300 mg/L and compare to a value of 34 mg/L in the lake. At the time of sampling, Hominy Creek provided 63% of the surface water entering the lake and 80% of the Cl load. The Cl load from the other tributaries is relatively small (150 mg/L) were generally in subdrainages with greater well density (>15 wells/km2), relatively large numbers of petroleum wells in close proximity (>2 proximity wells/stream km), and relatively small discharge (<0.005 m3/s). GIS calculations of subdrainage areas can be used to estimate the expected discharge of the tributary for each subdrainage. GIS-based assessment of Cl contamination potential at Skiatook Lake and at other lakes surrounded by oil fields can proceed even when direct measurements of Cl or discharge in tributary streams may be limited or absent.

  11. Tumor frequencies in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) and sediment contaminants in tributaries of the Laurentian Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baumann, Paul C.; Mac, Michael J.; Smith, Stephen B.; Harshbarger, John C.

    1991-01-01

    To better characterize neoplasm epizootics in the Great Lakes basin and their association with families of contaminants, we sampled five locations: the Fox and Menominee rivers, Lake Michigan; Munuscong Lake, St. Mary's River; and the Black and Cuyahoga rivers, Lake Erie. Frequencies of external and liver tumors were determined for brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) from all locations except the Black River and for walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) from the Lake Michigan and St. Mary's River sites. Sediment samples were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated aromatics, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Liver neoplasms occurred in brown bullhead from the Cuyahoga River and Munuscong Lake; brown bullhead captured from Munuscong Lake were older than those collected from the other locations. Brown bullhead from these same two rivers had elevated hepatosomatic indexes. No liver neoplasms were found in brown bullhead from the Fox and Menominee rivers, although polychlorinated aromatics were highest in both Fox River sediment and Fox and Menominee brown bullhead, and arsenic was highest in Menominee River sediment and fish. Liver neoplasms in brown bullhead from the Cuyahoga River fit the prevailing hypothesis that elevated PAH in sediment can induce cancer in wild fish. The cause of the liver neoplasms in Munuscong Lake brown bullhead is undetermined.

  12. Hydrogeology, water quality, and potential for contamination of the Upper Floridan aquifer in the Silver Springs ground-water basin, central Marion County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Upper Floridan aquifer, composed of a thick sequence of very porous limestone and dolomite, is the principal source of water supply in the Silver Springs ground-water basin of central Marion County, Florida. The karstic nature of the local geology makes the aquifer susceptible to contaminants from the land surface. Contaminants can enter the aquifer by seepage through surficial deposits and through sinkholes and drainage wells. Potential contaminants include agricultural chemicals, landfill leachates and petroleum products from leaking storage tanks and accidental spills. More than 560 sites of potential contamination sources were identified in the basin in 1990. Detailed investigation of four sites were used to define hydrologic conditions at representative sites. Ground-water flow velocities determined from dye trace studies ranged from about 1 foot per hour under natural flow conditions to about 10 feet per hour under pumping conditions, which is considerably higher than velocities estimated using Darcy's equation for steady-state flow in a porous medium. Water entering the aquifer through drainage wells contained bacteria, elevated concentrations of nutrients, manganese and zinc, and in places, low concentrations of organic compounds. On the basis of results from the sampling of 34 wells in 1989 and 1990, and from the sampling of water entering the Upper Floridan aquifer through drainage wells, there has been no widespread degradation of water quality in the study area. In an area of karst, particularly one in which fracture flow is significant, evaluating the effects from contaminants is difficult and special care is required when interpolating hydrogeologic data from regional studies to a specific. (USGS)

  13. Emerging Contaminant Sources Fate in Recharged Treated Wasterwater, Lake Havasu City, Arizona

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2008 the City of Lake Havasu, Arizona, began a subsurface, effluent injection program to store treated wastewater effluent, which will eventually be seasonally recovered to balance the demand for irrigation during the summer months. As a proactive measure, the City decided to ...

  14. Movement and fate of creosote waste in ground water, Pensacola, Florida; U.S. Geological Survey toxic waste--ground-water contamination program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, H. C.; Franks, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    In 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey, Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology, selected the former American Creosote Works site near Pensacola, Florida as a national research demonstration area. Seventy-nine years (1902-81) of seepage from unlined discharge impoundments had released creosote, diesel fuel, and pentachlorophenol (since 1950) wastes into the ground-water system. A cluster of from 2 to 5 wells constructed at different depths at 9 sites yielded water which revealed contamination 600 feet downgradient and to a depth of 100 feet below land surface near the site. The best cross-sectional representation of the contaminant plume was obtained from samples collected and analyzed for oxidation-reduction sensitive inorganic chemical constituents. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence detected recently formed iron carbonate in soil samples from highly reducing ground-water zones. Approximately eighty specific organic contaminants were isolated from ground-water samples by gas-chromotography/mass spectrometry. Column studies indicate the dimethyl phenols are not sorbed or degraded by the sand-and-gravel aquifer materials. Five of nineteen individual phenolic and related compounds are biodegradable based on anaerobic digestor experiments with ACW site bacterial populations. The potential impacts in the nearby Pensacola Bay biotic community are being evaluated. (USGS)

  15. Contaminated sediments from tributaries of the Great Lakes: Chemical characterization and carcinogenic effects in medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Besser, John M.; Schmitt, Christopher J.; Harshbarger, John C.; Peterman, Paul H.; Lebo, Jon A.

    1991-01-01

    Sediments from four inshore industrial sites and a reference site in the Great Lakes were extracted with organic solvents to produce a crude extract, which was separated on alumina into two fractions: predominantly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; and predominantly nitrogencontaining polycyclic aromatic compounds. Crude extracts were redissolved in acetone and analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The acetone-redissolved crude extracts from the four industrialized sites contained 5.6–313.3 μg total polycyclic aromatic compounds/g sediment and 3.0–36.4 μg other compounds/g sediment. In addition to the typical EPA priority pollutants, a substantial amount (228.7 μg/g sediment) of alkyl-polycyclic-aromatic compounds was detected in sediments from one of the industrialized sites. Extracts from the reference site contained 1.55 μg total polycyclic aromatic compounds/ g sediment. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) were exposed to multiple pulse doses of acetone-redissolved extracts and fractions. Medaka were also exposed to a known carcinogen, methylazoxymethanol acetate, to verify that chemicals produced tumors in the test fish. Acetone-redissolved extracts and fractions from contaminated sediments were toxic to medaka. Fin erosion and non-neoplastic liver abnormalities were more prevalent in medaka after exposure to acetoneredissolved extracts and fractions from contaminated sediments. Neoplasms previously associated with chemical exposure in wild fishes were induced in medaka exposed to acetone-redissolved extracts and fractions from two of the contaminated sites, but not from the reference site or controls. These findings further support the hypothesis that chemical contaminants in sediments are involved in epizootics of neoplasms in wild fishes at contaminated sites.

  16. SEX-STEROID AND THYROID HORMONE CONCENTRATIONS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS (ALLIGATOR MISSISSIPPIENSIS) FROM CONTAMINATED AND REFERENCE LAKES IN FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sex-steroid and thyroid hormones are critical regulators of growth and reproduction in all vertebrates, and several recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can alter circulating concentrations of these hormones. This study examines plasma concentrations of estradiol-...

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): BMI-Textron Site, Lake Park, FL, August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Basic Microelectronic, Incorporated (BMI)-Textron Site (BMI-Textron Site or the Site), in Lake Park, Florida. This remedy addresses the contaminated principal threat of ground water at the Site. This remedy addresses the principal threat remaining at the Site, by using existing institutional controls, and monitoring ground water contaminated with arsenic, cyanide, sodium and fluoride.

  18. Archive of Digital Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Field Activity 08LCA01 in 10 Central Florida Lakes, March 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2009-01-01

    In March of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey and St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD) conducted geophysical surveys in Lakes Avalon, Big, Colby, Helen, Johns, Prevatt, Searcy, Saunders, Three Island, and Trout, located in central Florida, as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU) (Cohen and Stockwell, 2005). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided. The USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) - St. Petersburg assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 08LCA01 tells us the data were collected in 2008 for the Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study and the data were collected during the first field activity for that study in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. The naming convention used for each seismic line is as follows: yye##a, where yy is the last two digits of the year in which the data were collected, e is a 1-letter abbreviation for the equipment type (for example, b for boomer), ## is a 2-digit number representing a specific track, and a is a letter representing the section of a line

  19. Indices of benthic community tolerance in contaminated Great Lakes sediments: Relations with sediment contaminant concentrations, sediment toxicity, and the sediment quality triad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Schmitt, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the toxic-units model developed by Wildhaber and Schmitt (1996) as a predictor of indices of mean tolerance to pollution (i.e., Lenat, 1993; Hilsenhoff, 1987) and other benthic community indices from Great Lakes sediments containing complex mixtures of environmental contaminants (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls – PCBs, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons – PAHs, pesticides, chlorinated dioxins, and metals). Sediment toxic units were defined as the ratio of the estimated pore-water concentration of a contaminant to its chronic toxicity as estimated by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ambient Water Quality Criteria (AWQC) or other applicable standard. The total hazard of a sediment to aquatic life was assessed by summing toxic units for all contaminants quantified. Among the benthic community metrics evaluated, total toxic units were most closely correlated with Lenat's (1993) and Hilsenhoff's (1987) indices of community tolerance (TL and TH, respectively); toxic units accounted for 42% TL and 53% TH of variability in community tolerance as measured by Ponar grabs. In contrast, taxonomic richness and Shannon-Wiener diversity were not correlated (P > 0.05) with toxic units. Substitution of order- or family-level identifications for lowest possible (mostly genus- or species-) level identifications in the calculation of TL and TH indices weakened the relationships with toxic units. Tolerance values based on order- and family-level identifications of benthos for artificial substrate samples were more strongly correlated with toxic units than tolerance values for benthos from Ponar grabs. The ability of the toxic-units model to predict the other two components (i.e., laboratory-measured sediment toxicity and benthic community composition) of the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) may obviate the need for the SQT in some situations.

  20. UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES ON THE LEACHING OF MERCURY-CONTAMINATED MINE WASTES FROM THE SULFUR BANK MERCURY MINE, CLEAR LAKE, CA

    EPA Science Inventory

    For nearly a century, Clear Lake in northern California has received inputs of mercury (Hg) mining wastes trom the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine (SBMM). About 1.2 million tons of Hg-contaminated overburden and mine tailings were distributed over a 50-ha surface area due to mining oper...

  1. Zn and Cu isotopes as tracers of anthropogenic contamination in a sediment core from an urban lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thapalia, Anita; Borrok, David M.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Landa, Edward R.

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we use stable Zn and Cu isotopes to identify the sources and timing of the deposition of these metals in a sediment core from Lake Ballinger near Seattle, Washington, USA. The base of the Lake Ballinger core predates settlement in the region, while the upper sections record the effects of atmospheric emissions from a nearby smelter and rapid urbanization of the watershed. δ66Zn and δ65Cu varied by 0.50‰ and 0.29‰, respectively, over the 500 year core record. Isotopic changes were correlated with the presmelter period (∼1450 to 1900 with δ66Zn = +0.39‰ ± 0.09‰ and δ65Cu = +0.77‰ ± 0.06‰), period of smelter operation (1900 to 1985 with δ66Zn = +0.14 ± 0.06‰ and δ65Cu = +0.94 ± 0.10‰), and postsmelting/stable urban land use period (post 1985 with δ66Zn = 0.00 ± 0.10‰ and δ65Cu = +0.82‰ ± 0.12‰). Rapid early urbanization during the post World War II era increased metal loading to the lake but did not significantly alter the δ66Zn and δ65Cu, suggesting that increased metal loads during this time were derived mainly from mobilization of historically contaminated soils. Urban sources of Cu and Zn were dominant since the smelter closed in the 1980s, and the δ66Zn measured in tire samples suggests tire wear is a likely source of Zn.

  2. Recent DDT and PCB contamination in the sediment and biota of the Como Bay (Lake Como, Italy).

    PubMed

    Bettinetti, R; Quadroni, S; Boggio, E; Galassi, S

    2016-01-15

    Due to its peculiar geographical and morphological characteristics, Lake Como (Northern Italy) represents an interesting study-case for investigating the sub-basin scale circulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that, despite being banned since the 1970s, have reached surprisingly high concentrations in some southern alpine lakes as a consequence of their release from melting glaciers in recent years. In particular, the Como Bay, which is located in the city of Como, seems noteworthy because its waters have a longer residence time than the other areas of the lake. The analyses of the historical concentration of PCBs, pp′DDT and its metabolites in a sediment core sampled from the Como Bay covering a time-period from their ban to recent times, showed that the DDTs have never experienced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease over time, with concentrations of the most abundant homologue, pp′DDE, ranging from 27 to 75 ng g(-1) d.w. Conversely PCBs significantly (p < 0.05) decreased towards recent times, reaching concentrations around 80 ng g(-1) d.w. The contribution of high altitude and local sources was recorded also in the food web: both zooplankton and the zooplanktivorous fish agone were mainly contaminated by pp′DDE (81.4 ng g(-1) w.w. and 534.6 ng g(-1) w.w. respectively) and by the PCB metabolite hexa-CB (449.7 ng g(-1) w.w. and 1672.1 ng g(-1) w.w. respectively). The DDT concentrations in the agone (sampled during the years 2006–2009) never exceeded the limits for human consumption in Italy, while concentrations of six selected PCBs exceeded human health advisory recommendations in one of the fish samples analysed, when it was approximately two times higher than the recommended value of 125 ng g(-1) w.w.

  3. DEVELOPING TOOLS FOR MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT LAKE HARTWELL, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments pose a risk to human health and the environment . The management of this risk is currently limited practically to three technologies: dredging, capping, and natural recovery. Monitored natural recovery relies on the natural burial and removal mechanisms to...

  4. Cryptosporidium Contamination and Attributed Risks in Yunlong Lake in Xuzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Yadong; Yuan, Tao; Niu, Jinghui; Li, Zhaoji; Yang, Baisong

    2017-01-01

    Swimming in surface water bodies (e.g., lakes, rivers) can expose the human body to substantial risk of infection by Cryptosporidium. These findings are from a one-year investigation on the occurrence and distribution of the protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium in Yunlong Lake, Xuzhou, China. Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. From January to November of 2015, 180 samples (120 water samples and 60 sediment samples) were collected and analyzed. Among them, 42 (35%) water samples and 28 (47%) sediment samples tested positive for Cryptosporidium. The concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the water samples was 0–8/10 L and 0–260/g in sediment samples. Results revealed that July was the highest risk period for both swimming and diving with an estimated probability of infection from swimming of greater than 18 per 10,000 swim sessions. It was concluded that swimming or diving in Yunlong Lake has a higher risk of Cryptosporidium infection than the acceptable risk level set by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Thus, regular monitoring of water quality in recreation water bodies is strongly recommended. PMID:28386287

  5. Chronic bioassays of rainbow trout fry with compounds representative of contaminants in Great Lakes fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Berlin, William H.; Hickey, James P.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the hazard of organic compounds detected in Great Lakes fish by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we tested compounds representative of heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and cyclic alkanes and alkenes. Sixty-day bioassays on the effects of nicotine, phenanthrene, pinane, and pinene on the behavior, growth, and survival of rainbow trout fry, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were conducted in a large, constant-flow, temperature-controlled water system. The following 60-day LCSO's were determined (mg/L): nicotine 5.0, phenanthrene 0.2, pinane 0.8, and pinene 1.2. Values of lowest observed effects level (LOEL) and no observed effects level (NOEL) showed that growth was generally as sensitive an endpoint as behavior and was more sensitive than time of swim-up. The 60-day LC50 values for rainbow trout were compared with earlier acute bioassays with Daphnia pulexand rainbow trout and chronic bioassays with D.pulex conducted at the Great Lakes Science Center. Rainbow trout fry were less sensitive than daphnids in all tests, indicating that toxicity tests with daphnids should be protective of salmonid fry for these types of compounds. The results for representative compounds indicate that these classes of compounds should be included in aquatic risk assessments at sites in the Great Lakes.

  6. Predictive models in hazard assessment of Great Lakes contaminants for fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Passino, Dora R. May

    1986-01-01

    A hazard assessment scheme was developed and applied to predict potential harm to aquatic biota of nearly 500 organic compounds detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in Great Lakes fish. The frequency of occurrence and estimated concentrations of compounds found in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and walleyes (Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) were compared with available manufacturing and discharge information. Bioconcentration potential of the compounds was estimated from available data or from calculations of quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR). Investigators at the National Fisheries Research Center-Great Lakes also measured the acute toxicity (48-h EC50's) of 35 representative compounds to Daphnia pulex and compared the results with acute toxicity values generated by QSAR. The QSAR-derived toxicities for several chemicals underestimated the actual acute toxicity by one or more orders of magnitude. A multiple regression of log EC50 on log water solubility and molecular volume proved to be a useful predictive model. Additional models providing insight into toxicity incorporate solvatochromic parameters that measure dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond acceptor basicity, and hydrogen bond donor acidity of the solute (toxicant).

  7. Trends in hydrophobic organic contaminants in urban and reference lake sediments across the United States, 1970-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, P.C.; Mahler, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    A shift in national policy toward stronger environmental protection began in the United States in about 1970. Conversely, urban land use, population, energy consumption, and vehicle use have increased greatly since then. To assess the effects of these changes on water quality, the U.S. Geological Survey used sediment cores to reconstruct water-quality histories for38 urban and reference lakes across the United States. Cores were age-dated, and concentration profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons were tested statistically. Significant trends in total DDT, p,p???-DDE, and total PCBs were all downward. Trends in chlordane were split evenly between upward and downward, and trends in PAHs were mostly upward. Significant trends did not occur in about one-half of cases tested. Concentrations of p,p???-DDE, p,p???-DDD, and PCBs were about one-half as likely to exceed the probable effect concentration (PEC), a sediment quality guideline, in sediments deposited in the 1990s as in 1965-1975, whereas PAHs were twice as likely to exceed the PEC in the more recently deposited sediments. Concentrations of all contaminants evaluated correlated strongly with urban land use. Upward trends in PAH concentrations, the strong association of PAH with urban settings, and rapid urbanization occurring in the United States suggest that PAHs could surpass chlorinated hydrocarbons in the threat they pose to aquatic biota in urban streams and lakes.

