Science.gov

Sample records for contaminated process equipment

  1. Cleaning and sanitation of Salmonella-contaminated peanut butter processing equipment.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Elizabeth M; Grove, Stephen F; Halik, Lindsay A; Arritt, Fletcher; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-04-01

    Microbial contamination of peanut butter by Salmonella poses a significant health risk as Salmonella may remain viable throughout the product shelf life. Effective cleaning and sanitation of processing lines are essential for preventing cross-contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a cleaning and sanitation procedure involving hot oil and 60% isopropanol, ± quaternary ammonium compounds, to decontaminate pilot-scale processing equipment harboring Salmonella. Peanut butter inoculated with a cocktail of four Salmonella serovars (∼ 7 log CFU/g) was used to contaminate the equipment (∼ 75 L). The system was then emptied of peanut butter and treated with hot oil (90 °C) for 2 h followed by sanitizer for 1 h. Microbial analysis of food-contact surfaces (7 locations), peanut butter, and oil were conducted. Oil contained ∼ 3.2 log CFU/mL on both trypticase soy agar with yeast extract (TSAYE) and xylose lysine deoxycholate (XLD), indicating hot oil alone was not sufficient to inactivate Salmonella. Environmental sampling found 0.25-1.12 log CFU/cm(2) remaining on processing equipment. After the isopropanol sanitation (± quaternary ammonium compounds), no Salmonella was detected in environmental samples on XLD (<0.16 log CFU/cm(2)). These data suggest that a two-step hot oil clean and isopropanol sanitization treatment may eliminate pathogenic Salmonella from contaminated equipment.

  2. Automated processing of forensic casework samples using robotic workstations equipped with nondisposable tips: contamination prevention.

    PubMed

    Frégeau, Chantal J; Lett, C Marc; Elliott, Jim; Yensen, Craig; Fourney, Ron M

    2008-05-01

    An automated process has been developed for the analysis of forensic casework samples using TECAN Genesis RSP 150/8 or Freedom EVO liquid handling workstations equipped exclusively with nondisposable tips. Robot tip cleaning routines have been incorporated strategically within the DNA extraction process as well as at the end of each session. Alternative options were examined for cleaning the tips and different strategies were employed to verify cross-contamination. A 2% sodium hypochlorite wash (1/5th dilution of the 10.8% commercial bleach stock) proved to be the best overall approach for preventing cross-contamination of samples processed using our automated protocol. The bleach wash steps do not adversely impact the short tandem repeat (STR) profiles developed from DNA extracted robotically and allow for major cost savings through the implementation of fixed tips. We have demonstrated that robotic workstations equipped with fixed pipette tips can be used with confidence with properly designed tip washing routines to process casework samples using an adapted magnetic bead extraction protocol.

  3. RADIOLOGICAL CONTROLS FOR PLUTONIUM CONTAMINATED PROCESS EQUIPMENT REMOVAL FROM 232-Z CONTAMINATED WASTE RECOVERY PROCESS FACILITY AT THE PLUTONIUM FINSHING PLANT (PFP)

    SciTech Connect

    MINETTE, M.J.

    2007-05-30

    The 232-Z facility at Hanford's Plutonium Finishing Plant operated as a plutonium scrap incinerator for 11 years. Its mission was to recover residual plutonium through incinerating and/or leaching contaminated wastes and scrap material. Equipment failures, as well as spills, resulted in the release of radionuclides and other contamination to the building, along with small amounts to external soil. Based on the potential threat posed by the residual plutonium, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) issued an Action Memorandum to demolish Building 232-2, Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation, and Liability Act (CERC1.A) Non-Time Critical Removal Action Memorandum for Removal of the 232-2 Waste Recovery Process Facility at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (04-AMCP-0486).

  4. Occurrence of Arcobacter in Iranian poultry and slaughterhouse samples implicates contamination by processing equipment and procedures.

    PubMed

    Khoshbakht, R; Tabatabaei, M; Shirzad Aski, H; Seifi, S

    2014-01-01

    1. The occurrence of Arcobacter spp. and three pathogenic species of Arcobacter from Iranian poultry carcasses was investigated at different steps of broiler processing to determine critical control points for reducing carcass contamination. 2. Samples were collected from (a) cloaca immediately before processing, (b) different points during processing and (c) at different stations in a processing plant of a slaughterhouse in southern Iran. 3. After enrichment steps in Arcobacter selective broth, DNA of the samples was extracted and three significant pathogen species of Arcobacter were identified based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of 16S rRNA and specific species PCR. 4. Out of a total of 540 samples, 244 (45%) were positive for Arcobacter spp. Arcobacter butzleri was more frequently detected (73% ± 13.9%) than A. cryaeophilus (9% ± 13.9%) and A. skirrowii (4.1%). In addition, co-colonisation (A. butzleri and A. cryaerophilus) occurred in 13.9% of the positive samples. 5. The results indicate a high prevalence of Arcobacter in the investigated slaughterhouse and broiler carcasses and that Arcobacter is not a normal flora of the broilers. Evidence for the presence of Arcobacter in the environment and water of processing plants suggests that these are sources of contamination of poultry carcasses. In addition, contamination of the poultry carcasses can spread between poultry meats in different parts and processes of the slaughterhouse (pre-scalding to after evisceration).

  5. Long Length Contaminated Equipment Maintenance Plan

    SciTech Connect

    ESVELT, C.A.

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the maintenance requirements of the Long Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE) trailers and provide a basis for the maintenance frequencies selected. This document is applicable to the LLCE Receiver trailer and Transport trailer assembled by Mobilized Systems Inc. (MSI). Equipment used in conjunction with, or in support of, these trailers is not included. This document does not provide the maintenance requirements for checkout and startup of the equipment following the extended lay-up status which began in the mid 1990s. These requirements will be specified in other documentation.

  6. EPA/NSF ETV Equipment Verification Testing Plan for the Removal of Volatile Organic Chemical Contaminants by Adsorptive Media Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the Environmental Technology Verification (ETV) Technology Specific Test Plan (TSTP) for evaluation of drinking water treatment equipment utilizing adsorptive media for synthetic organic chemical (SOC) removal. This TSTP is to be used within the structure provid...

  7. Cross-contamination potential with dental equipment.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D L; Arens, M; Appleton, S S; Nakashima, K; Ryu, J; Boe, R K; Patrick, J B; Watanabe, D T; Suzuki, M

    1992-11-21

    Some types of reused dental equipment, especially handpieces and their attachments for drilling and cleaning teeth, might be responsible for cross-contamination if patient material were to lodge temporarily in difficult-to-disinfect internal mechanisms. This possibility is worrisome with respect to transmission of hepatitis B and human immunodeficiency viruses (HBV, HIV). Previous cross-contamination studies have relied on laboratory experiments with bacteria or dye tracers. To assess possible risk more thoroughly, we tested 30 new prophylaxis angles and 12 new high-speed handpieces to see whether they would take up and expel contaminants in laboratory and clinical trials. In treatments of three patients, including two infected with HIV, human-specific DNA (beta-globin, HLA DQ alpha) and HIV proviral DNA were detected inside or coming back from the devices. Similarly, when handpieces were operated in contact with blood pooled from HBV-infected patients, HBV DNA was detected in samples taken from inside the equipment and from their attached air/water hoses. When we used bacteriophage phi X174 as a model virus in laboratory tests, many infective viral particles were recovered from internal mechanisms of handpieces, their connecting air/water hoses, and from water spray expelled when the equipment was reused. We recommend that reused high-speed, air-driven handpieces and prophylaxis angles should be cleaned and heat-treated between patients. Further studies are needed to determine ways of eliminating the risks associated with exhaust hoses and air/water input lines.

  8. Effect of contamination of pharmaceutical equipment on powder triboelectrification.

    PubMed

    Eilbeck, J; Rowley, G; Carter, P A; Fletcher, E J

    2000-02-15

    Triboelectrification of pharmaceutical powders may cause problems during processing and manufacture due to adhesion/cohesion effects. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of adhered particles and moisture as contact surface contaminants on the electrostatic charging of size fractionated lactose, following contact with a surface, i.e. stainless steel, typically used in pharmaceutical process and manufacturing operations. Replicated experimental runs without cleaning the contact surface showed a successive decrease in the net electronegative charge due to adhered lactose particles. Removal of these contaminating particles by different cleaning methods had a considerable effect on the charge after triboelectrification. The charge on the lactose samples was found to decrease when humidity in the cyclone apparatus was increased from 2 to 100% relative humidity. These results clearly demonstrate that moisture, particulate contamination and method of cleaning of processing equipment during pharmaceutical manufacturing operations may influence the electrostatic behaviour of powders.

  9. Contamination during doffing of personal protective equipment by healthcare providers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seong Mi; Cha, Won Chul; Chae, Minjung Kathy; Jo, Ik Joon

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we aimed to describe the processes of both the donning and the doffing of personal protective equipment for Ebola and evaluate contamination during the doffing process. Methods We recruited study participants among physicians and nurses of the emergency department of Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. Participants were asked to carry out doffing and donning procedures with a helper after a 50-minute brief training and demonstration based on the 2014 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention protocol. Two separate cameras with high-density capability were set up, and the donning and doffing processes were video-taped. A trained examiner inspected all video recordings and coded for intervals, errors, and contaminations defined as the outside of the equipment touching the clinician’s body surface. Results Overall, 29 participants were enrolled. Twenty (68.9%) were female, and the mean age was 29.2 years. For the donning process, the average interval until the end was 234.2 seconds (standard deviation [SD], 65.7), and the most frequent errors occurred when putting on the outer gloves (27.5%), respirator (20.6%), and hood (20.6%). For the doffing process, the average interval until the end was 183.7 seconds (SD, 38.4), and the most frequent errors occurred during disinfecting the feet (37.9%), discarding the scrubs (17.2%), and putting on gloves (13.7%), respectively. During the doffing process, 65 incidences of contamination occurred (2.2 incidents/person). The most vulnerable processes were removing respirators (79.2%), removing the shoe covers (65.5%), and removal of the hood (41.3%). Conclusion A significant number of contaminations occur during the doffing process of personal protective equipment. PMID:27752591

  10. Alternatives Generation Analysis Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System Storage

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-13

    The long length contaminated equipment was designed and built to aid in the remote removal and transport of highly radioactive, contaminated equipment from various locations in the tank farms to disposal. The equipment has been stored in an open lay-down yard area, exposed to the elements for the past year and a half. The possible alternatives available to provide shelter for the equipment are investigated.

  11. Contaminated nickel scrap processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Johnson, J.S. Jr.; Wilson, D.F.

    1994-12-01

    The DOE will soon choose between treating contaminated nickel scrap as a legacy waste and developing high-volume nickel decontamination processes. In addition to reducing the volume of legacy wastes, a decontamination process could make 200,000 tons of this strategic metal available for domestic use. Contaminants in DOE nickel scrap include {sup 234}Th, {sup 234}Pa, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 239}Pu (trace), {sup 60}Co, U, {sup 99}Tc, and {sup 237}Np (trace). This report reviews several industrial-scale processes -- electrorefining, electrowinning, vapormetallurgy, and leaching -- used for the purification of nickel. Conventional nickel electrolysis processes are particularly attractive because they use side-stream purification of process solutions to improve the purity of nickel metal. Additionally, nickel purification by electrolysis is effective in a variety of electrolyte systems, including sulfate, chloride, and nitrate. Conventional electrorefining processes typically use a mixed electrolyte which includes sulfate, chloride, and borate. The use of an electrorefining or electrowinning system for scrap nickel recovery could be combined effectively with a variety of processes, including cementation, solvent extraction, ion exchange, complex-formation, and surface sorption, developed for uranium and transuranic purification. Selected processes were reviewed and evaluated for use in nickel side-stream purification. 80 refs.

  12. Experimental Equipment for Powder Processing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-20

    1 Final Report Experimental Equipment for Powder Processing Contract Number FA9550-06- 1 -0417 Patrick Kwon...Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour...subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1 . REPORT DATE

  13. Storage options for Long Length Contaminated Equipment (LLCE) items

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, R.D.

    1994-11-01

    A review of the Washington state requirements for the storage of long equipment items removed from tanks indicate that if the contaminated materials on the long equipment items are analyzed and determined to be DW, and not EHW, the containers can be stored on an uncovered, RCRA approved, storage pad. Long equipment items contaminated with reportable levels of EHW, or suspected of being contaminated with EHW, must be protected from the elements by means of a building or other protective covering that otherwise allows adequate inspection of the containers. Storage of the long equipment item containers on an uncovered storage pad is recommended and will reduce construction costs for new storage by an estimated 60 percent when compared to construction costs for enclosed storage.

  14. Purex: process and equipment performance

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Purex process is the solvent extraction system that uses tributyl phosphate as the extractant for separating uranium and plutonium from irradiated reactor fuels. Since the first flowsheet was proposed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 1950, the process has endured for over 30 years with only minor modifications. The spread of the technology was rapid, and worldwide use or research on Purex-type processes was reported by the time of the 1955 Geneva Conference. The overall performance of the process has been so good that there are no serious contenders for replacing it soon. This paper presents: process description; equipment performance (mixer-settlers, pulse columns, rapid contactors); fission product decontamination; solvent effects (solvent degradation products); and partitioning of uranium and plutonium.

  15. An assessment and evaluation for recycle/reuse of contaminated process and metallurgical equipment at the DOE Rocky Flats Plant Site -- Building 865. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    An economic analysis of the potential advantages of alternatives for recycling and reusing equipment now stored in Building 865 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Colorado has been conducted. The inventory considered in this analysis consists primarily of metallurgical and process equipment used before January 1992, during development and production of nuclear weapons components at the site. The economic analysis consists of a thorough building inventory and cost comparisons for four equipment dispositions alternatives. The first is a baseline option of disposal at a Low Level Waste (LLW) landfill. The three alternatives investigated are metal recycling, reuse with the government sector, and release for unrestricted use. This report provides item-by-item estimates of value, disposal cost, and decontamination cost. The economic evaluation methods documented here, the simple cost comparisons presented, and the data provided as a supplement, should provide a foundation for D&D decisions for Building 865, as well as for similar D&D tasks at RFP and at other sites.

  16. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    DOEpatents

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  17. Latin American and Caribbean intercomparison of surface contamination monitoring equipment.

    PubMed

    Cabral, T S; Ramos, M M O; Laranjeira, A S; Santos, D S; Suarez, R C

    2011-03-01

    In October 2009, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored an intercomparison exercise of surface contamination monitoring equipment, which was held at the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from the Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro. This intercomparison was performed to evaluate the calibration accessibility in Latin America and the Caribbean. Thirteen countries within the region and IAEA have sent instruments to be compared, but only five countries and IAEA were considered apt to participate. Analysis of instruments, results and discussions are presented and recommendations are drawn.

  18. Air contaminants in a submarine equipped with air independent propulsion.

    PubMed

    Persson, Ola; Ostberg, Christina; Pagels, Joakim; Sebastian, Aleksandra

    2006-11-01

    The Swedish Navy has operated submarines equipped with air independent propulsion for two decades. This type of submarine can stay submerged for periods far longer than other non-nuclear submarines are capable of. The air quality during longer periods of submersion has so far not been thoroughly investigated. This study presents results for a number of air quality parameters obtained during more than one week of continuous submerged operation. The measured parameters are pressure, temperature, relative humidity, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen, formaldehyde and other volatile organic compounds, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter and microbiological contaminants. The measurements of airborne particles demonstrate that air pollutants typically occur at a low baseline level due to high air exchange rates and efficient air-cleaning devices. However, short-lived peaks with comparatively high concentrations occur, several of the sources for these have been identified. The concentrations of the pollutants measured in this study do not indicate a build-up of hazardous compounds during eight days of submersion. It is reasonable to assume that a substantial build-up of the investigated contaminants is not likely if the submersion period is prolonged several times, which is the case for modern submarines equipped with air independent propulsion.

  19. 76 FR 72902 - Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee; Notice of Partially Closed Meeting The Materials Processing Equipment Technical Advisory Committee (MPETAC) will meet... controls applicable to materials processing equipment and related technology. Agenda Open Session...

  20. The Federal Conference on Intelligent Processing Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Research and development projects involving intelligent processing equipment within the following U.S. agencies are addressed: Department of Agriculture, Department of Commerce, Department of Energy, Department of Defense, Environmental Protection Agency, Federal Emergency Management Agency, NASA, National Institutes of Health, and the National Science Foundation.

  1. Intelligent Processing Equipment Projects at DLA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, Donald F.

    1992-01-01

    The Defense Logistics Agency is successfully incorporating Intelligent Processing Equipment (IPE) into each of its Manufacturing Technology thrust areas. Several IPE applications are addressed in the manufacturing of two 'soldier support' items: combat rations and military apparel. In combat rations, in-line sensors for food processing are being developed or modified from other industries. In addition, many process controls are being automated to achieve better quality and to gain higher use (soldier) acceptance. IPE applications in military apparel include: in-process quality controls for identification of sewing defects, use of robots in the manufacture of shirt collars, and automated handling of garments for pressing.

  2. Intelligent processing equipment projects at DLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, Donald F.

    1992-04-01

    The Defense Logistics Agency is successfully incorporating Intelligent Processing Equipment (IPE) into each of its Manufacturing Technology thrust areas. Several IPE applications are addressed in the manufacturing of two 'soldier support' items: combat rations and military apparel. In combat rations, in-line sensors for food processing are being developed or modified from other industries. In addition, many process controls are being automated to achieve better quality and to gain higher use (soldier) acceptance. IPE applications in military apparel include: in-process quality controls for identification of sewing defects, use of robots in the manufacture of shirt collars, and automated handling of garments for pressing.

  3. Influence of tracheal suctioning systems on health care workers' gloves and equipment contamination: a comparison of closed and open systems.

    PubMed

    Ricard, Jean-Damien; Eveillard, Matthieu; Martin, Yolaine; Barnaud, Guilène; Branger, Catherine; Dreyfuss, Didier

    2011-09-01

    The impact of tracheal suctioning with an open or a closed system on equipment and health care workers contamination with multidrug-resistant pathogens was compared. Only the closed system reduced hand and equipment contamination during tracheal suctioning. This equipment could be systematically used to reduce risk of cross contamination in the intensive care unit.

  4. 40 CFR 267.116 - What must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... equipment, structure, and soils? 267.116 Section 267.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION..., structure, and soils? You must properly dispose of or decontaminate all contaminated equipment, structures, and soils during the partial and final closure periods. By removing any hazardous wastes or...

  5. 40 CFR 267.116 - What must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... equipment, structure, and soils? 267.116 Section 267.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION..., structure, and soils? You must properly dispose of or decontaminate all contaminated equipment, structures, and soils during the partial and final closure periods. By removing any hazardous wastes or...

  6. 40 CFR 267.116 - What must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... equipment, structure, and soils? 267.116 Section 267.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION..., structure, and soils? You must properly dispose of or decontaminate all contaminated equipment, structures, and soils during the partial and final closure periods. By removing any hazardous wastes or...

  7. 40 CFR 267.116 - What must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... equipment, structure, and soils? 267.116 Section 267.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION..., structure, and soils? You must properly dispose of or decontaminate all contaminated equipment, structures, and soils during the partial and final closure periods. By removing any hazardous wastes or...

  8. 40 CFR 267.116 - What must I do with contaminated equipment, structure, and soils?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... equipment, structure, and soils? 267.116 Section 267.116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION..., structure, and soils? You must properly dispose of or decontaminate all contaminated equipment, structures, and soils during the partial and final closure periods. By removing any hazardous wastes or...

  9. Selection of equipment for coke processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhodenko, N.T.; Kuznetsov, V.A.; Nurlygayanova, V.M.; Petrunina, O.A.

    1984-07-01

    This article shows how the design and selection of equipment for the crushing, transportation, and storage of petroleum coke is dependent on the physicomechanical properties of the coke. The mechanical properties of petroleum coke depend on its total porosity, which is determined from true and apparent densities. Topics considered include screen composition, bulk density, the degree of compaction, coefficients of internal and external friction, segregation, and the angle of repose. A vibrating platform operating at 350 cycles per minute was used to investigate the dynamics of compaction of coke fractions during rail transport. It is emphasized that the physical properties of coke as a free-flowing material are of paramount importance in designing the processing and transportation systems and storage facilities for coking and calcining units.

  10. Minimum detectable activities of contamination control survey equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Goles, R.W.; Baumann, B.L.; Johnson, M.L.

    1991-08-01

    The Instrumentation External Dosimetry (I ED) Section of the Health Physics Department at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has performed a series of tests to determine the ability of portable survey instruments used at Hanford to detect radioactive contamination at levels required by DOE 5480.11. This semi-empirical study combines instrumental, statistical, and human factors as necessary to derive operational detection limits. These threshold detection values have been compared to existing contamination control requirements, and detection deficiencies have been identified when present. Portable survey instruments used on the Hanford Site identify the presence of radioactive surface contamination based on the detection of {alpha}-, {beta}-, {gamma}-, and/or x-radiation. However, except in some unique circumstances, most contamination monitors in use at Hanford are configured to detect either {alpha}-radiation alone or {beta}- and {gamma}-radiation together. Testing was therefore conducted on only these two categories of radiation detection devices. Nevertheless, many of the results obtained are generally applicable to all survey instruments, allowing performance evaluations to be extended to monitoring devices which are exclusively {gamma}- and/or x-ray- sensitive. 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2E: Commercial equipment utility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. G. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Examination of commercial equipment technologies revealed that the functional performance requirements of space processing equipment could generally be met by state-of-the-art design practices. Thus, an apparatus could be evolved from a standard item or derived by custom design using present technologies. About 15 percent of the equipment needed has no analogous commercial base of derivation and requires special development. This equipment is involved primarily with contactless heating and position control. The derivation of payloads using commercial equipment sources provides a broad and potentially cost-effective base upon which to draw. The derivation of payload equipment from commercial technologies poses other issues beyond that of the identifiable functional performance, but preliminary results on testing of selected equipment testing appear quite favorable. During this phase of the SPA study, several aspects of commercial equipment utility were assessed and considered. These included safety, packaging and structural, power conditioning (electrical/electronic), thermal and materials of construction.

  12. Resrad-recycle: a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing radioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jing-Jy; Kassas, Bassel; Yu, Charley; Amish, John; LePoire, Dave; Chen, Shih-Yew; Williams, W A; Wallo, A; Peterson, H

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  13. RESRAD-RECYCLE : a computer model for analyzing radiation exposures resulting from recycling radioactively contaminated scrap metals or reusing ratioactively surface-contaminated materials and equipment.

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J. J.; Kassas, B.; Yu, C.; Arnish, J. J.; LePoire, D.; Chen, S.-Y.; Williams, W. A.; Wallo, A.; Peterson, H.; Environmental Assessment; DOE; Univ. of Texas

    2004-11-01

    RESRAD-RECYCLE is a computer code designed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to be used in making decisions about the disposition of radioactively contaminated materials and scrap metals. It implements a pathway analysis methodology to evaluate potential radiation exposures resulting from the recycling of contaminated scrap metals and the reuse of surface-contaminated materials and equipment. For modeling purposes, it divides the entire metal recycling process into six steps: (1) scrap delivery, (2) scrap melting, (3) ingot delivery, (4) product fabrication, (5) product distribution, and (6) use of finished product. RESRAD-RECYCLE considers the reuse of surface-contaminated materials in their original forms. It contains representative exposure scenarios for each recycling step and the reuse process; users can also specify scenarios if desired. The model calculates individual and collective population doses for workers involved in the recycling process and for the public using the finished products. The results are then used to derive clearance levels for the contaminated materials on the basis of input dose restrictions. The model accounts for radiological decay and ingrowth, dilution and partitioning during melting, and distribution of refined metal in the various finished products, as well as the varying densities and geometries of the radiation sources during the recycling process. A complete material balance in terms of mass and radioactivity during the recycling process can also be implemented. In an international validation study, the radiation doses calculated by RESRAD-RECYCLE were shown to agree fairly well with actual measurement data.

  14. Contamination detection NDE for cleaning process inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marinelli, W. J.; Dicristina, V.; Sonnenfroh, D.; Blair, D.

    1995-01-01

    In the joining of multilayer materials, and in welding, the cleanliness of the joining surface may play a large role in the quality of the resulting bond. No non-intrusive techniques are currently available for the rapid measurement of contamination on large or irregularly shaped structures prior to the joining process. An innovative technique for the measurement of contaminant levels in these structures using laser based imaging is presented. The approach uses an ultraviolet excimer laser to illuminate large and/or irregular surface areas. The UV light induces fluorescence and is scattered from the contaminants. The illuminated area is viewed by an image-intensified CCD (charge coupled device) camera interfaced to a PC-based computer. The camera measures the fluorescence and/or scattering from the contaminants for comparison with established standards. Single shot measurements of contamination levels are possible. Hence, the technique may be used for on-line NDE testing during manufacturing processes.

  15. Process equipment waste and process waste liquid collection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The US DOE has prepared an environmental assessment for construction related to the Process Equipment Waste (PEW) and Process Waste Liquid (PWL) Collection System Tasks at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. This report describes and evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposed action (and alternatives). The purpose of the proposed action would be to ensure that the PEW and PWL collection systems, a series of enclosed process hazardous waste, and radioactive waste lines and associated equipment, would be brought into compliance with applicable State and Federal hazardous waste regulations. This would be accomplished primarily by rerouting the lines to stay within the buildings where the lined floors of the cells and corridors would provide secondary containment. Leak detection would be provided via instrumented collection sumps locate din the cells and corridors. Hazardous waste transfer lines that are routed outside buildings will be constructed using pipe-in-pipe techniques with leak detection instrumentation in the interstitial area. The need for the proposed action was identified when a DOE-sponsored Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance assessment of the ICPP facilities found that singly-contained waste lines ran buried in the soil under some of the original facilities. These lines carried wastes with a pH of less than 2.0, which were hazardous waste according to the RCRA standards. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Detection of organic residues on poultry processing equipment surfaces by LED-induced fluorescence imaging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic residues on equipment surfaces in poultry processing plants can generate cross- contamination and increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of LED-induced fluorescence imaging technique for rapid inspection of stainless steel proces...

  17. Detection of organic residues on food processing equipment surfaces by spectral imaging method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic residues remaining attached to equipment surfaces during poultry processing operations can potentially generate cross-contamination and thus increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. Current pre-operational sanitation monitoring mainly relies on human visual inspection, which is subje...

  18. The role of engineering in the flight equipment purchasing process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The role of the airline engineering department in the flight equipment acquisition process is examined. The data for the study was collected from six airlines. The principal findings of the study include: (1) engineering activities permeate, but do not dominate the airline flight equipment decision process. (2) The principal criterion for the flight equipment acquisition decision is return on investment. (3) The principal sources of information for the airline engineering departments in the monitoring process are the manufacturers of equipment. Subsidiary information sources include NASA publications and conferences, among others and (4) The engineering department is the principal communication channel for technical information.

  19. Removal of contaminants from equipment and debris and waste minimization using TechXtract{reg_sign} technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bonem, M.W.

    1997-10-01

    Under this Program Research and Development Agreement (PRDA), EET, Inc., is extending its proprietary TechXtract{reg_sign} chemical decontamination technology into an effective, economical, integrated contaminant removal system. This integrated system will consist of a series of decontamination baths using the TechXtract{reg_sign} chemical formulas, followed by a waste treatment process that will remove the contaminants from the spent chemicals. Sufficient decontamination will result so that materials can be released without restriction after they have been treated, even those materials that have traditionally been considered to be {open_quotes}undecontaminable.{close_quotes} The secondary liquid waste will then be treated to separate any hazardous and radioactive contaminants, so that the spent chemicals and wastewater can be discharged through conventional, permitted outlets. The TechXtract{reg_sign} technology is a unique process that chemically extracts hazardous contaminants from the surface and substrate of concrete, steel, and other solid materials. This technology has been used successfully to remove contaminants as varied as PCBs, radionuclides, heavy metals, and hazardous organics. The process` advantage over other alternatives is its effectiveness in safe and consistent extraction of subsurface contamination. TechXtract{reg_sign} is a proprietary process developed, owned, and provided by EET, Inc. The objective of the PRDA is to demonstrate on a full-scale basis an economical system for decontaminating equipment and debris, with further treatment of secondary waste streams to minimize waste volumes. Contaminants will be removed from the contaminated items to levels where they can be released for unrestricted use. The entire system will be designed with maximum flexibility and automation in mind.

  20. Contamination control methods for gases used in the microlithography process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabellino, Larry; Applegarth, Chuck; Vergani, Giorgio

    2002-07-01

    Sensitivity to contamination continues to increase as the technology shrinks from 365 nm I-line lamp illumination to 13.4 nm Extreme Ultraviolet laser activated plasma. Gas borne impurities can be readily distributed within the system, remaining both suspended in the gas and attached to critical surfaces. Effects from a variety of contamination, some well characterized and others not, remain a continuing obstacle for stepper manufacturers and users. Impurities like oxygen, moisture and hydrocarbons in parts per billion levels can absorb light, reducing the light intensity and subsequently reducing the consistence of the process. Moisture, sulfur compounds, ammonia, acid compounds and organic compounds such as hydrocarbons can deposit on lens or mirror surfaces affecting image quality. Regular lens replacement or removal for cleaning is a costly option and in-situ cleaning processes must be carefully managed to avoid recontamination of the system. The contamination can come from outside the controlled environment (local gas supply, piping system, & leaks), or from the materials moving into the controlled environment; or contamination may be generated inside the controlled environment as a result of the process itself. The release of amines can occur as a result of the degassing of the photo-resists. For the manufacturer and user of stepper equipment, the challenge is not in predictable contamination, but the variable or unpredictable contamination in the process. One type of unpredictable contamination may be variation in the environmental conditions when producing the nitrogen gas and Clean Dry Air (CDA). Variation in the CDA, nitrogen and xenon may range from parts per billion to parts per million. The risk due to uncontrolled or unmonitored variation in gas quality can be directly related to product defects. Global location can significantly affect the gas quality, due to the ambient air quality (for nitrogen and CDA), production methods, gas handling equipment

  1. Contamination of equipment in emergency settings: An exploratory study with a targeted automated intervention

    PubMed Central

    Obasi, Chidi; Agwu, Allison; Akinpelu, Wale; Hammons, Roger; Clark, Clyde; Etienne-cummings, Ralph; Hill, Peter; Rothman, Richard; Babalola, Stella; Ross, Tracy; Carroll, Karen; Asiyanbola, Bolanle

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite standard manual decontamination, hospital equipment remains contaminated with microorganisms, contributing to nosocomial transmission and hospital acquired infections. This has the potential to negate the effects of healthcare workers' hand-washing protocols. In order to decrease the likihood of equipment contamination, there has been a rise in the use of disposable pieces of equipment, especially non-critical disposables. However, these carry a significant cost, both a direct financial cost (running into billions of dollars), as well as a cost to the environment. This is important because we hope to contain the cost of healthcare, one way to do that, is to look to the hospitals themselves, for innovative solutions that maintain the standard of care. Objective To develop and evaluate the effectiveness of an simple decontamination device for use with portable hospital equipment, by comparing rates of residual contamination after use of the novel device versus those seen with standard manual decontamination methods. Methods The Self-cleaning Unit for the Decontamination of Small instruments (SUDS) is a user-friendly, automated instrument developed via multi-disciplinary collaboration for decontamination in the clinical area. Pre- and post- utilization of portable medical equipment in an emergency department (ED) setting were cultured. To evaluate durability of the decrease in antimicrobial contamination, objects were re-cultured 48 hours after SUDS cleaning and following re-introduction into the clinical setting. Results After manual decontamination, 25% (23/91) of the tested objects in the ED were found to be culture positive with clinically significant microorganisms(CSO). Fifteen percent (ED) of non-critical equipment tested had multiple organisms. Following the use of SUDS, the colonization rate decreased to 0%. Following SUDS treatment and re-introduction into the clinical settings, after 48 hours the contamination rates as reflected by the

  2. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Tanya Y.; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G.

    2014-01-01

    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical techniques and equipment bring foods under closer and closer scrutiny. This review considers the formation of lipid oxidation products, hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent lipid oxidation and the associated risk of trans fatty acid formation. The formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction is described, as well as the genetic and agronomic approaches being taken to reduce the acrylamide-forming potential of cereal grain. The multiple routes for the formation of furan and associated chemicals, including hydroxymethylfurfuryl, are also described. The evolving regulatory and public perception situations for these processing contaminants and their implications for the cereal supply chain are discussed, emphasising the need for cereal breeders to engage with the contaminants issue. PMID:24882936

  3. Reducing the potential for processing contaminant formation in cereal products.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Tanya Y; Postles, Jennifer; Halford, Nigel G

    2014-05-01

    Processing contaminants may be defined as substances that are produced in a food when it is cooked or processed, are not present or are present at much lower concentrations in the raw, unprocessed food, and are undesirable either because they have an adverse effect on product quality or because they are potentially harmful. The presence of very low levels of processing contaminants in common foods is becoming an increasingly important issue for the food industry, as developments in analytical techniques and equipment bring foods under closer and closer scrutiny. This review considers the formation of lipid oxidation products, hydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids to prevent lipid oxidation and the associated risk of trans fatty acid formation. The formation of acrylamide in the Maillard reaction is described, as well as the genetic and agronomic approaches being taken to reduce the acrylamide-forming potential of cereal grain. The multiple routes for the formation of furan and associated chemicals, including hydroxymethylfurfuryl, are also described. The evolving regulatory and public perception situations for these processing contaminants and their implications for the cereal supply chain are discussed, emphasising the need for cereal breeders to engage with the contaminants issue.

  4. Catalyst regeneration process including metal contaminants removal

    DOEpatents

    Ganguli, Partha S.

    1984-01-01

    Spent catalysts removed from a catalytic hydrogenation process for hydrocarbon feedstocks, and containing undesired metals contaminants deposits, are regenerated. Following solvent washing to remove process oils, the catalyst is treated either with chemicals which form sulfate or oxysulfate compounds with the metals contaminants, or with acids which remove the metal contaminants, such as 5-50 W % sulfuric acid in aqueous solution and 0-10 W % ammonium ion solutions to substantially remove the metals deposits. The acid treating occurs within the temperature range of 60.degree.-250.degree. F. for 5-120 minutes at substantially atmospheric pressure. Carbon deposits are removed from the treated catalyst by carbon burnoff at 800.degree.-900.degree. F. temperature, using 1-6 V % oxygen in an inert gas mixture, after which the regenerated catalyst can be effectively reused in the catalytic process.

  5. Microbial processes and subsurface contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molz, Fred J.

    A Chapman Conference entitled “Microbial Processes in the Transport, Fate, and In Situ Treatment of Subsurface Contaminants” was held in Snowbird, Utah, October 1-3, 1986. Members of the program committee and session chairmen were Lenore Clesceri (Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N.Y.), David Gibson (University of Texas, Austin), James Mercer (GeoTrans, Inc., Herndon , Va.), Donald Michelsen (Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg), Fred Molz (Auburn University, Auburn, Ala.), Bruce Rittman (University of Illinois, Urbana), Gary Sayler (University of Tennessee, Knoxville), and John T. Wilson (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ada, Okla.). The following report attempts to highlight the six sessions that constituted the conference. For additional information, including a bound summary and abstracts, contact Fred J. Molz, Civil Engineering Department, Auburn University, AL 36849 (telephone: 205-826-4321).

  6. Cleaning process for contaminated superalloy powders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglin, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    A cleaning process for removing interstitial contaminants from superalloy powders after wet grinding is described. Typical analyses of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and hydrogen in ball-milled WAZ-20 superalloy samples after hydrogen plus vacuum cleaning are presented. The hydrogen cleaning step involves heating retorts containing superalloy powder twice under flowing hydrogen with a 24-hour hold at each temperature. The vacuum step involves heating cold-pressed billets two hours at an elevated temperature at a pressure of 10 microPa. It is suggested that the hydrogen plus vacuum cleaning procedure can be applied to superalloys contaminated by other substances in other industrial processes.

  7. Remediation processes for heavy metals contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, G.A.; Torma, A.E.; Hsu, Pei-Cheng

    1996-12-31

    This paper provides information on selected technologies available for remediation of metal contaminated soils and industrial effluent solutions. Because some of the industrial sites are contaminated with organics (solvents, gasolines and oils), an effort has been made to introduce the most frequently used cost-effective cleanup methods, such as {open_quotes}bioventing{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}composting.{close_quotes} The microorganisms involved in these processes are capable of degrading organic soil contaminants to environmentally harmless compounds: water and carbon dioxide. Heavy metals and radionuclides contaminated mining and industrial sites can be remediated by using adapted heap and dump leaching technologies, which can be chemical in nature or bio-assisted. The importance of volume reduction by physical separation is discussed. A special attention is devoted to the remediation of soils by leaching (soil washing) to remove heavy metal contaminants, such as chromium, lead, nickel and cadmium. Furthermore, the applicability of biosorption technology in the remediation of heavy metals and radionuclides contaminated industrial waste waters and acidic mining effluent solutions was indicated. 60 refs., 9 figs.

  8. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: PROCESS FOR THE TREATMENT OF VOLATILE ORGANIC CARBON AND HEAVY-METAL- CONTAMINATED SOIL - INTERNATIONAL TECHNOLOGY CORPORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The batch steam distillation and metal extraction treatment process is a two-stage system that treats soils contaminated with organics and inorganics. This system uses conventional, readily available process equipment, and does not produce hazardous combustion products. Hazar...

  9. Equipment, exposure, emission review--specification of process equipment for worker exposure control.

    PubMed

    Bowes, Stephen M

    2008-12-01

    Worker exposure to chemical agents may occur from equipment leaks in closed processes and from open system activities and maintenance (e.g., sampling, tank gauging, line breaking, equipment flushing, and drainage). To prevent worker overexposure to chemical agents, an Equipment, Exposure, Emission Review (EEER) was developed to consistently match equipment properties to the leakage-related inhalation risk posed by each stream. For streams where gas or liquid leakage could cause worker exposure above occupational exposure limits (OEL), the EEER recommended a high performance, low leakage equipment category. Conversely, where standard engineering offered reliable containment for lower health risk streams, the EEER did not recommend over-control. The EEER matched equipment to stream health hazard as follows: (1) the composition of each stream was determined, with particular attention to chemical substances with stringent exposure limits; (2) a mixture exposure limit was calculated for each stream based on stream composition and the OEL for stream constituent chemicals; (3) each stream was classified as to its respiratory exposure hazard on the basis of the stream exposure limit; (4) equipment was recommended as a function of respiratory exposure hazard class using an Equipment Selection Matrix. Equipment options were based, in part, on the emission performance of the equipment and a near-field dispersion model that was used to relate equipment emissions to an OEL. Over a 5-yr implementation period, nearly 1700 streams of 78 refining process units were reviewed. Standard engineering practice was selected for about 70% of the streams reviewed. Benzene, hydrogen sulfide, ethanolamine, and high boiling aromatic oil streams were the primary chemical agents responsible for more stringent controls. Although the EEER criteria for stream classification and control options were arranged in order of magnitude--a form of control banding--the correct selection of control

  10. Physical therapy clinic therapeutic ultrasound equipment as a source for bacterial contamination.

    PubMed

    Spratt, Henry G; Levine, David; Tillman, Larry

    2014-10-01

    A procedure commonly used in physical therapy (PT) clinics is therapeutic ultrasound (US). This equipment and associated gel comes in contact with patient skin, potentially serving as a reservoir for bacteria. In this study, we sampled US heads, gel bottle tips and gel from nine outpatient PT clinics in Southeastern Tennessee. Samples were collected using sterile swabs. At the microbiology laboratory, these swabs were used to inoculate mannitol salt agar and CHROM-MRSA agar (for Staphylococcal species) and tryptic soy broth to determine non-specific bacterial contamination. US heads, gel bottle tips and gel had variable levels of contamination. Tips of gel bottles had the highest contamination, with 52.7% positive for non-specific bacterial contamination and 3.6% positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Contamination of gel by non-specific bacteria was found in 14.5% of bottles sampled. US heads (35.5% of those sampled) had non-specific bacterial contamination, with no MRSA detected. Disinfecting US heads after initial swabbing resulted in removal of 90.9% of non-specific contamination. Gel storage at temperatures below 40 °C was found to encourage the growth of mesophilic bacteria. This study demonstrates the need for better cleaning and storage protocols for US heads and gel bottles in PT clinics.

  11. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.

    1994-12-31

    The contract was conceived to establish the commercial capability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP) to treat contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory. In so doing, Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT), pursued the following objectives: demonstration of the recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals--to establish that radioactively contaminated scrap metal can be converted to high-grade, ferrous and non-ferrous alloys which can be reused by DOE or reintroduced into commerce; immobilize radionuclides--that CEP will concentrate the radionuclides in a dense vitreous phase, minimize secondary waste generation and stabilize and reduce waste volume; destroy hazardous organics--that CEP will convert hazardous organics to valuable industrial gases, which can be used as feed gases for chemical synthesis or as an energy source; recovery volatile heavy metals--that CEP`s off-gas treatment system will capture volatile heavy metals, such as mercury and lead; and establish that CEP is economical for processing contaminated scrap metal in the DOE inventory--that CEP is a more cost-effective and, complete treatment and recycling technology than competing technologies for processing contaminated scrap. The process and its performance are described.

  12. Particle contamination formation in magnetron sputtering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.; Sequeda, F.; Huang, C.

    1997-07-01

    Defects caused by particulate contamination are an important concern in the fabrication of thin film products. Often, magnetron sputtering processes are used for this purpose. Particle contamination generated during thin film processing can be detected using laser light scattering, a powerful diagnostic technique which provides real-time, {ital in situ} imaging of particles {gt}0.3 {mu}m on the target, substrate, or in the plasma. Using this technique, we demonstrate that the mechanisms for particle generation, transport, and trapping during magnetron sputter deposition are different from the mechanisms reported in previously studied plasma etch processes, due to the inherent spatial nonuniformity of magnetically enhanced plasmas. During magnetron sputter deposition, one source of particle contamination is linked to portions of the sputtering target surface exposed to weaker plasma density. There, film redeposition induces filament or nodule growth. Sputter removal of these features is inhibited by the dependence of sputter yield on angle of incidence. These features enhance trapping of plasma particles, which then increases filament growth. Eventually the growths effectively {open_quotes}short-circuit{close_quotes} the sheath, causing high currents to flow through these features. This, in turn, causes mechanical failure of the growth resulting in fracture and ejection of the target contaminants into the plasma and onto the substrate. Evidence of this effect has been observed in semiconductor fabrication and storage disk manufacturing. Discovery of this mechanism in both technologies suggests it may be universal to many sputter processes. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Vacuum Society.}

  13. Safety analysis report for packaging, onsite, long-length contaminated equipment transport system

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, W.A.

    1997-05-09

    This safety analysis report for packaging describes the components of the long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) transport system (TS) and provides the analyses, evaluations, and associated operational controls necessary for the safe use of the LLCE TS on the Hanford Site. The LLCE TS will provide a standardized, comprehensive approach for the disposal of approximately 98% of LLCE scheduled to be removed from the 200 Area waste tanks.

  14. Long Length Contaminated Equipment Retrieval System Receiver Trailer and Transport Trailer Operations and Maintenance Manual

    SciTech Connect

    DALE, R.N.

    2000-05-01

    A system to accommodate the removal of long-length contaminated equipment (LLCE) from Hanford underground radioactive waste storage tanks was designed, procured, and demonstrated, via a project activity during the 1990s. The system is the Long Length Contaminated Equipment Removal System (LLCERS). LLCERS will be maintained and operated by Tank Farms Engineering and Operations organizations and other varied projects having a need for the system. The responsibility for the operation and maintenance of the LLCERS Receiver Trailer (RT) and Transport Trailer (TT) resides with the RPP Characterization Project Operations organization. The purpose of this document is to provide vendor supplied operating and maintenance (O & M) information for the RT and TT in a readily retrievable form. This information is provided this way instead of in a vendor information (VI) file to maintain configuration control of the operations baseline as described in RPP-6085, ''Configuration Management Plan for Long Length Contaminated Equipment Receiver and Transport Trailers''. Additional Operations Baseline documents are identified in RPP-6085.

  15. Roadmap for Process Equipment Materials Technology

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2003-10-01

    This Technology Roadmap addresses the ever-changing material needs of the chemical and allied process industries, and the energy, economic and environmental burdens associated with corrosion and other materials performance and lifetime issues. This Technology Roadmap outlines the most critical of these R&D needs, and how they can impact the challenges facing today’s materials of construction.

  16. Process agitator operating problems and equipment failures, F-Canyon Reprocessing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Durant, W.S.; Starks, J.B.; Low, J.M.; Galloway, W.D.

    1988-09-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) maintains a compilation of operating problems and equipment failures that have occurred in the fuel reprocessing areas of the Savannah River Plant (SRP). At present, the data bank contains more than 200,000 entries ranging from minor equipment malfunctions to incidents with the potential for injury or contamination of personnel, or for economic loss. The data bank has been used extensively for a wide variety of purposes, such as failure analyses, trend analyses, and preparation of safety analyses. Typical of the data are problems associated with the F-Canyon process agitators. This report contains a compilation of the agitator operating problems and equipment failures primarily as an aid to organizations with related equipment. Publication of these data was prompted by a number of requests for this information by other Department of Energy (DOE) sites. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Feasibility study for transuranic nuclide measurement on long-length contaminated equipment using neutron detection

    SciTech Connect

    Stromswold, D.C.; Peurrung, A.J.; Arthur, R.J.

    1995-10-01

    The feasibility of measuring the transuranic (TRU) nuclide content of equipment removed from Hanford`s high-level radioactive-waste tanks has been established for components heavier than about 30 kg/m (20 lbs/ft). This conclusion has been reached based on experience with the TRU assay of waste burial boxes, planned improvements to the assay equipment design and assay methodology, and experimental investigation of neutron detector performance in high gamma-ray fields. The experiments indicate that the neutron detectors presently used with Pacific Northwest Laboratory`s box scanner perform correctly in gamma-ray exposure rates of at least 3 R/h. The design of equipment proposed for measuring TRU content incorporates multiple, BF{sub 3}-gas-filled neutron counters in a configuration that is approximately 0.5 m wide and 2 m long, with polyethylene to moderate high-energy neutrons down to thermal energy. Specially developed electrical systems are used to eliminate response to gamma-rays. Performance of the assay would require 10 to 14 hours of time during which close-range access is provided to the waste and its burial container. A standard neutron source, will be placed within the burial container (before inserting components) to allow calibration of the detector. Final calculation of the TRU contamination will utilize plausible conservative assumptions concerning the spatial, isotopic, and elemental distributions of any TRU present. For long-length equipment, the detector array collects data at various positions along the length of the equipment. Separate monitoring of the cosmic-ray-induced neutron background during the assay period will provide confidence that observed changes in counts at the equipment are not related to changing background. Background measurements using the burial container and equipment {open_quotes}skid{close_quotes} will allow compensation for neutrons that are created by cosmic-ray spallation within the burial container.

  18. Medical equipment donations in Haiti: flaws in the donation process.

    PubMed

    Dzwonczyk, Roger; Riha, Chris

    2012-04-01

    The magnitude 7.0 earthquake that struck Haiti on 12 January 2010 devastated the capital city of Port-au-Prince and the surrounding area. The area's hospitals suffered major structural damage and material losses. Project HOPE sought to rebuild the medical equipment and clinical engineering capacity of the country. A team of clinical engineers from the United States of America and Haiti conducted an inventory and assessment of medical equipment at seven public hospitals affected by the earthquake. The team found that only 28% of the equipment was working properly and in use for patient care; another 28% was working, but lay idle for technical reasons; 30% was not working, but repairable; and 14% was beyond repair. The proportion of equipment in each condition category was similar regardless of whether the equipment was present prior to the earthquake or was donated afterwards. This assessment points out the flaws that existed in the medical equipment donation process and reemphasizes the importance of the factors, as delineated by the World Health Organization more than a decade ago, that constitute a complete medical equipment donation.

  19. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy issued a Planned Research and Development Announcement (PRDA) in 1993, with the objective of identifying unique technologies which could be applied to the most hazardous waste streams at DOE sites. The combination of radioactive contamination with additional contamination by hazardous constituents such as those identified by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) pose an especially challenging problem. Traditional remediation technologies are increasingly becoming less acceptable to stakeholders and regulators because of the risks they pose to public health and safety. Desirable recycling technologies were described by the DOE as: (1) easily installed, operated, and maintained; (2) exhibiting superior environmental performance; (3) protective of worker and public health and safety; (4) readily acceptable to a wide spectrum of evaluators; and (5) economically feasible. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) was awarded a contract as a result of the PRDA initiative to demonstrate the applicability of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP), MMT`s proprietary elemental recycling technology, to DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This includes DOE`s inventory of radioactively- and RCRA-contaminated scrap metal and other waste forms expected to be generated by the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of DOE sites.

  20. Intelligent Processing Equipment Within the Environmental Protection Agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greathouse, Daniel G.; Nalesnik, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Protection of the environment and environmental remediation requires the cooperation, at all levels, of government and industry. Intelligent processing equipment, in addition to other artificial intelligence based tools, was used by the Environmental Protection Agency to provide personnel safety and improve the efficiency of those responsible for protection and remediation of the environment. These exploratory efforts demonstrate the feasibility and utility of expanding development and widespread use of these tools. A survey of current intelligent processing equipment applications in the Agency is presented and is followed by a brief discussion of possible uses in the future.

  1. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Identification of critical process and contaminants, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Hybrid processes, handling procedures, and materials were examined to identify the critical process steps in which contamination is most likely to occur, to identify the particular contaminants associated with these critical steps, and to propose method for the control of these contaminants.

  2. Contamination of salmon fillets and processing plants with spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Møretrø, Trond; Moen, Birgitte; Heir, Even; Hansen, Anlaug Å; Langsrud, Solveig

    2016-11-21

    The processing environment of salmon processing plants represents a potential major source of bacteria causing spoilage of fresh salmon. In this study, we have identified major contamination routes of important spoilage associated species within the genera Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Photobacterium in pre-rigor processing of salmon. Bacterial counts and culture-independent 16S rRNA gene analysis on salmon fillet from seven processing plants showed higher levels of Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. in industrially processed fillets compared to salmon processed under strict hygienic conditions. Higher levels of Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. were found on fillets produced early on the production day compared to later processed fillets. The levels of Photobacterium spp. were not dependent on the processing method or time of processing. In follow-up studies of two plants, bacterial isolates (n=2101) from the in-plant processing environments (sanitized equipment/machines and seawater) and from salmon collected at different sites in the production were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Pseudomonas spp. dominated in equipment/machines after sanitation with 72 and 91% of samples from the two plants being Pseudomonas-positive. The phylogenetic analyses, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, showed 48 unique sequence profiles of Pseudomonas of which two were dominant. Only six profiles were found on both machines and in fillets in both plants. Shewanella spp. were found on machines after sanitation in the slaughter department while Photobacterium spp. were not detected after sanitation in any parts of the plants. Shewanella spp. and Photobacterium spp. were found on salmon in the slaughter departments. Shewanella was frequently present in seawater tanks used for bleeding/short term storage. In conclusion, this study provides new knowledge on the processing environment as a source of contamination of salmon fillets with Pseudomonas spp. and

  3. PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT CHANGES FOR CLEANER PRODUCTION IN FEDERAL FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses process and equipment changes for cleaner production in federal facilities. During the 1990s, DoD and EPA conducted joint research and development, aimed at reducing the discharge of hazardous and toxic pollutants from military production and maintenance faci...

  4. 21 CFR 864.3010 - Tissue processing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tissue processing equipment. 864.3010 Section 864.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  5. 21 CFR 864.3010 - Tissue processing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tissue processing equipment. 864.3010 Section 864.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  6. 21 CFR 864.3010 - Tissue processing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tissue processing equipment. 864.3010 Section 864.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  7. 21 CFR 864.3010 - Tissue processing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tissue processing equipment. 864.3010 Section 864.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  8. 21 CFR 864.3010 - Tissue processing equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tissue processing equipment. 864.3010 Section 864.3010 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Pathology Instrumentation and Accessories §...

  9. Hynol Process Engineering: Process Configuration, Site Plan, and Equipment Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    wood, and natural gas is used as a co-feed stock. Compared with other methanol production processes, direct emissions of carbon dioxide can be...co-feedstock. Compared with other methanol production processes, direct emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2) can be substantially reduced by using the...gas provides for reduced CO2 emissions per unit of fossil fuel carbon processed compared with separate natural gas and biomass processes. In accordance

  10. HYNOL PROCESS ENGINEERING: PROCESS CONFIGURATION, SITE PLAN, AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the design of the hydropyrolysis reactor system of the Hynol process. (NOTE: A bench scale methanol production facility is being constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing methanol from biomass using the Hynol process. The plant is bein...

  11. Process and equipment development for hot isostatic pressing treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Ken; Wahlquist, Dennis; Malewitz, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), LLC, has developed processes and equipment for a pilot-scale hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatability study to stabilize and volume reduce radioactive calcine stored at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy signed a Record of Decision with the state of Idaho selecting HIP technology as the method to treat 5,800 yd^3 (4,400 m^3) of granular zirconia and alumina calcine produced between 1953 and 1992 as a waste byproduct of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since the 1990s, a variety of radioactive and hazardous waste forms have been remotely treated using HIP within INL hot cells. To execute the remote process at INL, waste is loaded into a stainless-steel or aluminum can, which is evacuated, sealed, and placed into a HIP furnace. The HIP simultaneously heats and pressurizes the waste, reducing its volume and increasing its durability. Two 1 gal cans of calcine waste currently stored in a shielded cask were identified as candidate materials for a treatability study involving the HIP process. Equipment and materials for cask-handling and calcine transfer into INL hot cells, as well as remotely operated equipment for waste can opening, particle sizing, material blending, and HIP can loading have been designed and successfully tested. These results demonstrate BEA’s readiness for treatment of INL calcine.

  12. IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, R.H.

    1993-03-01

    Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session.

  13. IFR fuel cycle process equipment design environment and objectives

    SciTech Connect

    Rigg, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    Argonne National laboratory (ANL) is refurbishing the hot cell facility originally constructed with the EBR-II reactor. When refurbishment is complete, the facility win demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for current generation high burnup metallic fuel elements. These are sodium bonded, stainless steel clad fuel pins of U-Zr or U-Pu-Zr composition typical of the fuel type proposed for a future Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design. To the extent possible, the process equipment is being built at full commercial scale, and the facility is being modified to incorporate current DOE facility design requirements and modem remote maintenance principles. The current regulatory and safety environment has affected the design of the fuel fabrication equipment, most of which will be described in greater detail in subsequent papers in this session.

  14. Predictive maintenance of critical equipment in industrial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashemian, Hashem M.

