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Sample records for contamination gradient river

  1. Impact of an urban multi-metal contamination gradient: metal bioaccumulation and tolerance of river biofilms collected in different seasons.

    PubMed

    Faburé, Juliette; Dufour, Marine; Autret, Armelle; Uher, Emmanuelle; Fechner, Lise C

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the repeatability and seasonal variability of the biological response of river biofilms chronically exposed to a multi-metal pressure in an urban contamination gradient. Biofilms were grown on immersed plastic membranes at three sites on the Seine river upstream (site 1) and downstream (sites 2 and 3) from Paris (France). They were collected in four different seasons (autumn, spring, summer and winter). Biofilm tolerance to Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn was measured using a PICT (Pollution-Induced Community Tolerance) approach with a previously developed short-term toxicity test based on β-glucosidase (heterotrophic) activity. Metal concentrations in the river and also in the biofilm samples (total and non-exchangeable bioaccumulated metals) were also monitored. Biofilm-accumulated metal concentrations reflected the increase of the multi-metal exposure along the urban gradient. These concentrations were strongly correlated with dissolved and particulate organic carbon and with the total metal fraction in the river water, which recalls the significant influence of the environmental parameters on metal uptake processes in river biofilms. Overall, natural biofilms allow monitoring water quality by integrating the variations of a diffuse metal contamination overtime. Tolerance levels globally increased from site 1 to site 3 reflecting the metal pollution gradient measured in the river water collected at the three sites. Cu tolerance tended to increase during warm seasons but no clear seasonal tendency could be found for Ni, Pb and Zn. Furthermore, principal component analysis clearly discriminated samples collected upstream (site 1) from samples collected downstream (sites 2 and 3) along the first principal component which was correlated to the metal gradient. Samples collected in winter were also separated from the others along the second principal component correlated to parameters like water temperature and Total Suspended Solids

  2. Soil-to-plant transfer of arsenic and phosphorus along a contamination gradient in the mining-impacted Ogosta River floodplain.

    PubMed

    Simmler, Michael; Suess, Elke; Christl, Iso; Kotsev, Tsvetan; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2016-12-01

    Riverine floodplains downstream of active or former metal sulfide mines are in many cases contaminated with trace metals and metalloids, including arsenic (As). Since decontamination of such floodplains on a large scale is unfeasible, management of contaminated land must focus on providing land use guidelines or even restrictions. This should be based on knowledge about how contaminants enter the food chain. For As, uptake by plants may be an important pathway, but the As soil-to-plant transfer under field conditions is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the soil-to-shoot transfer of As and phosphorus (P) in wild populations of herbaceous species growing along an As contamination gradient across an extensive pasture in the mining-impacted Ogosta River floodplain. The As concentrations in the shoots of Trifolium repens and Holcus lanatus reflected the soil contamination gradient. However, the soil-to-shoot transfer factors (TF) were fairly low, with values mostly below 0.07 (TF=Asshoot/Assoil). We found no evidence for interference of As with P uptake by plants, despite extremely high molar As:P ratios (up to 2.6) in Olsen soil extracts of the most contaminated topsoils (0-20cm). Considering the restricted soil-to-shoot transfer, we estimated that for grazing livestock As intake via soil ingestion is likely more important than intake via pasture herbage.

  3. Health status of Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) collected along an organic contaminant gradient in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Torres, Leticia; Nilsen, Elena B.; Grove, Robert A.; Patino, Reynaldo

    2014-01-01

    The health of Largescale Sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) in the lower Columbia River (USA) was evaluated using morphometric and histopathological approaches, and its association with organic contaminants accumulated in liver was evaluated in males. Fish were sampled from three sites along a contaminant gradient In 2009, body length and mass, condition factor, gonadosomatic index, and hematocrit were measured in males and females; liver and gonad tissue were collected from males for histological analyses; and organ composites were analyzed for contaminant content in males. In 2010, additional data were collected for males and females, including external fish condition assessment, histopathologies of spleen, kidney and gill and, for males, liver contaminant content. Multivariate analysis of variance indicated that biological traits in males, but not females, differed among sites in 2009 and 2010. Discriminant function analysis indicated that site-related differences among male populations were relatively small in 2009, but in 2010, when more variables were analyzed, males differed among sites in regards to kidney, spleen, and liver histopathologies and gill parasites. Kidney tubular hyperplasia, liver and spleen macrophage aggregations, and gill parasites were generally more severe in the downstream sites compared to the reference location. The contaminant content of male livers was also generally higher downstream, and the legacy pesticide hexachlorobenzene and flame retardants BDE-47 and BDE-154 were the primary drivers for site discrimination. However, bivariate correlations between biological variables and liver contaminants retained in the discriminant models failed to reveal associations between the two variable sets. In conclusion, whereas certain non-reproductive biological traits and liver contaminant contents of male Largescale Sucker differed according to an upstream-downstream gradient in the lower Columbia River, results from this study did not reveal

  4. Mercury contamination of the fish community of a semi-arid and arid river system: spatial variation and the influence of environmental gradients.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexandra; Abuzeineh, Alisa A; Chumchal, Matthew M; Bonner, Timothy H; Nowlin, Weston H

    2010-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of aquatic ecosystems is a global environmental problem. Data are abundant on Hg contamination and factors that affect its bioaccumulation in lake communities, but comparatively little information on riverine ecosystems exists. The present study examines fish Hg concentrations of the Lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte drainage, Texas, USA and several of its major tributaries in order to assess whether spatial variation occurs in fish Hg concentrations in the drainage and if patterns of Hg contamination of fish are related to gradients in environmental factors thought to affect Hg concentrations in fish communities. Fish, invertebrates, sediments, and water quality parameters were sampled at 12 sites along the lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte drainage multiple times over a one-year period. Spatial variation was significant in fish Hg concentrations when fish were grouped by literature-defined trophic guilds or as stable isotope-defined trophic levels, with highest concentrations found in the Big Bend region of the drainage. Mercury in fish in most trophic guilds and trophic levels were positively related to environmental factors thought to affect Hg in fish, including water column dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and sediment Hg concentrations. It is likely that fish Hg concentrations in the Big Bend region are relatively high because this section of the river has abundant geologic Hg sources and environmental conditions which may make it sensitive to Hg inputs (i.e., high DOC, variable water levels). Results from the present study indicate that Hg contamination of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte has substantial implications for management and protection of native small-bodied obligate riverine fish, many of which are imperiled.

  5. Field transplantation of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along a polymetallic contamination gradient (River Lot, France): 1. Geochemical characteristics of the sampling sites and cadmium and zinc bioccumulation kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, S.; Baudrimont, M.; Lapaquellerie, Y.; Ribeyre, F.; Maillet, N.; Latouche, C.; Boudou, A.

    1999-11-01

    Specimens of the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea were transplanted from a clean lacustrine site to four stations along a polymetallic gradient in the river Lot (France), downstream from an old Zn ore treatment facility. The bivalves were held in benthic cages for a 5-month exposure period, April to September 1996; mollusk growth and metal bioaccumulation kinetics (Cd, Zn) were followed by subsampling the cages at t = 0, 21, 49, 85, 120, and 150 d. Rates of Cd bioaccumulation in the whole soft bodies and in individual organs were greater at the upstream stations located close to the pollution source, but there was no direct proportionality between Cd in the bivalves and in the unfiltered or filtered river water samples. Unlike the case for Cd, rates of Zn bioaccumulation did not reflect the contamination gradient. Marked growth differences were measured among the four stations, reflecting both nutritional differences and changes in the degree of metal contamination; these growth differences produced markedly different trends when metal bioaccumulation was expressed in terms of burdens rather than concentrations.

  6. Hydraulic gradient control for groundwater contaminant removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Atwood D.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal near Denver, Colarado, U.S.A., is used as a realistic setting for a hypothetical test of a procedure that plans the hydraulic stabilization and removal of a groundwater contaminant plume. A two-stage planning procedure successfully selects the best wells and their optimal pumping/recharge schedules to contain the plume while a well or system of wells within the plume removes the contaminated water. In stage I, a combined groundwater flow and solute transport model is used to simulate contaminant removal under an assumed velocity field. The result is the approximated plume boundary location as a function of time. In stage II, a linear program, which includes a groundwater flow model as part of the set of constraints, determines the optimal well selection and their optimal pumping/recharge schedules by minimizing total pumping and recharge. The simulation-management model eliminates wells far from the plume perimeter and activates wells near the perimeter as the plume decreases in size. This successfully stablizes the hydraulic gradient during aquifer cleanup.The Rocky Mountain Arsenal near Denver, Colorado, USA, is used as a realistic setting for a hypothetical test of a procedure that plans the hydraulic stabilization and removal of a groundwater contaminant plume. A two-stage planning procedure successfully selects the best wells and their optimal pumping/recharge schedules to contain the plume while a well or system of wells within the plume removes the contaminated water. In stage I, a combined groundwater flow and solute transport model is used to simulate contaminant removal under an assumed velocity field. The result is the approximated plume boundary location as a function of time. In stage II, a linear program, which includes a groundwater flow model as part of the set of constraints, determines the optimal well selection and their optimal pumping/recharge schedules by minimizing total pumping and recharge. Refs.

  7. Field transplantation of the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea along a polymetallic contamination gradient (River Lot, France): 2. Metallothionein response to metal exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Baudrimont, M.; Andres, S.; Metivaud, J.; Lapaquellerie, Y.; Ribeyre, F.; Maillet, N.; Latouche, C.; Boudou, A.

    1999-11-01

    Specimens of the Asiatic clam Corbicula fluminea were transplanted from a clean lacustrine site to four stations along a polymetallic pollution gradient in the river Lot, France, downstream from an old Zn ore treatment facility (see Part 1). From April to September 1996, the authors studied Cd and Zn bioaccumulation and the metallothionein-like metal-binding protein (MT) concentrations by subsampling the ages at t = 0, 21, 49, 85, 120, and 150 d. Marked differences were observed among the four stations. At the most polluted station Riou-Mort, MT concentrations did not increase despite very rapid metal accumulation; all mollusks died between days 49 and 85, suggesting that the metal detoxification mechanisms were overwhelmed at this station. At the next station downstream, the final levels of bioaccumulated metal after 150 d were as high as those at the Riou-Mort station, but in this case the MT concentrations also increased progressively with positive correlations between MT and metal concentrations; no mortality was observed, but a significant growth inhibition was revealed in comparison to the reference site, with a lack of correlation between MT and reduced growth. Subcellular metal partitioning, as determined by size-exclusion chromatography, revealed that most of the Cd was sequestered by MT. In contrast, most of the Zn was bound to low molecular weight proteins, the MT fraction representing only 12% of cytosolic zn. These data show the marked role of MT toward Cd bioaccumulation and toxic effects on this freshwater bivalve species.

  8. Directional phytoscreening: contaminant gradients in trees for plume delineation.

    PubMed

    Limmer, Matt A; Shetty, Mikhil K; Markus, Samantha; Kroeker, Ryan; Parker, Beth L; Martinez, Camilo; Burken, Joel G

    2013-08-20

    Tree sampling methods have been used in phytoscreening applications to delineate contaminated soil and groundwater, augmenting traditional investigative methods that are time-consuming, resource-intensive, invasive, and costly. In the past decade, contaminant concentrations in tree tissues have been shown to reflect the extent and intensity of subsurface contamination. This paper investigates a new phytoscreening tool: directional tree coring, a concept originating from field data that indicated azimuthal concentrations in tree trunks reflected the concentration gradients in the groundwater around the tree. To experimentally test this hypothesis, large diameter trees were subjected to subsurface contaminant concentration gradients in a greenhouse study. These trees were then analyzed for azimuthal concentration gradients in aboveground tree tissues, revealing contaminant centroids located on the side of the tree nearest the most contaminated groundwater. Tree coring at three field sites revealed sufficiently steep contaminant gradients in trees reflected nearby groundwater contaminant gradients. In practice, trees possessing steep contaminant gradients are indicators of steep subsurface contaminant gradients, providing compass-like information about the contaminant gradient, pointing investigators toward higher concentration regions of the plume.