  8. Archive of Digital Boomer and CHIRP Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Field Activity 08LCA03 in Lake Panasoffkee, Florida, May 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harrison, Arnell S.; Dadisman, Shawn V.; McBride, W. Scott; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2009-01-01

    In May of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted geophysical surveys in Lake Panasoffkee, located in central Florida, as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer and Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse (CHIRP)* seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, Geographic Information System (GIS) files, and formal Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) metadata. Filtered and gained (a relative increase in signal amplitude) digital images of the seismic profiles and geospatially corrected interactive profiles are also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansions of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. *Due to poor data acquisition conditions associated with the lake bottom sediments, only two CHIRP tracklines were collected during this field activity. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Example SU processing scripts and USGS software for viewing the SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are provided. The USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) - St. Petersburg assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 08LCA03 tells us the data were collected in 2008 for the Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) study and the data were collected during the third field activity for that study in that calendar year. Refer to http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html for a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID. The naming convention used for each seismic line is as follows: yye##a, where 'yy' are the last two digits of the year in which the data were collected, 'e' is a 1-letter abbreviation for the equipment type (for example, b for boomer and c

  9. Areal distribution and concentration of contaminants of concern in surficial streambed and lakebed sediments, Lake St. Clair and tributaries, Michigan, 1990-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rachol, Cynthia M.; Button, Daniel T.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated data collected from surficial streambed and lakebed sediments in the Lake Erie-Lake St. Clair drainages. This study incorporates data collected from 1990 through 2003 and focuses primarily on the U.S. part of the Lake St. Clair Basin, including Lake St. Clair, the St. Clair River, and tributaries to Lake St. Clair. Comparable data from the Canadian part of the study area are included where available. The data are compiled into 4 chemical classes and consist of 21 compounds. The data are compared to effects-based sediment-quality guidelines, where the Threshold Effect Level and Lowest Effect Level represent concentrations below which adverse effects on biota are not expected and the Probable Effect Level and Severe Effect Level represent concentrations above which adverse effects on biota are expected to be frequent.Maps in the report show the spatial distribution of the sampling locations and illustrate the concentrations relative to the selected sediment-quality guidelines. These maps indicate that sediment samples from certain areas routinely had contaminant concentrations greater than the Threshold Effect Concentration or Lowest Effect Level. These locations are the upper reach of the St. Clair River, the main stem and mouth of the Clinton River, Big Beaver Creek, Red Run, and Paint Creek. Maps also indicated areas that routinely contained sediment contaminant concentrations that were greater than the Probable Effect Concentration or Severe Effect Level. These locations include the upper reach of the St. Clair River, the main stem and mouth of the Clinton River, Red Run, within direct tributaries along Lake St. Clair and in marinas within the lake, and within the Clinton River headwaters in Oakland County.Although most samples collected within Lake St. Clair were from sites adjacent to the mouths of its tributaries, samples analyzed for trace-element concentrations

  10. Dissolved organic matter fluorescence at wavelength 275/342 nm as a key indicator for detection of point-source contamination in a large Chinese drinking water lake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei

    2016-02-01

    Surface drinking water sources have been threatened globally and there have been few attempts to detect point-source contamination in these waters using chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence. To determine the optimal wavelength derived from CDOM fluorescence as an indicator of point-source contamination in drinking waters, a combination of field campaigns in Lake Qiandao and a laboratory wastewater addition experiment was used. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis identified six components, including three humic-like, two tryptophan-like, and one tyrosine-like component. All metrics showed strong correlation with wastewater addition (r(2) > 0.90, p < 0.0001). Both the field campaigns and the laboratory contamination experiment revealed that CDOM fluorescence at 275/342 nm was the most responsive wavelength to the point-source contamination in the lake. Our results suggest that pollutants in Lake Qiandao had the highest concentrations in the river mouths of upstream inflow tributaries and the single wavelength at 275/342 nm may be adapted for online or in situ fluorescence measurements as an early warning of contamination events. This study demonstrates the potential utility of CDOM fluorescence to monitor water quality in surface drinking water sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Micrometeorological Measurement of Fetch- and Atmospheric Stability-Dependent Air- Water Exchange of Legacy Semivolatile Organic Contaminants in Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlinger, J. A.; Tobias, D. E.; Rowe, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    Coastal waters including the Laurentian Great Lakes are particularly susceptible to local, regional, and long- range transport and deposition of semivolatile organic contaminants (SOCs) as gases and/or associated with particles. Recently-marketed SOCs can be expected to undergo net deposition in surface waters, whereas legacy SOCs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are likely to be at equilibrium with respect to air-water exchange, or, if atmospheric concentrations decrease through, e.g., policy implementation, to undergo net gas emission. SOC air-water exchange flux is usually estimated using the two-film model. This model describes molecular diffusion through the air and water films adjacent to the air-water interface. Air-water exchange flux is estimated as the product of SOC fugacity, typically based on on-shore gaseous concentration measurements, and a transfer coefficient, the latter which is estimated from SOC properties and environmental conditions. The transfer coefficient formulation commonly applied neglects resistance to exchange in the internal boundary layer under atmospherically stable conditions, and the use of on-shore gaseous concentration neglects fetch-dependent equilibration, both of which will tend to cause overestimation of flux magnitude. Thus, for legacy chemicals or in any highly contaminated surface water, the rate at which the water is cleansed through gas emission tends to be over-predicted using this approach. Micrometeorological measurement of air-water exchange rates of legacy SOCs was carried out on ships during four transect experiments during off-shore flow in Lake Superior using novel multicapillary collection devices and thermal extraction technology to measure parts-per-quadrillion SOC levels. Employing sensible heat in the modified Bowen ratio, fluxes at three over-water stations along the transects were measured, along with up-wind, onshore gaseous concentration and aqueous concentration. The atmosphere was unstable for

  12. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 2. First Year Poststocking Results. Volume II. The Fish, Mammals, and Waterfowl of Lake Conway, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    7AD-AI3 853 ’FLORIDA SAME AND FRESH WATER FISH COMMISSION ORLANDO F/ 616 LARGE-SCALE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TEST OF USE OF THE WHITE AMUR--ETC(U...of a series of reports documenting a large-scale operations management test of use of the white amur for control of problem aquatic plants in Lake...M. 1982. "Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants; Report 2, First Year Poststock- ing

  13. Water quality of lakes Faith, Hope, Charity, and Lucien, 1971-79, in an area of residential development and highway construction at Maitland, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, Edward R.

    1983-01-01

    Lakes Faith, Hope, and Charity were sampled from April 1971 to June 1979 to monitor water quality before, during, and after construction of Maitland Boulevard and the Interstate Highway 4 interchange. Lake Lucien was added to the study in April 1975. Chemical quality of the lakes varies little in comparison with surface runoff, bulk precipitation, and the water in the surficial aquifer. Surface runoff supplied about 19 percent of the direct inflow to the lakes and contributed a total of about 2,000 pounds, per acre of lake surface, of dissolved solids from April 1971 to June 1979, while bulk precipitation contributed about 1,170 pounds per acre. Water quality in the lakes changed during the study, generally for the better. However, an infestation of elodea (Hydrilla verticillata), whose growth is not associated with water quality, developed in Lake Hope near the end of the study and has interfered with recreational use of the lake. (USGS)

  14. Organic contaminants in Great Lakes tributaries: Prevalence and potential aquatic toxicity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; De Cicco, Laura A.; Lenaker, Peter L.; Lutz, Michelle A; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Richards, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewer overflows, among other sources. Concentrations of these organic waste compounds (OWCs) in some Great Lakes tributaries indicate a high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms. During 2010–13, 709 water samples were collected at 57 tributaries, together representing approximately 41% of the total inflow to the lakes. Samples were collected during runoff and low-flow conditions and analyzed for 69 OWCs, including herbicides, insecticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, plasticizers, antioxidants, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, non-prescription human drugs, flavors/fragrances, and dyes. Urban-related land cover characteristics were the most important explanatory variables of concentrations of many OWCs. Compared to samples from nonurban watersheds (< 15% urban land cover) samples from urban watersheds (> 15% urban land cover) had nearly four times the number of detected compounds and four times the total sample concentration, on average. Concentration differences between runoff and low-flow conditions were not observed, but seasonal differences were observed in atrazine, metolachlor, DEET, and HHCB concentrations. Water quality benchmarks for individual OWCs were exceeded at 20 sites, and at 7 sites benchmarks were exceeded by a factor of 10 or more. The compounds with the most frequent water quality benchmark exceedances were the PAHs benzo[a]pyrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene, the detergent metabolite 4-nonylphenol, and the herbicide atrazine. Computed estradiol equivalency quotients (EEQs) using only nonsteroidal endocrine-active compounds indicated medium to high risk of estrogenic effects (intersex or vitellogenin induction) at 10 sites. EEQs at 3 sites were comparable to values reported in effluent. This multifaceted study

  15. Detecting contaminant-induced apoptosis and necrosis in lake trout thymocytes via flow cytometry.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweet, Leonard I.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.; Meier, Peter G.; Omann, Geneva M.; Stolen, J.S.; Fletcher, T.C.; Rowley, A.F.; Zelikoff, J.T.; Kaattari, S.L.; Smith, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    This chapter details the cytofluorometric techniques employed to assess levels of active (apoptosis) and passive (necrotic) cell death in untreated and contaminant-treated fish thymocytes. The thymus is believed to be a central component of hematopoiesis and immune function in teleosts (Abelli et al., 1996). Hence, chemically-elicited adverse effects to the thymus may result in immunomodulation and organ dysfunction. However, it is not well documented that environmental contaminants induce apoptosis, or programmed cell death. There is some evidence suggesting that low level exposure to waterborne contaminants can specifically induce cell death in the olfactory epithelium of rainbow trout (Julliard et al., 1996). Presently, only limited information is available in the literature regarding apoptotic death in piscine immune cells (Alford et al., 1994; Greenlee et al., 1991).

  16. Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in common terns and black-crowned night herons in the Great Lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, D.J.; Smith, G.J.; Rattner, B.A.

    1993-01-01

    Morphological and biochemical indexes of contaminant exposure were examined in hatching common terns (Sterna hirundo) and black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) from industrialized and non-industrialized locations in the Great Lakes. In 1984, naturally incubated, pipping common tern and black-crowned night heron embryos collected from industrialized locations exhibited smaller femur-length-to-body-weight ratios, elevated hepatic microsomal aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activities, and lower hepatic DNA concentrations (P lt 0.05). In addition, a high incidence of subcutaneous edema was noted in pipping herons (P lt 0.01). In 1985, reduced hatching success was observed for laboratory-incubated common tern eggs collected from the industrialized sites, compared to non-industrialized sites (P lt 0.01). Day-old hatchlings exhibited reduced femur-length-to-body-weight ratio, developmental anomalies, and elevated hepatic AHH activity (P lt 0.05). For hatching common terns studied in 1984 and 1985, femur-length-to-body-weight ratio was inversely related to AHH activity (r = -0.67, P ltoreq 0.05) and inversely related to log-transformed PCB concentrations (r = -0.70, P ltoreq 0.05) of unincubated eggs from the same colony. The activity of AHH in hatching terns was also directly related (r = 0.71, P ltoreq 0.05) to log-transformed PCB concentrations in unincubated eggs. Other examined contaminants, including DDE, other organochlorine pesticides, and mercury, were not directly related to these effects.

  17. Effects of land use on ground-water quality in central Florida; preliminary results, US Geological Survey Toxic Waste-Ground Water Contamination Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutledge, A.T.

    1987-01-01

    Groundwater is the principal source of drinking water in central Florida. The most important hydrogeologic unit is the Floridan aquifer system, consisting of fractured limestone and dolomite limestone. Activities of man in areas of recharge to the Floridian aquifer system that may be affecting groundwater quality include: (1) the use of drainage wells for stormwater disposal in urban areas, (2) the use of pesticides and fertilizers in citrus groves, and (3) the mining and processing of phosphate ore in mining areas. Preliminary findings about the impacts of these land uses on ground-water quality by comparison with a fourth land use representing the absence of human activity in another area of recharge are presented. Drainage wells convey excess urban stormwater directly to the Upper Floridian aquifer. The volatile organic compounds are the most common contaminants in ground water. Trace elements such as chromium and lead are entering the aquifer but their movement is apparently attenuated by precipitation reactions associated with high pH or by cation-exchange reactions. Among the trace elements and organic chemicals, most ground-water contamination in citrus production areas is caused by pesticides, which include the organic compounds simazine, ametryne, chlordane, DDE , bromacil, aldicarb, EDB, trifluralin, and diazinon, and the trace elements zinc and copper; other contaminants include benzene, toluene, napthalene, and indene compounds. In the phosphate mining area, constituents of concern are arsenic, selenium, and mercury, and secondarily lead, chromium, cadmium, and others. Organic compounds such as fluorene, naphthalene, di-n-butyl phthalate, alkylated benzenes and naphthalenes, and indene compounds also are entering groundwater. (Author 's abstract)

  18. Contaminant trends in sport fish from Lake Roosevelt and the upper Columbia River, Washington, 1994-1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munn, Mark D.

    2000-01-01

    Fish from Lake Roosevelt were first reported to contain elevated concentrations of contaminants in the early 1980?s, with mercury, dioxins and furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) identified as being of most concern to human health. Over the following years there were a series of studies by United States and Canadian agencies addressing contaminants in fish from both a human and environmental perspective. In the early 1990?s, industrial discharges to the Columbia River above the international boundary decreased. The dominant changes in industrial practices included a reduction in slag and effluent discharges from a lead-zinc smelter, and a reduction in dioxins and furans due to processing changes at a Canadian pulp mill. It is believed that these two alterations in industrial practices may have greatly reduced the loading of selected contaminants to the Columbia River system. In response to these recent changes, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated this present study for the purpose of determining the present concentrations of mercury, dioxins and furans, and PCBs in fish, and, if possible, to determine if concentrations have changed since the 1994 studies. All contaminant analysis was done on fish fillets in order to address human health concerns. Our study concluded that the concentrations of contaminants in fish that were identified as a potential threat to human health have either not changed since the 1994 studies, or have decreased. PCBs, as determined by Aroclor 1254, do not appear to have changed between 1994 and 1998; sources of PCBs are presently unknown. In contrast, dioxins and furans, as indicated by 2,3,7,8-TCDF, did show a significant decrease in rainbow trout fillets from 1994 to 1998. However, there was no apparent change in the average 2,3,7,8-TCDF concentrations in mountain whitefish, with the reason uncertain at this time. Average concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDF were higher in mountain whitefish than in rainbow trout. Toxicity equivalence

  19. A model assessment of the ability of lake water in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, to induce the photochemical degradation of emerging contaminants.

    PubMed

    Minella, Marco; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio; Vione, Davide

    2016-11-01

    The shallow lakes located in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica, are free from ice for only up to a couple of months (mid December to early/mid February) during the austral summer. In the rest of the year, the ice cover shields the light and inhibits the photochemical processes in the water columns. Previous work has shown that chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in these lakes is very reactive photochemically. A model assessment is here provided of lake-water photoreactivity in field conditions, based on experimental data of lake water absorption spectra, chemistry and photochemistry obtained previously, taking into account the water depth and the irradiation conditions of the Antarctic summer. The chosen sample contaminants were the solar filter benzophenone-3 and the antimicrobial agent triclosan, which have very well known photoreactivity and have been found in a variety of environmental matrices in the Antarctic continent. The two compounds would have a half-life time of just a few days or less in the lake water during the Antarctic summertime, largely due to reaction with CDOM triplet states ((3)CDOM*). In general, pollutants that occur in the ice and could be released to lake water upon ice melting (around or soon after the December solstice) would be quickly photodegraded if they undergo fast reaction with (3)CDOM*. With some compounds, the important (3)CDOM* reactions might favour the production of harmful secondary pollutants, such as 2,8-dichlorodibenzodioxin from the basic (anionic) form of triclosan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An evaluation of biomarkers of reproductive function and potential contaminant effects in Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) sampled from the St. Johns River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, M.S.; Johnson, W.E.; Higman, J.C.; Denslow, N.D.; Schoeb, T.R.; Gross, T.S.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare several reproductive parameters for Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) inhabiting the St. Johns River and exposed to different types and/or degrees of contamination. Welaka was selected as the reference site in this study because of its low urban and agricultural development, Palatka is in close proximity to a paper mill plant, the Green Cove site is influenced by marine shipping activities and Julington Creek site receives discharges of domestic wastewater and storm water runoff from recreational boating marinas. For this study, bass were sampled both prior to (September 1996) and during the spawning season (February 1997). In order to characterize chemical exposure, bass livers were analyzed for up to 90 trace organics and 11 trace metal contaminants. Reproductive parameters measured included gonadosomatic index (GSI), histological evaluation of gonads and plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG), 17??-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). In general, the sum of organic chemicals was highest in livers from Palatka bass and bass from Green Cove and Julington Creek had higher hepatic concentrations of low molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls when compared to fish from Welaka. Metals were more variable across sites, with highest mean concentrations found in bass from either Julington Creek (Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Zn) or Welaka (Cd, Hg, Pb, Se, Tn). Female bass from Palatka and Green Cove had lower concentrations of E2, VTG and lower GSI in relation to Welaka. Males from Palatka and Green Cove showed comparable declines in 11-KT in relation to males from Julington Creek and GSI were decreased only in Palatka males. These results indicate a geographical trend in reproductive effects, with changes being most pronounced at the site closest to the paper mill (Palatka) and decreasing as the St. Johns River flows downstream. Since reproductive

  1. An evaluation of biomarkers of reproductive function and potential contaminant effects in Florida largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoidesfloridanus) sampled from the St. Johns River.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, María S; Johnson, William E; Higman, John C; Denslow, Nancy D; Schoeb, Trenton R; Gross, Timothy S

    2002-04-22

    The objective of this study was to describe and compare several reproductive parameters for Florida largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides floridanus) inhabiting the St. Johns River and exposed to different types and/or degrees of contamination. Welaka was selected as the reference site in this study because of its low urban and agricultural development, Palatka is in close proximity to a paper mill plant, the Green Cove site is influenced by marine shipping activities and Julington Creek site receives discharges of domestic wastewater and storm water runoff from recreational boating marinas. For this study, bass were sampled both prior to (September 1996) and during the spawning season (February 1997). In order to characterize chemical exposure, bass livers were analyzed for up to 90 trace organics and 11 trace metal contaminants. Reproductive parameters measured included gonadosomatic index (GSI), histological evaluation of gonads and plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (VTG), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). In general, the sum of organic chemicals was highest in livers from Palatka bass and bass from Green Cove and Julington Creek had higher hepatic concentrations of low molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls when compared to fish from Welaka. Metals were more variable across sites, with highest mean concentrations found in bass from either Julington Creek (Ag, As, Cr, Cu, Zn) or Welaka (Cd, Hg, Pb, Se, Tn). Female bass from Palatka and Green Cove had lower concentrations of E2, VTG and lower GSI in relation to Welaka. Males from Palatka and Green Cove showed comparable declines in 11-KT in relation to males from Julington Creek and GSI were decreased only in Palatka males. These results indicate a geographical trend in reproductive effects, with changes being most pronounced at the site closest to the paper mill (Palatka) and decreasing as the St. Johns River flows downstream. Since reproductive

  2. Planning applications in east central Florida. [resources management and planning, land use, and lake algal blooms in Brevard County from Skylab imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannah, J. W.; Thomas, G. L.; Esparza, F. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Lake Apopka and three lakes downstream of it (Dora, Eustis, and Griffin) are in an advanced state of eutrophication with high algal concentrations. This feature has shown up consistently on ERTS-1 images in the form of a characteristic water color for those lakes. As expected, EREP photographs also show a characteristic color for those lakes. What was not expected is that Lake Griffin shows a clear pattern of this coloration. Personnel familiar with the lake believe that the photograph does, indeed, show an algal bloom. It is reported that the algal concentration is often significantly higher in the southern portion of the lake. What the photograph shows that was not otherwise known is the pattern of the algal bloom. A similar, but less pronounced, effect is seen in Lake Tohopekaliga. Personnel stationed at Kissimmee reported that there was an algal bloom on that lake at the time of the EREP pass and that its extent corresponded approximately to that shown on the photograph. Again, the EREP photograph gives information about the extent of the bloom that could not be obtained practically by sampling. ERTS-1 images give some indication of this algal distribution on Lake Griffin in some cases, but are inconclusive.

  3. Cholera outbreak caused by drinking lake water contaminated with human faeces in Kaiso Village, Hoima District, Western Uganda, October 2015.

    PubMed

    Oguttu, David W; Okullo, A; Bwire, G; Nsubuga, P; Ario, A R

    2017-10-10

    = ∞, 95% CI Fisher : 1.0 - ∞). The village's piped water system had been vandalised and open defecation was common due to a lack of latrines. The lake water was found to be contiminated due to a gully channel that washed the faeces into the lake at point C. This outbreak was likely caused by drinking lake water contaminated by faeces from a gully channel. We recommend treatment of drinking water, fixing the vandalised piped-water system and constructing latrines.

  4. The Great Lakes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Great Lakes form the largest surface freshwater system on Earth. The U.S. and Canada work together to restore and protect the environment in the Great Lakes Basin. Top issues include contaminated sediments, water quality and invasive species.

  5. Occurrence and distribution of contaminants in bottom sediment and water of the Barron River Canal, Big Cypress National Preserve, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Ronald L.; McPherson, Benjamin F.

    2001-01-01

    Trace elements and organic contaminants in bottom-sediment samples collected from 10 sites on the Barron River Canal and from one site on the Turner River in October 1998 had patterns of distribution that indicated different sources. At some sites on the Barron River Canal, lead, copper, and zinc, normalized to aluminum, exceeded limits normally considered as background and may be enriched by human activities. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and p-cresol, normalized against organic carbon, had patterns of distribution that indicated local sources of input from a road or vehicular traffic or from an old creosote wood treatment facility. Phthalate esters and the traces elements arsenic, cadmium, and zinc were more widely distributed with the highest normalized concentrations occurring at the Turner River background site, probably due to the high percentage of fine sediment (74% less than 63 micrometers) and high organic carbon concentration (42%) at that site and the binding effect of organic carbon on trace elements and trace organic compounds. Low concentrations of pesticides or pesticide degradation products were detected in bottom sediment (DDD and DDE, each less than 3.5 µg/kg) and water (9 pesticides, each less than 0.06 µ/L), primarily in the northern reach of the Barron River Canal where agriculture is a likely source. Although a few contaminants approached criteria that would indicate adverse effects on aquatic life, none exceeded the criteria, but the potential synergistic effects of mixtures of contaminants found at most sites are not included in the criteria.