    This dissertation is an account of present and past research and development (R&D) efforts conducted by the author to develop and implement new technology for predictive maintenance and equipment condition monitoring in industrial processes. In particular, this dissertation presents the design of an integrated condition-monitoring system that incorporates the results of three current R&D projects with a combined funding of $2.8 million awarded to the author by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This system will improve the state of the art in equipment condition monitoring and has applications in numerous industries including chemical and petrochemical plants, aviation and aerospace, electric power production and distribution, and a variety of manufacturing processes. The work that is presented in this dissertation is unique in that it introduces a new class of condition-monitoring methods that depend predominantly on the normal output of existing process sensors. It also describes current R&D efforts to develop data acquisition systems and data analysis algorithms and software packages that use the output of these sensors to determine the condition and health of industrial processes and their equipment. For example, the output of a pressure sensor in an operating plant can be used not only to indicate the pressure, but also to verify the calibration and response time of the sensor itself and identify anomalies in the process such as blockages, voids, and leaks that can interfere with accurate measurement of process parameters or disturb the plant's operation, safety, or reliability. Today, process data are typically collected at a rate of one sample per second (1 Hz) or slower. If this sampling rate is increased to 100 samples per second or higher, much more information can be extracted from the normal output of a process sensor and then used for condition monitoring, equipment performance measurements, and predictive maintenance. A fast analog-to-digital (A

  15. Contamination Control in Hybrid Microelectronic Modules. Part 1: Identification of Critical Process and Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Various hybrid processing steps, handling procedures, and materials are examined in an attempt to identify sources of contamination and to propose methods for the control of these contaminants. It is found that package sealing, assembly, and rework are especially susceptible to contamination. Moisture and loose particles are identified as the worst contaminants. The points at which contaminants are most likely to enter the hybrid package are also identified, and both general and specific methods for their detection and control are developed. In general, the most effective controls for contaminants are: clean working areas, visual inspection at each step of the process, and effective cleaning at critical process steps. Specific methods suggested include the detection of loose particles by a precap visual inspection, by preseal and post-seal electrical testing, and by a particle impact noise test. Moisture is best controlled by sealing all packages in a clean, dry, inert atmosphere after a thorough bake-out of all parts.

  16. Biofilm in milking equipment on a dairy farm as a potential source of bulk tank milk contamination with Listeria monocytogenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The quality and safety of raw milk are important attributes for consumers of milk and dairy products. The objective of this study was to assess the presence of a L. monocytogenes biofilm in milking equipment as a potential source of bulk tank milk contamination on a dairy farm. Weekly tests to monit...

  17. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    PubMed

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process.

  18. Contamination measurements during IUS thermal vacuum tests in a large space chamber. [IUS equipment support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, C. R.; Shaw, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of contamination that originate from inside the IUS equipment support section (ESS) due to outgassing from electronics components and wiring operating at elevated temperatures (80-160 F) were investigated. Pressure was measured inside and outside the ESS. Mass deposition measurements were made with quartz crystal microbalances (QCM) facing into and away from ESS vents. The OCM's were operated at -50 C and -180 C using thermoelectrically and cryogenically cooled QCM's. Gaseous nitrogen flow inside the ESS was used to obtain the effective molecular flow vent area of the ESS, which was evaluated to be 359 sq cm (56 sq in) compared to the 978 sq cm (150 sq in) estimated by an earlier atmosphere pressure billowing test. The total outgassing rate of the ESS materials at a temperature of 60 C (140 F) decays with a time constant of 11.5 hours based on pressure measurements during the hot cycle. A time constant of 22 hours was estimated for the fraction of the outgassing which will condense on a -50 C surface. In contrast, the time constant is only 10.1 hours for the outgassing material which condenses on a surface at -180 C. A surface at -180 C collects approximately one half of the material vented from the ESS which impinges on it. Pressure measurements show very good correlation with the mass deposition measurements.

  19. Radiological Monitoring Equipment For Real-Time Quantification Of Area Contamination In Soils And Facility Decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    M. V. Carpenter; Jay A. Roach; John R Giles; Lyle G. Roybal

    2005-09-01

    The environmental restoration industry offers several sys¬tems that perform scan-type characterization of radiologically contaminated areas. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has developed and deployed a suite of field systems that rapidly scan, characterize, and analyse radiological contamination in surface soils. The base system consists of a detector, such as sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometers, a global positioning system (GPS), and an integrated user-friendly computer interface. This mobile concept was initially developed to provide precertifica¬tion analyses of soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium at the Fernald Closure Project, near Cincinnati, Ohio. INL has expanded the functionality of this basic system to create a suite of integrated field-deployable analytical systems. Using its engineering and radiation measurement expertise, aided by computer hardware and software support, INL has streamlined the data acquisition and analysis process to provide real-time information presented on wireless screens and in the form of coverage maps immediately available to field technicians. In addition, custom software offers a user-friendly interface with user-selectable alarm levels and automated data quality monitoring functions that validate the data. This system is deployed from various platforms, depending on the nature of the survey. The deployment platforms include a small all-terrain vehicle used to survey large, relatively flat areas, a hand-pushed unit for areas where manoeuvrability is important, an excavator-mounted system used to scan pits and trenches where personnel access is restricted, and backpack- mounted systems to survey rocky shoreline features and other physical settings that preclude vehicle-based deployment. Variants of the base system include sealed proportional counters for measuring actinides (i.e., plutonium-238 and americium-241) in building demolitions, soil areas, roadbeds, and process line routes at the Miamisburg

  20. Technetium-99 removal from process solutions and contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Del Cul, G.D.; Bostick, W.D.; Trotter, D.R.; Osborne, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    The predominant form of technetium under oxic conditions is the pertechnetate anion (TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}), which is highly soluble in water and readily mobile in the environment. Technetium-99 is of particular concern because of its persistence and mobility. Various equipment decontamination and uranium recovery operations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant generate a `raffinate` waste stream characterized by toxic heavy metals, high concentration of nitric acid, and low levels of radionuclides ({sup 235}U and {sup 99}Tc). Dilution and adjustment of solution pH to a value of 8.2 to 8.5 precipitates a heavy-metals-sludge and a filtrate. The removal of {sup 99}Tc from these waste streams and from contaminated groundwater can be accomplished using anionic ion-exchange resins. Batch equilibrium and packed column breakthrough and regeneration studies were performed using inorganic sorbents and organic ion-exchange resins (Dowex SRB-OH and Reillex resins). These studies were performed on actual and surrogate raw raffinates, filtrates, and surrogate groundwater samples. The experimental conditions were chosen to closely represent the actual process.

  1. US Department of Energy's Efforts in Intelligent Processing Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peavy, Richard D.; Mcfarland, Janet C.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) uses intelligent processing equipment (IPE) technologies to conduct research and development and manufacturing for energy and nuclear weapons programs. This paper highlights several significant IPE efforts underway in DOE. IPE technologies are essential to the accomplishment of DOE's missions, because of the need for small lot production, precision, and accuracy in manufacturing, hazardous waste management, and protection of the environment and the safety and health of the workforce and public. Applications of IPE technologies include environmental remediation and waste handling, advanced manufacturing, and automation of tasks carried out in hazardous areas. DOE laboratories have several key programs that integrate robotics, sensor, and control technologies. These programs embody a considerable technical capability that also may be used to enhance U.S. industrial competitiveness. DOE encourages closer cooperation with U.S. industrial partners based on mutual benefits. This paper briefly describes technology transfer mechanisms available for industrial involvement.

  2. Process capability determination of new and existing equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclelland, H. T.; Su, Penwen

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate a method of determining the process capability of new or existing equipment. The method may also be modified to apply to testing laboratories. Long term changes in the system may be determined by periodically making new test parts or submitting samples from the original set to the testing laboratory. The technique described has been developed through a series of projects in special topics manufacturing courses and graduate student projects. It will be implemented as a standard experiment in an advanced manufacturing course in a new Manufacturing Engineering program at the University of Wisconsin-Stout campus. Before starting a project of this nature, it is important to decide on the exact question to be answered. In this case, it is desired to know what variation can be reasonably expected in the next part, feature, or test result produced. Generally, this question is answered by providing the process capability or the average value of a measured characteristic of the part or process plus or minus three standard deviations. There are two general cases to be considered: the part or test is made in large quantities with little change, or the process is flexible and makes a large variety of parts. Both cases can be accommodated; however, the emphasis in this report is on short run situations.

  3. Report of clean out and flushing of UO{sub 3} Plant processing equipment: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Gonsalves, E.

    1994-12-02

    The UO{sub 3} Plant went through a clean out leading to the deactivation of the facility. This clean out consisted of three phases. Phase 1 consisted of the removal of residual process material and the deactivation of most process equipment and instrumentation. Phase 2 consisted of the fixing or removal of contamination so storm water processing would be no longer required. Phase 3 consisted of the remaining activities that had to be completed before the facility was turned over to the Surplus Facility Program. Since the activities of Phase 2 and 3 were closely related, these two phases were worked simultaneously. The first part of this document summarizes the Phase 1 clean out procedures and their results. Phase 1 was completed on February 28, 1994. The second part summarizes the Phase 2/3 clean out procedures and their results. Phase 2/3 was completed before December 31, 1994. Because tanks and equipment were flushed simultaneously or in a specific sequence, the clean out processes are discussed per workplan.

  4. Innovative technology for contamination control in plasma processing

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.

    1994-10-01

    The causes and contributing factors to wafer contamination during plasma processing are discussed in the context of future technologies for controlling particle contamination by tool and process design and by the development of wafer dry cleaning technology. The importance of these developments is linked with the history of technological innovation and with the continuing evolution of the cleanroom from a highly developed facility for reducing ambient particle levels to an integrated, synergistic approach involving facilities and tooling for impeding the formation and transport of particles while also actively removing particles from sensitive surfaces. The methods, strategy and requirements for innovation in contamination control for plasma processing is discussed from a diachronic viewpoint.

  5. Parallel Processing of a Groundwater Contaminant Code

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, Ronald Chester; Greenwade, Lance Eric

    2000-05-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy’s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is conducting a field test of experimental enhanced bioremediation of trichoroethylene (TCE) contaminated groundwater. TCE is a chlorinated organic substance that was used as a solvent in the early years of the INEEL and disposed in some cases to the aquifer. There is an effort underway to enhance the natural bioremediation of TCE by adding a non-toxic substance that serves as a feed material for the bacteria that can biologically degrade the TCE.

  6. 9. VIEW OF CLOSED CARRIER LINES FOR MOVING CONTAMINATED PROCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF CLOSED CARRIER LINES FOR MOVING CONTAMINATED PROCESS FILTERS AND TRANSPORTING SOLID AND LIQUID MATERIAL SAMPLES. (9/10/96) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Processes of contaminant accumulation in an Arctic beluga whale population

    SciTech Connect

    Hickie, B.E.; Muir, D.; Kingsley, M.

    1995-12-31

    As long-lived top predators in marine food chains, marine mammals accumulate high levels of persistent organic contaminants. While arctic marine mammal contaminant concentrations are lower than those from temperate regions, levels are sufficiently high to be a health concern to people who rely on marine mammals as food. Monitoring programs developed to address this problem and to define spatial and temporal trends often are difficult to interpret since tissue contaminant concentrations vary with species, age, sex, reproductive effort, and condition (ie blubber thickness). It can be difficult to relate contaminant concentrations in other environmental compartments to those in marine mammals since their residues reflect exposure over their entire life, often 20 to 30 years. Contaminant accumulation models for marine mammals enable us to better understand the importance of, and interaction between, factors affecting contaminant accumulation, and can provide a dynamic framework for interpreting contaminant monitoring data. The authors developed two models for the beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas): one provides a detailed view of processes at the individual level, the other examines population-based processes. The models quantify uptake, release and disposition of organic contaminants over their entire lifespan by incorporating all aspects of life-history. These models are used together to examine impact of a variety of factors on patterns and variability of PCBs found in the West Greenland beluga population (sample size: 696, 729). Factors examined include: energetics, growth, birth rate, lactation, contaminant assimilation and clearance rates, and dietary contaminant concentrations. Results are discussed in relation to the use of marine mammals for monitoring contaminant trends.

  8. Controlling Beryllium Contaminated Material And Equipment For The Building 9201-5 Legacy Material Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, T. D.; Easterling, S. D.

    2010-10-01

    This position paper addresses the management of beryllium contamination on legacy waste. The goal of the beryllium management program is to protect human health and the environment by preventing the release of beryllium through controlling surface contamination. Studies have shown by controlling beryllium surface contamination, potential airborne contamination is reduced or eliminated. Although there are areas in Building 9201-5 that are contaminated with radioactive materials and mercury, only beryllium contamination is addressed in this management plan. The overall goal of this initiative is the compliant packaging and disposal of beryllium waste from the 9201-5 Legacy Material Removal (LMR) Project to ensure that beryllium surface contamination and any potential airborne release of beryllium is controlled to levels as low as practicable in accordance with 10 CFR 850.25.

  9. 49 CFR 1242.46 - Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46). 1242.46 Section 1242.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.46 Computers and data processing equipment (account...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.46 - Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46). 1242.46 Section 1242.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.46 Computers and data processing equipment (account...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.46 - Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46). 1242.46 Section 1242.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.46 Computers and data processing equipment (account...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.46 - Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46). 1242.46 Section 1242.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.46 Computers and data processing equipment (account...

  13. 49 CFR 1242.46 - Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Computers and data processing equipment (account XX-27-46). 1242.46 Section 1242.46 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.46 Computers and data processing equipment (account...

  14. Using a temperature-controlled quartz crystal microbalance in a space equipment cleanroom to monitor molecular contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, William J.

    1994-01-01

    There is a need for continuous monitoring for molecular contamination in clean rooms where spaceflight equipment is assembled, integrated, and tested to insure that contamination budgets are met. The TQCM (temperature-controlled quartz crystal microbalance) can be used to provide both a real time warning and a cumulative measurement of molecular contamination. It has advantages over the other measurement methods such as witness mirrors, NVR (non-volatile residue) plates, and gas analyzers. A comparison of the TQCM sensitivity and ease of operations is made with the other methods. The surface acoustic wave microbalance (SAW), a newly developed instrument similar to TQCM, is considered in the comparison. An example is provided of TQCM use at Goddard Space Flight Center when the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2(WFPC-2) and the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR) were undergoing integrated testing prior to their installation in the Hubble Space Telescope on its first servicing mission. Areas for further investigation are presented.

  15. Detection of organic residues on food processing equipment surfaces by spectral imaging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Jun, Won; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kaunglin

    2010-04-01

    Organic residues on equipment surfaces in poultry processing plants can generate cross contamination and increase the risk of unsafe food for consumers. This research was aimed to investigate the potential of LED-induced fluorescence imaging technique for rapid inspection of organic residues on poultry processing equipment surfaces. High-power blue LEDs with a spectral output at 410 nm were used as the excitation source for a line-scanning hyperspectral imaging system. Common chicken residue samples including fat, blood, and feces from ceca, colon, duodenum, and small intestine were prepared on stainless steel sheets. Fluorescence emission images were acquired from 120 samples (20 for each type of residue) in the wavelength range of 500-700 nm. LED-induced fluorescence characteristics of the tested samples were determined. PCA (principal component analysis) was performed to analyze fluorescence spectral data. Two SIMCA (soft independent modeling of class analogy) models were developed to differentiate organic residues and stainless steel samples. Classification accuracies using 2-class ('stainless steel' and 'organic residue') and 4-class ('stainless steel', 'fat', 'blood', and 'feces') SIMCA models were 100% and 97.5%, respectively. An optimal single-band and a band-pair that are promising for rapid residue detection were identified by correlation analysis. The single-band approach using the selected wavelength of 666 nm could generate false negative errors for chicken blood inspection. Two-band ratio images using 503 and 666 nm (F503/F666) have great potential for detecting various chicken residues on stainless steel surfaces. This wavelength pair can be adopted for developing a LED-based hand-held fluorescence imaging device for inspecting poultry processing equipment surfaces.

  16. Recycled Fiber Properties as Affected by Contaminants and Removal Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Five materials were applied to either a kraft pulp furnish or to a kraft paper and were removed by conventional removal processes. Uncontaminated... kraft paper subjected to the same removal processes determined that the process, not the contaminant, was responsible for changes in sheet properties

  17. Processing plutonium-contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, K.; Moroney, J. III; Turney, J.

    1994-07-01

    This article describes a cleanup project to process plutonium- and americium-contaminated soil on Johnston Atoll for volume reduction. Thermo Analytical`s (TMA`s) segmented gate system (SGS) for this remedial operation has been in successful on-site operation since 1992. Topics covered include the basis for development, a description of the Johnston Atoll; the significance of results; the benefits of the technology; applicability to other radiologically contaminated sites. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-12-01

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results.

  19. Method of treating contaminated HEPA filter media in pulp process

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Jian S.; Argyle, Mark D.; Demmer, Ricky L.; Mondok, Emilio P.

    2003-07-29

    A method for reducing contamination of HEPA filters with radioactive and/or hazardous materials is described. The method includes pre-processing of the filter for removing loose particles. Next, the filter medium is removed from the housing, and the housing is decontaminated. Finally, the filter medium is processed as pulp for removing contaminated particles by physical and/or chemical methods, including gravity, flotation, and dissolution of the particles. The decontaminated filter medium is then disposed of as non-RCRA waste; the particles are collected, stabilized, and disposed of according to well known methods of handling such materials; and the liquid medium in which the pulp was processed is recycled.

  20. Feasibility Process for Remediation of the Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keum, H.; Choi, H.; Heo, H.; Lee, S.; Kang, G.

    2015-12-01

    More than 600 oil wells were destroyed in Kuwait by Iraqi in 1991. During the war, over 300 oil lakes with depth of up to 2m at more than 500 different locations which has been over 49km2. Therefore, approximately 22 million m3was crude oil contaminated. As exposure of more than 20 years under atmospheric conditions of Kuwait, the crude oil has volatile hydrocarbons and covered heavy oily sludge under the crude oil lake. One of crude oil contaminated soil which located Burgan Oilfield area was collected by Kuwait Oil Company and got by H-plus Company. This contaminated soil has about 42% crude oil and could not biodegraded itself due to the extremely high toxicity. This contaminated soil was separated by 2mm sieve for removal oil sludge ball. Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was analysis by GC FID and initial TPH concentration was average 48,783 mg/kg. Ten grams of the contaminated soil replaced in two micro reactors with 20mL of bio surfactant produce microorganism. Reactor 1 was added 0.1g powder hemoglobin and other reactor was not added hemoglobin at time 0 day. Those reactors shake 120 rpm on the shaker for 7 days and CO2 produced about 150mg/L per day. After 7 days under the slurry systems, the rest days operated by hemoglobin as primary carbon source for enhanced biodegradation. The crude oil contaminated soil was degraded from 48,783mg/kg to 20,234mg/kg by slurry process and final TPH concentration degraded 11,324mg/kg for 21days. Therefore, highly contaminated soil by crude oil will be combined bio slurry process and biodegradation process with hemoglobin as bio catalytic source. Keywords: crude-oil contaminated soil, bio slurry, biodegradation, hemoglobin ACKOWLEDGEMENTS This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) GAIA Program

  1. Development of evaluation procedures for local exhaust ventilation for United States postal service mail-processing equipment.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Bryan R; Topmiller, Jennifer L; Crouch, Keith G

    2004-07-01

    Researchers from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) have conducted several evaluations of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems for the United States Postal Service (USPS) since autumn 2001 when (a) terrorist(s) employed the mail system for acts of bioterrorism. As a part of the USPS 2002 Emergency Preparedness Plan, the development and installation of LEV onto USPS mail-processing equipment can reduce future exposures to operators from potentially hazardous contaminants, such as anthrax, which might be emitted during the processing of mail. This article describes how NIOSH field testing led to the development of recommended testing procedures for evaluations of LEV capture efficiency for mail-processing equipment, including tracer gas measurements, smoke release observations, air velocity measurements, and decay-rate testing under access hoods.

  2. Heavy metal contamination characteristic of soil in WEEE (waste electrical and electronic equipment) dismantling community: a case study of Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Damrongsiri, Seelawut; Vassanadumrongdee, Sujitra; Tanwattana, Puntita

    2016-09-01

    Sue Yai Utit is an old community located in Bangkok, Thailand which dismantles waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). The surface soil samples at the dismantling site were contaminated with copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) higher than Dutch Standards, especially around the WEEE dumps. Residual fractions of Cu, Pb, Zn, and Ni in coarse soil particles were greater than in finer soil. However, those metals bonded to Fe-Mn oxides were considerably greater in fine soil particles. The distribution of Zn in the mobile fraction and a higher concentration in finer soil particles indicated its readily leachable character. The concentration of Cu, Pb, and Ni in both fine and coarse soil particles was mostly not significantly different. The fractionation of heavy metals at this dismantling site was comparable to the background. The contamination characteristics differed from pollution by other sources, which generally demonstrated the magnification of the non-residual fraction. A distribution pathway was proposed whereby contamination began by the deposition of WEEE scrap directly onto the soil surface as a source of heavy metal. This then accumulated, corroded, and was released via natural processes, becoming redistributed among the soil material. Therefore, the concentrations of both the residual and non-residual fractions of heavy metals in WEEE-contaminated soil increased.

  3. Concept study: Use of grout vaults for disposal of long-length contaminated equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Clem, D.K.

    1994-09-21

    Study considers the potential for use of grout vaults for disposal of untreated long length equipment removed from waste tanks. Looks at ways to access vaults, material handling, regulatory aspects, and advantages and disadvantages of vault disposal.

  4. High level radioactive waste vitrification process equipment component testing

    SciTech Connect

    Siemens, D.H.; Heath, W.O.; Larson, D.E.; Craig, S.N.; Berger, D.N.; Goles, R.W.

    1985-04-01

    Remote operability and maintainability of vitrification equipment were assessed under shielded-cell conditions. The equipment tested will be applied to immobilize high-level and transuranic liquid waste slurries that resulted from plutonium production for defense weapons. Equipment tested included: a turntable for handling waste canisters under the melter; a removable discharge cone in the melter overflow section; a thermocouple jumper that extends into a shielded cell; remote instrument and electrical connectors; remote, mechanical, and heat transfer aspects of the melter glass overflow section; a reamer to clean out plugged nozzles in the melter top; a closed circuit camera to view the melter interior; and a device to retrieve samples of the glass product. A test was also conducted to evaluate liquid metals for use in a liquid metal sealing system.

  5. A Handbook for Automatic Data Processing Equipment Acquisition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Data transmission or communicatins equipment, including front-end processors, terminals, sensors, and other similar devices, designed primarily for use...needs at the lowest overall operation reliability, supplemented to owned Government corporation ) or (I cost to the Government. price and other the extent

  6. SELPhOx process for remediation of contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Ekhtera, M.R.; Mensinger, M.C.; Rehmat, A.; Deville, B.

    1996-10-01

    The SELPhOx process is being developed as a highly flexible means of remediating and destroying both high and low concentrations of light aliphatic to heavy aromatic contaminants from solid and soil matrices. The process employs two distinct technologies: extraction of organic contaminants with supercritical carbon dioxide and wet air oxidation (WAO) destruction of the extracted contaminants. A separation step links the two process stages. IGT has conducted supercritical extraction tests over wide ranges of temperature, pressure, and CO{sub 2}/contaminant ratios with soils from a wood treatment plant and two manufacturing gas plant sites. The addition of methanol as an extraction modifier was also explored. At comparable CO{sub 2}-to-contaminant ratios and extraction conditions of 48{degrees}C and 137 atm, the total PAHs removed from the three soils ranged from 76.9 to 97.9 percent with CO{sub 2} alone and from 88.4 to 98.6 percent with methanol added. Results of these tests are presented.

  7. Treating contaminated organics using the DETOX process

    SciTech Connect

    Elsberry, K.D.; Dhooge, P.M.

    1993-05-01

    Waste matrices containing organics, radionuclides, and metals pose difficult problems in waste treatment and disposal when the organic compounds and/or metals are considered to be hazardous. This paper describes the results of bench-scale studies of DETOX applied to the components of liquid mixed wastes, with the goal of establishing parameters for designing a prototype waste treatment unit. Apparent organic reaction rate orders and the dependence of apparent reaction rate on solution composition and the contact area were measured for vacuum pump oil scintillation fluids, and trichloroethylene. Reaction rate was superior in chloride-based solutions and was proportional to the contact area above about 2% w/w loading of organic. Oxidations in a 4-liter volume, mixed bench-top reactor have given destruction efficiencies of 99.9999 + % for common organics. Reaction rates achieved in the mixed bench-top reactor were one to two orders of magnitude greater than had been achieved in unmixed reactions; a thoroughly mixed reactor should be capable of oxidizing 10 to 100 + grams of organic per liter-hour. Results are also presented on the solvation efficiency of DETOX for mercury, cerium, and neodymium, and for removal/destruction of organics sorbed on vermiculite. The next stage of development will be converting the bench-top unit to continuous processing.

  8. Evaluation of Contaminant-Promoted Ignition in Scuba Equipment and Breathing Gas Delivery Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsyth, Elliott T.; Durkin, Robert; Beeson, Harold D.

    2000-01-01

    As the underwater diving industry continues to use greater concentrations of oxygen in their scuba systems, ignition of contaminants in these systems becomes a greater concern. Breathing gas makeup and distribution systems typically combine pure oxygen with various diluents to supply high-pressure cylinders for scuba applications. The hazards associated with these applications of oxygen and NITROX (oxygen and nitrogen mixture) gases require an evaluation of inherent contaminant levels and their associated promoted-ignition thresholds in these environments. In this study, several scuba component assemblies were tested after one year of use at the NASA Johnson Space Center Neutral Buoyancy Lab. The components were rapidly impacted with 50% NITROX gas to demonstrate their ignition resistance, then disassembled to evaluate their cleanliness. A follow-up study was then performed on the ignition thresholds of hydrocarbon-bascd oil films in oxygen and NITROX environments in an attempt to define the cleaning requirements for these systems. Stainless steel tubes were contaminated and verified to known levels and placed in a pneumatic impact test system where they were rapidly pressurized with the test gas. Ignitions were determined using a photodiode connected to the end of the contaminated tube. The results of the scuba component tests, cleanliness evaluation, and contaminant ignition study are discussed and compared for 50% NITROX and 100% oxygen environments.

  9. Investigations of semiconductor devices using SIMS; diffusion, contamination, process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Cheol; Won, Jeongyeon; Chung, Youngsu; Lee, Hyungik; Lee, Eunha; Kang, Donghun; Kim, Changjung; Choi, Jinhak; Kim, Jeomsik

    2008-12-01

    We have surveyed 22,155 analyses issues to know the portion of surface analysis at the total analyses activities. According to the survey result, the contribution of SIMS in the total analyses issues was about 7%. The portions of semiconductor process control, composition and contamination in the SIMS analyses issues are 25%, 29% and 16%, respectively. In this article, some examples of the semiconductor device process control, identification of contaminants, and failure analyses have been reviewed. The behavior of H, O, and Ti at the Pt/Ti/GaInZnO interfaces and their influences on the electrical property of thin film transistor are demonstrated. Also discolor issues including organic material contamination problem on Au pad are discussed in detail.

  10. Detection of Blood Culture Bacterial Contamination using Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Matheny, Michael E.; FitzHenry, Fern; Speroff, Theodore; Hathaway, Jacob; Murff, Harvey J.; Brown, Steven H.; Fielstein, Elliot M.; Dittus, Robert S.; Elkin, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Microbiology results are reported in semi-structured formats and have a high content of useful patient information. We developed and validated a hybrid regular expression and natural language processing solution for processing blood culture microbiology reports. Multi-center Veterans Affairs training and testing data sets were randomly extracted and manually reviewed to determine the culture and sensitivity as well as contamination results. The tool was iteratively developed for both outcomes using a training dataset, and then evaluated on the test dataset to determine antibiotic susceptibility data extraction and contamination detection performance. Our algorithm had a sensitivity of 84.8% and a positive predictive value of 96.0% for mapping the antibiotics and bacteria with appropriate sensitivity findings in the test data. The bacterial contamination detection algorithm had a sensitivity of 83.3% and a positive predictive value of 81.8%. PMID:20351890

  11. A complete set of the special process equipment for the defect-free production of reticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakaw, Syarhei; Iouditski, Valerian; Pushkin, Leanid; Tsitko, Alena

    2007-02-01

    The paper presents an integrated solution of a problem to develop a set of the equipment for the defect-free production of reticles and photomasks. The integrated approach to the equipment design allows to obtain certain advantages disclosed below. Accordingly, the paper highlights the following main issues: *Practical realization of these advantages in the special process equipment developed by the KBTEM-OMO enterprise of the PLANAR. *Advantages in the development of a complete set of the special process equipment; Without taking into account technical and chemical processes, this complete set includes three component parts: *Multi-beam laser pattern generator; *Die-to-Database reticle inspection system; *Laser reticle repair system.

  12. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

    SciTech Connect

    Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. This report describes the results of the performance testing of chelates and solvents for the dissolution of uranium.

  13. AIR CONTAMINANT EXPOSURE DURING THE OPERATION OF LAWN AND GARDEN EQUIPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated the Small Engine Exposure Study (SEES) to evaluate potential exposures among users of small, gasoline-powered, non-road spark-ignition (SI) lawn and garden engines. Equipment tested included riding tractors, walk-behind la...

  14. Advances in sanitizing fruit, equipment and surfaces to prevent contamination with human pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables by foodborne pathogens is an ongoing problem. While conventional sanitation methods have yielded positive results, their limitations have prompted research into novel interventions. Of particular interest are technologies which use little or...

  15. International Space Station's Integrated Equipment Assembly processed at KSC's Space Station Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Module 1 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) is moved past a Pressurized Mating Adapter in Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) toward the workstand where it will be processed for flight on STS-97, scheduled for launch in April 1999. The IEA is one of four integral units designed to generate, distribute, and store power for the International Space Station. It will carry solar arrays, power storage batteries, power control units, and a thermal control system. The 16-foot-long, 16,850-pound unit is now undergoing preflight preparations in the SSPF.

  16. International Space Station's Integrated Equipment Assembly processed at KSC's Space Station Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Module 1 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) is moved through Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) toward the workstand where it will be processed for flight on STS-97, scheduled for launch in April 1999. The IEA is one of four integral units designed to generate, distribute, and store power for the International Space Station. It will carry solar arrays, power storage batteries, power control units, and a thermal control system. The 16-foot-long, 16,850-pound unit is now undergoing preflight preparations in the SSPF.

  17. International Space Station's Integrated Equipment Assembly processed at KSC's Space Station Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Workers in Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) observe the Photovoltaic Module 1 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) as it moves past them on its way to its workstand, where it will be processed for flight on STS-97, scheduled for launch in April 1999. The IEA is one of four integral units designed to generate, distribute, and store power for the International Space Station. It will carry solar arrays, power storage batteries, power control units, and a thermal control system. The 16-foot-long, 16,850-pound unit is now undergoing preflight preparations in the SSPF.

  18. International Space Station's Integrated Equipment Assembly processed at KSC's Space Station Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Module 1 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) is moved past Node 1, seen at left, of the International Space Station (ISS) in Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF). The IEA will be processed at the SSPF for flight on STS-97, scheduled for launch in April 1999. The IEA is one of four integral units designed to generate, distribute, and store power for the ISS. It will carry solar arrays, power storage batteries, power control units, and a thermal control system. The 16-foot-long, 16,850-pound unit is now undergoing preflight preparations in the SSPF.

  19. International Space Station's Integrated Equipment Assembly processed at KSC's Space Station Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Module 1 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) is lifted from its container in Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) before it is moved into its workstand, where it will be processed for flight on STS-97, scheduled for launch in April 1999. The IEA is one of four integral units designed to generate, distribute, and store power for the International Space Station. It will carry solar arrays, power storage batteries, power control units, and a thermal control system. The 16-foot-long, 16,850-pound unit is now undergoing preflight preparations in the SSPF.

  20. International Space Station's Integrated Equipment Assembly processed at KSC's Space Station Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Photovoltaic Module 1 Integrated Equipment Assembly (IEA) is lowered into its workstand at Kennedy Space Center's Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF), where it will be processed for flight on STS-97, scheduled for launch in April 1999. The IEA is one of four integral units designed to generate, distribute, and store power for the International Space Station. It will carry solar arrays, power storage batteries, power control units, and a thermal control system. The 16-foot-long, 16,850-pound unit is now undergoing preflight preparations in the SSPF.

  1. 40 CFR 63.1324 - Batch process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Batch process vents-monitoring... Batch process vents—monitoring equipment. (a) General requirements. Each owner or operator of a batch... § 63.1322(a) or § 63.1322(b), shall install the monitoring equipment specified in paragraph (c) of...

  2. Particle contamination formation and detection in magnetron sputtering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Selwyn, G.S.; Weiss, C.A.; Sequeda, F.; Huang, C.

    1996-10-01

    Defects caused by particulate contamination are an important concern in the fabrication of thin film products. Often, magnetron sputtering processes are used for this purpose. Particle contamination can cause electrical shorting, pin holes, problems with photolithography, adhesion failure, as well as visual and cosmetic defects. Particle contamination generated during thin film processing can be detected using laser light scattering, a powerful diagnostic technique that provides real-time, {ital in-situ} imaging of particles > 0.3 {mu}m in diameter. Using this technique, the causes, sources and influences on particles in plasma and non-plasma and non-plasma processes may be independently evaluated and corrected. Several studies employing laser light scattering have demonstrated both homogeneous and heterogeneous causes of particle contamination. In this paper, we demonstrate that the mechanisms for particle generation, transport and trapping during magnetron sputter deposition are different from the mechanisms reported in previously studied plasma etch processes. During magnetron sputter deposition, one source of particle contamination is linked to portions of the sputtering target surface exposed to weaker plasma density. In this region, film redeposition is followed by filament or nodule growth and enhanced trapping which increases filament growth. Eventually the filaments effectively ``short circuit`` the sheath, causing high currents to flow through these features. This, in turn, causes heating failure of the filament fracturing and ejecting the filaments into the plasma and onto the substrate. Evidence of this effect has been observed in semiconductor (IC) fabrication and storage disk manufacturing. Discovery of this mechanism in both technologies suggests that this mechanism may be universal to many sputtering processes.

  3. Preliminary Results of Cleaning Process for Lubricant Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenmann, D.; Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.

    2006-03-06

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) is widely used for aviation and other components for surface-breaking crack detection. As with all inspection methods, adherence to the process parameters is critical to the successful detection of defects. Prior to FPI, components are cleaned using a variety of cleaning methods which are selected based on the alloy and the soil types which must be removed. It is also important that the cleaning process not adversely affect the FPI process. There are a variety of lubricants and surface coatings used in the aviation industry which must be removed prior to FPI. To assess the effectiveness of typical cleaning processes on removal of these contaminants, a study was initiated at an airline overhaul facility. Initial results of the cleaning study for lubricant contamination in nickel, titanium and aluminum alloys will be presented.

  4. Acceptance Equipment System Data Acquisition and Processing Utility

    SciTech Connect

    Fakhro, Rowan

    2015-02-01

    My internship at Sandia National Laboratories took place in the Department of Sensors and Embedded Systems, which is tasked with, among many things, the non-destructive testing of thermal batteries. The Acceptance Equipment System (AES) is a flexible rack system designed to electrically test thermal batteries individually for internal defects before they are stored in the battery stock pile. Aside from individual testing, data acquired by the AES is used for many things including trending and catching outliers within the tolerance levels of a particular battery type, allowing for the development of more refined acceptance requirements and testing procedures.

  5. An Assessment of the International Space Station's Trace Contaminant Control Subassembly Process Economics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry J. L.; Cole, H. E.; El-Lessy, H. N.

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System includes equipment speci.cally designed to actively remove trace chemical contamination from the cabin atmosphere. In the U.S. on-orbit segment, this function is provided by the trace contaminant control subassembly (TCCS) located in the atmosphere revitalization subsystem rack housed in the laboratory module, Destiny. The TCCS employs expendable adsorbent beds to accomplish its function leading to a potentially signi.cant life cycle cost over the life of the ISS. Because maintaining the TCCSs proper can be logistically intensive, its performance in .ight has been studied in detail to determine where savings may be achieved. Details of these studies and recommendations for improving the TCCS s process economics without compromising its performance or crew health and safety are presented and discussed.

  6. Process for treating waste water having low concentrations of metallic contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Looney, Brian B; Millings, Margaret R; Nichols, Ralph L; Payne, William L

    2014-12-16

    A process for treating waste water having a low level of metallic contaminants by reducing the toxicity level of metallic contaminants to an acceptable level and subsequently discharging the treated waste water into the environment without removing the treated contaminants.

  7. Assessment of multi-gate interceptors equipped with baffles in contaminated aquifers.

    PubMed

    Hudak, Paul F

    2011-07-01

    Funnel-and-gate structures with three gates, two funnels (collinear with gates), and two perpendicular flow-directing vanes (baffles) were assessed for capturing contaminated groundwater in a hypothetical unconfined aquifer. Simulated structures, anchored into an underlying aquiclude, were 35 m wide. One 5-m wide gate occupied the center, and two 3-m wide gates occupied the ends, of each structure. Both homogeneous and heterogeneous (with respect to hydraulic conductivity) aquifers were modeled, with baffles at various positions along funnels in alternative configurations. A contaminant transport model, accounting for advection and hydrodynamic dispersion, tested the capability of various structures for capturing contaminant plumes. Based upon modeling results: (1) structures with baffles performed up to 17% better (homogeneous case), but also up to 48% worse (heterogeneous case), than structures without them; (2) the most effective baffles generally occupied interior portions of funnels; and (3) small (1-m) shifts in the locations of baffles resulted in up to a 33% increase (homogeneous case) in remediation timeframe.

  8. Industrial-Scale Processes For Stabilizing Radioactively Contaminated Mercury Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Broderick, T. E.; Grondin, R.

    2003-02-24

    This paper describes two industrial-scaled processes now being used to treat two problematic mercury waste categories: elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides and radioactive solid wastes containing greater than 260-ppm mercury. The stabilization processes were developed by ADA Technologies, Inc., an environmental control and process development company in Littleton, Colorado. Perma-Fix Environmental Services has licensed the liquid elemental mercury stabilization process to treat radioactive mercury from Los Alamos National Laboratory and other DOE sites. ADA and Perma-Fix also cooperated to apply the >260-ppm mercury treatment technology to a storm sewer sediment waste collected from the Y-12 complex in Oak Ridge, TN.

  9. Biogeochemical redox processes and their impact on contaminant dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borch, Thomas; Kretzschmar, Ruben; Kappler, Andreas; Van Cappellen, Philippe; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Campbell, Kate M.

    2010-01-01

    Life and element cycling on Earth is directly related to electron transfer (or redox) reactions. An understanding of biogeochemical redox processes is crucial for predicting and protecting environmental health and can provide new opportunities for engineered remediation strategies. Energy can be released and stored by means of redox reactions via the oxidation of labile organic carbon or inorganic compounds (electron donors) by microorganisms coupled to the reduction of electron acceptors including humic substances, iron-bearing minerals, transition metals, metalloids, and actinides. Environmental redox processes play key roles in the formation and dissolution of mineral phases. Redox cycling of naturally occurring trace elements and their host minerals often controls the release or sequestration of inorganic contaminants. Redox processes control the chemical speciation, bioavailability, toxicity, and mobility of many major and trace elements including Fe, Mn, C, P, N, S, Cr, Cu, Co, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Tc, and U. Redox-active humic substances and mineral surfaces can catalyze the redox transformation and degradation of organic contaminants. In this review article, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of biogeochemical redox processes and their impact on contaminant fate and transport, including future research needs.

  10. Effect of dirty-hold time on cleaning process of pharmaceutical equipment.

    PubMed

    Patera, Jan; Stípková, Gabriela; Zámostný, Petr; Bělohlav, Zdeněk; Vltavský, Zdeněk

    2013-02-01

    The work was aimed at the evaluation of a cleanliness of pharmaceutical equipments after the end of the production and subsequent cleaning process. The influence of a dirty-hold time, a time interval between the end of the production period and the beginning of the cleaning process on its efficiency and the cleanliness of the equipment has been studied. The evaluation was performed for commercial tablet antihypertensive formulation with API losartan potassium. Sampling was carried out by a wet-swabbing method from the equipments and consequently obtained samples were analytically evaluated using HPLC. In the production of the concerned pharmaceutical, it has been found that the cleaning process is properly designed and validated. Despite the concentration of losartan in swabs from the equipment was in all cases within the limits of acceptance criteria, the effect of the dirty-hold time was proved. In the equipments with long hold-time period, the monitored substance was found in substantially higher concentrations.

  11. 9 CFR 381.305 - Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment and procedures for heat... Products § 381.305 Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems. (a) Instruments and controls... year to ensure its accuracy. Records that specify the date, standard used, test method, and the...

  12. 9 CFR 318.305 - Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equipment and procedures for heat... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS Canning and Canned Products § 318.305 Equipment and procedures for heat processing..., standard used, test method, and the person or testing authority performing the test shall be maintained...

  13. 9 CFR 318.305 - Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment and procedures for heat... PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS Canning and Canned Products § 318.305 Equipment and procedures for heat processing..., standard used, test method, and the person or testing authority performing the test shall be maintained...

  14. 9 CFR 381.305 - Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Equipment and procedures for heat... Products § 381.305 Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems. (a) Instruments and controls... year to ensure its accuracy. Records that specify the date, standard used, test method, and the...

  15. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-monitoring equipment. 63.489 Section 63.489 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 63.489 Batch front-end process vents—monitoring equipment. (a) General requirements. Each owner or... comply with the requirements in § 63.487(a)(2) or § 63.487(b)(2) shall install the monitoring...

  16. Roll compaction process modeling: transfer between equipment and impact of process parameters.

    PubMed

    Souihi, Nabil; Reynolds, Gavin; Tajarobi, Pirjo; Wikström, Håkan; Haeffler, Gunnar; Josefson, Mats; Trygg, Johan

    2015-04-30

    In this study, the roll compaction of an intermediate drug load formulation was performed using horizontally and vertically force fed roll compactors. The horizontally fed roll compactor was equipped with an instrumented roll technology allowing the direct measurement of normal stress at the roll surface, while the vertically fed roll compactor was equipped with a force gauge between the roll axes. Furthermore, characterization of ribbons, granules and tablets was also performed. Ribbon porosity was primarily found to be a function of normal stress, exhibiting a quadratic relationship thereof. A similar quadratic relationship was also observed between roll force and ribbon porosity of the vertically fed roll compactor. The predicted peak pressure (Pmax) using the Johanson model was found to be higher than the measured normal stress, however, the predicted Pmax correlated well with the ribbon relative density/porosity and the majority of downstream properties of granules and tablets, demonstrating its use as a scale-independent parameter. A latent variable model was developed for both the horizontal and vertical fed roll compactors to express ribbon porosity as a function of geometric and process parameters. The model validation, performed with new data, resulted in overall good predictions. This study successfully demonstrated the scale up/transfer between two different roll compactors and revealed that the combined use of design of experiments, latent variable models and in silico predictions result in better understanding of the critical process parameters in roll compaction.

  17. Processes affecting the remediation of chromium-contaminated sites.

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, C D; Wittbrodt, P R

    1991-01-01

    The remediation of chromium-contaminated sites requires knowledge of the processes that control the migration and transformation of chromium. Advection, dispersion, and diffusion are physical processes affecting the rate at which contaminants can migrate in the subsurface. Heterogeneity is an important factor that affects the contribution of each of these mechanisms to the migration of chromium-laden waters. Redox reactions, chemical speciation, adsorption/desorption phenomena, and precipitation/dissolution reactions control the transformation and mobility of chromium. The reduction of CrVI to CrIII can occur in the presence of ferrous iron in solution or in mineral phases, reduced sulfur compounds, or soil organic matter. At neutral to alkaline pH, the CrIII precipitates as amorphous hydroxides or forms complexes with organic matter. CrIII is oxidized by manganese dioxide, a common mineral found in many soils. Solid-phase precipitates of hexavalent chromium such as barium chromate can serve either as sources or sinks for CrVI. Adsorption of CrVI in soils increases with decreasing chromium concentration, making it more difficult to remove the chromium as the concentration decreases during pump-and-treat remediation. Knowledge of these chemical and physical processes is important in developing and selecting effective, cost-efficient remediation designs for chromium-contaminated sites. PMID:1935849

  18. Effect of processing rate on seed cotton cleaning equipment performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The processing rate per unit width of seed cotton cleaning equipment– cylinder cleaners and stick machines– recommended by manufacturers is 4.8-8.2 bales hr-1 m-1 (1.5-2.5 bales hr-1 ft-1). Survey data has indicated that many gins exceed this processing rate. Previous research with picker-harvested ...

  19. REPORT ON TWO PROCESS EQUIPMENT CHANGES FOR FEDERAL PAINTING FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) has actively participated in the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP) to develop innovative technologies and processes for the reduction of environmental pollution. Technology developments fro...

  20. THE SITE DEMONSTRATION OF CHEMFIX SOLIDIFICATION/ STABILIZATION PROCESS AT THE PORTABLE EQUIPMENT SALVAGE COMPANY SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A demonstration of the GHEMFIX solidification/stabilization process was conducted under the United States Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The demonstration was conducted in March 1989, at the Portable Equipment Sa...

  1. Development and Performance Assessment of Soil Washing Equipment for Soil Contaminated with Radionuclide

    SciTech Connect

    Gye-Nam Kim; Jei-Kwon Moon; Chong-Hun Jung

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a soil washing system and to define the most suitable experimental conditions for the individual elemental equipment in a soil washing system for decontaminating the radioactive soil from around a TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotope, General Atomic) reactor in Korea. Analysis results have shown that the main radionuclides were Cs{sup 137} and Co{sup 60}, the soil particle size ranges from 0.063 mm to 1.0 mm and the radioactive concentration was the strongest in a soil particle smaller than 0.063 mm as predicted. Meanwhile, an oxalic acid was found to be the most efficient chemical agent for washing, especially of cobalt. The scrubbing time of four hours was an optimum time to obtain a removal efficiency of more than 75% for {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. A mixing ratio of the soil weight to the volume of the oxalic acid solution, 1:10, was observed to be the best for a washing and it was estimated to be reasonable for 2 cycles of a scrubbing with 1.0 M of oxalic acid to avoid a generation of an excessive waste-solution. (authors)

  2. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2A: Experiment requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. G.; Anderson, W. T., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of the space processing applications payload equipment was conducted. The primary objective was to perform a review and an update of the space processing activity research equipment requirements and specifications that were derived in the first study. The analysis is based on the six major experimental classes of: (1) biological applications, (2) chemical processes in fluids, (3) crystal growth, (4) glass technology, (5) metallurgical processes, and (6) physical processes in fluids. Tables of data are prepared to show the functional requirements for the areas of investigation.

  3. Reengineering the biomedical-equipment procurement process through an integrated management information system.

    PubMed

    Larios, Y G; Matsopoulos, G K; Askounis, D T; Nikita, K S

    2000-01-01

    The design of each new hospital site is typically preceded by decisions on the most appropriate level of biomedical equipment which significantly influences the layout of the hospital departments which are under construction. The most appropriate biomedical equipment should ideally be decided upon considering a series of demographic and social parameters of the hospital and international regulations and standards. This information should ultimately be distilled to proper technical specifications. This paper proposes a streamlined management process related to the procurement of biomedical equipment for new hospital sites or for those under expansion. The new management process aims to increase the efficiency of the experts involved in the definition of the most appropriate level of equipment and its technical specifications. It also addresses all aspects of the biomedical equipment-selection cycle, including the evaluation of the bids submitted by the equipment suppliers. The proposed process is assisted by a management information system, which integrates all related data-handling operations. It provides extensive decision-support facilities to the expert and a platform for the support of knowledge re-use in the field of biomedical-equipment selection.

  4. Efficient and compact mobile equipment based on the new RADEON-NWM technology to process liquid radioactive wastes resulted from the accidents of the nuclear installations

    SciTech Connect

    Martoyan, Gagik; Nalbandyan, Garik; Gagiyan, Lavrenti; Karamyan, Gagik; Brutyan, Gagik

    2013-07-01

    During the operation of nuclear reactors important volume of liquid and solid radioactive wastes are generated, which, in normal conditions, becomes processed by stationary equipment by different methods to minimize their volume and then sent to specially constructed storages. The cases of accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima showed that the localization of rejected big quantity of radioactive wastes is a prior problem for their further processing by stationary equipment. In this regard it is very important the processing of radioactive wastes on the contaminated areas to localize them by mobile equipment based on the efficient technologies. RADEONNWM new technology allows resolving this problem. This technology is compact, completely automated, which makes possible to assemble it on a standard 40-ft by 7-ft trailer driven by heavy-duty truck. The new technology is fully elaborated, the necessary tests are conducted. (authors)

  5. Development of high temperature containerless processing equipment and the design and evaluation of associated systems required for microgravity materials processing and property measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rey, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The development of high temperature containerless processing equipment and the design and evaluation of associated systems required for microgravity materials processing and property measurements are discussed. Efforts were directed towards the following task areas: design and development of a High Temperature Acoustic Levitator (HAL) for containerless processing and property measurements at high temperatures; testing of the HAL module to establish this technology for use as a positioning device for microgravity uses; construction and evaluation of a brassboard hot wall Acoustic Levitation Furnace; construction and evaluation of a noncontact temperature measurement (NCTM) system based on AGEMA thermal imaging camera; construction of a prototype Division of Amplitude Polarimetric Pyrometer for NCTM of levitated specimens; evaluation of and recommendations for techniques to control contamination in containerless materials processing chambers; and evaluation of techniques for heating specimens to high temperatures for containerless materials experimentation.

  6. 9 CFR 318.305 - Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the retort during the process cycle. (5) Water valves. All retort water lines that are intended to be closed during a process cycle shall be equipped with a globe valve or other equivalent-type valve or piping arrangement that will prevent leakage of water into the retort during the process cycle....

  7. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    SciTech Connect

    Poa, D.S.; Pierce, R.D.; Mulcahey, T.P.; Johnson, G.K.

    1991-12-31

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl{sub 2}-CaF{sub 2} with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  8. Electrowinning process with electrode compartment to avoid contamination of electrolyte

    DOEpatents

    Poa, Davis S.; Pierce, R. Dean; Mulcahey, Thomas P.; Johnson, Gerald K.

    1993-01-01

    An electrolytic process and apparatus for reducing calcium oxide in a molten electrolyte of CaCl.sub.2 -CaF.sub.2 with a graphite anode in which particles or other contamination from the anode is restricted by the use of a porous barrier in the form of a basket surrounding the anode which may be removed from the electrolyte to burn the graphite particles, and wherein the calcium oxide feed is introduced to the anode compartment to increase the oxygen ion concentration at the anode.

  9. Process for minimizing solids contamination of liquids from coal pyrolysis

    DOEpatents

    Wickstrom, Gary H.; Knell, Everett W.; Shaw, Benjamin W.; Wang, Yue G.

    1981-04-21

    In a continuous process for recovery of liquid hydrocarbons from a solid carbonaceous material by pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material in the presence of a particulate source of heat, particulate contamination of the liquid hydrocarbons is minimized. This is accomplished by removing fines from the solid carbonaceous material feed stream before pyrolysis, removing fines from the particulate source of heat before combining it with the carbonaceous material to effect pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material, and providing a coarse fraction of reduced fines content of the carbon containing solid residue resulting from the pyrolysis of the carbonaceous material before oxidizing carbon in the carbon containing solid residue to form the particulate source of heat.

  10. Process and Equipment for Nitrogen Oxide Waste Conversion to Fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueck, Dale E. (Inventor); Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention describes a process for converting vapor streams from sources containing at least one nitrogen-containing oxidizing agent therein to a liquid fertilizer composition comprising the steps of: (1) directing a vapor stream containing at least nitrogen-containing oxidizing agent to a first contact zone; (2) contacting said vapor stream with water to form nitrogen oxide(s) from said at least one nitrogen- containing oxidizing agent; (3) directing said acid(s) as a second stream to a second contact zone; (4) exposing said second stream to hydrogen peroxide which is present within said second contact zone in a relative amount of at least 0.1% by weight of said second stream within said second contact zone to convert at least some of any nitrogen oxide species or ions other than in the nitrite form present within said second stream to nitrate ion; (5) sampling said stream within said second contact zone to determine the relative amount of hydrogen peroxide within said second contact zone; (6) adding hydrogen peroxide to said second contact zone when a level on hydrogen peroxide less than 0.1% by weight in said second stream is determined by said sampling; (7) adding a solution comprising potassium hydroxide to said second stream to maintain a pH between 6.0 and 11.0 within said second stream within said second contact zone to form a solution of potassium nitrate; and (8) removing sais solution of potassium nitrate from said second contact zone.

  11. Selection of a Non-ODC Solvent for Rubber Processing Equipment Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. E.; Thornton, T. N.; Semmel, L.; Selvidge, S. A.; Cash, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    NASA/MSFC has recently acquired new equipment for the manufacture and processing of rubber and rubber containing items that are used in the RSRM (Reusable Solid Rocket Motor) system. Work with a previous generation of rubber equipment at MSFC (Marshall Space Flight Center) in the 1970's had involved the use of ODC's such as 1,1,1-Trichloroethane or VOC's such as Toluene as the solvents of choice in cleaning the equipment. Neither of these options is practical today. This paper addresses the selection and screening of candidate cleaning solvents that are not only effective, but also meet the new environmental standards.

  12. Selection of a Non-ODC Solvent for Rubber Processing Equipment Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, R. E.; Thornton, T. N.; Semmel, L.; Selvidge, S. A.

    2003-01-01

    NASA/MSFC has recently acquired new equipment for the manufacture and processing of rubber and rubber containing items that are used in the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) system. Work with a previous generation of rubber equipment at MSFC in the 1970's had involved the use of Oxygen Deficient Center (ODC's) such as 1,1,1-Trichloroethane or VOC's such as Toluene as the solvents of choice in cleaning the equipment. Neither of these options is practical today. This paper addresses the selection and screening of candidate cleaning solvents that are not only effective, but also meet the new environmental standards.

  13. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

    PubMed

    Stenvall, Erik; Tostar, Sandra; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R StJ; Möller, Kenneth

    2013-04-01

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive.