  9. Assessing reproductive and endocrine parameters in male largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) along a contaminant gradient in the lower Columbia River, USA.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, J A; Olivier, H M; Draugelis-Dale, R O; Eilts, B E; Torres, L; Patiño, R; Nilsen, E; Goodbred, S L

    2014-06-15

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are stable, bioaccumulative, and widely found in the environment, wildlife, and the human population. To explore the hypothesis that reproduction in male fish is associated with environmental exposures in the lower Columbia River (LCR), reproductive and endocrine parameters were studied in male resident, non-anadromous largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) (LSS) in the same habitats as anadromous salmonids having conservation status. Testes, thyroid tissue and plasma collected in 2010 from Longview (LV), Columbia City (CC), and Skamania (SK; reference) were studied. Sperm morphologies and thyrocyte heights were measured by light microscopy, sperm motilities by computer-assisted sperm motion analysis, sperm adenosine triphosphate (ATP) with luciferase, and plasma vitellogenin (VTG), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) by immunoassay. Sperm apoptosis, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and reproductive stage were measured by flow cytometry. Sperm quality parameters (except counts) and VTG were significantly different among sites, with correlations between VTG and 7 sperm parameters. Thyrocyte heights, T4, T3, gonadosomatic index and Fulton's condition factor differed among sites, but not significantly. Sperm quality was significantly lower and VTG higher where liver contaminants and water estrogen equivalents were highest (LV site). Total PCBs (specifically PCB-138, -146, -151, -170, -174, -177, -180, -183, -187, -194, and -206) and total PBDEs (specifically BDE-47, -100, -153, and -154) were negatively correlated with sperm motility. PCB-206 and BDE-154 were positively correlated with DNA fragmentation, and pentachloroanisole and VTG were positively correlated with sperm apoptosis and negatively correlated with ATP. BDE-99 was positively correlated with

  10. Assessing reproductive and endocrine parameters in male largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) along a contaminant gradient in the lower Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Jill A.; Olivier, H.M.; Draugelis-Dale, R. O.; Eilts, B.E.; Torres, L.; Patiño, R.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Goodbred, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    Persistent organochlorine pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p′-DDE), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are stable, bioaccumulative, and widely found in the environment, wildlife, and the human population. To explore the hypothesis that reproduction in male fish is associated with environmental exposures in the lower Columbia River (LCR), reproductive and endocrine parameters were studied in male resident, non-anadromous largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) (LSS) in the same habitats as anadromous salmonids having conservation status. Testes, thyroid tissue and plasma collected in 2010 from Longview (LV), Columbia City (CC), and Skamania (SK; reference) were studied. Sperm morphologies and thyrocyte heights were measured by light microscopy, sperm motilities by computer-assisted sperm motion analysis, sperm adenosine triphosphate (ATP) with luciferase, and plasma vitellogenin (VTG), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) by immunoassay. Sperm apoptosis, viability, mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear DNA fragmentation, and reproductive stage were measured by flow cytometry. Sperm quality parameters (except counts) and VTG were significantly different among sites, with correlations between VTG and 7 sperm parameters. Thyrocyte heights, T4, T3, gonadosomatic index and Fulton's condition factor differed among sites, but not significantly. Sperm quality was significantly lower and VTG higher where liver contaminants and water estrogen equivalents were highest (LV site). Total PCBs (specifically PCB-138, -146, -151, -170, -174, -177, -180, -183, -187, -194, and -206) and total PBDEs (specifically BDE-47, -100, -153, and -154) were negatively correlated with sperm motility. PCB-206 and BDE-154 were positively correlated with DNA fragmentation, and pentachloroanisole and VTG were positively correlated with sperm apoptosis and negatively correlated with ATP. BDE-99 was positively correlated

  11. Downstream gradients in bioindicator responses: Point source contaminant effects on fish health

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall Adams, S.; Ham, K.D.; Greeley, M.S.; Hinton, D.E.

    1995-12-31

    To investigate potential causal relationships between contaminant exposure and biological responses in fish, a suite of bioindicators ranging from the biochemical to the community-level were measured in fish populations and communities downstream from a bleached kraft mill effluent (BKME) discharge. Downstream gradients in responses were evident in elevated hepatic mixed-function oxygenase activity, several measures of condition and bioenergetic status, growth, the health assessment index, and several fish community-level parameters. A multivariate discriminant analysis procedure, which included many of the individual bioindicators, also demonstrated a gradient in integrated health status of a sentinel fish species in the contaminated river. These downstream response gradients were probably influenced to a greater degree by contaminant discharges than by natural or anthropogenic nutrient sources downstream. Establishing causal relationships between a specific contaminant source and responses in sentinel aquatic organisms becomes relatively more straightforward when downstream gradients in biological responses are observed at multiple levels of biological organization.

  12. Rivers and Stable Isotopes as Indicators of Biogeochemical Gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, J. A.

    2005-12-01

    as TCE, PAH, PCB as well as riverine microbiological considerations. Such expansions meet the challenge of measuring much smaller concentrations compared to groundwater contaminant plumes. Further combinations of stable N, H, O, and S isotope systems would also help to resolve overlapping trends when only carbon isotopes are measured. Apart from combining traditional light stable isotope systems, addition of newly accessible isotope groups by multicollector ICP-MS (i.e. Fe, Cr, Zn) and radioisotope techniques can provide innovative tools for resolving gradients and their biogeochemical cycling within rivers.

  13. SEDIMENTS: A RESERVOIR OF HISTORIC CONTAMINATION OF THE DETROIT RIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation to a citizen's environment alliance regarding contamination of the Detroit River. Types and amounts of contaminants were outlined and major pollution sources were identified. Outline for remediation plan was presented. However, before remediation can be done, upstre...

  14. Detailed river stage mapping and head gradient analysis during meander cutoff in a laboratory river

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bangshuai; Endreny, Theodore A.

    2014-02-01

    Analytical models of river evolution predict meander narrowing and elongation which creates sinuosity-driven hyporheic exchange across the meander neck, by decreasing flow distance and increasing head loss. We used a laboratory river table and close range photogrammetry to map and analyze sinuosity as a driver of head gradients and hyporheic exchange during cutoff. The river valley had relatively high slopes (1.8%) and moderately cohesive sediment (10% talc, 90% sand) to facilitate cutoff, and ratios of horizontal to vertical scaling were distorted to achieve dynamic similitude (Re = 3200). Incipient to cutoff, the head gradient across the neck increased due to a narrowing neck, upstream aggradation, and downstream degradation. Longitudinal and transverse river surface slopes around the meander bend increased as the meander approached cutoff. The steep head gradient across the moderately cohesive meander neck generated seepage erosion and scour that formed a low-sinuosity avulsion. Sediment-rich flow in the avulsed channel aggraded the downstream bed and separated the active channel and oxbow lake. The limitation in geometric and dynamic similitude in the river table limits extrapolation to natural rivers, yet river evolution may involve aggradation and degradation induced channel head loss and turnover hyporheic exchange as well as seepage-induced meander neck erosion. Our submillimeter maps of meander morphology and water stage provide data to parameterize river evolution and hyporheic exchange models, and may inform analysis and mapping of field sites.

  15. Mercury accumulation along a contamination gradient and nondestructive indices of bioaccumulation in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Christine M; Bodinof, Catherine M; Unrine, Jason M; Hopkins, William A

    2010-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an important environmental contaminant due to its global distribution, tendency to bioaccumulate, and toxicity in wildlife. However, Hg has received little attention in amphibians compared to other vertebrates. Amphibians vary widely in life history strategies and feeding ecologies, which could influence Hg exposure and accumulation. To determine whether species and life stage affects Hg bioaccumulation, adults from three species (Plethodon cinereus, Eurycea bislineata, and Bufo americanus) and larvae from the latter two species were collected along a contamination gradient on the South River (VA, USA). Total Hg (THg) concentrations in the contaminated site were 3.5 to 22 times higher than in the reference site. Differences were found in THg concentrations in amphibians that were consistent with their habitat requirements and feeding preferences. In general, adults (3,453 +/- 196 ng/g, dry mass) and larvae (2,479 +/- 171 ng/g) of the most river-associated species, E. bislineata, had the highest THg concentrations, followed by B. americanus tadpoles (2,132 +/- 602 ng/g), whereas adults of the more terrestrial B. americanus (598 +/- 117 ng/g) and P. cinereus (583 +/- 178 ng/g) had the lowest concentrations. In addition, nondestructive sampling techniques were developed. For the salamander species, THg concentrations in tail tissue were strongly correlated (r >or= 0.97) with the remaining carcass. A strong positive correlation (r = 0.92) also existed between blood and whole-body THg concentrations in B. americanus. These results suggest that amphibians and their terrestrial predators may be at risk of Hg exposure in this system and that nondestructive methods may be a viable sampling alternative that reduces impacts to local populations.

  16. Identification of contaminants of concern Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, B.A.; Batishko, N.C.; Heise-Craff, D.A.; Jarvis, M.F.; Snyder, S.F.

    1995-01-01

    The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA) Project at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating the current human and ecological risks from contaminants in the Columbia River. The risks to be studied are those attributable to past and present activities on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Site is located in southcentral Washington State near the town of Richland. Human risk from exposure to radioactive and hazardous materials will be addressed for a range of river use options. Ecological risk will be evaluated relative to the health of the current river ecosystem. The overall purpose of the project is to determine if enough contamination exists in the Columbia River to warrant cleanup actions under applicable environmental regulations. This report documents an initial review, from a risk perspective, of the wealth of historical data concerning current or potential contamination in the Columbia River. Sampling data were examined for over 600 contaminants. A screening analysis was performed to identify those substances present in such quantities that they may pose a significant human or ecological risk. These substances will require a more detailed analysis to assess their impact on humans or the river ecosystem.

  17. Radioactive contamination of the Techa River, the Urals.

    PubMed

    Trapeznikov, A V; Pozolotina, V N; Chebotina MYa; Chukanov, V N; Trapeznikova, V N; Kulikov, N V; Nielsen, S P; Aarkrog, A

    1993-11-01

    The Techa River in the Urals was contaminated with high-level radioactive waste from the MAJAK nuclear installation around 1950. The total discharge to the river amounted to 100 PBq with 90Sr and 137Cs contributing approximately 10 PBq each. This study has shown that the river presently contains approximately 0.3 TBq 90Sr, > 6 TBq 137Cs, and approximately 8 GBq 239,240Pu. The estimates were made for the part of the river starting 50 km from the point of discharge and ending 240 km downstream at the confluence with the Iset River. Radioactivity was measured only in the upper 0.10-m sediments layer. The external dose rates from the contamination range from 0.1-30 microGy h-1. The activity concentrations decrease exponentially or by power functions with distance.

  18. Temporal trend and determinants of river water quality across urbanization gradients in a coastal city, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, W.; Zhu, X.

    2015-12-01

    Water contamination in rivers embedded in urbanizing areas is increasingly affected by anthropogenic factors. The impacts may vary with location, time and water variables particularly in rapidly growing areas with clear urbanization gradients. Therefore, characterizing the temporal trend and identifying responsible divers to water quality changes in areas with different urbanization intensity could greatly improve our knowledge about human-water interactions. We employed geographically weighted regression (GWR) to interpret the determinants of river water quality changes in four urban development zones, i.e. central urban, suburban, central county and rural areas. Monitoring data of 8 variables- permanganate (CODMn), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), ammonium (NH3-N), petroleum (oil), volatile phenol (VP), phosphorus (TP), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) from 33 stations were collected from 2004, 2008 and 2010. Five determinants were identified: urban land use intensity, environmental policies, industrial zone expansion, land use composition, and gross domestic product (GDP). Relationships between these identified determinants and water quality changes showed great variations due to their different nature and sensitivity. Typically, for zones with higher urbanization intensity located in central cities and central counties, urban land use had positive impacts on river water quality improvement. However, in less urbanized areas, rapid urban expansion indicated rapid river water degradation. Environmental policies had distinct influences on river pollution control in highly-urbanized areas, but led to unexpected negative impacts in areas beyond the management priorities. Industrial activities were the major contributor to heavy metal pollution in suburban areas while boosted N, P decrease in central cities. Our study highlighted the importance of "local" management instead of one-size-fits-all system in mitigating undesirable impacts of urbanization on water environment.

  19. Streamflow, water quality, and contaminant loads in the lower Charles River Watershed, Massachusetts, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Weiskel, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    loads that appear to exceed the river?s assimilative capacity. Annual contaminant loads from stormwater discharges directly to the lower Charles River are large, but most dry-weather and stormwater contaminant loads measured in this study originate from upstream of the Watertown Dam and are delivered to the lower Charles River in mainstem flows. An exception is fecal coliform bacteria. Stony Brook, a large tributary influenced by combined sewer overflow, contributed almost half of the annual fecal coliform load to the lower Charles River for Water Year 2000. Much of this fecal coliform bacteria load is discharged from Stony Brook to the lower Charles River during rain-storms. Estimated stormwater loads for future conditions suggest that sewer separation in the Stony Brook Subbasin might reduce loads of constituents associated with sewage but increase loads of constituents associated with street runoff. The unique environment offered by the lower Charles River must be considered when the environmental implications of large contaminant loads are interpreted. In particular, the lower Charles River has low hydraulic gradients, a lack of tidal flushing, a lack of natural uncontaminated sediment from erosion of upstream uncontaminated soils, and an anoxic, sulfide-rich bottom layer that forms a non-tidal salt wedge in the downstream part of the lower Charles River. Individually and in combination, these characteristics may increase the likelihood of adverse effects of some contaminants on the water, biota, and sediment of the lower Charles River.

  20. White sucker (Catostomus commersoni) growth and sexual maturation in pulp mill-contaminated and reference rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, M.M.; Bussieres, D.; Dodson, J.J. ); Hodson, P.V. )

    1995-02-01

    Induction of hepatic ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and accumulation of chlorophenolic compounds typical of bleached-kraft mill effluent (BKME) in fish sampled downstream of a pulp mill on the St. Maurice River, Quebec, Canada, provided evidence of chemical exposure to BKME. In comparison, fish sampled over the same distances and in similar habitats in a noncontaminated reference river, the Gatineau River, demonstrated low EROD activity and contamination levels. Accelerated growth of white suckers occurred between 2 and 10 years of age in both rivers at downstream stations relative to upstream stations, suggesting the existence of gradients of nutrient enrichment independent of BKME contamination. The impact of BKME exposure was expressed as reduced investment in reproduction, as revealed by greater length at maturity, reduced gonad size, and more variable fecundity. These effects were not obvious in simple upstream-downstream comparisons, but became evident when fish from the uncontaminated Gatineau River showed increased gonadal development and reduced age and size at maturity in response to enhanced growth rates.