  6. Contamination of nonylphenolic compounds in creek water, wastewater treatment plant effluents, and sediments from Lake Shihwa and vicinity, Korea: Comparison with fecal pollution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choi, Minkyu; Furlong, Edward T.; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Yu, Jun; Choi, Hee-Gu

    2011-01-01

    Nonylphenolic compounds (NPs), coprostanol (COP), and cholestanol, major contaminants in industrial and domestic wastewaters, were analyzed in creek water, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and sediment samples from artificial Lake Shihwa and its vicinity, one of the most industrialized regions in Korea. We also determined mass discharge of NPs and COP, a fecal sterol, into the lake, to understand the linkage between discharge and sediment contamination. Total NP (the sum of nonylphenol, and nonylphenol mono- and di-ethoxylates) were 0.32–875 μg L-1 in creeks, 0.61–87.0 μg L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 29.3–230 μg g-1 TOC in sediments. Concentrations of COP were 0.09–19.0 μg L-1 in creeks, 0.11–44.0 μg L-1 in WWTP effluents, and 2.51–438 μg g-1 TOC in sediments. The spatial distributions of NPs in creeks and sediments from the inshore region were different from those of COP, suggesting that Lake Shihwa contamination patterns from industrial effluents differ from those from domestic effluents. The mass discharge from the combined outfall of the WWTPs, located in the offshore region, was 2.27 kg d-1 for NPs and 1.00 kg d-1 for COP, accounting for 91% and 95% of the total discharge into Lake Shihwa, respectively. The highest concentrations of NPs and COP in sediments were found in samples at sites near the submarine outfall of the WWTPs, indicating that the submarine outfall is an important point source of wastewater pollution in Lake Shihwa.

  7. Florida Everglades and Keys, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Though much of southern Florida is covered by clouds, the Florida Everglades and Keys (25.0N, 82.0W) remain relatively clear in this nearly vertical view. The view covers the Gulf of Mexico port city of Ft. Myers, and Lake Okeechobee, at the top of the scene, in the north, The Everglades, in the center and the entire Florida Key Chain at the bottom. Even with the many popcorn clouds, ground detail and the city of Miami is easily discerned.

  8. Dynamical Systems Analysis Of Transport In Flows Defined As Data Sets: Contaminant Control On The Coast Of Florida And Criteria For Warm Rings In The North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekien, F.; Coulliette, C.

    In this talk we will briefly describe the dynamical systems framework for Lagrangian transport. In particular, we will show how dynamical systems theory can now be uti- lized in the context of "real" problems, such as those derived from remote sensing observations or the input of a large scale numerical model. We will illustrate these ideas by two examples. Study of fluid transport near the Atlantic coast of Florida us- ing a velocity field observed experimentally from high frequency radar measurements reveals that dynamical systems theory can be used to reduce contaminant density in coastal areas. We also study intergyre transport in a quasigeostrophic model of the North Atlantic. We investigate the structure of eddies detaching from the Gulf Stream and prove that in a double gyre structure cyclonic rings cannot contain fluid from the other gyre. Only anticyclonic rings can contain "foreign" fluid coming from another gyre. This explains many phenomenons, such as why counter-clockwise rings South of the Gulf Stream contain colder fluid advected directly from the northern gyre, which has been illustrated in many observational studies.

  9. DDT residue contamination in sediments from Lake Sibaya in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: implications for conservation in a World Heritage Site.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Marc S

    2013-11-01

    Maputaland in northern KwaZulu-Natal is a biodiversity hotspot and host to a number of ecologically important systems, including Lake Sibaya, southern Africa's largest natural freshwater lake. The region is malaria endemic and this study reports the presence of DDT and its metabolites in the sediments of Lake Sibaya that have resulted from the widespread and continued use of DDT in the region. DDT residues (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE) were detected at all 11 sites sampled, with total concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 123 ng g(-1). Total DDT concentrations at Lake Sibaya represent some of the highest levels reported in South Africa, with most samples exceeding sediment quality guideline values. The findings from this study raise concerns and indicate that urgent further work is needed to investigate the potential for bioaccumulation, which could adversely affect breeding fish, bird, and crocodile populations in the region. While this study represents the first report on DDT contamination in Lake Sibaya, results have important implications for a number of other aquatic ecosystems within the Maputaland ecoregion, as well as the many local people who depend on them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Remediation of organochlorine pesticides contaminated lake sediment using activated carbon and carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hua, Shan; Gong, Ji-Lai; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Yao, Fu-Bing; Guo, Min; Ou, Xiao-Ming

    2017-06-01

    Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in sediment were a potential damage for humans and ecosystems. The aim of this work was to determine the effectiveness of carbon materials remedy hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) in sediment. Two different carbon materials including activated carbon (AC) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used in the present research. Sediment treated with 2 wt% AC and MWCNTs after 150 d contact showed 97%, and 75% reduction for HCH, and 93% and 59% decrease for DDTs in aqueous equilibrium concentration, respectively. Similarly, the reduction efficiencies of DDT and HCH uptake by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) treated with AC (MWCNTs) were 97% (75%) and 92% (63%), respectively under the identical conditions. Furthermore, for 2 wt% AC (MWCNTs) system, a reduction of XAD beads uptake up to 87% (52%) and 73% (67%) was obtained in HCH and DDT flux to overlying water in quiescent system. Adding MWCNTs to contaminated sediment did not significantly decrease aqueous equilibrium concentration and DDTs and HCH availability in SPMDs compared to AC treatment. A series of results indicated that AC had significantly higher remediation efficiency towards HCH and DDTs in sediment than MWCNTs. Additionally, the removal efficiencies of two organic pollutants improved with increasing material doses and contact times. The greater effectiveness of AC was attributed to its greater specific surface area, which was favorable for binding contaminants. These results highlighted the potential for using AC as in-situ sorbent amendments for sediment remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Role of Created and Restored Wetlands in Mitigating N and P Pollutants in Agricultural Landscapes: Case Studies in the Florida Everglades, Mississippi-Ohio-Missouri Basin, and Laurentian Great Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsch, W. J.

    2016-12-01

    On a global scale, we have lost half of our original wetlands to our current extent of 8 to 12 million km2, with most of that loss in the 20th century. In the United States, we lost 50% of our wetlands by the beginning of the 1970s. I am proposing here a sizeable increase in our wetland resources for solving the diminishing wetland habitat problem, but with the strategic purpose of minimizing the excess phosphorus and nitrogen in our aquatic ecosystems, with the added benefit of sometimes sequesting carbon from the atmosphere, in our rural, urban, and coastal landscapes in a sustainable fashion. Examples include attempts to minimize phosphorus inflows to the Florida Everglades with wetlands to quite low concentrations and a proposal to restore parts of the Black Swamp in NW Ohio to minimize eutrophication of Lake Erie in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Nitrogen retention by wetlands and riparian forests in the Mississippi-Ohio-Missouri Basin, especially in Midwestern USA, has been proposed for 15 years as a solution and endorsed by the Federal government to solve the seasonal hypoxia in the northern portion of the Gulf of Mexico, but there has been little if any progress over those 15 years. Solutions to recycle the nutrients retained in the wetlands back to agriculture to decrease fertilizer use will be presented as a solution to the multiple problems of wetland habitat loss, downstream lake, reservoir, river, and coastal nutrient pollution, diminishing supplies of phosphorus fertilizer, and fertilizer costs.

  12. Chemical and biological quality of Lakes Faith, Hope, and Charity at Maitland, Florida, with emphasis on the effects of storm runoff and bulk precipitation, 1971-1974

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaggiani, Neville G.; Lamonds, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    Located in a closed basin, near Orlands, Fla., Lake Faith, Hope, and Charity cover a combined area of 132 acres and are surrounded by residential, citrus grove and undeveloped areas. All of these areas affect the water quality of the lakes through storm runoff and transport of windborne material. During a study from April 1971 to June 1974, stages of Lakes Faith, Hope, and Charity declined 1.5, 1.4, and 3.0 ft, respectively, because the rainfall was 3.78 in. below average for the area. Inflow to the lakes during this 3-year period was approximately 1,966 acre-ft of which 84 percent was by rainfall and 16 percent was by storm runoff. Rainfall and runoff brought in 82 tons of dissolved solids of which storm runoff carried 51 tons and bulk precipitation carried 32 tons. Dissolved solids concentrations in the lakes were relatively low, averaging 91, 132, and 212 mg/liter for Lakes Faith, Hope, and Charity, respecetively. Major ions, trace elements and nutrients were present in the lakes in relatively low concentrations. Phytoplankton and coliform population showed sharp seasonal fluctuations with the maximum population generally occurring during the warmer months. Blue-green algae predominated in all three lakes. (Woodard-USGS)

  13. Using groundwater age and hydrochemistry to understand sources and dynamics of nutrient contamination through the catchment into Lake Rotorua, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgenstern, U.; Daughney, C. J.; Leonard, G.; Gordon, D.; Donath, F. M.; Reeves, R.

    2015-02-01

    The water quality of Lake Rotorua has steadily declined over the past 50 years despite mitigation efforts over recent decades. Delayed response of the groundwater discharges to historic land-use intensification 50 years ago was the reason suggested by early tritium measurements, which indicated large transit times through the groundwater system. We use the isotopic and chemistry signature of the groundwater for detailed understanding of the origin, fate, flow pathways, lag times and future loads of contaminants. A unique set of high-quality tritium data over more than four decades, encompassing the time when the tritium spike from nuclear weapons testing moved through the groundwater system, allows us to determine detailed age distribution parameters of the water discharging into Lake Rotorua. The Rotorua volcanic groundwater system is complicated due to the highly complex geology that has evolved through volcanic activity. Vertical and steeply inclined geological contacts preclude a simple flow model. The extent of the Lake Rotorua groundwater catchment is difficult to establish due to the deep water table in large areas, combined with inhomogeneous groundwater flow patterns. Hierarchical cluster analysis of the water chemistry parameters provided evidence of the recharge source of the large springs near the lake shore, with discharge from the Mamaku ignimbrite through lake sediment layers. Groundwater chemistry and age data show clearly the source of nutrients that cause lake eutrophication, nitrate from agricultural activities and phosphate from geologic sources. With a naturally high phosphate load reaching the lake continuously via all streams, the only effective way to limit algae blooms and improve lake water quality in such environments is by limiting the nitrate load. The groundwater in the Rotorua catchment, once it has passed through the soil zone, shows no further decrease in dissolved oxygen, indicating an absence of bioavailable electron donors along

  14. Investigating the Spatial Trends in the Level of Organic Contaminants in the Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes Using Semipermeable Membrane Devices.

    PubMed

    Deribe, Ermias

    2018-05-21

    Organic pollutants in the Ethiopian Rift Valley Lakes are the major factors that contribute to severe environmental problem. SPMDs were deployed for the analysis of selected organic pollutants for 1 month at 2 sites in Lakes Hawassa, Ziway and Koka, Ethiopia. From SPMDs placed in the three lakes, the predominant OCPs were DDT which comprise 67% and followed by endosulfan 23% of the total organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) retrieved. The highest level of OCPs, in general, was found in the SPMDs deployed in Lake Ziway with the mean concentration of 308.5 ng/SPMD. However, the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the highest in the SPMDs deployed in Lake Hawassa with mean concentration of 50.2 ng/SPMD. Spatial variation on the accumulation of OCPs and PCBs among the lakes depends on the shoreline activities, distance of the lakes from point and non-point sources, and the biofouling factors.

  15. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the Installation Restoration Program, Cecil Field Naval Air Station, Jacksonville, Florida, is considering remedialaction alternatives to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites that may discharge to the surface. This requires a quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system and how the system will respond to any future stresses. The geologic units of interest in the study area consist of sediments of Holocene to Miocene age that extend from land surface to the base of the Hawthorn Group. The hydrogeology within the study area was determined from gamma-ray and geologists? logs. Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system was simulated with a seven-layer, finite-difference model that extended vertically from the water table to the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer. Results from the calibrated model were based on a long-term recharge rate of 6 inches per year, which fell in the range of 4 to 10 inches per year, estimated using stream hydrograph separation methods. More than 80 percent of ground-water flow circulates within the surficial-sand aquifer, which indicates that most contaminant movement also can be expected to move through the surficial-sand aquifer alone. The surficial-sand aquifer is the uppermost unit of the surficial aquifer system. Particle-tracking results showed that the distances of most flow paths were 1,500 feet or less from a given site to its discharge point. For an assumed effective porosity of 20 percent, typical traveltimes are 40 years or less. At all of the sites investigated, particles released 10 feet below the water table had shorter traveltimes than those released 40 feet below the water table. Traveltimes from contaminated sites to their point of discharge ranged from 2 to 300 years. The contributing areas of the domestic supply wells are not very extensive. The shortest traveltimes for particles to reach the domestic supply wells from their respective

  16. Reproductive success and contaminant associations in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) used to assess a Beneficial Use Impairment in U.S. and Binational Great Lakes' Areas of Concern.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Etterson, Matthew A; Dummer, Paul M; Goldberg, Diana; Franson, J Christian

    2018-05-01

    During 2010-2014, tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) reproductive success was monitored at 68 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 58 sites located within Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs) and 10 non-AOCs. Sample eggs were collected from tree swallow clutches and analyzed for contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins and furans, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and 34 other organic compounds. Contaminant data were available for 360 of the clutches monitored. Markov chain multistate modeling was used to assess the importance of 5 ecological variables and 11 of the dominant contaminants in explaining the pattern of egg and nestling failure rates. Four of 5 ecological variables (Female Age, Date within season, Year, and Site) were important explanatory variables. Of the 11 contaminants, only total dioxin and furan toxic equivalents (TEQs) explained a significant amount of the egg failure probabilities. Neither total PCBs nor PCB TEQs explained the variation in egg failure rates. In a separate analysis, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in nestling diet, used as a proxy for female diet during egg laying, was significantly correlated with the daily probability of egg failure. The 8 sites within AOCs which had poorer reproduction when compared to 10 non-AOC sites, the measure of impaired reproduction as defined by the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative, were associated with exposure to dioxins and furan TEQs, PAHs, or depredation. Only 2 sites had poorer reproduction than the poorest performing non-AOC. Using a classic (non-modeling) approach to estimating reproductive success, 82% of nests hatched at least 1 egg, and 75% of eggs laid, excluding those collected for contaminant analyses, hatched.

  17. A Combined Field and Laboratory Study on Activated Carbon-Based Thin Layer Capping in a PCB-Contaminated Boreal Lake.

    PubMed

    Abel, Sebastian; Akkanen, Jarkko

    2018-04-17

    The in situ remediation of aquatic sediments with activated carbon (AC)-based thin layer capping is a promising alternative to traditional methods, such as sediment dredging. Applying a strong sorbent like AC directly to the sediment can greatly reduce the bioavailability of organic pollutants. To evaluate the method under realistic field conditions, a 300 m 2 plot in the PCB-contaminated Lake Kernaalanjärvi, Finland, was amended with an AC cap (1.6 kgAC/m 2 ). The study lake showed highly dynamic sediment movements over the monitoring period of 14 months. This led to poor retention and rapid burial of the AC cap under a layer of contaminated sediment from adjacent sites. As a result, the measured impact of the AC amendment was low: Both the benthic community structure and PCB bioaccumulation were similar on the plot and in surrounding reference sites. Corresponding follow-up laboratory studies using Lumbriculus variegatus and Chironomus riparius showed that long-term remediation success is possible, even when an AC cap is covered with contaminated sediment. To retain a measurable effectiveness (reduction in contaminant bioaccumulation), a sufficient intensity and depth of bioturbation is required. On the other hand, the magnitude of the adverse effect induced by AC correlated positively with the measured remediation success.

  18. Estimating nitrogen loading to ground water and assessing vulnerability to nitrate contamination in a large karstic springs Basin, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, B.G.; Sepulveda, A.A.; Verdi, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    A nitrogen (N) mass-balance budget was developed to assess the sources of N affecting increasing ground-water nitrate concentrations in the 960-km 2 karstic Ichetucknee Springs basin. This budget included direct measurements of N species in rainfall, ground water, and spring waters, along with estimates of N loading from fertilizers, septic tanks, animal wastes, and the land application of treated municipal wastewater and residual solids. Based on a range of N leaching estimates, N loads to ground water ranged from 262,000 to 1.3 million kg/year; and were similar to N export from the basin in spring waters (266,000 kg/year) when 80-90% N losses were assumed. Fertilizers applied to cropland, lawns, and pine stands contributed about 51% of the estimated total annual N load to ground water in the basin. Other sources contributed the following percentages of total N load to ground water: animal wastes, 27%; septic tanks, 12%; atmospheric deposition, 8%; and the land application of treated wastewater and biosolids, 2%. Due to below normal rainfall (97.3 cm) during the 12-month rainfall collection period, N inputs from rainfall likely were about 30% lower than estimates for normal annual rainfall (136 cm). Low N-isotope values for six spring waters (??15N-NO3 = 3.3 to 6.3???) and elevated potassium concentrations in ground water and spring waters were consistent with the large N contribution from fertilizers. Given ground-water residence times on the order of decades for spring waters, possible sinks for excess N inputs to the basin include N storage in the unsaturated zone and parts of the aquifer with relatively sluggish ground-water movement and denitrification. A geographical-based model of spatial loading from fertilizers indicated that areas most vulnerable to nitrate contamination were located in closed depressions containing sinkholes and other dissolution features in the southern half of the basin. ?? 2009 American Water Resources Association.

  19. Southern Florida River of Grass

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-04-17

    Florida Everglades is a region of broad, slow-moving sheets of water flowing southward over low-lying areas from Lake Okeechobeeto the Gulf of Mexico. These images fromNASA Terra satellite show the Everglades region on January 16, 2002.

  20. PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR EVALUATING, MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to
    manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks.
    Understanding ho...

  1. A PHYSICAL, CHEMICAL, AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, NC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses significant challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how eff...

  2. Organochlorine contaminants and biomarker response in double-crested cormorants nesting in Green Bay and Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Custer, Christine M.; Hines, R.K.; Stromborg, K.L.; Allen, P. David; Melancon, M.J.; Henshel, D.S.

    2001-01-01

    Double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs at pipping and sibling 10-day-old chicks were collected from two colonies in Green Bay, WI, one colony in Lake Michigan, WI, and reference colonies in South Dakota and Minnesota. Egg contents and chicks were analyzed for organochlorine contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners. Livers of embryos and chicks were assayed for hepatic microsomal ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity. Eggshell thickness and the physical dimensions of embryo brains were measured. Concentrations of organochlorines, including p,p′-DDE (p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), PCBs, and PCB congeners were generally an order of magnitude higher in eggs and chicks from Wisconsin than from reference locations. Total PCBs averaged 10–13 μg/g wet weight in eggs from three Wisconsin colonies compared to 0.9 μg/g PCBs from reference locations. Double-crested cormorant chicks accumulated on average 33–66 μg PCBs/day and 7–12 μg p,p′-DDE/day in the Wisconsin colonies compared to 0 μg PCBs/day and 1 μg p,p′-DDE/day in the reference colonies. At pipping, EROD activity in the livers of cormorant embryos was significantly higher in the Wisconsin colonies and significantly correlated with PCBs and the toxic equivalents (TEQs) of aryl hydrocarbon-active PCB congeners relative to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin. However, in 10-day-old chicks EROD activity was not consistently different among colonies and was not correlated with PCBs or TEQs. A significant negative relationship between embryo brain asymmetry and the size of the egg suggested that physical constraint might be an important factor influencing the response of this bioindicator. Thinner eggshells in two colonies located near Door County, Wisconsin, suggested that historic p,p′-DDE residues associated with orchards are still an important source of p,p′-DDE in the local environment.

  3. Contamination of Lake Wewoka and fresh-water sands by disposal of oil-well brines near Wewoka, Seminole County, Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoff, Stuart L.; Dott, Robert H.; Lalicker, Cecil Gordon

    1941-01-01

    This reports deals with ground-water conditions in an area about 5 miles wide from east to west and 8 miles long from north to south, in Tps. 8 and 9 N., Rs. 7 and 8 E., in Seminole County, Oklahoma, including the town of Wewoka and Lake Wewoka. The possible contamination of the lake waters from oil-well brines disposed through a well 3.75 miles north of the lake, and other effects of brine disposal, are considered. The investigation was made at the request of Frank Raab, member of the Oklahoma Planning and Resources Board, and Don McBride, Chief Engineer of the Division of Water Resources who has the responsibility of preventing contamination of water supplies in Oklahoma. Field work was done July 5 and 6, 1941, by Robert H. Dott, Director of the Oklahoma Geological Survey; C.G. Lalicker, Department of Geology, University of Oklahoma; and S.L. Schoff, Assistant Geologist in the Ground Water Division, Water Resources Branch, of the U.S. Geological Survey. Lalicker spent both days studying the rocks exposed in the vicinity and measuring their thickness. A copy of the composite section measured by him is attached. Dott and Schoff spent one day collecting the well information summarized in Table 1, and one day with Lalicker on the stratigraphy. (available as photostat copy only)

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A CONTAMINANT TRANSPORT AND FATE MASS BALANCE CALIBRATION MODEL FOR LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE PROJECT (LMMBP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Michigan Mass Balance Project (LMMBP) was initiated to directly support the development of a lakewide management plan (LaMP) for Lake Michigan. A mass balance modeling approach is proposed for the project to addrss the realtionship between sources of toxic chemicals and thei...