  14. An analysis of the composition and metal contamination of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE)

    SciTech Connect

    Stenvall, Erik; Tostar, Sandra; Boldizar, Antal; Foreman, Mark R.StJ.; Möller, Kenneth

    2013-04-15

    The compositions of three WEEE plastic batches of different origin were investigated using infrared spectroscopy, and the metal content was determined with inductively coupled plasma. The composition analysis of the plastics was based mainly on 14 samples collected from a real waste stream, and showed that the major constituents were high impact polystyrene (42 wt%), acrylonitrile–butadiene–styrene copolymer (38 wt%) and polypropylene (10 wt%). Their respective standard deviations were 21.4%, 16.5% and 60.7%, indicating a considerable variation even within a single batch. The level of metal particle contamination was found to be low in all samples, whereas wood contamination and rubber contamination were found to be about 1 wt% each in most samples. In the metal content analysis, iron was detected at levels up to 700 ppm in the recyclable waste plastics fraction, which is of concern due to its potential to catalyse redox reactions during melt processing and thus accelerate the degradation of plastics during recycling. Toxic metals were found only at very low concentrations, with the exception of lead and cadmium which could be detected at 200 ppm and 70 ppm levels, respectively, but these values are below the current threshold limits of 1000 ppm and 100 ppm set by the Restriction of Hazardous Substances directive.

  15. Plasma-based determination of inorganic contaminants in waste of electric and electronic equipment after microwave-induced combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Paola A.; Diehl, Lisarb O.; Oliveira, Jussiane S. S.; Muller, Edson I.; Mesko, Marcia F.; Flores, Erico M. M.

    2015-03-01

    A systematic study was performed for the determination of inorganic contaminants in polymeric waste from electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) for achieving an efficient digestion to minimize interferences in determination using plasma-based techniques. The determination of As, Br, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and also by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) was carried out after digestion using microwave-induced combustion (MIC). Arsenic and Hg were determined by flow-injection chemical vapor generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICP-MS). Dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) with ammonia was also used for Cr determination. The suitability of MIC for digestion of sample masses up to 400 mg was demonstrated using microcrystalline cellulose as aid for combustion of polymers from waste of EEEs that usually contain flame retardants that impair the combustion. The composition and concentration of acid solutions (HNO3 or HNO3 plus HCl) were evaluated for metals and metalloids and NH4OH solutions were investigated for Br absorption. Accuracy was evaluated by comparison of results with those obtained using high pressure microwave-assisted wet digestion (HP-MAWD) and also by the analysis of certified reference material (CRM) of polymer (EC680k-low-density polyethylene). Bromine determination was only feasible using digestion by MIC once losses were observed when HP-MAWD was used. Lower limits of detection were obtained for all analytes using MIC (from 0.005 μg g- 1 for Co by ICP-MS up to 3.120 μg g-1 for Sb by ICP OES) in comparison to HP-MAWD due to the higher sample mass that can be digested (400 mg) and the use of diluted absorbing solutions. The combination of HNO3 and HCl for digestion showed to be crucial for quantitative recovery of some elements, as Cr and Sb. In addition, suitable agreement of Cr to

  16. Contamination Control Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    EBY, J.L.

    2000-05-16

    Welcome to a workshop on contamination Control techniques. This work shop is designed for about two hours. Attendee participation is encouraged during the workshop. We will address different topics within contamination control techniques; present processes, products and equipment used here at Hanford and then open the floor to you, the attendees for your input on the topics.

  17. EQUIPMENT LAYOUT OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP601) LCELL PLAN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EQUIPMENT LAYOUT OF MAIN PROCESSING BUILDING (CPP-601) L-CELL PLAN AND SECTION SHOWS COMPLEXITY OF CELLS. INL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0601-00-098-105687. ALTERNATE ID NUMBER 4289-20-301. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, Fuel Reprocessing Complex, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  18. Characterization of microbial growth on processing equipment by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microbial activity that leads to the formation of biofilms on process equipment can accelerate corrosion, reduce heat transfer rates, and generally decrease process efficiencies. Additional concerns arise in the food and pharma industries where product quality and safety are a high priority. Followi...

  19. Validation of Contamination Control in Rapid Transfer Port Chambers for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben

    2016-01-01

    There is worldwide concern with regard to the adverse effects of drug usage. However, contaminants can gain entry into a drug manufacturing process stream from several sources such as personnel, poor facility design, incoming ventilation air, machinery and other equipment for production, etc. In this validation study, we aimed to determine the impact and evaluate the contamination control in the preparation areas of the rapid transfer port (RTP) chamber during the pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. The RTP chamber is normally tested for airflow velocity, particle counts, pressure decay of leakage, and sterility. The air flow balance of the RTP chamber is affected by the airflow quantity and the height above the platform. It is relatively easy to evaluate the RTP chamber′s leakage by the pressure decay, where the system is charged with the air, closed, and the decay of pressure is measured by the time period. We conducted the determination of a vaporized H2O2 of a sufficient concentration to complete decontamination. The performance of the RTP chamber will improve safety and can be completely tested at an ISO Class 5 environment. PMID:27845748

  20. In situ remediation of hydrocarbon contamination using an injection-extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, A.; Tremblay, C.; Boulanger, C.

    1995-12-31

    Ecosite Inc. has developed a soil treatment technology to be applied in situ using an injection-extraction system (IES). This new restoration process uses custom-designed equipment for recovering free-phase hydrocarbons and for injection/recovery of different treatment solutions through cyclic manipulation of the water table level. Process development applied the basic principles of soil washing with improved distribution of the washing solution and improved hydraulic control using air sparging and vacuum capability. In this case study, free-phase recovery and soil washing have been used successfully to remediate the site. During the fall and winter of 1993--94, in situ restoration of soil contaminated with cutting oil below a machine shop was begun. The contamination extended from 1.83 to 4.27 m underneath the concrete slab. This represents a volume of 1,800 m{sup 3} of oil-laden soil with concentrations reaching 200,000 mg/kg. Moreover, free-floating phase hydrocarbons up to 1 m thick were observed. To clean the site, 400 injection/recovery points were arranged into three networks. A data collection system was used to monitor the water table level. A total of 160,000 kg of oil was extracted from the subsoil in less than 110 days of operation.

  1. Validation of Contamination Control in Rapid Transfer Port Chambers for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Processes.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben

    2016-11-12

    There is worldwide concern with regard to the adverse effects of drug usage. However, contaminants can gain entry into a drug manufacturing process stream from several sources such as personnel, poor facility design, incoming ventilation air, machinery and other equipment for production, etc. In this validation study, we aimed to determine the impact and evaluate the contamination control in the preparation areas of the rapid transfer port (RTP) chamber during the pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. The RTP chamber is normally tested for airflow velocity, particle counts, pressure decay of leakage, and sterility. The air flow balance of the RTP chamber is affected by the airflow quantity and the height above the platform. It is relatively easy to evaluate the RTP chamber's leakage by the pressure decay, where the system is charged with the air, closed, and the decay of pressure is measured by the time period. We conducted the determination of a vaporized H₂O₂ of a sufficient concentration to complete decontamination. The performance of the RTP chamber will improve safety and can be completely tested at an ISO Class 5 environment.

  2. An Analysis of the Support Equipment Acquisition Process and Methods Designed to Reduce Acquisition Leadtime

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    For !4TIs GRA& I DTIC TAB 1-j. O urn~nc Qd D1 ."JuJt I r:. % +I 1Avajll 1c/or. Distv , Li AFIT/GLM/LSY/91S-68 AN ANALYSIS OF THE SUPPORT EQUIPMENT...a specific function or purpose (21:10). Contractor Furnished Equipment ( CFE ). Items acquired or manufactured directly by the contractor for use in the...process, or output: 1) inputs are those items or resources used by the system which allow iL o func 4 ion ; 2) processes or transforms inputs into outputs

  3. Intelligent Processing Equipment Developments Within the Navy's Manufacturing Technology Centers of Excellence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanzetta, Philip

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Navy has had an active Manufacturing Technology (MANTECH) Program aimed at developing advanced production processes and equipment since the late-1960's. During the past decade, however, the resources of the MANTECH program were concentrated in Centers of Excellence. Today, the Navy sponsors four manufacturing technology Centers of Excellence: the Automated Manufacturing Research Facility (AMRF); the Electronics Manufacturing Productivity Facility (EMPF); the National Center for Excellence in Metalworking Technology (NCEMT); and the Center of Excellence for Composites Manufacturing Technology (CECMT). This paper briefly describes each of the centers and summarizes typical Intelligent Equipment Processing (IEP) projects that were undertaken.

  4. Impact of food processing and detoxification treatments on mycotoxin contamination.

    PubMed

    Karlovsky, Petr; Suman, Michele; Berthiller, Franz; De Meester, Johan; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Perrin, Irène; Oswald, Isabelle P; Speijers, Gerrit; Chiodini, Alessandro; Recker, Tobias; Dussort, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites commonly occurring in food, which pose a health risk to the consumer. Maximum levels for major mycotoxins allowed in food have been established worldwide. Good agricultural practices, plant disease management, and adequate storage conditions limit mycotoxin levels in the food chain yet do not eliminate mycotoxins completely. Food processing can further reduce mycotoxin levels by physical removal and decontamination by chemical or enzymatic transformation of mycotoxins into less toxic products. Physical removal of mycotoxins is very efficient: manual sorting of grains, nuts, and fruits by farmers as well as automatic sorting by the industry significantly lowers the mean mycotoxin content. Further processing such as milling, steeping, and extrusion can also reduce mycotoxin content. Mycotoxins can be detoxified chemically by reacting with food components and technical aids; these reactions are facilitated by high temperature and alkaline or acidic conditions. Detoxification of mycotoxins can also be achieved enzymatically. Some enzymes able to transform mycotoxins naturally occur in food commodities or are produced during fermentation but more efficient detoxification can be achieved by deliberate introduction of purified enzymes. We recommend integrating evaluation of processing technologies for their impact on mycotoxins into risk management. Processing steps proven to mitigate mycotoxin contamination should be used whenever necessary. Development of detoxification technologies for high-risk commodities should be a priority for research. While physical techniques currently offer the most efficient post-harvest reduction of mycotoxin content in food, biotechnology possesses the largest potential for future developments.

  5. Contaminated Metal Components in Dismantling by Hot Cutting Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cesari, Franco G.; Conforti, Gianmario; Rogante, Massimo; Giostri, Angelo

    2006-07-01

    During the preparatory dismantling activities of Caorso's Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), an experimental campaign using plasma and oxyacetylene metal cutting processes has been performed and applied to plates and tubes exposed to the coolant steam of the reactor. The plant (Boiling Water Reactor, 870 MWe) was designed and built in the 70's, and it was fully operating by 1981 to 1986 being shut down after 1987 Italy's poll that abrogated nuclear power based on U235 fission. The campaign concerns no activated materials, even if the analyses have been performed of by use contaminated components under the free release level, not yet taking into account radioactivity. In this paper, the parameters related to inhalable aerosol, solid and volatile residuals production have been, studied during hot processes which applies the same characteristics of the cutting in field for the dismantling programs of Caorso NPP. The technical parameters such as cutting time and cutting rate vs. pipe diameter/thickness/schedule or plate thickness for ferritic alloys and the emissions composition coming from the sectioning are also reported. The results underline the sort of trouble that can emerge in the cutting processes, in particular focusing on the effects comparison between the two cutting processes and the chemical composition of powders captured by filtering the gaseous emission. Some preliminary considerations on methodology to be used during the dismantling have been presented. (authors)

  6. An improved SOIL*EX{trademark} process for the removal of hazardous and radioactive contaminants from soils, sludges and other materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, R.R.; Bonnema, B.E.; Navratil, J.D.; Falconer, K.L.; Van Vliet, J.A.; Diel, B.N.

    1995-12-31

    Rust`s patented SOIL*EX process is designed to remove hazardous and radioactive contaminants from soils, sludges and a matrix of other materials while destroying volatile organic compounds often associated with contaminated soil and debris. The process is comprised of three major process operations. The first operation involves the dissolution of contaminants that are chemically or mechanically bonded to the solid phase. The second process operation involves separation of the solid phase from the dissolution solution (mother liquor), which contains the dissolved contaminants. The final operation concentrates and removes the contaminants from the mother liquor. A pilot-scale SOIL*EX system was constructed at Rust`s Clemson Technical Center for a Proof-of-Process demonstration. The demonstration program included the design, fabrication, and operation of pilot scale and demonstration equipment and systems. The pilot plant, an accurate scaled-down version of a proposed full-scale treatment system, was operated for five months to demonstrate the efficiency of the overall process. The pilot plant test program focused on demonstrating that the SOIL*EX process would remove and concentrate the contaminants and destroy volatile organic compounds. The pilot plant processed nearly 20 tons of soils and sludges, and test results indicated that all contaminants of concern were removed. Additionally, Rust completed numerous bench scale tests to optimize the chemistry. This paper discusses the pilot plant test criteria and results along with the salient design features of the SOIL*EX system and planned improvements.

  7. Site characterization for DNAPL contamination: An evolutionary process

    SciTech Connect

    Nussbaum, R.A. . Hazardous Waste Program)

    1993-03-01

    Kerr-McGee Chemical Corporation and its predecessor operated a pressure-type creosote wood preserving facility in Kansas City, Missouri, from 1907--1983. The facility property is approximately 104 acres in size and is located in the flood plain of the Blue River. Investigation of subsurface contamination of the blue River alluvium related to releases from waste management units (e.g., former surface impoundment used for wastewater treatment, wood treating process/kickback area) at the site has been evolutionary process driven by the regulatory requirements of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Site investigation techniques have ranged from initial installation of rudimentary boreholes/monitoring wells to assess gross lithology/groundwater quality to recent use of an extensive Cone Penetrometer Survey (CPS) to refine interactions. Although the site-wide characterization has not yet been completed, knowledge gained through the evolutionary investigation process has been used successfully to guide decisions concerning interim remedial measures (e.g., placement of wells for recovery of DNAPL) and should allow for expedient, focused development of additional site investigation and long-term remedial action work plans.

  8. Development of an Improved Process for Installation Projects of High Technology Manufacturing Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Quintana, Sarah V.

    2014-04-30

    High technology manufacturing equipment is utilized at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to support nuclear missions. This is undertaken from concept initiation where equipment is designed and then taken through several review phases, working closely with system engineers (SEs) responsible for each of the affected systems or involved disciplines (from gasses to HVAC to structural, etc.). After the design is finalized it moves to procurement and custom fabrication of the equipment and equipment installation, including all of the paperwork involved. Not only are the engineering and manufacturing aspects important, but also the scheduling, financial forecasting, and planning portions that take place initially and are sometimes modified as the project progresses should requirements, changes or additions become necessary. The process required to complete a project of this type, including equipment installation, is unique and involves numerous steps to complete. These processes can be improved and recent work on the Direct Current Arc (DC Arc) Glovebox Design, Fabrication and Installation Project provides an opportunity to identify some important lessons learned (LL) that can be implemented in the future for continued project improvement and success.

  9. Bioremediation of trichloroethylene contaminated groundwater using anaerobic process.

    PubMed

    Chomsurin, Cheema; Kajorntraidej, Juthathip; Luangmuang, Kongrit

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminated soil and groundwater was studied in laboratory setups. In this process fermentation of polymeric organic materials (POMS) produced volatile fatty acids (VFAs) that were electron donors in reductive dechlorination of TCE. Shredded peanut shell was selected as low cost POM and the experiments were set up in 500 ml Erlenmeyer flasks. In the setups, approximately 25 mg of leachate contaminated soil was used as the main source of microorganisms and about 5 g of shredded peanut shell (0.5-2.36 mm) was added to produce VFAs for dechlorination of TCE. In the first set of experiments, fermentation of soil and shredded peanut shell was studied and it was found that VFAs were produced continuously with increasing concentration (5.63 mM as CH3COOH from the first day to 17.17 in the 10th day of the experiment). During the fermentation, concentration of ammonia-nitrogen was 22-50 mg/L, the ratio of VFA to NH3 was 15.29-23.44 and pH was 5.24-6.00. These results show that the system was appropriate for microorganism activities. In the second set of experiments, TCE (approximately 48 mg/L) was added to the fermentation system and remediation of TCE by reductive dechlorination was studied. It was found that 0.04(+/-0.01) mg TCE adsorbed to a gram of soil and peanut shells at the beginning of the experiment and based on mass balance of the system, TCE concentration in water was linearly reduced at the rate of 0.0098 mg/hr.

  10. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment. 63.489 Section 63.489 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... installed in the gas stream immediately before and after the catalyst bed. (2) Where a flare is used,...

  11. 48 CFR 245.608-72 - Screening excess automatic data processing equipment (ADPE).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Screening excess automatic data processing equipment (ADPE). 245.608-72 Section 245.608-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Reporting, Redistribution, and Disposal...

  12. Two Computer Programs for Equipment Cost Estimation and Economic Evaluation of Chemical Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuri, Carlos J.; Corripio, Armando B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes two computer programs for use in process design courses: an easy-to-use equipment cost estimation program based on latest cost correlations available and an economic evaluation program which calculates two profitability indices. Comparisons between programed and hand-calculated results are included. (JM)

  13. PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA605, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PROCESS WATER BUILDING, TRA-605, INTERIOR. FIRST FLOOR. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT IN LEFT HALF OF VIEW. CAMERA IS IN NORTHWEST CORNER FACING SOUTHEAST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-27-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 2/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. INNOVATIVE PROCESSES FOR RECLAMATION OF CONTAMINATED SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research to better assess the capabilities and limitations of fixed-film bioreactors for removing selected organic contaminants from ground water or from contaminated vapor streams produced by air stripping of polluted ground water and by soil venting operations is described. ...

  15. Characterization of Contaminants from a Sanitized Milk Processing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Cleto, Sara; Matos, Sónia; Kluskens, Leon; Vieira, Maria João

    2012-01-01

    Milk processing lines offer a wide variety of microenvironments where a diversity of microorganisms can proliferate. We sampled crevices and junctions where, due to deficient reach by typical sanitizing procedures, bacteria can survive and establish biofilms. The sampling sites were the holding cell, cold storage tank, pasteurizer and storage tank - transfer pump junction. The culturable bacteria that were isolated after the sanitation procedure were predominantly Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp, Staphylococcus sciuri and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We assayed several phenotypic characteristics such as the ability to secrete enzymes and siderophores, as well as the capacity of the strains to form biofilms that might contribute to their survival in a mixed species environment. The Pseudomonas spp. isolates were found to either produce proteases or lecithinases at high levels. Interestingly, protease production showed an inverse correlation with siderophore production. Furthermore, all of the Serratia spp. isolates were strong biofilm formers and spoilage enzymes producers. The organisms identified were not mere contaminants, but also producers of proteins with the potential to lower the quality and shelf-life of milk. In addition, we found that a considerable number of the Serratia and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the pasteurizer were capable of secreting compounds with antimicrobial properties. PMID:22761957

  16. Classification of bacterial contamination using image processing and distributed computing.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W M; Bayraktar, B; Bhunia, A; Hirleman, E D; Robinson, J P; Rajwa, B

    2013-01-01

    Disease outbreaks due to contaminated food are a major concern not only for the food-processing industry but also for the public at large. Techniques for automated detection and classification of microorganisms can be a great help in preventing outbreaks and maintaining the safety of the nations food supply. Identification and classification of foodborne pathogens using colony scatter patterns is a promising new label-free technique that utilizes image-analysis and machine-learning tools. However, the feature-extraction tools employed for this approach are computationally complex, and choosing the right combination of scatter-related features requires extensive testing with different feature combinations. In the presented work we used computer clusters to speed up the feature-extraction process, which enables us to analyze the contribution of different scatter-based features to the overall classification accuracy. A set of 1000 scatter patterns representing ten different bacterial strains was used. Zernike and Chebyshev moments as well as Haralick texture features were computed from the available light-scatter patterns. The most promising features were first selected using Fishers discriminant analysis, and subsequently a support-vector-machine (SVM) classifier with a linear kernel was used. With extensive testing we were able to identify a small subset of features that produced the desired results in terms of classification accuracy and execution speed. The use of distributed computing for scatter-pattern analysis, feature extraction, and selection provides a feasible mechanism for large-scale deployment of a light scatter-based approach to bacterial classification.

  17. Effects of chemical protective equipment on team process performance in small unit rescue operations.

    PubMed

    Grugle, Nancy L; Kleiner, Brian M

    2007-09-01

    In the event of a nuclear, biological, or chemical terrorist attack against civilians, both military and civilian emergency response teams must be able to respond and operate efficiently while wearing protective equipment. Chemical protective equipment protects the user by providing a barrier between the individual and hazardous environment. Unfortunately, the same equipment that is designed to support the user can potentially cause heat stress, reduced task efficiency, and reduced range-of-motion. Targeted Acceptable Responses to Generated Events of Tasks (TARGETS), an event-based team performance measurement methodology was used to investigate the effects of Mission Oriented Protective Posture (MOPP) on the behavioral processes underlying team performance during simulated rescue tasks. In addition, this study determined which team processes were related to team performance outcomes. Results of six primary analyses indicated that team process performance was not degraded by MOPP 4 on any rescue task and that the team processes critical for successful task performance are task-dependent. This article discusses the implications of these results with respect to the study design and the limitations of using an event-based team performance measurement methodology.

  18. Developing a Logistics Data Process for Support Equipment for NASA Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakrabarti, Suman

    2010-01-01

    The United States NASA Space Shuttle has long been considered an extremely capable yet relatively expensive rocket. A great part of the roughly US $500 million per launch expense was the support footprint: refurbishment and maintenance of the space shuttle system, together with the long list of resources required to support it, including personnel, tools, facilities, transport and support equipment. NASA determined to make its next rocket system with a smaller logistics footprint, and thereby more cost-effective and quicker turnaround. The logical solution was to adopt a standard Logistics Support Analysis (LSA) process based on GEIA-STD-0007 http://www.logisticsengineers.org/may09pres/GEIASTD0007DEXShortIntro.pdf which is the successor of MIL-STD-1388-2B widely used by U.S., NATO, and other world military services and industries. This approach is unprecedented at NASA: it is the first time a major program of programs, Project Constellation, is factoring logistics and supportability into design at many levels. This paper will focus on one of those levels NASA ground support equipment for the next generation of NASA rockets and on building a Logistics Support Analysis Record (LSAR) for developing and documenting a support solution and inventory of resources for. This LSAR is actually a standards-based database, containing analyses of the time and tools, personnel, facilities and support equipment required to assemble and integrate the stages and umbilicals of a rocket. This paper will cover building this database from scratch: including creating and importing a hierarchical bill of materials (BOM) from legacy data; identifying line-replaceable units (LRUs) of a given piece of equipment; analyzing reliability and maintainability of said LRUs; and therefore making an assessment back to design whether the support solution for a piece of equipment is too much work, i.e., too resource-intensive. If one must replace or inspect an LRU too much, perhaps a modification of

  19. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... and Processing Plants § 60.254 Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. (a) On and after the date on which...

  20. Advances in Plasma Process Equipment Development using Plasma and Electromagnetics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Ankur

    2013-10-01

    Plasma processing is widely used in the semiconductor industry for thin film etching and deposition, modification of near-surface material, and cleaning. In particular, the challenges for plasma etching have increased as the critical feature dimensions for advanced semiconductor devices have decreased to 20 nm and below. Critical scaling limitations are increasingly driving the transition to 3D solutions such as multi-gate MOSFETs and 3D NAND structures. These structures create significant challenges for dielectric and conductor etching, especially given the high aspect ratio (HAR) of the features. Plasma etching equipment must therefore be capable of exacting profile control across the entire wafer for feature aspect ratios up to 80:1, high throughput, and exceptionally high selectivity. The multiple challenges for advanced 3D structures are addressed by Applied Material's plasma etching chambers by providing highly sophisticated control of ion energy, wafer temperature and plasma chemistry. Given the costs associated with such complex designs and reduced development time-scales, much of these design innovations have been enabled by utilizing advanced computational plasma modeling tools. We have expended considerable effort to develop 3-dimensional coupled plasma and electromagnetic modeling tools in recent years. In this work, we report on these modeling software and their application to plasma processing system design and evaluation of strategies for hardware and process improvement. Several of these examples deal with process uniformity, which is one of the major challenges facing plasma processing equipment design on large substrates. Three-dimensional plasma modeling is used to understand the sources of plasma non-uniformity, including the radio-frequency (RF) current path, and develop uniformity improvement techniques. Examples from coupled equipment and process models to investigate the dynamics of pulsed plasmas and their impact on plasma chemistry will

  1. Future trends in metal forming—equipment, materials and processes in automotive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitz, D.; Duggirala, R.

    1995-10-01

    Global competition in the automotive market has made a significant impact in the materials, processes, tools, and equipment used to make components. Steels are being replaced by other materials, such as aluminum, composites, and plastics, that meet the demand for a higher performance per weight ratio. From a processing viewpoint, the customers demand production of parts to near-net shape with little or no machining. Competition in business depends on understanding the needs of the customer in the coming years in the area of metal forming. A workshop was conducted using a novel approach to address the above issue. This presentation describes the approach and the results of the study.

  2. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for radioactive waste. Volume I. Rationale, process, equipment, performance, and recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Neuls, A.S.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Newmyer, J.M.; Warner, C.L.

    1982-08-01

    This two-volume report is a detailed design and operating documentation of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) and is an aid to technology transfer to other Department of Energy contractor sites and the commercial sector. Volume I describes the CAI process, equipment, and performance, and it recommends modifications based on Los Alamos experience. It provides the necessary information for conceptual design and feasibility studies. Volume II provides descriptive engineering information such as drawing, specifications, calculations, and costs. It aids duplication of the process at other facilities.

  3. Polyhexamethyl biguanide can eliminate contaminant yeasts from fuel-ethanol fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Elsztein, Carolina; de Menezes, João Assis Scavuzzi; de Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2008-09-01

    Industrial ethanol fermentation is a non-sterile process and contaminant microorganisms can lead to a decrease in industrial productivity and significant economic loss. Nowadays, some distilleries in Northeastern Brazil deal with bacterial contamination by decreasing must pH and adding bactericides. Alternatively, contamination can be challenged by adding a pure batch of Saccharomyces cerevisiae-a time-consuming and costly process. A better strategy might involve the development of a fungicide that kills contaminant yeasts while preserving S. cerevisiae cells. Here, we show that polyhexamethyl biguanide (PHMB) inhibits and kills the most important contaminant yeasts detected in the distilleries of Northeastern Brazil without affecting the cell viability and fermentation capacity of S. cerevisiae. Moreover, some physiological data suggest that PHMB acts through interaction with the yeast membrane. These results support the development of a new strategy for controlling contaminant yeast population whilst keeping industrial yields high.

  4. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

    1998-04-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from January 1, 1998 to April 31, 1998 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing. Experimental work was carried out with two coal fines. One sample originated from pond (Drummond Pond Fines) while the second was pulverized Luscar Mine coal. Both samples were tested at the laboratory batch-scale while only Luscar Mine Coal was processed on the 250 kg/h continuous system. Significant progress was made on optimization of process conditions for Pond Fines. The test results showed that ash could be reduced by about 42% at combustible recovery exiting 94%. It was also found that pond fines required significantly longer conditioning time than freshly pulverized run of mine coal. Continuous bench-scale testing carried out with Luscar Mine coal included rod mill calibration, plant equipment and instrumentation check-up, and parametric studies. Compared with batch-scale tests, the continuous bench-scale process required more bridging oil to achieve similar process performance. During the current reporting period work has been commenced on the final engineering and preparation of design package of 3t/h POC-scale unit.

  5. Development of a Pulp Process Treating Contaminated HEPA Filters (III)

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J. S.; Ramer, J.; Argyle, M. D.; Demmer, R. L.

    2002-02-28

    The Pulp Process (PP) Treatment option was conceived as a replacement for the current Filter Leaching System (FLS). The FLS has operated at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory since 1995 to treat radioactive, mixed waste HEPA filters. In recent years, the FLS has exhibited difficulty in removing mercury from the HEPA filters as the concentration of mercury in the spent HEPA filters has increased. The FLS leaches and washes the whole filter without any preparation or modification. The filter media and the trapped calcine particles are confined in a heavy filter housing that contributes to poor mixing zones around the edges of the filter, low media permeability, channeling of the liquid through cracks and tears in the filter media, and liquid retention between leach and rinse cycles. In the PP, the filter media and the trapped calcine particles are separated from the filter housing and treated as a pulp, taking advantage of improved contact with the leach solution that cannot be achieved when the media is still in the HEPA filter housing. In addition to removing the mercury more effectively, the PP generates less volume of liquid waste, requires a shorter leach cycle time, and possesses the versatility for treating filters of different sizes. A series of tests have been performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the advantages of the PP concept. These tests compare the PP with the FLS under controlled conditions that simulate the current operating parameters. A prior study using blended feed, a mixture of shredded clean HEPA filter media and non-radioactive calcine particles, indicated that the PP would significantly increases the calcine dissolution percentages. In this study, hazardous-metal contaminated HEPA filter media was studied. The results of side-by-side tests indicated that the PP increased the mercury removal percentage by 80% and might be a solution to the mercury removal

  6. Critical sources of bacterial contamination and adoption of standard sanitary protocol during semen collection and processing in Semen Station

    PubMed Central

    Sannat, Chandrahas; Nair, Ajit; Sahu, S. B.; Sahasrabudhe, S. A.; Kumar, Ashish; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Shende, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation was conducted to locate the critical sources of bacterial contamination and to evaluate the standard sanitation protocol so as to improve the hygienic conditions during collection, evaluation, and processing of bull semen in the Semen Station. Materials and Methods: The study compared two different hygienic procedures during the collection, evaluation and processing of semen in Central Semen Station, Anjora, Durg. Routinely used materials including artificial vagina (AV) inner liner, cone, semen collection tube, buffer, extender/diluter, straws; and the laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box and laminar air flow (LAF) cabinet of extender preparation lab, processing lab, sealing filling machine, and bacteriological lab were subjected to bacteriological examination in two phases of study using two different sanitary protocols. Bacterial load in above items/environment was measured using standard plate count method and expressed as colony forming unit (CFU). Results: Bacterial load in a laboratory environment and AV equipments during two different sanitary protocol in present investigation differed highly significantly (p<0.001). Potential sources of bacterial contamination during semen collection and processing included laboratory environment like processing lab, pass box, and LAF cabinets; AV equipments, including AV Liner and cone. Bacterial load was reduced highly significantly (p<0.001) in AV liner (from 2.33±0.67 to 0.50±0.52), cone (from 4.16±1.20 to 1.91±0.55), and extender (from 1.33±0.38 to 0) after application of improved practices of packaging, handling, and sterilization in Phase II of study. Glasswares, buffers, and straws showed nil bacterial contamination in both the phases of study. With slight modification in fumigation protocol (formalin @600 ml/1000 ft3), bacterial load was significantly decreased (p<0.001) up to 0-6 CFU in processing lab (from 6.43±1.34 to 2.86±0.59), pass box (from 12.13±2

  7. Equipment characterization to mitigate risks during transfers of cell culture manufacturing processes.

    PubMed

    Sieblist, Christian; Jenzsch, Marco; Pohlscheidt, Michael

    2016-08-01

    The production of monoclonal antibodies by mammalian cell culture in bioreactors up to 25,000 L is state of the art technology in the biotech industry. During the lifecycle of a product, several scale up activities and technology transfers are typically executed to enable the supply chain strategy of a global pharmaceutical company. Given the sensitivity of mammalian cells to physicochemical culture conditions, process and equipment knowledge are critical to avoid impacts on timelines, product quantity and quality. Especially, the fluid dynamics of large scale bioreactors versus small scale models need to be described, and similarity demonstrated, in light of the Quality by Design approach promoted by the FDA. This approach comprises an associated design space which is established during process characterization and validation in bench scale bioreactors. Therefore the establishment of predictive models and simulation tools for major operating conditions of stirred vessels (mixing, mass transfer, and shear force.), based on fundamental engineering principles, have experienced a renaissance in the recent years. This work illustrates the systematic characterization of a large variety of bioreactor designs deployed in a global manufacturing network ranging from small bench scale equipment to large scale production equipment (25,000 L). Several traditional methods to determine power input, mixing, mass transfer and shear force have been used to create a data base and identify differences for various impeller types and configurations in operating ranges typically applied in cell culture processes at manufacturing scale. In addition, extrapolation of different empirical models, e.g. Cooke et al. (Paper presented at the proceedings of the 2nd international conference of bioreactor fluid dynamics, Cranfield, UK, 1988), have been assessed for their validity in these operational ranges. Results for selected designs are shown and serve as examples of structured

  8. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from October 1, 1997 to December 31, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental test procedures and the results related to the processing of coal fines originating from process streams generated at the Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant, owned and operated by the Drummond Company Inc. of Alabama, are described. Two samples of coal fines, namely Cyclone Overflow and Pond Fines were investigated. The batch test results showed that by applying the Aglofloat technology a significant ash removal might be achieved at a very high combustible matter recovery: · for the Cyclone Overflow sample the ash reduction was in the range 50 to 55% at combustible matter recovery about 98% · for the Pond Fines sample the ash reduction was up to 48% at combustible matter recovery up to 85%. Additional tests were carried out with the Alberta origin Luscar Mine coal, which will be used for the parametric studies of agglomeration equipment at the 250 kg/h pilot plant. The Luscar coal is very similar to the Mary Lee Coal Group (processed at Shoal Creek Mine preparation plant) in terms of rank and chemical composition.

  9. Materials selection for process equipment in the Hanford waste vitrification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, M R; Jensen, G A

    1991-07-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed to vitrify defense liquid high-level wastes and transuranic wastes stored at Hanford. The HWVP Functional Design Criteria (FDC) requires that materials used for fabrication of remote process equipment and piping in the facility be compatible with the expected waste stream compositions and process conditions. To satisfy FDC requirements, corrosion-resistant materials have been evaluated under simulated HWVP-specific conditions and recommendations have been made for HWVP applications. The materials recommendations provide to the project architect/engineer the best available corrosion rate information for the materials under the expected HWVP process conditions. Existing data and sound engineering judgement must be used and a solid technical basis must be developed to define an approach to selecting suitable construction materials for the HWVP. This report contains the strategy, approach, criteria, and technical basis developed for selecting materials of construction. Based on materials testing specific to HWVP and on related outside testing, this report recommends for constructing specific process equipment and identifies future testing needs to complete verification of the performance of the selected materials. 30 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. A new highly automated sputter equipment for in situ investigation of deposition processes with synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Doehrmann, Ralph; Botta, Stephan; Buffet, Adeline; Santoro, Gonzalo; Schlage, Kai; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Risch, Johannes F. H.; Mannweiler, Roman; Roth, Stephan V.; Bommel, Sebastian; Brunner, Simon; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Mueller-Buschbaum, Peter

    2013-04-15

    HASE (Highly Automated Sputter Equipment) is a new mobile setup developed to investigate deposition processes with synchrotron radiation. HASE is based on an ultra-high vacuum sputter deposition chamber equipped with an in-vacuum sample pick-and-place robot. This enables a fast and reliable sample change without breaking the vacuum conditions and helps to save valuable measurement time, which is required for experiments at synchrotron sources like PETRA III at DESY. An advantageous arrangement of several sputter guns, mounted on a rotative flange, gives the possibility to sputter under different deposition angles or to sputter different materials on the same substrate. The chamber is also equipped with a modular sample stage, which allows for the integration of different sample environments, such as a sample heating and cooling device. The design of HASE is unique in the flexibility. The combination of several different sputtering methods like standard deposition, glancing angle deposition, and high pressure sputter deposition combined with heating and cooling possibil-ities of the sample, the large exit windows, and the degree of automation facilitate many different grazing incidence X-ray scattering experiments, such as grazing incidence small and wide angle X-ray scattering, in one setup. In this paper we describe in detail the design and the performance of the new equipment and present the installation of the HASE apparatus at the Micro and Nano focus X-ray Scattering beamline (MiNaXS) at PETRA III. Furthermore, we describe the measurement options and present some selected results. The HASE setup has been successfully commissioned and is now available for users.

  11. A new highly automated sputter equipment for in situ investigation of deposition processes with synchrotron radiation.

    PubMed

    Döhrmann, Ralph; Botta, Stephan; Buffet, Adeline; Santoro, Gonzalo; Schlage, Kai; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Bommel, Sebastian; Risch, Johannes F H; Mannweiler, Roman; Brunner, Simon; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Roth, Stephan V

    2013-04-01

    HASE (Highly Automated Sputter Equipment) is a new mobile setup developed to investigate deposition processes with synchrotron radiation. HASE is based on an ultra-high vacuum sputter deposition chamber equipped with an in-vacuum sample pick-and-place robot. This enables a fast and reliable sample change without breaking the vacuum conditions and helps to save valuable measurement time, which is required for experiments at synchrotron sources like PETRA III at DESY. An advantageous arrangement of several sputter guns, mounted on a rotative flange, gives the possibility to sputter under different deposition angles or to sputter different materials on the same substrate. The chamber is also equipped with a modular sample stage, which allows for the integration of different sample environments, such as a sample heating and cooling device. The design of HASE is unique in the flexibility. The combination of several different sputtering methods like standard deposition, glancing angle deposition, and high pressure sputter deposition combined with heating and cooling possibilities of the sample, the large exit windows, and the degree of automation facilitate many different grazing incidence X-ray scattering experiments, such as grazing incidence small and wide angle X-ray scattering, in one setup. In this paper we describe in detail the design and the performance of the new equipment and present the installation of the HASE apparatus at the Micro and Nano focus X-ray Scattering beamline (MiNaXS) at PETRA III. Furthermore, we describe the measurement options and present some selected results. The HASE setup has been successfully commissioned and is now available for users.

  12. A new highly automated sputter equipment for in situ investigation of deposition processes with synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Döhrmann, Ralph; Botta, Stephan; Buffet, Adeline; Santoro, Gonzalo; Schlage, Kai; Schwartzkopf, Matthias; Bommel, Sebastian; Risch, Johannes F. H.; Mannweiler, Roman; Brunner, Simon; Metwalli, Ezzeldin; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter; Roth, Stephan V.

    2013-04-01

    HASE (Highly Automated Sputter Equipment) is a new mobile setup developed to investigate deposition processes with synchrotron radiation. HASE is based on an ultra-high vacuum sputter deposition chamber equipped with an in-vacuum sample pick-and-place robot. This enables a fast and reliable sample change without breaking the vacuum conditions and helps to save valuable measurement time, which is required for experiments at synchrotron sources like PETRA III at DESY. An advantageous arrangement of several sputter guns, mounted on a rotative flange, gives the possibility to sputter under different deposition angles or to sputter different materials on the same substrate. The chamber is also equipped with a modular sample stage, which allows for the integration of different sample environments, such as a sample heating and cooling device. The design of HASE is unique in the flexibility. The combination of several different sputtering methods like standard deposition, glancing angle deposition, and high pressure sputter deposition combined with heating and cooling possibil-ities of the sample, the large exit windows, and the degree of automation facilitate many different grazing incidence X-ray scattering experiments, such as grazing incidence small and wide angle X-ray scattering, in one setup. In this paper we describe in detail the design and the performance of the new equipment and present the installation of the HASE apparatus at the Micro and Nano focus X-ray Scattering beamline (MiNaXS) at PETRA III. Furthermore, we describe the measurement options and present some selected results. The HASE setup has been successfully commissioned and is now available for users.

  13. Recycling of contaminated soils by the AMREC cold-mix, asphalt-emulsion process

    SciTech Connect

    Camougis, G.

    1993-12-31

    This paper describes the management of contaminated soils by recycling with a cold-mix, asphalt-emulsion process developed by the American Reclamation Corporation (AmRec). This is a soil recycling/reuse process in which soils contaminated with petroleum products and other contaminants can be processed into asphalt products with beneficial uses. Most of the discussion will center on soils contaminated with petroleum products. However, the recycling of soils with other contaminants (e.g., heavy metals) will also be discussed. AmRec has produced approximately 500,000 tons of asphalt products with recycled materials. These products have been used beneficially in roadways, access roads, parking areas and landfills throughout the northwest.

  14. Electrochemical Processes for In-situ Treatment of Contaminated Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, C.P.; Cha, Daniel

    1999-06-01

    Soils at typical DOE (Department of Energy) waste sites are known to be contaminated by a host of hazardous organic chemicals, heavy metals and radionuclides. Typical hazardous organic contaminants include chlorinated solvents such as trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE), chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as naphthalene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene and pyrene. It is also known that major toxic heavy metals such as Pb, Cr, As, Zn, Cu, Hg, and Cd and major radionuclides such as Tritium, U, Sr90, Pu, Cs137, and Tc are also commonly present at some DOE waste sites. Some of these chemicals are relatively mobile and can migrate down to the vadose zone and/or the aquifer region.

  15. Optimal Medical Equipment Maintenance Service Proposal Decision Support System combining Activity Based Costing (ABC) and the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Leticia; Sloane, Elliot; M Bassani, Jose

    2005-01-01

    This study describes a framework to support the choice of the maintenance service (in-house or third party contract) for each category of medical equipment based on: a) the real medical equipment maintenance management system currently used by the biomedical engineering group of the public health system of the Universidade Estadual de Campinas located in Brazil to control the medical equipment maintenance service, b) the Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, and c) the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Results show the cost and performance related to each type of maintenance service. Decision-makers can use these results to evaluate possible strategies for the categories of equipment.

  16. 42 CFR 421.210 - Designations of regional carriers to process claims for durable medical equipment, prosthetics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... for durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics and supplies. 421.210 Section 421.210 Public... process claims for durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics and supplies. (a) Basis. This section... devices, prosthetics, orthotics, and other supplies (DMEPOS). This authority has been delegated to CMS....

  17. 42 CFR 421.210 - Designations of regional carriers to process claims for durable medical equipment, prosthetics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics and supplies. 421.210 Section 421.210 Public... process claims for durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics and supplies. (a) Basis. This section... devices, prosthetics, orthotics, and other supplies (DMEPOS). This authority has been delegated to CMS....

  18. 42 CFR 421.210 - Designations of regional carriers to process claims for durable medical equipment, prosthetics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... for durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics and supplies. 421.210 Section 421.210 Public... process claims for durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics and supplies. (a) Basis. This section... devices, prosthetics, orthotics, and other supplies (DMEPOS). This authority has been delegated to CMS....

  19. Built-in test equipment of a 3-D radar signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulin, M.

    The built-in test equipment (BITE) of a digital signal processing in a long-range three-dimensional radar is presented. The main BITE functions are summarized and its principle is described. The latter involves the integration of pseudorandom generation of test data into logic cards and the compression of responses into a signature. The implementation of BITEs using BILBOs (built-in logic block observers) and system BITE implementation are addressed. Software organization and the control of the external signature analyzer are discussed, and performance characteristics are presented.

  20. POC-SCALE TESTING OF OIL AGGLOMERATION TECHNIQUES AND EQUIPMENT FOR FINE COAL PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from July 01, 1997 to September 30, 1997 on the POC-Scale Testing Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing project. Experimental procedures and test data for recovery of fine coal from coal fines streams generated at a commercial coal preparation plant are described. Two coal fines streams, namely Sieve Bend Effluent and Cyclone Overflow were investigated. The test results showed that ash was reduced by more than 50% at combustible matter recovery levels exceeding 95%.

  1. Process/Equipment Co-Simulation on Syngas Chemical Looping Process

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Liang; Zhou, Qiang; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2012-09-30

    The chemical looping strategy for fossil energy applications promises to achieve an efficient energy conversion system for electricity, liquid fuels, hydrogen and/or chemicals generation, while economically separate CO{sub 2} by looping reaction design in the process. Chemical looping particle performance, looping reactor engineering, and process design and applications are the key drivers to the success of chemical looping process development. In order to better understand and further scale up the chemical looping process, issues such as cost, time, measurement, safety, and other uncertainties need to be examined. To address these uncertainties, advanced reaction/reactor modeling and process simulation are highly desired and the modeling efforts can accelerate the chemical looping technology development, reduce the pilot-scale facility design time and operating campaigns, as well as reduce the cost and technical risks. The purpose of this work is thus to conduct multiscale modeling and simulations on the key aspects of chemical looping technology, including particle reaction kinetics, reactor design and operation, and process synthesis and optimization.

  2. An exometabolomics approach to monitoring microbial contamination in microalgal fermentation processes by using metabolic footprint analysis.

    PubMed

    Sue, Tiffany; Obolonkin, Victor; Griffiths, Hywel; Villas-Bôas, Silas Granato

    2011-11-01

    The early detection of microbial contamination is crucial to avoid process failure and costly delays in fermentation industries. However, traditional detection methods such as plate counting and microscopy are labor-intensive, insensitive, and time-consuming. Modern techniques that can detect microbial contamination rapidly and cost-effectively are therefore sought. In the present study, we propose gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic footprint analysis as a rapid and reliable method for the detection of microbial contamination in fermentation processes. Our metabolic footprint analysis detected statistically significant differences in metabolite profiles of axenic and contaminated batch cultures of microalgae as early as 3 h after contamination was introduced, while classical detection methods could detect contamination only after 24 h. The data were analyzed by discriminant function analysis and were validated by leave-one-out cross-validation. We obtained a 97% success rate in correctly classifying samples coming from contaminated or axenic cultures. Therefore, metabolic footprint analysis combined with discriminant function analysis presents a rapid and cost-effective approach to monitor microbial contamination in industrial fermentation processes.

  3. Processing-Dependent and Clonal Contamination Patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in the Cured Ham Food Chain Revealed by Genetic Analysis.

    PubMed

    Morganti, Marina; Scaltriti, Erika; Cozzolino, Paolo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pierantoni, Marco; Foni, Emanuela; Pongolini, Stefano

    2015-11-20

    The quantitative and qualitative patterns of environmental contamination by Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in the production chain of dry-cured Parma ham. Standard arrays of surfaces were sampled in processing facilities during a single visit per plant in the three compartments of the food chain, i.e., ham production (19 plants) and postproduction, which was divided into deboning (43 plants) and slicing (25 plants) steps. The numbers of sampled surfaces were 384 in ham production, with 25 positive for L. monocytogenes, and 1,084 in postproduction, with 83 positives. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of contaminated surfaces showed that in ham production, contamination was higher at the beginning of processing and declined significantly toward the end, while in postproduction, prevalence rose toward the end of processing. Prevalence was higher in the deboning facilities than in slicing facilities and was dependent on the type of surface (floor/drainage > clothing > equipment). The qualitative pattern of contamination was investigated through an analysis of the survey isolates and a set of isolates derived from routine monitoring, including longitudinal isolations. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed a remarkable clonality of L. monocytogenes within plants, with the detection of 16 plant-specific clones out of 17 establishments with multiple isolates. Repeated detections of clonal isolates >6 months apart were also observed. Six was the maximum number of between-isolate differences in core SNPs observed within these clones. Based on the same six-SNP threshold, three clusters of clonal isolates, shared by six establishments, were also identified. The spread of L. monocytogenes within and between plants, as indicated by its clonal behavior, is a matter of concern for the hygienic management of establishments.

  4. Processing-Dependent and Clonal Contamination Patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in the Cured Ham Food Chain Revealed by Genetic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morganti, Marina; Scaltriti, Erika; Cozzolino, Paolo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pierantoni, Marco; Foni, Emanuela

    2015-01-01

    The quantitative and qualitative patterns of environmental contamination by Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in the production chain of dry-cured Parma ham. Standard arrays of surfaces were sampled in processing facilities during a single visit per plant in the three compartments of the food chain, i.e., ham production (19 plants) and postproduction, which was divided into deboning (43 plants) and slicing (25 plants) steps. The numbers of sampled surfaces were 384 in ham production, with 25 positive for L. monocytogenes, and 1,084 in postproduction, with 83 positives. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of contaminated surfaces showed that in ham production, contamination was higher at the beginning of processing and declined significantly toward the end, while in postproduction, prevalence rose toward the end of processing. Prevalence was higher in the deboning facilities than in slicing facilities and was dependent on the type of surface (floor/drainage > clothing > equipment). The qualitative pattern of contamination was investigated through an analysis of the survey isolates and a set of isolates derived from routine monitoring, including longitudinal isolations. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed a remarkable clonality of L. monocytogenes within plants, with the detection of 16 plant-specific clones out of 17 establishments with multiple isolates. Repeated detections of clonal isolates >6 months apart were also observed. Six was the maximum number of between-isolate differences in core SNPs observed within these clones. Based on the same six-SNP threshold, three clusters of clonal isolates, shared by six establishments, were also identified. The spread of L. monocytogenes within and between plants, as indicated by its clonal behavior, is a matter of concern for the hygienic management of establishments. PMID:26590278

  5. Bead and Process for Removing Dissolved Metal Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, Bobby L., Jr.; Bennett, Karen L.; Foster, Scott A.

    2005-01-18

    A bead is provided which comprises or consists essentially of activated carbon immobilized by crosslinked poly (carboxylic acid) binder, sodium silicate binder, or polyamine binder. The bead is effective to remove metal and other ionic contaminants from dilute aqueous solutions. A method of making metal-ion sorbing beads is provided, comprising combining activated carbon, and binder solution (preferably in a pin mixer where it is whipped), forming wet beads, and heating and drying the beads. The binder solution is preferably poly(acrylic acid) and glycerol dissolved in water and the wet beads formed from such binder solution are preferably heated and crosslinked in a convection oven.

  6. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task: A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Several major modifications were made to the design presented at the PDR. The frame was deleted in favor of a "frameless" design which will provide a substantially improved cell packing factor. Potential shaded cell damage resulting from operation into a short circuit can be eliminated by a change in the cell series/parallel electrical interconnect configuration. The baseline process sequence defined for the MEPSON was refined and equipment design and specification work was completed. SAMICS cost analysis work accelerated, format A's were prepared and computer simulations completed. Design work on the automated cell interconnect station was focused on bond technique selection experiments.

  7. In Situ Vitrification: Recent test results for a contaminated soil melting process

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Timmerman, C.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    In Situ Vitrification (ISV) is being developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy and other clients for the stabilization of soils and sludges contaminated with radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes. ISV is a process that immobilizes contaminated soil in place by converting it to a durable glass and crystalline product that is similar to obsidian. In June 1987, a large-scale test of the process was completed at a transuranic- contaminated soil site. This constituted the first full-scale demonstration of the ISV process at an actual site. This paper summarizes the preliminary results of this test and describes the processes' potential adaptation to radioactive and hazardous chemical waste contaminated soils. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Process for reduction of volume of contaminated soil by compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Johanan, W.L.

    1994-12-31

    Burial costs for low-level radioactive waste are assessed by the volume of the waste. These costs are presently at $10 per cubic foot and will continue to increase with time. A reduction in waste volume can be directly converted to a reduction in burial costs. A large amount of low-level contaminated soil exists throughout the DOE complex. The Nuclear Complex Modernization Task Force has identified over 5 million cubic feet of contaminated soil for eventual clean-up at the Mound site ($50,000,000 to bury at FY 1991 costs). By using a combination of a rock separator (trommel), crusher, clay soil compactor, automatic loading system, specially designed dust enclosures, and specifically designed containers for both on-site haulage and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the total waste volume, and burial cost, can be reduced by up to 30% by compacting the soil into high-density bricks (depending upon the compaction quality of the soil). Several tests have been performed on Mound`s cold on-site soils, with resulting densities of 131 pounds per cubic foot. When this is compared to normal LSA metal box filling of 80--90 pounds per cubic foot, one can readily see the savings.

  9. Contamination control in hybrid microelectronic modules. Part 3: Specifications for coating material and process controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Himmel, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    Resin systems for coating hybrids prior to hermetic sealing are described. The resin systems are a flexible silicone junction resin system and a flexible cycloaliphatic epoxy resin system. The coatings are intended for application to the hybrid after all the chips have been assembled and wire bonded, but prior to hermetic sealing of the package. The purpose of the coating is to control particulate contamination by immobilizing particles and by passivating the hybrid. Recommended process controls for the purpose of minimizing contamination in hybrid microcircuit packages are given. Emphasis is placed on those critical hybrid processing steps in which contamination is most likely to occur.

  10. SU-E-J-189: Credentialing of IGRT Equipment and Processes for Clinical Trials

    SciTech Connect

    Court, L; Aristophanous, M; Followill, D; Kirsner, S; Kisling, K; Pidikiti, R; Wong, P; Balter, P; Bellezza, D; Massingill, B; Papanikolaou, N; Parker, B; Zhen, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Current dosimetry phantoms used for clinical trial credentialing do not directly assess IGRT processes. This work evaluates a custom-built IGRT phantom for credentialing of multiple IGRT modalities and processes. Methods: An IGRT phantom was built out of a low-density body with two inserts. Insert A is used for the CT simulation. Insert B is used for the actual treatment. The inserts contain identical targets in different locations. Relative positions are unknown to the user. The user simulates the phantom (with insert A) as they would a patient, including marking the phantom. A treatment plan is created and sent to the treatment unit. The phantom (with insert B) is then positioned using local IGRT practice. Shifts (planned isocenter, if applicable, and final isocenter) are marked on the phantom using room lasers. The mechanical reproducibility of re-inserting the inserts within the phantom body was tested using repeat high-resolution CT scans. The phantom was tested at 7 centers, selected to include a wide variety of imaging equipment. Results: Mechanical reproducibility was measured as 0.5-0.9mm, depending on the direction. Approaches tested to mark (and transfer) simulation isocenter included lasers, fiducials and reflective markers. IGRT approaches included kV imaging (Varian Trilogy, Brainlab ExacTrac), kV CT (CT-on-rails), kV CBCT (Varian Trilogy, Varian Truebeam, Elekta Agility) and MV CT (Tomotherapy). Users were able to successfully use this phantom for all combinations of equipment and processes. IGRT-based shifts agreed with the truth within 0.8mm, 0.8mm and 1.9mm in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively. Conclusion: Based on these preliminary results, the IGRT phantom can be used for credentialing of clinical trials with an action level of 1mm in AP and LR directions, and 2mm in the SI direction, consistent with TG142. We are currently testing with additional institutions with different equipment and processes, including Cyberknife. This

  11. Comparison of contamination of femoral heads and pre-processed bone chips during hip revision arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mathijssen, N M C; Sturm, P D; Pilot, P; Bloem, R M; Buma, P; Petit, P L; Schreurs, B W

    2013-12-01

    With bone impaction grafting, cancellous bone chips made from allograft femoral heads are impacted in a bone defect, which introduces an additional source of infection. The potential benefit of the use of pre-processed bone chips was investigated by comparing the bacterial contamination of bone chips prepared intraoperatively with the bacterial contamination of pre-processed bone chips at different stages in the surgical procedure. To investigate baseline contamination of the bone grafts, specimens were collected during 88 procedures before actual use or preparation of the bone chips: in 44 procedures intraoperatively prepared chips were used (Group A) and in the other 44 procedures pre-processed bone chips were used (Group B). In 64 of these procedures (32 using locally prepared bone chips and 32 using pre-processed bone chips) specimens were also collected later in the procedure to investigate contamination after use and preparation of the bone chips. In total, 8 procedures had one or more positive specimen(s) (12.5 %). Contamination rates were not significantly different between bone chips prepared at the operating theatre and pre-processed bone chips. In conclusion, there was no difference in bacterial contamination between bone chips prepared from whole femoral heads in the operating room and pre-processed bone chips, and therefore, both types of bone allografts are comparable with respect to risk of infection.