  1. Hexa(methoxymethyl)melamine: An Emerging Contaminant in German Rivers.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Hexa(methoxymethyl)melamine (HMMM)-containing resins are used in the production of coatings and plastics for cans, coils, and automobiles. A previous study demonstrated that this compound was associated with acute toxic effects on daphnia. This study presents the first compiled data on the occurrence of HMMM as an emerging contaminant in German rivers. The compound occurred in 60 of 117 water samples from three river systems, with concentrations ranging between < 10 and 880 ng/L. Based on water concentrations and river flow on the day of sampling, the loads of HMMM were calculated for two rivers. The spatial distribution patterns of the loads showed large variations and did not follow clear trends along the stream course. These variations were attributed to effective removal processes, leading to sudden load decreases within short flow distances. The data suggest that HMMM could be discharged to the investigated rivers with wastewaters from the automotive industry and related branches.

  2. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination using river sediment cores of Nankan River, northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, An-Sheng; Lu, Wei-Li; Huang, Jyh-Jaan; Chang, Queenie; Wei, Kuo-Yen; Lin, Chin-Jung; Liou, Sofia Ya Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    Through the geology and climate characteristic in Taiwan, generally rivers carry a lot of suspended particles. After these particles settled, they become sediments which are good sorbent for heavy metals in river system. Consequently, sediments can be found recording contamination footprint at low flow energy region, such as estuary. Seven sediment cores were collected along Nankan River, northern Taiwan, which is seriously contaminated by factory, household and agriculture input. Physico-chemical properties of these cores were derived from Itrax-XRF Core Scanner and grain size analysis. In order to interpret these complex data matrices, the multivariate statistical techniques (cluster analysis, factor analysis and discriminant analysis) were introduced to this study. Through the statistical determination, the result indicates four types of sediment. One of them represents contamination event which shows high concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni and Fe, and low concentration of Si and Zr. Furthermore, three possible contamination sources of this type of sediment were revealed by Factor Analysis. The combination of sediment analysis and multivariate statistical techniques used provides new insights into the contamination depositional history of Nankan River and could be similarly applied to other river systems to determine the scale of anthropogenic contamination.

  3. Direct Quantification of Microbial Community Respiration along a Contamination Gradient using a novel Hydrologic Smart Tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanaway, D. J.; Haggerty, R.; Feris, K. P.

    2010-12-01

    Heavy metal contamination in lotic ecosystems is a major health and environmental concern worldwide. The Resazurin Resorufin (Raz Rru) Smart Tracer system (Haggerty et al., 2008) provides a novel approach to test current models of microbial ecosystem response to chronic stressors such as heavy metals. These models predict that functional redundancy of metabolic capabilities of community members (e.g. respiration rate and enzyme activity) will compensate for decreases in species diversity until a stress threshold is reached. At this point, species diversity and function are expected to decline rapidly. Contrary to this model, microbial communities of the Clark Fork River (CF), Montana, demonstrate high levels of species diversity along the contamination gradient, whereas community function is inversely proportional to the level of contamination. The Raz Rru tool, a metabolically reactive hydrologic tracer, allows for direct quantification of in-situ microbial respiration rates. Therefore, this tool provides an opportunity to build upon studies of ecosystem response to contamination previously limited to extrapolation of point scale measurements to reach scale processes. The Raz Rru tool is used here to quantify the magnitude of metal induced limits on heterotrophic microbial respiration in communities that have evolved to different levels of chronic metal exposure. In this way we propose to be able to test a novel hypothesis concerning the nature of evolution of community processes to chronic stress and persistent environmental pollutants. Specifically, we hypothesize that metal contamination produces a measureable metabolic cost to both tolerant and intolerant communities. To test this hypothesis, rates of respiration associated with hyporheic sediments, supporting intact microbial communities, were quantified in the presence and absence of an acute Cd exposure in column experiments. Hyporheic sediment was collected from differently contaminated locations within

  4. Environmental contaminants in bald eagles in the Columbia River estuary

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, R.G.; Garrett, M.G. ); Schuler, C.A. )

    1993-01-01

    Eggs, blood, and carcasses of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and fish were collected and breeding success of eagles was monitored in the Columbia River estuary, 1980-87, to determine if contaminants were having an effect on productivity. High levels of dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB's), and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were found in eggs, blood from adults, and 2 eagle carcasses. Detectable levels of DDE and PCB's were found in blood of nestlings indicating they were exposed to these contaminants early in life. Increasing concentrations of DDE and PCB's with age also indicated accumulation of these contaminants. Adult eagles also had higher levels of mercury (Hg) in blood than subadults or young indicating accumulation with age. The high levels of DDE and PCB's were associated with eggshell thinning ([bar x] = 10%) and with productivity ([bar x] = 0.56 young/occupied site) that was lower than that of healthy populations (i.e., [ge]1.00 young/occupied site). DDE and PCB's had a deleterious effect on reproduction of bald eagles in the estuary. The role dioxins play in eagle reproduction remains unclear, but concentrations in eagle eggs were similar to those in laboratory studies on other species where dioxins adversely affected hatchability of eggs. Probable source of these contaminants include dredged river sediments and hydroelectric dams, and the proper management of each may reduce the amount of contaminants released into the Columbia River estuary. 46 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Is the macrophyte diversification along the trophic gradient distinct enough for river monitoring?

    PubMed

    Szoszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Budka, Anna; Pietruczuk, Karol; Kayzer, Dariusz; Gebler, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The variation of a number of parameters characterizing aquatic plant assemblages in rivers across a wide trophic gradient was investigated to evaluate their usefulness for a Polish national river monitoring system. Analyses were conducted at 100 sites included in the national river monitoring system, representing a uniform river type, i.e., small- and medium-sized lowland rivers with a sandy substrate. Results of botanical surveys, which were supplemented with comprehensive monthly quality records, were obtained from the national monitoring database. By analyzing the Jaccard distances of the botanical metrics using the adonis function, the variation in species composition between rivers of different trophic status was determined. The group consisting of the most degraded rivers was the most homogeneous in terms of botanical composition. The cleanest rivers displayed a high level of heterogeneity within their group, as numerous different unique species were found there at low frequencies. The variation of the macrophyte metrics used to assess the ecological status (Macrophyte Index for Rivers (MIR) and River Macrophyte Nutrient Index (RMNI)) reflected a trophic gradient. We confirmed that vegetation diversification along a trophic gradient is evident enough to detect degradation in a five quality class system.

  6. The role of river longitudinal gradients, local and regional attributes in shaping frog assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, Francisco Fonseca Ribeiro; Eterovick, Paula Cabral

    2009-09-01

    We studied anuran assemblage composition from 1st to 4th orders along two rivers in the Rio Preto State Park, southeastern Brazil. We aimed to understand how species distribution relates to local features/longitudinal gradients within a river, and to differences between rivers. We assessed climatic (temperature, humidity), chemical (water pH, dissolved oxygen, conductivity), physical (river bottom type, current), and biotic (vegetation structure) features thought to affect anuran distribution. Cluster analyses showed that species assemblages tended to be more similar among sections of the same river than between corresponding sections of different rivers, and Mantel tests showed assemblages to be spatially structured, although river features were not. The river with a mixture of open vegetation and forest at its margins sheltered higher species diversity than the one bordered by forest. Using Canonical Correspondence Analyses, we found variables related to microhabitat availability to be the best ones to explain species distribution in the adult stage, and conductivity to be the best one for the tadpole stage. The river seasonal flood pulse seems to influence availability of additional reproductive sites and tadpole dispersal. We found no evidence of gradients of tadpole abundance responding to river size or predator abundance. Considering that anuran species are spatially structured and influenced by variables that change both locally and regionally, we recommend that the whole longitudinal gradient along permanent lotic ecosystems, together with its original limnological and structural attributes, is preserved in order to ensure conservation of anuran diversity in both local and regional scales.

  7. Water contamination and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nutrients, bacteria, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other contaminates have degraded water quality of the Harlem River. The Harlem River is a natural straight connected to the Hudson River and the East River, and it has been used for navigation and boating. Water samples have been collected and analyzed from 2011 to 2013. Phosphorus, ammonia, turbidity, fecal coliform, E.Coli., and enterococcus all exceed regulated levels for New York City waters. There is only one wastewater treatment plant (Wards Island WWTP) that serves this river. Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge raw sewage into the river during storms in spring and summer. Commercial fishing is banned, .however, individuals still fish. While some fishermen catch and release, it is likely some fish are consumed, creating concern for the environmental health of the community along the river. Storm water runoff, CSOs, and wastewater effluents are major pollutant sources of PCB 11 (3,3' dichlorobiphenyl), nutrient and bacteria. Nutrients, bacteria levels and their spatial/temporal variations were analyzed, and PCB analysis is underway. This data is a critical first step towards improving the water quality and environmental ecosystem in the Harlem River.

  8. Separation of mitochondria from contaminating subcellular structures utilizing silica sol gradient centrifugation.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C; Dench, J E; Hall, D O; Moore, A L

    1979-07-01

    Discontinuous Percoll density gradients have been developed for the purification of mitochondria, permitting rapid separation under isosmotic and low viscosity conditions. Mitochondria from several etiolated tissues have been successfully separated from contaminating subcellular structures by this method. For potato tuber the ratio of washed to purified mitochondrial protein was 2.6, similar to the increase in specific activity of cytochrome c oxidase following separation. The purification of mitochondria from green leaf tissues on Percoll gradients has reduced chlorophyll contamination of spinach mitochondria from about 70 micrograms chlorophyll per milligram protein to approximately 8 micrograms chlorophyll per milligram protein.The ratio of protein content of the washed mitochondria compared to that in the purified preparation was 7 for spinach and respiratory activity was retained. The physiological integrity and oxidative properties of washed and gradient mitochondria are compared.

  9. Dissolved metal contamination in the East River-Long Island sound system: potential biological effects.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Alison; Sañudo-Wilhelmy, Sergio A

    2004-04-01

    A suite of dissolved trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cu and Pb), inorganic nutrients (NO(3), PO(4)), and chlorophyll a was measured along a 55 mile transect from the East River into western and central Long Island Sound. The main objectives of this study were to determine the relative levels of contamination from sewage, and to assess its possible biological impact on local waters. The East River-Long Island Sound system receives large volumes of treated sewage and industrial effluent as a result of the heavy urbanization of the area. Despite these strong environmental pressures, this study is among the first to report dissolved metal levels from that region. Consistent with the locations of anthropogenic sources, a strong east-west concentration gradient was observed for Ag, Pb, NO(3) and PO(4) with the highest levels found in the East River. In contrast, dissolved Cd and Cu were relatively constant throughout the area of study, suggesting that sewage sources have a more limited influence on the levels of those metals. Remobilization from contaminated sediments may represent the primary source of Cd and Cu to the Long Island Sound under low-runoff conditions in summer. Chlorophyll a concentrations, used as an indicator of total biomass, were also low in the East River. These low chlorophyll concentrations could not be explained by nutrient or light limitation, water column stratification, or to advection of phytoplankton out of the river during tidal flushing. These preliminary results suggest a potential toxic effect of sewage on the biological communities of the East River.

  10. Asymmetrical Changes in Hydraulic Gradient Along Valley and River Transects During Meander Cutoff Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Endreny, T.

    2009-05-01

    This work is motivated by the uncertainty about the presence and rate of steepening in river and valley hydraulic gradients bounding meander bends during meander cutoff, and how these gradients may affect river restoration designs. Our science question is whether the river and valley hydraulic gradients are equal and unchanging during meander cutoff. Laboratory investigations are underway prior to field experiments and model simulations. The laboratory physical model is a 2.1m x 0.9m EmRiver Process Simulator, running approximately 20 minutes per simulation, using particulate matter with a specific gravity of 1.6, a flow rate of 45ml/s, an initial river cross-section averaging 24cm2, and a range of radius of curvature from 15cm to 18cm. We calculated gradient using river water surface and valley watertable measurements, and their separation along a fixed orientation parallel to the valley slope, not along the thalweg. Measurements were taken with auto level, rod, and tape, and orthoimagery was captured to refine estimates of channel geometry. The ERDAS Leica Photogrammetry Suite processes digital images to generate digital elevation models (DEM) of the system. Initial results have confirmed a steepening of the river hydraulic gradient, from 4% to 5.5% for initial radius of curvature of 15cm, and from 7.7% to 10.9% for curvature of 18cm. The valley watertable gradient has a slight reduction or flattening of about 0.4%. Changes in channel geometry during cutoff include adjustments to cross-sectional area and increasing meander wavelength and sinuosity.

  11. Temporal trends toward stability of Hudson River PCB contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, R.J.; Simpson, K.W.; Schroeder, R.A.; Barnes, C.R.

    1983-10-01

    PCB was used in the manufacture of electrical equipment at two General Electric Company (GE) facilities located on the upper Hudson River about 1 km apart in Fort Edward and Hudson Falls (Washington Co.) New York. Discharges of PCB from these plants resulted in concentrations in bottom sediments of the Hudson River which now exceed those of other major rivers by about two orders of magnitude and those of small remote streams by more than three orders of magnitude. Intensive monitoring was initiated in 1977 by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) to ascertain the magnitude of and trends in contaminant conditions of biotic and physical strata. The paper summarizes PCB trends from 1977 to 1981 in three major monitoring components - water, multiplate residues and fish.