  5. Organochlorine and trace element contamination in wintering and migrating diving ducks in the southern Great Lakes, USA, since the zebra mussel invasion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    Because of the potential for increased trophic transfer of contaminants by zebra mussels (Dreissena sp.) to higher trophic levels, we collected four species of waterfowl (n = 65 ducks) from four locations in Lake Erie, Lake St. Clair, and Lake Michigan, USA, between 1991 and 1993 for organochlorine contaminant and trace element analyses. Geometric mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and p,pa??-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) were 1.35 and 0.15 I?g/g wet weight in lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) carcasses and were below known effect levels. Total PCBs in 80% of carcasses, however, were above the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's threshold of 3.0 I?g/g lipid weight for consumption of poultry. With the exception of selenium, trace elements were also at background or no-effect levels. Selenium concentrations in livers of 95% of lesser scaup, 90% of bufflehead (Bucephala albeola), and 72% of common goldeneye (Bucephala clangula) were in the elevated (>10 I?g/g dry wt) or potentially harmful range (>33 I?g/g dry wt). The effects of these high selenium concentrations are unknown but should be investigated further based on reproductive effects observed in field and laboratory studies of dabbling ducks and because lesser scaup populations are declining. Concentrations of total PCBs in dreissenid mussels in western Lake Erie were 10 times higher than in the upper Mississippi River but were similar to concentrations in other industrialized rivers in Europe and the United States. Metal concentrations were similar to other industrialized sites where zebra mussels have been sampled.

  6. Hydrogeology and simulated effects of ground-water withdrawals from the Floridan aquifer system in Lake County and in the Ocala National Forest and vicinity, north-central Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knowles, Leel; O'Reilly, Andrew M.; Adamski, James C.

    2002-01-01

    The hydrogeology of Lake County and the Ocala National Forest in north-central Florida was evaluated (1995-2000), and a ground-water flow model was developed and calibrated to simulate the effects of both present day and future ground-water withdrawals in these areas and the surrounding vicinity. A predictive model simulation was performed to determine the effects of projected 2020 ground-water withdrawals on the water levels and flows in the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems. The principal water-bearing units in Lake County and the Ocala National Forest are the surficial and Floridan aquifer systems. The two aquifer systems generally are separated by the intermediate confining unit, which contains beds of lower permeability sediments that confine the water in the Florida aquifer system. The Floridan aquifer system has two major water-bearing zones (the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Lower Floridan aquifer), which generally are separated by one or two less-permeable confining units. The Floridan aquifer system is the major source of ground water in the study area. In 1998, ground-water withdrawals totaled about 115 million gallons per day in Lake County and 5.7 million gallons per day in the Ocala National Forest. Of the total ground water pumped in Lake County in 1998, nearly 50 percent was used for agricultural purposes, more than 40 percent for municipal, domestic, and recreation supplies, and less than 10 percent for commercial and industrial purposes. Fluctuations of lake stages, surficial and Floridan aquifer system water levels, and Upper Floridan aquifer springflows in the study area are highly related to cycles and distribution of rainfall. Long-term hydrographs for 9 lakes, 8 surficial aquifer system and Upper Floridan aquifer wells, and 23 Upper Floridan aquifer springs show the most significant increases in water levels and springflows following consecutive years with above-average rainfall, and significant decreases following consecutive years

  7. Current status and historical variations of DDT-related contaminants in the sediments of Lake Chaohu in China and their influencing factors.

    PubMed

    Kang, Lei; He, Qi-Shuang; He, Wei; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Xiu; Wu, Wen-Jing; Li, Yi-Long; Lan, Xin-Yu; Xu, Fu-Liu

    2016-12-01

    The temporal-spatial distributions of DDT-related contaminants (DDXs), including DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene) and DDD (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane), in the sediments of Lake Chaohu and their influencing factors were studied. p,p-DDE and p,p-DDD were found to be the two dominant components of DDXs in both surface and core sediments. The parent DDT compounds were still detectable in sediment cores after the late 1930s. Historical usage of technical DDT was identified as the primary source of DDXs in sediments, as indicated by DDT/(DDD + DDE) ratios of less than one. The residual levels of DDXs were higher in the surface and core sediments in the western lake area than in other lake areas, which might be due to the combined inflow effects of municipal sewage, industrial wastewater and agricultural runoff. The DDX residues in the sediment cores reached peak values in the late 1970s or early 1980s. There were significant positive relationships between DDX residues in sediment cores with annual DDT production and with fine particulate sizes (<4.5 μm). The relationship between the DDXs and TOC in sediment was complex, as indicated by the significant differences among the surface and core sediments. The algae-derived organic matter significantly influenced the amount of residue, composition and distribution of DDXs in the sediments. The DDD/DDE ratios responded well to the anaerobic conditions in the sediments that were caused by algal blooms after the late 1970s in the western lake area. This suggests that the algae-derived organic matter was an important factor and served as a biomarker of eutrophication and also affected the DDX residues and lifecycle in the lake ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality of Ground Water in the Biscayne Aquifer in Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties, Florida, 1996-1998, with Emphasis on Contaminants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Blasland, Bouck, and Lee, Inc., 1992), arsenic and copper used as fungicide on grape - fruit and as a wood preservative (Sherwood and others, 1973), and...for nematode control (400 pounds per acre from Noling and Gilreath, 1998) would provide 44.8 grams per square meter to the soil. The decomposition... nematode control: A south Florida synopsis: Gainesville, University of Florida, Institute for Food and Agricultural Science: accessed October 8, 2002

  9. Great Lakes: EPA Needs to Define Organizational Responsibilities Better for Effective Oversight and Cleanup of Contaminated Areas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    the agreement through improved organization and definition of the agency’s mission, funding of state grants for pollution control in the Great Lakes...upon and committed to implement. Although most of the annexes specify pollution prevention strategies, Annex 2 calls for the preparation of RAPs to...management plans for the open waters of each lake to reduce loadings of critical pollutants in order to restore beneficial uses. 2 See U.S. General

  10. Integration of analytical and biological measurements for assessing the effects of contaminants present at a Great Lakes area of concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the potential biological impacts of complex contaminant mixtures in aquatic environments is a challenge. Instrumental analyses of site waters provide insights into the occurrence of contaminants, but provide little information about possible effects. Biological measur...

  11. Integration of analytical and biological measurements for assessing the effects of contaminants present at Great Lakes areas of concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the potential biological impacts of complex contaminant mixtures in aquatic environments is often a challenge for ecotoxicologists. Instrumental analysis of site waters provides insights into the occurrence of contaminants, but provides little information about possibl...

  12. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages as bio-indicators of metals contamination in sediments, Qarun Lake as a case study, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El Naby, Ahmed; Al Menoufy, Safia; Gad, Ahmed

    2018-03-01

    Qarun Lake, in the Fayoum Depression of the Western Desert of Egypt, lies within the deepest area in the River Nile flood plain. The drainage water in the Qarun Lake is derived from the discharge of the natural and artificial drainage systems in the Fayoum. Mixed domestic and agricultural pollutants, including heavy metals, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates and pesticides, are discharged into Qarun Lake. Forty-six samples, collected from the undisturbed layer of sediments were used for benthic foraminiferal analysis. Concentrations of some selected trace metal elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V, and Zn) were also determined. Statistical analysis of the abiotic variables (Texture distribution of sediments, Physico-chemical parameters, and metals concentrations) and of the biotic variables (distribution of benthic foraminiferal species) were also performed. The Q-mode cluster analysis of benthic foraminiferal distribution has provided evidence that the Qarun Lake can be subdivided into two cluster groups (A and B), reflecting environmental changes in the lake ecosystem. Cluster B can also be subdivided into two sub-clusters (B1 and B2). The presence of only pollution tolerant taxa with higher faunal density and lower diversity and the absence of the other foraminiferal assemblages in cluster A were attributed to the high concentration of trace metal elements and the strong environmental stress at the eastern and central parts of the Qarun Lake.

  13. Endocrine disrupting alkylphenolic chemicals and other contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents, urban streams, and fish in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, Larry B.; Loyo-Rosales, Jorge E.; Rice, Clifford P.; Minarik, Thomas A.; Oskouie, Ali K.

    2015-01-01

    Urban streams are an integral part of the municipal water cycle and provide a point of discharge for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents, allowing additional attenuation through dilution and transformation processes, as well as a conduit for transporting contaminants to downstream water supplies. Domestic and commercial activities dispose of wastes down-the-drain, resulting in wastewater containing complex chemical mixtures that are only partially removed during treatment. A key issue associated with WWTP effluent discharge into streams is the potential to cause endocrine disruption in fish. This study provides a long-term (1999-2009) evaluation of the occurrence of alkylphenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and other contaminants discharged from WWTPs into streams in the Great Lakes and Upper Mississippi River Regions (Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Minnesota, and Ohio). The Greater Metropolitan Chicago Area Waterways, Illinois, were evaluated to determine contaminant concentrations in the major WWTP effluents and receiving streams, and assess the behavior of EDCs from their sources within the sewer collection system, through the major treatment unit processes at a WWTP, to their persistence and transport in the receiving stream. Water samples were analyzed for alkylphenolic EDCs and other contaminants, including 4-nonylphenol (NP), 4-nonylphenolpolyethoxylates (NPEO), 4-nonylphenolethoxycarboxylic acids (NPEC), 4-tert-octylphenol (OP), 4-tert-octylphenolpolyethoxylates (OPEO), bisphenol A, triclosan, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and trace elements. All of the compounds were detected in all of the WWTP effluents, with EDTA and NPEC having the greatest concentrations. The compounds also were detected in the WWTP effluent dominated rivers. Multiple fish species were collected from river and lake sites and analyzed for NP, NPEO, NPEC, OP, and OPEO. Whole-body fish tissue analysis indicated widespread occurrence of alkylphenolic compounds

  14. Ground-water flow in the surficial aquifer system and potential movement of contaminants from selected waste-disposal sites at Naval Station Mayport, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halford, K.J.

    1998-01-01

    Ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer system at Naval Station Mayport near Jacksonville, Florida, was simulated with a two-layer finite-difference model as part of an investigation conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The model was calibrated to 229 water-level measurements from 181 wells during three synoptic surveys (July 17, 1995; July 31, 1996; and October 24, 1996). A quantifiable understanding of ground-water flow through the surficial aquifer was needed to evaluate remedial-action alternatives under consideration by the Naval Station Mayport to control the possible movement of contaminants from sites on the station. Multi-well aquifer tests, single-well tests, and slug tests were conducted to estimate the hydraulic properties of the surficial aquifer system, which was divided into three geohydrologic units?an S-zone and an I-zone separated by a marsh-muck confining unit. The recharge rate was estimated to range from 4 to 15 inches per year (95 percent confidence limits), based on a chloride-ratio method. Most of the simulations following model calibration were based on a recharge rate of 8 inches per year to unirrigated pervious areas. The advective displacement of saline pore water during the last 200 years was simulated using a particle-tracking routine, MODPATH, applied to calibrated steady-state and transient models of the Mayport peninsula. The surficial aquifer system at Naval Station Mayport has been modified greatly by natural and anthropogenic forces so that the freshwater flow system is expanding and saltwater is being flushed from the system. A new MODFLOW package (VAR1) was written to simulate the temporal variation of hydraulic properties caused by construction activities at Naval Station Mayport. The transiently simulated saltwater distribution after 200 years of displacement described the chloride distribution in the I-zone (determined from measurements made during 1993 and 1996) better than the steady-state simulation. The

  15. Long-term recovery of PCB-contaminated surface sediments at the Sangamo-westonl Twelvemile Creek/lake Hartwell Superfund Site.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Richard C; Magar, Victor S; Ickes, Jennifer A; Foote, Eric A; Abbott, James E; Bingler, Linda S; Crecelius, Eric A

    2004-04-15

    Natural recovery of contaminated sediments relies on burial of contaminated sediments with increasingly clean sediments over time (i.e., natural capping). Natural capping reduces the risk of resuspension of contaminated surface sediments, and it reduces the potential for contaminant transport into the food chain by limiting bioturbation of contaminated surface or near-surface sediments. This study evaluated the natural recovery of surface sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at the Sangamo-Weston/Twelvemile Creek/Lake Hartwell Superfund Site (Lake Hartwell), Pickens County, SC. The primary focus was on sediment recovery resulting from natural capping processes. Total PCB (t-PCB), lead-210 (210Pb), and cesium-137 (137Cs) sediment core profiles were used to establish vertical t-PCB concentration profiles, age date sediments, and determine surface sedimentation and surface sediment recovery rates in 18 cores collected along 10 transects. Four upgradient transects in the headwaters of Lake Hartwell were impacted by historical sediment releases from three upgradient sediment impoundments. These transects were characterized by silt/ clay and sand layering. The highest PCB concentrations were associated with silt/clay layers (1.8-3.5% total organic carbon (TOC)), while sand layers (0.05-0.32% TOC) contained much lower PCB concentrations. The historical sediment releases resulted in substantial burial of PCB-contaminated sediment in the vicinity of these four cores; each core contained less than 1 mg/kg t-PCBs in the surface sand layers. Cores collected from six downgradient Lake Hartwell transects consisted primarily of silt and clay (0.91-5.1% TOC) and were less noticeably impacted by the release of sand from the impoundments. Vertical t-PCB concentration profiles in these cores began with relatively low PCB concentrations at the sediment-water interface and increased in concentration with depth until maximum PCB concentrations were measured at

  16. Genotoxicity of Water Contaminants from the Basin of Lake Sevan, Armenia Evaluated by the Comet Assay in Gibel Carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) and Tradescantia Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Anna; Gabrielyan, Barduch; Minasyan, Seyran; Hovhannisyan, Galina; Aroutiounian, Rouben

    2016-03-01

    Combination of bioassays and chemical analysis was applied to determine the genotoxic/mutagenic contamination in four different sites of the basin of Lake Sevan in Armenia. Water genotoxicity was evaluated using the single cell gel electrophoresis technique (comet assay) in erythrocytes of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio), Tradescantia micronucleus (Trad-MCN) and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation (Trad-SHM) assays. Significant inter-site differences in the levels of water genotoxicity according to fish and Trad-MCN bioassays have been revealed. Two groups of locations with lower (south-southwest of the village Shorzha and Peninsula of Lake Sevan) and higher (estuaries of Gavaraget and Dzknaget rivers) levels of water genotoxicity were distinguished. Correlation analysis support the hypothesis that the observed genetic alterations in fish and plant may be a manifestation of the effects of water contamination by nitrate ions, Si, Al, Fe, Mn and Cu. Increase of DNA damage in fish also correlated with content of total phosphorus.

  17. Are endocrine and reproductive biomarkers altered in contaminant-exposed wild male Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) of Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, USA?

    PubMed

    Goodbred, Steven L; Patiño, Reynaldo; Torres, Leticia; Echols, Kathy R; Jenkins, Jill A; Rosen, Michael R; Orsak, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Male Largemouth Bass were sampled from two locations in Lake Mead (USA), a site influenced by treated municipal wastewater effluent and urban runoff (Las Vegas Bay), and a reference site (Overton Arm). Samples were collected in summer (July '07) and spring (March '08) to assess general health, endocrine and reproductive biomarkers, and compare contaminant body burdens by analyzing 252 organic chemicals. Sperm count and motility were measured in spring. Contaminants were detected at much higher frequencies and concentrations in fish from Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Those with the highest concentrations included PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan. Fish from Las Vegas Bay also had higher Fulton condition factor, hepatosomatic index, and hematocrit, and lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone concentration (KT). Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and sperm motility did not differ between sites, but sperm count was lower by nearly 50% in fish from Las Vegas Bay. A positive association between KT and GSI was identified, but this association was nonlinear. On average, maximal GSI was reached at sub-maximal KT concentrations. In conclusion, the higher concentration of contaminant body burdens coupled with reduced levels of KT and sperm count in fish from Las Vegas Bay suggest that male reproductive condition was influenced by contaminant exposures. Also, the nonlinear KT-GSI association provided a framework to understand why GSI was similar between male bass from both sites despite their large difference in KT, and also suggested the existence of post-gonadal growth functions of KT at high concentrations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Are endocrine and reproductive biomarkers altered in contaminant-exposed wild male Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) of Lake Mead, Nevada/Arizona, USA?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodbred, Steven L.; Patino, Reynaldo; Torres, Leticia; Echols, Kathy R.; Jenkins, Jill A.; Rosen, Michael R.; Orsak, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Male Largemouth Bass were sampled from two locations in Lake Mead (USA), a site influenced by treated municipal wastewater effluent and urban runoff (Las Vegas Bay), and a reference site (Overton Arm). Samples were collected in summer (July '07) and spring (March '08) to assess general health, endocrine and reproductive biomarkers, and compare contaminant body burdens by analyzing 252 organic chemicals. Sperm count and motility were measured in spring. Contaminants were detected at much higher frequencies and concentrations in fish from Las Vegas Bay than Overton Arm. Those with the highest concentrations included PCBs, DDTs, PBDEs, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan. Fish from Las Vegas Bay also had higher Fulton condition factor, hepatosomatic index, and hematocrit, and lower plasma 11-ketotestosterone concentration (KT). Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and sperm motility did not differ between sites, but sperm count was lower by nearly 50% in fish from Las Vegas Bay. A positive association between KT and GSI was identified, but this association was nonlinear. On average, maximal GSI was reached at sub-maximal KT concentrations. In conclusion, the higher concentration of contaminant body burdens coupled with reduced levels of KT and sperm count in fish from Las Vegas Bay suggest that male reproductive condition was influenced by contaminant exposures. Also, the nonlinear KT-GSI association provided a framework to understand why GSI was similar between male bass from both sites despite their large difference in KT, and also suggested the existence of post-gonadal growth functions of KT at high concentrations.

  19. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL VARIATION IN PLASMA THYROXINE (T4) CONCENTRATIONS IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS COLLECTED FROM LAKE OKEECHOBEE AND THE NORTHERN EVERGLADES, FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined variation in plasma thyroxine (T4) in juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) collected from three sites within the Kissimmee River drainage basin (FL, USA). Based on historical sediment data, Moonshine Bay served as the low contaminant exposure site...

  20. Contaminants in fishes from Great Lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three Michigan rivers. I: Concentrations of organo chlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin equivalents, and mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesy, J.P.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Othoudt, R. A.; Bowerman, W.W.; Mora, M.A.; Jones, P.D.; Newsted, J.L.; Vandervoort, C.; Heaton, S. N.; Aulerich, R.J.; Bursian, S.J.; Ludwig, J. P.; Ludwig, M.; Dawson, G. A.; Kubiak, T.J.; Best, D. A.; Tillitt, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Fishes of the Great Lakes contain hazardous chemicals such as synthetic halogenated hydrocarbons and metals. These fish can move from the lakes into the Great Lakes tributaries of Michigan. In doing so, they transport concentrationsof contaminants which may represent a risk to wildlife. Concentrations of mercury (Hg), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), total DDT complex, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, hexachlorobenzene, cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, endosulfan-I, methoxychlor, trans-chlordane, and trans-nonachlor were determined in composite samples of fishes from above and below Michigan hydroelectric dams, which separate the fishes which have access to the Great Lakes from fishes that do not. Mean concentrations of total PCBs, TCDD-EQ, DDT, and most of the other pesticides were greater in composite samples of six species of fishes from below than above the dams on the Au Sable, Manistee, and Muskegon Rivers. Concentrations of mercury, were the same or greater above the dams than below. However, this difference was statistically significant only on the Au Sable. Mercury concentrations ranged from less than 0.05 mg/kg to 0.73 mg Hg/kg, ww. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged from 0.02 to 1.7 mg/kg, ww. Concentrations of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents varied among fishes and locations. The concentrations of TCDD-EQ ranged from 2.4 to 71 μg/kg, ww, with concentrations in carp being the greatest. Concentrations of TCDD-EQ were greater than the concentrations which would be expected to occur, due solely to the presence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and technical mixtures of PCBs.