  12. Benthic processes affecting contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuwabara, James S.; Topping, Brent R.; Carter, James L.; Carlson, Rick A; Parchaso, Francis; Fend, Steven V.; Stauffer-Olsen, Natalie; Manning, Andrew J.; Land, Jennie M.

    2016-09-30

    Executive SummaryMultiple sampling trips during calendar years 2013 through 2015 were coordinated to provide measurements of interdependent benthic processes that potentially affect contaminant transport in Upper Klamath Lake (UKL), Oregon. The measurements were motivated by recognition that such internal processes (for example, solute benthic flux, bioturbation and solute efflux by benthic invertebrates, and physical groundwater-surface water interactions) were not integrated into existing management models for UKL. Up until 2013, all of the benthic-flux studies generally had been limited spatially to a number of sites in the northern part of UKL and limited temporally to 2–3 samplings per year. All of the benthic invertebrate studies also had been limited to the northern part of the lake; however, intensive temporal (weekly) studies had previously been completed independent of benthic-flux studies. Therefore, knowledge of both the spatial and temporal variability in benthic flux and benthic invertebrate distributions for the entire lake was lacking. To address these limitations, we completed a lakewide spatial study during 2013 and a coordinated temporal study with weekly sampling of benthic flux and benthic invertebrates during 2014. Field design of the spatially focused study in 2013 involved 21 sites sampled three times as the summer cyanobacterial bloom developed (that is, May 23, June 13, and July 3, 2013). Results of the 27-week, temporally focused study of one site in 2014 were summarized and partitioned into three periods (referred to herein as pre-bloom, bloom and post-bloom periods), each period involving 9 weeks of profiler deployments, water column and benthic sampling. Partitioning of the pre-bloom, bloom, and post-bloom periods were based on water-column chlorophyll concentrations and involved the following date intervals, respectively: April 15 through June 10, June 17 through August 13, and August 20 through October 16, 2014. To examine

  13. In situ vitrification: Test results for a contaminated soil-melting process

    SciTech Connect

    Buelt, J.L.; Timmerman, C.L.; Westsik, J.H. Jr.

    1989-10-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is being developed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the Department of Energy to stabilize soils and sludges that are contaminated with radioactive and hazardous chemical wastes. ISV is a process that immobilizes contaminated soil in place by converting it to a durable glass and crystalline product similar to obsidian and basalt. In June 1987, a large-scale test of the process was completed at a transuranic-contaminated soil site. The test constituted the first full-scale demonstration of ISV at an actual site. This paper summarizes the results of that test and describes the potential adaptation of the process to radioactive and hazardous chemical waste-contaminated soils. 15 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Lunar surface mining for automated acquisition of helium-3: Methods, processes, and equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. T.; Wittenberg, L. J.

    1992-09-01

    In this paper, several techniques considered for mining and processing the regolith on the lunar surface are presented. These techniques have been proposed and evaluated based primarily on the following criteria: (1) mining operations should be relatively simple; (2) procedures of mineral processing should be few and relatively easy; (3) transferring tonnages of regolith on the Moon should be minimized; (4) operations outside the lunar base should be readily automated; (5) all equipment should be maintainable; and (6) economic benefit should be sufficient for commercial exploitation. The economic benefits are not addressed in this paper; however, the energy benefits have been estimated to be between 250 and 350 times the mining energy. A mobile mining scheme is proposed that meets most of the mining objectives. This concept uses a bucket-wheel excavator for excavating the regolith, several mechanical electrostatic separators for beneficiation of the regolith, a fast-moving fluidized bed reactor to heat the particles, and a palladium diffuser to separate H2 from the other solar wind gases. At the final stage of the miner, the regolith 'tailings' are deposited directly into the ditch behind the miner and cylinders of the valuable solar wind gases are transported to a central gas processing facility. During the production of He-3, large quantities of valuable H2, H2O, CO, CO2, and N2 are produced for utilization at the lunar base. For larger production of He-3 the utilization of multiple-miners is recommended rather than increasing their size. Multiple miners permit operations at more sites and provide redundancy in case of equipment failure.

  15. West Valley Demonstration Project vitrification process equipment Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, D.E.; Paul, J.; Foran, J.M.; Brooks, R.

    1990-09-30

    The Vitrification Facility (VF) at the West Valley Demonstration Project was designed to convert stored radioactive waste into a stable glass for disposal in a federal repository. The Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) program was conducted from 1984 to 1989. During this time new equipment and processes were developed, installed, and implemented. Thirty-seven FACTS tests were conducted, and approximately 150,000 kg of glass were made by using nonradioactive materials to simulate the radioactive waste. By contrast, the planned radioactive operation is expected to produce approximately 500,000 kg of glass. The FACTS program demonstrated the effectiveness of equipment and procedures in the vitrification system, and the ability of the VF to produce quality glass on schedule. FACTS testing also provided data to validate the WVNS waste glass qualification method and verify that the product glass would meet federal repository acceptance requirements. The system was built and performed to standards which would have enabled it to be used in radioactive service. As a result, much of the VF tested, such as the civil construction, feed mixing and holding vessels, and the off-gas scrubber, will be converted for radioactive operation. The melter was still in good condition after being at temperature for fifty-eight of the sixty months of FACTS. However, the melter exceeded its recommended design life and will be replaced with a similar melter. Components that were not designed for remote operation and maintenance will be replaced with remote-use items. The FACTS testing was accomplished with no significant worker injury or environmental releases. During the last FACTS run, the VF processes approximated the remote-handling system that will be used in radioactive operations. Following this run the VF was disassembled for conversion to a radioactive process. Functional and checkout testing of new components will be performed prior to radioactive operation.

  16. Lunar surface mining for automated acquisition of helium-3: Methods, processes, and equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Y. T.; Wittenberg, L. J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, several techniques considered for mining and processing the regolith on the lunar surface are presented. These techniques have been proposed and evaluated based primarily on the following criteria: (1) mining operations should be relatively simple; (2) procedures of mineral processing should be few and relatively easy; (3) transferring tonnages of regolith on the Moon should be minimized; (4) operations outside the lunar base should be readily automated; (5) all equipment should be maintainable; and (6) economic benefit should be sufficient for commercial exploitation. The economic benefits are not addressed in this paper; however, the energy benefits have been estimated to be between 250 and 350 times the mining energy. A mobile mining scheme is proposed that meets most of the mining objectives. This concept uses a bucket-wheel excavator for excavating the regolith, several mechanical electrostatic separators for beneficiation of the regolith, a fast-moving fluidized bed reactor to heat the particles, and a palladium diffuser to separate H2 from the other solar wind gases. At the final stage of the miner, the regolith 'tailings' are deposited directly into the ditch behind the miner and cylinders of the valuable solar wind gases are transported to a central gas processing facility. During the production of He-3, large quantities of valuable H2, H2O, CO, CO2, and N2 are produced for utilization at the lunar base. For larger production of He-3 the utilization of multiple-miners is recommended rather than increasing their size. Multiple miners permit operations at more sites and provide redundancy in case of equipment failure.

  17. Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, Justin T.; Nguyen, Mi T.; Jones, Zackary L.; Ismail, Niveen S.; Sedlak, David L.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Luthy, Richard G.; Horne, Alex J.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Treatment wetlands have become an attractive option for the removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater effluents due to their low energy requirements and operational costs, as well as the ancillary benefits they provide, including creating aesthetically appealing spaces and wildlife habitats. Treatment wetlands also hold promise as a means of removing other wastewater-derived contaminants, such as trace organic contaminants and pathogens. However, concerns about variations in treatment efficacy of these pollutants, coupled with an incomplete mechanistic understanding of their removal in wetlands, hinder the widespread adoption of constructed wetlands for these two classes of contaminants. A better understanding is needed so that wetlands as a unit process can be designed for their removal, with individual wetland cells optimized for the removal of specific contaminants, and connected in series or integrated with other engineered or natural treatment processes. In this article, removal mechanisms of trace organic contaminants and pathogens are reviewed, including sorption and sedimentation, biotransformation and predation, photolysis and photoinactivation, and remaining knowledge gaps are identified. In addition, suggestions are provided for how these treatment mechanisms can be enhanced in commonly employed unit process wetland cells or how they might be harnessed in novel unit process cells. It is hoped that application of the unit process concept to a wider range of contaminants will lead to more widespread application of wetland treatment trains as components of urban water infrastructure in the United States and around the globe. PMID:23983451

  18. Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    PubMed

    Jasper, Justin T; Nguyen, Mi T; Jones, Zackary L; Ismail, Niveen S; Sedlak, David L; Sharp, Jonathan O; Luthy, Richard G; Horne, Alex J; Nelson, Kara L

    2013-08-01

    Treatment wetlands have become an attractive option for the removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater effluents due to their low energy requirements and operational costs, as well as the ancillary benefits they provide, including creating aesthetically appealing spaces and wildlife habitats. Treatment wetlands also hold promise as a means of removing other wastewater-derived contaminants, such as trace organic contaminants and pathogens. However, concerns about variations in treatment efficacy of these pollutants, coupled with an incomplete mechanistic understanding of their removal in wetlands, hinder the widespread adoption of constructed wetlands for these two classes of contaminants. A better understanding is needed so that wetlands as a unit process can be designed for their removal, with individual wetland cells optimized for the removal of specific contaminants, and connected in series or integrated with other engineered or natural treatment processes. In this article, removal mechanisms of trace organic contaminants and pathogens are reviewed, including sorption and sedimentation, biotransformation and predation, photolysis and photoinactivation, and remaining knowledge gaps are identified. In addition, suggestions are provided for how these treatment mechanisms can be enhanced in commonly employed unit process wetland cells or how they might be harnessed in novel unit process cells. It is hoped that application of the unit process concept to a wider range of contaminants will lead to more widespread application of wetland treatment trains as components of urban water infrastructure in the United States and around the globe.

  19. Tracking an Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated batch of leafy greens through a pilot-scale fresh-cut processing line.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2014-09-01

    Cross-contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens with residual Escherichia coli O157:H7-contaminated product during commercial processing was likely a contributing factor in several recent multistate outbreaks. Consequently, radicchio was used as a visual marker to track the spread of the contaminated product to iceberg lettuce in a pilot-scale processing line that included a commercial shredder, step conveyor, flume tank, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer. Uninoculated iceberg lettuce (45 kg) was processed, followed by 9.1 kg of radicchio (dip inoculated to contain a four-strain, green fluorescent protein-labeled nontoxigenic E. coli O157:H7 cocktail at 10(6) CFU/g) and 907 kg (2,000 lb) of uninoculated iceberg lettuce. After collecting the lettuce and radicchio in about 40 bags (∼22.7 kg per bag) along with water and equipment surface samples, all visible shreds of radicchio were retrieved from the bags of shredded product, the equipment, and the floor. E. coli O157:H7 populations were quantified in the lettuce, water, and equipment samples by direct plating with or without prior membrane filtration on Trypticase soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Based on triplicate experiments, the weight of radicchio in the shredded lettuce averaged 614.9 g (93.6%), 6.9 g (1.3%), 5.0 g (0.8%), and 2.8 g (0.5%) for bags 1 to 10, 11 to 20, 21 to 30, and 31 to 40, respectively, with mean E. coli O157:H7 populations of 1.7, 1.2, 1.1, and 1.1 log CFU/g in radicchio-free lettuce. After processing, more radicchio remained on the conveyor (9.8 g; P < 0.05), compared with the shredder (8.3 g), flume tank (3.5 g), and shaker table (0.1 g), with similar E. coli O157:H7 populations (P > 0.05) recovered from all equipment surfaces after processing. These findings clearly demonstrate both the potential for the continuous spread of contaminated lettuce to multiple batches of product during processing and the need for improved equipment designs that minimize

  20. Integrated process for ammonia inactivation of aflatoxin-contaminated corn and ethanol fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bothast, R.J.; Nofsinger, G.W.; Lagoda, A.A.; Black, L.T.

    1982-04-01

    A process is described for converting aflatoxin-contaminated corn to ethanol via combining ammonia inactivation with the liquefaction step of the ethanol fermentation process. Better ethanol yields were obtained when ammonia was added during liquefaction than when no ammonia was added. Aflatoxin B/sub 1/ levels were reduced 80 to 85% by the process.

  1. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  2. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  3. 40 CFR 63.984 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.984 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak regulated material emissions are routed....

  4. Signal processing and display interface studies. [performance tests - design analysis/equipment specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Signal processing equipment specifications, operating and test procedures, and systems design and engineering are described. Five subdivisions of the overall circuitry are treated: (1) the spectrum analyzer; (2) the spectrum integrator; (3) the velocity discriminator; (4) the display interface; and (5) the formatter. They function in series: (1) first in analog form to provide frequency resolution, (2) then in digital form to achieve signal to noise improvement (video integration) and frequency discrimination, and (3) finally in analog form again for the purpose of real-time display of the significant velocity data. The formatter collects binary data from various points in the processor and provides a serial output for bi-phase recording. Block diagrams are used to illustrate the system.

  5. Intelligent Processing Equipment Research and Development Programs of the Department of Commerce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    The intelligence processing equipment (IPE) research and development (R&D) programs of the Department of Commerce are carried out within the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This institute has had work in support of industrial productivity as part of its mission since its founding in 1901. With the advent of factory automation these efforts have increasingly turned to R&D in IPE. The Manufacturing Engineering Laboratory (MEL) of NIST devotes a major fraction of its efforts to this end while other elements within the organization, notably the Material Science and Engineering Laboratory, have smaller but significant programs. An inventory of all such programs at NIST and a representative selection of projects that at least demonstrate the scope of the efforts are presented.

  6. Salmonella contamination risk points in broiler carcasses during slaughter line processing.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Pérez, Walter; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; Zamora-Sanabria, Rebeca

    2014-12-01

    Salmonella is one of the foodborne pathogens most commonly associated with poultry products. The aim of this work was to identify and analyze key sampling points creating risk of Salmonella contamination in a chicken processing plant in Costa Rica and perform a salmonellosis risk analysis. Accordingly, the following examinations were performed: (i) qualitative testing (presence or absence of Salmonella), (ii) quantitative testing (Salmonella CFU counts), and (iii) salmonellosis risk analysis, assuming consumption of contaminated meat from the processing plant selected. Salmonella was isolated in 26% of the carcasses selected, indicating 60% positive in the flocks sampled. The highest Salmonella counts were observed after bleeding (6.1 log CFU per carcass), followed by a gradual decrease during the subsequent control steps. An increase in the percentage of contamination (10 to 40%) was observed during evisceration and spray washing (after evisceration), with Salmonella counts increasing from 3.9 to 5.1 log CFU per carcass. According to the prevalence of Salmonella -contaminated carcasses released to trade (20%), we estimated a risk of 272 cases of salmonellosis per year as a result of the consumption of contaminated chicken. Our study suggests that the processes of evisceration and spray washing represent a risk of Salmonella cross-contamination and/ or recontamination in broilers during slaughter line processing.

  7. RECENT PROCESS AND EQUIPMENT IMPROVEMENTS TO INCREASE HIGH LEVEL WASTE THROUGHPUT AT THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Odriscoll, R; Allan Barnes, A; Jim Coleman, J; Timothy Glover, T; Robert Hopkins, R; Dan Iverson, D; Jeff Leita, J

    2008-01-15

    The Savannah River Site's (SRS) Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began stabilizing high level waste (HLW) in a glass matrix in 1996. Over the past few years, there have been several process and equipment improvements at the DWPF to increase the rate at which the high level waste can be stabilized. These improvements have either directly increased waste processing rates or have desensitized the process to upsets, thereby minimizing downtime and increasing production. Improvements due to optimization of waste throughput with increased HLW loading of the glass resulted in a 6% waste throughput increase based upon operational efficiencies. Improvements in canister production include the pour spout heated bellows liner (5%), glass surge (siphon) protection software (2%), melter feed pump software logic change to prevent spurious interlocks of the feed pump with subsequent dilution of feed stock (2%) and optimization of the steam atomized scrubber (SAS) operation to minimize downtime (3%) for a total increase in canister production of 12%. A number of process recovery efforts have allowed continued operation. These include the off gas system pluggage and restoration, slurry mix evaporator (SME) tank repair and replacement, remote cleaning of melter top head center nozzle, remote melter internal inspection, SAS pump J-Tube recovery, inadvertent pour scenario resolutions, dome heater transformer bus bar cooling water leak repair and new Infra-red camera for determination of glass height in the canister are discussed.

  8. A new technique for processing airborne gamma ray spectrometry data for mapping low level contaminations.

    PubMed

    Aage, H K; Korsbech, U; Bargholz, K; Hovgaard, J

    1999-12-01

    A new technique for processing airborne gamma ray spectrometry data has been developed. It is based on the noise adjusted singular value decomposition method introduced by Hovgaard in 1997. The new technique opens for mapping of very low contamination levels. It is tested with data from Latvia where the remaining contamination from the 1986 Chernobyl accident together with fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapon tests includes 137Cs at levels often well below 1 kBq/m2 equivalent surface contamination. The limiting factors for obtaining reliable results are radon in the air, spectrum stability and accurate altitude measurements.

  9. Radioactive contamination of the Balchug (Upper Yenisey) floodplain, Russia in relation to sedimentation processes and geomorphology.

    PubMed

    Linnik, V G; Brown, J E; Dowdall, M; Potapov, V N; Surkov, V V; Korobova, E M; Volosov, A G; Vakulovsky, S M; Tertyshnik, E G

    2005-03-01

    The radioactive contamination of a riverine floodplain, heavily influenced by discharges from Krasnoyarsk-26, has been studied with respect to sedimentation processes and the geomorphology of the Upper Yenisey floodplain. The study was effected by implementation of a regime of in situ observations and measurements, sampling, and the interpretation of satellite images. The results of the study indicate that on the Balchug Bypass Floodplain, radionuclide contamination is primarily influenced by the thickness of the deposited sediments, and the area can be considered as two depositional environments. The Balchug floodplain area was contaminated due to sedimentation of radionuclide-contaminated alluvium, whose depositional regime significantly changed after the construction of a hydroelectric power station in 1967. Contamination levels are lower on the upstream part of the floodplain where sediment depth is less than 0.2-0.3 m, and this contamination started to accumulate in 1967, while the downstream part of the floodplain, exhibiting deeper deposits, displays higher levels of radionuclide contamination because radionuclides began to deposit here in 1958 when the Krasnoyarsk-26 Mining and Chemical Combine (KMCC) commenced operation. Radionuclide contamination of the floodplain is also related to the elevation of the floodplain, higher regions of the floodplain typically having lower contamination than low-lying areas, which tend to be frequently inundated with sediments being deposited during such inundations. Local relief, its orientation, and vegetation cover have also combined to form sediment traps with significantly higher radionuclide contamination. Lithological analysis combined with radiometric assay indicates a total 137Cs floodplain inventory of 33.7 GBq.

  10. [Evaluation of microbial contamination of linens in industrial laundry processes].

    PubMed

    Sanna, Adriana; Coroneo, Valentina; Dessì, Sandro; Brandas, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Laundering linens and protecting them from microbiological recontamination are critical issues for the hotel and food industries and especially for hospitals. This study was performed to evaluate a sample of industrial laundries in Sardinia (Italy), to assess their compliance with national hygienic and sanitary regulations, along the complete laundering process. Study results indicate that industrial laundering processes are effective and that better awareness of staff who handle laundered textiles is required to reduce the risk of recontamination.

  11. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Tao; Craig A. Blue

    2004-08-01

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, wear problems of mineral processing equipment including screens, sieve bends, heavy media vessel, dewatering centrifuge, etc., were identified. A novel surface treatment technology, high density infrared (HDI) surface coating process was proposed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated samples were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of AISI 4140 and ASTM A36 steels can be increased 3 and 5 folds, respectively by the application of HDI coatings.

  12. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Husler, R.O. ); Weir, T.J. )

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  13. Occurrence of rhodamine B contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Naiying; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe; Wang, Lei; Liu, Dengshuai

    2016-08-15

    This paper reports on the environmental rhodamine B (RhB) contamination in capsicum caused by agricultural materials during the vegetation process. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was applied to detect 64 capsicum samples from China, Peru, India and Burma. Results demonstrated that RhB was found in all samples at low concentrations (0.11-0.98 μg/kg), indicating RhB contamination in capsicums is probably a ubiquitous phenomenon. In addition, studies into soils, roots, stems and leaves in Handan of Hebei province, China showed that the whole ecologic chain had been contaminated with RhB with the highest levels in leaves. The investigation into the agricultural environment in Handan of Hebei province and Korla of Xinjiang province, China demonstrated that the appearances of RhB contamination in the tested capsicums are mainly due to the agricultural materials contamination. The study verified that environmental contamination should be an important origin for the RhB contamination in capsicum fruits.

  14. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    PubMed

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil.

  15. Adaptive Image Processing Methods for Improving Contaminant Detection Accuracy on Poultry Carcasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract A real-time multispectral imaging system has demonstrated a science-based tool for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection during poultry processing. In order to implement this imaging system at commercial poultry processing industry, the false positives must be removed. For doi...

  16. EVALUATION OF THE ADA TECHNOLOGIES' ELECTRO-DECON PROCESS TO REMOVE RADIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Pao, Jenn-Hai; Demmer, Rick L.; Argyle, Mark D.; Veatch, Brad D.

    2003-02-27

    A surface decontamination system featuring the use of ADA's electrochemical process was tested and evaluated. The process can be flexibly deployed by using an electrolyte delivery system that has been demonstrated to be reliable and effective. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of this system for the surface decontamination of radiologically contaminated stainless steel.

  17. High pressure processing as an intervention for raw virus-contaminated shellfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past 7 years, the USDA ARS Seafood Safety Laboratory has evaluated the potential use of high pressure processing (HPP) as a processing strategy for virus-contaminated shellfish. HPP can inactivate hepatitis A virus, (HAV), the human norovirus surrogates feline calicivirus and murine norovi...

  18. REMOVAL OF PCBS FROM A CONTAMINATED SOIL USING CF-SYSTEMS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's START team in cooperation with EPA's SITE program evaluated a pilot scale solvent extraction process developed by CF-Systems. This process uses liquified propane to extract organic contaminants from soils, sludges, and sediments. A pilot-scale evaluation was conducte...

  19. Response to waste electrical and electronic equipments in China: legislation, recycling system, and advanced integrated process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lei; Xu, Zhenming

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, China has been suffering from negative environmental impacts from distempered waste electrical and electronic equipments (WEEE) recycling activities. For the purpose of environmental protection and resource reusing, China made a great effort to improve WEEE recycling. This article reviews progresses of three major fields in the development of China's WEEE recycling industry: legal system, formal recycling system, and advanced integrated process. Related laws concerning electronic waste (e-waste) management and renewable resource recycling are analyzed from aspects of improvements and loopholes. The outcomes and challenges for existing formal recycling systems are also discussed. The advantage and deficiency related to advanced integrated recycling processes for typical e-wastes are evaluated respectively. Finally, in order to achieve high disposal rates of WEEE, high-quantify separation of different materials in WEEE and high added value final products produced by separated materials from WEEE, an idea of integrated WEEE recycling system is proposed to point future development of WEEE recycling industry.

  20. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing

    SciTech Connect

    W. Pawlak; K. Szymocha

    1998-08-01

    This report covers the technical progress achieved from April 1, 1998 to June 30, 1998 on the POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing. Continuous bench-scale runs were carried out with Luscar Mine coal. The main objectives were to optimize process conditions for a proposed jet processor and to compare its performance with a standard high-shear mixer. A total of three runs consisted of 15 testing periods was carried out. Both conditioning devices performed very well with combustible matter recovery exceeding 96%. Slightly higher coal recovery was observed for high-shear mixer, while lower ash contents were achieved when jet processor was used for coal conditioning. During the current reporting period work has been continued and completed on the engineering and design package of a 3 t/h POC-scale agglomeration unit. Preliminary design package prepared by Thermo Design Engineering, a subcontractor to this project, was submitted to DOE for revision and approval.

  1. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except...

  2. 40 CFR 60.5400 - What equipment leak standards apply to affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... affected facilities at an onshore natural gas processing plant? 60.5400 Section 60.5400 Protection of... NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Production, Transmission... natural gas processing plant? This section applies to the group of all equipment, except...

  3. Contaminants of the bismuth phosphate process as signifiers of nuclear reprocessing history.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Sweet, Lucas E.

    2012-10-01

    Reagents used in spent nuclear fuel recycling impart unique contaminant patterns into the product stream of the process. Efforts are underway at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to characterize and understand the relationship between these patterns and the process that created them. A main challenge to this effort, recycling processes that were employed at the Hanford site from 1944-1989 have been retired for decades. This precludes direct measurements of the contaminant patterns that propagate within product streams of these facilities. In the absence of any operating recycling facilities at Hanford, we have taken a multipronged approach to cataloging contaminants of U.S. reprocessing activities using: (1) historical records summarizing contaminants within the final Pu metal button product of these facilities; (2) samples of opportunity that represent intermediate products of these processes; and (3) lab-scale experiments and model simulations designed to replicate contaminant patterns at each stage of nuclear fuel reprocessing. This report provides a summary of the progress and results from Fiscal Year (April 1, 2010-September 30) 2011.

  4. Hybrid joule heating/electro-osmosis process for extracting contaminants from soil layers

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, Charles R.; Nitao, John J.

    2003-06-10

    Joule (ohmic) heating and electro-osmosis are combined in a hybrid process for removal of both water-soluble contaminants and non-aqueous phase liquids from contaminated, low-permeability soil formations that are saturated. Central to this hybrid process is the partial desaturation of the formation or layer using electro-osmosis to remove a portion of the pore fluids by induction of a ground water flow to extraction wells. Joule heating is then performed on a partially desaturated formation. The joule heating and electro-osmosis operations can be carried out simultaneously or sequentially if the desaturation by electro-osmosis occurs initially. Joule heating of the desaturated formation results in a very effective transfer or partitioning of liquid state contaminants to the vapor phase. The heating also substantially increases the vapor phase pressure in the porous formation. As a result, the contaminant laden vapor phase is forced out into soil layers of a higher permeability where other conventional removal processes, such as steam stripping or ground water extraction can be used to capture the contaminants. This hybrid process is more energy efficient than joule heating or steam stripping for cleaning low permeability formations and can share electrodes to minimize facility costs.

  5. Industrial Technology Modernization Program. Project 87. Improve Process and Automate Equipment. Revision 1. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    operations and the proposed FM & TS manufacturing operations respectively. Factory The factory level (also known as the plant level) is responsible for...application is produced by Cyborg Corporation, Newton, Massachusetts. Transformer Marking Equipment Considerable effort has been expended by Production...the equipment ($3000 - $4000) is not a significant factor in the savings calculations. Oven Monitor Network No reasonable alternative to the Cyborg

  6. Modification and Validation of an Automotive Data Processing Unit, Compessed Video System, and Communications Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1997-04-01

    The primary purpose of the "modification and validation of an automotive data processing unit (DPU), compressed video system, and communications equipment" cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) was to modify and validate both hardware and software, developed by Scientific Atlanta, Incorporated (S-A) for defense applications (e.g., rotary-wing airplanes), for the commercial sector surface transportation domain (i.e., automobiles and trucks). S-A also furnished a state-of-the-art compressed video digital storage and retrieval system (CVDSRS), and off-the-shelf data storage and transmission equipment to support the data acquisition system for crash avoidance research (DASCAR) project conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). In turn, S-A received access to hardware and technology related to DASCAR. DASCAR was subsequently removed completely and installation was repeated a number of times to gain an accurate idea of complete installation, operation, and removal of DASCAR. Upon satisfactory completion of the DASCAR construction and preliminary shakedown, ORNL provided NHTSA with an operational demonstration of DASCAR at their East Liberty, OH test facility. The demonstration included an on-the-road demonstration of the entire data acquisition system using NHTSA'S test track. In addition, the demonstration also consisted of a briefing, containing the following: ORNL generated a plan for validating the prototype data acquisition system with regard to: removal of DASCAR from an existing vehicle, and installation and calibration in other vehicles; reliability of the sensors and systems; data collection and transmission process (data integrity); impact on the drivability of the vehicle and obtrusiveness of the system to the driver; data analysis procedures; conspicuousness of the vehicle to other drivers; and DASCAR installation and removal training and documentation. In order to identify any operational problems not captured by the systems testing

  7. Dismantling of Highly Contaminated Process Installations of the German Reprocessing Facility (WAK) - Status of New Remote Handling Technology - 13287

    SciTech Connect

    Dux, Joachim; Friedrich, Daniel; Lutz, Werner; Ripholz, Martina

    2013-07-01

    Decommissioning and dismantling of the former German Pilot Reprocessing Plant Karlsruhe (WAK) including the Vitrification Facility (VEK) is being executed in different Project steps related to the reprocessing, HLLW storage and vitrification complexes /1/. While inside the reprocessing building the total inventory of process equipment has already been dismantled and disposed of, the HLLW storage and vitrification complex has been placed out of operation since vitrification and tank rinsing procedures where finalized in year 2010. This paper describes the progress made in dismantling of the shielded boxes of the highly contaminated laboratory as a precondition to get access to the hot cells of the HLLW storage. The major challenges of the dismantling of this laboratory were the high dose rates up to 700 mSv/h and the locking technology for the removal of the hot cell installations. In parallel extensive prototype testing of different carrier systems and power manipulators to be applied to dismantle the HLLW-tanks and other hot cell equipment is ongoing. First experiences with the new manipulator carrier system and a new master slave manipulator with force reflection will be reported. (authors)

  8. 3D Geospatial Models for Visualization and Analysis of Groundwater Contamination at a Nuclear Materials Processing Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stirewalt, G. L.; Shepherd, J. C.

    2003-12-01

    Analysis of hydrostratigraphy and uranium and nitrate contamination in groundwater at a former nuclear materials processing facility in Oklahoma were undertaken employing 3-dimensional (3D) geospatial modeling software. Models constructed played an important role in the regulatory decision process of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because they enabled visualization of temporal variations in contaminant concentrations and plume geometry. Three aquifer systems occur at the site, comprised of water-bearing fractured shales separated by indurated sandstone aquitards. The uppermost terrace groundwater system (TGWS) aquifer is composed of terrace and alluvial deposits and a basal shale. The shallow groundwater system (SGWS) aquifer is made up of three shale units and two sandstones. It is separated from the overlying TGWS and underlying deep groundwater system (DGWS) aquifer by sandstone aquitards. Spills of nitric acid solutions containing uranium and radioactive decay products around the main processing building (MPB), leakage from storage ponds west of the MPB, and leaching of radioactive materials from discarded equipment and waste containers contaminated both the TGWS and SGWS aquifers during facility operation between 1970 and 1993. Constructing 3D geospatial property models for analysis of groundwater contamination at the site involved use of EarthVision (EV), a 3D geospatial modeling software developed by Dynamic Graphics, Inc. of Alameda, CA. A viable 3D geohydrologic framework model was initially constructed so property data could be spatially located relative to subsurface geohydrologic units. The framework model contained three hydrostratigraphic zones equivalent to the TGWS, SGWS, and DGWS aquifers in which groundwater samples were collected, separated by two sandstone aquitards. Groundwater data collected in the three aquifer systems since 1991 indicated high concentrations of uranium (>10,000 micrograms/liter) and nitrate (> 500 milligrams

  9. Identification of risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses during the slaughter process.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Berkvens, Dirk; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2016-06-02

    Campylobacter carcass contamination was quantified across the slaughter line during processing of Campylobacter positive batches. These quantitative data were combined together with information describing slaughterhouse and batch related characteristics in order to identify risk factors for Campylobacter contamination levels on broiler carcasses. The results revealed that Campylobacter counts are influenced by the contamination of incoming birds (both the initial external carcass contamination and the colonization level of caeca) and the duration of transport and holding time that can be linked with feed withdrawal period. In addition, technical aspects of the slaughter process such as a dump based unloading system, electrical stunning, lower scalding temperature, incorrect setting of plucking, vent cutter and evisceration machines were identified as risk factors associated with increased Campylobacter counts on processed carcasses. As such the study indicates possible improvements of the slaughter process that can result in better control of Campylobacter numbers under routine processing of Campylobacter positive batches without use of chemical or physical decontamination. Moreover, all investigated factors were existing variations of the routine processing practises and therefore proposed interventions are practically and economically achievable.

  10. Understanding Mechanisms of Radiological Contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Rick Demmer; John Drake; Ryan James, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Over the last 50 years, the study of radiological contamination and decontamination has expanded significantly. This paper addresses the mechanisms of radiological contamination that have been reported and then discusses which methods have recently been used during performance testing of several different decontamination technologies. About twenty years ago the Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC) at the INL began a search for decontamination processes which could minimize secondary waste. In order to test the effectiveness of these decontamination technologies, a new simulated contamination, termed SIMCON, was developed. SIMCON was designed to replicate the types of contamination found on stainless steel, spent fuel processing equipment. Ten years later, the INL began research into methods for simulating urban contamination resulting from a radiological dispersal device (RDD). This work was sponsored by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and included the initial development an aqueous application of contaminant to substrate. Since 2007, research sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has advanced that effort and led to the development of a contamination method that simulates particulate fallout from an Improvised Nuclear Device (IND). The IND method diverges from previous efforts to create tenacious contamination by simulating a reproducible “loose” contamination. Examining these different types of contamination (and subsequent decontamination processes), which have included several different radionuclides and substrates, sheds light on contamination processes that occur throughout the nuclear industry and in the urban environment.

  11. L. monocytogenes in a cheese processing facility: Learning from contamination scenarios over three years of sampling.

    PubMed

    Rückerl, I; Muhterem-Uyar, M; Muri-Klinger, S; Wagner, K-H; Wagner, M; Stessl, B

    2014-10-17

    The aim of this study was to analyze the changing patterns of Listeria monocytogenes contamination in a cheese processing facility manufacturing a wide range of ready-to-eat products. Characterization of L. monocytogenes isolates included genotyping by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). Disinfectant-susceptibility tests and the assessment of L. monocytogenes survival in fresh cheese were also conducted. During the sampling period between 2010 and 2013, a total of 1284 environmental samples were investigated. Overall occurrence rates of Listeria spp. and L. monocytogenes were 21.9% and 19.5%, respectively. Identical L. monocytogenes genotypes were found in the food processing environment (FPE), raw materials and in products. Interventions after the sampling events changed contamination scenarios substantially. The high diversity of globally, widely distributed L. monocytogenes genotypes was reduced by identifying the major sources of contamination. Although susceptible to a broad range of disinfectants and cleaners, one dominant L. monocytogenes sequence type (ST) 5 could not be eradicated from drains and floors. Significantly, intense humidity and steam could be observed in all rooms and water residues were visible on floors due to increased cleaning strategies. This could explain the high L. monocytogenes contamination of the FPE (drains, shoes and floors) throughout the study (15.8%). The outcome of a challenge experiment in fresh cheese showed that L. monocytogenes could survive after 14days of storage at insufficient cooling temperatures (8 and 16°C). All efforts to reduce L. monocytogenes environmental contamination eventually led to a transition from dynamic to stable contamination scenarios. Consequently, implementation of systematic environmental monitoring via in-house systems should either aim for total avoidance of FPE colonization, or emphasize a first reduction of L. monocytogenes to sites where

  12. Control considerations for high frequency, resonant, power processing equipment used in large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.; Schreiner, K. E.; Wolff, F.

    1987-01-01

    Addressed is a class of resonant power processing equipment designed to be used in an integrated high frequency (20 KHz domain), utility power system for large, multi-user spacecraft and other aerospace vehicles. It describes a hardware approach, which has been the basis for parametric and physical data used to justify the selection of high frequency ac as the PMAD baseline for the space station. This paper is part of a larger effort undertaken by NASA and General Dynamics to be sure that all potential space station contractors and other aerospace power system designers understand and can comfortably use this technology, which is now widely used in the commercial sector. In this paper, we will examine control requirements, stability, and operational modes; and their hardware impacts from an integrated system point of view. The current space station PMAD system will provide the overall requirements model to develop an understanding of the performance of this type of system with regard to: (1) regulation; (2) power bus stability and voltage control; (3) source impedance; (4) transient response; (5) power factor effects; and (6) limits and overloads.

  13. Control considerations for high frequency, resonant, power processing equipment used in large systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mildice, J. W.; Schreiner, K. E.; Wolff, F.

    1987-01-01

    Addressed is a class of resonant power processing equipment designed to be used in an integrated high frequency (20 KHz domain), utility power system for large, multi-user spacecraft and other aerospace vehicles. It describes a hardware approach, which has been the basis for parametric and physical data used to justify the selection of high frequency ac as the PMAD baseline for the space station. This paper is part of a larger effort undertaken by NASA and General Dynamics to be sure that all potential space station contractors and other aerospace power system designers understand and can comfortably use this technology, which is now widely used in the commercial sector. In this paper, we will examine control requirements, stability, and operational modes; and their hardware impacts from an integrated system point of view. The current space station PMAD system will provide the overall requirements model to develop an understanding of the performance of this type of system with regard to: (1) regulation; (2) power bus stability and voltage control; (3) source impedance; (4) transient response; (5) power factor effects, and (6) limits and overloads.

  14. Fate of metals contained in waste electrical and electronic equipment in a municipal waste treatment process

    SciTech Connect

    Oguchi, Masahiro; Sakanakura, Hirofumi; Terazono, Atsushi; Takigami, Hidetaka

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The fate of 55 metals during shredding and separation of WEEE was investigated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Most metals were mainly distributed to the small-grain fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Much of metals in WEEE being treated as municipal waste in Japan end up in landfills. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pre-sorting of small digital products reduces metals to be landfilled at some level. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Consideration of metal recovery from other middle-sized WEEE is still important. - Abstract: In Japan, waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) that is not covered by the recycling laws are treated as municipal solid waste. A part of common metals are recovered during the treatment; however, other metals are rarely recovered and their destinations are not clear. This study investigated the distribution ratios and substance flows of 55 metals contained in WEEE during municipal waste treatment using shredding and separation techniques at a Japanese municipal waste treatment plant. The results revealed that more than half of Cu and most of Al contained in WEEE end up in landfills or dissipate under the current municipal waste treatment system. Among the other metals contained in WEEE, at least 70% of the mass was distributed to the small-grain fraction through the shredding and separation and is to be landfilled. Most kinds of metals were concentrated several fold in the small-grain fraction through the process and therefore the small-grain fraction may be a next target for recovery of metals in terms of both metal content and amount. Separate collection and pre-sorting of small digital products can work as effective way for reducing precious metals and less common metals to be landfilled to some extent; however, much of the total masses of those metals would still end up in landfills and it is also important to consider how to recover and utilize metals contained in other WEEE such as audio

  15. Ecotoxicological evaluation of diesel-contaminated soil before and after a bioremediation process.

    PubMed

    Molina-Barahona, L; Vega-Loyo, L; Guerrero, M; Ramírez, S; Romero, I; Vega-Jarquín, C; Albores, A

    2005-02-01

    Evaluation of contaminated sites is usually performed by chemical analysis of pollutants in soil. This is not enough either to evaluate the environmental risk of contaminated soil nor to evaluate the efficiency of soil cleanup techniques. Information on the bioavailability of complex mixtures of xenobiotics and degradation products cannot be totally provided by chemical analytical data, but results from bioassays can integrate the effects of pollutants in complex mixtures. In the preservation of human health and environment quality, it is important to assess the ecotoxicological effects of contaminated soils to obtain a better evaluation of the healthiness of this system. The monitoring of a diesel-contaminated soil and the evaluation of a bioremediation technique conducted on a microcosm scale were performed by a battery of ecotoxicological tests including phytotoxicity, Daphnia magna, and nematode assays. In this study we biostimulated the native microflora of soil contaminated with diesel by adding nutrients and crop residue (corn straw) as a bulking agent and as a source of microorganisms and nutrients; in addition, moisture was adjusted to enhance diesel removal. The bioremediation process efficiency was evaluated directly by an innovative, simple phytotoxicity test system and the diesel extracts by Daphnia magna and nematode assays. Contaminated soil samples were revealed to have toxic effects on seed germination, seedling growth, and Daphnia survival. After biostimulation, the diesel concentration was reduced by 50.6%, and the soil samples showed a significant reduction in phytotoxicity (9%-15%) and Daphnia assays (3-fold), confirming the effectiveness of the bioremediation process. Results from our microcosm study suggest that in addition to the evaluation of the bioremediation processes efficiency, toxicity testing is different with organisms representative of diverse phylogenic levels. The integration of analytical, toxicological and bioremediation data

  16. CROWTM PROCESS APPLICATION FOR SITES CONTAMINATED WITH LIGHT NON-AQUEOUS PHASE LIQUIDS AND CHLORINATED HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    L.A. Johnson, Jr.

    2003-06-30

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has successfully applied the CROWTM (Contained Recovery of Oily Wastes) process at two former manufactured gas plants (MGPs), and a large wood treatment site. The three CROW process applications have all occurred at sites contaminated with coal tars or fuel oil and pentachlorophenol (PCP) mixtures, which are generally denser than water and are classified as dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). While these types of sites are abundant, there are also many sites contaminated with gasoline, diesel fuel, or fuel oil, which are lighter than water and lie on top of an aquifer. A third site type occurs where chlorinated hydrocarbons have contaminated the aquifer. Unlike the DNAPLs found at MGP and wood treatment sites, chlorinated hydrocarbons are approximately one and a half times more dense than water and have fairly low viscosities. These contaminants tend to accumulate very rapidly at the bottom of an aquifer. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and perchloroethylene, or tetrachloroethylene (PCE), are the major industrial chlorinated solvents that have been found contaminating soils and aquifers. The objective of this program was to demonstrate the effectiveness of applying the CROW process to sites contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs) and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Individual objectives were to determine a range of operating conditions necessary to optimize LNAPL and chlorinated hydrocarbon recovery, to conduct numerical simulations to match the laboratory experiments and determine field-scale recoveries, and determine if chemical addition will increase the process efficiency for LNAPLs. The testing consisted of twelve TCE tests; eight tests with PCE, diesel, and wood treatment waste; and four tests with a fuel oil-diesel blend. Testing was conducted with both vertical and horizontal orientations and with ambient to 211 F (99 C) water or steam. Residual saturations for the horizontal tests ranged from 23.6% PV to 0.3% PV

  17. Analysis and evaluation in the production process and equipment area of the low-cost solar array project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, H.; Wolf, M.

    1979-01-01

    The energy consumed in manufacturing silicon solar cell modules was calculated for the current process, as well as for 1982 and 1986 projected processes. In addition, energy payback times for the above three sequences are shown. The module manufacturing energy was partitioned two ways. In one way, the silicon reduction, silicon purification, sheet formation, cell fabrication, and encapsulation energies were found. In addition, the facility, equipment, processing material and direct material lost-in-process energies were appropriated in junction formation processes and full module manufacturing sequences. A brief methodology accounting for the energy of silicon wafers lost-in-processing during cell manufacturing is described.

  18. Decontamination Strategy for Large Area and/or Equipment Contaminated with Chemical and Biological Agents using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Schoske, Richard; Kennedy, Patrick; Duty, Chad E; Smith, Rob R; Huxford, Theodore J; Bonavita, Angelo M; Engleman, Greg; Vass, Arpad Alexander; Griest, Wayne H; Ilgner, Ralph H; Brown, Gilbert M

    2009-04-01

    A strategy for the decontamination of large areas and or equipment contaminated with Biological Warfare Agents (BWAs) and Chemical Warfare Agents (CWAs) was demonstrated using a High Energy Arc Lamp (HEAL) photolysis system. This strategy offers an alternative that is potentially quicker, less hazardous, generates far less waste, and is easier to deploy than those currently fielded by the Department of Defense (DoD). For example, for large frame aircraft the United States Air Force still relies on the combination of weathering (stand alone in environment), air washing (fly aircraft) and finally washing the aircraft with Hot Soapy Water (HSW) in an attempt to remove any remaining contamination. This method is laborious, time consuming (upwards of 12+ hours not including decontamination site preparation), and requires large amounts of water (e.g., 1,600+ gallons for a single large frame aircraft), and generates large amounts of hazardous waste requiring disposal. The efficacy of the HEAL system was demonstrated using diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP) a G series CWA simulant, and Bacillus globigii (BG) a simulant of Bacillus anthracis. Experiments were designed to simulate the energy flux of a field deployable lamp system that could stand-off 17 meters from a 12m2 target area and uniformly expose a surface at 1360 W/m2. The HEAL system in the absence of a catalyst reduced the amount of B. globigii by five orders of magnitude at a starting concentration of 1.63 x 107 spores. In the case of CWA simulants, the HEAL system in the presence of the catalyst TiO2 effectively degraded DIMP sprayed onto a 100mm diameter Petri dish in 5 minutes.

  19. Mobilisation processes responsible for iron and manganese contamination of groundwater in Central Adriatic Italy.

    PubMed

    Palmucci, William; Rusi, Sergio; Di Curzio, Diego

    2016-06-01

    Iron and manganese are two of the most common contaminants that exceed the threshold imposed by international and national legislation. When these contamination occurs in groundwater, the use of the water resource is forbidden for any purposes. Several studies investigated these two metals in groundwater, but research focused in the Central Adriatic area are still lacking. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the origin of Fe and Mn contamination in groundwater and the hydrogeochemical processes that can enrich aquifers with these metals. This work is based on hydrogeochemical and multivariate statistical analysis of analytical results undertaken on soils and groundwater. Fe and Mn contamination are widespread in the alluvial aquifers, and their distribution is regulated by local conditions (i.e. long residence time, presence of peat or organic-rich fine sediments or anthropic pollution) that control redox processes in the aquifers and favour the mobilisation of these two metals in groundwater. The concentration of iron and manganese identified within soil indicates that the latter are a concrete source of the two metals. Anthropic impact on Fe and Mn contamination of groundwater is not related to agricultural activities, but on the contrary, the contribution of hydrocarbons (e.g. spills) is evident.

  20. Impact of intervention strategies on Listeria contamination patterns in crawfish processing plants: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lappi, Victoria R; Thimothe, Joanne; Walker, Jonathan; Bell, Jon; Gall, Kenneth; Moody, Michael W; Wiedmann, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Two ready-to-eat crawfish processing plants were monitored for 2 years to study the impact of Listeria control strategies, including employee training and targeted sanitation procedures, on Listeria contamination. Environmental, raw material, and finished product samples were collected weekly during the main processing months (April to June) and tested for Listeria spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. Before implementation of control strategies (year 1), the two processing plants showed Listeria spp. prevalences of 29.5% (n = 78) in raw, whole crawfish, 5.2% (n = 155) in the processing plant environment, and 0% (n = 78) in finished products. In year 2, after plant-specific Listeria control strategies were implemented, Listeria spp. prevalence increased in raw crawfish (57.5%, n = 101), in the processing plant environment (10.8%, n = 204), and in the finished product (1.0%, n = 102). Statistical analysis showed a significant increase in Listeria spp. prevalence (P < 0.0001) and a borderline nonsignificant increase in L. monocytogenes prevalence (P = 0.097) on raw material in year 2. Borderline nonsignificant increases were also observed for Listeria spp. prevalence in environmental samples (P = 0.082). Our data showed that Listeria spp. prevalence in raw crawfish can vary significantly among seasons. However, the increased contamination prevalence for raw materials only resulted in a limited Listeria prevalence increase for the processing plant environment with extremely low levels of finished product contamination. Heat treatment of raw materials combined with Listeria control strategies to prevent cross-contamination thus appears to be effective in achieving low levels of finished product contamination, even with Listeria spp. prevalences for raw crawfish of more than 50%.

  1. EPA Treatability Database Digs Deep for Data on Drinking Water Contaminants and Treatment Processes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The TDB is an interactive database that was initially developed in 2006-2007. The TDB currently contains more than 60 regulated and unregulated contaminants and 28 treatment processes that are known to be effective and are commonly employed at drinking water utilities. TDB lite...

  2. NATURAL ARSENIC CONTAMINATION OF HOLOCENE ALLUVIAL AQUIFERS BY LINKED TECTONIC, WEATHERING, AND MICROBIAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Linked tectonic, geochemical, and biologic processes lead to natural arsenic contamination of groundwater in Holocene alluvial aquifers, which are the main threat to human health around the world. These groundwaters are commonly found a long distance from their ultimate source of...

  3. MICROBIAL PROCESSES AFFECTING MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION OF CONTAMINANTS IN THE SUBSURFACE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the alternatives considered for the remediation of soil and ground water at hazardous wastes sites are the use of natural processes to reduce or remove the contaminants of concern. Under favorable conditions, the use of natural attenuation can result in significant cost sa...

  4. EXPERIMENTS WITH A RESIN-IN-PULP PROCESS FOR TREATING LEAD-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the results of experiments to evaluate the potential for using a resin-in-pulp process to remove lead contamination from soil. These experiments examined the kinetics and equilibrium partitioning of lead, lead carbonate, lead oxide, and lead sulfate in resin-s...

  5. In situ treatment of mixed contaminants in groundwater: Review of candidate processes

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Ally, M.

    1994-10-01

    This document describes the screening and preliminary evaluation of candidate treatment for use in treating mixed contaminants volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and radionuclides in groundwater. Treating mixed contaminants presents unusual difficulties. Typically, VOCs are the most abundant contaminants, but the presence of radionuclides results in additional health concerns that must be addressed, usually by a treatment approach different from that used for VOCs. Furthermore, the presence of radionuclides may yield mixed solid wastes if the VOCs are treated by conventional means. These issues were specifically addressed in the evaluation of candidate treatment processes for testing in this program. Moreover, because no research or early development of a particular process would be performed, the technology review also focused on technologies that could be readily adapted and integrated for use with mixed contaminants. The objective is to couple emerging or available processes into treatment modules for use in situ. The three year project, to be completed in September 1996, includes a full-scale field demonstration. The findings reported in this document encompass all activities through the treatment process evaluations.

  6. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal...

  7. 42 CFR 421.210 - Designations of regional carriers to process claims for durable medical equipment, prosthetics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... carrier for one or more entire regions to process claims for durable medical equipment, prosthetic devices... defined in § 410.26, incident to a physician's service in a rural health clinic as defined in § 405.2413... by the designated carrier for its designated region and not by other carriers— (1) Durable...

  8. 40 CFR 60.254 - Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards for coal processing and conveying equipment, coal storage systems, transfer and loading systems, and open storage piles. 60.254... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for Coal...

  9. Rapid evolution of redox processes in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Lovley, D.R.; O'Neil, Kyle; Landmeyer, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Ground water chemistry data collected over a six-year period show that the distribution of contaminants and redox processes in a shallow petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer has changed rapidly over time. Shortly after a gasoline release occurred in 1990, high concentrations of benzene were present near the contaminant source area. In this contaminated zone, dissolved oxygen in ground water was depleted, and by 1994 Fe(III) reduction and sulfate reduction were the predominant terminal electron accepting processes. Significantly, dissolved methane was below measurable levels in 1994, indicating the absence of significant methanogenesis. By 1996, however, depletion of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides in aquifer sediments and depletion of dissolved sulfate in ground water resulted in the onset of methanogenesis. Between 1996 and 2000, water-chemistry data indicated that methanogenic metabolism became increasingly prevalent. Molecular analysis of 16S-rDNA extracted from sediments shows the presence of a more diverse methanogenic community inside as opposed to outside the plume core, and is consistent with water-chemistry data indicating a shift toward methanogenesis over time. This rapid evolution of redox processes reflects several factors including the large amounts of contaminants, relatively rapid ground water flow (???0.3 m/day [???1 foot/day]), and low concentrations of microbially reducible Fe(III) oxyhydroxides (???1 ??mol/g) initially present in aquifer sediments. These results illustrate that, under certain hydrologic conditions, redox conditions in petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifers can change rapidly in time and space, and that the availability of solid-phase Fe(III)-oxyhydroxides affects this rate of change.

  10. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Tao; Craig A. Blue

    2006-07-20

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, novel surface treatment technologies, High Density Infrared (HDI) and Laser Surface Engineering (LSE) surface coating processes were developed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated specimens were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of ASTM A36 (raw coal screen section) and can be significantly increased by applying HDI and LSE coating processes. Field testing has been performed using a LSE-treated screen panel and it showed a 2 times improvement of the service life.

  11. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Tao; Craig A. Blue

    2005-08-01

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, a novel surface treatment technology, laser surface engineering (LSE) surface coating process was proposed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated specimen were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of ASTM A36 (raw coal screen section) and AISI 4140 steels can be increased 10 and 25 folds, respectively by the application of LSE process. Initial field testing showed a 2 times improvement of the service life of a raw coal screen panel.

  12. Development of Advanced Surface Enhancement Technology for Decreasing Wear and Corrosion of Equipment Used for Mineral Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Tao; R. Honaker; B. K. Parekh

    2007-09-20

    Equipment wear is a major concern in the mineral processing industry, which dramatically increases the maintenance cost and adversely affects plant operation efficiency. In this research, novel surface treatment technologies, High Density Infrared (HDI) and Laser Surface Engineering (LSE) surface coating processes were developed for the surface enhancement of selected mineral and coal processing equipment. Microstructural and mechanical properties of the coated specimens were characterized. Laboratory-simulated wear tests were conducted to evaluate the tribological performance of the coated components. Test results indicate that the wear resistance of ASTM A36 (raw coal screen section) and can be significantly increased by applying HDI and LSE coating processes. Field testing has been performed using a LSE-treated screen panel and it showed a significant improvement of the service life.

  13. Ultrasonic process for remediation of organics-contaminated groundwater/wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, J.M.; Peters, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    A technology is being developed that employs ultrasonic-wave energy for remediation of groundwater/wastewater contaminated with volatile organic compounds such as carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) and trichloroethylene (TCE). This paper presents the updated results of a laboratory investigation of ultrasonic groundwater remediation using synthetic groundwaters prepared with laboratory deionized water. Key process parameters investigated included steady-state temperature, contaminant concentration, solution pH, sonication time, and intensity of the applied ultrasonics-wave energy. High destruction efficiencies of the target contaminants were achieved, and the sonication time required for a given degree of destruction decreased with increasing intensity of the applied ultrasonic energy. The sonication time can be further reduced by adding a chemical oxidant such as hydrogen peroxide.

  14. Decontamination and size reduction of plutonium contaminated process exhaust ductwork and glove boxes

    SciTech Connect

    LaFrate, P.; Elliott, J.; Valasquez, M.