  12. Ecological risk assessment for river sediments contaminated by creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.A.; Sampson, J.R.; Jacobson, M.A. ); Peek, D.C. )

    1994-12-01

    An ecological risk assessment was conducted for sediments of the lower Willamette River near a wood-treatment (creosote) facility. Both surface ad subsurface sediments near the facility are contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Limited contamination of sediments by dioxins/furans, chlorinated phenols, and arsenic was also observed. Sediment bioassays based on amphipod (Hyalella azteca) mortality and Microtox[reg sign] (Photobacterium phosphoreum) bioluminescence showed toxicity within approximately 300 ft of the shoreline, with a highly toxic area (i.e., possible acute lethal effects in sedentary benthic species) near a dock used for creosote off-loading. The relatively low concentrations of contaminants measured in crayfish muscle tissue and the absence of serious lesions in livers of large-scale sucker collected near the site suggest that excess risk to mobile species from chronic contamination is low. Cursory observations indicate that acute toxic effects on crayfish may be associated with creosote seeps. There is no evidence of adverse biological effects throughout most of the main channel of the river. Evaluation of sediment chemistry data for PAHs relative to available sediment-quality criteria proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency supports this conclusion.

  13. Microbial Gene Abundance and Expression Patterns across a River to Ocean Salinity Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Caroline S.; Crump, Byron C.

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities mediate the biogeochemical cycles that drive ecosystems, and it is important to understand how these communities are affected by changing environmental conditions, especially in complex coastal zones. As fresh and marine waters mix in estuaries and river plumes, the salinity, temperature, and nutrient gradients that are generated strongly influence bacterioplankton community structure, yet, a parallel change in functional diversity has not been described. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses were conducted on five water samples spanning the salinity gradient of the Columbia River coastal margin, including river, estuary, plume, and ocean, in August 2010. Samples were pre-filtered through 3 μm filters and collected on 0.2 μm filters, thus results were focused on changes among free-living microbial communities. Results from metagenomic 16S rRNA sequences showed taxonomically distinct bacterial communities in river, estuary, and coastal ocean. Despite the strong salinity gradient observed over sampling locations (0 to 33), the functional gene profiles in the metagenomes were very similar from river to ocean with an average similarity of 82%. The metatranscriptomes, however, had an average similarity of 31%. Although differences were few among the metagenomes, we observed a change from river to ocean in the abundance of genes encoding for catabolic pathways, osmoregulators, and metal transporters. Additionally, genes specifying both bacterial oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were abundant and expressed in the estuary and plume. Denitrification genes were found throughout the Columbia River coastal margin, and most highly expressed in the estuary. Across a river to ocean gradient, the free-living microbial community followed three different patterns of diversity: 1) the taxonomy of the community changed strongly with salinity, 2) metabolic potential was highly similar across samples, with few differences in functional gene abundance

  14. Microbial Gene Abundance and Expression Patterns across a River to Ocean Salinity Gradient.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Crump, Byron C

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities mediate the biogeochemical cycles that drive ecosystems, and it is important to understand how these communities are affected by changing environmental conditions, especially in complex coastal zones. As fresh and marine waters mix in estuaries and river plumes, the salinity, temperature, and nutrient gradients that are generated strongly influence bacterioplankton community structure, yet, a parallel change in functional diversity has not been described. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses were conducted on five water samples spanning the salinity gradient of the Columbia River coastal margin, including river, estuary, plume, and ocean, in August 2010. Samples were pre-filtered through 3 μm filters and collected on 0.2 μm filters, thus results were focused on changes among free-living microbial communities. Results from metagenomic 16S rRNA sequences showed taxonomically distinct bacterial communities in river, estuary, and coastal ocean. Despite the strong salinity gradient observed over sampling locations (0 to 33), the functional gene profiles in the metagenomes were very similar from river to ocean with an average similarity of 82%. The metatranscriptomes, however, had an average similarity of 31%. Although differences were few among the metagenomes, we observed a change from river to ocean in the abundance of genes encoding for catabolic pathways, osmoregulators, and metal transporters. Additionally, genes specifying both bacterial oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were abundant and expressed in the estuary and plume. Denitrification genes were found throughout the Columbia River coastal margin, and most highly expressed in the estuary. Across a river to ocean gradient, the free-living microbial community followed three different patterns of diversity: 1) the taxonomy of the community changed strongly with salinity, 2) metabolic potential was highly similar across samples, with few differences in functional gene abundance

  15. EPA's National Reassessment of Contaminants in Fish from U.S. Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple EPA offices collaborated to conduct a reassessment of fish contamination in U.S. rivers as part of the Agency’s 2013-14 National Rivers and Streams Assessment (NRSA). This is the first national assessment of contamination in river fish that will generate probabili...

  16. Northern Rivers Ecosystem Initiative: distribution and effects of contaminants.

    PubMed

    McMaster, M E; Evans, M S; Alaee, M; Muir, D C G; Hewitt, L M

    2006-02-01

    In response to a number of recommendations following the Northern Rivers Basin Studies (NRBS) contaminant program, the Northern Rivers Ecosystem Initiative (NREI) focused considerable attention on assessing contaminants from specific sources including pulp mill effluents, atmospheric transport of mercury and the Alberta oil sands operations. NRBS identified a number of major contaminants of concern including polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans, mercury and various hydrocarbons. Together, the NRBS and the NREI studies have demonstrated major declines in the levels of dioxins and furans over the last decade as pulp and paper mills have changed their process and treatment strategies in response to new Federal regulations. Polychlorinated biphenyls however, continue to be a concern for the region as their levels have not declined in fish and sediments over the course of these studies. Higher levels in sediments downstream of Grande Prairie and Hinton were identified, but the source of these contaminants remains unknown. Chlorinated pesticides were also investigated, and although toxaphene, DDT and other chlorinated organic pesticides were detected in fish tissue, they were present at very low levels. Studies on the oil sands industry in northern Alberta demonstrated limited impacts on the Athabasca River to date, although studies did identify slight to moderate impacts of natural oil seeps on fish and benthic communities in tributary streams. NREI studies also identified endocrine active compounds in the three pulp and paper mill effluents tested, but endocrine disruptive effects in wild fish were minimal. Municipal sewage effluents also contain endocrine active compounds and it is recommended that monitoring continue around these point sources.

  17. Assessing selenium contamination in the irrigated stream-aquifer system of the Arkansas River, Colorado.

    PubMed

    Gates, Timothy K; Cody, Brent M; Donnelly, Joseph P; Herting, Alexander W; Bailey, Ryan T; Mueller Price, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Prudent interventions for reducing selenium (Se) in groundwater and streams within an irrigated river valley must be guided by a sound understanding of current field conditions. An emerging picture of the nature of Se contamination within the Lower Arkansas River Valley in Colorado is provided by data from a large number of groundwater and surface water sampling locations within two study regions along the river. Measurements show that dissolved Se concentrations in the river are about double the current Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) chronic standard of 4.6 microg L(-1) for aquatic habitat in the upstream region and exceed the standard by a factor of 2 to 4 in the downstream region. Groundwater concentrations average about 57.7 microg L(-1) upstream and 33.0 microg L(-1) downstream, indicating a large subsurface source for irrigation-induced dissolution and mobilization of Se loads to the river and its tributaries. Inverse correlation was found between Se concentration and the distance to the closest identified shale in the direction upstream along the principal groundwater flow gradient. The data also exhibited, among other relationships, a moderate to strong correlation between dissolved Se and total dissolved solids in groundwater and surface water, a strong correlation with uranium in groundwater, and power relationships with nitrate in groundwater. The relationship to nitrate, derived primarily from N fertilizers, reveals the degree to which dissolved Se depends on oxidation and inhibited reduction due to denitrification and suggests that there are prospects for reducing dissolved Se through nitrate control. Current and future results from these ongoing studies will help provide a foundation for modeling and for the discovery of best management practices (BMPs) in irrigated agriculture that can diminish Se contamination.

  18. Assessing organic contaminant fluxes from contaminated sediments following dam removal in an urbanized river.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, Mark G; Perron, Monique M; Sullivan, Julia C; Katz, David R; Burgess, Robert M; King, John

    2014-08-01

    In this study, methods and approaches were developed and tested to assess changes in contaminant fluxes resulting from dam removal in a riverine system. Sediment traps and passive samplers were deployed to measure particulate and dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the water column prior to and following removal of a small, low-head dam in the Pawtuxet River, an urbanized river located in Cranston, RI, USA. During the study, concentrations of particulate and dissolved PAHs ranged from 21.5 to 103 μg/g and from 68 to 164 ng/L, respectively. Overall, temporal trends of PAHs showed no increases in either dissolved or particulate phases following removal of the dam. Dissolved concentrations of PCBs were very low, remaining below 1.72 ng/L at all sites. Particulate PCB concentrations across sites and time showed slightly greater variability, ranging from 80 to 469 ng/g, but with no indication that dam removal influenced any increases. Particulate PAHs and PCBs were sampled continuously at the site located below the dam and did not show sustained increases in concentration resulting from dam removal. The employment of passive sampling technology and sediment traps was highly effective in monitoring the concentrations and flux of contaminants moving through the river system. Variations in river flow had no effect on the concentration of contaminants in the dissolved or particulate phases, but did influence the flux rate of contaminants exiting the river. Overall, dam removal did not cause measurable sediment disturbance or increase the concentration or fluxes of dissolved or particulate PAHs and PCBs. This is due in large part to low volumes of impounded sediment residing above the dam and highly armored sediments in the river channel, which limited erosion. Results from this study will be used to improve methods and approaches that assess the short- and long-term impacts ecological restoration activities such as

  19. Spatiotemporal characteristics of organic contaminant concentrations and ecological risk assessment in the Songhua River, China

    EPA Science Inventory

    To control source pollution and improve water quality, an understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of organic contaminant concentrations in affected receiving waters is necessary. The Songhua River in northeast China is the country's third-largest domestic river and lo...

  20. Reach-scale characterization of large woody debris in a low-gradient, Midwestern U.S.A. river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Derek J.; Pavlowsky, Robert T.; Harden, Carol P.

    2016-06-01

    Addition of large woody debris (LWD) to rivers has increasingly become a popular stream restoration strategy, particularly in river systems of the Midwestern United States. However, our knowledge of LWD dynamics is mostly limited to high gradient montane river systems, or coastal river systems. The LWD-related management of low-gradient, Midwestern river systems is thus largely based on higher gradient analogs of LWD dynamics. This research characterizes fluvial wood loads and investigates the relationships between fluvial wood, channel morphology, and sediment deposition in a relatively low-gradient, semiconfined, alluvial river. The LWD and channel morphology were surveyed at nine reaches along the Big River in southeastern Missouri to investigate those relationships in comparison to other regions. Wood loads in the Big River are low (3-114 m3/100 m) relative to those of higher gradient river systems of the Pacific Northwest, but high relative to lower-gradient river systems of the Eastern United States. Wood characteristics such as size and orientation suggest that the dominant LWD recruitment mechanism in the Big River is bank erosion. Also, ratios of wood geometry to channel geometry show that the Big River maintains a relatively high wood transport capacity for most of its length. Although LWD creates sites for sediment storage, the overall impact on reach-scale sediment storage in the Big River is low (< 4.2% of total in-channel storage). However, wood loads, and thus opportunities for sediment storage, have the potential to grow in the future as Midwestern riparian forests mature. This study represents the first of its kind within this particular type of river system and within this region and thus serves as a basis for understanding fluvial wood dynamics in low-gradient river systems of the Midwestern United States.

  1. Gradients in coral reef communities exposed to muddy river discharge in Pohnpei, Micronesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golbuu, Yimnang; Fabricius, Katharina; Victor, Steven; Richmond, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed how coral communities change along a gradient of increasing exposure to a mud-discharging river in the Enipein Catchment, Pohnpei, Micronesia. Using video transects, we quantified benthic communities at five sites along a gradient moving away from the river mouth towards the barrier reef. The most river-impacted site was characterized by a high accumulation of mud, low coral cover and low coral diversity. Although coral cover leveled off at ˜400 m from the river mouth to values found at the outer-most sites, coral diversity continued to increase with increasing distance, suggesting that the most distant site was still impacted by the river discharges. Fungiidae, Pavona, Acropora, Pachyseris and Porites rus all significantly increased in cover with distance from the river, while Turbinaria decreased. The combined presence and abundance of these six species groups, together with coral species richness, may help to indicate the effects of terrestrial runoff in similar runoff-exposed settings around Micronesia, whereas coral cover is not a sensitive indicator for river impact. Coral reefs are important resources for the people of Pohnpei. To prevent further degradation of this important resource, an integrated watershed approach is needed to control terrestrial activities.

  2. Contaminant residues in fish from Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, Parley V.

    1989-01-01

    Tensas River National Wildlife Refuge, Madison Parish, Louisiana, consists of bottomland hardwood swamps interspersed with small lakes and bayous supporting a diverse assemblage of waterfowl, fish, and assorted species of game and nongame wildlife. Fish collected in the refuge in 1984–85 from areas receiving direct inflow from agricultural runoff contained from 5 to 10 μg/g total DDT (primarily DDE) and toxaphene (measured on a whole-body, wet-weight basis). These concentrations in fish, which were still high enough to pose a threat to fish-eating birds and wildlife, demonstrated that residues from past use of DDT and toxaphene in the area were still available for transport and uptake. In future water projects, the incorporation of structures to prevent contaminated runoff from entering the refuge should reduce waterborne contamination to the refuge.