  1. Is there widespread metal contamination from in-situ bitumen extraction at Cold Lake, Alberta heavy oil field?

    PubMed

    Skierszkan, Elliott K; Irvine, Graham; Doyle, James R; Kimpe, Linda E; Blais, Jules M

    2013-03-01

    The extraction of oil sands by in-situ methods in Alberta has expanded dramatically in the past two decades and will soon overtake surface mining as the dominant bitumen production process in the province. While concerns regarding regional metal emissions from oil sand mining and bitumen upgrading have arisen, there is a lack of information on emissions from the in-situ industry alone. Here we show using lake sediment records and regionally-distributed soil samples that in the absence of bitumen upgrading and surface mining, there has been no significant metal (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, V) enrichment from the Cold Lake in-situ oil field. Sediment records demonstrate post-industrial Cd, Hg and Pb enrichment beginning in the early Twentieth Century, which has leveled off or declined since the onset of commercial in-situ bitumen production at Cold Lake in 1985. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Degree of contamination and sources of polychlorinated biphenyls in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet of Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas, 2004 and 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braun, Christopher L.; Wilson, Jennifer T.; Van Metre, Peter C.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Worth is a reservoir on the West Fork Trinity River on the western edge of Fort Worth, Texas. Air Force Plant 4 (AFP4) is on the eastern shore of Woods Inlet, an arm of Lake Worth that extends south from the main body of the lake. Two previous reports documented ele-vated polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations in surficial sediment in Woods Inlet relative to those in surficial sediment in other parts of Lake Worth. This report presents the results of another USGS study, done in cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, to indicate the degree of PCB contamination of Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet and to identify possible sources of PCBs in Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet on the basis of suspended, streambed, and lake-bottom sediment samples collected there in 2004 and 2006-07. About 40 to 80 percent of total PCB concentrations (depending on how total PCB concentration is computed) in suspended sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration, a concentration below which adverse effects to benthic biota rarely occur. About 20 percent of total PCB concentrations (computed as sum of three Aroclors) in suspended sediment exceed the probable effect concentration, a concentration above which adverse effects to benthic biota are expected to occur frequently. About 20 to 30 percent of total PCB concentrations in streambed sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration; and about 6 to 20 percent of total PCB concentrations in lake-bottom (Woods Inlet) sediment exceed the threshold effect concentration. No streambed or lake-bottom sediment concentrations exceed the probable effect concentration. The sources of PCBs to Meandering Road Creek and Woods Inlet were investigated by comparing the relative distributions of PCB congeners of suspended sediment to those of streambed and lake-bottom sediment. The sources of PCBs were identified using graphical analysis of normalized concentrations (congener ratios) of 11 congeners. For graphical analysis, the

  3. Assessment of multi-trophic changes in a shallow boreal lake simultaneously exposed to climate change and aerial deposition of contaminants from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Summers, Jamie C; Kurek, Joshua; Rühland, Kathleen M; Neville, Erin E; Smol, John P

    2017-08-15

    The Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) has been intensely developed for industrial bitumen extraction and upgrading since the 1980s. A paucity of environmental monitoring prior to development raises questions about baseline conditions in freshwater systems in the region and ecological responses to industrial activities. Further, climatic changes prompt questions about the relative roles of climate and industry in shaping aquatic ecosystems through time. We use aquatic bioindicators from multiple trophic levels, concentrations of petrogenic contaminants (dibenzothiophenes), and spectrally-inferred chlorophyll-a preserved in well-dated sediments of a closed-basin, shallow lake ~50km away from the main area of industry, in conjunction with climate observations, to assess how the biotic assemblages of a typical AOSR lake have changed during the past ~75years. We examine the contributions of the area's stressors in structuring aquatic communities. Increases in sedimentary measures of petrogenic contaminants provide clear evidence of aerial contaminant deposition from local industry since its establishment, while climate records demonstrate consistent warming and a recent period of reduced precipitation. Quantitative comparisons of biological assemblages from before and after the establishment of regional industry find significant (p<0.05) differences; however, the magnitude and overall timing of the changes are not consistent with a threshold-type shift in response to the onset of regional industry. Rather, biotic assemblages from multiple trophic levels suggest transitions to an increasingly complex benthic environment and relatively warmer waters, which, like the increasing trends in inferred primary production, are consistent with a changing climate. These findings highlight the important role of climate conditions in regulating primary production and structuring aquatic communities in these shallow systems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Concentrations and spatial patterns of organic contaminants in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs at United States and binational Great Lakes Areas of Concern, 2010–2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Goldberg, Diana R.; Franson, J. Christian

    2016-01-01

    Tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, were sampled across the Great Lakes basin in 2010 through 2015 to provide a system-wide assessment of current exposure to organic contaminants. The results provide information identified as critical by regulators to assess the “bird or animal deformity or reproductive problems” beneficial use impairment. Eggs were collected from 69 sites across all 5 Great Lakes, including 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs), some with multiple sites, and 10 sites not listed as an AOC. Concentrations of organic contaminants in eggs were quantified and compared with background and reproductive effect thresholds. Approximately 30% of AOCs had geometric mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at or below average background exposure (0.34 μg/g wet wt). Exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was minimal, and only 3 of 27 AOCs and 1 non-AOC had geometric mean concentrations that exceeded background for tree swallows (96 ng/g wet wt). Concentrations of both PCBs and PBDEs were 10 to 20 times below the lower limit associated with impaired hatching success. In contrast, geometric mean concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and furan (PCDD-F) toxic equivalents (TEQs) at the Saginaw River and Bay AOC and Midland, Michigan, USA (a non-AOC site), exceeded the lower limit for hatching effects (181 pg/g PCDD-F TEQs). The rest of the sites had geometric mean concentrations of PCDD-F TEQs below background levels (87 pg/g PCDD-F TEQs). Other organic contaminants, including p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, mirex, heptachlor, and chlordane, were at or below background or adverse effect concentrations.

  5. An ecological risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in the surface sediments of Bosten Lake, northwest China.

    PubMed

    Mamat, Zulpiya; Haximu, Sadiguli; Zhang, Zhao Yong; Aji, Rouzi

    2016-04-01

    Bosten Lake, a typical rump lake in an oasis in northwest China, was chosen to evaluate the distribution, sources, pollution status, and potential ecological risk of heavy metals. Sediment samples were collected from the lake, and results showed that the values of the eight heavy metals all fell within the Second Soil National Standard, while the average and maximum values of the metals were higher than the background values of the study. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that sediment concentrations of Cd, Pb, Hg, and Zn were mainly influenced by man sources. In comparison, Cu, Ni, Cr, and As were primarily natural in origin. Enrichment factor analysis (EF) and the geo-accumulation index evaluation method (I geo) showed that Cd, Hg, and Pb fell under low and partial serious pollution levels, while Zn, As, Cr, Ni, and Cu mainly were characterized under no pollution and low pollution levels. The potential ecological hazards index (RI) showed that among the eight heavy metals, Pb, Hg, and Cd posed the highest potential ecological risk, with potential ecological hazards indices (RI) of 29.06, 27.71, and 21.54 %, respectively. These findings demonstrated that recent economic development in the area of the basin has led to heavy metal accumulation in the surface sediments of the lake.

  6. Linking field-based metabolomics and chemical analyses to prioritize contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability to focus on the most biologically relevant contaminants affecting aquatic ecosystems can be challenging because toxicity-assessment programs have not kept pace with the growing number of contaminants requiring testing. Because it has proven effective at assessing the ...

  7. ELEMENTAL FISH TISSUE CONTAMINATION IN NORTHEASTERN U.S. LAKES: EVALUATION OF AN APPROACH TO REGIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The approach of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to monitoring of fish tissue contaminants is shown to have utility for regional assessment,and for discrimination of regional from local contamination.The survey sampling design employed by EMAP can be use...

  8. ELEMENTAL FISH TISSUE CONTAMINATION IN NORTHEASTERN U.S. LAKES: EVALUATION OF AN APPROACH TO REGIONAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The approach of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to monitoring of fish tissue contaminants is shown to have utility for regional assessment, and for discrimination of regional from local contamination. The survey sampling design employed EMAP can be used...

  9. Sperm quality biomarkers complement reproductive and endocrine parameters in investigating environmental contaminants in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Lake Mead National Recreation Area.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Jill A; Rosen, Michael R; Draugelis-Dale, Rassa O; Echols, Kathy R; Torres, Leticia; Wieser, Carla M; Kersten, Constance A; Goodbred, Steven L

    2018-05-01

    Lake Mead National Recreational Area (LMNRA) serves as critical habitat for several federally listed species and supplies water for municipal, domestic, and agricultural use in the Southwestern U.S. Contaminant sources and concentrations vary among the sub-basins within LMNRA. To investigate whether exposure to environmental contaminants is associated with alterations in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) gamete quality and endocrine- and reproductive parameters, data were collected among sub-basins over 7 years (1999-2006). Endpoints included sperm quality parameters of motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, count, morphology, and DNA fragmentation; plasma components were vitellogenin (VTG), 17ß-estradiol, 11-keto-testosterone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Fish condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and gonadal histology parameters were also measured. Diminished biomarker effects were noted in 2006, and sub-basin differences were indicated by the irregular occurrences of contaminants and by several associations between chemicals (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan) and biomarkers (e.g., plasma thyroxine, sperm motility and DNA fragmentation). By 2006, sex steroid hormone and VTG levels decreased with subsequent reduced endocrine disrupting effects. The sperm quality bioassays developed and applied with carp complemented endocrine and reproductive data, and can be adapted for use with other species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Sperm quality biomarkers complement reproductive and endocrine parameters in investigating environmental contaminants in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from the Lake Mead National Recreation Area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Rosen, Michael R.; Dale, Rassa O.; Echols, Kathy R.; Torres, Leticia; Wieser, Carla M.; Kersten, Constance A.; Goodbred, Steven L.

    2018-01-01

    Lake Mead National Recreational Area (LMNRA) serves as critical habitat for several federally listed species and supplies water for municipal, domestic, and agricultural use in the Southwestern U.S. Contaminant sources and concentrations vary among the sub-basins within LMNRA. To investigate whether exposure to environmental contaminants is associated with alterations in male common carp (Cyprinus carpio) gamete quality and endocrine- and reproductive parameters, data were collected among sub-basins over 7 years (1999–2006). Endpoints included sperm quality parameters of motility, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, count, morphology, and DNA fragmentation; plasma components were vitellogenin (VTG), 17ß-estradiol, 11-keto-testosterone, triiodothyronine, and thyroxine. Fish condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and gonadal histology parameters were also measured. Diminished biomarker effects were noted in 2006, and sub-basin differences were indicated by the irregular occurrences of contaminants and by several associations between chemicals (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, galaxolide, and methyl triclosan) and biomarkers (e.g., plasma thyroxine, sperm motility and DNA fragmentation). By 2006, sex steroid hormone and VTG levels decreased with subsequent reduced endocrine disrupting effects. The sperm quality bioassays developed and applied with carp complemented endocrine and reproductive data, and can be adapted for use with other species.

  11. Integrated site-specific quantification of faecal bacteria and detection of DNA markers in faecal contamination source tracking as a microbial risk tracking tool in urban Lake ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donde, Oscar Omondi; Tian, Cuicui; Xiao, Bangding

    2017-11-01

    The presence of feacal-derived pathogens in water is responsible for several infectious diseases and deaths worldwide. As a solution, sources of fecal pollution in waters must be accurately assessed, properly determined and strictly controlled. However, the exercise has remained challenging due to the existing overlapping characteristics by different members of faecal coliform bacteria and the inadequacy of information pertaining to the contribution of seasonality and weather condition on tracking the possible sources of pollution. There are continued efforts to improve the Faecal Contamination Source Tracking (FCST) techniques such as Microbial Source Tracking (MST). This study aimed to make contribution to MST by evaluating the efficacy of combining site specific quantification of faecal contamination indicator bacteria and detection of DNA markers while accounting for seasonality and weather conditions' effects in tracking the major sources of faecal contamination in a freshwater system (Donghu Lake, China). The results showed that the use of cyd gene in addition to lacZ and uidA genes differentiates E. coli from other closely related faecal bacteria. The use of selective media increases the pollution source tracking accuracy. BSA addition boosts PCR detection and increases FCST efficiency. Seasonality and weather variability also influence the detection limit for DNA markers.

  12. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell.

    PubMed

    Lazorchak, James M; Griffith, Michael B; Mills, Marc; Schubauer-Berigan, Joseph; McCormick, Frank; Brenner, Richard; Zeller, Craig

    2015-06-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) develops methods and tools for evaluating risk management strategies for sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other legacy pollutants. Monitored natural recovery is a risk management alternative that relies on existing physical, chemical, and biological processes to contain, destroy, and/or reduce the bioavailability or toxicity of in-place contaminants. These naturally occurring processes are monitored to ensure that management and recovery are progressing as expected. One approach frequently used to evaluate the recovery of contaminated sediments and associated biota is the assessment of contaminant tissue levels, or body burden concentrations, in top trophic level fish. In the present study, aquatic invertebrates were examined as an indicator of recent exposure to PCBs. The approach aimed to determine whether invertebrates collected using artificial substrates (i.e., Hester-Dendy samplers) could be used to discriminate among contaminated sites through the analyses of PCBs in whole homogenates of macroinvertebrates. Macroinvertebrates were sorted, preserved, and analyzed for total PCBs (t-PCBs), by summing 107 PCB congeners. Macroinvertebrate body burden concentrations showed similar trends to sediment t-PCB concentrations at the sites sampled. The results indicate that macroinvertebrates can be used to assess sediment contamination among sites that have different PCB contamination levels. Published 2015 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  13. Spatial patterns in PCB concentrations of Lake Michigan lake trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madenjian, Charles P.; DeSorcie, Timothy J.; Stedman, Ralph M.; Brown, Edward H.; Eck, Gary W.; Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Chernyak, Sergei M.; Passino-Reader, Dora R.

    1999-01-01

    Most of the PCB body burden in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) of the Great Lakes is from their food. PCB concentrations were determined in lake trout from three different locations in Lake Michigan during 1994–1995, and lake trout diets were analyzed at all three locations. The PCB concentrations were also determined in alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), bloater (Coregonus hoyi), slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), five species of prey fish eaten by lake trout in Lake Michigan, at three nearshore sites in the lake. Despite the lack of significant differences in the PCB concentrations of alewife, rainbow smelt, bloater, slimy sculpin, and deepwater sculpin from the southeastern nearshore site near Saugatuck (Michigan) compared with the corresponding PCB concentrations from the northwestern nearshore site near Sturgeon Bay (Wisconsin), PCB concentrations in lake trout at Saugatuck were significantly higher than those at Sturgeon Bay. The difference in the lake trout PCB concentrations between Saugatuck and Sturgeon Bay could be explained by diet differences. The diet of lake trout at Saugatuck was more concentrated in PCBs than the diet of Sturgeon Bay lake trout, and therefore lake trout at Saugatuck were more contaminated in PCBs than Sturgeon Bay lake trout. These findings were useful in interpreting the long-term monitoring series for contaminants in lake trout at both Saugatuck and the Wisconsin side of the lake.

  14. Archive of Digital Boomer Seismic Reflection Data Collected During USGS Field Activities 93LCA01 and 94LCA01 in Kingsley, Orange, and Lowry Lakes, Northeast Florida, 1993 and 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calderon, Karynna; Dadisman, Shawn V.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Davis, Jeffrey B.; Flocks, James G.; Wiese, Dana S.

    2004-01-01

    In August and September of 1993 and January of 1994, the U.S. Geological Survey, under a cooperative agreement with the St. Johns River Water Management District (SJRWMD), conducted geophysical surveys of Kingsley Lake, Orange Lake, and Lowry Lake in northeast Florida. This report serves as an archive of unprocessed digital boomer seismic reflection data, trackline maps, navigation files, GIS information, observer's logbook, Field Activity Collection System (FACS) logs, and formal FGDC metadata. A filtered and gained GIF image of each seismic profile is also provided. Refer to the Acronyms page for expansion of acronyms and abbreviations used in this report. The archived trace data are in standard Society of Exploration Geophysicists (SEG) SEG-Y format (Barry and others, 1975) and may be downloaded and processed with commercial or public domain software such as Seismic Unix (SU). Examples of SU processing scripts and in-house (USGS) software for viewing SEG-Y files (Zihlman, 1992) are also provided. The data archived here were collected under a cooperative agreement with the St. Johns River Water Management District as part of the USGS Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) Project. For further information about this study, refer to http://coastal.er.usgs.gov/stjohns, Kindinger and others (1994), and Kindinger and others (2000). The USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) - Coastal and Watershed Studies in St. Petersburg, Florida, assigns a unique identifier to each cruise or field activity. For example, 93LCA01 tells us the data were collected in 1993 for the Lakes and Coastal Aquifers (LCA) Project and the data were collected during the first field activity for that project in that calendar year. For a detailed description of the method used to assign the field activity ID, see http://walrus.wr.usgs.gov/infobank/programs/html/definition/activity.html. The boomer is an acoustic energy source that consists of capacitors charged to a high voltage and discharged

  15. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been conducting research to develop methods and tools for the evaluation of monitored natural recovery (MNR) of sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other lega...

  16. Florida's Forest

    Treesearch

    William A. Bechtold; Herbert A. Knight

    1982-01-01

    In accordance with the Forest and Rangeland renewable Resources planning act (RPA) of 1974, the fifth inventory of Florida’s forests was expanded to accommodate both timber and nontimber evaluations. This report presents the principal findings of the timber evaluation. The nontimber evaluations will be published separately.

  17. Florida's Timber

    Treesearch

    Robert w. Larson; Marcus H. Goforth

    1961-01-01

    The period between the completion of Florida's first Forest Survey in 1936 and the third in 1959 spans nearly a quarter of a century. In 1936, the era of large sawmills was coming to a close, but half the lumber was still produced b ya dozen large mills. Taxes were high and lumber prices had no recovered from the depression slump

  18. Fate of polychlorinated biphenyls in a contaminated lake ecosystem: combining equilibrium passive sampling of sediment and water with total concentration measurements of biota.

    PubMed

    Mäenpää, Kimmo; Leppänen, Matti T; Figueiredo, Kaisa; Mayer, Philipp; Gilbert, Dorothea; Jahnke, Annika; Gil-Allué, Carmen; Akkanen, Jarkko; Nybom, Inna; Herve, Sirpa

    2015-11-01

    Equilibrium sampling devices can be applied to study and monitor the exposure and fate of hydrophobic organic chemicals on a thermodynamic basis. They can be used to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activity ratios and to predict equilibrium partitioning concentrations of hydrophobic organic chemicals in biota lipids. The authors' aim was to assess the equilibrium status of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a contaminated lake ecosystem and along its discharge course using equilibrium sampling devices for measurements in sediment and water and by also analyzing biota. The authors used equilibrium sampling devices (silicone rubber and polyethylene [PE]) to determine freely dissolved concentrations and chemical activities of PCBs in the water column and sediment porewater and calculated for both phases the corresponding equilibrium concentrations and chemical activities in model lipids. Overall, the studied ecosystem appeared to be in disequilibrium for the studied phases: sediment, water, and biota. Chemical activities of PCBs were higher in sediment than in water, which implies that the sediment functioned as a partitioning source of PCBs and that net diffusion occurred from the sediment to the water column. Measured lipid-normalized PCB concentrations in biota were generally below equilibrium lipid concentrations relative to the sediment (CLip ⇌Sed ) or water (CLip ⇌W ), indicating that PCB levels in the organisms were below the maximum partitioning levels. The present study shows the application versatility of equilibrium sampling devices in the field and facilitates a thermodynamic understanding of exposure and fate of PCBs in a contaminated lake and its discharge course. © 2015 SETAC.

  19. Borehole geophysical and flowmeter data for eight boreholes in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam, Lake Seminole, Jackson County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clarke, John S.; Hamrick, Michael D.; Holloway, O. Gary

    2011-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs and flowmeter data were collected in April 2011 from eight boreholes to identify the depth and orientation of cavernous zones within the Miocene Tampa Limestone in the vicinity of Jim Woodruff Lock and Dam in Jackson County, Florida. These data are used to assess leakage near the dam. Each of the eight boreholes was terminated in limestone at depths ranging from 84 to 104 feet. Large cavernous zones were encountered in most of the borings, with several exceeding 20-inches in diameter. The cavernous zones generally were between 1 and 5 feet in height, but a cavern in one of the borings reached a height of about 6 feet. The resistivity of limestone layers penetrated by the boreholes generally was less than 1,000 ohm-meters. Formation resistivity near the cavernous zones did not show an appreciable contrast from surrounding bedrock, probably because the bedrock is saturated, owing to its primary permeability. Measured flow rates in the eight boreholes determined using an electromagnetic flowmeter were all less than ±0.1 liter per second. These low flow rates suggest that vertical hydraulic gradients in the boreholes are negligible and that hydraulic head in the various cavernous zones shows only minor, if any, variation.