    1996-11-15

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Decommissioning Program has decontaminated and demolished two filter plenum buildings at Technical Area 21 (TA-21). During the project a former hot cell was retrofitted to perform decontamination and size reduction of highly Pu contaminated process exhaust (1,100 ft) and gloveboxes. Pu-238/239 concentrations were as high a 1 Ci per linear foot and averaged approximately 1 mCi/ft. The Project decontamination objective was to reduce the plutonium contamination on surfaces below transuranic levels. If possible, metal surfaces were decontaminated further to meet Science and Ecology Group (SEG) waste classification guidelines to enable the metal to be recycled at their facility in oak Ridge, Tennessee. Project surface contamination acceptance criteria for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW), transuranic waste, and SEG waste acceptance criteria will be presented. Ninety percent of all radioactive waste for the project was characterized as LLRW. Twenty percent of this material was shipped to SEG. Process exhaust and glove boxes were brought to the project decontamination area, an old hot cell in Building 4 North. This paper focuses on process exhaust and glovebox decontamination methodology, size reduction techniques, waste characterization, airborne contamination monitoring, engineering controls, worker protection, lessons learned, and waste minimization. Decontamination objectives are discussed in detail.

  15. Investigation of the effect of contaminations and cleaning processes on the surface properties of brazing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Wiesner, S.

    2017-03-01

    The quality of brazed joints is determined by different factors such as the atmosphere and the parameters during brazing as well as the condition of the brazing surfaces. Residues of lubricants used during machining of the components and the subsequent cleaning processes can contaminate the faying surfaces and can hence influence the flow ability of the molten filler metals. Besides their influence on the filler metal flow, the residues can result in the formation of carbonic phases in the joint leading to a possible reduction of the corrosion resistance and the mechanical properties. The first step of the current study with the aim of avoiding these defects is to identify the influence of critical contaminations and cleaning methods on the quality of the brazed joints. In a first step, contaminations on AISI304 and Inconel alloy 625 due to different cooling lubricants and the effect of several cleaning methods, in particular plasma cleaning, have been investigated. Information about the surface energy of contaminated and cleaned surfaces was gained by measuring contact angle of testing fluids. Additionally, the lubricants and the resulting contamination products have been analyzed considering the influence of a heat treatment.

  16. Campylobacter carcass contamination throughout the slaughter process of Campylobacter-positive broiler batches.

    PubMed

    Seliwiorstow, Tomasz; Baré, Julie; Van Damme, Inge; Uyttendaele, Mieke; De Zutter, Lieven

    2015-02-02

    Campylobacter contamination on broiler carcasses of Campylobacter colonized flocks was quantified at seven sampling sites throughout the slaughter process. For this purpose, in four slaughterhouses samples were collected from twelve Campylobacter positive batches. Broilers from all visits carried high numbers of campylobacters in their caeca (≥7.9log10cfu/g). Campylobacter counts on feathers (up to 6.8log10cfu/g), positively associated with the breast skin contamination of incoming birds and carcasses after plucking, were identified as an additional source of carcass contamination. A high variability in Campylobacter carcass contamination on breast skin samples within batches and between batches in the same slaughterhouse and between slaughterhouses was observed. In slaughterhouses A, B, C and D Campylobacter counts exceeded a limit of 1000cfu/g on 50%, 56%, 78% and 11% of carcasses after chilling, respectively. This finding indicates that certain slaughterhouses are able to better control Campylobacter contamination than others. Overall, the present study focuses on the descriptive analysis of Campylobacter counts in different slaughterhouses, different batches within a slaughterhouse and within a batch at several sampling locations.

  17. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOEpatents

    King, C. Judson; MacKenzie, Patricia D.

    1985-01-01

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia, and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with steam, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  18. Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Mackenzie, P.D.

    1982-09-03

    Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with stream, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

  19. Cryogenic processes and equipment - 1984; Proceedings of the Fifth Intersociety Cryogenics Symposium, New Orleans, LA, December 9-14, 1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerney, P. J.; Chatterjee, N.; Crawford, D. B.; El-Masri, M.

    The topics of cryogenic processes for LNG and EOR, cryogenic refrigerators, components for cryogenic systems, liquid hydrogen as a fuel, cryogenic processes and equipment for large systems, and cryogenic thermodynamics and heat transfer are discussed. The papers include analysis of process efficiency for baseload LNG production, process efficiency considerations for nitrogen rejection units, design and performance analysis of gas sorption compressors, cryogenic vacuum pump design, and the hydrogen-fueled hydrogen transport rail system (a NASA proposal). In addition, refueling considerations for liquid hydrogen-fueled vehicles, variable oxygen supply systems, and orientation dependence to liquid helium heat transfer from a cable-in-channel configuration are considered.

  20. Mathematical Modeling for the Development of Equipment for Thermochemical Processing of Wood Waste in to Dimethyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadrtdinov, Almaz R.; Esmagilova, Liliya M.; Saldaev, Vladimir A.; Sattarova, Zulfiya G.; Mokhovikov, Alexey A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes the process of thermochemical wood waste processing in to dimethyl ether. The physical picture of the process of waste wood recycling was compiled and studied and the mathematical model in the form of differential and algebraic equations with initial and boundary conditions was developed on its basis. The mathematical model allows to determine the optimum operating parameters of synthesis gas producing process, suitable for the catalytic synthesis of dimethyl ether and to calculate the basic constructive parameters of the equipment flowsheet.

  1. [Contamination with genetically modified maize MON863 of processed foods on the market].

    PubMed

    Ohgiya, Yoko; Sakai, Masaaki; Miyashita, Taeko; Yano, Koichi

    2009-06-01

    Genetically modified maize MON863 (MON863), which has passed a safety examination in Japan, is commercially cultivated in the United States as a food and a resource for fuel. Maize is an anemophilous flower, which easily hybridizes. However, an official method for quantifying the content of MON863 has not been provided yet in Japan. We here examined MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that had no labeling indicating of the use of genetically modified maize.From March 2006 to July 2008, we purchased 20 frozen maize products, 8 maize powder products, 7 canned maize products and 4 other maize processed foods. Three primer pairs named MON 863 primer, MON863-1, and M3/M4 for MON863-specific integrated cassette were used for qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A primer pair "SSIIb-3" for starch synthase gene was used to confirm the quality of extracted DNA. The starch synthase gene was detected in all samples. In qualitative tests, the MON863-specific fragments were detected in 7 (18%) maize powder products out of the 39 processed foods with all the three primer pairs.We concluded that various maize processed foods on the market were contaminated with MON863. It is important to accumulate further information on MON863 contamination in maize-processed foods that have no label indication of the use of genetically modified maize.

  2. Evaluation, modelling and optimization of the cleaning process of contaminated plastic food refillables.

    PubMed

    Devlieghere, F; De Meulenaer, B; Sekitoleko, P; Estrella Garcia, A A; Huyghebaert, A

    1997-01-01

    In this study several types of bottle materials (glass, PET (polyethylene terephthalate), PC (polycarbonate), HDPE (high density polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride)) were evaluated in order to be used as food refillables, comparing the residual chemical contamination after classical caustic washing. Bottles were contaminated with model chemicals (chloroxylenol and d-limonene) and caustic washed with varied process parameters using a simulated laboratory-scale washing procedure. After washing, the chemical-contaminated bottles were filled with water and stored for 28 days at 37 degrees C. The concentrations of the model chemicals in the water after storage were taken as a measure of chemical contamination. The influence of the cleaning parameters (temperature, caustic and commercial additive concentration) was studied using response surface methodology. Washing temperature showed a significant influence on the removal of absorbed chemicals from surfaces compared with the effect of the caustic and especially the additive concentration. Optimization of caustic cleaning for the cleaning process in question led to better cleaning effectiveness, although none of the different washing conditions were able to remove all absorbed chemicals out of the polymeric resins. Commercially available plastic refillables (PET and PC) showed the best chemical rinsability. Glass bottles, however, had in every case the best rinsing characteristics.

  3. Discovery of environmental rhodamine B contamination in paprika during the vegetation process.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qingguo; Gao, Wei; Du, Jingjing; Zhou, Li; Lian, Yunhe

    2012-05-16

    Recently, rhodamine B (RhB) in paprika and chilli has attracted much attention. Almost all the literature has deemed that the detectable RhB was attributed to malicious intents in the fabrication process. However, the occurrence of increasing cases with ultratrace levels of RhB was difficult to understand on the basis of that statement. Here, we report on the discovery of environmental RhB contamination in paprika during its vegetation process. Samples including paprika, soils, and stems collected from seven fields in the Xinjiang Region, China, were detected by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Far from any anthropogenic addition, the ultratrace RhB concentrations in all the paprika samples provided unambiguous evidence that environmental RhB contamination in paprika had really occurred over its growth period. Further illation suggests that the soil contaminated by RhB is one of the major contamination sources and that there may be a degradation of RhB in paprika during the late maturation stage. The discovery has significant implications for re-evaluating the origin of the RhB in paprika- and chilli-containing products.

  4. Contamination Control and Hardware Processing Solutions at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, DeWitt H.; Hampton, Tammy; Huey, LaQuieta; Mitchell, Mark; Norwood, Joey; Lowrey, Nikki

    2012-01-01

    The Contamination Control Team of Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processes Laboratory supports many Programs/ Projects that design, manufacture, and test a wide range of hardware types that are sensitive to contamination and foreign object damage (FOD). Examples where contamination/FOD concerns arise include sensitive structural bondline failure, critical orifice blockage, seal leakage, and reactive fluid compatibility (liquid oxygen, hydrazine) as well as performance degradation of sensitive instruments or spacecraft surfaces such as optical elements and thermal control systems. During the design phase, determination of the sensitivity of a hardware system to different types or levels of contamination/FOD is essential. A contamination control and FOD control plan must then be developed and implemented through all phases of ground processing, and, sometimes, on-orbit use, recovery, and refurbishment. Implementation of proper controls prevents cost and schedule impacts due to hardware damage or rework and helps assure mission success. Current capabilities are being used to support recent and on-going activities for multiple Mission Directorates / Programs such as International Space Station (ISS), James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), Space Launch System (SLS) elements (tanks, engines, booster), etc. The team also advances Green Technology initiatives and addresses materials obsolescence issues for NASA and external customers, most notably in the area of solvent replacement (e.g. aqueous cleaners containing hexavalent chrome, ozone depleting chemicals (CFC s and HCFC's), suspect carcinogens). The team evaluates new surface cleanliness inspection and cleaning technologies (e.g. plasma cleaning), and maintains databases for processing support materials as well as outgassing and optical compatibility test results for spaceflight environments.

  5. 40 CFR 63.1324 - Batch process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1324...) through (c)(7) of this section, the owner or operator may install an organic monitoring device equipped... or the operating permit application as required in § 63.1335(e)(5) or § 63.1335(e)(8),...

  6. 40 CFR 63.489 - Batch front-end process vents-monitoring equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins... may install an organic monitoring device equipped with a continuous recorder. (c) Alternative... Status or the operating permit application as required in § 63.506(e)(5) or § 63.506(e)(8),...

  7. Foci of contamination of Listeria monocytogenes in different cheese processing plants.

    PubMed

    Almeida, G; Magalhães, R; Carneiro, L; Santos, I; Silva, J; Ferreira, V; Hogg, T; Teixeira, P

    2013-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous bacterium widely distributed in the environment that can cause a severe disease in humans when contaminated foods are ingested. Cheese has been implicated in sporadic cases and in outbreaks of listeriosis worldwide. Environmental contamination, in several occasions by persistent strains, has been considered an important source of finished product contamination. The objectives of this research were to (i) evaluate the presence of L. monocytogenes within the factory environments and cheeses of three processing plants, artisanal producer of raw ewe's milk cheeses (APC), small-scale industrial cheese producer (SSI) and industrial cheese producer (ICP) each producing a distinct style of cheese, all with history of contamination by L. monocytogenes (ii) and identify possible sources of contamination using different typing methods (arsenic and cadmium susceptibility, geno-serotyping, PFGE). The presence of markers specific for 3 epidemic clones (ECI-ECIII) of L. monocytogenes was also investigated. Samples were collected from raw milk (n = 179), whey (n = 3), cheese brining solution (n = 7), cheese brine sludge (n = 505), finished product (n = 3016), and environment (n = 2560) during, at least, a four-year period. Listeria monocytogenes was detected in environmental, raw milk and cheese samples, respectively, at 15.4%, 1.1% and 13.6% in APC; at 8.9%, 2.9% and 3.4% in SSI; and at 0%, 21.1% and 0.2% in ICP. Typing of isolates revealed that raw ewe's milk and the dairy plant environment are important sources of contamination, and that some strains persisted for at least four years in the environment. Although cheeses produced in the three plants investigated were never associated with any case or outbreak of listeriosis, some L. monocytogenes belonging to specific PFGE types that caused disease (including putative epidemic clone strains isolated from final products) were found in this study.

  8. Advanced technologies for maintenance of electrical systems and equipment at the Savannah River Site Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Husler, R.O.; Weir, T.J.

    1991-12-31

    An enhanced maintenance program is being established to characterize and monitor cables, components, and process response at the Savannah River Site, Defense Waste Processing Facility. This facility was designed and constructed to immobilize the radioactive waste currently stored in underground storage tanks and is expected to begin operation in 1993. The plant is initiating the program to baseline and monitor instrument and control (I&C) and electrical equipment, remote process equipment, embedded instrument and control cables, and in-cell jumper cables used in the facility. This program is based on the electronic characterization and diagnostic (ECAD) system which was modified to include process response analysis and to meet rigid Department of Energy equipment requirements. The system consists of computer-automated, state-of-the-art electronics. The data that are gathered are stored in a computerized database for analysis, trending, and troubleshooting. It is anticipated that the data which are gathered and trended will aid in life extension for the facility.

  9. Recharge processes drive sulfate reduction in an alluvial aquifer contaminated with landfill leachate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scholl, M.A.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Christenson, S.C.

    2006-01-01

    present in the root zone, and SO42- reduction may be coupled to methane oxidation. The results show that sulfur (and possibly nitrogen) redox processes within the top 2??m of the aquifer are directly related to recharge timing and seasonal water level changes in the aquifer. The results suggest that SO42- reduction associated with the infiltration of recharge may be a significant factor affecting natural attenuation of contaminants in alluvial aquifers. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A signal processing framework for simultaneous detection of multiple environmental contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Subhadeep; Manahan, Michael P.; Mench, Matthew M.

    2013-11-01

    The possibility of large-scale attacks using chemical warfare agents (CWAs) has exposed the critical need for fundamental research enabling the reliable, unambiguous and early detection of trace CWAs and toxic industrial chemicals. This paper presents a unique approach for the identification and classification of simultaneously present multiple environmental contaminants by perturbing an electrochemical (EC) sensor with an oscillating potential for the extraction of statistically rich information from the current response. The dynamic response, being a function of the degree and mechanism of contamination, is then processed with a symbolic dynamic filter for the extraction of representative patterns, which are then classified using a trained neural network. The approach presented in this paper promises to extend the sensing power and sensitivity of these EC sensors by augmenting and complementing sensor technology with state-of-the-art embedded real-time signal processing capabilities.

  11. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    This decontamination and decommissioning (D D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  12. Decontamination and decommissioning plan for processing contaminated NaK at the INEL

    SciTech Connect

    LaRue, D.M.; Dolenc, M.R.

    1986-09-01

    This decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) plan describes the work elements and project management plan for processing four containers of contaminated sodium/potassium (NaK) and returning the Army Reentry Vehicle Facility Site (ARVFS) to a reusable condition. The document reflects the management plan for this project before finalizing the conceptual design and preliminary prototype tests of the reaction kinetics. As a result, the safety, environmental, and accident analyses are addressed as preliminary assessments before completion at a later date. ARVFS contains an earth-covered bunker, a cylindrical test pit and metal shed, and a cable trench connecting the two items. The bunker currently stores the four containers of NaK from the meltdown of the EBR-1 Mark II core. The D&D project addressed in this plan involves processing the contaminated NaK and returning the ARVFS to potential reuse after cleanup.

  13. Evaluation of radiation resistance of the bacterial contaminants from femoral heads processed for allogeneic transplantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rita; Singh, Durgeshwer

    2009-09-01

    Femoral heads excised during surgery were obtained from patients who had a fractured neck of the femur and were processed as bone allograft. The bacterial contaminants were isolated from femoral heads at different stages of processing and identified based on morphological characteristics and biochemical tests. Bacterial contaminants on bone were mainly Gram-positive bacilli and cocci (58.3%). Twenty-four isolates from bone samples were screened for resistance to radiation. The D10 values for Gram-negative bacteria isolated from femoral heads ranged from 0.17 to 0.65 kGy. Higher D10 values 0.56-1.04 kGy were observed for Gram-positive bacterial isolates.

  14. CHALLENGES OF PRESERVING HISTORIC RESOURCES DURING THE D & D OF HIGHLY CONTAMINATED HISTORICALLY SIGNIFICANT PLUTONIUM PROCESS FACILITIES

    SciTech Connect

    HOPKINS, A.M.

    2006-03-17

    The Manhattan Project was initiated to develop nuclear weapons for use in World War II. The Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) was established in eastern Washington State as a production complex for the Manhattan Project. A major product of the HEW was plutonium. The buildings and process equipment used in the early phases of nuclear weapons development are historically significant because of the new and unique work that was performed. When environmental cleanup became Hanford's central mission in 1991, the Department of Energy (DOE) prepared for the deactivation and decommissioning of many of the old process facilities. In many cases, the process facilities were so contaminated, they faced demolition. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate the historic significance of properties under their jurisdiction for eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places before altering or demolishing them so that mitigation through documentation of the properties can occur. Specifically, federal agencies are required to evaluate their proposed actions against the effect the actions may have on districts, sites, buildings or structures that ere included or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. In an agreement between the DOE'S Richland Operations Office (RL), the Washington State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), the agencies concurred that the Hanford Site Historic District is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places and that a Sitewide Treatment Plan would streamline compliance with the NHPA while allowing RL to manage the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Currently, many of the old processing buildings at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) are undergoing deactivation and decommissioning. RL and Fluor Hanford project managers at the PFP are committed to preserving historical artifacts of the plutonium production process. They

  15. The Challenges of Preserving Historic Resources During the Deactivation and Decommissioning of Highly Contaminated Historically Significant Plutonium Process Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, A.; Minette, M.; Sorenson, D.; Heineman, R.; Gerber, M.; Charboneau, S.; Bond, F.

    2006-07-01

    The Manhattan Project was initiated to develop nuclear weapons for use in World War II. The Hanford Engineer Works (HEW) was established in eastern Washington State as a production complex for the Manhattan Project. A major product of the HEW was plutonium. The buildings and process equipment used in the early phases of nuclear weapons development are historically significant because of the new and unique work that was performed. When environmental cleanup became Hanford's central mission in 1991, the Department of Energy (DOE) prepared for the deactivation and decommissioning of many of the old process facilities. In many cases, the process facilities were so contaminated, they faced demolition. The National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) requires federal agencies to evaluate the historic significance of properties under their jurisdiction for eligibility for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places before altering or demolishing them so that mitigation through documentation of the properties can occur. Specifically, federal agencies are required to evaluate their proposed actions against the effect the actions may have on districts, sites, buildings or structures that are included or eligible for inclusion in the National Register. In an agreement between the DOE's Richland Operations Office (RL), the Washington State Historic Preservation Office (SHPO) and the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation (ACHP), the agencies concurred that the Hanford Site Historic District is eligible for listing on the National Register of Historic Places and that a Site-wide Treatment Plan would streamline compliance with the NHPA while allowing RL to manage the cleanup of the Hanford Site. Currently, many of the old processing buildings at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) are undergoing deactivation and decommissioning. RL and Fluor Hanford project managers at the PFP are committed to preserving historical artifacts of the plutonium production process. They

  16. Ontology-Based Gap Analysis for Technology Selection: A Knowledge Management Framework for the Support of Equipment Purchasing Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macris, Aristomenis M.; Georgakellos, Dimitrios A.

    Technology selection decisions such as equipment purchasing and supplier selection are decisions of strategic importance to companies. The nature of these decisions usually is complex, unstructured and thus, difficult to be captured in a way that will be efficiently reusable. Knowledge reusability is of paramount importance since it enables users participate actively in process design/redesign activities stimulated by the changing technology selection environment. This paper addresses the technology selection problem through an ontology-based approach that captures and makes reusable the equipment purchasing process and assists in identifying (a) the specifications requested by the users' organization, (b) those offered by various candidate vendors' organizations and (c) in performing specifications gap analysis as a prerequisite for effective and efficient technology selection. This approach has practical appeal, operational simplicity, and the potential for both immediate and long-term strategic impact. An example from the iron and steel industry is also presented to illustrate the approach.

  17. The Army Did Not Fully Document Procedures for Processing Wholesale Equipment in Kuwait

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-02-24

    OIG’s responsibilities, as described in Section 8L of the Inspector General Act of 1978, as amended. This is the second in a series of audits on...established and equipment moving into and out of Camp Arifjan is properly accounted for and maintained. During the audit , we also observed a lack of physical...Management Actions Taken During the audit , we advised the Commanders of the 401st Army Field Support Brigade and AFSBn–Kuwait that deficiencies in

  18. Simulating Heterogeneous Infiltration and Contaminant leaching Processes at Chalk River, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, M. A.; Ireson, A. M.; Keim, D.

    2015-12-01

    A study is conducted at a waste management area in Chalk River, Ontario to characterize flow and contaminant transport with the aim of contributing to improved hydrogeological risk assessment in the context of waste management. Field monitoring has been performed to gain insights into the unsaturated zone characteristics, moisture dynamics, and contaminant transport rates. The objective is to provide quantitative estimates of surface fluxes (quantification of infiltration and evaporation) and investigations of unsaturated zone processes controlling water infiltration and spatial variability in head distributions and flow rates. One particular issue is to examine the effectiveness of the clayey soil cap installed to prevent infiltration of water into the waste repository and the top sand soil cover above the clayey layer to divert the infiltrated water laterally. The spatial variability in the unsaturated zone properties and associated effects on water flow and contaminant transport observed at the site, have led to a concerted effort to develop improved model of flow and transport based on stochastic concepts. Results obtained through the unsaturated zone model investigations are combined with the hydrogeological and geochemical components and develop predictive tools to assess the long term fate of the contaminants at the waste management site.

  19. Contaminant-Organic Complexes: Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Traina, Samuel J.; Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2003-06-01

    The current debate over possible decontamination processes for DOE facilities is centered on disparate decontamination problems, but the key contaminants (Thorium [Th],uranium [U], and plutonium [Pu]) are universally important. Innovative agents used alone or in conjunction with traditional processes can increase the potential to reclaim for future use some these valuable resources or at the least decontaminate the metal surfaces to allow disposal as nonradioactive, nonhazardous material. This debate underscores several important issues: (1) regardless of the decontamination scenario, metal (Fe, U, Pu, Np) oxide film removal from the surface is central to decontamination; and (2) simultaneous oxide dissolution and sequestration of actinide contaminants against re-adsorption to a clean metal surface will influence the efficacy of a process or agent and its cost. Current research is investigating the use of microbial siderophores (chelates) to solubilize actinides (i.e., Th, U, Pu) from the surface of Fe oxide surfaces. Continuing research integrates (1) studies of macroscopic dissolution/desorption of common actinide (IV) [Th, U, Pu, Np] solids and species sorbed to and incorporated into Fe oxides, (2) molecular spectroscopy (FTIR, Raman, XAS), to probe the structure and bonding of contaminants, siderophores and their functional moieties, and how these change with the chemical environment, (3) and molecular mechanics and electronic structure calculations to design model siderophore compounds to test and extend the MM3 model.

  20. Molecular-Level Processes Governing the Interaction of Contaminants with Iron and Manganese Oxides - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown Jr., G. E.; Chambers, S. A.

    1999-10-31

    Many of the inorganic and organic contaminants present in sediments at DOE sites can be altered or destroyed by reduction and oxidation (redox) reactions occurring at mineral surfaces. A fundamental understanding of such redox processes provided by molecular-level studies on structurally and compositionally well-defined mineral surfaces will lead to: (i) improved models of contaminant fate and transport in geochemical systems, and (ii) optimized manipulation of these processes for remediation purposes. To contribute to this understanding, we will study, both experimentally and theoretically, redox processes involving three important contaminants - chromate ion, carbon tetrachloride, and trichloroethene TCE, on the following iron and manganese oxides - hematite, magnetite, maghemite, and pyrolusite. These oxides and their hydroxylated analogs commonly occur as coatings on minerals or as interfaces in the subsurface environment. Single-crystal surfaces of these oxides will be synthesized in carefully controlled fashion by molecular beam epitaxy. These surfaces, as well as high surface are powdered samples of these oxides, will be used in spectroscopic and kinetic experiments in both aqueous and gas phases. Our goal is to identify products and to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of surface-catalyzed redox reaction of Cr(VI) and CR(III), and the reductive dechlorination of carbon tetrachloride and TCE. The combination of theory and experiment will provide the base information needed to scale from the molecular level to the microscopic grain level minerals.

  1. Capping widespread creosote contamination in Eagle Harbor, WA: Problems, process, and prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, E.; Duncan, P.B.

    1995-12-31

    Eagle Harbor`s marine sediments are contaminated with creosote from a former wood-treatment facility and with mercury from a former shipyard. Under the Superfund remedial investigation process, areas requiring remediation were defined based on comparison to state of Washington sediment management standards for sediment chemistry and biological effects (bioassays for oyster larvae, amphipod). From a variety of cleanup alternatives, capping was selected for a heavily contaminated subtidal area as the most cost-effective way to provide clean benthic habitat, isolate the contamination, and prevent further contaminant migration. Sandy material for the cap was dredged the Snohomish River as part of a routine federal navigation project and, over a six-month period, was placed in Eagle Harbor using two methods. Within ferry navigation lanes, a split hull barge was opened slowly while under tow. In areas with softer bottom sediments, cap material was hosed off a flat-top barge. GPS and real-time mapping of tracklines allowed for even coverage. Monitoring during and after the construction included analysis of suspended sediments (sediment traps on cap periphery), measurements of cap thickness (bathymetry, subbottom profiling, sediment vertical profile photography, settlement plates), and diver observations of nearby eelgrass beds. Final measurements show that the 21.4 hectare cap ranges from 30 to 270 cm thick, but is at least 60 cm thick in more than 60% of the area. Although PAHs were measured in the sediment traps during capping, significant levels have not been found since. Videos indicate the rapid return of epibiota, and the eelgrass surveys indicated no capping impacts on shoot density. Periodic monitoring of the cap is planned, as well as capping of remaining contaminated subtidal areas.

  2. POC-Scale Testing of Oil Agglomeration Techniques and Equipment for Fine Coal Processing

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-12

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal strearrts. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a jet processor. To meet the overall objective an eleven task work plan has been designed. The work ranges from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment.

  3. Medicare Program; Prior Authorization Process for Certain Durable Medical Equipment, Prosthetics, Orthotics, and Supplies. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-12-30

    This final rule establishes a prior authorization program for certain durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics, and supplies (DMEPOS) items that are frequently subject to unnecessary utilization. This rule defines unnecessary utilization and creates a new requirement that claims for certain DMEPOS items must have an associated provisional affirmed prior authorization decision as a condition of payment. This rule also adds the review contractor's decision regarding prior authorization of coverage of DMEPOS items to the list of actions that are not initial determinations and therefore not appealable.

  4. Processing practices contributing to Campylobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations.

    PubMed

    Sampers, Imca; Habib, Ihab; Berkvens, Dirk; Dumoulin, Ann; Zutter, Lieven De; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2008-12-10

    The aim of this study was to obtain insight into processing practices in the poultry sector contributing to the variability in Campylobacter contamination in Belgian chicken meat preparations. This was achieved by company profiling of eleven food business operators, in order to evaluate variation of processing management, in addition to statistical modelling of microbiological testing results for Campylobacter spp. contamination in 656 end product samples. Almost half (48%) of chicken meat preparation samples were positive for Campylobacter spp. Results revealed a statistically significant variation in Campylobacter contamination between 11 chicken meat producers across Belgium at both quantitative and qualitative detection levels. All producers provided Campylobacter-positive samples, but prevalence ranged from 9% up to 85% at single producer level. The presence or addition of skin during production of chicken meat preparations resulted in almost 2.2-fold increase in the probability of a sample being positive for Campylobacter, while chicken meat preparations made from frozen meat, or partly containing pre-frozen meat, had a significant (Odds Ratio=0.41; CI 95% 0.18:0.98) lower probability of being positive for Campylobacter. However, the quantitative results indicated that the positive freezing effect on Campylobacter count was compromised by the presence and/or adding of skin.

  5. Electrochemical Processes for In-Situ Treatment of Contaminated Soils - Final Report - 09/15/1996 - 01/31/2001

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Chin-Pao

    2001-05-31

    This project will study electrochemical processes for the in situ treatment of soils contaminated by mixed wastes, i.e., organic and inorganic. Soil samples collected form selected DOE waste sites will be characterized for specific organic and metal contaminants and hydraulic permeability. The soil samples are then subject to desorption experiments under various physical-chemical conditions such as pH and the presence of surfactants. Batch electro-osmosis experiments will be conducted to study the transport of contaminants in the soil-water systems. Organic contaminants that are released from the soil substrate will be treated by an advanced oxidation process, i.e., electron-Fantan. Finally, laboratory reactor integrating the elector-osmosis and elector-Fantan processes will be used to study the treatment of contaminated soil in situ.

  6. Bioterrorism: processing contaminated evidence, the effects of formaldehyde gas on the recovery of latent fingermarks.

    PubMed

    Hoile, Rebecca; Walsh, Simon J; Roux, Claude

    2007-09-01

    In the present age of heightened emphasis on counter terrorism, law enforcement and forensic science are constantly evolving and adapting to the motivations and capabilities of terrorist groups and individuals. The use of biological agents on a population, such as anthrax spores, presents unique challenges to the forensic investigator, and the processing of contaminated evidence. In this research, a number of porous and non-porous items were contaminated with viable [corrected] spores and marked with latent fingermarks. The test samples were then subjected to a standard formulation of formaldehyde gas. Latent fingermarks were then recovered post decontamination using a range of methods. Standard fumigation, while effective at destroying viable spores, contributed to the degradation of amino acids leading to loss of ridge detail. A new protocol for formaldehyde gas decontamination was developed which allows for the destruction of viable spores and the successful recovery of latent marks, all within a rapid response time of less than 1 h.

  7. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red and processed meat: What about environmental contaminants?

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

    2016-02-01

    In October 26, 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) issued a press release informing of the recent evaluation of the carcinogenicity of red and processed meat consumption. The consumption of red meat and processed meat was classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans", and as "carcinogenic to humans", respectively. The substances responsible of this potential carcinogenicity would be generated during meat processing, such as curing and smoking, or when meat is heated at high temperatures (N-nitroso-compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic aromatic amines). However, in its assessments, the IARC did not make any reference to the role that may pose some carcinogenic environmental pollutants, which are already present in raw or unprocessed meat. The potential role of a number of environmental chemical contaminants (toxic trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated naphthalenes and perfluoroalkyl substances) on the carcinogenicity of consumption of meat and meat products is discussed in this paper. A case-study, Catalonia (Spain), is specifically assessed, while the influence of cooking on the concentrations of environmental pollutants is also reviewed. It is concluded that although certain cooking processes could modify the levels of chemical contaminants in food, the influence of cooking on the pollutant concentrations depends not only on the particular cooking process, but even more on their original contents in each specific food item. As most of these environmental pollutants are organic, cooking procedures that release or remove fat from the meat should tend to reduce the total concentrations of these contaminants in the cooked meat.

  8. Remediation process monitoring of PAH-contaminated soils using laser-induced fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Ko, Eun-Joung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Wachsmuth, U

    2004-03-01

    In order to investigate the feasibility of Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) for soil remediation process monitoring, the variation in the LIF intensity was studied, in relation to the moisture content and soil particle size distribution for different soil conditions. For each set of conditions, significant correlation was shown between the level of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) and the LIF intensity (R2 > 0.97). Higher fluorescence intensities were measured for PAH contaminated soils with higher sand and moisture contents. The results of the LIF monitoring for the remediation process were compared with the traditional High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) results, after applying a surfactant-enhanced electrokinetic process for the remediation of PAH-contaminated soils. In the electrokinetic (EK) process cell. the PAH concentration, and the normalized LIF intensity near the anode and cathode, showed somewhat contrary trends with respect to the degree of the remediation, even though significantly similar trends were observed in the middle of the soil cell. This may be interpreted as the EK remediation advances, as the electro osmotic flow induce a different moisture and silt/clay, or sand, distribution throughout the soil media, which in turn influences the LIF intensity of the soils. Therefore, in order to overcome these differences, the corrected LIF intensity, using the diffuse reflectance, was applied, which showed a similar remediation trend for the soil specimens in the electrokinetic process cell.

  9. Exposure assessment and process sensitivity analysis of the contamination of Campylobacter in poultry products.

    PubMed

    Osiriphun, S; Iamtaweejaloen, P; Kooprasertying, P; Koetsinchai, W; Tuitemwong, K; Erickson, L E; Tuitemwong, P

    2011-07-01

    Studies were conducted in a Thai poultry plant to identify the factors that affected numbers of Campylobacter jejuni in chicken carcasses. The concentrations of Campylobacter were determined using the SimPlate most probable number and modified charcoal cefoperazone deoxycholate plating methods. Results indicated that the mean concentrations of C. jejuni in carcasses after scalding, plucking, and chilling were 2.93 ± 0.31, 2.98 ± 0.38, 2.88 ± 0.31, and 0.85 ± 0.95 log cfu, whereas the concentrations of C. jejuni in the scalding tank water, plucked feathers, and chicken breast portion were 1.39 ± 0.70, 3.28 ± 0.52, and 0.50 ± 1.22 log cfu, respectively. Sensitivity analysis using tornado order correlation analysis showed that risk parameters affecting the contamination of C. jejuni in the chicken slaughter and processing plant could be ranked as chilling water pH, number of pathogens in the scald tank water, scalding water temperature, number of C. jejuni on plucked feathers, and residual chlorine in the chill water, respectively. The exposure assessment and analysis of process parameters indicated that some of the current critical control points were not effective. The suggested interventions included preventing fecal contamination during transportation; increasing the scalding temperature, giving the scalding water a higher countercurrent flow rate; reducing contamination of feathers in the scalding tank to decrease C. jejuni in the scalding water; spraying water to reduce contamination at the plucking step; monitoring and maintaining the chill water pH at 6.0 to 6.5; and increasing the residual chlorine in the chill water. These interventions were recommended for inclusion in the hazard analysis and critical control point plan of the plant.

  10. PARAMETERS OF TREATED STAINLESS STEEL SURFACES IMPORTANT FOR RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Use of materials that are resistant to bacterial contamination could enhance food safety during processing. Common finishing treatments of stainless steel surfaces used for components of poultry processing equipment were tested for resistance to bacterial attachment. Surface char...

  11. Hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process for in situ destruction of chlorinated hydrocarbon and fuel hydrocarbon contaminants in water and soil

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Copenhaver, Sally C.; Aines, Roger D.

    2000-01-01

    In situ hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation process is useful for in situ degradation of hydrocarbon water and soil contaminants. Fuel hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum distillates and other organic contaminants present in the soil and water are degraded by the process involving hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation into non-toxic products of the degradation. The process uses heat which is distributed through soils and water, optionally combined with oxygen and/or hydrocarbon degradation catalysts, and is particularly useful for remediation of solvent, fuel or other industrially contaminated sites.

  12. 9 CFR 381.305 - Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... valve or piping arrangement that will prevent leakage of air into the retort during the process cycle. (5) Water valves. All retort water lines that are intended to be closed during a process cycle shall... leakage of water into the retort during the process cycle. (b) Pressure processing in steam—(1)...

  13. Processing capabilties for the elimination of contaminated metal scrapyards at DOE/ORO-managed sites. [Metal smelting facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.E.; Williams, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Capabilities exist for reducing all the contaminated nickel, aluminum, and copper scrap to ingot form by smelting. Processing these metals at existing facilities could be completed in about 5 or 6 years. However, these metals represent only about 20% of the total metal inventories currently on hand at the DOE/ORO-managed sites. No provisions have been made for the ferrous scrap. Most of the ferrous scrap is unclassified and does not require secured storage. Also, the potential resale value of the ferrous scrap at about $100 per ton is very low in comparison. Consequently, this scrap has been allowed to accumulate. With several modifications and equipment additions, the induction melter at PGDP could begin processing ferrous scrap after its commitment to nickel and aluminum. The PGDP smelter is a retrofit installation, and annual throughput capabilities are limited. Processing of the existing ferrous scrap inventories would not be completed until the FY 1995-2000 time frame. An alternative proposal has been the installation of induction melters at the other two enrichment facilities. Conceptual design of a generic metal smelting facility is under way. The design study includes capital and operating costs for scrap preparation through ingot storage at an annual throughput of 10,000 tons per year. Facility design includes an induction melter with the capability of melting both ferrous and nonferrous metals. After three years of operation with scrapyard feed, the smelter would have excess capacity to support on-site decontamination and decomissioning projects or upgrading programs. The metal smelting facility has been proposed for FY 1984 line item funding with start-up operations in FY 1986.

  14. Removal of surface contaminants using a chemical-free laser-assisted process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsberg, Audrey C.

    1994-10-01

    Contamination control is a critical issue to the manufacture and maintenance of optical components. Particulates and thin films (organic and inorganic) can degrade optical performance. Current cleaning methods are focusing on aqueous-based cleaning and super- critical fluids. Concurrently, environmentally-conscious manufacturing processes are becoming essential for industrial applications. These manufacturing processes emphasize the reduction of water and chemical consumption and hazardous waste production. In this paper, we will introduce a chemical-free laser assisted process that has demonstrated its capability of removing particulates and films from various surfaces including optical. Since this process works with energy flux and a flowing inert gas, it's readily adaptable and cost effective for many industrial applications.

  15. Effect of a base-catalyzed dechlorination process on the genotoxicity of PCB-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    DeMarini, D.M.; Houk, V.S.; Kornel, A.; Rogers, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the genotoxicity of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of PCB-contaminated soil before and after the soil had been treated by a base-catalyzed dechlorination process, which involved heating a mixture of the soil, polyethylene glycol, and sodium hydroxide to 250-350 C. This dechlorination process reduced by over 99% the PCB concentration in the soil, which was initially 2,200 ppm. The DCM extracts of both control and treated soils were not mutagenic in strain TA100 of Salmonella, but they were mutagenic in strain TA98. The base-catalyzed dechlorination process reduced the mutagenic potency of the soil by approximately one-half. The DCM extracts of the soils before and after treatment were equally genotoxic in a prophage-induction assay in E. coli, which detects some chlorinated organic carcinogens that were not detected by the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. These results show that treatment of PCB-contaminated soil by this base-catalyzed dechlorination process did not increase the genotoxicity of the soil.

  16. Accessing space: A catalogue of process, equipment and resources for commercial users, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A catalogue is presented which is intended for commercial developers who are considering, or who have in progress, a project involving the microgravity environment of space or remote sensing of the Earth. An orientation is given to commercial space activities along with a current inventory of equipment, apparatus, carriers, vehicles, resources, and services available from NASA, other government agencies and U.S. industry. The information describes the array of resources that commercial users should consider when planning ground or space based developments. Many items listed have flown in space or been tested in labs and aboard aircraft and can be reused, revitalized, or adapted to suit specific requirements. New commercial ventures are encouraged to exploit existing inventory and expertise to the greatest extent possible.

  17. 10 CFR 835.1101 - Control of material and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....1101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radioactive Contamination Control... section, material and equipment in contamination areas, high contamination areas, and airborne radioactivity areas shall not be released to a controlled area if: (1) Removable surface contamination levels...

  18. 10 CFR 835.1101 - Control of material and equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....1101 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Radioactive Contamination Control... section, material and equipment in contamination areas, high contamination areas, and airborne radioactivity areas shall not be released to a controlled area if: (1) Removable surface contamination levels...

  19. Heterogeneity and spatial distribution of bacterial background contamination in pulp and process water of a paper mill.

    PubMed

    Milferstedt, K; Godon, J-J; Escudié, R; Prasse, S; Neyret, C; Bernet, N

    2012-12-01

    Identifying the source and the distribution of bacterial contaminant communities in water circuits of industrial applications is critical even when the process may not show signs of acute biofouling. The endemic contamination of facilities can cause adverse effects on process runability but may be masked by the observed daily variability. The distribution of background communities of bacterial contaminants may therefore be critical in the development of new site-specific antifouling strategies. In a paper mill as one example for a full-scale production process, bacterial contaminants in process water and pulp suspensions were mapped using molecular fingerprints at representative locations throughout the plant. These ecological data were analyzed in the process-engineering context of pulp and water flow in the facilities. Dispersal limits within the plant environment led to the presence of distinct groups of contaminant communities in the primary units of the plant, despite high flows of water and paper pulp between units. In the paper machine circuit, community profiles were more homogeneous than in the other primary units. The variability between sampled communities in each primary unit was used to identify a possible point source of microbial contamination, in this case a storage silo for reused pulp. Part of the contamination problem in the paper mill is likely related to indirect effects of microbial activity under the local conditions in the silo rather than to the direct presence of accumulated microbial biomass.

  20. Contamination Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Upjohn Company sought a solution to their problem of potential particulate contamination of sterile injectable drugs. Contamination was caused by dust particles attracted by static electrical charge, which clung to plastic curtains in clean rooms. Upjohn found guidance in NASA Tech Briefs which provided detailed information for reducing static electricity. Guidelines for setting up static free work stations, materials and equipment needed to maintain antistatic protection.

  1. Ventilation Relevant Contaminants of Concern in Commercial Buildings Screening Process and Results

    SciTech Connect

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; McKone, Thomas E.; Apte, Michael G.

    2011-04-29

    This report summarizes the screening procedure and its results for selecting contaminants of concern (COC), whose concentrations are affected by ventilation in commercial buildings. Many pollutants comprising criteria pollutants, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and biological contaminants are found in commercial buildings. In this report, we focus primarily on identifying potential volatile organic COC, which are impacted by ventilation. In the future we plan to extend this effort to inorganic gases and particles. Our screening considers compounds detected frequently in indoor air and compares the concentrations to health-guidelines and thresholds. However, given the range of buildings under consideration, the contaminant sources and their concentrations will vary depending on the activity and use of the buildings. We used a literature review to identify a large list of chemicals found in commercial-building indoor air. The VOCs selected were subject to a two stage screening process, and the compounds of greater interest are included in priority List A. Other VOCs that have been detected in commercial buildings are included in priority List B. The compounds in List B, were further classified into groups B1, B2, B3, B4 in order of decreasing interest.

  2. Calcium polysulfide remediation of hexavalent chromium contamination from chromite ore processing residue.

    PubMed

    Graham, Margaret C; Farmer, John G; Anderson, Peter; Paterson, Edward; Hillier, Stephen; Lumsdon, David G; Bewley, Richard J F

    2006-07-01

    Past disposal of high-lime chromite ore processing residue (COPR) from a chemical works in S.E. Glasgow, UK, has led to continuing release of toxic and carcinogenic hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) to groundwaters which are highly contaminated with Cr(VI)O4(2-). Traditional methods of remediating Cr(VI)-contaminated land, e.g. using ferrous sulfate and organic matter, have had limited success in converting Cr(VI) to less harmful and insoluble Cr(III). This paper describes the first application of calcium polysulfide (CaS(x)) to the remediation of contaminated groundwater and high-lime COPR in a series of laboratory experiments, which have demonstrated the effectiveness of the treatment in quantitatively and rapidly reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III) over the pH range (8-12.5) typically found at the sites. Cr(III)-organic complexes, present in groundwater at one location, were also effectively precipitated upon treatment with CaS(x). The potential for large-scale use of CaS(x) in the remediation of Cr(VI) from COPR is also discussed.

  3. Pesticide-sampling equipment, sample-collection and processing procedures, and water-quality data at Chicod Creek, North Carolina, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, T.K.; Smith, K.E.; Wood, C.D.; Williams, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from Chicod Creek in the Coastal Plain Province of North Carolina during the summer of 1992 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Chicod Creek is in the Albemarle-Pamlico drainage area, one of four study units designated to test equipment and procedures for collecting and processing samples for the solid-phase extraction of selected pesticides, The equipment and procedures were used to isolate 47 pesticides, including organonitrogen, carbamate, organochlorine, organophosphate, and other compounds, targeted to be analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sample-collection and processing equipment equipment cleaning and set-up procedures, methods pertaining to collecting, splitting, and solid-phase extraction of samples, and water-quality data resulting from the field test are presented in this report Most problems encountered during this intensive sampling exercise were operational difficulties relating to equipment used to process samples.

  4. Comparison of Eh and H2 measurements for delineating redox processes in a contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Adriaens, Peter; Henry, Mark A.; Bradley, Paul M.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of oxidation−reduction potential (Eh) and concentrations of dissolved hydrogen (H2) were made in a shallow groundwater system contaminated with solvents and jet fuel to delineate the zonation of redox processes. Eh measurements ranged from +69 to −158 mV in a cross section of the contaminated plume and accurately delineated oxic from anoxic groundwater. Plotting measured Eh and pH values on an equilibrium stability diagram indicated that Fe(III) reduction was the predominant redox process in the anoxic zone and did not indicate the presence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. In contrast, measurements of H2concentrations indicated that methanogenesis predominated in heavily contaminated sediments near the water table surface (H2 ∼ 7.0 nM) and that the methanogenic zone was surrounded by distinct sulfate-reducing (H2 ∼ 1−4 nM) and Fe(III)-reducing (H2 ∼ 0.1−0.8 nM) zones. The presence of methanogenesis, sulfate reduction, and Fe(III) reduction was confirmed by the distribution of dissolved oxygen, sulfate, Fe(II), and methane in groundwater. These results show that H2 concentrations were more useful for identifying anoxic redox processes than Ehmeasurements in this groundwater system. However, H2-based redox zone delineations are more reliable when H2 concentrations are interpreted in the context of electron-acceptor (oxygen, nitrate, sulfate) availability and the presence of final products [Fe(II), sulfide, methane] of microbial metabolism.

  5. Summary report on the demonstration of the Duratek process for treatment of mixed-waste contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Lomenick, T.F.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of the demonstration of the Duratek process for removal of radioactive and hazardous waste compounds from mixed-waste contaminated groundwaters found at the Department of Energy (DOE) sites managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems). The process uses Duratek proprietary Durasil{reg_sign} ion-exchange media to remove the above contaminants from the water to produce treated water that can meet current and proposed drinking water quality standards with regard to the above contaminants. The demonstration showed that the process is simple, compact, versatile, and rugged and requires only minimal operator attention. It is thus recommended that this process be considered for remediating the mixed-waste contaminated waters found at the Energy Systems-managed DOE sites.

  6. Summary report on the demonstration of the Duratek process for treatment of mixed-waste contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Lomenick, T.F.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of the demonstration of the Duratek process for removal of radioactive and hazardous waste compounds from mixed-waste contaminated groundwaters found at the Department of Energy (DOE) sites managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems (Energy Systems). The process uses Duratek proprietary Durasil{reg sign} ion-exchange media to remove the above contaminants from the water to produce treated water that can meet current and proposed drinking water quality standards with regard to the above contaminants. The demonstration showed that the process is simple, compact, versatile, and rugged and requires only minimal operator attention. It is thus recommended that this process be considered for remediating the mixed-waste contaminated waters found at the Energy Systems-managed DOE sites.

  7. Geochemical and microbiological methods for evaluating anaerobic processes in an aquifer contaminated by landfill leachate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cozzarelli, I.M.; Suflita, J.M.; Ulrich, G.A.; Harris, S.H.; Scholl, M.A.; Schlottmann, J.L.; Christenson, S.

    2000-01-01

    A combined geochemical and microbiological approach was needed to delineate the biogeochemical processes occurring in an aquifer contaminated by landfill leachate in Norman, OK, where the important microbially mediated reactions in an anoxic plume were iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. The highest rates of sulfate reduction (13.2 ??M/day) were detected near the water table where sulfate levels were maximal (up to 4.6 mM). The enrichment of 34S in the sulfate pools (??34S of SO42- was 67-69%0), and dissolved hydrogen measurements provided additional support for the importance of sulfate reduction near the water table. Methane was detected in the center of the plume where sulfate was depleted. Microbial incubations demonstrated concomitant sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in the anoxic portion of the plume. Although high concentrations of soluble reduced iron were detected throughout the aquifer and H2 levels were indicative of iron reduction under steady-state conditions, microbiological experiments showed that iron reduction was active only at the edges of the sulfate-depleted portion of the plume. This study demonstrates the benefits of using a combined geochemical and microbiological approach to elucidate the spatial distribution of biogeochemical processes in contaminated aquifers.A combined geochemical and microbiological approach was needed to delineate the biogeochemical processes occurring in an aquifer contaminated by landfill leachate in Norman, OK, where the important microbially mediated reactions in an anoxic plume were iron reduction, sulfate reduction, and methanogenesis. The highest rates of sulfate reduction (13.2 ??M/day) were detected near the water table where sulfate levels were maximal (up to 4.6 mM). The enrichment of 34S in the sulfate pools (??34S of SO42- was 67-69 per mil), and dissolved hydrogen measurements provided additional support for the importance of sulfate reduction near the water table. Methane was

  8. Exposure pathway evaluations for sites that processed asbestos-contaminated vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Barbara A; Dearwent, Steve M; Durant, James T; Dyken, Jill J; Freed, Jennifer A; Moore, Susan McAfee; Wheeler, John S

    2005-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is currently evaluating the potential public health impacts associated with the processing of asbestos-contaminated vermiculite at various facilities around the country. Vermiculite ore contaminated with significant levels of asbestos was mined and milled in Libby, Montana, from the early 1920s until 1990. The majority of the Libby ore was then shipped to processing facilities for exfoliation. ATSDR initiated the National Asbestos Exposure Review (NAER) to identify and evaluate exposure pathways associated with these processing facilities. This manuscript details ATSDR's phased approach in addressing exposure potential around these sites. As this is an ongoing project, only the results from a selected set of completed site analyses are presented. Historical occupational exposures are the most significant exposure pathway for the site evaluations completed to date. Former workers also probably brought asbestos fibers home on their clothing, shoes, and hair, and their household contacts may have been exposed. Currently, most site-related worker and community exposure pathways have been eliminated. One community exposure pathway of indeterminate significance is the current exposure of individuals through direct contact with waste rock brought home for personal use as fill material, driveway surfacing, or soil amendment. Trace levels of asbestos are present in soil at many of the sites and buried waste rock has been discovered at a few sites; therefore, future worker and community exposure associated with disturbing on-site soil during construction or redevelopment at these sites is also a potential exposure pathway.

  9. Ecotoxicity of arsenic contaminated sludge after mixing with soils and addition into composting and vermicomposting processes.

    PubMed

    Vašíčková, Jana; Maňáková, Blanka; Šudoma, Marek; Hofman, Jakub

    2016-11-05

    Sludge coming from remediation of groundwater contaminated by industry is usually managed as hazardous waste despite it might be considered for further processing as a source of nutrients. The ecotoxicity of phosphorus rich sludge contaminated with arsenic was evaluated after mixing with soil and cultivation with Sinapis alba, and supplementation into composting and vermicomposting processes. The Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida reproduction tests and the Lactuca sativa root growth test were used. Invertebrate bioassays reacted sensitively to arsenic presence in soil-sludge mixtures. The root elongation of L. sativa was not sensitive and showed variable results. In general, the relationship between invertebrate tests results and arsenic mobile concentration was indicated in majority endpoints. Nevertheless, significant portion of the results still cannot be satisfactorily explained by As chemistry data. Composted and vermicomposted sludge mixtures showed surprisingly high toxicity on all three tested organisms despite the decrease in arsenic mobility, probably due to toxic metabolites of bacteria and earthworms produced during these processes. The results from the study indicated the inability of chemical methods to predict the effects of complex mixtures on living organisms with respect to ecotoxicity bioassays.

  10. Ultrasonically aided mineral processing technique for remediation of soil contaminated by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Kyllönen, Hanna; Pirkonen, Pentti; Hintikka, Väinö; Parvinen, Pekka; Grönroos, Antti; Sekki, Hannu

    2004-05-01

    In this study, power ultrasound was used as aiding method for the mineral processing technique, which have recently been developed for the remediation of soil contaminated by heavy metal containing bullets, their broken parts and alteration products. Power ultrasound was used to disperse the soil to remove metals and metal compounds from soil particle surfaces instead of attrition conditioning. The soil diluted with water was treated using 22 kHz ultrasound power of 100 W up to 500 W. The effect of different ultrasonic treatment time and pulsation of ultrasound were studied on the purity of sink and float fractions in heavy medium separation process, screen fractions, and mineral concentrates and tailings from flotation process. Ultrasound enhanced the remediation of soil fractions in all the studied cases. Optimisation of the ultrasonic power will be done in the continuation study.

  11. The analysis and minimization of oxygen contamination in the powder processing of molybdenum disilicide

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, Kruse

    1994-04-24

    Problems with MoSi2 include low-temperature fracture toughness, high-temperature creep resistance, and ``pest`` phenomena. Oxygen introduced by powder processing may be the cause of some of these problems. This study led to the following conclusions: Supplied powders have significant oxygen present prior to processing (up to 2.5 %), in the form of silica on the surface. This oxygen contamination did not increase by exposure to air at room temperature. An improved powder processing method was developed that uses glass encapsulation. Analysis of microstructures created from powders that contained 4900 to 24,100 ppM oxygen showed that the silica was transferred to the fully dense MoSi2 as SiO2 inclusions. A method of producing MoSi2 with less oxygen was attempted.

  12. Melt processing and property testing of a model system of plastics contained in waste from electrical and electronic equipment.

    PubMed

    Triantou, Marianna I; Tarantili, Petroula A; Andreopoulos, Andreas G

    2015-05-01

    In the present research, blending of polymers used in electrical and electronic equipment, i.e. acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer, polycarbonate and polypropylene, was performed in a twin-screw extruder, in order to explore the effect process parameters on the mixture properties, in an attempt to determine some characteristics of a fast and economical procedure for waste management. The addition of polycarbonate in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer seemed to increase its thermal stability. Also, the addition of polypropylene in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer facilitates its melt processing, whereas the addition of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer in polypropylene improves its mechanical performance. Moreover, the upgrading of the above blends by incorporating 2 phr organically modified montmorillonite was investigated. The prepared nanocomposites exhibit greater tensile strength, elastic modulus and storage modulus, as well as higher melt viscosity, compared with the unreinforced blends. The incorporation of montmorillonite nanoplatelets in polycarbonate-rich acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate blends turns the thermal degradation mechanism into a two-stage process. Alternatively to mechanical recycling, the energy recovery from the combustion of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polycarbonate and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer/polypropylene blends was recorded by measuring the gross calorific value. Comparing the investigated polymers, polypropylene presents the higher gross calorific value, followed by acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer and then polycarbonate. The above study allows a rough comparative evaluation of various methodologies for treating plastics from waste from electrical and electronic equipment.