  3. Historical contamination of the Anacostia River, Washington, D.C.

    PubMed

    Velinsky, David J; Riedel, Gerhardt F; Ashley, Jeffrey T F; Cornwell, Jeffrey C

    2011-12-01

    The tidal Anacostia River in Washington DC has long been impacted by various sources of chemical pollution over the past 200 years. To explore more recent inputs of various chemicals, six sediment cores were collected for dating and chemical analysis in the downstream section of the tidal Anacostia River. Profiles of contaminants in sediment cores can be useful in determining management direction and effectiveness of pollution controls over time. There were two main objectives for this investigation: (1) determine current sediment contaminant levels; (2) determine a historical perspective of the sediment changes in contamination using (137)Cs and (210)Pb dating. The determination of an age-depth relationship using (210)Pb and (137)Cs dating gave somewhat different results, suggesting that the assumptions of (210)Pb dating were not met. Using the (137)Cs horizon allowed an assignment of approximate sediment accumulation rates and hence an age-depth relationship to contaminant events in the upper portions of the cores. Total PAHs showed higher concentrations at depth and lower surface concentrations. In the upper sections, PAHs were a mixture of combustion and petrogenic sources, while at depth the signature appeared to be of natural origins. Total PCBs, DDTs and chlordane concentrations showed a maximum in recent sediments, decreasing towards the surface. PCBs had lower molecular weight congeners near the surface and higher molecular weights at depth. A phthalate ester, DEHP, appeared in the mid 1940-1950s, and decreased towards the surface. Trace elements fell roughly into three groups. Fe, Mn, and As were in approximately constant proportion to Al, except in some deeper, sandy sediments, where they showed enrichments linked to redox conditions. Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, and Zn had low concentrations in the deepest sediments, high concentrations at mid-depths, and declines to intermediate levels at the surface. Ni and Cr followed neither of these patterns closely. We

  4. Effects of blood contamination and the rostro-caudal gradient on the human cerebrospinal fluid proteome.

    PubMed

    Aasebø, Elise; Opsahl, Jill Anette; Bjørlykke, Yngvild; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Kroksveen, Ann Cathrine; Berven, Frode S

    2014-01-01

    Over the last years there has been an increased focus on the importance of knowing the effect of pre-analytical influence on the proteomes under study, particularly in the field of biomarker discovery. We present three proteomics studies examining the effect of blood contamination and the rostro-caudal gradient (RCG) on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteome, in addition to plasma/CSF protein ratios. The studies showed that the central nervous system (CNS) derived proteins appeared to be unaffected by the RCG, while the plasma-derived proteins showed an increase in concentration towards the lumbar area. This implies that the concentration of the plasma-derived proteins in CSF will vary depending on the volume of CSF that is collected. In the CSF samples spiked with blood, 262 of 814 quantified proteins showed an abundance increase of more than 1.5 fold, while 403 proteins had a fold change of less than 1.2 and appeared to be unaffected by blood contamination. Proteins with a high plasma/CSF ratio appeared to give the largest effect on the CSF proteome upon blood contamination. The results give important background information on how factors like blood contamination, RCG and blood-CNS-barrier influences the CSF proteome. This information is particularly important in the field of biomarker discovery, but also for routine clinical measurements. The data from the blood contamination and RCG discovery studies have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000401.

  5. River gradient anomalies reveal recent tectonic movements when assuming an exponential gradient decrease along a river course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žibret, Gorazd; Žibret, Lea

    2017-03-01

    High resolution digital models, combined with GIS or other terrain modelling software, allow many new possibilities in geoscience. In this paper we develop, describe and test a novel method, the GLA method, to detect active tectonic uplift or subsidence along river courses. It is a modification of Hack's SL-index method in order to overcome the disadvantages of the latter. The core assumption of the GLA method is that over geological time river profiles quickly adjust to follow an exponential decrease in elevation along the river course. Any large deviation can be attributed to active tectonic movement, or to disturbances in erosion/sedimentation processes caused by an anthropogenic structure (e.g. artificial dam). During the testing phase, the locations of identified deviations were compared to the locations of faults, identified on a 1:100,000 geological map. Results show that higher magnitude deviations are found within a maximum radius of 200 m from the fault, and the majority of detected deviations within a maximum radius of 600 m from faults or thrusts. However, these results are not the best that could be obtained because the geological map that was used (and the only one available for the area) is not of the appropriate scale, and was therefore not precise enough. Comparison of deviation magnitudes against PSInSAR measurements of vertical displacements in the vicinity revealed that in spite of the very few suitable points available, a good correlation between both independent methods was obtained (R2 = 0.68 for the E research area and R2 = 0.69 for the W research area). The GLA method was applied to the three test sites where previous studies have shown active tectonic movements. It shows that deviations occur at the intersections between active faults and river courses, as well as also correctly detected active uplift, attributed to the increased sedimentation rate above an artificial hydropower dam, and an increased erosion rate below. The method gives

  6. Establishing the environmental risk of metal contaminated river bank sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Sarah; Batty, Lesley; Byrne, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Climate change predictions indicate an increase in the frequency and duration of flood events along with longer dry antecedent conditions, which could alter patterns of trace metal release from contaminated river bank sediments. This study took a laboratory mesocosm approach. Chemical analysis of water and sediment samples allowed the patterns of Pb and Zn release and key mechanisms controlling Pb and Zn mobility to be determined. Trace metal contaminants Pb and Zn were released throughout flooded periods. The highest concentrations of dissolved Pb were observed at the end of the longest flood period and high concentrations of dissolved Zn were released at the start of a flood. These concentrations were found to exceed environmental quality standards. Key mechanisms controlling mobility were (i) evaporation, precipitation and dissolution of Zn sulphate salts, (ii) anglesite solubility control of dissolved Pb, (iii) oxidation of galena and sphalerite, (iv) reductive dissolution of Mn/Fe hydroxides and co-precipitation/adsorption with Zn. In light of climate change predictions these results indicate future scenarios may include larger or more frequent transient 'pulses' of dissolved Pb and Zn released to river systems. These short lived pollution episodes could act as a significant barrier to achieving the EU Water Framework Directive objectives.

  7. A Bayesian hierarchical approach to model seasonal algal variability along an upstream to downstream river gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, YoonKyung; Soon Park, Seok; Won Lee, Hye; Stow, Craig A.

    2016-01-01

    Modeling to accurately predict river phytoplankton distribution and abundance is important in water quality and resource management. Nevertheless, the complex nature of eutrophication processes in highly connected river systems makes the task challenging. To model dynamics of river phytoplankton, represented by chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model that explicitly accommodates seasonality and upstream-downstream spatial gradient in the structure. The utility of our model is demonstrated with an application to the Nakdong River (South Korea), which is a eutrophic, intensively regulated river, but functions as an irreplaceable water source for more than 13 million people. Chl a is modeled with two manageable factors, river flow, and total phosphorus (TP) concentration. Our model results highlight the importance of taking seasonal and spatial context into account when describing flow regimes and phosphorus delivery in rivers. A contrasting positive Chl a-flow relationship across stations versus negative Chl a-flow slopes that arose when Chl a was modeled on a station-month basis is an illustration of Simpson's paradox, which necessitates modeling Chl a-flow relationships decomposed into seasonal and spatial components. Similar Chl a-TP slopes among stations and months suggest that, with the flow effect removed, positive TP effects on Chl a are uniform regardless of the season and station in the river. Our model prediction successfully captured the shift in the spatial and monthly patterns of Chl a.

  8. Risk analysis on heavy metal contamination in sediments of rivers flowing into Nansi Lake.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qingqing; Song, Ying; Zhang, Yiran; Wang, Renqing; Liu, Jian

    2015-05-20

    In order to understand the risk of heavy metals in sediments of the rivers flowing into Nansi Lake, 36 surface sediments were sampled from six rivers and seven heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, Pb, and Cd) were determined. Potential ecological risk index (RI) of the six rivers showed significant differences: Xinxue River, Jiehe River, and Guangfu River were at medium potential risk, whereas the risk of Chengguo River was the lowest. Jiehe River, Xuesha River, and Jiangji River were meeting the medium potential risk at river mouths. Geo-accumulation index (I geo) of the seven heavy metals revealed that the contamination of Cu and Cd was more serious than most other metals in the studied areas, whereas Cr in most sites of our study was not polluted. Moreover, correlation cluster analysis demonstrated that the contamination of Cu, Ni, and Zn in six rivers was mainly caused by local emissions, whereas that of As, Pb, and Cd might come from the external inputs in different forms. Consequently, the contamination of Cu and Cd and the potential risk in Xinxue River, Jiehe River, and Guangfu River as well as the local emissions should be given more attention to safeguard the water quality of Nansi Lake and the East Route Project of South to North Water Transfer.

  9. Quantifying Morphologic Changes in a Low Gradient River Crossing Southeast Louisiana Fault Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, G.; Gasparini, N. M.; Dawers, N. H.

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the signature of faulting in low gradient, alluvial rivers crossing the Baton Rouge fault zone (BRFZ) and Denham Springs-Scotlandville fault zone (DSSFZ), which encompass a set of East-West striking normal faults in southeast Louisiana. These faults exhibit surface expressions associated with up to a few meters of vertical displacement of Late Pleistocene sediments, but little is known about their activity during the Holocene. Our study aims to quantify geomorphic changes in a number of rivers that cross these fault zones and to use these changes to gain insight into the history of faulting in the region. We hypothesize that fault movement will be evident in patterns of river sinuosity, slope, and width to depth ratio. We focus on four subparallel channels of various discharges that cross either or both the BRFZ and the DSSFZ. Information on local fault scarp heights and channel reaches are extracted by GIS analysis of the LA LiDAR 5 m DEM, as well as flow modeling using the HEC-RAS software program. On the Tickfaw River, we conducted field surveys using differential GPS to record contemporary water surface slopes and channel location. Historic channel features on the Tickfaw are characterized using a series of aerial photographs dating back to 1952. Over the past 50 years, the Tickfaw River has shortened its course through the study area significantly (~4.9%) by means of meander cutoffs. Since 1952, sinuosity (P) has decreased in all of the Tickfaw channel reaches that cross fault segments. Currently, the sinuosity is extremely low (average P = 1.14) where the river crosses the DSSFZ and slightly higher where the river crosses the BRFZ (average P = 1.9). We use the LiDAR data to quantify offset on the faults that the river crosses. These values will be compared with the average lateral migration rate of the river in order to better understand the time scales over which both processes operate. If the faults appear to have little morphologic

  10. Nearshore thermal gradients of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Rob; Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically impacted the flow of the Colorado River through Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. Extremes in both streamflow and water temperature have been suppressed by controlled releases from the dam. Trapping of sediment in Lake Powell, the reservoir formed by Glen Canyon Dam, has also dramatically reduced the supply of suspended sediment entering the system. These changes have altered the riverine ecosystem and the habitat of native species, including fish such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Most native fish are adapted to seasonally warm water, and the continuous relatively cold water released by the dam is one of the factors that is believed to limit humpback chub growth and survival. While average mainstem temperatures in the Colorado River are well documented, there is limited understanding of temperatures in the nearshore environments that fish typically occupy. Four nearshore geomorphic unit types were studied between the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and Lava Canyon in the summer and fall of 2010, for study periods of 10 to 27 days. Five to seven sites were studied during each interval. Persistent thermal gradients greater than the 0.2 °C accuracy of the instruments were not observed in any of the sampled shoreline environments. Temperature gradients between the shoreline and mainstem on the order of 4 °C, believed to be important to the habitat-seeking behavior of native or nonnative fishes, were not detected.

  11. A geomorphological approach to the management of rivers contaminated by metal mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, M. G.; Brewer, P. A.; Hudson-Edwards, K. A.; Bird, G.; Coulthard, T. J.; Dennis, I. A.; Lechler, P. J.; Miller, J. R.; Turner, J. N.

    2006-09-01

    As the result of current and historical metal mining, river channels and floodplains in many parts of the world have become contaminated by metal-rich waste in concentrations that may pose a hazard to human livelihoods and sustainable development. Environmental and human health impacts commonly arise because of the prolonged residence time of heavy metals in river sediments and alluvial soils and their bioaccumulatory nature in plants and animals. This paper considers how an understanding of the processes of sediment-associated metal dispersion in rivers, and the space and timescales over which they operate, can be used in a practical way to help river basin managers more effectively control and remediate catchments affected by current and historical metal mining. A geomorphological approach to the management of rivers contaminated by metals is outlined and four emerging research themes are highlighted and critically reviewed. These are: (1) response and recovery of river systems following the failures of major tailings dams; (2) effects of flooding on river contamination and the sustainable use of floodplains; (3) new developments in isotopic fingerprinting, remote sensing and numerical modelling for identifying the sources of contaminant metals and for mapping the spatial distribution of contaminants in river channels and floodplains; and (4) current approaches to the remediation of river basins affected by mining, appraised in light of the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC). Future opportunities for geomorphologically-based assessments of mining-affected catchments are also identified.