  20. EROD activity, chromosomal damage, and oxidative stress in response to contaminants exposure in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings from Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Dummer, Paul; Bigorgne, Emilie; Oziolor, Elias; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K.; Schultz, Sandra; Erickson, Richard A.; Aagaard, Kevin; Matson, Cole W.

    2017-01-01

    Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, nestlings were collected from 60 sites in the Great Lakes, which included multiple sites within 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) and six sites not listed as AOCs from 2010 to 2014. Nestlings, approximately 12 days-of-age, were evaluated for ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity, chromosomal damage, and six measures of oxidative stress. Data on each of these biomarkers were divided into four equal numbered groups from the highest to lowest values and the groups were compared to contaminant concentrations using multivariate analysis. Contaminant concentrations, from the same nestlings, included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 17 elements. Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (aPAHs) and parent PAHs (pPAHs) were measured in pooled nestling dietary samples. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and pesticides were measured in sibling eggs. Concentrations of aPAHs, pPAHs, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, and PCBs, in that order, were the major contributors to the significant differences between the lowest and highest EROD activities; PFCs, PBDEs, the remaining pesticides, and all elements were of secondary importance. The four categories of chromosomal damage did not separate out well based on the contaminants measured. Concentrations of aPAHs, pPAHs, heptachlor, PCBs, chlordane, and dieldrin were the major contributors to the significant differences between the lowest and highest activities of two oxidative stress measures, total sulfhydryl (TSH) activity and protein bound sulfhydryl (PBSH) activity. The four categories of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reduced glutathione (GSH), and the ratio of GSSG/GSH did not separate well based on the contaminants measured.

  1. EROD activity, chromosomal damage, and oxidative stress in response to contaminants exposure in tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) nestlings from Great Lakes Areas of Concern.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Custer, Christine M; Dummer, Paul M; Bigorgne, Emilie; Oziolor, Elias M; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Schultz, Sandra; Erickson, Richard A; Aagaard, Kevin; Matson, Cole W

    2017-12-01

    Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, nestlings were collected from 60 sites in the Great Lakes, which included multiple sites within 27 Areas of Concern (AOCs) and six sites not listed as AOCs from 2010 to 2014. Nestlings, approximately 12 days-of-age, were evaluated for ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase (EROD) activity, chromosomal damage, and six measures of oxidative stress. Data on each of these biomarkers were divided into four equal numbered groups from the highest to lowest values and the groups were compared to contaminant concentrations using multivariate analysis. Contaminant concentrations, from the same nestlings, included polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), and 17 elements. Alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (aPAHs) and parent PAHs (pPAHs) were measured in pooled nestling dietary samples. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and pesticides were measured in sibling eggs. Concentrations of aPAHs, pPAHs, chlordane, dieldrin, heptachlor, and PCBs, in that order, were the major contributors to the significant differences between the lowest and highest EROD activities; PFCs, PBDEs, the remaining pesticides, and all elements were of secondary importance. The four categories of chromosomal damage did not separate out well based on the contaminants measured. Concentrations of aPAHs, pPAHs, heptachlor, PCBs, chlordane, and dieldrin were the major contributors to the significant differences between the lowest and highest activities of two oxidative stress measures, total sulfhydryl (TSH) activity and protein bound sulfhydryl (PBSH) activity. The four categories of thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), reduced glutathione (GSH), and the ratio of GSSG/GSH did not separate well based on the contaminants measured.

  2. About Deer Lake AOC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Named an Area of Concern under the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement of 1987, due to beneficial use impairments caused by mercury contamination: consumption restrictions, deformities or reproductive problems, eutrophication.

  3. Contaminants in fishes from Great Lakes-influenced sections and above dams of three Michigan rivers. II: Implications for health of mink

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giesy, J.P.; Verbrugge, D.A.; Othoudt, R. A.; Bowerman, W.W.; Mora, M.A.; Jones, P.D.; Newsted, J.L.; Vandervoort, C.; Heaton, S. N.; Aulerich, R.J.; Bursian, S.J.; Ludwig, J. P.; Dawson, G. A.; Kubiak, T.J.; Best, D. A.; Tillitt, D. E.

    1994-01-01

    Populations of mink (Mustela vison) have declined in many areas of the world. Such declines have been linked to exposures to synthetic, halogenated hydrocarbons. In the Great Lakes region, mink are fewer in areas along the shore of the Great Lakes and their tributaries where mink have access to fish from the Great Lakes. Recently, there has been discussion of the relative merits of passage of fishes around hydroelectric dams on rivers in Michigan. A hazard assessment was conducted to determine the potential for adverse effects on mink, which could consume such fishes from above or below dams on the rivers. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 2,3,7,8-tetrachloridibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), and total mercury were measured in composite samples of fishes from above or below hydroelectric dams on the Manistee and Muskegon Rivers, which flow into Lake Michigan, and the Au Sable River, which flows into Lake Huron. Concentrations of organochlorine insecticides, PCBs, and TCDD-EQ were all greater in fishes from below the dams than those from above. Concentrations of neither organochlorine insecticides nor mercury in fishes are currently a risk to mink above or below the dams. All of the species of fishes collected from downstream of the dams contained concentrations of PCBs and TCDD-EQ, which represent a hazard to mink. The hazard index for PCBs was less than one for the average of all species from the upstream reaches of the Manistee and Au Sable Rivers, but not the Muskegon. The hazard index (concentration in fish/NOAEC) was greater than 1 for all of the species collected from below the dams, in all three rivers. The greatest hazard index was observed for carp (Cyprinus carpio) downstream on the Muskegon River. Because the concentrations of PCBs used in the hazard assessment were corrected for relative toxic potencies, the hazard ratios based on PCBs should be similar to those based on TCDD-EQ. This was found to be

  4. Chemical composition of natural waters of contaminated area: The case for the Imandra Lake catchment (the Kola Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtyugina, Z. A.; Guseva, N. V.; Kopylova, J. G.; A, Vorobeva D.

    2016-03-01

    The study of the current chemical composition of natural waters in the eastern and western parts of the Imandra Lake catchment was performed using ion chromatography, potentiometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It was found that the content of trace elements in the surface water is considerably higher than that in the groundwater. The nickel and copper concentrations exceed the background levels over 19 and 2 times respectively in groundwater, and 175 and 61 times in the surface waters. These data show that the Severonikel influences negatively air and surface water.

  5. MODIS-derived spatiotemporal water clarity patterns in optically shallow FloridaKeys waters: A new approach to remove bottom contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Retrievals of water quality parameters from satellite measurements over optically shallow waters have been problematic due to bottom contamination of the signals. As a result, large errors are associated with derived water column properties. These deficiencies greatly reduce the ...

  6. Temporal trends of contaminants in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from a small lake, southwest Greenland during a warming climate.

    PubMed

    Rigét, Frank; Vorkamp, Katrin; Muir, Derek

    2010-12-01

    Hg and legacy POPs were analysed in muscle tissue of a landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) population from a small lake in southwest Greenland. Hg concentrations were available for six years and OC concentrations for five years during the period 1994 to 2008. For two years, stable isotope values of nitrogen (δ(15)N) were analysed in muscle tissue in order to infer trophic effects. Hg, Σ10-PCB, ΣDDT and trans-nonachlor concentrations (OC on wet weight basis) showed an increase with increasing fish length, which had to be accounted for when assessing temporal trends. δ(15)N values had a narrow range, and there was no indication of increasing δ(15)N values with char length confirming the sampled char did not vary in trophic morphs as often seen in Arctic lakes. Length-adjusted Hg concentrations showed a significantly increasing trend during the period 1994 to 2008, while Σ10-PCB, ΣDDT, ΣHCH and trans-nonachlor showed a significantly decreasing trend when expressed on wet weight, and decreasing but not significantly when expressed on lipid weight. The reason for this was that the lipid content of muscle showed a significantly decreasing trend with time. The sum of mean monthly air temperature during May to August measured at a nearby meteorological station showed an increasing trend during the study period, and changing temperature conditions probably influenced the temporal trend of especially Hg concentrations and the lipid content.

  7. Proof of concept for the use of macroinvertebrates as indicators of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) contamination in Lake Hartwell

    Treesearch

    James M. Lazorchak; Michael B. Griffith; Marc Mills; Joseph Schubauer-Berigan; Frank McCormick; Richard Brenner; Craig Zeller

    2015-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) develops methods and tools for evaluating risk management strategies for sediments contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and other legacy pollutants. Monitored natural recovery is a risk management alternative that relies on existing physical, chemical, and biological...

  8. Trophic transfer of microcystins through the lake pelagic food web: evidence for the role of zooplankton as a vector in fish contamination.

    PubMed

    Sotton, Benoît; Guillard, Jean; Anneville, Orlane; Maréchal, Marjorie; Savichtcheva, Olga; Domaizon, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    An in situ study was performed to investigate the role of zooplankton as a vector of microcystins (MCs) from Planktothrix rubescens filaments to fish during a metalimnic bloom of P. rubescens in Lake Hallwil (Switzerland). The concentrations of MCs in P. rubescens and various zooplanktonic taxa (filter-feeders and predators) were assessed in different water strata (epi-, meta- and hypolimnion) using replicated sampling over a 24-hour survey. The presence of P. rubescens in the gut content of various zooplanktonic taxa (Daphnia, Bosmina and Chaoborus) was verified by targeting the cyanobacterial nucleic acids (DNA). These results highlighted that cyanobacterial cells constitute a part of food resource for herbivorous zooplanktonic taxa during metalimnic bloom periods. Furthermore, presence of MCs in Chaoborus larvae highlighted the trophic transfer of MCs between herbivorous zooplankton and their invertebrate predators. Our results suggest that zooplanktonic herbivores by diel vertical migration (DVM) act as vectors of MCs by encapsulating grazed cyanobacteria. As a consequence, they largely contribute to the contamination of zooplanktonic predators, and in fine of zooplanktivorous whitefish. Indeed, we estimated the relative contribution of three preys of the whitefish (i.e. Daphnia, Bosmina and Chaoborus) to diet contamination. We showed that Chaoborus and Daphnia were the highest contributor as MC vectors in the whitefish diet (74.6 and 20.5% of MC-LR equivalent concentrations, respectively). The transfer of MCs across the different trophic compartments follows complex trophic pathways involving various trophic levels whose relative importance in fish contamination might vary at daily and seasonal scale. © 2013.

  9. Florida Everglades

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... Everglades is a region of broad, slow-moving sheets of water flowing southward over low-lying areas from Lake Okeechobee to the Gulf ... images include a series of shallow impoundments called Water Conservation Areas which were built to speed water flow through the Everglades ...

  10. Geochemistry of sulfur in the Florida Everglades; 1994 through 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bates, Anne L.; Orem, W.H.; Harvey, J.W.; Spiker, E. C.

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we present data on the geochemistry of sulfur in sediments and in surface water, groundwater, and rainwater in the Everglades region in south Florida. The results presented here are part of a larger study intended to determine the roles played by the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur in the ecology of the south Florida wetlands. The geochemistry of sulfur in the region is particularly important because of its link to the production of toxic methylmercury through processes mediated by sulfate reducing bacteria. Sediment cores were collected from the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA), Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) 1A and 2A, from Lake Okeechobee, and from Taylor Slough in the southern Everglades. Water collection was more widespread and includes surface water from WCAs 1A, 2A, 3A, 2B, the EAA, Taylor Slough, Lake Okeechobee, and the Kissimmee River. Groundwater was collected from The Everglades Nutrient Removal Area (ENR) and from WCA 2A. Rainwater was collected at two month intervals over a period of one year from the ENR and from WCA 2A. Water was analyzed for sulfate concentration and sulfate sulfur stable isotopic ratio (34S/32S). Sediment cores were analyzed for total sulfur concentration and/or for concentrations of sulfur species (sulfate, organic sulfur, disulfides, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS)) and for their stable sulfur isotopic ratio. Results show a decrease in total sulfur content (1.57 to 0.61 percent dry weight) with depth in two sediment cores collected in WCA 2A, indicating that there has been an increase in total sulfur content in recent times. A sediment core from the center of Lake Okeechobee shows a decrease in total sulfur content with depth (0.28 to 0.08 percent dry weight). A core from the periphery of the lake (South Bay) likewise shows a decrease in total sulfur content with depth (1.00 to 0.69 percent dry weight), however, the overall sulfur content is greater than that near the center at all depths

  11. Structural and functional diversity of microbial communities from a lake sediment contaminated with trenbolone, an endocrine-disrupting chemical.

    PubMed

    Radl, Viviane; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles; Schloter, Michael

    2005-09-01

    Effects of trenbolone (TBOH), a hormone used in cattle production, on the structure and function of microbial communities in a fresh water sediment from a lake in Southern Germany were studied in a microcosm experiment. The microbial community structure and the total gene pool of the sediment, assessed by 16S rRNA/rDNA and RAPD fingerprint analysis, respectively, were not significantly affected by TBOH. In contrast, the N-acetyl-glucosaminidase activity was almost 50% lower in TBOH treated samples (P<0.05). Also, the substrate utilization potential, measured using the BIOLOG system, was reduced after TBOH treatment. Interestingly, this potential did not recover at the end of the experiment, i.e. 19 days after the addition of the chemical. Repeated application of TBOH did not lead to an additional reduction in the substrate utilization potential. Overall results indicate that microbial community function was more sensitive to TBOH treatment than the community structure and the total gene pool.

  12. Transuranic and fission product contamination in lake sediments from an alpine wetland, Boréon (France).

    PubMed

    Schertz, M; Michel, H; Barci-Funel, G; Barci, V

    2006-01-01

    Transuranics and fission products have been measured in lake sediment samples, collected in an alpine wetland, to determine their vertical distribution and calculate inventories. The radionuclides considered are 90Sr, 137Cs, 238Pu, 239/240Pu and 241Am. From the results, a better knowledge of radionuclide accumulation mode and behaviour was obtained. In addition, the origins of the individual pollutants could be deduced from activity ratios. Analyses were made on different sediment cores. The sampling sites were chosen to enable future determination of the mass balances of the radiopollutants. As the selected study area is in a recreational area used by urban populations, a rough estimate was made of the mean external dose from 137Cs for comparison with the French regulation.

  13. Assessment of sediment contamination at Great Lakes Areas of Concern: the ARCS Program Toxicity-Chemistry Work Group strategy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, P.E.; Burton, G.A.; Crecelius, E.A.; Filkins, J. C.; Giesy, J.P.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Landrum, P.F.; Mac, M.J.; Murphy, T.J.; Rathbun, J. E.; Smith, V. E.; Tatem, H. E.; Taylor, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    In response to a mandate in Section 118(c)(3) of the Water Quality Act of 1987, a program called Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments (ARCS) was established. Four technical work groups were formed. This paper details the research strategy of the Toxicity-Chemistry Work Group.The Work Group's general objectives are to develop survey methods and to map the degree of contamination and toxicity in bottom sediments at three study areas, which will serve as guidance for future surveys at other locations. A related objective is to use the data base that will be generated to calculate sediment quality concentrations by several methods. The information needed to achieve these goals will be collected in a series of field surveys at three areas: Saginaw Bay (MI), Grand Calumet River (IN), and Buffalo River (NY). Assessments of the extent of contamination and potential adverse effects of contaminants in sediment at each of these locations will be conducted by collecting samples for physical characterization, toxicity testing, mutagenicity testing, chemical analyses, and fish bioaccumulation assays. Fish populations will be assessed for tumors and external abnormalities, and benthic community structure will be analyzed. A mapping approach will use low-cost indicator parameters at a large number of stations, and will extrapolate by correlation from traditional chemical and biological studies at a smaller number of locations. Sediment toxicity testing includes elutriate, pore water and whole sediment bioassays in a three-tiered framework. In addition to the regular series of toxicity tests at primary mater stations, some stations are selected for a more extensive suite of tests.

  14. Water Use in Florida, 2005 and Trends 1950-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marella, Richard L.

    2008-01-01

    Water is among Florida's most valued resources. The State has more than 1,700 streams and rivers, 7,800 freshwater lakes, 700 springs, 11 million acres of wetlands, and underlying aquifers yielding quantities of freshwater necessary for both human and environmental needs (Fernald and Purdum, 1998). Although renewable, these water resources are finite, and continued growth in population, tourism, and agriculture will place increased demands on these water supplies. The permanent population of Florida in 2005 totaled 17.9 million, ranking fourth in the Nation (University of Florida, 2006); nearly 86 million tourists visited the State (Orlando Business Journal, 2006). In 2005, Florida harvested two-thirds of the total citrus production in the United States and ranked fifth in the Nation net farm income (Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 2006). Freshwater is vital for sustaining Florida's population, economy, and agricultural production. Accurate estimates reflecting water use and trends in Florida are compiled in 5-year intervals by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP) and the Northwest Florida, St. Johns River, South Florida, Southwest Florida, and Suwannee River Water Management Districts (Marella, 2004). This coordinated effort provides the necessary data and information for planning future water needs and resource management. The purpose of this fact sheet is to present the highlights of water use in Florida for 2005 along with some significant trends in withdrawals since 1950.

  15. Florida, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-06-14

    STS040-613-049 (5-14 June 1991) --- This oblique scene from the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia shows southern Florida, several of the Bahama Islands and parts of the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. The nine-day STS-40/Spacelab Life Sciences (SLS-1) mission started with launch from Kennedy Space Center (KSC), visible in lower left. Cuba can be seen at top center. The picture was photographed with a handheld Rolleiflex camera, aimed through Columbia's aft flight deck windows.

  16. Contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes Basin: A report on sediment, water, and fish tissue chemistry collected in 2010-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, Steven J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Banda, JoAnn; Bowman, Sarah R.; Brigham, Mark E.; Elliott, Sarah M.; Gefell, Daniel J.; Jankowski, Mark D.; Jorgenson, Zachary G.; Lee, Kathy E.; Moore, Jeremy N.; Tucker, William A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being detected at low levels in surface waters and sediments across the United States, contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in the Great Lakes Basin are not well characterized in terms of spatial and temporal occurrence. Additionally, although the detrimental effects of exposure to CECs on fish and wildlife have been documented for many CECs in laboratory studies, we do not adequately understand the implications of the presence of CECs in the environment. Based on limited studies using current environmentally relevant concentrations of chemicals, however, risks to fish and wildlife are evident. As a result, there is an increasing urgency to address data gaps that are vital to resource management decisions. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, in collaboration with the U.S. Geological Survey, is leading a Great Lakes Basin-wide evaluation of CECs (CEC Project) with the objectives to (a) characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of CECs; (b) evaluate risks to fish and wildlife resources; and (c) develop tools to aid resource managers in detecting, averting, or minimizing the ecological consequences to fish and wildlife that are exposed to CECs. This report addresses objective (a) of the CEC Project, summarizing sediment and water chemistry data collected from 2010 to 2012 and fish liver tissue chemistry data collected in 2012; characterizes the sampling locations with respect to potential sources of CECs in the landscape; and provides an initial interpretation of the variation in CEC concentrations relative to the identified sources. Data collected during the first three years of our study, which included 12 sampling locations and analysis of 134 chemicals, indicate that contaminants were more frequently detected in sediment compared to water. Chemicals classified as alkyphenols, flavors/ fragrances, hormones, PAHs, and sterols had higher average detection frequencies in sediment compared to water, while the opposite was observed for pesticides

  17. CARIDEAN GRASS SHRIMP (PALAEMONETES PUGIO HOLTHIUS) AS AN INDICATOR OF SEDIMENT QUALITY IN FLORIDA COASTAL AREAS AFFECTED BY POINT AND NON-POINT SOURCE CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Grass shrimp are one of the more widely distributed estuarine benthic organisms along the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coasts, but they have been used infrequently in contaminated sediment assessments. Early life stages of the caridean grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio (Holthuis), ...

  18. LONG-TERM RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS AT THE LAKE HARTWELL SUPERFUND SITE: PCB DECHLORINATION. 2. RATES AND EXTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on extensive polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination measured in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) sediments. Vertical sediment cores were collected from 18 locations in Lake Hartwell (Pickens County, SC) and analyzed in 5-cm increments for PCB congeners...

  19. LONG-TERM RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SURFACE SEDIMENTS AT THE SANGAMO-WESTON/TWELVEMILE CREEK/LAKE HARTWELL SUPERFUND SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural recovery of contaminated sediments relies on burial of contaminated sediments with increasingly clean sediments over time (i.e., natural capping). Natural capping reduces the risk of resuspension of contaminated surface sediments, and it reduces the potential for contamin...