  13. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation: Processes and equipment. (Latest citations from the US Patent database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning methods, processes, and apparatus for coal liquefaction and hydrogenation. Included are patents for catalytic two-stage, catalytic single-step, fixed-bed, hydrogen-donor, internal heat transfer, and multi-phase processes. Topics also include catalyst production, catalyst recovery, desulfurization, pretreatment of coals, energy recovery processes, solvent product separation, hydrogenating gases, and pollution control. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  14. Formulating poultry processing sanitizers from alkaline salts of fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Though some poultry processing operations remove microorganisms from carcasses; other processing operations cause cross-contamination that spreads microorganisms between carcasses, processing water, and processing equipment. One method used by commercial poultry processors to reduce microbial contam...

  15. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Howard

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy's Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  16. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1.

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-12-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by (137)Cesium ((137)Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as (132)Te-(132)I, (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h(-1) per initial (137)Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2), whereas it was 100 μGy h(-1) around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m(-2) for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums ((134)Cs + (137)Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively.

  17. Hygiene and Safety in the Meat Processing Environment from Butcher Shops: Microbiological Contamination and Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Silva, Danilo Augusto Lopes da; Dias, Mariane Rezende; Cossi, Marcus Vinícius Coutinho; Castilho, Natália Parma Augusto de; Camargo, Anderson Carlos; Nero, Lúis Augusto

    2016-04-01

    The quality and safety of meat products can be estimated by assessing their contamination by hygiene indicator microorganisms and some foodborne pathogens, with Listeria monocytogenes as a major concern. To identify the main sources of microbiological contamination in the processing environment of three butcher shops, surface samples were obtained from the hands of employees, tables, knives, inside butcher displays, grinders, and meat tenderizers (24 samples per point). All samples were subjected to enumeration of hygiene indicator microorganisms and detection of L. monocytogenes, and the obtained isolates were characterized by their serogroups and virulence genes. The results demonstrated the absence of relevant differences in the levels of microbiological contamination among butcher shops; samples with counts higher than reference values indicated inefficiency in adopted hygiene procedures. A total of 87 samples were positive for Listeria spp. (60.4%): 22 from tables, 20 from grinders, 16 from knives, 13 from hands, 9 from meat tenderizers, and 7 from butcher shop displays. Thirty-one samples (21.5%) were positive for L. monocytogenes, indicating the presence of the pathogen in meat processing environments. Seventy-four L. monocytogenes isolates were identified, with 52 from serogroups 1/2c or 3c and 22 from serogroups 4b, 4d, 4a, or 4c. All 74 isolates were positive for hlyA, iap, plcA, actA, and internalins (inlA, inlB, inlC, and inlJ). The establishment of appropriate procedures to reduce microbial counts and control the spread of L. monocytogenes in the final steps of the meat production chain is of utmost importance, with obvious effects on the quality and safety of meat products for human consumption.

  18. Comparison of the accident process, radioactivity release and ground contamination between Chernobyl and Fukushima-1

    PubMed Central

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Hayashi, Gohei; Endo, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we have reviewed the basic features of the accident processes and radioactivity releases that occurred in the Chernobyl accident (1986) and in the Fukushima-1 accident (2011). The Chernobyl accident was a power-surge accident that was caused by a failure of control of a fission chain reaction, which instantaneously destroyed the reactor and building, whereas the Fukushima-1 accident was a loss-of-coolant accident in which the reactor cores of three units were melted by decay heat after losing the electricity supply. Although the quantity of radioactive noble gases released from Fukushima-1 exceeded the amount released from Chernobyl, the size of land area severely contaminated by 137Cesium (137Cs) was 10 times smaller around Fukushima-1 compared with around Chernobyl. The differences in the accident process are reflected in the composition of the discharged radioactivity as well as in the composition of the ground contamination. Volatile radionuclides (such as 132Te-132I, 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs) contributed to the gamma-ray exposure from the ground contamination around Fukishima-1, whereas a greater variety of radionuclides contributed significantly around Chernobyl. When radioactivity deposition occurred, the radiation exposure rate near Chernobyl is estimated to have been 770 μGy h−1 per initial 137Cs deposition of 1000 kBq m−2, whereas it was 100 μGy h−1 around Fukushima-1. Estimates of the cumulative exposure for 30 years are 970 and 570 mGy per initial deposition of 1000 kBq m−2 for Chernobyl and Fukusima-1, respectively. Of these exposures, 49 and 98% were contributed by radiocesiums (134Cs + 137Cs) around Chernobyl and Fukushima-1, respectively. PMID:26568603

  19. How to Choose and Incorporate Word Processing Equipment into Your Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Housh, Patty L.

    This two-part document describes the development of a word processing instructional program at NEKA Vo-Tech School (Kansas) and offers recommendations for incorporating word processing into the curriculum. Program development steps which are discussed include: assessing community needs; developing implementation phases; contacting other…

  20. Evaluation of seed cotton cleaning equipment performance at various processing rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The processing rate per unit width of seed cotton cleaning equipment– cylinder cleaners and stick machines– recommended by manufacturers is 4.9-8.2 bales hr-1 m-1 (1.5-2.5 bales hr-1 ft-1). Survey data has indicated that many gins exceed this processing rate. Little research has been conducted wit...

  1. 9 CFR 381.305 - Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the steam dome near the steam/water interface. Where the process schedule specifies maintenance of... be installed in the hydrostatic water legs if the process schedule specifies maintenance of... conducting the maintenance. (h) Container cooling and cooling water. (1) Potable water shall be used...

  2. 9 CFR 318.305 - Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the steam dome near the steam/water interface. Where the process schedule specifies maintenance of... be installed in the hydrostatic water legs if the process schedule specifies maintenance of... water spreaders are used for venting, a maintenance schedule shall be developed and implemented...

  3. 9 CFR 318.305 - Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the steam dome near the steam/water interface. Where the process schedule specifies maintenance of... be installed in the hydrostatic water legs if the process schedule specifies maintenance of... water spreaders are used for venting, a maintenance schedule shall be developed and implemented...

  4. 9 CFR 381.305 - Equipment and procedures for heat processing systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the steam dome near the steam/water interface. Where the process schedule specifies maintenance of... be installed in the hydrostatic water legs if the process schedule specifies maintenance of... conducting the maintenance. (h) Container cooling and cooling water. (1) Potable water shall be used...

  5. Information integration and diagnosis analysis of equipment status and production quality for machining process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zan, Tao; Wang, Min; Hu, Jianzhong

    2010-12-01

    Machining status monitoring technique by multi-sensors can acquire and analyze the machining process information to implement abnormity diagnosis and fault warning. Statistical quality control technique is normally used to distinguish abnormal fluctuations from normal fluctuations through statistical method. In this paper by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods, the necessity and feasibility of integration and fusion is introduced. Then an approach that integrates multi-sensors status monitoring and statistical process control based on artificial intelligent technique, internet technique and database technique is brought forward. Based on virtual instrument technique the author developed the machining quality assurance system - MoniSysOnline, which has been used to monitoring the grinding machining process. By analyzing the quality data and AE signal information of wheel dressing process the reason of machining quality fluctuation has been obtained. The experiment result indicates that the approach is suitable for the status monitoring and analyzing of machining process.

  6. The distribution process of traffic contamination on roadside surface and the influence of meteorological conditions revealed by magnetic monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingming; Hu, Shouyun; Wang, Longsheng; Appel, Erwin

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing number of vehicles and the development of transport systems, traffic contamination has become an important source of current environmental pollution. The study of roadside distribution patterns of traffic-related contaminants and its influencing factors can contribute to assess the scope and distribution process of the contaminants. A large number of works confirmed that magnetic methods which are fast and economic can be used to indicate the traffic-related pollution. Based on the previous study, we installed two new monitoring sites and conducted repeated in situ measurements of magnetic susceptibility (κ). From these data, we calculated the accumulation amount and accumulation rate of κ to reveal the detailed distribution process of traffic contaminants on the roadside surface over time. In addition, we collected daily meteorological data (rainfall and wind direction) and conducted a correlation analysis between the accumulation rate of κ and the meteorological data. The results show that the accumulation rate of traffic contaminants on the roadside surface is lower in periods of higher rainfall, and that the winds influence the distribution pattern of contaminants through changing their transmission path. The results confirm that magnetic methods can be used to reveal the detailed distribution process of traffic-related contaminants and its influencing factors.

  7. Effective treatment of PAH contaminated Superfund site soil with the peroxy-acid process.

    PubMed

    Scott Alderman, N; N'Guessan, Adeola L; Nyman, Marianne C

    2007-07-31

    Peroxy-organic acids are formed by the chemical reaction between organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. The peroxy-acid process was applied to two Superfund site soils provided by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Initial small-scale experiments applied ratios of 3:5:7 (v/v/v) or 3:3:9 (v/v/v) hydrogen peroxide:acetic acid:deionized (DI) water solution to 5g of Superfund site soil. The experiment using 3:5:7 (v/v/v) ratio resulted in an almost complete degradation of the 14 EPA regulated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Bedford LT soil during a 24-h reaction period, while the 3:3:9 (v/v/v) ratio resulted in no applicable degradation in Bedford LT lot 10 soil over the same reaction period. Specific Superfund site soil characteristics (e.g., pH, total organic carbon content and particle size distribution) were found to play an important role in the availability of the PAHs and the efficiency of the transformation during the peroxy-acid process. A scaled-up experiment followed treating 150g of Bedford LT lot 10 soil with and without mixing. The scaled-up processes applied a 3:3:9 (v/v/v) solution resulting in significant decrease in PAH contamination. These findings demonstrate the peroxy-acid process as a viable option for the treatment of PAH contaminated soils. Further work is necessary in order to elucidate the mechanisms of this process.

  8. Methods of Preventing the Spread of Zinc Contamination During Vacuum Processing

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, Paul S.; Duncan, Andrew J.; Stoner, Kevin J.

    2013-12-10

    Radioactive zinc, 65Zn, was detected after a thermal vacuum process that extracted a desired product from articles out of a commercial light water reactor. While the facility is designed to handle radioactive materials, the location of the 65Zn was in an area that is not designed for gamma emitting contaminants. A series of experiments were conducted to entrain the contaminant in an easily replaceable trap within the process piping. The experiments were conducted with increasing levels of complexity. Initially a simple apparatus was developed to determine the effect of substrate temperature on the vapor capture, this was followed by experiments to determine the effect of filter pore size on pumping and trapping, finally the interactive effects of both pore size and temperature were evaluated. The testing was conducted on a system that used a roughing vacuum pump using model and prototypic materials. It was determined that heating the substrate to nominally 200°C resulted in effective trapping on the model as well as prototypic material.

  9. Development of in-can melting process and equipment, 1979 and 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkus, L. L.; Larson, D. E.; Bjorklund, W. J.; Holton, L. K.

    1981-09-01

    Nonradioactive process testing continued with the in-can melter as part of an investigation into the applicability of this vitrification process to various calcined high level and incinerator ash radioactive wastes. How waste composition and canister fins affect in-can melter capacity and how waste composition affects glass quality were examined. Process performance proved to be generally satisfactory. Pilot scale in-can melter runs were performed with synthetic, nonradioactive, high level wastes to produce eight canisters of glass. The synthetic waste processed included high level wastes as well as transuranic ash waste. Full scale in-can melter runs using nonradioactive materials were also conducted, producing ten canisters of glass. In the full scale in-can melter furnace the baffles separating the six heating zones were removed because of baffle warping. A remotely operated section connecting the spray calciner to the canister was tested. Some problems were encountered with calcine plugging.

  10. Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron and its application to online monitoring of industrial process effluents.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Seiichi; Abe, Keiko; Ohsumi, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Miyazaki, Naotsugu; Miyadera, Koji; Akasaka, Kin-ichi

    2009-06-01

    Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron (referred to as the online boron monitor) was developed on the basis of a rapid potentiometric determination method using a commercial BF4(-) ion-selective electrode (ISE). The equipment can measure boron compounds with concentration ranging from a few to several hundred mg/L, and the measurement is completed in less than 20 min without any pretreatment of the sample. In the monitor, a series of operations for the measurement, i.e., sampling and dispensing of the sample, addition of the chemicals, acquisition and processing of potentiometric data, rinsing of the measurement cell, and calibration of the BF4(-) ISE, is automated. To demonstrate the performance, we installed the monitor in full-scale coal-fired power plants and measured the effluent from a flue gas desulfurization unit. The boron concentration in the wastewater varied significantly depending on the type of coal and the load of power generation. An excellent correlation (R2 = 0.987) was obtained in the measurements between the online boron monitor and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, which proved that the developed monitor can serve as a useful tool for managing boron emission in industrial process effluent.

  11. Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron and its application to online monitoring of industrial process effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Seiichi Ohyama; Keiko Abe; Hitoshi Ohsumi; Hirokazu Kobayashi; Naotsugu Miyazaki; Koji Miyadera; Kin-ichi Akasaka

    2009-06-15

    Fully automated measuring equipment for aqueous boron (referred to as the online boron monitor) was developed on the basis of a rapid potentiometric determination method using a commercial BF{sub 4}{sup -} ion-selective electrode (ISE). The equipment can measure boron compounds with concentration ranging from a few to several hundred mg/L, and the measurement is completed in less than 20 min without any pretreatment of the sample. In the monitor, a series of operations for the measurement, i.e., sampling and dispensing of the sample, addition of the chemicals, acquisition and processing of potentiometric data, rinsing of the measurement cell, and calibration of the BF{sub 4}{sup -} ISE, is automated. To demonstrate the performance, we installed the monitor in full-scale coal-fired power plants and measured the effluent from a flue gas desulfurization unit. The boron concentration in the wastewater varied significantly depending on the type of coal and the load of power generation. An excellent correlation (R{sup 2} = 0.987) was obtained in the measurements between the online boron monitor and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, which proved that the developed monitor can serve as a useful tool for managing boron emission in industrial process effluent. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Automatic Data Processing Equipment (ADPE) acquisition plan for the medical sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An effective mechanism for meeting the SLSD/MSD data handling/processing requirements for Shuttle is discussed. The ability to meet these requirements depends upon the availability of a general purpose high speed digital computer system. This system is expected to implement those data base management and processing functions required across all SLSD/MSD programs during training, laboratory operations/analysis, simulations, mission operations, and post mission analysis/reporting.

  13. Electrochemical iron generation: The ideal process for simultaneous removal of heavy metals from contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, M.D.

    1993-12-31

    At most Superfund sites, many heavy metals must be removed from contaminated groundwater. Simultaneous extraction is complicated due to the various chemical properties that metals exhibit. A comprehensive understanding of solubilities, oxidation states, and adsorptive mechanisms is needed to accomplish treatment objectives. This paper uses data from treatability tests conducted on groundwater from the King of Prussia Technical Corporation Site to discuss the electrochemical iron generation process developed by Andco Environmental Processes, Inc. Electrical current and sacrificial steel electrodes were used to put ferrous ions into solution. The chemistry was properly manipulated to provide adsorption and coprecipitation conditions capable of simultaneously removing beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, mercury, nickel, and zinc. Strict cleanup levels were required since the site is located within Pinelands National Reserve and adjacent to New Jersey`s Winslow Wildlife Refuge. System design, operating costs, and sludge production rate are also discussed.

  14. Remediation of Pb/Cr co-contaminated soil using electrokinetic process and approaching electrode technique.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yee-Sern; Sen Gupta, Bhaskar; Hashim, Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Electrokinetic process has emerged as an important tool for remediating heavy metal-contaminated soil. The process can concentrate heavy metals into smaller soil volume even in the absence of hydraulic flow. This makes it an attractive soil pre-treatment method before other remediation techniques are applied such that the chemical consumption in the latter stage can be reduced. The present study evaluates the feasibility of electrokinetic process in concentrating lead (Pb) and chromium (Cr) in a co-contaminated soil using different types of wetting agents, namely 0.01 M NaNO3, 0.1 M citric acid and 0.1 M EDTA. The data obtained showed that NaNO3 and citric acid resulted in poor Pb electromigration in this study. As for Cr migration, these agents were also found to give lower electromigration rate especially at low pH region as a result of Cr(VI) adsorption and possible reduction into Cr(III). In contrast, EDTA emerged as the best wetting agent in this study as it formed water-soluble anionic complexes with both Pb and Cr. This provided effective one-way electromigration towards the anode for both ions, and they were accumulated into smaller soil volume with an enrichment ratio of 1.55-1.82. A further study on the application of approaching cathode in EDTA test showed that soil alkalisation was achieved, but this did not provide significant enhancement on electromigration for Pb and Cr. Nevertheless, the power consumption for electrokinetic process was decreased by 22.5%.

  15. Contamination and gettering evaluation by lifetime measurements during single crystal cell processing

    SciTech Connect

    Lagos, R.; Moehlecke, A.; Alonso, J.; Tobias, I.; Luque, A.

    1994-12-31

    In this work, the effects of contamination and gettering through two fabrication processes of monocrystalline solar cells are evaluated using lifetime measurements. The processes characterized were developed to produce n{sup +}pp{sup +} and p{sup +}nn{sup +} solar cells with phosphorus/aluminum and boron/phosphorus. The experiments indicate that in the laboratory environment, the lifetime degradation is influenced by the number of thermal processes. The gettering produced by aluminum in n{sup +}pp{sup +} cell processing and by phosphorus (with heavy doping) in p{sup +}nn{sup +} cell processing enhances the base lifetime. Slight phosphorus diffusion without supersaturation conditions, performed in the n{sup +}pp{sup +} process, does not produce sufficient gettering and has lower effect on the lifetime than boron diffusions that produce some gettering too. Also, the authors discovered that gettering is strongly reduced when local aluminum back surface field regions are formed in the rear face in a failed attempt of reducing the BSF recombination.

  16. An integrated bioremediation process for petroleum hydrocarbons removal and odor mitigation from contaminated marine sediment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Lo, Irene M C; Yan, Dickson Y S

    2015-10-15

    This study developed a novel integrated bioremediation process for the removal of petroleum hydrocarbons and the mitigation of odor induced by reduced sulfur from contaminated marine sediment. The bioremediation process consisted of two phases. In Phase I, acetate was dosed into the sediment as co-substrate to facilitate the sulfate reduction process. Meanwhile, akaganeite (β-FeOOH) was dosed in the surface layer of the sediment to prevent S(2-) release into the overlying seawater. In Phase II, NO3(-) was injected into the sediment as an electron acceptor to facilitate the denitrification process. After 20 weeks of treatment, the sequential integration of the sulfate reduction and denitrification processes led to effective biodegradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), in which about 72% of TPH was removed. In Phase I, the release of S(2-) was effectively controlled by the addition of akaganeite. The oxidation of S(2-) by Fe(3+) and the precipitation of S(2-) by Fe(2+) were the main mechanisms for S(2-) removal. In Phase II, the injection of NO3(-) completely inhibited the sulfate reduction process. Most of residual AVS and S(0) were removed within 4 weeks after NO3(-) injection. The 16S rRNA clone library-based analysis revealed a distinct shift of bacterial community structure in the sediment over different treatment phases. The clones affiliated with Desulfobacterales and Desulfuromonadales were the most abundant in Phase I, while the clones related to Thioalkalivibrio sulfidophilus, Thiohalomonas nitratireducens and Sulfurimonas denitrificans predominated in Phase II.

  17. Low cost solar array project production process and equipment task. A Module Experimental Process System Development Unit (MEPSDU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Technical readiness for the production of photovoltaic modules using single crystal silicon dendritic web sheet material is demonstrated by: (1) selection, design and implementation of solar cell and photovoltaic module process sequence in a Module Experimental Process System Development Unit; (2) demonstration runs; (3) passing of acceptance and qualification tests; and (4) achievement of a cost effective module.

  18. Development of in-can melting process and equipment, 1979 and 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Petkus, L.L.; Larson, D.E.; Bjorklund, W.J.; Holton, L.K.

    1981-09-01

    Nonradioactive process testing continued with the in-can melter as part of an investigation into the applicability of this vitrification process to various calcined high-level and incinerator ash radioactive wastes. The investigation in this report concentrated on how waste composition and canister fins affect in-can melter capacity and how waste composition affects glass quality. Process performance proved to be generally satisfactory. Pilot-scale in-can melter runs were performed with synthetic, nonradioactive, high-level wastes to produce eight canisters of glass. The synthetic wastes processed included high-level wastes from Savannah River, West Valley, and ICPP, as well as transuranic ash waste. Full-scale in-can melter runs using nonradioactive materials were also conducted, producing ten canisters of glass. Of the ten canisters, nine contained Savannah River Plant glass and one canister contained glass from synthetic zirconia calcine waste from the ICPP. 11.4 tons of glass was produced in test runs. In the full-scale in-can melter furnace, the baffles separating the six heating zones were removed because of baffle warping. A remotely operated section connecting the spray calciner to the canister was tested. Some problems were encountered with calcine plugging.

  19. Processes of Skill Performance: A Foundation for the Design and Use of Training Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    R. D. Jean Piaget and the world of the child. American Psychologist, 1966, 21, 207-217. Turvey, M. T. Visual processing and short-term memory. In W. K...White, 1959); cognitive dissonance (Festinger, 1957); discrepant cognitive organization (Feather, 1971); and Piaget s schematic disequilibrium

  20. Development of Functionally Graded Materials for Manufacturing Tools and Dies and Industrial Processing Equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Lherbier, Louis, W.; Novotnak, David, J.; Herling, Darrell, R.; Sears, James, W.

    2009-03-23

    Hot forming processes such as forging, die casting and glass forming require tooling that is subjected to high temperatures during the manufacturing of components. Current tooling is adversely affected by prolonged exposure at high temperatures. Initial studies were conducted to determine the root cause of tool failures in a number of applications. Results show that tool failures vary and depend on the operating environment under which they are used. Major root cause failures include (1) thermal softening, (2) fatigue and (3) tool erosion, all of which are affected by process boundary conditions such as lubrication, cooling, process speed, etc. While thermal management is a key to addressing tooling failures, it was clear that new tooling materials with superior high temperature strength could provide improved manufacturing efficiencies. These efficiencies are based on the use of functionally graded materials (FGM), a new subset of hybrid tools with customizable properties that can be fabricated using advanced powder metallurgy manufacturing technologies. Modeling studies of the various hot forming processes helped identify the effect of key variables such as stress, temperature and cooling rate and aid in the selection of tooling materials for specific applications. To address the problem of high temperature strength, several advanced powder metallurgy nickel and cobalt based alloys were selected for evaluation. These materials were manufactured into tooling using two relatively new consolidation processes. One process involved laser powder deposition (LPD) and the second involved a solid state dynamic powder consolidation (SSDPC) process. These processes made possible functionally graded materials (FGM) that resulted in shaped tooling that was monolithic, bi-metallic or substrate coated. Manufacturing of tooling with these processes was determined to be robust and consistent for a variety of materials. Prototype and production testing of FGM tooling showed the

  1. Treatment Processes for Removal of Wastewater Contaminants (WERF Report INFR8SG09)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study investigated the nature of colloids associated with wastewater effluents. It also evaluated the association of emerging contaminants with these wastewater colloids. Two distinct emerging contaminants were investigated to gain general insight into the potential importan...

  2. Homogenous VUV advanced oxidation process for enhanced degradation and mineralization of antibiotics in contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Pourakbar, Mojtaba; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Shekoohiyan, Sakine

    2016-03-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the degradation and mineralization of amoxicillin(AMX), using VUV advanced process. The effect of pH, AMX initial concentration, presence of water ingredients, the effect of HRT, and mineralization level by VUV process were taken into consideration. In order to make a direct comparison, the test was also performed by UVC radiation. The results show that the degradation of AMX was following the first-order kinetic. It was found that direct photolysis by UVC was able to degrade 50mg/L of AMX in 50min,while it was 3min for VUV process. It was also found that the removal efficiency by VUV process was directly influenced by pH of the solution, and higher removal rates were achieved at high pH values.The results show that 10mg/L of AMX was completely degraded and mineralized within 50s and 100s, respectively, indicating that the AMX was completely destructed into non-hazardous materials. Operating the photoreactor in contentious-flow mode revealed that 10mg/L AMX was completely degraded and mineralized at HRT values of 120s and 300s. it was concluded that the VUV advanced process was an efficient and viable technique for degradation and mineralization of contaminated water by antibiotics.

  3. In-Situ Anaerobic Biosurfactant Production Process For Remediation Of DNAPL Contamination In Subsurface Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albino, J. D.; Nambi, I. M.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) and remediation of aquifers contaminated with hydrophobic contaminants require insitu production of biosurfactants for mobilization of entrapped hydrophobic liquids. Most of the biosurfactant producing microorganisms produce them under aerobic condition and hence surfactant production is limited in subsurface condition due to lack of oxygen. Currently bioremediation involves expensive air sparging or excavation followed by exsitu biodegradation. Use of microorganisms which can produce biosurfactants under anaerobic conditions can cost effectively expedite the process of insitu bioremediation or mobilization. In this work, the feasibility of anaerobic biosurfactant production in three mixed anaerobic cultures prepared from groundwater and soil contaminated with chlorinated compounds and municipal sewage sludge was investigated. The cultures were previously enriched under complete anaerobic conditions in the presence of Tetrachloroethylene (PCE) for more than a year before they were studied for biosurfactant production. Biosurfactant production under anaerobic conditions was simulated using two methods: i) induction of starvation in the microbial cultures and ii) addition of complex fermentable substrates. Positive result for biosurfactant production was not observed when the cultures were induced with starvation by adding PCE as blobs which served as the only terminal electron acceptor. However, slight reduction in interfacial tension was noticed which was caused by the adherence of microbes to water-PCE interface. Biosurfactant production was observed in all the three cultures when they were fed with complex fermentable substrates and surface tension of the liquid medium was lowered below 35 mN/m. Among the fermentable substrates tested, vegetable oil yielded highest amount of biosurfactant in all the cultures. Complete biodegradation of PCE to ethylene at a faster rate was also observed when vegetable oil was amended to the

  4. Electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation of organic contaminants: a review of processes and environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Gill, R T; Harbottle, M J; Smith, J W N; Thornton, S F

    2014-07-01

    There is current interest in finding sustainable remediation technologies for the removal of contaminants from soil and groundwater. This review focuses on the combination of electrokinetics, the use of an electric potential to move organic and inorganic compounds, or charged particles/organisms in the subsurface independent of hydraulic conductivity; and bioremediation, the destruction of organic contaminants or attenuation of inorganic compounds by the activity of microorganisms in situ or ex situ. The objective of the review is to examine the state of knowledge on electrokinetic bioremediation and critically evaluate factors which affect the up-scaling of laboratory and bench-scale research to field-scale application. It discusses the mechanisms of electrokinetic bioremediation in the subsurface environment at different micro and macroscales, the influence of environmental processes on electrokinetic phenomena and the design options available for application to the field scale. The review also presents results from a modelling exercise to illustrate the effectiveness of electrokinetics on the supply electron acceptors to a plume scale scenario where these are limiting. Current research needs include analysis of electrokinetic bioremediation in more representative environmental settings, such as those in physically heterogeneous systems in order to gain a greater understanding of the controlling mechanisms on both electrokinetics and bioremediation in those scenarios.

  5. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-21

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 10³ CFU/m³ of bacteria and 1.37 × 10⁴ CFU/m³ of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 10⁷ CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 10⁵ CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 10² CFU/cm² bacteria and 2.39 × 10¹ CFU/cm² fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  6. Phytoremediation of a nitrogen-contaminated desert soil by native shrubs and microbial processes

    DOE PAGES

    Glenn, Edward P.; Jordan, Fiona; Waugh, W. Joseph

    2016-02-24

    Here, we combined phytoremediation and soil microbial nitrification and denitrification cycles to reduce nitrate and ammonium levels at a former uranium mill site near Monument Valley, Arizona. Ammonia used in uranium extraction was present throughout the soil profile. Sulfate,applied as sulfuric acid to solubilize uranium, was also present in the soil. These contaminants were leaching from a denuded area where a tailings pile had been removed and were migrating away from the site in groundwater. We planted the source area with two deep-rooted native shrubs, Atriplex cansescens and Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and irrigated transplants for 11 years at 20% the ratemore » of potential evapotranspiration to stimulate growth, then discontinued irrigation for 4 years. Over 15 years, total nitrogen levels dropped 82%, from 347 to 64 mg kg–1. Analysis of δ15N supported our hypothesis that coupled microbial nitrification and denitrification processes were responsible for the loss of N. Soil sulfate levels changed little; however, evapotranspiration reduced sulfate leaching into the aquifer. For arid sites where traditional pump-and-treat methods are problematic, the Monument Valley data suggest that alternatives that incorporate native plants and rely on vadose zone biogeochemistry and hydrology could be a sustainable remediation for nitrogen contaminated soil.« less

  7. Phytoremediation of a nitrogen-contaminated desert soil by native shrubs and microbial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn, Edward P.; Jordan, Fiona; Waugh, W. Joseph

    2016-02-24

    Here, we combined phytoremediation and soil microbial nitrification and denitrification cycles to reduce nitrate and ammonium levels at a former uranium mill site near Monument Valley, Arizona. Ammonia used in uranium extraction was present throughout the soil profile. Sulfate,applied as sulfuric acid to solubilize uranium, was also present in the soil. These contaminants were leaching from a denuded area where a tailings pile had been removed and were migrating away from the site in groundwater. We planted the source area with two deep-rooted native shrubs, Atriplex cansescens and Sarcobatus vermiculatus, and irrigated transplants for 11 years at 20% the rate of potential evapotranspiration to stimulate growth, then discontinued irrigation for 4 years. Over 15 years, total nitrogen levels dropped 82%, from 347 to 64 mg kg–1. Analysis of δ15N supported our hypothesis that coupled microbial nitrification and denitrification processes were responsible for the loss of N. Soil sulfate levels changed little; however, evapotranspiration reduced sulfate leaching into the aquifer. For arid sites where traditional pump-and-treat methods are problematic, the Monument Valley data suggest that alternatives that incorporate native plants and rely on vadose zone biogeochemistry and hydrology could be a sustainable remediation for nitrogen contaminated soil.

  8. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass

    PubMed Central

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored. PMID:28117709

  9. Remediation of phenanthrene-contaminated soil by simultaneous persulfate chemical oxidation and biodegradation processes.

    PubMed

    Mora, Verónica C; Madueño, Laura; Peluffo, Marina; Rosso, Janina A; Del Panno, María T; Morelli, Irma S

    2014-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous compounds with carcinogenic and/or mutagenic potential. To address the limitations of individual remediation techniques and to achieve better PAH removal efficiencies, the combination of chemical and biological treatments can be used. The degradation of phenanthrene (chosen as a model of PAH) by persulfate in freshly contaminated soil microcosms was studied to assess its impact on the biodegradation process and on soil properties. Soil microcosms contaminated with 140 mg/kgDRY SOIL of phenanthrene were treated with different persulfate (PS) concentrations 0.86-41.7 g/kgDRY SOIL and incubated for 28 days. Analyses of phenanthrene and persulfate concentrations and soil pH were performed. Cultivable heterotrophic bacterial count was carried out after 28 days of treatment. Genetic diversity analysis of the soil microcosm bacterial community was performed by PCR amplification of bacterial 16S rDNA fragments followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The addition of PS in low concentrations could be an interesting biostimulatory strategy that managed to shorten the lag phase of the phenanthrene biological elimination, without negative effects on the physicochemical and biological soil properties, improving the remediation treatment.

  10. Solid Waste Processing Center Primary Opening Cells Systems, Equipment and Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Mullen, O Dennis; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2006-04-17

    This document addresses the remote systems and design integration aspects of the development of the Solid Waste Processing Center (SWPC), a facility to remotely open, sort, size reduce, and repackage mixed low-level waste (MLLW) and transuranic (TRU)/TRU mixed waste that is either contact-handled (CH) waste in large containers or remote-handled (RH) waste in various-sized packages.

  11. Virtual welding equipment for simulation of GMAW processes with integration of power source regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisgen, Uwe; Schleser, Markus; Mokrov, Oleg; Zabirov, Alexander

    2011-06-01

    A two dimensional transient numerical analysis and computational module for simulation of electrical and thermal characteristics during electrode melting and metal transfer involved in Gas-Metal-Arc-Welding (GMAW) processes is presented. Solution of non-linear transient heat transfer equation is carried out using a control volume finite difference technique. The computational module also includes controlling and regulation algorithms of industrial welding power sources. The simulation results are the current and voltage waveforms, mean voltage drops at different parts of circuit, total electric power, cathode, anode and arc powers and arc length. We describe application of the model for normal process (constant voltage) and for pulsed processes with U/I and I/I-modulation modes. The comparisons with experimental waveforms of current and voltage show that the model predicts current, voltage and electric power with a high accuracy. The model is used in simulation package SimWeld for calculation of heat flux into the work-piece and the weld seam formation. From the calculated heat flux and weld pool sizes, an equivalent volumetric heat source according to Goldak model, can be generated. The method was implemented and investigated with the simulation software SimWeld developed by the ISF at RWTH Aachen University.

  12. High-volume manufacturing equipment and processing for directed self-assembly applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somervell, Mark; Yamauchi, Takashi; Okada, Soichiro; Tomita, Tadatoshi; Nishi, Takanori; Iijima, Etsuo; Nakano, Takeo; Ishiguro, Takumi; Nagahara, Seiji; Iwaki, Hiroyuki; Dojun, Makiko; Ozawa, Mariko; Yatsuda, Koichi; Tobana, Toshikatsu; Romo Negreira, Ainhoa; Parnell, Doni; Kawakami, Shinchiro; Muramatsu, Makoto; Rathsack, Benjamen; Nafus, Kathleen; Peyre, Jean-Luc; Kitano, Takahiro

    2014-03-01

    Directed Self-Assembly (DSA) is one of the most promising technologies for scaling feature sizes to 16 nm and below. Both line/space and hole patterns can be created with various block copolymer morphologies, and these materials allow for molecular-level control of the feature shapes—exactly the characteristics that are required for creating high fidelity lithographic patterns. Over the past five years, the industry has been addressing the technical challenges of maturing this technology by addressing concerns such as pattern defectivity, materials specifications, design layout, and tool requirements. Though the learning curve has been steep, DSA has made significant progress toward implementation in high-volume manufacturing. Tokyo Electron has been focused on the best methods of achieving high-fidelity patterns using DSA processing. Unlike other technologies where optics and photons drive the formation of patterns, DSA relies on surface interactions and polymer thermodynamics to determine the final pattern shapes. These phenomena, in turn, are controlled by the processing that occurs on clean-tracks, etchers, and cleaning systems, and so a host of new technology has been developed to facilitate DSA. In this paper we will discuss the processes and hardware that are emerging as critical enablers for DSA implementation, and we will also demonstrate the kinds of high fidelity patterns typical of mainstream DSA integrations.

  13. Spectrum correction algorithm for detectors in airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV based on a ratio processing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ye; Tang, Xiao-Bin; Wang, Peng; Meng, Jia; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2015-10-01

    The unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) radiation monitoring method plays an important role in nuclear accidents emergency. In this research, a spectrum correction algorithm about the UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring equipment NH-UAV was studied to measure the radioactive nuclides within a small area in real time and in a fixed place. The simulation spectra of the high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector and the lanthanum bromide (LaBr3) detector in the equipment were obtained using the Monte Carlo technique. Spectrum correction coefficients were calculated after performing ratio processing techniques about the net peak areas between the double detectors on the detection spectrum of the LaBr3 detector according to the accuracy of the detection spectrum of the HPGe detector. The relationship between the spectrum correction coefficient and the size of the source term was also investigated. A good linear relation exists between the spectrum correction coefficient and the corresponding energy (R2=0.9765). The maximum relative deviation from the real condition reduced from 1.65 to 0.035. The spectrum correction method was verified as feasible.

  14. Mercury Contamination - Amalgamate (contract with NFS and ADA). Demonstration of DeHgSM Process. Mixed Waste Focus Area. OST Reference Number 1675

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Through efforts led by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) and its Mercury Working Group (HgWG), the inventory of bulk elemental mercury contaminated with radionuclides stored at various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is thought to be approximately 16 m3 (Conley et al. 1998). At least 19 different DOE sites have this type of mixed low-level waste in their storage facilities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) specifies amalgamation as the treatment method for radioactively contaminated elemental mercury. Although the chemistry of amalgamation is well known, the practical engineering of a sizable amalgamation process has not been tested (Tyson 1993). To eliminate the existing DOE inventory in a reasonable timeframe, scalable equipment is needed that can produce waste forms that meet the EPA definition of amalgamation, produce waste forms that pass the EPA Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) limit of 0.20 mg/L, limit mercury vapor concentrations during processing to below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) 8-h worker exposure limit (50 mg/m3) for mercury, and perform the above economically.

  15. Probabilistic Round Trip Contamination Analysis of a Mars Sample Acquisition and Handling Process Using Markovian Decompositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, Nicolas; Lin, Ying; Barengoltz, Jack

    2010-01-01

    A method for evaluating the probability of a Viable Earth Microorganism (VEM) contaminating a sample during the sample acquisition and handling (SAH) process of a potential future Mars Sample Return mission is developed. A scenario where multiple core samples would be acquired using a rotary percussive coring tool, deployed from an arm on a MER class rover is analyzed. The analysis is conducted in a structured way by decomposing sample acquisition and handling process into a series of discrete time steps, and breaking the physical system into a set of relevant components. At each discrete time step, two key functions are defined: The probability of a VEM being released from each component, and the transport matrix, which represents the probability of VEM transport from one component to another. By defining the expected the number of VEMs on each component at the start of the sampling process, these decompositions allow the expected number of VEMs on each component at each sampling step to be represented as a Markov chain. This formalism provides a rigorous mathematical framework in which to analyze the probability of a VEM entering the sample chain, as well as making the analysis tractable by breaking the process down into small analyzable steps.

  16. A bench scale study of a one-step dissolution process for treating contaminated fiberglass filters

    SciTech Connect

    Policke, T.A.; Ritter, J.A.

    1995-12-01

    High efficiency mist eliminators (HEME) and high efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA) made of High fiberglass will be used at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to remove particulate matter from offgases generated during melter feed preparation and vitrification of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These filters will be contaminated with high-level, radioactive species and also with various high-boiling organic compounds. For this reason, a process was developed at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) that will dissolve the spent filters so that the residues may be recycled to the HLW tanks for eventual vitrification. This process involves boiling the filters sequentially in NaOH, HN0{sub 3} and NaOH, while contained in a stainless steal wire mesh frame assembly. The objective of this communication is to present some of the original preliminary work done by Ritter on the simple one-step dissolution process. The results from six bench-scale experiments are reported for the dissolution of an organically-fouled sample of HEME obtained from the Integrated DWPF Melter (IDMS) offgas filtration system. The preliminary effects of filter packing density, air sparging versus rotating basket agitation, fouling, and adding Triton X-405 as a dispersing agent are reported.

  17. Effects of industrial processing on essential elements and regulated and emerging contaminant levels in seafood.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Søndergaard, Annette Bøge; Bøknæs, Niels; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Granby, Kit

    2017-02-09

    Mitigation of contaminants in industrial processing was studied for prawns (cooked and peeled), Greenland halibut (cold smoked) and Atlantic salmon (cold smoked and trimmed). Raw prawns had significantly higher cadmium, chromium, iron, selenium and zinc content in autumn than in spring, while summer levels typically were intermediate. Peeling raw prawns increased mercury concentration but reduced the concentration of all other elements including inorganic arsenic, total arsenic, chromium, zinc, selenium but especially cadmium, copper and iron (p < 0.05), however interaction between seasons and processing was observed. Non-toxic organic arsenic in raw Greenland halibut (N = 10) and salmon (N = 4) did not transform to carcinogenic inorganic arsenic during industrial cold smoking. Hence inorganic arsenic was low (<0.003 mg/kg wet weight) in both raw and smoked fillets rich in organic arsenic (up to 9.0 mg/kg for farmed salmon and 0.7 mg/kg for wild caught Greenland halibut per wet weight). Processing salmon did not significantly change any levels (calculated both per wet weight, dry weight or lipid content). Cold smoking decreased total arsenic (17%) and increased PCB congeners (10-22%) in Greenland halibut (wet weight). However PFOS, PCB and PBDE congeners were not different in processed Greenland halibut when corrected for water loss or lipid content.

  18. A process for the purification of organochlorine contaminated activated carbon: Sequential solvent purging and reductive dechlorination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Matthew; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; Manefield, Mike

    2010-03-01

    A system for the purification of organochlorine contaminated activated carbon is described. The system involves a continuous flow of aqueous ethanol to purge organochlorines from activated carbon. The organochlorine laden solvent is simultaneously treated with zero valent zinc as the bulk electron source, water as the proton source and the electron shuttle cyanocobalamin as a catalyst for reductive dechlorination. The system was characterised by performing batch reactions and extractions before being applied in a continuous flow system. In particular the ratio of water to ethanol in the system needed to be optimised. Water is needed for the reductive dechlorination reaction whilst it is not conducive to the extraction process. An 80% ethanolic solution was found to give optimal reductive dechlorination rates without compromising extraction of organochlorines from activated carbon. Of three electron shuttles evaluated cyanocobalamin was discovered to be the most relevant to the system with respect to reductive dechlorination rates and its ability to avoid absorption to activated carbon.

  19. Pilot Test of Hot Gas Decontamination of Explosives-Contaminated Equipment at Hawthorne Army Ammunition Plant (HWAAP), Hawthorne, Nevada. Appendices. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    117-15 and allowed to air dry. A.2 Ammonium picrate spiking procedures. A homogenous liquid solution (i.e., no solid ammonium picrate) was used to...spiking, a batch solution was made to spi)e all test equipment. Forty grams of ammonium picrate were added to 2400 mL of acetone; 300 mL of the homogenous...water to remove residual ammonium picrate. The rinsate was iddad to the equipment. This resulted in a spike of 5 grams of ammonium picrate for each piece

  20. Plant processes important for the transformation and degradation of explosives contaminants.

    PubMed

    Best, Elly P H; Kvesitadze, G K; Khatisahvili, G; Sadunishvili, T

    2005-01-01

    Environmental contamination by explosives is a worldwide problem. Of the 20 energetic compounds, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) are the most powerful and commonly used. Nitroamines are toxic and considered as possible carcinogens. The toxicity and persistence of nitroamines requires that their fate in the environment be understood and that contaminated soil and groundwater be remediated. This study, written as a minireview, provides further insights for plant processes important for the transformation and degradation of explosives. Plants metabolize TNT and the distribution of the transformation products, conjugates, and bound residues appears to be consistent with the green liver model concept. Metabolism of TNT in plants occurs by reduction as well as by oxidation. Reduction probably plays an important role in the tolerance of plants towards TNT, and, therefore a high nitroreductase capacity may serve as a biochemical criterion for the selection of plant species to remediate TNT. Because the activities and the inducibilities of the oxidative enzymes are far lower than of nitroreductase, reducing processes may predominate. However, oxidation may initiate the route to conjugation and sequestration leading ultimately to detoxification of TNT, and, therefore, particularly the oxidative pathway deserves more study. It is possible that plants metabolize RDX also according to the green liver concept. In the case of plant metabolism of HMX, a conclusion regarding compliance with the green liver concept was not reached due to the limited number of available data.

  1. Effect of processing for saponin removal on fungal contamination of quinoa seeds (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    PubMed

    Pappier, Ursula; Fernández Pinto, Virginia; Larumbe, Gabriela; Vaamonde, Graciela

    2008-07-15

    Incidence of fungal contamination of quinoa seeds from three locations (Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia; Salta and Tucumán provinces, Argentina) was analyzed in samples with and without treatment to remove saponins (wet method). In processed samples, the percentage of infection was reduced. Distribution of the different fungal genera was not homogeneous in the three locations (p<0.05), although Penicillium and Aspergillus were the most prevalent contaminants, regardless the geographic origin of the samples. Other genera, such as Eurotium, Fusarium, Phoma, Ulocladium, Mucor and Rhizopus were less frequently isolated. Absidia, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Dreschlera, Epicoccum and Monascus were sporadically encountered. Significant differences (p<0.05) in the distribution of fungal genera in samples with and without saponins from each location were observed. In all cases, processing caused a decrease of Aspergillus incidence, while increased the proportion of Penicillium, Eurotium, Mucor and Rhizopus indicating that these genera were part of the internal mycota. A. flavus and A. niger were the dominating species of genus Aspergillus. A similar pattern of prevalent Penicillium species was observed in samples with and without saponins, since P. aurantiogriseum, P.chrysogenum, P. citrinum and P. crustosum were always present in high number, although their relative density was variable according to the geographic origin of samples. Mycotoxin-producing ability of most representative species was also determined. Toxigenic strains of A. flavus (aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid), A. parasiticus (aflatoxins), P. citrinum (citrinin) and P. griseofulvum (cyclopiazonic acid) were found. None of the A. niger isolates was ochratoxin A producer. The above mentioned mycotoxins were not detected in the samples analyzed.

  2. Role of quantitative mineralogical analysis in the investigation of sites contaminated by chromite ore processing residue.

    PubMed

    Hillier, S; Roe, M J; Geelhoed, J S; Fraser, A R; Farmer, J G; Paterson, E

    2003-06-01

    A range of techniques, normally associated with mineralogical studies of soils and sediments, has been used to characterise the solid materials found on sites contaminated with chromite ore processing residue (COPR). The results show that a wide range of minerals are present, many of which are found extensively in high-temperature synthetic systems such as cements and clinkers and their low temperature hydration products. Thus, the minerals in COPR can be divided into three main categories: unreacted feedstock ore (chromite); high temperature phases produced during chromium extraction (brownmillerite, periclase and larnite); and finally, minerals formed under ambient weathering conditions on the disposal sites (brucite, calcite, aragonite, ettringite, hydrocalumite, hydrogarnet). Apart from chromite, chromium occurs in brownmillerite, ettringite, hydrocalumite and hydrogarnet. Detailed study of the chemistry and stoichiometry of chromium-bearing phases in conjunction with phase abundance provides a quantitative description of the solid state speciation of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) in and amongst these minerals and in the COPR as a whole. Of the total chromium present in the samples most, approximately 60-70% is present as Cr(III) in chromite, whilst brownmillerite also represents a significant reservoir of Cr(III) which is approximately 15% of the total. The remaining chromium, between 20 and 25%, is present as Cr(VI) and resides mainly in hydrogarnet, and to a slightly lesser extent in hydrocalumite. In the latter, it is present principally in an exchangeable anionic form. Chromium (VI) is also present in ettringite, but quantitatively ettringite is a much less important reservoir of Cr(VI), accounting for approximately 3% of total chromium in one sample, but less than 1% in the other two. This description provides insight into the processes likely to control the retention and release of Cr(VI) from COPR-contaminated sites. Such information is of particular value in

  3. Equipment management guide. Improving the drug distribution process--do you need an automated decentralized pharmacy dispensing system?

    PubMed

    1996-12-01

    In this Equipment Management Guide, we provide guidance to help hospitals determine whether implementing an automated decentralized pharmacy dispensing system (ADPDS) will be an effective way to improve their drug distribution process. We describe the ADPDSs themselves and then discuss factors that hospitals should consider before deciding on such a system. Specifically, we identify several areas that many pharmacies target for improvement and discuss whether and how an ADPDS can help the facility make the desired improvements. We also provide guidance for determining the cost-effectiveness of such a system, as well as for selecting a system that will most appropriately meet the hospital's needs. In the Evaluation that follows this Guide, we present our criteria for evaluating ADPDSs and the results of our testing of three such systems.

  4. Heat and power networks in process design, part II, design procedure for equipment selection and process matching

    SciTech Connect

    Townsend, D.W.; Linnhoff, B.

    1983-09-01

    In Part I, criteria for heat engine and heat pump placement in chemical process networks were derived, based on the ''temperature interval'' (T.I) analysis of the heat exchanger network problem. Using these criteria, this paper gives a method for identifying the best outline design for any combined system of chemical process, heat engines, and heat pumps. The method eliminates inferior alternatives early, and positively leads on to the most appropriate solution. A graphical procedure based on the T.I. analysis forms the heart of the approach, and the calculations involved are simple enough to be carried out on, say, a programmable calculator. Application to a case study is demonstrated. Optimization methods based on this procedure are currently under research.

  5. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY BULLETIN: A CROSS-FLOW PERVAPORATION SYSTEM FOR REMOVAL OF VOCS FROM CONTAMINATED WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation is a process for removing volatile organic compounds (VOC) from contaminated water. The performance of the cross-flow pervaporation system increases with temperature, with an equipment limitation of 35 degrees Celsius. Permeable membranes that preferentially adsor...

  6. FIELD METHODS TO MEASURE CONTAMINANT REMOVAL EFFECTIVENESS OF GAS-PHASE AIR FILTRATION EQUIPMENT - PHASE 1: SEARCH OF LITERATURE AND PRIOR ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, Phase 1 of a two-phase research project, gives results of a literature search into the
    effectiveness of in-field gas-phase air filtration equipment (GPAFE) test methods, including required instrumentation and costs. GPAFE has been used in heating, ventilation, and ...

  7. Coatings for protection of equipment for biochemical processing of geothermal residues: Progress report FY`97

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat geothermal residues. Coupon, Atlas cell, peel strength, cathodic disbondment and abrasion tests were performed in aggressive environments including geothermal sludge, hypersaline brine and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobacillus ferrooxidans) to determine suitability for protecting storage tanks and reaction vessels. It was found that all of the coatings were resistant to chemical attack and biodegradation at the test temperature of 55 C. The EMAA coatings protected 316L stainless steel from corrosion in coupon tests. However, corrosion of mild steel substrates thermal sprayed with EMAA and ETFE occurred in Atlas cell tests that simulated a lined reactor operating environment and this resulted in decreased adhesive strength. Peel tests to measure residual adhesion revealed that failure mode was dependent on exposure conditions. Abrasion tests showed that the ceramic-epoxy had good resistance to the abrasive effects of sludge. Thermal sprayed EMAA coatings also displayed abrasion resistance. Cathodic disbondment tests in brine at room temperature indicated that EMAA coatings are resistant to disbondment at applied potentials of {minus}780 to {minus}1,070 mV SCE for the test conditions and duration. Slight disbondment of one specimen occurred at a potential of {minus}1,500 mV SCE. The EMAA may be suited to use in conjunction with cathodic protection although further long-term, higher temperature testing would be needed.

  8. COATINGS FOR PROTECTION OF EQUIPMENT FOR BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSING OF GEOTHERMAL RESIDUES: PROGRESS REPORT FY 97

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.L.

    1997-11-01

    Thermal sprayed ethylene methacrylic acid (EMAA) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE), spray-and-bake ETFE and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and brushable ceramic-epoxy coatings were evaluated for corrosion protection in a biochemical process to treat geothermal residues. The findings are also relevant to other moderate temperature brine environments where corrosion is a problem. Coupon, Atlas cell, peel strength, cathodic disbondment and abrasion tests were performed in aggressive environments including geothermal sludge, hypersaline brine and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (Thiobadus ferrooxidans) to determine suitability for protecting storage tanks and reaction vessels. It was found that all of the coatings were resistant to chemical attack and biodegradation at the test temperature of 55 C. The EMAA coatings protected 316L stainless steel from corrosion in coupon tests. However, corrosion of mild steel substrates thermal sprayed with EMAA and ETFE occurred in Atlas cell tests that simulated a lined reactor operating environment and this resulted in decreased adhesive strength. Peel tests to measure residual adhesion revealed that failure mode was dependent on exposure conditions. Long-term tests on the durability of ceramic-epoxy coatings in brine and bacteria are ongoing. Initial indications are that this coating has suitable characteristics. Abrasion tests showed that the ceramic-epoxy had good resistance to the abrasive effects of sludge. Thermal sprayed EMAA coatings also displayed abrasion resistance. Cathodic disbondment tests in brine at room temperature indicated that EMAA coatings are resistant to disbondment at applied potentials of {minus}780 to {minus}1,070 mV SCE for the test conditions and duration. Slight disbondment of one specimen occurred at a potential of {minus}1,500 mV SCE. The EMAA may be suited to use in conjunction with cathodic protection although further long-term, higher temperature testing would be needed.

  9. Advanced treatment of benzothiazole contaminated waters: comparison of O3, AC, and O3/AC processes.

    PubMed

    Valdés, H; Zaror, C A

    2005-01-01

    Benzothiazole (BT) is a toxic and poorly biodegradable contaminant, usually found in wastewater from rubber related applications. This compound could be effectively eliminated using advanced treatment processes. This paper compares experimental results on detoxification systems based on ozone oxidation, activated carbon adsorption, and simultaneous adsorption-oxidation using ozone in the presence of activated carbon. The effect of pH (2-11), and the presence of radical scavengers (tert-butyl alcohol and sodium carbonate) on process rates and removal efficiencies are assessed at laboratory scale. The experimental system consisted of a 1 L differential circular flow reactor and an ozone generator rated at 5 g O3/h. Results show that ozone oxidation combined with activated carbon adsorption increases the overall BT oxidation rate with respect to the ozonation process and activated carbon adsorption. In the presence of free radical scavenger, only a 44% reduction in BT removal rate is observed in the simultaneous treatment, as compared with 72% when ozonation treatment is used, suggesting that BT oxidation reactions mainly take place on the activated carbon surface.

  10. Influence of sorption/desorption processes on the bioavailability of organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Guerin, W.F.; Boyd, S.A.