  12. Temporal variability of biodiversity patterns and trophic structure of estuarine macrobenthic assemblages along a gradient of metal contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piló, D.; Pereira, F.; Carriço, A.; Cúrdia, J.; Pereira, P.; Gaspar, M. B.; Carvalho, S.

    2015-12-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the response of macrobenthic assemblages along a gradient of metal contamination using a combination of uni- and multivariate methods focusing on their composition, structure and function. A total of six sites were established based on a preliminary survey, which identified three areas with different levels of contamination. These areas were defined as slightly contaminated (SC), moderately contaminated (MC) and highly contaminated (HC). Each area comprised two sites, sampled in four sampling surveys (September 2012, February, May and October of 2013). To investigate the response of the macrobenthic assemblages the number of individuals (N), number of taxa (S), Shannon-Weaver diversity (H‧), Pielou's equitability (J‧) and different distance-based multivariate measures of β-diversity (complementarity) were analysed. β-diversity as turnover was also analysed together with spatial and temporal changes in the trophic structure. A clear gradient of increasing contamination was consistently detected, but comparisons with available sediment quality guidelines indicated that adverse biological effects may be expected in all areas. This result suggests measuring concentrations of contaminants in the sediment per se may be insufficient to establish a clear link between ecological patterns and the contamination of the system. Also it highlights the difficulty of identifying reference areas in highly urbanized and industrialized estuaries. Only multivariate analysis (dbRDA; both using the taxonomic and trophic composition) and β-diversity as turnover showed a consistent response to metal contamination. Higher heterogeneity, mainly due to contribution of rare species (i.e. species present in a single sampling period), was observed in the least contaminated area (SC), decreasing towards the HC. In terms of the trophic function, a shift from a dominance of carnivores in the SC to the dominance of deposit-feeding organisms (and

  13. Detection by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in microcosms of crude oil-contaminated mangrove sediments.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, A C F; Marques, E L S; Gross, E; Souza, S S; Dias, J C T; Brendel, M; Rezende, R P

    2012-01-27

    Currently, the effect of crude oil on ammonia-oxidizing bacterium communities from mangrove sediments is little understood. We studied the diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in mangrove microcosm experiments using mangrove sediments contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5% crude oil as well as non-contaminated control and landfarm soil from near an oil refinery in Camamu Bay in Bahia, Brazil. The evolution of CO(2) production in all crude oil-contaminated microcosms showed potential for mineralization. Cluster analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis-derived samples generated with primers for gene amoA, which encodes the functional enzyme ammonia monooxygenase, showed differences in the sample contaminated with 5% compared to the other samples. Principal component analysis showed divergence of the non-contaminated samples from the 5% crude oil-contaminated sediment. A Venn diagram generated from the banding pattern of PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to look for operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in common. Eight OTUs were found in non-contaminated sediments and in samples contaminated with 0.5, 1, or 2% crude oil. A Jaccard similarity index of 50% was found for samples contaminated with 0.1, 0.5, 1, and 2% crude oil. This is the first study that focuses on the impact of crude oil on the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium community in mangrove sediments from Camamu Bay.

  14. Wild gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers are contaminated by microplastics: preliminary study and first evidence.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Wilfried; Bender, Coline; Porcher, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecosystem contamination by microplastics is extensively documented. However few data is available on the contamination of continental water bodies and associated fauna. The aim of this study was to address the occurrence of microplastics in digestive tract of gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers. These investigations confirm that continental fish ingested microplastics while 12% of collected fish are contaminated by these small particles. Further works are needed to evaluate the occurence of this contamination.

  15. Contaminated groundwater characterization at the Chalk River Laboratories, Ontario, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Schilk, A.J.; Robertson, D.E.; Thomas, C.W.; Lepel, E.A.; Champ, D.R.; Killey, R.W.D.; Young, J.L.; Cooper, E.L.

    1993-03-01

    The licensing requirements for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (10 CFR 61) specify the performance objectives and technical requisites for federal and commercial land disposal facilities, the ultimate goal of which is to contain the buried wastes so that the general population is adequately protected from harmful exposure to any released radioactive materials. A major concern in the operation of existing and projected waste disposal sites is subterranean radionuclide transport by saturated or unsaturated flow, which could lead to the contamination of groundwater systems as well as uptake by the surrounding biosphere, thereby directly exposing the general public to such materials. Radionuclide transport in groundwater has been observed at numerous commercial and federal waste disposal sites [including several locations within the waste management area of Chalk River Laboratories (CRL)], yet the physico-chemical processes that lead to such migration are still not completely understood. In an attempt to assist in the characterization of these processes, an intensive study was initiated at CRL to identify and quantify the mobile radionuclide species originating from three separate disposal sites: (a) the Chemical Pit, which has received aqueous wastes containing various radioisotopes, acids, alkalis, complexing agents and salts since 1956, (b) the Reactor Pit, which has received low-level aqueous wastes from a reactor rod storage bay since 1956, and (c) the Waste Management Area C, a thirty-year-old series of trenches that contains contaminated solid wastes from CRL and various regional medical facilities. Water samples were drawn downgradient from each of the above sites and passed through a series of filters and ion-exchange resins to retain any particulate and dissolved or colloidal radionuclide species, which were subsequently identified and quantified via radiochemical separations and gamma spectroscopy. These groundwaters were also analyzed for anions

  16. Part I: Integrated water quality management: river basin approach. Geochemical techniques on contaminated sediments--river basin view.

    PubMed

    Förstner, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    The big flood in the upper Elbe River catchment area has revealed a wide spectrum of problems with contaminated sediments. So far, an effective strategy for managing contaminated sediments on a river basin scale is still missing and it seems that not much has been learned from the lessons received during the last decade. In the following overview, special emphasis is given to the utilization of geochemically-based techniques for sediment remediation, which can be applied in different parts of a river basin. The examples presented here are mostly from the Elbe River catchment area. In general, new technical problem solutions need a set of practical process knowledge that uses a wide range of simulation techniques, as well as models in different spatial and temporal scales. The evaluation of recent flood events clearly demonstrates the importance of chemical expertise in the decision-making process for the sustainable development in river basins.

  17. Changes in zooplankton communities along a mercury contamination gradient in a coastal lagoon (Ria de Aveiro, Portugal).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Patrícia Gonçalves; Marques, Sónia Cotrim; D'Ambrosio, Mariaelena; Pereira, Eduarda; Duarte, Armando Costa; Azeiteiro, Ulisses Miranda; Pardal, Miguel Ângelo

    2013-11-15

    The main objective of this paper was to evaluate the impact of mercury on the zooplankton communities' structure and functioning and their bioaccumulation patterns along a contamination gradient in a temperate coastal lagoon. Our results demonstrated that total abundance was not negatively affected by Hg contamination, since the most contaminated areas presented the highest values, being the copepod Acartia tonsa the dominant species, which means that it is a very well adapted and tolerant species to mercury. Nevertheless, negative effects were observed in terms of species diversity, since the most contaminated areas presented the lowest values of species richness, evenness and heterogeneity. Moreover, the spatial mercury gradient was reflected on the bioaccumulation patterns of the zooplankton communities. This reinforces the idea that zooplankton can be considered as an important vehicle of mercury transfer through the food pelagic web since it constitutes a primordial food resource for several commercial fish species.

  18. Ecological sentinels of aquatic contamination in the lower Mississippi River system

    SciTech Connect

    Bart, H. Jr.; Martinat, P.; Spahn, S.

    1996-05-02

    This project has three major subsections; reports on the progress are detailed in the article. Community and Trophic Responses of fishes to aquatic contamination looks at the fate of environmental contaminants in fish from a lateral floodplain swamp in the lower Mississippi River system and at the ecological risks contaminants pose for fish and other aquatic organisms. Contaminants include cadmium, mercury, nickel, chromium, HCB and HCBC. The second section looks at tree cores of baldcypress as biomarkers of present and past pollution events by heavy metals. The third section evaluates the effects of environmental contamination on colonial wading birds and the usefulness of these birds as indicators of environmental contamination. 3 refs.

  19. Status of metal levels and their potential sources of contamination in Southeast Asian rivers.

    PubMed

    Chanpiwat, Penradee; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong

    2014-01-01

    To assess the concentration and status of metal contaminants in four major Southeast Asian river systems, water were collected from the Tonle Sap-Bassac Rivers (Cambodia), Citarum River (Indonesia), lower Chao Phraya River (Thailand), and Saigon River (Vietnam) in both dry and wet seasons. The target elements were Be, Al, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, and Pb and the concentrations exceeded the background metal concentrations by 1- to 88-fold. This distinctly indicates enrichment by human urban area activities. The results of a normalization technique used to distinguish natural from enriched metal concentrations confirmed contamination by Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Cluster analysis revealed the probable source of metals contamination in most sampling sites on all rivers studied to be anthropogenic, including industrial, commercial, and residential activities. Stable lead isotopes analyses applied to track the sources and pathways of anthropogenic lead furthermore confirmed that anthropogenic sources of metal contaminated these rivers. Discharges of wastewater from both industrial and household activities were major contributors of Pb into the rivers. Non-point sources, especially road runoff and street dust, also contributed contamination from Pb and other metals.

  20. Computational modeling of 137Cs contaminant transfer associated with sediment transport in Abukuma River.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, T; Nabi, M; Shimizu, Y; Kimura, I

    2015-01-01

    A numerical model capable of simulating the transfer of (137)Cs in rivers associated with transport of fine sediment is presented. The accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) released radionuclides into the atmosphere, and after fallout several radionuclides in them, such as radiocesium ((134)Cs, (137)Cs) and radioiodine ((131)I) were adsorbed on surface soil particles around FDNPP and transported by surface water. To understand the transport and deposition of the radioactive contaminant along with surface soil particles and its flux to the ocean, we modeled the transport of the (137)Cs contaminant by computing the water flow and the associated washload and suspended load transport. We have developed a two-dimensional model to simulate the plane flow structure, sediment transport and associated (137)Cs contaminant transport in rivers by combining a shallow water flow model and an advection-diffusion equation for the transport of sediment. The proposed model has been applied to the lower reach of Abukuma River, which is the main river in the highly contaminated area around FDNPP. The numerical results indicate that most (137)Cs supplied from the upstream river reach with washload would directly reach to Pacific Ocean. In contrast, washload-oriented (137)Cs supplied from the upstream river basin has a limited role in the radioactive contamination in the river. The results also suggest that the proposed framework of computational model can be a potential tool for understanding the sediment-oriented (137)Cs behavior in rivers.

  1. Erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities in wild and caged fish (Liza aurata) along an environmental mercury contamination gradient.

    PubMed

    Guilherme, S; Válega, M; Pereira, M E; Santos, M A; Pacheco, M

    2008-07-01

    Laranjo basin (Aveiro, Portugal) has been subjected to mercury contamination from a chlor-alkali plant, presenting a well-described mercury gradient. This study aims the assessment of mercury genotoxicity in this area by measuring erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENA) frequency in the mullet Liza aurata, and its relation with total mercury concentration (Hg(t)) in blood. Wild fish were seasonally analysed, and, complementarily, fish were caged for 3 days at three locations differing on their distances to the mercury source. The results from Laranjo were compared with those from a reference area (S. Jacinto). Wild fish from Laranjo showed elevated ENA frequency in summer and autumn in concomitance with increased blood Hg(t). Surprisingly, no ENA induction was found in winter, despite the highest blood Hg(t), which may be explained by haematological dynamics alterations, as supported by a decreased immature erythrocytes frequency. Caged fish displayed ENA induction only at the closest site to the contamination source, also showing a correlation with blood Hg(t).