  20. Decreased glutathione S-transferase expression and activity and altered sex steroids in Lake Apopka brown bullheads (Ameriurus nebulosus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gallagher, E.P.; Gross, T.S.; Sheehy, K.M.

    2001-01-01

    male bullheads from Lake Woodruff. Collectively, our studies indicate the presence of reduced GST protein expression, reduced GST conjugative capacity and altered sex steroid homeostasis in female bullheads from a contaminated field site in Central Florida. The implications of these physiological alterations in terms of pollutant biotransformation and reproduction are discussed. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of contaminants in snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Lake Erie Areas of Concern: St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour.

    PubMed

    de Solla, Shane R; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2004-11-01

    PCBs, organochlorine pesticides and dioxins/furans in snapping turtle eggs and plasma (Chelydra serpentina) were evaluated at three Areas of Concern (AOCs) on Lake Erie and its connecting channels (St. Clair River, Detroit River, and Wheatley Harbour), as well as two inland reference sites (Algonquin Provincial Park and Tiny Marsh) in 2001-2002. Eggs from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs had the highest levels of p,p'-DDE (24.4 and 57.9 ng/g) and sum PCBs (928.6 and 491.0 ng/g) wet weight, respectively. Contaminant levels in eggs from St. Clair River AOC were generally higher than those from Algonquin Park, but similar to those from Tiny Marsh. Dioxins appeared highest from the Detroit River. The PCB congener pattern in eggs suggested that turtles from the Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour AOCs were exposed to Aroclor 1260. TEQs of sum PCBs in eggs from all AOCs and p,p'-DDE levels in eggs from the Wheatley Harbour and the Detroit River AOCs exceeded the Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines. Furthermore, sum PCBs in eggs from Detroit River and Wheatley Harbour exceeded partial restriction guidelines for consumption. Although estimated PCB body burdens in muscle tissue of females were well below consumption guidelines, estimated residues in liver and adipose were above guidelines for most sites.

  2. Survey and evaluation of contaminants in earthworms and in soils derived from dredged material at confined disposal facilities in the Great Lakes region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyer, W.N.; Stafford, C.

    1993-01-01

    Soils derived from dredged material were collected, together with earthworms from nine confined disposal facilities located in the Great Lakes Region. These samples were analyzed for 18 elements, 11 organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The concentrations detected in earthworms were evaluated in terms of their potential hazard to wildlife, which for the sake of the evaluation were assumed to prey entirely either on earthworms or on other soil invertebrates having similar concentrations. The soil concentrations (dry wt.) of the contaminants of greatest concern were < 1.9 to 32 ppm Cd, < 0.053 to 0.94 ppm Hg, 4.6 to 550 ppm Pb, and < 0.1 to 1.0 ppm PCBs. The concentrations in earthworms (dry wt., ingested soil included) were as high as 91 ppm Cd, 1.6 ppm Hg, 200 ppm Pb, and 1.8 ppm PCBs. Based on laboratory toxicity studies of relatively sensitive species, and on concentration factors calculated from the earthworm and soil data, we estimated that lethal or serious sublethal effects on wildlife might be expected at concentrations of 10 ppm Cd, 3 ppm Hg, 670 ppm Pb, and 1.7 ppm PCBs in alkaline surface soils derived from dredged material. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in earthworms were well below those in soil.

  3. Florida Keys

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-12-13

    The Florida Keys are a chain of islands, islets and reefs extending from Virginia Key to the Dry Tortugas for about 309 kilometers (192 miles). The keys are chiefly limestone and coral formations. The larger islands of the group are Key West (with its airport), Key Largo, Sugarloaf Key, and Boca Chica Key. A causeway extends from the mainland to Key West. This image was acquired on October 28, 2001, by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA03890

  4. Edible wild plants growing in contaminated floodplains: implications for the issuance of tribal consumption advisories within the Grand Lake watershed of northeastern Oklahoma, USA.

    PubMed

    Garvin, Ean M; Bridge, Cas F; Garvin, Meredith S

    2018-06-01

    Metal releases from the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) that is located in southwestern Missouri, southeastern Kansas, and northeastern Oklahoma, have contaminated floodplain soils within the Neosho and Spring river watersheds of the Grand Lake watershed. Since the Oklahoma portion of the watershed lies within ten tribal jurisdictions, the potential accumulation of metals within plant species that are gathered and consumed by tribal members, as well as the resulting metal exposure risks to tribal human health, was a warranted concern for further investigation. Within this study, a total of 36 plant species that are commonly consumed by tribes were collected from floodplain areas that were previously demonstrated to have elevated soil metal concentrations relative to reference sites. A significant, positive correlation was shown for metal concentrations in plant tissues versus soil (n = 258; Cd: R = 0.72, p = 0.00; Pb: R = 0.52, p = 0.00; and Zn: R = 0.70, p = 0.00). Additionally, a significant difference in metal concentration distributions existed between reference and impacted plant samples (n = 210, p = 0.00 for all metals). These results proved that floodplain soils are a major contamination pathway for metal accumulation within plants, and the source of metal contamination is the result of mining releases from the TSMD. Metal accumulation within plants was found to vary according to specific metal and plant species. The lowest dietary exposure out of all plant organs sampled were associated with fruit, whereas the highest was associated with roots, stem/leaves, and low-lying leafy greens. Metals in plants were compared to weekly dietary intake limits established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Based on specific serving sizes established within this study for tribal children and adults, many plant species had sufficient concentrations to warrant tribal consumption restrictions within the floodplains of Elm Creek

  5. Monooxygenase activity and contaminant burdens of pipping heron embryos in Virginia, the Great Lakes and San Francisco Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Hothem, R.L.; King, K.A.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Spann, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    Black-crowned night-heron (Nvcticorax nvcticorax) pipping embryos were studied from undisturbed (Chincoteague National Wildl ife Refuge, VA) and industrialized (Cat Island, Green Bay WI, and Bair and W. Marin Islands, San Francisco Bay, CA) locations. Hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) , ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, (EROD), benzyloxyROD (BROD), pentoxyROD (PROD) and ethoxycoumarinOD (ECOD) activities and burdens of organochlorines (embryo + yolk sac - liver) were quantified. AHH, BROD, ECOD and EROD were induced up to 100-fold (P<.O5) in embryos from Cat Island compared to the other sites. Greatest burdens of total PCBs and p,p?DDE were detected in Cat Island embryos. Monooxygenase activities (AHH, BROD, ECOD and EROD) and PCB concentrations were significantly correlated (r=O.50 to 0.72). These and other data indicate that monooxygenases may be rapid and inexpensive biomarkers of exposure to some PCB congeners. Current efforts include determination of PCB congeners and other contaminants in these embryos, additional characterization of the induced P-450 isozymes, and expanding the study to include heron embryos and nestlings at other estuaries.

  6. Effects of modified zeolite on the removal and stabilization of heavy metals in contaminated lake sediment using BCR sequential extraction.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jia; Yi, Yuanjie; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-08-01

    Sediment can be applied on land as a soil conditioner. However, toxic substances such as heavy metals within the sediment often lead to soil contamination if no proper management is conducted prior to land application. In order to reduce the bioavailable portion of heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd, zeolite as a kind of stabilizer was investigated on the effect of metal stabilization in sediment. Zeolite was firstly modified and screened to get the best condition for removal of heavy metals. Results showed that the granulated zeolite with NaCl conditioning had the highest CEC and metal sorption. Using BCR sequential extraction, the selected modified zeolite effectively stabilized Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd in sediment to different extents. It was most suitable for Cd stabilization by reducing its acid exchangeable fraction while increasing the contents of the reducible and residual fractions. Modified zeolite also immobilized Cu, Zn and Pb in sediment by enhancing one stable fraction while decreasing the acid exchangeable fraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Selenium contamination and remediation at Stewart Lake Waterfowl Management Area and Ashley Creek, middle Green River basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowland, Ryan C.; Stephens, Doyle W.; Waddell, Bruce; Naftz, David L.

    2003-01-01

    Selenium is an element required in trace amounts for human and animal health, but it can cause health problems for livestock, wildlife, and humans when ingested in higher-than-required concentrations. Incidences of mortality, birth defects, and reproductive failure in waterfowl were discovered at Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge, San Joaquin Valley, California, by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1983 (Presser, 1994). These problems were attributed to elevated concentrations of selenium in irrigation drainage that discharged to the refuge. Because of concern about possible adverse effects from irrigation drainage on Department of the Interior (DOI) projects elsewhere in the United States, the DOI organized scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), USFWS, Bureau of Reclamation (BOR), and Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) to form the National Irrigation Water-Quality Program (NIWQP). The objectives of the program are to investigate DOI-managed lands for potential contamination related to irrigation drainage, conduct studies to identify the problems, investigate methodologies to remediate those problems, and implement remediation plans (U.S. Department of the Interior, 2002).

  8. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 3A: Southwest Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, R.L.; Fletcher, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 36 streams and peak discharge for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells, and quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3A contains continuous or daily discharge for 103 streams, periodic discharge for 7 streams, continuous or daily stage for 67 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage and discharge for 8 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 2 lakes, periodic elevations for 26 lakes, and quality-of-water data for 62 surface-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  9. Quality of ground water in the Biscayne Aquifer in Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties, Florida, 1996-1998, with emphasis on contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradner, Anne; McPherson, Benjamin F.; Miller, Ronald L.; Kish, George; Bernard, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    The high permeability of the sand and limestone sediments and shallow water table of the Biscayne aquifer make ground water vulnerable to contamination by human activities. To assess potential contamination in the aquifer, untreated ground water was sampled from 30 public-supply wells (40-165 feet deep) in Broward, Miami-Dade, and Palm Beach Counties, 32 shallow wells (10-50 feet deep) in a recently urbanized (residential and light commercial) part of Broward County, and 3 shallow reference wells in Broward County. Results from sample analyses indicate that major ions, pH, dissolved oxygen, nutrients, and trace element concentrations were generally within the range indicative of background concentrations, except for: (1) substantially higher bromide concentrations in water from public-supply wells in southern Miami-Dade County; (2) a few relatively high (greater than 2 milligrams per liter) concentrations of nitrate in water from public-supply wells near agricultural lands in Miami-Dade and southern Broward Counties; and (3) a few relatively high concentrations of arsenic (greater than 10 micrograms per liter) in water from some shallow urban wells near golf courses. Pesticides were detected in every public-supply well, in most of the shallow, urban monitoring wells (78 percent), and in one reference well; however, no pesticide concentration exceeded any drinking-water standard. Fifteen different pesticides or their degradation products were detected. The most frequently detected pesticides were atrazine and tebuthiuron; less frequently detected were the herbicides diuron, fenuron, prometon, metolachlor, simazine, and 2,6-diethylaniline. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in most of the public-supply wells (77 percent) and shallow, urban wells (91 percent) and in two of the three reference wells. Thirty-two different VOCs were detected in ground water in the Biscayne aquifer, with cis-1,2-dichloroethene the most frequently detected VOC in the public

  10. Mysterious Black Water off Florida's Gulf Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In mid-December last year, a mysterious black water overtook the normally bluish green waters of Florida Bay. Over the course of the winter, the extent of the water grew to encompass an area as big as Lake Okeechobee, Florida, before subsiding over the last few weeks. These images taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the Orbview-2 satellite, show the progression of the black water over the last three months. The affected water sits along the southeastern coast of Florida about fifty miles north of the Florida Keys. As of now, scientists do not know why the water appears black in satellite and aerial images or whether the water is harming the wildlife. They speculate that it could be due to an exotic algae bloom, an underwater fountain pushing up sediments from the ocean floor, or possibly chemical and sediment run-off from the nearby Shark River. Researchers at the Florida Marine Research Institute in St. Petersburg and the Mote Marine Research Institute in Sarasota are running tests to determine the chemical make-up of the water. No big fish kills have been reported in the area. But fishermen say the catch has been low this winter. In addition, the black water sits just north of the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, which is home to one of the largest coral reef habitats in the United States. Toxic run-off from the Florida coastline and motor boats in the area have already destroyed many of Florida's reefs. Scientists are concerned that if the extent of the black water grows again, it could endanger these reefs. Information provided by the Naples Daily News. For up-to-date images of the area, view these SeaWiFS Images of Florida Bay. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. U.S. Geological Survey program on toxic waste--ground-water contamination; proceedings of the Third technical meeting, Pensacola, Florida, March 23-27, 1987

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franks, Bernard J.

    1987-01-01

    Because of the widespread distribution of creosote in the environment, an abandoned wood-treatment plant in Pensacola, Fla., was selected by the U.S. Geological Survey Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology as one of three national research demonstration areas in order to increase our understanding of hydrologic processes affecting the distributions of contaminants in ground water. The site was selected because of its long, uninterrupted history (1902 81) of discharging wastewaters to unlined surface impoundments, availability of a preliminary data base (Troutman and others, 1984), and the high probability of useful technology transfer from an investigation of the fate of organic compounds associated with wood-preserving wastewaters in the subsurface environment.

  12. A MULTI-ORD LAB AND REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF MONITORED NATURAL RECOVERY OF PCB-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS IN LAKE HARTWELL, CLEMSON, SC

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management of contaminated sediments poses many challenges due to varied contaminants and volumes of sediments to manage. Dredging, capping, and monitored natural recovery (MNR) are the primary approaches for managing the contaminated sediment risks. Understanding how well the ...

  13. Radiotelemetry Tracking at Lake Conway, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    USF) initiated a study to evaluate the impact of the introduced white amur on the resident herpetofaunal community . A major part of this effort was...initiated a study to determine the impact of the introduced white amur on the resident herpetofaunal community (Godley, in preparation). A major part of...42. Analysis of the project funding schedule indicated that herpetofaunal radiotagging would be economically feasible only if the existing mobile

  14. An integrated approach for identifying priority contaminant in the Great Lakes Basin - Investigations in the Lower Green Bay/Fox River and Milwaukee Estuary areas of concern.

    PubMed

    Li, Shibin; Villeneuve, Daniel L; Berninger, Jason P; Blackwell, Brett R; Cavallin, Jenna E; Hughes, Megan N; Jensen, Kathleen M; Jorgenson, Zachary; Kahl, Michael D; Schroeder, Anthony L; Stevens, Kyle E; Thomas, Linnea M; Weberg, Matthew A; Ankley, Gerald T

    2017-02-01

    Environmental assessment of complex mixtures typically requires integration of chemical and biological measurements. This study demonstrates the use of a combination of instrumental chemical analyses, effects-based monitoring, and bio-effects prediction approaches to help identify potential hazards and priority contaminants in two Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs), the Lower Green Bay/Fox River located near Green Bay, WI, USA and the Milwaukee Estuary, located near Milwaukee, WI, USA. Fathead minnows were caged at four sites within each AOC (eight sites total). Following 4d of in situ exposure, tissues and biofluids were sampled and used for targeted biological effects analyses. Additionally, 4d composite water samples were collected concurrently at each caged fish site and analyzed for 132 analytes as well as evaluated for total estrogenic and androgenic activity using cell-based bioassays. Of the analytes examined, 75 were detected in composite samples from at least one site. Based on multiple analyses, one site in the East River and another site near a paper mill discharge in the Lower Green Bay/Fox River AOC, were prioritized due to their estrogenic and androgenic activity, respectively. The water samples from other sites generally did not exhibit significant estrogenic or androgenic activity, nor was there evidence for endocrine disruption in the fish exposed at these sites as indicated by the lack of alterations in ex vivo steroid production, circulating steroid concentrations, or vitellogenin mRNA expression in males. Induction of hepatic cyp1a mRNA expression was detected at several sites, suggesting the presence of chemicals that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. To expand the scope beyond targeted investigation of endpoints selected a priori, several bio-effects prediction approaches were employed to identify other potentially disturbed biological pathways and related chemical constituents that may warrant future monitoring at these sites. For

  15. A pilot study on the assessment of trace organic contaminants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products from on-site wastewater treatment systems along Skaneateles Lake in New York State, USA.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Bikram; Codru, Neculai; Dziewulski, David M; Wilson, Lloyd R; Xue, Jingchuan; Yun, Sehun; Braun-Howland, Ellen; Minihane, Christine; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-04-01

    On-site wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs or septic systems) are designed to treat and dispose effluents on the same property that produces the wastewater. Approximately 25% of the U.S. population is served by such facilities. Nevertheless, studies on the treatment efficiency and discharge of organic contaminants through septic effluents are lacking. This pilot study showed the occurrence of organic contaminants including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), perfluoroalkyl surfactants (PFASs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in septic effluents, adjacent lake water samples, household drinking water in homes that use lake water or a well adjacent to the lake as a source of drinking water, and offshore lake water samples. Septic effluent as well as lake and tap water samples were collected from several households with OWTSs around Skaneateles Lake located in central New York. The advanced on-site systems were installed in some households for the purpose of limiting nutrient levels in the effluent to protect the local surface water. Additionally, because many of these systems serve homes with limited land, advanced treatment systems were needed. The median concentrations of ten PPCPs (ranged from 0.45 to 388 ng/L) and eleven PFASs (ranged from 0.20 to 14.6 ng/L) in septic water were significantly higher (p ≤ 0.01) than in lake water samples. The median concentrations of PPCPs and PFASs in lake and tap water samples were not significantly different (p ≥ 0.65). The median concentrations of ∑PBDEs in septic, lake, and tap water samples were 7.47, 3.49, and 2.22 ng/L, respectively, and those for ∑PCBs were 33.1, 29.2, and 28.6 ng/L, respectively. The mass flux of PPCPs (i.e. the mass flow of PPCPs per unit area per unit time) through the disposal of treated septic effluent from textile biofilter and aerobic treatments to the dispersal unit ranged from 12 (carbamazepine) to 66900 μg/m(2)/day

  16. Feeding patterns of migratory and non-migratory fourth instar larvae of two coexisting Chaoborus species in an acidic and metal contaminated lake: Importance of prey ingestion rate in predicting metal bioaccumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Croteau, M.-N.; Hare, L.; Marcoux, P.

    2003-01-01

    We studied diel variations in the feeding habits and migratory behaviors of two coexisting Chaoborus species in an acidic and metal contaminated lake (Lake Turcotte, QC, Canada). We found that although the zooplankton community was dominated by rotifers, both Chaoborus species fed mostly on chironomids and crustaceans despite the relatively low abundance of these prey types in the lake plankton. Chaoborus americanus larvae fed on those of Chaoborus punctipennis, but not vice versa. The non-migratory species (C. americanus) fed throughout the day and night whereas the migratory species (C. punctipennis) fed only at night while in the water column. The larger-bodied C. americanus consumed more prey and had a more diverse diet than did the smaller-bodied C. punctipennis. Differences in feeding habits between the Chaoborus species inhabiting Lake Turcotte (prey biomass, prey types) likely explain in part their ability to coexist. Attempts to predict Cd in the Chaoborus species using our measurements of Cd in their prey and their prey ingestion rates met with mixed success; although we correctly predicted higher Cd concentrations for C. americanus larvae than for C. punctipennis larvae, we under-predicted absolute Cd concentrations. We suggest that studies such as ours that are based on analyses of gut contents of larvae collected at intervals of 4h or longer likely underestimate prey ingestion rates.

  17. Florida seagrass habitat evaluation: A comparative survey for chemical quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminant concentrations were determined for media associated with 13 Florida seagrass beds. Concentrations of 10 trace metals were more commonly detected in surface water, sediment and two seagrass species than PAHs, pesticides and PCBs. Concentrations of copper and arsenic ...

  18. Sunglint in Florida Bay taken by the Expedition Two crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-04-13

    ISS002-E-5466 (13 April 2001) --- From the International Space Station (ISS), an Expedition Two crew member photographed southern Florida, including Dade County with Miami and Miami Beach; Everglades National Park; Big Cypress National Reserve; and the Florida Keys and many other recognizable areas. The crew member, using a digital still camera on this same pass, also recorded imagery of the Lake Okeechobee area, just north of the area represented in this frame.

  19. Bringing the Microcomputer into the Junior High: A Success Story from Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Benjamin S.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the introduction of an Apple II microcomputer into Miami Lakes (Florida) Junior High School and its success in generating enthusiasm among teachers, students, parents, and the community. (Author/RW)

  20. Evaluation of pollution levels due to the use of consumer fertilizers under Florida conditions : summary.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2010-01-01

    Many surface waters in Florida are polluted with excessive nitrogen and phosphorus. Applied as fertilizer to turf and landscape plants, excess nutrients are deposited into rivers, lakes, and other surface waters through stormwater runoff. These nutri...