    1990-01-01

    Many of the problem contaminants found in soils and groundwaters are non-ionic and relatively insoluble. Under appropriate conditions, many of these compounds are degradable by bacteria provided nutrients, electron acceptors and the compounds themselves are biologically available. However, non-ionic organic compounds (NOCs) bind tenaciously to soil particles potentially limiting their bioavailability. While the individual processes of sorption and biodegradation have received much attention in recent years, little is known about the interactions of these processes. The primary objective of our DOE-funded research project has been to elucidate the influences of sorption and desorption processes on the bioavailability of NOCs. Conflicting reports in the literature suggest that sorption may increase, decrease, or have no effect on bioavailability although the majority of published work has studied proteins, fatty acids, and other normal bacterial growth substrates as sorbates. Some of this variability arises because sorbed solutes interact with sorbents via different mechanisms including cation and anion exchange, adsorption, complexation with surface-associated metals and partitioning. Also, bacterial activities may be altered upon attachment of the cells to the sorbent surface. Clearly, resolution of this problem requires detailed knowledge of a system with multiple components. We are, therefore, approaching this problem on a fundamental level. 20 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Removal of PCBs in contaminated soils by means of chemical reduction and advanced oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Rybnikova, V; Usman, M; Hanna, K

    2016-09-01

    Although the chemical reduction and advanced oxidation processes have been widely used individually, very few studies have assessed the combined reduction/oxidation approach for soil remediation. In the present study, experiments were performed in spiked sand and historically contaminated soil by using four synthetic nanoparticles (Fe(0), Fe/Ni, Fe3O4, Fe3 - x Ni x O4). These nanoparticles were tested firstly for reductive transformation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and then employed as catalysts to promote chemical oxidation reactions (H2O2 or persulfate). Obtained results indicated that bimetallic nanoparticles Fe/Ni showed the highest efficiency in reduction of PCB28 and PCB118 in spiked sand (97 and 79 %, respectively), whereas magnetite (Fe3O4) exhibited a high catalytic stability during the combined reduction/oxidation approach. In chemical oxidation, persulfate showed higher PCB degradation extent than hydrogen peroxide. As expected, the degradation efficiency was found to be limited in historically contaminated soil, where only Fe(0) and Fe/Ni particles exhibited reductive capability towards PCBs (13 and 18 %). In oxidation step, the highest degradation extents were obtained in presence of Fe(0) and Fe/Ni (18-19 %). The increase in particle and oxidant doses improved the efficiency of treatment, but overall degradation extents did not exceed 30 %, suggesting that only a small part of PCBs in soil was available for reaction with catalyst and/or oxidant. The use of organic solvent or cyclodextrin to improve the PCB availability in soil did not enhance degradation efficiency, underscoring the strong impact of soil matrix. Moreover, a better PCB degradation was observed in sand spiked with extractable organic matter separated from contaminated soil. In contrast to fractions with higher particle size (250-500 and <500 μm), no PCB degradation was observed in the finest fraction (≤250 μm) having higher organic matter content. These findings

  12. Determination of dominant biogeochemical processes in a contaminated aquifer-wetland system using multivariate statistical analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baez-Cazull, S. E.; McGuire, J.T.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Voytek, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Determining the processes governing aqueous biogeochemistry in a wetland hydrologically linked to an underlying contaminated aquifer is challenging due to the complex exchange between the systems and their distinct responses to changes in precipitation, recharge, and biological activities. To evaluate temporal and spatial processes in the wetland-aquifer system, water samples were collected using cm-scale multichambered passive diffusion samplers (peepers) to span the wetland-aquifer interface over a period of 3 yr. Samples were analyzed for major cations and anions, methane, and a suite of organic acids resulting in a large dataset of over 8000 points, which was evaluated using multivariate statistics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was chosen with the purpose of exploring the sources of variation in the dataset to expose related variables and provide insight into the biogeochemical processes that control the water chemistry of the system. Factor scores computed from PCA were mapped by date and depth. Patterns observed suggest that (i) fermentation is the process controlling the greatest variability in the dataset and it peaks in May; (ii) iron and sulfate reduction were the dominant terminal electron-accepting processes in the system and were associated with fermentation but had more complex seasonal variability than fermentation; (iii) methanogenesis was also important and associated with bacterial utilization of minerals as a source of electron acceptors (e.g., barite BaSO4); and (iv) seasonal hydrological patterns (wet and dry periods) control the availability of electron acceptors through the reoxidation of reduced iron-sulfur species enhancing iron and sulfate reduction. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  13. Processing results of 1,800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mercury-contaminated rinse solution (INEL waste ID{number_sign} 123; File 8 waste) was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 (HTRE-3) reactor shield tank. Approximately 1,800 gal of waste was generated and was placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 1--10 in. in depth, with the average depth of about 2.5 in. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/ml, while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pci/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. Because of difficulties in processing, three trials were required to reduce the mercury levels to below the RCRA limit. In the first trial, insufficient filtration of the waste allowed solid particulate produced during pH adjustment to enter into the ion exchange columns and ultimately the waste storage tank. In the second trial, the waste was filtered down to 0.1 {mu} to remove all solid mercury compounds. However, before filtration could take place, a solid mercury complex dissolved and mercury levels exceeded the RCRA limit after filtration. In the third trial, the waste was filtered through 0.3-A filters and then passed through the S-920 resin to remove the dissolved mercury. The resulting solution had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml. This solution was disposed of at the TAN warm waste pond, TAN782, TSF-10.

  14. Hexavalent chromium removal in contaminated water using reticulated chitosan micro/nanoparticles from seafood processing wastes.

    PubMed

    Dima, Jimena Bernadette; Sequeiros, Cynthia; Zaritzky, Noemi E

    2015-12-01

    Chitosan particles (CH) were obtained from seafood processing wastes (shrimp shells) and physicochemically characterized; deacetylation degree of CH was measured by Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and potentiometric titration; polymer molecular weight was determined by intrinsic viscosity measurements. Reticulated micro/nanoparticles of chitosan (MCH) with an average diameter close to 100nm were synthesized by ionic gelation of chitosan using tripolyphosphate (TPP), and characterized by SEM, size distribution and Zeta-potential. Detoxification capacities of CH and MCH were tested analyzing the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) from contaminated water, at different initial chromium concentrations. The effect of pH on adsorption capacity of CH and MCH was experimentally determined and analyzed considering the Cr(VI) stable complexes (anions) formed, the presence of protonated groups in chitosan particles and the addition of the reticulating agent (TPP). Chitosan crosslinking was necessary to adsorb Cr(VI) at pH<2 due to the instability of CH particles in acid media. Langmuir isotherm described better than Freundlich and Temkin equations the equilibrium adsorption data. Pseudo-second order rate provided the best fitting to the kinetic data in comparison to pseudo-first order and Elovich equations. Chemical analysis to determine the oxidation state of the adsorbed Cr, showed that Cr(VI) was adsorbed on CH particles without further reduction; in contrast Cr(VI) removed from the solution was reduced and bound to the MCH as Cr(III). The reduction of toxic Cr(VI) to the less or nontoxic Cr(III) by the reticulated chitosan micro/nanoparticles can be considered a very efficient detoxification technique for the treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated water.

  15. Composition and process for organic and metal contaminant fixation in soil

    DOEpatents

    Schwitzgebel, Klaus

    1994-02-08

    A method and compositions using a first ferrous iron containing solution with the iron concentration in excess of theoretical requirements to treat a contaminated site to reduce hexavalent chromium to trivalent chromium and coprecipitate trivalent chromium with other heavy metals and using a second solution of silicate containing a destabilizing salt to form a relatively impermeable gel in the contaminated site thereby fixing metals and organics to the extent that there should be no detectable ground water contamination.

  16. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing. Technical report number 2, October 1--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal streams. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a tubular (jet) processor. To meet the overall objective an 11 task work plan has been designed. The work will range from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning and management; host site selection and plan formulation; preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment; coal characterization and laboratory (batch) and bench-scale testing; final engineering and design of POC equipment; proof-of-concept (POC) equipment procurement and fabrication; POC equipment inspection; POC equipment installation, shakedown and operation; process evaluation; dismantling of the system; final report. Accomplishments to date are described on the site selection, a work plan for bench-scale testing, preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment, and coal characterization.

  17. Bioremediation process for sediments contaminated by heavy metals: feasibility study on a pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Seidel, H; Löser, C; Zehnsdorf, A; Hoffmann, P; Schmerold, R

    2004-03-01

    The core stages of a sediment remediation process--the conditioning of dredged sludge by plants and the solid-bed leaching of heavy metals using microbially produced sulfuric acid--were tested on a pilot scale using a highly polluted river sediment. Conditioning was performed in 50 m3 basins at sludge depths of 1.8 m. During one vegetation period the anoxic sludge turned into a soil-like oxic material and became very permeable to water. Reed canary grass (Phalaris arundinacea) was found to be best suited for conditioning. Bioleaching was carried out in an aerated solid-bed reactor of 2000 L working volume using oxic soil-like sediment supplemented with 2% sulfur. When applying conditioned sediment, the oxidation of easily degradable organic matter by heterotrophic microbes increased the temperature up to 50 degrees C in the early leaching phase, which in turn temporarily inhibited the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Nevertheless, most of the metal contaminants were leached within 21 days. Zn, Cd, Mn, Co, and Ni were removed by 61-81%, Cu was reduced by 21%, while Cr and Pb were nearly immobile. A cost-effectiveness assessment of the remediation process indicates it to be a suitable treatment for restoring polluted sediments for beneficial use.

  18. Overview of the risk assessment process in relation to groundwater contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, E. ); McTernan, W.F. . School of Civil Engineering)

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the risk assessment process as it pertains to various aspects of groundwater contamination and remediation. Several standard techniques are reviewed and are shown to involve large uncertainties because of the many different, site-specific conditions that exist in actual practice. The problem stems from a lack of appropriate data, lack of quantitative methods and models, a hesitancy to spend the funds necessary to develop needed methodologies, and regulatory safety margins set with little recognition of the desires of and costs to society. Also discussed is the controversy about the magnitude and nature of risks that are acceptable to the public. Pollution control programs generally do not focus on the concept of a residual risk or failure. A relatively new view of a role of the groundwater professional, therefore, is to minimize risk to levels consistent with environmental, social, economic, and political goals of society. Risk assessment and risk management must be incorporated into the design, construction, and operation of processes associated with groundwater pollution evaluation and control. While risk analyses are important in their own right, they cannot be relied on to satisfy the desire of agency officials and the public to provide bottom-line knowledge of risks.

  19. Advanced Recording and Preprocessing of Physiological Signals. [data processing equipment for flow measurement of blood flow by ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bentley, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of the volume flow-rate of blood in an artery or vein requires both an estimate of the flow velocity and its spatial distribution and the corresponding cross-sectional area. Transcutaneous measurements of these parameters can be performed using ultrasonic techniques that are analogous to the measurement of moving objects by use of a radar. Modern digital data recording and preprocessing methods were applied to the measurement of blood-flow velocity by means of the CW Doppler ultrasonic technique. Only the average flow velocity was measured and no distribution or size information was obtained. Evaluations of current flowmeter design and performance, ultrasonic transducer fabrication methods, and other related items are given. The main thrust was the development of effective data-handling and processing methods by application of modern digital techniques. The evaluation resulted in useful improvements in both the flowmeter instrumentation and the ultrasonic transducers. Effective digital processing algorithms that provided enhanced blood-flow measurement accuracy and sensitivity were developed. Block diagrams illustrative of the equipment setup are included.

  20. New Applications for ARPANET Developed Information Processing Technology. Volume 3. Briareus - Computer Netting for Design, Fabrication and Repair of Electronic Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-02-03

    INFORMATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY , VOLUME HI. BRIAREUS - COMPUTER NETTING FOR DESIGN, FABRICATION AND REPAIR OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT CABLEDATA ASSOCIATES...E& ED INFORMATION PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY — VOLUME III; . Final Report "BRIAREUS — COMPUTER NETTING FOR DESIGN, FABRICA- ■ February 1974 - January

  1. A Review of International Space Station Habitable Element Equipment Offgassing Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.

    2010-01-01

    Crewed spacecraft trace contaminant control employs both passive and active methods to achieve acceptable cabin atmospheric quality. Passive methods include carefully selecting materials of construction, employing clean manufacturing practices, and minimizing systems and payload operational impacts to the cabin environment. Materials selection and manufacturing processes constitute the first level of equipment offgassing control. An element-level equipment offgassing test provides preflight verification that passive controls have been successful. Offgassing test results from multiple International Space Station (ISS) habitable elements and cargo vehicles are summarized and implications for active contamination control equipment design are discussed

  2. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  3. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CCL CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS BY MEMBRANE AND GAC PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale treatment data for membrane and granular activated carbon technologies are presented for the organic contaminants on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Contaminant Candidate List (CCL). For granular activated carbon (GAC), isotherm results are presented and q...

  4. ADAPTIVE WATER SENSOR SIGNAL PROCESSING: EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ONLINE CONTAMINANT WARNING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A contaminant detection technique and its optimization algorithms have two principal functions. One is the adaptive signal treatment that suppresses background noise and enhances contaminant signals, leading to a promising detection of water quality changes at a false rate as low...

  5. ADVANCED OXIDATION PROCESSES IN THE TREATMENT OF CONTAMINANT CANDIDATE LIST (CCL) COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The current (2nd) Contaminant Candidate List was completed in 2005 by the United States EPA as an update to the Safe Drinking Water Act. The list of 42 chemical contaminants spans a wide array of classes, from pesticides to pharmaceuticals to elements, all of which are anticipate...

  6. Equipment decontamination: A brief survey of the DOE complex

    SciTech Connect

    Conner, C.; Chamberlain, D.B; Chen, L.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1995-03-01

    Deactivation at DOE facilities has left a tremendous amount of contaminated equipment behind. In-situ methods are needed to decontaminate the interiors of the equipment sufficiently to allow either free release or land disposal. A brief survey was completed of the DOE complex on their needs for equipment decontamination with in-situ technology to determine (1) the types of contamination problems within the DOE complex, (2) decontamination processes that are being used or are being developed within the DOE, and (3) the methods that are available to dispose of spent decontamination solutions. In addition, potential sites for testing decontamination methods were located. Based on the information obtained from these surveys, the Rocky Flats Plant and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory appear to be best suited to complete the initial testing of the decontamination processes.

  7. Treatment of plutonium contaminated soil/sediment from the Mound site using the ACT*DE*CON{sup SM} process

    SciTech Connect

    Negri, M.C.; Swift, N.A.; North, J.P.

    1996-10-01

    The removal and/or treatment of contaminated soil is a major problem facing the US DOE. The EG&G Mound Applied Technologies site in Miamisburg, Ohio, has an estimated 1.5 million cubic feet of soils from past disposal and waste burial practices awaiting remediation from plutonium contamination. This amount includes sediment from the Miami-Erie Canal that was contaminated in 1969 following a pipe- rupture accident. Conventional soil washing techniques that use particle separation would generate too large a waste volume to be economically feasible. Therefore, innovative technologies are needed for the cleanup. The ACT*DE*CON process was developed by SELENTEC for washing soils to selectively dissolve and remove heavy metals and radionuclides. ACT*DE*CON chemically dissolves and removes heavy metals and radionuclides from soils and sediments into an aqueous medium. The ACT*DE*CON process uses oxidative carbonate/chelant chemistry to dissolve the contaminant from the sediment and hold the contaminant in solution. The objective of recent work was to document the proves conditions necessary to achieve the Mound-site and regulatory-cleanup goals using the ACT*DE*CON technology.

  8. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on soil and litter invertebrates and heterotrophic process

    SciTech Connect

    Will, M.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1994-09-01

    One of the initial stages in ecological risk assessments for hazardous waste sites is the screening of contaminants to determine which of them are worthy of further consideration as {open_quotes}contaminants of potential concern.{close_quotes} This process is termed {open_quotes}contaminant screening.{close_quotes} It is performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals to benchmark concentrations. Currently, no standard benchmark concentrations exist for assessing contaminants in soil with respect to their toxicity to soil- and litter-dwelling invertebrates, including earthworms, other micro- and macroinvertebrates, or heterotrophic bacteria and fungi. This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for this purpose, sets of data concerning effects of chemicals in soil on invertebrates and soil microbial processes, and benchmarks for chemicals potentially associated with United States Department of Energy sites. In addition, literature describing the experiments from which data were drawn for benchmark derivation. Chemicals that are found in soil at concentrations exceeding both the benchmarks and the background concentration for the soil type should be considered contaminants of potential concern.

  9. Avoiding Gluten Cross-Contamination

    MedlinePlus

    ... a plate or speck of wheat flour on manufacturing equipment," says Rachel Begun, MS, RDN. Cross-contamination — ... contamination." Gluten-containing ingredients can show up as additives or appear under different names, so it's important ...

  10. Automating the Air Force Retail-Level Equipment Management Process: An Application of Microcomputer-Based Information Systems Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    could use the assistance of a microcomputer-based management information system . However, adequate system design and development requires an in-depth...understanding of the Equipment Management Section and the environment in which it functions were asked and answered. Then, a management information system was...designed, developed, and tested. The management information system is called the Equipment Management Information System (EMIS).

  11. 42 CFR 421.210 - Designations of regional carriers to process claims for durable medical equipment, prosthetics...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... for durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics and supplies. 421.210 Section 421.210 Public... claims for durable medical equipment, prosthetics, orthotics and supplies. (a) Basis. This section is..., prosthetics, orthotics, and other supplies (DMEPOS). This authority has been delegated to CMS. (b) Types...

  12. Evaluation of a remediation process for lead contaminated soil by toxicity bioassays: Plants and earthworms

    SciTech Connect

    Chana, L.W.; Smith, K.

    1995-12-31

    Soil from a site contaminated with heavy metals (predominantly lead) was treated using the TERRAMET{reg_sign} lead extraction process. Earthworm acute toxicity and plant seed germination/root elongation (SG/RE) bioassays were used to evaluate the toxicity of the soil before treatment (BT), after treatment (AT) and after treatment, followed by rinsing with water, intended to simulate exposure to rainfall (RT). The results showed BT and RT were not toxic to earthworms in a 14-day exposure while AT showed significant toxicity. The LC{sub 50} values for Eisenia and Lumbricus were 44.04 and 28.83 (as % AT soil/test soil mixture), respectively. The phytotoxicity data indicated that all 3 test soils significantly inhibited lettuce SG/RE in a dose-related manner, with AT being the most phytotoxic. In oats, RT had no effect on SG/RE and AT was more toxic than BT. For the two local-site grass seeds tested (blue grama and sideoat grama), the AT soil was the most phytotoxic followed by BT and RT. The results suggest that the soil after this remediation process exerts significant toxicity on both plant and earthworm, but after a rain-simulating rinse, the toxicity is the same as, or less than, the toxicity before treatment. Further studies are in progress to confirm the assumption that the high salt concentrations generated by acidification during the leaching process, followed by neutralization are responsible for the increased toxicity of unrinsed soil in both plant and earthworm.

  13. Electro-Mechanical Manipulator for Use in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell at the Defense Waste Processing Facility, Savannah River Site - 12454

    SciTech Connect

    Lambrecht, Bill; Dixon, Joe; Neuville, John R.

    2012-07-01

    One of the legacies of the cold war is millions of liters of radioactive waste. One of the locations where this waste is stored is at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in South Carolina. A major effort to clean up this waste is on-going at the defense waste processing facility (DWPF) at SRS. A piece of this effort is decontamination of the equipment used in the DWPF to process the waste. The remote equipment decontamination cell (REDC) in the DWPF uses electro-mechanical manipulators (EMM) arms manufactured and supplied by PaR Systems to decontaminate DWPF process equipment. The decontamination fluid creates a highly corrosive environment. After 25 years of operational use the original EMM arms are aging and need replacement. To support continued operation of the DWPF, two direct replacement EMM arms were delivered to the REDC in the summer of 2011. (authors)

  14. High hydrostatic pressure processing of murine norovirus 1-contaminated oysters inhibits oral infection in STAT-1 -/- deficient female mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have previously demonstrated that high pressure processing (HPP) is effective in preventing in vitro replication of murine norovirus strain 1 (MNV-1), a human norovirus surrogate, in a monocyte cell line following extraction from MNV-1-contaminated oysters. In the present study, the efficacy of ...

  15. REVIEW OF MULTI-AGENCY RADIATION SURVEY & SITE INVESTIGATION MANUAL (MARSSIM) SUPPLEMENT: MULTI-AGENCY RADIATION SURVEY AND ASSESSMENT OF MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT (MARSAME)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radioactive materials have been produced, processed, used, and transported amongst thousands of sites throughout the United States. Owners and operators of these sites would like to determine if materials or equipment on these sites are contaminated with radioactive materials, i...

  16. The use of ion flotation for detoxification of metal-contaminated waters and process effluents

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, F.M.; Duyvesteyn, S.; Sreenivasarao, K.

    1995-12-31

    Toxic metals entering surface or ground water from sources such as metal finishing shop spills and abandoned mines can pose a significant threat to public health and the environment. Ion flotation and similar foam separation techniques show great promise for treating dilute, metal-contaminated solutions, and could also be used to treat effluents from many minerals and metallurgical processing operations prior to discharge. In ion flotation, an appropriate collector is added to the solution to form hydrophobic complexes with the metal ions. These metal-bearing species are then removed by flotation, usually with trace addition of a frother to stabilize the foam. In an effort to better understand the underlying scientific and engineering principles that determine the performance of ion flotation, the removal of Cu(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III) and Cr(VI) has been studied using laboratory scale flotation columns in batch mode. The effects of the superficial air velocity, solution and froth height, nature of the collector, collector:metal-ion ratio, ionic strength and several frothers at low concentrations on the flotation kinetics are reported. Finally, results are presented on methods that might allow regeneration of collector and recovery of by-product metal from the foam product.

  17. Use of jute processing wastes for treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Souvik; Dastidar, M G

    2005-11-01

    A study was conducted to examine the potential of jute processing waste (JPW) for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with dye and other organics generated from various activities associated with jute cultivation and fibre production. Adsorption studies in batch mode have been conducted using dye solution as an adsorbate and JPW as an adsorbent. A comparative adsorption study was made with standard adsorbents such as powdered and granular activated carbon (PAC and GAC, respectively). A maximum removal of 81.7% was obtained with methylene blue dye using JPW as compared to 61% using PAC and 40% using GAC under similar conditions. The adsorption potential of JPW was observed to be dependent on various parameters such as type of dye, initial dye concentration, pH and dosage of adsorbent. The batch sorption data conformed well to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. However, lower BOD (33.3%) and COD (13.8%) removal from retting effluent was observed using JPW as compared to 75.6% BOD removal and 71.1% COD removal obtained with GAC.

  18. Technical assessment of processes to enable recycling of low-level contaminated metal waste

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.

    1991-10-01

    Accumulations of metal waste exhibiting low levels of radioactivity (LLCMW) have become a national burden, both financially and environmentally. Much of this metal could be considered as a resource. The Department of Energy was assigned the task of inventorying and classifying LLCMW, identifying potential applications, and applying and/or developing the technology necessary to enable recycling. One application for recycled LLCMW is high-quality canisters for permanent repository storage of high-level waste (HLW). As many as 80,000 canisters will be needed by 2035. Much of the technology needed to decontaminate LLCMW has already been developed, but no integrated process has been described, even on a pilot scale, for recycling LLCMW into HLW canisters. This report reviews practices for removal of radionuclides and for producing low carbon stainless steel. Contaminants that readily form oxides may be reduced to below de minimis levels and combined with a slag. Most of the radioactivity remaining in the ingot is concentrated in the inclusions. Radionuclides that chemically resemble the elements that comprise stainless steel can not be removed effectively. Slag compositions, current melting practices, and canister fabrication techniques were reviewed.

  19. Treatability assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contaminated marine sediments using permanganate, persulfate and Fenton oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Shih, Yu-Jen; Binh, Nguyen Thanh; Chen, Chiu-Wen; Chen, Chih-Feng; Dong, Cheng-Di

    2016-05-01

    Various chemical oxidation techniques, such as potassium permanganate (KMnO4), sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8), Fenton (H2O2/Fe(2+)), and the modified persulfate and Fenton reagents (activated by ferrous complexes), were carried out to treat marine sediments that were contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dredged from Kaohsiung Harbor in Taiwan. Experimental results revealed that KMnO4 was the most effective of the tested oxidants in PAH degradation. Owing to the high organic matter content in the sediment that reduced the efficiencies of Na2S2O8 and regular Fenton reactions, a large excess of oxidant was required. Nevertheless, KH2PO4, Na4P2O7 and four chelating agents (EDTA, sodium citrate, oxalic acid, and sodium oxalate) were utilized to stabilize Fe(II) in activating the Na2S2O8 and Fenton oxidations, while Fe(II)-citrate remarkably promoted the PAH degradation. Increasing the molecular weight and number of rings of PAH did not affect the overall removal efficiencies. The correlation between the effectiveness of the oxidation processes and the physicochemical properties of individual PAH was statistically analyzed. The data implied that the reactivity of PAH (electron affinity and ionization potential) affected its treatability more than did its hydrophobicity (Kow, Koc and Sw), particularly using experimental conditions under which PAHs could be effectively oxidized.

  20. A new process and equipment for waste minimization: Conversion of NO(x) scrubber liquor to fertilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Barile, Ronald G.; Gamble, Paul H.; Lueck, Dale E.; Young, Rebecca C.

    1995-01-01

    A new emissions control system for the oxidizer scrubbers that eliminates the current oxidizer liquor waste and lowers the NO(x) emissions is described. Since fueling and deservicing spacecraft constitute the primary operations in which environmental emissions occur, this will eliminate the second largest waste stream at KSC. This effort is in accord with Executive Order No. 12856 (Federal Compliance with Right-to-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements, data 6 Aug. 1993) and Executive Order No. 12873 (Federal Acquisition, Recycling, and Waste Prevention, dated 20 Oct. 1993). A recent study found that the efficiencies of the oxidizer scrubbers during normal operations ranged from 70 percent to 99 percent. The new scrubber liquor starts with 1% hydrogen peroxide at a pH of 7 and the process control system adds hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide to the scrubber liquor to maintain those initial conditions. The result is the formation of a solution of potassium nitrate, which is sold as a fertilizer. This report describes the equipment and procedures used to monitor and control the conversion of the scrubber liquor to fertilizer, while reducing the scrubber emissions.

  1. Torque coordinating robust control of shifting process for dry dual clutch transmission equipped in a hybrid car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z.-G.; Chen, H.-J.; Yang, Y.-Y.; He, L.

    2015-09-01

    For a hybrid car equipped with dual clutch transmission (DCT), the coordination control problems of clutches and power sources are investigated while taking full advantage of the integrated starter generator motor's fast response speed and high accuracy (speed and torque). First, a dynamic model of the shifting process is established, the vehicle acceleration is quantified according to the intentions of the driver, and the torque transmitted by clutches is calculated based on the designed disengaging principle during the torque phase. Next, a robust H∞ controller is designed to ensure speed synchronisation despite the existence of model uncertainties, measurement noise, and engine torque lag. The engine torque lag and measurement noise are used as external disturbances to initially modify the output torque of the power source. Additionally, during the torque switch phase, the torque of the power sources is smoothly transitioned to the driver's demanded torque. Finally, the torque of the power sources is further distributed based on the optimisation of system efficiency, and the throttle opening of the engine is constrained to avoid sharp torque variations. The simulation results verify that the proposed control strategies effectively address the problem of coordinating control of clutches and power sources, establishing a foundation for the application of DCT in hybrid cars.

  2. Analysis of Process Gases and Trace Contaminants in Membrane-Aerated Gaseous Effluent Streams.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Lunn, Griffin Michael; Meyer, Caitlin E.

    2015-01-01

    In membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs), hollow fibers are used to supply oxygen to the biofilms and bulk fluid. A pressure and concentration gradient between the inner volume of the fibers and the reactor reservoir drives oxygen mass transport across the fibers toward the bulk solution, providing the fiber-adhered biofilm with oxygen. Conversely, bacterial metabolic gases from the bulk liquid, as well as from the biofilm, move opposite to the flow of oxygen, entering the hollow fiber and out of the reactor. Metabolic gases are excellent indicators of biofilm vitality, and can aid in microbial identification. Certain gases can be indicative of system perturbations and control anomalies, or potentially unwanted biological processes occurring within the reactor. In confined environments, such as those found during spaceflight, it is important to understand what compounds are being stripped from the reactor and potentially released into the crew cabin to determine the appropriateness or the requirement for additional mitigation factors. Reactor effluent gas analysis focused on samples provided from Kennedy Space Center's sub-scale MABRs, as well as Johnson Space Center's full-scale MABRs, using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques. Process gases, such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrous oxide, were quantified to monitor reactor operations. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) GC-MS analysis was used to identify trace volatile compounds. Compounds of interest were subsequently quantified. Reactor supply air was examined to establish target compound baseline concentrations. Concentration levels were compared to average ISS concentration values and/or Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) levels where appropriate. Based on a review of to-date results, current trace contaminant control systems (TCCS) currently on board the ISS should be able to handle the added load from bioreactor systems without the need

  3. Contaminant-Organic Complexes, Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Friedrich, Donald M.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Myneni, Satish C.B.; Traina, Samuel J.

    1999-06-01

    There are a wide variety of compounds that are naturally occurring biodegradable organic chelates (siderophores) that appear to be more effective at oxide dissolution and actinide complexation than EDTA or other organic acids now used in decontamination processes. These chelates bind hard acids [Fe(III) and actinides(IV)] with extraordinarily high affinities. For example, the binding constant for the siderophore enterobactin with iron is about 1050, and its binding constant for Pu(IV) is estimated to be as high. Hence, this project is investigating the efficacy of using siderophores (or siderophore-like chelates) as decontamination agents of metal surfaces. The specific goals of this project are as follows: 1. develop an understanding of the surface interaction between siderophores (and their functional moieties), iron, and actinide oxides; their surface chemical properties that foster their dissolution; and the conditions that maximize that dissolution 2. develop the computational tools necessary to predict the reactivity of different siderophore functional groups toward oxide dissolution and actinide(IV) solubilization 3. identify likely candidate chelates for use in decontamination processes. To meet these objectives, the project combines molecular spectroscopy and computational chemistry to provide basic information on the structure and bonding of siderophore functional groups to metal (iron and uranium) oxide specimens common to corrosion products and scales on carbon steel and stainless steel encountered in U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The project explores fundamental scientific aspects of oxide mineral surface chemistry and dissolution related to chelate-induced solubilization. The spectroscopic and computational aspects of this project are complemented by macroscopic dissolution and solubilization studies of oxides and associated contaminants. From this combination of molecular, macroscopic, and computational studies, structure-function and

  4. Contaminant-Organic Complexes, Their Structure and Energetics in Surface Decontamination Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ainsworth, Calvin C.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Traina, Samuel J.; Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2000-06-01

    There are many compounds that are naturally occurring biodegradable organic chelates (siderophores) and appear to be more effective at oxide dissolution and actinide complexation than ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) or other organic acids currently used in decontamination processes. These chelates bind hard acids [Fe(III) and actinides(IV)] with extraordinarily high affinities. For example, the binding constant for the siderophore enterobactin with iron is about 1050, and its binding constant for Pu(IV) is estimated to be as high. Hence, this project is investigating the efficacy of using siderophores (or siderophore-like chelates) as decontamination agents of metal surfaces. The specific goals of this project are as follows: (1) To develop an understanding of the interactions between siderophores (and their functional moieties), Fe and actinide oxides, their surface chemical properties that foster their dissolution and the conditions that maximize that dissolution. (2) To develop the computational tools necessary to predict the reactivity of different siderophore functional groups toward oxide dissolution and actinide (IV) solubilization. (3) To identify likely candidate chelates for use in decontamination processes. To meet these objectives, the project combines x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and computational chemistry to provide basic information on the structure and bonding of siderophore functional groups to metal (Fe and U) oxide specimens common to corrosion products and scales on carbon steel and stainless steel encountered in DOE facilities. The project explores fundamental scientific aspects of oxide mineral surface chemistry and dissolution related to chelate-induced solubilization. The spectroscopic and computational aspects of this project are complemented by macroscopic dissolution and solubilization studies of oxides and associated contaminants. From this combination of molecular, macroscopic, and computational studies, structure

  5. F-coliphages, porcine adenovirus and porcine teschovirus as potential indicator viruses of fecal contamination for pork carcass processing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Tineke H; Muehlhauser, Victoria

    2017-01-16

    There are concerns about the zoonotic transmission of viruses through undercooked pork products. There is a lack of information on suitable indicator viruses for fecal contamination with pathogenic enteric viruses in the meat processing chain. The study compared the incidence and levels of contamination of hog carcasses with F-coliphages, porcine teschovirus (PTV), and porcine adenovirus (PAdV) at different stages of the dressing process to assess their potential as indicator viruses of fecal contamination. One hundred swab samples (200cm(2)) were collected from random sites on hog carcasses at 4 different stages of the dressing process and from retail pork over the span of a year from 2 pork processing plants (500/plant). Viable F-coliphages, PAdV DNA and PTV RNA were each detected on ≥99% of the incoming carcasses at both plants and were traceable through the pork processing chain. Significant correlations were observed between viable F-coliphages and PAdV DNA and between F-coliphages and PTV RNA but not between PAdV DNA and PTV RNA at the various stages of pork processing. Detection of viable F-coliphages was more sensitive than genomic copies of PAdV and PTV at low levels of contamination, making F-coliphages a preferred indicator in the pork slaughter process as it also provides an indication of infectivity. For plant A, F-RNA coliphages were detected in 25%, 63%, and 21% of carcass swabs after pasteurization, evisceration, and retail pork products, respectively. For plant B, F-coliphages were detected in 33%, 25%, and 13% of carcass swabs after skinning, evisceration, and retail pork samples, respectively. Viable F-RNA coliphages were genotyped. Viable F-RNA GII and GIII were generally not detected at the earlier stages of the slaughter process but they were detected on 13% of carcasses after evisceration and 2% of retail pork samples at plant A, which raises concerns of potential food handler contamination during pork processing. Consumers could be at risk

  6. Removal of PCBs and HCB from contaminated solids using a novel successive self-propagated sintering process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Long; Zhu, Tengfei; Hou, Hong; Qin, Xiaopeng; Li, Fasheng; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-11-01

    Thermal treatments are the primary technologies used to remove persistent organic pollutants from contaminated solids. The high energy consumption during continuous heating, required cost for treating the exhaust gas, and potential formation of secondary pollutants during combustion have prevented their implementation. A novel successive self-propagated sintering process was proposed for removing polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) from contaminated solids in a low-cost and environmentally friendly way. Nine laboratory-scale experiments involving different initial concentrations of pollutants and solid compositions were performed. Almost all PCBs (>99%) and HCB (>97%) were removed from solids under constant experimental conditions. Varying initial concentrations of PCBs and HCB in the contaminated solids did not influence the removal efficiency of the pollutants; however, the degradation efficiency of pollutants increased as their initial concentrations increased. Although varying levels of PCDD/Fs were detected in the effluent gas, they were all within the emission standard limit.

  7. Independent technical evaluation and recommendations for contaminated groundwater at the department of energy office of legacy management Riverton processing site

    SciTech Connect

    Looney, Brain B.; Denham, Miles E.; Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.

    2014-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (DOE-LM) manages the legacy contamination at the Riverton, WY, Processing Site – a former uranium milling site that operated from 1958 to 1963. The tailings and associated materials were removed in 1988-1989 and contaminants are currently flushing from the groundwater. DOE-LM commissioned an independent technical team to assess the status of the contaminant flushing, identify any issues or opportunities for DOE-LM, and provide key recommendations. The team applied a range of technical frameworks – spatial, temporal, hydrological and geochemical – in performing the evaluation. In each topic area, an in depth evaluation was performed using DOE-LM site data (e.g., chemical measurements in groundwater, surface water and soil, water levels, and historical records) along with information collected during the December 2013 site visit (e.g., plant type survey, geomorphology, and minerals that were observed, collected and evaluated).

  8. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY A new cleaning process for the metallic contaminants on a post-CMP wafer's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baohong, Gao; Yuling, Liu; Chenwei, Wang; Yadong, Zhu; Shengli, Wang; Qiang, Zhou; Baimei, Tan

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a new cleaning process using boron-doped diamond (BDD) film anode electrochemical oxidation for metallic contaminants on polished silicon wafer surfaces. The BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can efficiently prepare pyrophosphate peroxide, pyrophosphate peroxide can oxidize organic contaminants, and pyrophosphate peroxide is deoxidized into pyrophosphate. Pyrophosphate, a good complexing agent, can form a metal complex, which is a structure consisting of a copper ion, bonded to a surrounding array of two pyrophosphate anions. Three polished wafers were immersed in the 0.01 mol/L CuSO4 solution for 2 h in order to make comparative experiments. The first one was cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide, the second by RCA (Radio Corporation of America) cleaning, and the third by deionized (DI) water. The XPS measurement result shows that the metallic contaminants on wafers cleaned by the RCA method and by pyrophosphate peroxide is less than the XPS detection limits of 1 ppm. And the wafer's surface cleaned by pyrophosphate peroxide is more efficient in removing organic carbon residues than RCA cleaning. Therefore, BDD film anode electrochemical oxidation can be used for microelectronics cleaning, and it can effectively remove organic contaminants and metallic contaminants in one step. It also achieves energy saving and environmental protection.

  9. Microbial interactions with organic contaminants in soil: definitions, processes and measurement.

    PubMed

    Semple, Kirk T; Doick, Kieron J; Wick, Lukas Y; Harms, Hauke

    2007-11-01

    There has been and continues to be considerable scientific interest in predicting bioremediation rates and endpoints. This requires the development of chemical techniques capable of reliably predicting the bioavailability of organic compounds to catabolically active soil microbes. A major issue in understanding the link between chemical extraction and bioavailability is the problem of definition; there are numerous definitions, of varying degrees of complexity and relevance, to the interaction between organic contaminants and microorganisms in soil. The aim of this review is to consider the bioavailability as a descriptor for the rate and extent of biodegradation and, in an applied sense, bioremediation of organic contaminants in soil. To address this, the review will (i) consider and clarify the numerous definitions of bioavailability and discuss the usefulness of the term 'bioaccessibility'; (ii) relate definition to the microbiological and chemical measurement of organic contaminants' bioavailability in soil, and (iii) explore the mechanisms employed by soil microorganisms to attack organic contaminants in soil.

  10. Controlling Transport Processes in Groundwater Contamination in the North Coast Karst Aquifer of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Steele, K.

    2008-05-01

    The karst aquifer of the North Coast of Puerto Rico represents a significant source of water for drinking purposes, as well as ecosystem sustainability. The same characteristics making this aquifer the most productive in the island, fast infiltration and rapid flow in karst conduits, make the aquifers vulnerable highly vulnerable to contamination. Once in the ground water, organic contaminants move through the karst aquifers by complex pathways dictated by system characteristics and flow regimes. Ground water flow in karst aquifers is subscribed to two types of flow systems: conduit flow and diffuse flow. Transport in conduit-flow dominated systems tends to convey solutes rapidly through the system to a discharge or point without much attenuation. Transport in diffuse- flow systems, on the other hand, causes significant solute retardation and serves as a long-term source of contamination. Although it is common to attribute one type of predominant flow regime, most carbonate aquifers are characterized by a mixture of both flow systems. The north coast aquifer of Puerto Rico has been impacted by a large number of contaminates sites. During the last 25 years, 10 Superfund sites have been declared in the zone and others are being evaluated for inclusion in the National Priority List. The work presented herein addresses the potential impact of these sites on the extent of contamination and discusses the transport mechanisms affecting the transport and persistence of organic contaminants in the north coast aquifer of Puerto Rico. Preliminary evaluation indicates that fate and transport of these contaminants is controlled by a combinations of conduit- and diffuse-flow mechanisms, where conduits tend to concentrate water and contaminants and convey it rapidly or to "trapping" diffusive-flow zones of smaller pore-size zones.

  11. Insight into the prevalence and distribution of microbial contamination to evaluate water management in the fresh produce processing industry.

    PubMed

    Holvoet, Kevin; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Sampers, Imca; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2012-04-01

    This study provided insight into the degree of microbial contamination in the processing chain of prepacked (bagged) lettuce in two Belgian fresh-cut produce processing companies. The pathogens Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes were not detected. Total psychrotrophic aerobic bacterial counts (TPACs) in water samples, fresh produce, and environmental samples suggested that the TPAC is not a good indicator of overall quality and best manufacturing practices during production and processing. Because of the high TPACs in the harvested lettuce crops, the process water becomes quickly contaminated, and subsequent TPACs do not change much throughout the production process of a batch. The hygiene indicator Escherichia coli was used to assess the water management practices in these two companies in relation to food safety. Practices such as insufficient cleaning and disinfection of washing baths, irregular refilling of the produce wash baths with water of good microbial quality, and the use of high product/water ratios resulted in a rapid increase in E. coli in the processing water, with potential transfer to the end product (fresh-cut lettuce). The washing step in the production of fresh-cut lettuce was identified as a potential pathway for dispersion of microorganisms and introduction of E. coli to the end product via cross-contamination. An intervention step to reduce microbial contamination is needed, particularly when no sanitizers are used as is the case in some European Union countries. Thus, from a food safety point of view proper water management (and its validation) is a critical point in the fresh-cut produce processing industry.

  12. [Study on rapid analysis method of pesticide contamination in processed foods by GC-MS and GC-FPD].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Maki; Otsuka, Kenji; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Tomizawa, Sanae; Kamijo, Kyoko; Iwakoshi, Keiko; Sato, Chizuko; Nagayama, Toshihiro; Takano, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    A simple and rapid method using GC-MS and GC-FPD for the determination of pesticide contamination in processed food has been developed. Pesticides were extracted from a sample with ethyl acetate in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulfate, then cleaned up with a combination of mini-columns, such as macroporous diatomaceous earth, C18, GCB (graphite carbon black) and PSA. Recovery tests of 57 pesticides (known to be toxic or harmful) from ten kinds of processed foods (butter, cheese, corned beef, dried shrimp, frozen Chinese dumplings, grilled eels, instant noodles, kimchi, retort-packed curry and wine) were performed, and the recovery rates were mostly between 70% and 120%. This method can be used to judge whether or not processed foods are contaminated with pesticides at potentially harmful levels.

  13. Sobol‧ sensitivity analysis of NAPL-contaminated aquifer remediation process based on multiple surrogates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiannan; Lu, Wenxi

    2014-06-01

    Sobol‧ sensitivity analyses based on different surrogates were performed on a trichloroethylene (TCE)-contaminated aquifer to assess the sensitivity of the design variables of remediation duration, surfactant concentration and injection rates at four wells to remediation efficiency First, the surrogate models of a multi-phase flow simulation model were constructed by applying radial basis function artificial neural network (RBFANN) and Kriging methods, and the two models were then compared. Based on the developed surrogate models, the Sobol‧ method was used to calculate the sensitivity indices of the design variables which affect the remediation efficiency. The coefficient of determination (R2) and the mean square error (MSE) of these two surrogate models demonstrated that both models had acceptable approximation accuracy, furthermore, the approximation accuracy of the Kriging model was slightly better than that of the RBFANN model. Sobol‧ sensitivity analysis results demonstrated that the remediation duration was the most important variable influencing remediation efficiency, followed by rates of injection at wells 1 and 3, while rates of injection at wells 2 and 4 and the surfactant concentration had negligible influence on remediation efficiency. In addition, high-order sensitivity indices were all smaller than 0.01, which indicates that interaction effects of these six factors were practically insignificant. The proposed Sobol‧ sensitivity analysis based on surrogate is an effective tool for calculating sensitivity indices, because it shows the relative contribution of the design variables (individuals and interactions) to the output performance variability with a limited number of runs of a computationally expensive simulation model. The sensitivity analysis results lay a foundation for the optimal groundwater remediation process optimization.

  14. Multiple-tracer tests for contaminant transport process identification in saturated municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Woodman, N.D. Rees-White, T.C.; Stringfellow, A.M.; Beaven, R.P.; Hudson, A.P.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Multiple tracers were applied to saturated MSW to test dual-porosity properties. • Lithium demonstrated to be non-conservative as a tracer. • 260 mm diameter column too small to test transport properties of MSW. • The classical advection-dispersion mode was rejected due to high dispersivity. • Characteristic diffusion times did not vary with the tracer. - Abstract: Two column tests were performed in conditions emulating vertical flow beneath the leachate table in a biologically active landfill to determine dominant transport mechanisms occurring in landfills. An improved understanding of contaminant transport process in wastes is required for developing better predictions about potential length of the long term aftercare of landfills, currently measured in timescales of centuries. Three tracers (lithium, bromide and deuterium) were used. Lithium did not behave conservatively. Given that lithium has been used extensively for tracing in landfill wastes, the tracer itself and the findings of previous tests which assume that it has behaved conservatively may need revisiting. The smaller column test could not be fitted with continuum models, probably because the volume of waste was below a representative elemental volume. Modelling compared advection-dispersion (AD), dual porosity (DP) and hybrid AD–DP models. Of these models, the DP model was found to be the most suitable. Although there is good evidence to suggest that diffusion is an important transport mechanism, the breakthrough curves of the different tracers did not differ from each other as would be predicted based on the free-water diffusion coefficients. This suggested that solute diffusion in wastes requires further study.

  15. Evaluation of an alcohol-based sanitizer spray's bactericidal effects on Salmonella inoculated onto stainless steel and shell egg processing equipment.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    . Improved sanitation procedures may reduce the risk of food-borne illness . Experiments were conducted to determine the ability of an alcohol-quaternary ammonium sanitizer or water to reduce Salmonella inoculated onto stainless steel and shell egg processing equipment. A nalidixic acid-resistant Sa...

  16. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Data-Treatment Chemicals, Construction Materials, Transportation, On-site Equipment, and Other Processes for Use in Spreadsheets for Environmental Footprint Analysis (SEFA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report estimates environmental emission factors (EmF) for key chemicals, construction and treatment materials, transportation/on-site equipment, and other processes used at remediation sites. The basis for chemical, construction, and treatment material EmFs is life cycle inv...

  17. Enhanced bioremediation process: A case study of effectiveness on PAH contamination in soils at a former wood-treating site

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, W.F.; Matens, B.L.; Buchalter, D.S.; Montgomery, D.N.

    1997-12-31

    The Enhanced Bioremediation Process (EBP) technology is an exsitu biodegradation process that utilizes bacterial and fungal inoculants to effectively oxidize and bioremediate persistent hard to degrade organics in contaminated soils. The EBP fungal inoculants produce highly reactive extracellular peroxidase enzymes that can oxidize and degrade lignin, a complex, natural polymer composed of phenylpropane units that is resistant to decay. The lignin peroxidase enzymes are highly nonspecific because of their ability to oxidize the heterogenic lignin molecule, and are capable of degrading a wide variety of complex organic compounds. Because the chemical sub-structure of lignin (1,2-aryl diethers, alkyl sidechains and connected aryl systems) resembles that of many persistent organic compounds, the EBP inoculants are very effective in biodegrading similar hazardous organic pollutants in contaminated soils. As an inadvertent by-product of these biochemical processes, the EBP organisms reduce the organic constituents to a soluble form. In a soluble form, the indigenous organisms can further degrade the contaminants. The technology is applied in such a manner as to maximize the activity of the indigenous organisms by establishing optimum growth conditions. The efficacy of the EBP technology in degrading persistent environmental pollutants has been documented at both the bench scale and pilot demonstration levels. A recently completed field pilot demonstration was conducted at a creosote contaminated site. The demonstration entailed the treatment of approximately 700 tons of soil contaminated with PAH constituents. Laboratory analyses of pre and post-treated soils indicate that total average PAH concentrations in many samples were reduced by greater than 91 percent over a two month treatment period.

  18. Stabilization/solidification of mercury-contaminated waste ash using calcium sodium phosphate (CNP) and magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP) processes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Han; Eom, Yujin; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2014-08-15

    This study examined the stabilization and solidification (S/S) of mercury (Hg)-contaminated waste ash generated from an industrial waste incinerator using chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) technology. A magnesium potassium phosphate (MKP; MgKPO4 · 6H2O) ceramic, fabricated from MgO and KH2PO4, and a calcium sodium phosphate (CNP; CaNaPO4) ceramic, fabricated from CaO and Na2HPO4, were used as solidification binders in the CBPC process, and Na2S or FeS was added to each solidification binder to stabilize the Hg-contaminated waste ash. The S/S processes were conducted under various operating conditions (based on the solidification binder and stabilization reagent, stabilization reagent dosage, and waste loading ratio), and the performance characteristics of the S/S sample under each operating condition were compared, including the Hg leaching value and compressive strength. The Hg leaching value of untreated Hg-contaminated waste ash was 231.3 μg/L, whereas the S/S samples treated using the MKP and CNP processes exhibited Hg leaching values below the universal treatment standard (UTS) limit (25 μg/L). Although the compressive strengths of the S/S samples decreased as the sulfide dosage and waste loading ratio were increased, most of the S/S samples fabricated by the MKP and CNP processes exhibited good mechanical properties.

  19. Integrated system for gathering, processing, and reporting data relating to site contamination

    DOEpatents

    Long, Delmar D.; Goldberg, Mitchell S.; Baker, Lorie A.

    1997-01-01

    An integrated screening system comprises an intrusive sampling subsystem, a field mobile laboratory subsystem, a computer assisted design/geographical information subsystem, and a telecommunication linkup subsystem, all integrated to provide synergistically improved data relating to the extent of site soil/groundwater contamination. According to the present invention, data samples related to the soil, groundwater or other contamination of the subsurface material are gathered and analyzed to measure contaminants. Based on the location of origin of the samples in three-dimensional space, the analyzed data are transmitted to a location display. The data from analyzing samples and the data from the locating the origin are managed to project the next probable sample location. The next probable sample location is then forwarded for use as a guide in the placement of ensuing sample location, whereby the number of samples needed to accurately characterize the site is minimized.

  20. Sporulation of Bacillus spp. within biofilms: a potential source of contamination in food processing environments.

    PubMed

    Faille, C; Bénézech, T; Midelet-Bourdin, G; Lequette, Y; Clarisse, M; Ronse, G; Ronse, A; Slomianny, C

    2014-06-01

    Bacillus strains are often isolated from biofilms in the food industries. Previous works have demonstrated that sporulation could occur in biofilms, suggesting that biofilms would be a significant source of food contamination with spores. In this study, we investigated the properties of mono-species and mixed Bacillus biofilms and the ability of Bacillus strains to sporulate inside biofilms. Bacillus strains were able to form mono-species biofilms on stainless steel coupons, with up to 90% spores after a 48 h-incubation. These spores were highly resistant to cleaning but were easily transferred to agar, mimicking the cross-contamination of food, thereby suggesting that biofilms would be of particular concern due to a potential for Bacillus spore food contamination. This hypothesis was strengthened by the fact that Bacillus strains were able to form mixed biofilms with resident strains and that sporulation still occurred easily in these complex structures.

  1. Integrated system for gathering, processing, and reporting data relating to site contamination

    DOEpatents

    Long, D.D.; Goldberg, M.S.; Baker, L.A.

    1997-11-11

    An integrated screening system comprises an intrusive sampling subsystem, a field mobile laboratory subsystem, a computer assisted design/geographical information subsystem, and a telecommunication linkup subsystem, all integrated to provide synergistically improved data relating to the extent of site soil/groundwater contamination. According to the present invention, data samples related to the soil, groundwater or other contamination of the subsurface material are gathered and analyzed to measure contaminants. Based on the location of origin of the samples in three-dimensional space, the analyzed data are transmitted to a location display. The data from analyzing samples and the data from the locating the origin are managed to project the next probable sample location. The next probable sample location is then forwarded for use as a guide in the placement of ensuing sample location, whereby the number of samples needed to accurately characterize the site is minimized. 10 figs.

  2. Toxicological benchmarks for potential contaminants of concern for effects on soil and litter invertebrates and heterotrophic process

    SciTech Connect

    Will, M.E.; Suter, G.W. II

    1995-09-01

    An important step in ecological risk assessments is screening the chemicals occur-ring on a site for contaminants of potential concern. Screening may be accomplished by comparing reported ambient concentrations to a set of toxicological benchmarks. Multiple endpoints for assessing risks posed by soil-borne contaminants to organisms directly impacted by them have been established. This report presents benchmarks for soil invertebrates and microbial processes and addresses only chemicals found at United States Department of Energy (DOE) sites. No benchmarks for pesticides are presented. After discussing methods, this report presents the results of the literature review and benchmark derivation for toxicity to earthworms (Sect. 3), heterotrophic microbes and their processes (Sect. 4), and other invertebrates (Sect. 5). The final sections compare the benchmarks to other criteria and background and draw conclusions concerning the utility of the benchmarks.

  3. Disinfection of contaminated equipment: evaluation of benzalkonium chloride exposure time and solution age and the ability of air-drying to eliminate Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    PubMed

    Oplinger, Randall W; Wagner, Eric

    2010-12-01

    Disinfection of equipment that comes in contact with fish can help to minimize the spread of Flavobacterium psychrophilum (the etiological agent of bacterial coldwater disease) within and among fish culture facilities. We present the results of three studies that evaluated the potential use of benzalkonium chloride and air-drying to kill surface-attached F. psychrophilum. In the first study, we established a vat with a 600-mg/L benzalkonium chloride solution and sampled this solution 0, 14, 35, 56, 70, and 84 d after creation. The solution was kept outdoors and subjected to typical hatchery use. Plastic test strips were dipped in a solution containing F. psychrophilum and were then immersed in benzalkonium chloride for 0, 1, 10, 30, or 60 min. The strips were then rinsed with sterile water and streaked across a plate containing tryptone yeast extract salts (TYES) medium. No culturable bacteria were detected from any strips immersed for 10, 30, or 60 min. Bacteria were detected on 17% of the strips that were immersed for 1 min. The age of the benzalkonium chloride solution had no effect on disinfection ability. In the second study, plastic strips were immersed in a solution containing F. psychrophilum and then were dipped in a 600-mg/L benzalkonium chloride solution for 10 s. The strips were then air-dried for 1 h and were streaked onto TYES medium. No bacterial growth was observed from any strips in the second experiment. The third study determined whether air-drying alone was sufficient to kill F. psychrophilum. Plastic strips were dipped in a solution containing F. psychrophilum; were allowed to dry at room temperature for 0, 24, 48, or 96 h; and were then streaked across TYES medium. Bacteria were cultured from strips representing each drying interval, indicating that air-drying times of 96 h or less are insufficient to kill F. psychrophilum.

  4. Processes affecting geochemistry and contaminant movement in the middle Claiborne aquifer of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Brian G.; Kingsbury, James A.; Welch, Heather L.; Tollett, Roland W.

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater chemistry and tracer-based age data were used to assess contaminant movement and geochemical processes in the middle Claiborne aquifer (MCA) of the Mississippi embayment aquifer system. Water samples were collected from 30 drinking-water wells (mostly domestic and public supply) and analyzed for nutrients, major ions, pesticides, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and transient age tracers (chlorofluorocarbons, tritium and helium-3, and sulfur hexafluoride). Redox conditions are highly variable throughout the MCA. However, mostly oxic groundwater with low dissolved solids is more vulnerable to nitrate contamination in the outcrop areas east of the Mississippi River in Mississippi and west Tennessee than in mostly anoxic groundwater in downgradient areas in western parts of the study area. Groundwater in the outcrop area was relatively young (apparent age of less than 40 years) with significantly (p 50 m depth) indicated contaminant movement from shallow parts of the aquifer into deeper oxic zones. Given the persistence of nitrate in young oxic groundwater that was recharged several decades ago, and the lack of a confining unit, the downward movement of young contaminated water may result in higher nitrate concentrations over time in deeper parts of the aquifer containing older oxic water.

  5. REMOVING ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS OF REGULATORY INTEREST WITH MEMBRANE PROCESSES: USEPA'S SCREENING STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as the Cont...