  2. Contamination with retinoic acid receptor agonists in two rivers in the Kinki region of Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Daisuke; Nakama, Koki; Sawada, Kazuko; Watanabe, Taro; Takagi, Mai; Sei, Kazunari; Yang, Min; Hirotsuji, Junji; Hu, Jianying; Nishikawa, Jun-ichi; Nakanishi, Tsuyoshi; Ike, Michihiko

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the agonistic activity against human retinoic acid receptor (RAR) alpha in the Lake Biwa-Yodo River and the Ina River in the Kinki region of Japan. To accomplish this, a yeast two-hybrid assay was used to elucidate the spatial and temporal variations and potential sources of RARalpha agonist contamination in the river basins. RARalpha agonistic activity was commonly detected in the surface water samples collected along two rivers at different periods, with maximum all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) equivalents of 47.6 ng-atRA/L and 23.5 ng-atRA/L being observed in Lake Biwa-Yodo River and Ina River, respectively. The results indicated that RARalpha agonists are always present and widespread in the rivers. Comparative investigation of RARalpha and estrogen receptor alpha agonistic activities at 20 stations along each river revealed that the spatial variation pattern of RARalpha agonist contamination was entirely different from that of the estrogenic compound contamination. This suggests that the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants, a primary source of estrogenic compounds, seemed not to be the cause of RARalpha agonist contamination in the rivers. Fractionation using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) directed by the bioassay found two bioactive fractions from river water samples, suggesting the presence of at least two RARalpha agonists in the rivers. Although a trial conducted to identify RARalpha agonists in the major bioactive fraction was not completed as part of this study, comparison of retention times in HPLC analysis and quantification with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the major causative contaminants responsible for the RARalpha agonistic activity were not RAs (natural RAR ligands) and 4-oxo-RAs, while 4-oxo-RAs were identified as the major RAR agonists in sewage in Beijing, China. These findings suggest that there are unknown RARalpha agonists with high

  3. How is water transmitted in large, low gradient, dryland river systems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarihani, Ben Abdollah; Callow, Nik; Larsen, Joshua

    2015-04-01

    Drylands represent approximately one third of the earth's surface, with a large number of ephemeral river systems, are characterised by an extremely variable flow regime and high transmission losses. Yet the scarcity of gauging infrastructure and challenges of gauging flows in large anastomosing rivers means that critical aspects of the hydrology and ecology of these rivers remains unknown. The paper trials a novel approach to use a hydrodynamic model and remotely sensed data to understand critical questions relating to the water balance and movement of major flood pulses in large dryland river basins. Along 180km poorly-gauged study reach in upper part of the Diamantina River, Lake Eyre Basin, four water level loggers were installed and water elevations were recorded during the 2011 major flood event. These water elevations were used to build and calibrate a 2D hydrodynamic model at the locations of the loggers (virtual gauging stations). Temporally sporadic (though more accurate) Landsat coverage and daily (lower accuracy) MODIS coverage was also used to calibrate the model. Using the calibrated model, total water loss/gain was calculated in each reach between virtual gauging stations. These water volume changes mostly represent transmission losses and are caused by some combination of: evaporation, infiltration, and terminal water, with lateral (tributary) inflows the only potential water volume gain. These four parameters then were added to the model and sensitivity analyses were performed. Infiltration transmission losses are highly sensitive to initial soil moisture conditions. Within large dryland catchments, the potential for large rainfall events to occur in downstream parts of the catchment introduces a higher sensitivity to lateral tributary inflows relative to the overall water balance of the trunk stream. In addition, the low gradient, wide, and shallow flow structure introduces a higher sensitivity to terminal water storage (real or DEM derived

  4. Life history attributes of fishes along the latitudinal gradient of the Missouri River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Guy, C.S.

    2002-01-01

    Populations of two short-lived species (emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides and sicklefin chub Macrhybopsis meeki) and three long-lived species (freshwater drum Aplodinotus grunniens, river carpsucker Carpiodes carpio, and sauger Stizostedion canadense) were studied in the Missouri River to examine spatial variations in life history characteristics across a latitudinal and thermal gradient (38??47???N to 48??03???N). The life history characteristics included longevity (maximum age), the rate at which asymptotic length was approached (K from the von Bertalanffy growth equation), the mean back-calculated length at age, and growth rates during the first year of life (mm/degree-day and mm/d). The mean water temperature and number of days in the growing season averaged 1.3 times greater in the southern than in the northern latitudes, while degree-days averaged twice as great. The longevity of all species except freshwater drum increased significantly from south to north, but the relationships between maximum age and latitude were curvilinear for short-lived species and linear for long-lived species. The von Bertalanffy growth coefficient for river carpsuckers and saugers increased from north to south, as indicated by significant negative relationships between K and latitude. Mean back-calculated length at age was negatively related to latitude for freshwater drums (???age 4) and saugers (ages 1-5) but positively related to latitude for river carpsuckers (???age 6). One of the growth rates examined (mm/degree-day) increased significantly from low to high latitudes for emerald shiners, sicklefin chubs, freshwater drums, and river carpsuckers during the first growing season. The other growth rate (mm/d) increased significantly from low to high latitudes for emerald shiners but was inversely related to latitude for saugers. These results suggest that the thermal regime related to latitude influences the life history characteristics of fishes in the Missouri River.

  5. Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume.

    PubMed

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottlé, Catherine; Bonté, Philippe

    2013-10-29

    Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue.

  6. Evolution of radioactive dose rates in fresh sediment deposits along coastal rivers draining Fukushima contamination plume

    PubMed Central

    Evrard, Olivier; Chartin, Caroline; Onda, Yuichi; Patin, Jeremy; Lepage, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène; Ayrault, Sophie; Ottlé, Catherine; Bonté, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of radioactive dose rates in fine sediment that has recently deposited on channel bed-sand provides a solution to address the lack of continuous river monitoring in Fukushima Prefecture after Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident. We show that coastal rivers of Eastern Fukushima Prefecture were rapidly supplied with sediment contaminated by radionuclides originating from inland mountain ranges, and that this contaminated material was partly exported by typhoons to the coastal plains as soon as by November 2011. This export was amplified during snowmelt and typhoons in 2012. In 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. We thereby suggest that storage of contaminated sediment in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the river channels now represents the most crucial issue. PMID:24165695

  7. Spatial variability overwhelms seasonal patterns in bacterioplankton communities across a river to ocean gradient

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Herfort, Lydie; Zuber, Peter; Baptista, Antonio M; Crump, Byron C

    2012-01-01

    Few studies of microbial biogeography address variability across both multiple habitats and multiple seasons. Here we examine the spatial and temporal variability of bacterioplankton community composition of the Columbia River coastal margin using 16S amplicon pyrosequencing of 300 water samples collected in 2007 and 2008. Communities separated into seven groups (ANOSIM, P<0.001): river, estuary, plume, epipelagic, mesopelagic, shelf bottom (depth<350 m) and slope bottom (depth>850 m). The ordination of these samples was correlated with salinity (ρ=−0.83) and depth (ρ=−0.62). Temporal patterns were obscured by spatial variability among the coastal environments, and could only be detected within individual groups. Thus, structuring environmental factors (for example, salinity, depth) dominate over seasonal changes in determining community composition. Seasonal variability was detected across an annual cycle in the river, estuary and plume where communities separated into two groups, early year (April–July) and late year (August–Nov), demonstrating annual reassembly of communities over time. Determining both the spatial and temporal variability of bacterioplankton communities provides a framework for modeling these communities across environmental gradients from river to deep ocean. PMID:22011718

  8. Novel associations between contaminant body burdens and biomarkers of reproductive condition in male Common Carp along multiple gradients of contaminant exposure in Lake Mead National Recreation Area, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patino, Reynaldo; VanLandeghem, Matthew M.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Orsak, Erik; Jenkins, Jill A.; Echols, Kathy R.; Rosen, Michael R.; Torres, Leticia

    2015-01-01

    Adult male Common Carp were sampled in 2007/08 over a full reproductive cycle at Lake Mead National Recreation Area. Sites sampled included a stream dominated by treated wastewater effluent, a lake basin receiving the streamflow, an upstream lake basin (reference), and a site below Hoover Dam. Individual body burdens for 252 contaminants were measured, and biological variables assessed included physiological [plasma vitellogenin (VTG), estradiol-17β (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT)] and organ [gonadosomatic index (GSI)] endpoints. Patterns in contaminant composition and biological condition were determined by Principal Component Analysis, and their associations modeled by Principal Component Regression. Three spatially distinct but temporally stable gradients of contaminant distribution were recognized: a contaminant mixture typical of wastewaters (PBDEs, methyl triclosan, galaxolide), PCBs, and DDTs. Two spatiotemporally variable patterns of biological condition were recognized: a primary pattern consisting of reproductive condition variables (11KT, E2, GSI), and a secondary pattern including general condition traits (condition factor, hematocrit, fork length). VTG was low in all fish, indicating low estrogenic activity of water at all sites. Wastewater contaminants associated negatively with GSI, 11KT and E2; PCBs associated negatively with GSI and 11KT; and DDTs associated positively with GSI and 11KT. Regression of GSI on sex steroids revealed a novel, nonlinear association between these variables. Inclusion of sex steroids in the GSI regression on contaminants rendered wastewater contaminants nonsignificant in the model and reduced the influence of PCBs and DDTs. Thus, the influence of contaminants on GSI may have been partially driven by organismal modes-of-action that include changes in sex steroid production. The positive association of DDTs with 11KT and GSI suggests that lifetime, sub-lethal exposures to DDTs have effects on male carp opposite of those

  9. Assessment of ametryn contamination in river water, river sediment, and mollusk bivalves in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jacomini, Analu Egydio; de Camargo, Plínio Barbosa; Avelar, Wagner Eustáquio Paiva; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2011-04-01

    São Paulo state, Brazil, is one of the main areas of sugar cane agriculture in the world. Herbicides, in particular, ametryn, are extensively used in this extensive area, which implies that this herbicide is present in the environment and can contaminate the surface water by running off. Thereby, residues of ametryn were analyzed in samples of river water an river sediment and in freshwater bivalves obtained from the rivers Sapucaí, Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu in São Paulo State, Brazil. Samples were taken in the winter of 2003 and 2004 in two locations in each river. The specimens of freshwater bivalves collected and analyzed were Corbicula fluminea, an exotic species, and Diplodon fontaineanus, a native species. Additionally, the evaluation of the ability of bioconcentration and depuration of ametryn by the freshwater bivalve Corbicula fluminea was also performed. Ametryn concentrations in the samples were measured by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Residues of ametryn in water (50 ng/L) and in freshwater bivalves (2-7 ng/g) were found in the Mogi-Guaçu River in 2004, and residues in river sediments were found in all rivers in 2003 and 2004 (0.5-2 ng/g). The observation of the aquatic environment through the analysis of these matrixes, water, sediment, and bivalves, revealed the importance of the river sediment in the accumulation of the herbicide ametryn, which can contaminate the biota.

  10. Gradient distribution of persistent organic contaminants along northern slope of central-Himalayas, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Tan-Dong; Cong, Zhi-Yuan; Yan, Xing-Liang; Kang, Shi-Chang; Zhang, Yong

    2006-12-15

    distillation of POPs was strongly affected by the proximity between sampling sites and contaminant sources. If the contaminant sources are close to the mountains, it may be the dominant factor that controls the concentration gradient.

  11. Stressor Identification (Si) at Contaminated Sites: Upper Arkansas River, Colorado (Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, Stressor Identification (SI) at Contaminated Sites: Upper Arkansas River, Colorado. This report describes a causal assessment for impairments of plant growth and plant species richness at a terrestrial contaminated site ...

  12. Fecal genotyping and contaminant analyses reveal variation in individual river otter exposure to localized persistent contaminants.

    PubMed

    Guertin, Daniel A; Harestad, Alton S; Ben-David, Merav; Drouillard, Ken G; Elliott, John E

    2010-02-01

    The present study investigated polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbon (PHAH) concentrations in feces of known river otters (Lontra canadensis) along the coast of southern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. Specifically, we combined microsatellite genotyping of DNA from feces for individual identification with fecal contaminant analyses to evaluate exposure of 23 wild otters to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). Overall, feces collected from otters in urban/industrial Victoria Harbor had the greatest concentrations of nearly all compounds assessed. Fecal concentrations of OCPs and PBDEs were generally low throughout the region, whereas PCBs dominated in all locations. Re-sampling of known otters over space and time revealed that PCB exposure varied with movement and landscape use. Otters with the highest fecal PCB concentrations were those inhabiting the inner reaches of Victoria Harbor and adjacent Esquimalt Harbor, and those venturing into the harbor systems. Over 50% of samples collected from eight known otters in Victoria Harbor had total-PCB concentrations above the maximum allowable concentration as established for Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) feces, with a geometric mean value (10.6 mg/kg lipid wt) that exceeded the reproductive toxicity threshold (9 mg/kg lipid wt). Those results are consistent with our findings from 1998 and 2004, and indicate that the harbors of southern Vancouver Island, particularly Victoria Harbor, are a chronic source of PCB exposure for otters. The present study further demonstrates the suitability of using otter feces as a noninvasive/destructive biomonitoring tool in contaminant studies, particularly when sampling of the same individuals at the local population-level is desired.

  13. Changes in community-level riparian plant traits over inundation gradients, Colorado River, Grand Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy-Sulentic, Miles; Kolb, Thomas; Merritt, David; Palmquist, Emily C.; Ralston, Barbara; Sarr, Daniel; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2017-01-01

    Comparisons of community-level functional traits across environmental gradients have potential for identifying links among plant characteristics, adaptations to stress and disturbance, and community assembly. We investigated community-level variation in specific leaf area (SLA), plant mature height, seed mass, stem specific gravity (SSG), relative cover of C4 species, and total plant cover over hydrologic zones and gradients in years 2013 and 2014 in the riparian plant community along the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon. Vegetation cover was lowest in the frequently inundated active channel zone, indicating constraints on plant establishment and production by flood disturbance and anaerobic stress. Changes in trait values over hydrologic zones and inundation gradients indicate that frequently inundated plots exhibit a community-level ruderal strategy with adaptation to submergence (high SLA and low SSG, height, seed mass, C4 relative cover), whereas less frequently inundated plots exhibit adaptation to drought and infrequent flood disturbance (low SLA and high SSG, height, seed mass, C4 relative cover). Variation in traits not associated with inundation suggests niche differentiation and multiple modes of community assembly. The results enhance understanding of future responses of riparian communities of the Grand Canyon to anticipated drying and changes in hydrologic regime.

  14. Contribution from the Yenisei River to the total radioactive contamination of the Kara Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yu.V.; Revenko, Yu.A.; Legin, V.K.

    1995-07-01

    An attempt is made to estimate the contribution from the Yenisei River and, therefore, the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Plant (MCP), which discharged wastewaters to the Yenisei, to the total contamination of the Kara Sea using results from a study of the radioactive contamination of the Yenisei River, Yenisei Bay, Yenisei Gulf, and the Kara Sea itself. Radionuclides generated from using river water in cooling circuits of production reactors make the largest contribution to the total activity. The radioactive contamination of the river decreased by more than 20 times after two of the three operating reactors were shut down. Only several wetlands are actually affected by MCP hundreds of kilometers from the discharge point.