  1. 2003 Florida transportation almanac

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2003-12-01

    This publication is the third edition of the Florida Transportation Almanac, developed and produced by the : Center for Urban Transportation Research (CUTR) at the University of South Florida (USF) in Tampa. It : follows the original publication prod...

  2. Mangos of Florida, country contribution: Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The book chapter presents a review of the historical importance of mango in Florida; geographical distribution of mangos in Florida; statistical data including total and seasonal production, main cultivars and their descriptors; cultural practices (i.e. propagation, fertilization, pruning); pests an...

  3. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 1A: Northeast Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharge for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous or daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage and discharge for 36 streams; continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells; quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for northeast Florida include continuous or daily discharge for 138 streams, periodic discharge for 3 streams, continuous or daily stage for 61 streams, periodic stage for 0 streams; peak stage and discharge for 0 streams; continuous or daily elevations for 9 lakes, periodic elevations for 20 lakes; continuous ground water levels for 73 wells, periodic groundwater levels for 543 wells; quality-of-water data for 43 surface-water sites and 115 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State and Federal agencies in Florida.

  4. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 1B: Northeast Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, H.G.; Nazarian, A.P.; Dickerson, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharge for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous or daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage and discharge for 36 streams; continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells; quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for northeast Florida include continuous or daily discharge for 138 streams, periodic discharge for 3 streams, continuous or daily stage for 61 streams, periodic stage for 0 streams; peak stage and discharge for 0 streams; continuous or daily elevations for 9 lakes, periodic elevations for 20 lakes; continuous ground water levels for 73 wells, periodic groundwater levels for 543 wells; quality-of-water data for 43 surface-water sites and 115 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State and Federal agencies in Florida.

  5. Evaluation of Emerging Contaminants of Concern at the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant Based on Seasonal Events, Miami-Dade County, Florida, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, Arthur C.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan has identified highly treated wastewater as a possible water source for the restoration of natural water flows and hydroperiods in selected coastal areas, including the Biscayne Bay coastal wetlands. One potential source of reclaimed wastewater for the Biscayne Bay coastal wetlands is the effluent from the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant in southern Miami-Dade County. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan Wastewater Reuse Technology Pilot Project Delivery Team, initiated a study to assess the presence of emerging contaminants of concern in the South District Wastewater Treatment Plant influent and effluent using current wastewater-treatment methods. As part of the study, 24-hour composite and discrete samples were collected at six locations (influent at plants 1 and 2, effluent pump, reuse train, chlorine dioxide unit, and ultraviolet pilot unit) at the plant during: (1) a dry-season, low-flow event on March 2-3, 2004, with an average inflow rate of 83.7 million gallons per day; (2) a wet-season, average-flow event on July 20-21, 2004, with an average inflow rate of 89.7 million gallons per day; and (3) high-rate disinfection tests on October 5 and 20, 2004, with average flow rates of 84.1 and 119.6 million gallons per day, respectively. During these four sampling events, 26, 27, 29, and 35 constituents were detected, respectively. The following transformations in concentration were determined in the waste stream: -100 to 180 percent at the effluent pump and -100 to 85 percent at the reuse train on March 2-3, 2004, and -100 to 1,609 percent at the effluent pump and -100 to 832 percent at the reuse train on July 20-21, 2004; -100 to -37 percent at the effluent pump, -100 to -62 percent at the reuse train, -100 to -56 percent at the chlorine dioxide unit, and -100 to -40 percent at the ultraviolet pilot unit on October 5, 2004; and -100 to -4 percent at the

  6. Florida Information Resource Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Francis C.

    1986-01-01

    The Florida Information Resource Network (FIRN) is an effort by the Florida education community and the Florida Legislature to provide an electronic link among all agencies, institutions, and schools in the public education system. The communications link, perhaps one of the most advanced in the nation, has three purposes: (1) to provide equal…

  7. EFFECT OF ACUTE STRESS ON PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF SEX AND STRESS HORMONES IN JUVENILE ALLIGATORS LIVING IN CONTROL AND CONTAMINATED LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental contaminants can act as stressors, inducing elevated circulating concentrations of stress hormones such as corticosterone and cortisol. Development in contaminated eggs has been reported to modify circulating sex steroid hormone concentrations in alligators (Alligat...

  8. Volume balance and toxicity analysis of highway storm water discharge from Cross Lake Bridge.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-06-01

    The Cross Lake Bridge in Shreveport, Louisiana, spans Cross Lake that serves as the citys water supply. Concern : about accidents on the bridge contaminating the lake prompted the Louisiana Department of Transportation and : Development (LADOTD) t...

  9. Volume balance and toxicity analysis of highway stormwater discharge from the cross lake bridge.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2009-06-01

    The Cross Lake Bridge in Shreveport, Louisiana, spans Cross Lake that serves as the citys water supply. Concern about accidents on the bridge contaminating the lake prompted the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development (LADOTD) to co...

  10. Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) from Canadian Areas of Concern across the southern Laurentian Great Lakes: Chlorinated and brominated hydrocarbon contaminants and metabolites in relation to circulating concentrations of thyroxine and vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Letcher, Robert J; Lu, Zhe; de Solla, Shane R; Sandau, Courtney D; Fernie, Kimberly J

    2015-11-01

    The metabolites of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as well as other halogenated phenolic contaminants (HPCs) have been shown to have endocrine-disrupting properties, and have been reported with increasing frequency in the blood of wildlife, and mainly in mammals and birds. However, little is known about the persistence, accumulation and distribution of these contaminants in long-lived freshwater reptiles. In the present study, in addition to a large suite of chlorinated and brominated contaminants, metabolites and HPCs, we assessed and compared hydroxylated (OH) PCBs and OH-PBDEs relative to PCBs and PBDEs, respectively, in the plasma of adult male common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina). Blood samples were collected from 62 snapping turtles (2001-2004) at 12 wetland sites between the Detroit River and the St. Lawrence River on the Canadian side of the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America. Turtles were sampled from sites designated as Areas of Concern (AOCs) and from a relatively clean reference site in southern Georgian Bay (Tiny Marsh), Lake Huron. Plasma concentrations of Σ46PCB (10-340 ng/g wet weight (ww)) and Σ28OH-PCB (3-83 ng/g ww) were significantly greater (p<0.05) in turtles from the Turkey Creek and Muddy Creek-Wheatley Harbour sites in Lake Erie compared with the reference site turtles. The HPC, pentachlorophenol (PCP), had a mean concentration of 9.6±1.1 ng/g ww. Of the 28 OH-CB congeners screened for, 4-OH-CB187 (42±7 ng/g ww) was the most concentrated of all HPCs measured. Of the 14 OH-BDE congeners examined, four (4'-OH-BDE17, 3-OH-BDE47, 5-OH-BDE47 and 4'-OH-BDE49) were consistently found in all plasma samples. p,p'-DDE was the most concentrated of the 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) examined. The mean concentrations of circulating total thyroxine (TT4), dehydroretinol and retinol in the plasma of the male snapping turtles regardless of sampling site were 5.4±0.3, 81±4.7 and 291±13

  11. Quantifying Cyanobacteria and High Biomass Bloms from Satellite to Support Environmental Management and Public Use of U.S. Lakes and Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, Michelle C.; Stumpf, Richard P.; Dupuy, Danielle; Wynne, Timothy T.; Briggs, Travis

    2015-12-01

    Algal blooms of high biomass and cyanobacteria are on the rise, occurring both nationally and internationally. These blooms can foul beaches, clog water intakes, produce toxins that contaminate drinking water, and pose a threat to human and domestic animal health. A quantitative tool can aid in the management needs to respond to these issues. These blooms can affect many lakes within a state management district, pointing to the need for a synoptic and timely assessment. The 300 m Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) satellite imagery provided by the European Space Agency from 2002 to 2012 has led to advances in our ability to monitor these systems. Algorithms specific to quantifying high biomass blooms have been developed for use by state managers through a comparison of field radiometry, water quality and cell enumeration measurements, and remotely-sensed satellite data. These algorithms are designed to detect blooms even with atmospheric interference and suspended sediments. Initial evaluations were conducted for Florida lakes and the St. Johns River, Florida, USA and showed that cyanobacteria blooms, especially of Microcystis, can be identified and their biomass can be estimated (as chlorophyll concentration and other metrics). Forecasts and monitoring have been demonstrated for Lake Erie and for Florida. A multi-agency (NASA, EPA, NOAA, and USGS) project, “Cyanobacteria Assessment Network (CyAN)” intends to apply these methods to Sentinel-3 data in near real-time on a U.S. national scale, in order to support state management agencies in protecting public health and the environment.

  12. Embryotoxicity of an extract from Great Lakes lake trout to rainbow trout and lake trout

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, P.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    Aquatic ecosystems such as the Great Lakes are known to be contaminated with chemicals that are toxic to fish. However, the role of these contaminants in reproductive failures of fishes, such as lake trout recruitment, has remained controvertible. It was the objective to evaluate dioxin-like embryotoxicity of a complex mixture of chemicals and predict their potential to cause the lack of recruitment in Great Lakes lake trout. Graded doses of a complex environmental extract were injected into eggs of both rainbow trout and lake trout. The extract was obtained from whole adult lake trout collected from Lake Michigan in 1988.more » The extract was embryotoxic in rainbow trout, with LD50 values for Arlee strain and Erwin strain of 33 eggEQ and 14 eggEQ respectively. The LOAEL for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities in rainbow trout were 2, 2, and 4 eggEQ, respectively. Subsequent injections of the extract into lake trout eggs were likewise embryotoxic, with an LD50 value of 7 eggEQ. The LOAEL values for the extract in lake trout for hemorrhaging, yolk-sac edema, and craniofacial deformities were 0.1, 1, and 2 eggEQ, respectively. The current levels of contaminants in lake trout eggs are above the threshold for hemorrhaging and yolk-sac edema. The results also support the use of an additive model of toxicity to quantify PCDDs, PCDFs, Non-o-PCBs, and Mono-o-PCBs in relation to early life stage mortality in Lake Michigan lake trout.« less

  13. Lake Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohrn, Deborah Gore, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This quarterly publication of the State Historical Society of Iowa features articles and activities for elementary school students. This summer issue focuses on the topic of lake life. The issue includes the following features: (1) "Where the Lakes Are Map"; (2) "Letter from the Lake"; (3) "Lake People"; (4)…

  14. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 4. Northwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    prepared by Blum, Darlene A.; Alvarez, A. Ernie

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Federal, State, and local agencies, obtains a large amount of data on the water resources of the State of Florida each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable database that is used by water-resources managers, emergency-management officials, and many others to develop an improved understanding of water resources within the State. This report series for the 2003 water year for the state of Florida consists of records for continuous or daily discharge for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous or daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage and discharge for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells, and quality-of-water for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. This volume (Volume 4, Northwest Florida)contains records of continuous or daily discharge for 72 streams, periodic discharge for 3 stream, continuous or daily stage for 13 streams, periodic stage for 0 stream, peak stage and discharge for 28 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 1 lake, periodic elevations for 0 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 3 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 0 wells, and quality-of-water for 3 surface-water sites and 0 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, State, and Federal agencies in Florida.

  15. Substance Use Among Migrant and Seasonal Farmworkers in Central Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnow, Beth

    A study of alcohol and drug use among migrant and seasonal farmworkers in Orange and Lake counties (Central Florida) was conducted in 1978 to determine substance abuse among migrant and seasonal farmworkers, the subgroups with substance abuse problems, the farmworkers' knowledge of and attitudes toward alcohol and drug treatment programs, and the…

  16. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003 Volume 2A: South Florida Surface Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, C.; Woolverton, J.; Overton, K.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for 2003 water year in Florida consists of continuous or daily discharge for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous or daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 stream, peak discharge for 36 streams, and peak stage for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1227 wells, quality of water data for 133 surface-water sites, and 308 wells. The data for South Florida included continuous or daily discharge for 72 streams, continuous or daily stage for 50 streams, no peak stage discharge for streams, 1 continuous elevation for lake, continuous ground-water levels for 237 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 248 wells, water quality for 25 surface-water sites, and 161 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  17. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003, Volume 3B: Southwest Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kane, Richard L.; Fletcher, William L.; Lane, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for the 2003 water year in Florida consist of continuous or daily discharges for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 streams, peak stage for 36 streams and peak discharge for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes; continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1,227 wells, and quality-of-water data for 133 surface-water sites and 308 wells. The data for Southwest Florida include records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage, contents, water quality of lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. Volume 3B contains records for continuous ground-water elevations for 128 wells; periodic ground-water elevations at 31 wells; miscellaneous ground-water elevations at 405 wells; and water quality at 32 ground-water sites. These data represent the national Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  18. Water Resources Data, Florida, Water Year 2003 Volume 2B: South Florida Ground Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prinos, S.; Irvin, R.; Byrne, M.

    2004-01-01

    Water resources data for 2003 water year in Florida consists of continuous or daily discharge for 385 streams, periodic discharge for 13 streams, continuous or daily stage for 255 streams, periodic stage for 13 stream, peak discharge for 36 streams, and peak stage for 36 streams, continuous or daily elevations for 13 lakes, periodic elevations for 46 lakes, continuous ground-water levels for 441 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 1227 wells, quality of water data for 133 surface-water sites, and 308 wells. The data for South Florida included continuous or daily discharge for 72 streams, continuous or daily stage for 50 streams, no peak stage discharge for streams, 1 continuous elevation for lake, continuous ground-water levels for 237 wells, periodic ground-water levels for 248 wells, water quality for 25 surface-water sites, and 161 wells. These data represent the National Water Data System records collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies in Florida.

  19. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Selected Life History Information of Animal Species on Lake Conway, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-08-01

    Name Management Information 2 Loplsostus i. Inhabits warm, sluggish waters. (Continued) platyrhincus Can live in very stagnant waters 3 Amia calva a...water with abundant vegetation. Amia calva can survive very stagnant water due to its ability to surface and ’breathe’ the air. Active at twilight and...Name Scientific Name FishSpecies 1 Longnose gar Loplsosteus osseus 2 Florida gar Lepisosteus platjrhincus 3 Bowf in Aula calva 4 American eel Anguilla

  20. Distribution of heavy metals and radionuclides in sediments, water, and fish in an area of Great Bear Lake contaminated with mine wastes.

    PubMed

    Moore, J W; Sutherland, D J

    1981-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides in the sediments and water of Great Bear Lake were determined during 1978 near an operating silver mine and an abandoned uranium mine. Additional information on the level of mercury in fish tissues were also collected. The mines, situated on the same site, deposited tailings and other waste material directly into the lake. The concentrations of mercury, lead, manganese, and nickel in the sediments were highest near the tailings deposit and decreased significantly as the distance from the mine increased. Although there were also significant positive correlations between these metals and the organic content of the sediments, water depth and slope of the bottom had no impact on metal distribution. Since the concentrations of arsenic, cobalt, copper, 226radium, 210lead and 230thorium varied inconsistently throughout the study area, the distribution of these substances could not be related to any of the environmental factors that were measured. There were, however, significant negative correlations between the concentrations of 232thorium and 228thorium and distance from the mine and organic content of the sediments. Heavy metal and radionuclide levels in water were generally below detectable limits, reflecting the strong chemical bonding characteristics of the sediments. The low concentrations of mercury in the tissues of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush were probably related to low uptake rates and the ability of this species to move into uncontaminated areas of the lake.

  1. Evaluation of the Contamination by Explosives and Metals in Soils, Vegetation, Surface Water and Sediment at Cold Lake Air Weapons Range (CLAWR), Alberta, Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    severe ISQG, but were of the same order of magnitude. For mercury , only 3 samples, all in Jimmy Lake, exceeded the ISQG. Sed-JL-3 even exceeded the most...but can also be part of bomb painting as pointed out by Boggs [29]. The vegetation analyses revealed that some metals are phytoremediated from

  2. Survey of Lake Ontario bottom sediment off Rochester, New York, to define the extent of jettisoned World War II material and its potential for sediment contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Gregory; Kappel, William M.

    2000-01-01

    Military-type mat??riel was recovered from the bottom of Lake Ontario near Rochester, N.Y., during bottom-trawl, fish-stock surveys at depths of 75 to 180 feet each year from 1978 through 1996. The recovered mat??riel included many shell-detonator nose cones (2 inches in diameter by about 3.5 inches long); several electronic components; one corroded box of detonators; a corrugated container of mercury-filled capsules; and corroded batteries. Most of the recovered mat??riel has been identified as defective components of shell detonators (proximity-fuze assemblies) that were jettisoned in the lake to protect them from discovery during World War II. Side-scan SONAR, metal-detector, and ROV (remotely-operated-vehicle) surveys found no evidence of any large piles of mat??riel containing potentially hazardous, toxic, or polluting materials within the 17-square-mile study site. Many scattered magnetic anomalies were detected in this area, but chemical analysis of bottom sediment and of zebra- and quagga-mussel (Dreissena spp.) tissue indicate that the concentrations of mercury and other heavy metals are within the previously documented ranges for Lake Ontario sediment. The failure of ROV videos and of SCUBA-diver surveys and probes of the lake bottom to locate any debris indicates that most, if not all, of the debris is scattered and buried under a layer of fine-grained sediment and, possibly, mussels.

  3. 78 FR 34570 - Special Local Regulations; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Lake Dora; Tavares, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Lake Dora; Tavares, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... waters of Lake Dora in Tavares, Florida, during the Pro Hydro-X Tour, a series of high-speed personal... published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Special Local Regulations; Pro Hydro-X Tour, Lake...

  4. Assessing the effectiveness of remediation of contaminated sediments in the Ottawa River Segment of the Maumee Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC) using biological endpoints: toxicity, food web tissue contamination, biotic condition and DNA damage

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ottawa River lies in extreme northwest Ohio, flowing into Lake Erie’s western basin at the City of Toledo. The Ottawa River is a component of the Maumee River AOC as defined by the International Commission. The Ottawa River is approximately 45 miles long; however, the 2...

  5. Forests of Florida, 2012

    Treesearch

    M.J. Brown; Jarek. Nowak

    2014-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Florida based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Florida Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  6. Florida's Workforce 2005.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Labor and Employment Security, Tallahassee.

    This report analyzes projected changes in population, labor force, and employment by industry and occupation for Florida between 1995 and 2005. More than 50 charts and graphs provide statistics on the following: Florida's population, labor force 1975-2005; employment 1975-2005; industry employment 1995-2005; occupational employment (general);…

  7. 'Florida Beauty' strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Florida Beauty’ strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) originated from a 2012 cross made by the Queensland breeding program between Queensland Australia selection 2010-119 (female parent) and ‘Florida Radiance’ (male parent). Selection 2010-119 was chosen as a parent for its excellent fruit shape and fl...

  8. 'Florida Radiance' strawberry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Florida Radiance' strawberry (Fragaria xananassa Duch.) is a new strawberry cultivar released by the University of Florida. It appears to be a good cultivar to complement the current commercial cultivar 'Strawberry Festival' during the early part of the production season as its yields are higher wh...

  9. Forests of Florida, 2013

    Treesearch

    Mark Brown; J.. Nowak

    2016-01-01

    This periodic resource update provides an overview of forest resources in Florida based on an inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Southern Research Station in cooperation with the Florida Forest Service. Estimates are based on field data collected using the FIA annualized sample design and are updated...

  10. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of The White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 1. Baseline Studies. Volume V. The Herpetofauna of Lake Conway, Florida.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    V ADA02 7414 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH FLORIDA TAMPA DEPT OF BIOLOGY F/6 6/6 LARGE-SCALE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TEST OF USE OF THE MHITE AMUM-ETC(U) JUN 81...Army Engineer Waterways Expiftaton P. 0. Box 631, Vicksburg, Miss. 391( 0 81 8 1102 LARGE-SCALE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TEST OF USE OF THE WHITE AMUR FOR...78-22// 4. TITLE (and Su~btitle) 5 TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED LARGE-SCALE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TEST OF USE. or Report I of a series THE W4HITE

  11. Large-Scale Operations Management Test of Use of the White Amur for Control of Problem Aquatic Plants. Report 2. First Year Poststocking Results. Volume III. The Plankton and Benthos of Lake Conway, Florida,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    AD-AI09 516 FLORIDA UNIV GAINESVILLE DEPT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENGIN--ETC F/G 6/6 LARGE-SCALE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TEST OF USE OF THE,WHITE AMUR--ETC(U... OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TEST OF USE OF THE WHITE AMUR FOR CONTROL OF PROBLEM AQUATIC PLANTS Report I: Baseline Studies Volume I: The Aquatic Macropyes of...COVERED LARGE-SCALE OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT TEST OF USE OF Report 2 of a series THE WHITE AMUR FOR CONTROL OF PROBLEM AQUATIC (In 7 volumes) PLANTS