  6. REMOVAL OF ORGANIC CCL CONTAMINANTS FROM DRINKING WATERS BY GAC, AIR STRIPPING, AND MEMBRANE PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The 1996 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SWDA) require the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to establish a list of unregulated microbiological and chemical contaminants to aid in priority-setting for the Agency's drinking water program. This list, known as t...

  7. Value Added Processing of Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal: Aflatoxin Sequestration During Protein Extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficacy of a bentonite clay, Astra-Ben 20A (AB20A), to sequester aflatoxin from contaminated (~110 ppb) peanut meal during protein extraction was studied. Aqueous peanut meal dispersions (10% w/w) were prepared varying pH, temperature, enzymatic hydrolysis conditions, and concentrations of AB2...

  8. Differences detected in vivo between samples of aflatoxin-contaminated peanut meal, following decontamination by two ammonia-based processes.

    PubMed

    Neal, G E; Judah, D J; Carthew, P; Verma, A; Latour, I; Weir, L; Coker, R D; Nagler, M J; Hoogenboom, L A

    2001-02-01

    A sample of peanut meal, highly contaminated with aflatoxins, has been subjected to decontamination by two commercial ammonia-based processes. The original contaminated and the two decontaminated meals were fed to rats for 90 days. No lesions associated with aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis were detected histologically following feeding with the two detoxified meals. There were, however, clear differences between the two meals in respect of growth rates of the rats. In addition, feeding one of the detoxified meals resulted in hepatic abnormalities detected using novel immunohistochemical reagents. Differences between the two detoxified meals were also indicated by the results of studies using meals 'spiked' with [14C]-aflatoxin B1 prior to being subjected to the detoxification processes. The meals differed in the bioavailability of the label. It was concluded that peanut meal where an initial, unacceptable level of contamination with aflatoxins had been reduced by two ammonia-based processes to comparable, acceptable levels, may still have different effects in vivo when incorporated into animal diets.

  9. Temporal variations in parameters reflecting terminal-electron-accepting processes in an aquifer contaminated with waste fuel and chlorinated solvents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGuire, Jennifer T.; Smith, Erik W.; Long, David T.; Hyndman, David W.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Klug, Michael J.; Velbel, Michael A.

    2000-01-01

    A fundamental issue in aquifer biogeochemistry is the means by which solute transport, geochemical processes, and microbiological activity combine to produce spatial and temporal variations in redox zonation. In this paper, we describe the temporal variability of TEAP conditions in shallow groundwater contaminated with both waste fuel and chlorinated solvents. TEAP parameters (including methane, dissolved iron, and dissolved hydrogen) were measured to characterize the contaminant plume over a 3-year period. We observed that concentrations of TEAP parameters changed on different time scales and appear to be related, in part, to recharge events. Changes in all TEAP parameters were observed on short time scales (months), and over a longer 3-year period. The results indicate that (1) interpretations of TEAP conditions in aquifers contaminated with a variety of organic chemicals, such as those with petroleum hydrocarbons and chlorinated solvents, must consider additional hydrogen-consuming reactions (e.g., dehalogenation); (2) interpretations must consider the roles of both in situ (at the sampling point) biogeochemical and solute transport processes; and (3) determinations of microbial communities are often necessary to confirm the interpretations made from geochemical and hydrogeological measurements on these processes.

  10. Contaminants from Cretaceous Black Shale Part 1: Natural weathering processes controlling contaminant cycling in Mancos Shale, southwestern United States, with emphasis on salinity and selenium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Fahy, Juli W.; Elliott, John G.; Grauch, Richard I.; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Soils derived from black shale can accumulate high concentrations of elements of environmental concern, especially in regions with semiarid to arid climates. One such region is the Colorado River basin in the southwestern United States where contaminants pose a threat to agriculture, municipal water supplies, endangered aquatic species, and water-quality commitments to Mexico. Exposures of Cretaceous Mancos Shale (MS) in the upper basin are a major contributor of salinity and selenium in the Colorado River. Here, we examine the roles of geology, climate, and alluviation on contaminant cycling (emphasis on salinity and Se) during weathering of MS in a Colorado River tributary watershed. Stage I (incipient weathering) began perhaps as long ago as 20 ka when lowering of groundwater resulted in oxidation of pyrite and organic matter. This process formed gypsum and soluble organic matter that persist in the unsaturated, weathered shale today. Enrichment of Se observed in laterally persistent ferric oxide layers likely is due to selenite adsorption onto the oxides that formed during fluctuating redox conditions at the water table. Stage II weathering (pedogenesis) is marked by a significant decrease in bulk density and increase in porosity as shale disaggregates to soil. Rainfall dissolves calcite and thenardite (Na2SO4) at the surface, infiltrates to about 1 m, and precipitates gypsum during evaporation. Gypsum formation (estimated 390 kg m−2) enriches soil moisture in Na and residual SO4. Transpiration of this moisture to the surface or exposure of subsurface soil (slumping) produces more thenardite. Most Se remains in the soil as selenite adsorbed to ferric oxides, however, some oxidizes to selenate and, during wetter conditions is transported with soil moisture to depths below 3 m. Coupled with little rainfall, relatively insoluble gypsum, and the translocation of soluble Se downward, MS landscapes will be a significant nonpoint source of salinity and Se to the

  11. Transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from equipment surfaces to fresh-cut leafy greens during processing in a model pilot-plant production line with sanitizer-free water.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Annemarie L; Davidson, Gordon R; Marks, Bradley P; Todd, Ewen C D; Ryser, Elliot T

    2012-11-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of fresh-cut leafy greens has become a public health concern as a result of several large outbreaks. The goal of this study was to generate baseline data for E. coli O157:H7 transfer from product-inoculated equipment surfaces to uninoculated lettuce during pilot-scale processing without a sanitizer. Uninoculated cored heads of iceberg and romaine lettuce (22.7 kg) were processed using a commercial shredder, step conveyor, 3.3-m flume tank with sanitizer-free tap water, shaker table, and centrifugal dryer, followed by 22.7 kg of product that had been dip inoculated to contain ∼10(6), 10(4), or 10(2) CFU/g of a four-strain avirulent, green fluorescent protein-labeled, ampicillin-resistant E. coli O157:H7 cocktail. After draining the flume tank and refilling the holding tank with tap water, 90.8 kg of uninoculated product was similarly processed and collected in ∼5-kg aliquots. After processing, 42 equipment surface samples and 46 iceberg or 36 romaine lettuce samples (25 g each) from the collection baskets were quantitatively examined for E. coli O157:H7 by direct plating or membrane filtration using tryptic soy agar containing 0.6% yeast extract and 100 ppm of ampicillin. Initially, the greatest E. coli O157:H7 transfer was seen from inoculated lettuce to the shredder and conveyor belt, with all equipment surface populations decreasing 90 to 99% after processing 90.8 kg of uncontaminated product. After processing lettuce containing 10(6) or 10(4) E. coli O157:H7 CFU/g followed by uninoculated lettuce, E. coli O157:H7 was quantifiable throughout the entire 90.8 kg of product. At an inoculation level of 10(2) CFU/g, E. coli O157:H7 was consistently detected in the first 21.2 kg of previously uninoculated lettuce at 2 to 3 log CFU/100 g and transferred to 78 kg of product. These baseline E. coli O157:H7 transfer results will help determine the degree of sanitizer efficacy required to better ensure the safety of fresh-cut leafy

  12. Milk contamination and resistance to processing conditions determine the fate of Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages in dairies.

    PubMed

    Madera, Carmen; Monjardín, Cristina; Suárez, Juan E

    2004-12-01

    Milk contamination by phages, the susceptibility of the phages to pasteurization, and the high levels of resistance to phage infection of starter strains condition the evolution dynamics of phage populations in dairy environments. Approximately 10% (83 of 900) of raw milk samples contained phages of the quasi-species c2 (72%), 936 (24%), and P335 (4%). However, 936 phages were isolated from 20 of 24 (85%) whey samples, while c2 was detected in only one (4%) of these samples. This switch may have been due to the higher susceptibility of c2 to pasteurization (936-like phages were found to be approximately 35 times more resistant than c2 strains to treatment of contaminated milk in a plate heat exchanger at 72 degrees C for 15 s). The restriction patterns of 936-like phages isolated from milk and whey were different, indicating that survival to pasteurization does not result in direct contamination of the dairy environment. The main alternative source of phages (commercial bacterial starters) does not appear to significantly contribute to phage contamination. Twenty-four strains isolated from nine starter formulations were generally resistant to phage infection, and very small progeny were generated upon induction of the lytic cycle of resident prophages. Thus, we postulate that a continuous supply of contaminated milk, followed by pasteurization, creates a factory environment rich in diverse 936 phage strains. This equilibrium would be broken if a particular starter strain turned out to be susceptible to infection by one of these 936-like phages, which, as a consequence, became prevalent.

  13. Applicability of the Linear Sorption Isotherm Model to Represent Contaminant Transport Processes in Site Wide Performance Assessments

    SciTech Connect

    FOGWELL, T.W.; LAST, G.V.

    2003-07-11

    The estimation of flux of contaminants through the vadose zone to the groundwater under varying geologic, hydrologic, and chemical conditions is key to making technically credible and sound decisions regarding soil site characterization and remediation, single-shell tank retrieval, and waste site closures (DOE 2000). One of the principal needs identified in the science and technology roadmap (DOE 2000) is the need to improve the conceptual and numerical models that describe the location of contaminants today, and to provide the basis for forecasting future movement of contaminants on both site-specific and site-wide scales. The State of Knowledge (DOE 1999) and Preliminary Concepts documents describe the importance of geochemical processes on the transport of contaminants through the Vadose Zone. These processes have been identified in the international list of Features, Events, and Processes (FEPs) (NEA 2000) and included in the list of FEPS currently being developed for Hanford Site assessments (Soler et al. 2001). The current vision for Hanford site-wide cumulative risk assessments as performed using the System Assessment Capability (SAC) is to represent contaminant adsorption using the linear isotherm (empirical distribution coefficient, K{sub d}) sorption model. Integration Project Expert Panel (PEP) comments indicate that work is required to adequately justify the applicability of the linear sorption model, and to identify and defend the range of K{sub d} values that are adopted for assessments. The work plans developed for the Science and Technology (S&T) efforts, SAC, and the Core Projects must answer directly the question of ''Is there a scientific basis for the application of the linear sorption isotherm model to the complex wastes of the Hanford Site?'' This paper is intended to address these issues. The reason that well documented justification is required for using the linear sorption (K{sub d}) model is that this approach is strictly empirical and is

  14. Separate process wastewaters, part A: Contaminated flow collection and treatment system for the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) to assist the agency in complying with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 as it applies to modification of ongoing groundwater treatment at DOE`s Kansas City Plant (KCP), located about 19 km (12 miles) south of the central business district of Kansas City, Missouri. The KCP is currently owned by DOE and is operated by the Kansas City Division of AlliedSignal Inc. The plant manufactures nonnuclear components for nuclear weapons. The purpose of and need for the DOE action is to treat identified toxic organic contaminated groundwater at the KCP to ensure that human health and the environment are protected and to comply with groundwater treatment requirements of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 3008(h) Administrative Order on Consent and the discharge requirements of the Kansas City, Missouri, ordinances for the city sewer system. Four source streams of toxic organic contaminated groundwater have been identified that require treatment prior to discharge to the city sewer system. The toxic organic contaminants of concern consist of volatile organic compounds (VOCS) in the groundwater and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBS) predominantly associated with some soils near the Main Manufacturing Building. The no-action alternative is to continue with the current combination of treatment and nontreatment and to continue operation of the KCP groundwater treatment system in its current configuration at Building 97 (B97). The DOE proposed action is to collect and treat all identified toxic organic contaminated groundwater prior to discharge to the city sewer system. The proposed action includes constructing an Organics Collection System and Organics Treatment Building, moving and expanding the existing groundwater treatment system, and operating the new groundwater treatment facility.

  15. Evaluation of the assimilation of As by vegetables in contaminated soils submitted to a remediation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Sirvent, Carmen; Martinez Sanchez, Maria Jose; Agudo, Ines; Belen Martinez, Lucia; Bech, Jaume

    2016-04-01

    A greenhouse trial was carried out to evaluate the assimilation of heavy metals by three types of plants (lettuce, onion and broccoli), different parts of which are destined for human and farm animals consumption (leaves, roots, fruits). The experiments were carried out to check the validity of the use of calcareous materials to recover soils contaminated with heavy metals. The aim of this work was to apply a technology for decontamination to ensure that As do not enter into the trophic chain at risky levels and analyze and to assess the risk pre and post operational of the different treatments proposed. The materials used was a soils to be remediated (mining soils) and the materials used for remediation were lime filler and Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW). The plants were cultivated in greenhouse with several types of soil. Five experiments were used, namely, Tc (contaminated soil), T1 (uncontaminated soil (blank soil)), T2 (50% T1 + 50% Tc), T3 (Tc + (25%) lime residues coming from quarries) and T4 (Tc + (25%) residues coming from demolition and construction activities). The entire project involves twenty experiments which were prepared from soils highly contaminated mixed with two types of calcareous materials. The total As content of the soils samples, rhizosphere and vegetable samples, were measured and the translocation factor (TF), which is defined as the ratio of metal concentration in the leaves or shoots to the roots, and the Bioconcentration factor (BCF), which is defined as the ratio of metal concentration in the roots to that in soil were calculated. The use of CDR is shown to be a suitable way for remediating soils contaminated by metals. The methodology permits a revalorization of CDW.

  16. [Contamination mechanism and regeneration strategies of chromatographic resin in separation process for expression product from mammary gland bioreactor].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiyan; Zhang, Yan; Li, Yan; Luo, Jian; Qin, Peiyong; Su, Zhiguo

    2011-11-01

    This study focused on the contamination mechanism and regeneration strategies of sulfopropyl ion exchange resin (SP Sepharose FF) during the separation of recombinant human lactoferrin from transgenic bovine milk. We analyzed primary constituents' contents in chromatorgraphic material and fractions. The results showed that the lipid in milk can clog the column or adhere to the resin through hydrophobic interaction, leading to an increase in column pressure. Some casein molecules were found to adsorb onto the resin through electrostatic interaction, therefore the adsorption capacity was decreased. There was no direct interaction between lactose and the resin in the chromatorgraphic process. Increased continuous chromatographic cycles and prolonged time interval between protein purification and column regeneration could enhance the undesirable interaction between the contaminants and resin, thus lowering the regeneration efficiency. NaOH was found to be effective in the removal of lipid and casein molecules from the column. Furthermore, normal microstructure and chromatographic performance of the ion exchanger was recovered after this cleaning procedure.

  17. Contaminant occurrence, identification and control in a pilot-scale corn fiber to ethanol conversion process.

    PubMed

    Schell, Daniel J; Dowe, Nancy; Ibsen, Kelly N; Riley, Cynthia J; Ruth, Mark F; Lumpkin, Robert E

    2007-11-01

    While interest in bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks is increasing, there is still relatively little pilot-plant data and operating experience available for this emerging industry. A series of batch and continuous fermentation runs were performed in a pilot-plant, some lasting up to six weeks, in which corn fiber-derived sugars were fermented to ethanol using glucose-fermenting and recombinant glucose/xylose-fermenting yeasts. However, contamination by Lactobacillus bacteria was a common occurrence during these runs. These contaminating microorganisms were found to readily consume arabinose, a sugar not utilized by the yeast, producing acetic and lactic acids that had a detrimental effect on fermentation performance. The infections were ultimately controlled with the antibiotic virginiamycin, but routine use of antibiotics is cost prohibitive. The severity of the problem encountered during this work is probably due to use of a highly contaminated feedstock. Lignocellulosic conversion facilities will not employ aseptic designs. Instead, techniques similar to those employed in the corn-based fuel ethanol industry to control infections will be used. Effective control may also be possible by using fermentative microorganisms that consume all biomass-derived sugars.

  18. Viability of a nanoremediation  process in single or multi-metal(loid) contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Gil-Díaz, M; Pinilla, P; Alonso, J; Lobo, M C

    2017-01-05

    The effectiveness of single- and multi-metal(loid) immobilization of As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn using different doses of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) was evaluated and compared in two different soils, a calcareous and an acidic one. The effectiveness of nZVI to immobilize metal(loid)s in soil strongly depended on the metal characteristics, soil properties, dose of nZVI and presence of other metal(loid)s. In the case of single contamination, this nanoremediation strategy was effective for all of the metal(loid)s studied except for Cd. When comparing the two soils, anionic metal(loid)s (As and Cr) were more easily retained in acidic soil, whereas cationic metal(loid)s (Cd, Pb and Zn), were immobilized more in calcareous soil. In multi-metal(loid) contaminated soils, the presence of several metal(loid)s affected their immobilization, which was probably due to the competitive phenomenon between metal(loid) ions, which can reduce their sorption or produce synergistic effects. At 10% of nZVI, As, Cr and Pb availability decreased more than 82%, for Zn it ranged between 31 and 75% and for Cd between 13 and 42%. Thus, the application of nZVI can be a useful strategy to immobilize As, Cr, Pb and Zn in calcareous or acidic soils in both single- or multi-metal(loid) contamination conditions.

  19. The redox processes in Hg-contaminated soils from Descoberto (Minas Gerais, Brazil): implications for the mercury cycle.

    PubMed

    Windmöller, Cláudia C; Durão Júnior, Walter A; de Oliveira, Aline; do Valle, Cláudia M

    2015-02-01

    Investigations of the redox process and chemical speciation of Hg(II) lead to a better understanding of biogeochemical processes controlling the transformation of Hg(II) into toxic and bioaccumulative monomethyl mercury, mainly in areas contaminated with Hg(0). This study investigates the speciation and redox processes of Hg in soil samples from a small area contaminated with Hg(0) as a result of gold mining activities in the rural municipality of Descoberto (Minas Gerais, Brazil). Soil samples were prepared by adding Hg(0) and HgCl2 separately to dry soil, and the Hg redox process was monitored using thermodesorption coupled to atomic absorption spectrometry. A portion of the Hg(0) added was volatilized (up to 37.4±2.0%) or oxidized (from 36±7% to 88±16%). A correlation with Mn suggests that this oxidation is favored, but many other factors must be evaluated, such as the presence of microorganisms and the types of organic matter present. The interaction of Hg with the matrix is suggested to involve Hg(II)-complexes formed with inorganic and organic sulfur ligands and/or nonspecific adsorption onto oxides of Fe, Al and/or Mn. The kinetics of the oxidation reaction was approximated for two first-order reactions; the faster reaction was attributed to the oxidation of Hg(0)/Hg(I), and the slower reaction corresponded to Hg(I)/Hg(II). The second stage was 43-139 times slower than the first. The samples spiked with Hg(II) showed low volatilization and a shifting of the signal of Hg(II) to lower temperatures. These results show that the extent, rate and type of redox process can be adverse in soils. Descoberto can serve as an example for areas contaminated with Hg(0).

  20. UV/Ozone treatment to decontaminate tritium contaminated surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Krasznai, J.P.; Mowat, R.

    1995-10-01

    Tritium contamination on surfaces is often encountered during operation and maintenance of equipment at the Darlington Tritium Removal Facility and likely at other tritium handling facilities. The use of efficient decontamination techniques that produce little or no secondary wastes is desirable. At Ontario Hydro Technologies (OHT) we have been developing a process utilizing a combination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and ozone gas to remove tritium surface contamination from materials often used in tritium service. This paper summarizes the performance of the technique. The results are encouraging because the technique is very effective, simple in terms of equipment requirements and concentrates tritium in an easily managed waste form. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Internal contamination in the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poythress, C.

    1985-01-01

    Atmosphere trace contaminant control systems used in the past (Lunar Module and Skylab) and present (nuclear submarines and Shuttle) are discussed. Recommendations are made for the future Space Station contaminant control system. The prevention and control methods used are judicious material selection, detection, and specific removal equipment. Sources and effects of contamination relating to crew and equipment are also discussed.

  2. An early approach for the evaluation of repair processes in fish after exposure to sediment contaminated by an oil spill.

    PubMed

    Salamanca, Maria J; Jimenez-Tenorio, Natalia; Reguera, Diana F; Morales-Caselles, Carmen; Delvalls, T Angel

    2008-12-01

    A chronic bioassay was carried out under laboratory conditions using juvenile Solea senegalensis to determine the toxicity of contaminants from an oil spill(Prestige). Also, the repair processes in fish affected by contaminants due to oil exposure were evaluated. Over 30 days individuals were exposed to clean sediment (control) and to sediment contaminated by a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other substances. The physicochemical parameters of the tanks (salinity, temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen) were controlled during the exposure period. Clean sediment from the Bay of Cadiz (Spain) was used as negative control and was mixed with fuel oil to prepare the dilution (0.5% w:w dry-weight). After the exposure period, fish were labeled and transferred to "clean tanks" (tanks without sediment) in order to study the recovery and the repair processes in the exposed organisms. A biomarker of exposure (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity - EROD activity) and a biomarker of effect (histopathology) were analyzed during the exposure and recovery period. After 10, 20 and 30 days of exposure, individuals showed significant induction (P < 0.05) of the EROD activity and also presented diverse histopathological damages. The analysis of both the biomarkers of exposure and effect, after the 5th and 10th day of recovery in the "clean tank", enabled a first evaluation of the repair process of the induced damages due to the fuel oil exposure. After the recovery phase, control individuals showed a more significant decrease (P < 0.05) of the alteration of the measured biomarkers than in the oil-exposed fish. While in the oil-exposed fish the EROD activity showed some recovery, the histopathological damages did hardly improve. According to our results, tissue repair processes probably need longer recovery periods to observe significant improvement of the affected organs. This will be further investigated in the future.

  3. Decision Analysis for Equipment Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cilliers, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    Equipment selection during process design is a critical aspect of chemical engineering and requires engineering judgment and subjective analysis. When educating chemical engineering students in the selection of proprietary equipment during design, the focus is often on the types of equipment available and their operating characteristics. The…

  4. [Medical Equipment Maintenance Methods].

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    Due to the high technology and the complexity of medical equipment, as well as to the safety and effectiveness, it determines the high requirements of the medical equipment maintenance work. This paper introduces some basic methods of medical instrument maintenance, including fault tree analysis, node method and exclusive method which are the three important methods in the medical equipment maintenance, through using these three methods for the instruments that have circuit drawings, hardware breakdown maintenance can be done easily. And this paper introduces the processing methods of some special fault conditions, in order to reduce little detours in meeting the same problems. Learning is very important for stuff just engaged in this area.

  5. Rapid and effective decontamination of chlorophenol-contaminated soil by sorption into commercial polymers: concept demonstration and process modeling.

    PubMed

    Tomei, M Concetta; Mosca Angelucci, Domenica; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Daugulis, Andrew J

    2015-03-01

    Solid phase extraction performed with commercial polymer beads to treat soil contaminated by chlorophenols (4-chlorophenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and pentachlorophenol) as single compounds and in a mixture has been investigated in this study. Soil-water-polymer partition tests were conducted to determine the relative affinities of single compounds in soil-water and polymer-water pairs. Subsequent soil extraction tests were performed with Hytrel 8206, the polymer showing the highest affinity for the tested chlorophenols. Factors that were examined were polymer type, moisture content, and contamination level. Increased moisture content (up to 100%) improved the extraction efficiency for all three compounds. Extraction tests at this upper level of moisture content showed removal efficiencies ≥70% for all the compounds and their ternary mixture, for 24 h of contact time, which is in contrast to the weeks and months, normally required for conventional ex situ remediation processes. A dynamic model characterizing the rate and extent of decontamination was also formulated, calibrated and validated with the experimental data. The proposed model, based on the simplified approach of "lumped parameters" for the mass transfer coefficients, provided very good predictions of the experimental data for the absorptive removal of contaminants from soil at different individual solute levels. Parameters evaluated from calibration by fitting of single compound data, have been successfully applied to predict mixture data, with differences between experimental and predicted data in all cases being ≤3%.

  6. Processes affecting soil and groundwater contamination by DNAPL in low-permeability media

    SciTech Connect

    McWhorter, D.B.

    1996-08-01

    This paper is one of a set of focus papers intended to document the current knowledge relevant to the contamination and remediation of soils and ground water by dense, nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPL). The emphasis is on low permeability media such as fractured clay and till and unconsolidated, stratified formations. Basic concepts pertaining to immiscible-fluid mixtures are described and used to discuss such aspects as DNAPL transport, dissolved-phase transport, and equilibrium mass distributions. Several implications for remediation are presented. 27 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Numerical simulation of seasonal heat storage in a contaminated shallow aquifer - Temperature influence on flow, transport and reaction processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Steffi; Beyer, Christof; Dahmke, Andreas; Bauer, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The energy market in Germany currently faces a rapid transition from nuclear power and fossil fuels towards an increased production of energy from renewable resources like wind or solar power. In this context, seasonal heat storage in the shallow subsurface is becoming more and more important, particularly in urban regions with high population densities and thus high energy and heat demand. Besides the effects of increased or decreased groundwater and sediment temperatures on local and large-scale groundwater flow, transport, geochemistry and microbiology, an influence on subsurface contaminations, which may be present in the urban surbsurface, can be expected. Currently, concerns about negative impacts of temperature changes on groundwater quality are the main barrier for the approval of heat storage at or close to contaminated sites. The possible impacts of heat storage on subsurface contamination, however, have not been investigated in detail yet. Therefore, this work investigates the effects of a shallow seasonal heat storage on subsurface groundwater flow, transport and reaction processes in the presence of an organic contamination using numerical scenario simulations. A shallow groundwater aquifer is assumed, which consists of Pleistoscene sandy sediments typical for Northern Germany. The seasonal heat storage in these scenarios is performed through arrays of borehole heat exchangers (BHE), where different setups with 6 and 72 BHE, and temperatures during storage between 2°C and 70°C are analyzed. The developing heat plume in the aquifer interacts with a residual phase of a trichloroethene (TCE) contamination. The plume of dissolved TCE emitted from this source zone is degraded by reductive dechlorination through microbes present in the aquifer, which degrade TCE under anaerobic redox conditions to the degradation products dichloroethene, vinyl chloride and ethene. The temperature dependence of the microbial degradation activity of each degradation step is

  8. Decision Analysis Science Modeling for Application and Fielding Selection Applied to Equipment Dismantlement Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Ebadian, M.A.; Lagos, L.E.

    1998-01-01

    The dismantlement of radioactively contaminated process equipment is a major concern during the D and D process. As buildings undergo the D and D process, metallic equipment contaminated with radionuclides such as uranium and plutonium must be dismantled before final disposal.The primary objective for equipment dismantlement is to reduce the potential for personnel and environmental exposure to contaminants during the decommissioning of the nuclear facility. The selection of the appropriate technologies to meet the dismantlement objectives for a given site is a difficult process in the absence of comprehensive and comparable data. Choosing the wrong technology could result in increased exposure of personnel to contaminants and an increase in D and D project costs. Innovative technologies are being developed with the goal of providing safer and more cost-effective alternatives that generate less secondary waste, thereby decreasing the operating costs for dismantlement. During the development and implementation process, performance indicators for the success of these technologies must be reviewed to ensure that these aims are being met. This project provides a mechanism for the assessment of innovative and commercially available nuclear and non-nuclear technologies for equipment dismantlement.

  9. Automated space processing payloads study. Volume 3: Equipment development resource requirements. [instrument packages and the space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Facilities are described on which detailed preliminary design was undertaken and which may be used on early space shuttle missions in the 1979-1982 time-frame. The major hardware components making up each facility are identified, and development schedules for the major hardware items and the payload buildup are included. Cost data for the facilities, and the assumptions and ground rules supporting these data are given along with a recommended listing of supporting research and technology needed to ensure confidence in the ability to achieve successful development of the equipment and technology.

  10. Membrane process for separating contaminant anions from aqueous solutions of valuable metal anions

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Laferty, J.M.

    1980-11-18

    An aqueous solution of at least one valuable oxyanion containing molybdenum, tungsten, vanadium, or uranium is refined to lower the content of contaminant anions such as PO/sub 4//sup -3/, SO/sub 4//sup -2/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, Cl/sup -/, ClO/sub 3//sup -/, and ClO/sub 4//sup -/, by subjecting the solution to electrolysis at a ph of from 0.5 to 4.0 between a cation-permselective membrane and an anion-permselective membrane having tertiary amine or quaternary ammonium anion exchange groups, to cause contaminant anions to pass from the solution into the anolyte. Ammonium molybdates, tungstates, vanadates, and uranates are formed from the thus-refined solution by subjecting it to a second stage of electrolysis at a ph of at least 7 between a cation-permselective membrane and an anion-permselective membrane to cause valuable oxyanions to pass from the solution into an anolyte which comprises an aqueous solution of ammonia and to form the desired ammonium compound.

  11. Processing results of 1800 gallons of mercury and radioactively contaminated mixed waste rinse solution

    SciTech Connect

    Thiesen, B.P.

    1993-05-01

    Mercury-contaminated rinse solution was successfully treated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. This waste was generated during the decontamination of the Heat Transfer Reactor Experiment 3 reactor shield tank. Approximately 6.8 m{sup 3} (1,800 pi) of waste was generated and placed into 33 drums. Each drum contained precipitated sludge material ranging from 2--5 cm in depth, with the average depth of about 6 cm. The pH of each drum varied from 3--11. The bulk liquid waste had a mercury level of 7.0 mg/l, which exceeded the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act limit of 0.2 mg/l. The average liquid bulk radioactivity was about 2.1 pCi/mL while the average sludge contamination was about 13,800 pCi/g. Treatment of the waste required separation of the liquid from the sludge, filtration, pH adjustment, and ion exchange. The resulting solution after treatment had mercury levels at 0.0186 mg/l and radioactivity of 0.282 pCi/ml.

  12. Reactive Distillation and Air Stripping Processes for Water Recycling and Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Reactive distillation designs are considered to reduce the presence of volatile organic compounds in the purified water. Reactive distillation integrates a reactor with a distillation column. A review of the literature in this field has revealed a variety of functional reactive columns in industry. Wastewater may be purified by a combination of a reactor and a distiller (e.g., the EWRS or VPCAR concepts) or, in principle, through a design which integrates the reactor with the distiller. A review of the literature in reactive distillation has identified some different designs in such combinations of reactor and distiller. An evaluation of reactive distillation and reactive air stripping is presented with regards to the reduction of volatile organic compounds in the contaminated water and air. Among the methods presented, an architecture is presented for the evaluation of the simultaneous oxidation of organics in air and water. These and other designs are presented in light of potential improvements in power consumptions and air and water purities for architectures which include catalytic activity integrated into the water processor. In particular, catalytic oxidation of organics may be useful as a tool to remove contaminants that more traditional distillation and/or air stripping columns may not remove. A review of the current leading edge at the commercial level and at the research frontier in catalytically active materials is presented. Themes and directions from the engineering developments in catalyst design are presented conceptually in light of developments in the nanoscale chemistry of a variety of catalyst materials.

  13. Validation of cross-contamination control in biological safety cabinet for biotech/pharmaceutical manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shih-Cheng; Shiue, Angus; Tu, Jin-Xin; Liu, Han-Yang; Chiu, Rong-Ben

    2015-12-01

    For class II, type A2 biological safety cabinets (BSC), NSF/ANSI Standard 49 should be conformed in cabinet airflow velocity derivation, particle contamination, and aerodynamic flow properties. However, there exists a potential problem. It has been built that the cabinet air flow stabilize is influenced by the quantity of downflow of air and the height above the cabinet exhaust opening. Three air downflow quantities were compared as an operating apparatus was placed from 20 to 40 cm above the bench of the cabinet. The results show that the BSC air downflow velocity is a function of increased sampling height, displaying that containment is improvingly permitted over product protection as the sampling height decreases. This study investigated the concentration gradient of particles at various heights and downflow air quantity from the bench of the BSC. Experiment results indicate that performance near the bench was better than in the rest of the BSC. In terms of height, the best cleanliness was measured at a height of 10 cm over the bench; it reduced actually with add in height. The empirical curves accommodate, founded on the concentration gradient of particle created was elaborated for evaluating the particle concentration at different heights and downflow air quantity from the source of the bench of the BSC. The particle image velocimetry system applied for BSC airflow research to fix amount of airflow patterns and air distribution measurement and results of measurements show how obstructions can greatly influence the airflow and contaminant transportation in a BSC.

  14. Assessment and optimization of an ultrasound-assisted washing process using organic solvents for polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bezama, Alberto; Flores, Alejandra; Araneda, Alberto; Barra, Ricardo; Pereira, Eduardo; Hernández, Víctor; Moya, Heriberto; Konrad, Odorico; Quiroz, Roberto

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate a washing process that uses organic solutions for polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil, and includes an ultrasound pre-treatment step to reduce operational times and organic solvent losses. In a preliminary trial, the suitability of 10 washing solutions of different polarities were tested, from which three n-hexane-based solutions were selected for further evaluation. A second set of experiments was designed using a three-level Taguchi L27 orthogonal array to model the desorption processes of seven different PCB congeners in terms of the variability of their PCB concentration levels, polarity of the washing solution, sonication time, the ratio washing solution/soil, number of extraction steps and total washing time. Linear models were developed for the desorption processes of all congeners. These models provide a good fit with the results obtained. Moreover, statistically significant outcomes were achieved from the analysis of variance tests carried out. It was determined that sonication time and ratio of washing solution/soil were the most influential process parameters. For this reason they were studied in a third set of experiments, constructed as a full factorial design. The process was eventually optimized, achieving desorption rates of more than 90% for all congeners, thus obtaining concentrations lower than 5 ppb in all cases. The use of an ultrasound-assisted soil washing process for PCB-contaminated soils that uses organic solvents seems therefore to be a viable option, especially with the incorporation of an extra step in the sonication process relating to temperature control, which is intended to prevent the loss of the lighter congeners.

  15. Toxicological Benchmarks for Screening Potential Contaminants of Concern for Effects on Soil and Litter Invertebrates and Heterotrophic Process

    SciTech Connect

    Will, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    This report presents a standard method for deriving benchmarks for the purpose of ''contaminant screening,'' performed by comparing measured ambient concentrations of chemicals. The work was performed under Work Breakdown Structure 1.4.12.2.3.04.07.02 (Activity Data Sheet 8304). In addition, this report presents sets of data concerning the effects of chemicals in soil on invertebrates and soil microbial processes, benchmarks for chemicals potentially associated with United States Department of Energy sites, and literature describing the experiments from which data were drawn for benchmark derivation.

  16. POC-scale testing of oil agglomeration techniques and equipment for fine coal processing: technical progress report no. 3--January 1, 1996-March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a Proof-of-Concept (POC) scale oil agglomeration technology capable of increasing the recovery and improving the quality of fine coal streams. Two distinct agglomeration devices will be tested, namely, a conventional high shear mixer and a tubular (jet) processor. To meet the overall objective an 11 task work plan has been designed. The work will range from batch and continuous bench-scale testing through the design, commissioning and field testing of POC-scale agglomeration equipment. During the reporting period there were activities under the following tasks: project planning and management; host site selection and plan formulation; preliminary engineering and design of POC equipment; coal characterization and laboratory (batch) and bench-scale testing; and process evaluation. The work on the remaining tasks is scheduled for the next months.

  17. Space processing applications payload equipment study. Volume 2B: Payload interface analysis (power/thermal/electromagnetic compatibility)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, R. L. (Editor); Smith, A. G. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    As a part of the task of performing preliminary engineering analysis of modular payload subelement/host vehicle interfaces, a subsystem interface analysis was performed to establish the integrity of the modular approach to the equipment design and integration. Salient areas that were selected for analysis were power and power conditioning, heat rejection and electromagnetic capability (EMC). The equipment and load profiles for twelve representative experiments were identified. Two of the twelve experiments were chosen as being representative of the group and have been described in greater detail to illustrate the evaluations used in the analysis. The shuttle orbiter will provide electrical power from its three fuel cells in support of the orbiter and the Spacelab operations. One of the three shuttle orbiter fuel cells will be dedicated to the Spacelab electrical power requirements during normal shuttle operation. This power supplies the Spacelab subsystems and the excess will be available to the payload. The current Spacelab sybsystem requirements result in a payload allocation of 4.0 to 4.8 kW average (24 hour/day) and 9.0 kW peak for 15 minutes.

  18. Solar Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A medical refrigeration and a water pump both powered by solar cells that convert sunlight directly into electricity are among the line of solar powered equipment manufactured by IUS (Independent Utility Systems) for use in areas where conventional power is not available. IUS benefited from NASA technology incorporated in the solar panel design and from assistance provided by Kerr Industrial Applications Center.

  19. Telescope Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Renaissance Telescope for high resolution and visual astronomy has five 82-degree Field Tele-Vue Nagler Eyepieces, some of the accessories that contribute to high image quality. Telescopes and eyepieces are representative of a family of optical equipment manufactured by Tele-Vue Optics, Inc.

  20. [High pressure processing of spices in atmosphere of helium for decrease of microbiological contamination].

    PubMed

    Windyga, Bozena; Fonberg-Broczek, Monika; Sciezyńska, Halina; Skapska, Sylwia; Górecka, Krystyna; Grochowska, Anna; Morawski, Andrzej; Szczepek, Janusz; Karłowski, Kazimierz; Porowski, Sylwester

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the microbiological decontamination of coriander and caraway when HPP technology was applied in elevated temperature in helium atmosphere. The HPP and heat treatment was conducted for 30 minutes at 800 and 1 000 MPa and temperature range was 60 - 121 degrees C. Contamination with aerobic mesophilic bacteria was decreased by about 2 logarithmic cycles. Total elimination of coliform and yeast and moulds was observed. The efficacy of HPP treatment under helium atmosphere depended on the content of the water in tested samples. It can be concluded that high pressure treatment under atmosphere of helium, combination of proper high pressure and time improved the microbiological quality of spices.

  1. Copper removal from contaminated soils by soil washing process using camellian-derived saponin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Arturo; Fernanda Campos, Maria; Videla, Álvaro; Letelier, María Victoria; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2015-04-01

    Antofagasta Region in North of Chile has been the main copper producer district in the world. As a consequence of a lack of mining closure regulation, a large number of abandon small-to-medium size metal-contaminated sites have been identified in the last survey performed by the Chilean Government. Therefore, more research development on sustainable reclamation technologies must be made in this extreme arid-dry zone. The objective of this study is to test the effectiveness of soil remediation by washing contaminated soil using camellian-derived saponin for the mobilization of copper. Soil samples were taken from an abandoned copper mine site located at 30 km North Antofagasta city. They were dried and sieved at 75 µm for physico-chemical characterization. A commercial saponin extracted from camellias seed was used as biosurfactant. The soil used contains 67.4 % sand, 26.3 % silt and 6.3 % clay. The soil is highly saline (electric conductivity, 61 mScm-1), with low organic matter content (0.41%), with pH 7.30, and a high copper concentration (2200 mg Kg-1 soil). According to the sequential extraction procedure of the whole soil, copper species are mainly as exchangeable fraction (608.2 mg Kg-1 soil) and reducible fraction (787.3 mg Kg-1 soil), whereas the oxidizable and residual fractions are around 205.7 and 598.8 mg Kg-1 soil, respectively. Soil particles under 75 µm contain higher copper concentrations (1242 mg Kg-1 soil) than the particle fraction over 75 µm (912 mg Kg-1 soil). All washing assays were conducted in triplicate using a standard batch technique with and without pH adjustment. The testing protocols includes evaluation of four solid to liquid ratio (0.5:50; 1.0:50; 2.0:50, and 5.0:50) and three saponin concentrations (0, 1, and 4 mg L-1). After shaking (24 h, 20±1 °C) and subsequently filtration (0.45 µm), the supernatants were analyzed for copper and pH. The removal efficiencies of copper by saponin solutions were calculated in according to the

  2. Summit Equipment & Supplies, Inc. Five-Year Reviews

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Summit Equipment & Supplies site in Akron, OH is a former salvage yard and scrap metal facility with PCB contamination of soil on-site, off-site movement of the PCBs, and ground water contamination under the site.

  3. Biologically active filters - An advanced water treatment process for contaminants of emerging concern.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuangyi; Gitungo, Stephen W; Axe, Lisa; Raczko, Robert F; Dyksen, John E

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing concern of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) in source water, this study examines the hypothesis that existing filters in water treatment plants can be converted to biologically active filters (BAFs) to treat these compounds. Removals through bench-scale BAFs were evaluated as a function of media, granular activated carbon (GAC) and dual media, empty bed contact time (EBCT), and pre-ozonation. For GAC BAFs, greater oxygen consumption, increased pH drop, and greater dissolved organic carbon removal normalized to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) were observed indicating increased microbial activity as compared to anthracite/sand dual media BAFs. ATP concentrations in the upper portion of the BAFs were as much as four times greater than the middle and lower portions of the dual media and 1.5 times greater in GAC. Sixteen CECs were spiked in the source water. At an EBCT of 18 min (min), GAC BAFs were highly effective with overall removals greater than 80% without pre-ozonation; exceptions included tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate and iopromide. With a 10 min EBCT, the degree of CECs removal was reduced with less than half of the compounds removed at greater than 80%. The dual media BAFs showed limited CECs removal with only four compounds removed at greater than 80%, and 10 compounds were reduced by less than 50% with either EBCT. This study demonstrated that GAC BAFs with and without pre-ozonation are an effective and advanced technology for treating emerging contaminants. On the other hand, pre-ozonation is needed for dual media BAFs to remove CECs. The most cost effective operating conditions for dual media BAFs were a 10 min EBCT with the application of pre-ozonation.

  4. Molecular-level processes governing the interaction of contaminants with iron and manganese oxides. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, S.A.; Brown, G.

    1997-06-01

    'The central tenet of this proposal is that a fundamental understanding of specific mineral surface-site reactivities will substantially improve reactive transport models of contaminants in geologic systems, and will allow more effective remediation schemes to be devised. Most large-scale, macroscopic models employ global chemical reaction kinetics and thermochemistry. However, such models do not incorporate molecular-level input critical to the detailed prediction of how contaminants interact with minerals in the subsurface. A first step leading to the incorporation of molecular-level processes in large-scale macroscopic models is the ability to understand which molecular-level processes will dominate the chemistry at the microscopic grain level of minerals. To this end, the research focuses on the fundamental mechanisms of redox chemistry at mineral surfaces. As much of this chemistry in sediments involves the Fe(III)/Fe(II) and Mn(IV)/Mn(II) couples, the authors focus on mineral phases containing these species. Of particular interest is the effect of the local coordination environment of Fe and Mn atoms on their reactivity toward contaminant species. Studies of the impact of local atomic structure on reactivity in combination with knowledge about the types and amounts of various surfaces on natural grain- size minerals provide the data for statistical models. These models in turn form the basis of the larger-scale macroscopic descriptions of reactivity that are needed for reactive transport models. A molecular-level understanding of these mechanisms will enhance the ability to design much greater performance efficiency, cost effectiveness, and remediation strategies that have minimal negative impact on the local environment. For instance, a comprehensive understanding of how minerals that contain Fe(II) reduce oxyanions and chlorinated organics should enable the design of other Fe(II)-containing remediation materials in a way that is synergistic with existing

  5. Ultrasonic and mechanical soil washing processes for the remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seulgi; Lee, Wontae; Son, Younggyu

    2016-07-01

    Ultrasonic/mechanical soil washing process was investigated and compared with ultrasonic process and mechanical process using a relatively large lab-scale sonoreactor. It was found that higher removal efficiencies were observed in the combined processes for 0.1 and 0.3 M HCl washing liquids. It was due to the combination effects of macroscale removal for the overall range of slurry by mechanical mixing and microscale removal for the limited zone of slurry by cavitational actions.

  6. A Design Basis for Spacecraft Cabin Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, Jay L.

    2009-01-01

    Successful trace chemical contamination control is one of the components necessary for achieving good cabin atmospheric quality. While employing seemingly simple process technologies, sizing the active contamination control equipment must employ a reliable design basis for the trace chemical load in the cabin atmosphere. A simplified design basis that draws on experience gained from the International Space Station program is presented. The trace chemical contamination control design load refines generation source magnitudes and includes key chemical functional groups representing both engineering and toxicology challenges.

  7. Bacterial diversity of floor drain biofilms and drain waters in a Listeria monocytogenes contaminated food processing environment.

    PubMed

    Dzieciol, Monika; Schornsteiner, Elisa; Muhterem-Uyar, Meryem; Stessl, Beatrix; Wagner, Martin; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

    2016-04-16

    Sanitation protocols are applied on a daily basis in food processing facilities to prevent the risk of cross-contamination with spoilage organisms. Floor drain water serves along with product-associated samples (slicer dust, brine or cheese smear) as an important hygiene indicator in monitoring Listeria monocytogenes in food processing facilities. Microbial communities of floor drains are representative for each processing area and are influenced to a large degree by food residues, liquid effluents and washing water. The microbial communities of drain water are steadily changing, whereas drain biofilms provide more stable niches. Bacterial communities of four floor drains were characterized using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to better understand the composition and exchange of drain water and drain biofilm communities. Furthermore, the L. monocytogenes contamination status of each floor drain was determined by applying cultivation-independent real-time PCR quantification and cultivation-dependent detection according to ISO11290-1. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes of drain water and drain biofilm bacterial communities yielded 50,611 reads, which were clustered into 641 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), affiliated to 16 phyla dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. The most abundant OTUs represented either product- (Lactococcus lactis) or fermentation- and food spoilage-associated phylotypes (Pseudomonas mucidolens, Pseudomonas fragi, Leuconostoc citreum, and Acetobacter tropicalis). The microbial communities in DW and DB samples were distinct in each sample type and throughout the whole processing plant, indicating the presence of indigenous specific microbial communities in each processing compartment. The microbiota of drain biofilms was largely different from the microbiota of the drain water. A sampling approach based on drain water alone may thus only provide reliable information on planktonic bacterial cells but might not allow conclusions

  8. Identification of pixels with stray light and cloud shadow contaminations in the satellite ocean color data processing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lide; Wang, Menghua

    2013-09-20

    A new flag/masking scheme has been developed for identifying stray light and cloud shadow pixels that significantly impact the quality of satellite-derived ocean color products. Various case studies have been carried out to evaluate the performance of the new cloud contamination flag/masking scheme on ocean color products derived from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) onboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP). These include direct visual assessments, detailed quantitative case studies, objective statistic analyses, and global image examinations and comparisons. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Multisensor Level-1 to Level-2 (NOAA-MSL12) ocean color data processing system has been used in the study. The new stray light and cloud shadow identification method has been shown to outperform the current stray light flag in both valid data coverage and data quality of satellite-derived ocean color products. In addition, some cloud-related flags from the official VIIRS-SNPP data processing software, i.e., the Interface Data Processing System (IDPS), have been assessed. Although the data quality with the IDPS flags is comparable to that of the new flag implemented in the NOAA-MSL12 ocean color data processing system, the valid data coverage from the IDPS is significantly less than that from the NOAA-MSL12 using the new stray light and cloud shadow flag method. Thus, the IDPS flag/masking algorithms need to be refined and modified to reduce the pixel loss, e.g., the proposed new cloud contamination flag/masking can be implemented in IDPS VIIRS ocean color data processing.

  9. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOEpatents

    Vijayan, S.; Wong, C.F.; Buckley, L.P.

    1994-11-22

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved. 1 fig.

  10. Waste treatment process for removal of contaminants from aqueous, mixed-waste solutions using sequential chemical treatment and crossflow microfiltration, followed by dewatering

    DOEpatents

    Vijayan, Sivaraman; Wong, Chi F.; Buckley, Leo P.

    1994-01-01

    In processes of this invention aqueous waste solutions containing a variety of mixed waste contaminants are treated to remove the contaminants by a sequential addition of chemicals and adsorption/ion exchange powdered materials to remove the contaminants including lead, cadmium, uranium, cesium-137, strontium-85/90, trichloroethylene and benzene, and impurities including iron and calcium. Staged conditioning of the waste solution produces a polydisperse system of size enlarged complexes of the contaminants in three distinct configurations: water-soluble metal complexes, insoluble metal precipitation complexes, and contaminant-bearing particles of ion exchange and adsorbent materials. The volume of the waste is reduced by separation of the polydisperse system by cross-flow microfiltration, followed by low-temperature evaporation and/or filter pressing. The water produced as filtrate is discharged if it meets a specified target water quality, or else the filtrate is recycled until the target is achieved.

  11. Chemical decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent Phase I. Final report, September 1993--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment.

  12. Combination of surfactant enhanced soil washing and electro-Fenton process for the treatment of soils contaminated by petroleum hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Huguenot, David; Mousset, Emmanuel; van Hullebusch, Eric D; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2015-04-15

    In order to improve the efficiency of soil washing treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated soils, an innovative combination of this soil treatment technique with an electrochemical advanced oxidation process (i.e. electro-Fenton (EF)) has been proposed. An ex situ soil column washing experiment was performed on a genuinely diesel-contaminated soil. The washing solution was enriched with surfactant Tween 80 at different concentrations, higher than the critical micellar concentration (CMC). The impact of soil washing was evaluated on the hydrocarbons concentration in the leachates collected at the bottom of the soil columns. These eluates were then studied for their degradation potential by EF treatment. Results showed that a concentration of 5% of Tween 80 was required to enhance hydrocarbons extraction from the soil. Even with this Tween 80 concentration, the efficiency of the treatment remained very low (only 1% after 24 h of washing). Electrochemical treatments performed thereafter with EF on the collected eluates revealed that the quasi-complete mineralization (>99.5%) of the hydrocarbons was achieved within 32 h according to a linear kinetic trend. Toxicity was higher than in the initial solution and reached 95% of inhibition of Vibrio fischeri bacteria measured by Microtox method, demonstrating the presence of remaining toxic compounds even after the complete degradation. Finally, the biodegradability (BOD₅/COD ratio) reached a maximum of 20% after 20 h of EF treatment, which is not enough to implement a combined treatment with a biological treatment process.

  13. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... vapors to a fuel gas system or process shall open to the atmosphere during loading. Pressure relief... to the atmosphere. (b) Fuel gas system and process compliance determination. (1) If emissions...

  14. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  15. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  16. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  17. 40 CFR 65.144 - Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or equipment leak...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... System or a Process § 65.144 Fuel gas systems and processes to which storage vessel, transfer rack, or... evaluation as specified in § 65.165(a)(1). (c) Statement of connection to fuel gas system. For storage... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel gas systems and processes...

  18. Loss of viability of Listeria monocytogenes in contaminated processed cheese during storage at 4, 12 and 22 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Apostolos S; Boutsiouki, Paraskevi; Papageorgiou, Demetrios K

    2010-09-01

    The behaviour of Listeria monocytogenes in a processed cheese product was evaluated over time by inoculating the product with three different L. monocytogenes strains (Scott A, CA and a strain isolated from processed cheese) at three different inoculation levels (ca. 6x10(5), ca. 6x10(3) and 10(2)CFU/g of cheese or less) and after storage of the contaminated products at 4, 12 or 22 degrees C. Growth of L. monocytogenes was not observed in any of the experimental trials (experiments involving different combinations of strain, inoculum level and storage temperature) throughout the storage period. L. monocytogenes populations decreased over time with a rate that was strain- and storage temperature-dependent. Nonetheless, for cheeses that had been inoculated with the higher inoculum and stored at 4 degrees C viable populations of L. monocytogenes could be detected for up to nine months post-inoculation. The L. monocytogenes survival curves obtained from the different trials were characterised by a post-inoculation phase during which the populations remained essentially unchanged (lag phase) followed by a phase of logarithmic decline. The duration of the lag phase and the rate of inactivation of L. monocytogenes in the different trials were estimated based on data from the linear descending portions of the survival curves. In addition, a non-linear Weibull-type equation was fitted to the data from each survival curve with satisfactory results. The results of the present study emphasize that, according to the definition laid down in the European Union Regulation 1441/2007, the processed cheese product tested in this work should be considered and classified as one that does not support the growth of L. monocytogenes under reasonable foreseeable conditions of distribution and storage. However, post-processing contamination of the product should be austerely avoided as the pathogen can survive in the product for extended periods of time, particularly under refrigerated

  19. Analysis of organic matter at the soil-water interface by NMR spectroscopy: Implications for contaminant sorption processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, M. J.; Simpson, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    Contaminant sorption to soil organic matter (OM) is the main fate of nonionic, hydrophobic organic contaminants in terrestrial environments and a number of studies have suggested that both soil OM structure and physical conformation (as regulated by the clay mineral phase) govern contaminant sorption processes. A great deal of this evidence has come from macroscopic observations with contaminants and soil fractions as well as a recent mass balance approach where the sum of the parts exceeded the whole suggesting that the physical arrangement of OM in organo-mineral complexes may be more important than OM structure in sorption processes (1). In addition, recent studies with constructed organo-mineral complexes have suggested that aliphatic OM is preferred over aromatic moieties and suggests that clay minerals play an indirect role by governing the sorption of organic contaminants by controlling the surface accessibility of OM at the soil-water interface (2,3). To investigate this further, a number of soil samples were characterized by both solid-state 13C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning (CPMAS) NMR and 1H High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HR-MAS) NMR. HR-MAS NMR is an innovative NMR method that allows one to examine samples that are semi-solid using liquid state NMR methods (ie: observe 1H which is more sensitive than 13C). With HR-MAS NMR, only those structures that are in contact with the solvent are NMR visible thus one can probe different components within a mixture using different solvents. The 1H HR-MAS NMR spectrum of a grassland soil swollen in water (D2O) is dominated by signals from alkyl and O-alkyl structures but signals from aromatic protons are negligible (the peak at ~8.2ppm is attributed to formic acid). When the soil is swollen in DMSO-d6, a solvent which is more penetrating and capable of breaking hydrogen bonds, aromatic signals are visible suggesting that the aromatic structures are buried within the soil matrix and do not exist at

  20. Analysis of the organic contaminants in the condensate produced in the in situ underground coal gasification process.

    PubMed

    Smoliński, Adam; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the environmental risks related to contamination of groundwater with the phenolics, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which might be potentially released from the underground coal gasification (UCG) under adverse hydrogeological and/or operational conditions, is crucial in terms of wider implementation of the process. The aim of this study was to determine the main organic pollutants present in the process condensate generated during the UCG trial performed on hard coal seam in the Experimental Mine 'Barbara', Poland; 8,933 L of condensate was produced in 813 h of experiment duration (including 456 h of the post-process stage) with average phenolics, BTEX and PAH concentrations of 576,000, 42.3 and 1,400.5 μg/L, respectively. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis was used to explore the differences and similarities between the samples. The sample collected during the first 48 h of the process duration was characterized by the lowest phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contents, high xylene content and the highest concentrations of phenolics, benzene, toluene and ethyl benzene. The samples collected during the stable operation of the UCG process were characterized by higher concentrations of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, while in the samples acquired in the post-process stage the lowest concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, acenaphthene and fluorene were observed.