  15. Factors influencing aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transport to terrestrial arthropod consumers in a multiuse river system.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Jeremy M; Sullivan, S Mažeika P

    2016-06-01

    Emerging aquatic insects are important vectors of contaminant transfer from aquatic to terrestrial food webs. However, the environmental factors that regulate contaminant body burdens in nearshore terrestrial consumers remain largely unexplored. We investigated the relative influences of riparian landscape composition (i.e., land use and nearshore vegetation structure) and contaminant flux via the emergent aquatic insect subsidy on selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) body burdens of riparian ants (Formica subsericea) and spiders of the family Tetragnathidae along 11 river reaches spanning an urban-rural land-use gradient in Ohio, USA. Model-selection results indicated that fine-scale land cover (e.g., riparian zone width, shrub cover) in the riparian zone was positively associated with reach-wide body burdens of Se and Hg in both riparian F. subsericea and tetragnathid spiders (i.e., total magnitude of Hg and Se concentrations in ant and spider populations, respectively, for each reach). River distance downstream of Columbus, Ohio - where study reaches were impounded and flow through a large urban center - was also implicated as an important factor. Although stable-isotope analysis suggested that emergent aquatic insects were likely vectors of Se and Hg to tetragnathid spiders (but not to F. subsericea), emergent insect contaminant flux did not emerge as a significant predictor for either reach-wide body burdens of spider Hg or Se. Improved understanding of the pathways and influences that control aquatic-to-terrestrial contaminant transport will be critical for effective risk management and remediation.

  16. Concentrations of organic contaminants detected during managed flow conditions, San Joaquin River and Old River, California, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of organic contaminants were determined in water samples collected at six surface-water sites located along the San Joaquin and Old Rivers during April through June 2001. Water samples were collected, coincident with salmon smolt caging studies conducted by researchers from the Bodega Marine Laboratory at the University of California at Davis to characterize exposure of the salmon smolt to organic contaminants. Sampling occurred prior to, during, and following the implementation of managed streamflow conditions on the San Joaquin and Old Rivers as part of the Vernalis Adaptive Management Plan. Thirteen pesticides were detected in water samples collected during this study, and at least five pesticides were detected in each sample. The total number of pesticide detections varied little between river systems and between sites, but the maximum concentrations of most pesticides occurred in San Joaquin River samples. The total number of pesticides detected varied little over the three time periods. However, during the period of managed streamflow, the fewest number of pesticides were detected at their absolute maximum concentration. Nine wastewater compounds were detected during this study. Suspended-sediment concentrations were similar for the San Joaquin and Old Rivers except during the period of managed streamflow conditions, when suspended-sediment concentration was higher at sites on the San Joaquin River than at sites on the Old River. Values for water parameters (pH, specific conductance, and hardness) were lowest during the period of managed flows.

  17. Broad spectrum screening of 463 organic contaminants in rivers in Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Stipaničev, Draženka; Dragun, Zrinka; Repec, Siniša; Rebok, Katerina; Jordanova, Maja

    2017-01-01

    Target screening of 463 organic contaminants in surface water using ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) with direct injection was performed in spring of 2015 in northern Macedonia, at six sampling sites in four rivers belonging to Vardar basin: Kriva, Zletovska, Bregalnica and Vardar. The aim of the study was to differentiate between various types of organic contamination characteristic for different types of anthropogenic activities, such as mining, agriculture, and urbanization. Depending on the studied river, 9-16% of analyzed compounds were detected. The highest total levels of organic contaminants were recorded in agriculturally impacted Bregalnica River (1839-1962ngL(-1)) and Vardar River downstream from the city of Skopje (1945ngL(-1)), whereas the lowest level was found in the mining impacted Zletovska River (989ngL(-1)). The principal organic contaminants of the Bregalnica River were herbicides (45-55% of all detected compounds; 838-1094ngL(-1)), with the highest concentrations of bentazone (407-530ngL(-1)) and molinate (84-549ngL(-1)), common herbicides in rice cultivation. The main organic contaminants in the other rivers were drugs (70-80% of all detected compounds), with antibiotics as a predominant drug class. The highest drug concentrations were measured in the Vardar River, downstream from Skopje (1544ngL(-1)). Screening of surface water by UHPLC-QTOF-MS was proven as a practical tool for fast collection of comprehensive preliminary information on organic contamination of natural waters, which can present a significant contribution in the monitoring and preservation of good ecological status of freshwater ecosystems.

  18. Contaminant impacts to the endocrine system in largemouth bass in northeast U.S. rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.B.; Sorenson, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    The National Biological Service (NBS) in cooperation with the USGS-National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program conducted a reconnaissance investigation of potential disruption of the endocrine system in carp and largemouth bass (LMB) from streams and rivers across the US. Chemical analysis of sediment and fish tissue, from agricultural and industrial sites in NAWQA study units, indicated the potential for impacts to the endocrine system of fish. Collections of 39 male and 28 female LMB were made in fall 1994 from contaminated and reference sites in three major river systems in the Northeast US (Potomac, Hudson, and Connecticut rivers). Additional fish collections will be made at these same sites in Spring 1995. Blood and gonadal tissue samples will give a triad of bioindicators (17B-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, vitellogenin, and gonad histopathology) of potential endocrine disruption. Chemical residue for tissue will also be made from selected LMB to compare with the bioindicators. Comparisons of contaminated sites and reference site indicated a significantly lower E/T ratio in female LMB from two contaminated sites (Housatonic River in the Connecticut River system and the Anacostia River in the Potomac River system). Additionally, significantly higher E/T ratios in male LMB were found from each of the three river systems. These E/T ratios indicate that endocrine disruption is both estrogenic to male LMB (feminization) and potentially androgenic to the female LMB (masculinization).

  19. Nationwide Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 contamination in natural rivers of Japan.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Toshifumi; Honjo, Mie N; Yamanaka, Hiroki; Uchii, Kimiko; Kawabata, Zen'ichiro

    2012-08-01

    Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 (CyHV-3) disease is a significant threat for common and koi carp cultivators and for freshwater ecosystems. To determine the prevalence of CyHV-3 in Japanese rivers, a nationwide survey of all national class-A rivers was undertaken in the Summer of 2008. The virus was concentrated from river water samples using the cation-coated filter method. CyHV-3 DNA was detected in 90 rivers, representing 90% of 103 successfully analysed rivers. More than 100,000 copies of CyHV-3 DNA per litre of sample were detected in four rivers, higher than that reported during the Yura River outbreak in 2007. For CyHV-3-positive rivers, the log CyHV-3 density was negatively correlated with the water temperature on the sampling date and positively correlated with the suspended solids and dissolved oxygen, which are annually averaged for each river. Our results demonstrate that virus detection using molecular biology techniques is a powerful tool for monitoring the presence of CyHV-3 in natural environments.

  20. Hydrogeologic controls on ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River near the Hanford Townsite

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, S.P.; Newcomer, D.R.; Teel, S.S.; Vermeul, V.R.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify ground-water and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River in the Hanford Townsite vicinity. The primary objectives of the work are to: describe the hydrogeologic setting and controls on ground-water movement and contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; understand the river/aquifer relationship and its effects on contaminant discharge to the Columbia River; quantify the ground-water and contaminant mass discharge to the Columbia River; and provide data that may be useful for a three-dimensional model of ground-water flow and contaminant transport in the Hanford Townsite study area. The majority of ground-water contamination occurs within the unconfined aquifer; therefore, ground-water and contaminant discharge from the unconfined aquifer is the emphasis of this study. The period of study is primarily from June 1990 through March 1992.

  1. Determining indicator taxa across spatial and seasonal gradients in the Columbia River coastal margin

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, Caroline S; Eiler, Alexander; Herfort, Lydie; Needoba, Joseph A; Peterson, Tawnya D; Crump, Byron C

    2013-01-01

    Bacterioplankton communities are deeply diverse and highly variable across space and time, but several recent studies demonstrate repeatable and predictable patterns in this diversity. We expanded on previous studies by determining patterns of variability in both individual taxa and bacterial communities across coastal environmental gradients. We surveyed bacterioplankton diversity across the Columbia River coastal margin, USA, using amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes from 596 water samples collected from 2007 to 2010. Our results showed seasonal shifts and annual reassembly of bacterioplankton communities in the freshwater-influenced Columbia River, estuary, and plume, and identified indicator taxa, including species from freshwater SAR11, Oceanospirillales, and Flavobacteria groups, that characterize the changing seasonal conditions in these environments. In the river and estuary, Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria indicator taxa correlated strongly with seasonal fluctuations in particulate organic carbon (ρ=−0.664) and residence time (ρ=0.512), respectively. In contrast, seasonal change in communities was not detected in the coastal ocean and varied more with the spatial variability of environmental factors including temperature and dissolved oxygen. Indicator taxa of coastal ocean environments included SAR406 and SUP05 taxa from the deep ocean, and Prochlorococcus and SAR11 taxa from the upper water column. We found that in the Columbia River coastal margin, freshwater-influenced environments were consistent and predictable, whereas coastal ocean community variability was difficult to interpret due to complex physical conditions. This study moves beyond beta-diversity patterns to focus on the occurrence of specific taxa and lends insight into the potential ecological roles these taxa have in coastal ocean environments. PMID:23719153

  2. Macroinvertebrate community responses to gravel augmentation in a high-gradient, Southeastern regulated river

    SciTech Connect

    McManamay, Ryan A; Orth, Dr. Donald J; Dolloff, Dr. Charles A

    2013-01-01

    Sediment transport, one of the key processes of river systems, is altered or stopped by dams, leaving lower river reaches barren of sand and gravel, both of which are essential habitat for fish and macroinvertebrates. One way to compensate for losses in sediment is to supplement gravel to river reaches below impoundments. Because gravel addition has become a widespread practice, it is essential to evaluate the biotic response to restoration projects in order to improve the efficacy of future applications. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the response of the macroinvertebrate community to gravel addition in a high-gradient, regulated river in western North Carolina. We collected benthic macroinvertebrate samples from gravel-enhanced areas and unenhanced areas for 1 season before gravel addition, and for 4 seasons afterwards. Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the responses of macroinvertebrates to gravel addition were generally specific to individual taxa or particular functional feeding groups and did not lead to consistent patterns in overall family richness, diversity, density, or evenness. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling showed that shifts in macroinvertebrate community composition were temporary and dependent upon site conditions and season. Correlations between macroinvertebrate response variables and substrate microhabitat variables existed with or without the inclusion of data from enhanced areas, which suggests that substrate-biotic relationships were present before gravel addition. A review of the current literature suggests that the responses of benthic macroinvertebrates to substrate restoration are inconsistent and dependent upon site conditions and the degree habitat improvement of pre-restoration site conditions.

  3. Spatial and temporal changes in microbial community structure associated with recharge-influenced chemical gradients in a contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haack, S.K.; Fogarty, L.R.; West, T.G.; Alm, E.W.; McGuire, J.T.; Long, D.T.; Hyndman, D.W.; Forney, L.J.

    2004-01-01

    In a contaminated water-table aquifer, we related microbial community structure on aquifer sediments to gradients in 24 geochemical and contaminant variables at five depths, under three recharge conditions. Community amplified ribsosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) using universal 16S rDNA primers and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) using bacterial 16S rDNA primers indicated: (i) communities in the anoxic, contaminated central zone were similar regardless of recharge; (ii) after recharge, communities at greatest depth were similar to those in uncontaminated zones; and (iii) after extended lack of recharge, communities at upper and lower aquifer margins differed from communities at the same depths on other dates. General aquifer geochemistry was as important as contaminant or terminal electron accepting process (TEAP) chemistry in discriminant analysis of community groups. The Shannon index of diversity (H) and the evenness index (E), based on DGGE operational taxonomic units (OTUs), were statistically different across community groups and aquifer depths. Archaea or sulphate-reducing bacteria 16S rRNA abundance was not clearly correlated with TEAP chemistry indicative of methanogenesis or sulphate reduction. Eukarya rRNA abundance varied by depth and date from 0 to 13% of the microbial community. This contaminated aquifer is a dynamic ecosystem, with complex interactions between physical, chemical and biotic components, which should be considered in the interpretation of aquifer geochemistry and in the development of conceptual or predictive models for natural attenuation or remediation.

  4. Nonpoint source contamination of the Mississippi river and its tributaries by herbicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the Mississippi River and its tributaries during July-August 1991, October-November 1991, and April-May 1992 has indicated that the entire navigable reach of the river is contaminated with a complex mixture of agrochemicals and their transformation products derived from nonpoint sources. Twenty-three compounds were identified, including triazine, chloroacetanilide, thiocarbamate, phenylurea, pyridazine, and organophosphorus pesticides. The upper and middle Mississippi River Basin farm lands are major sources of herbicides applied to corn, soybeans, and sorghum. Farm lands in the lower Mississippi River Basin are a major source of rice and cotton herbicides. Inputs of the five major herbicides atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, alachlor, and simazine to the Mississippi River are mainly from the Minnesota, Des Moines, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. Ratios of desethylatrazine/atrazine potentially are useful indicators of groundwater and surface water interactions in the Mississippi River. These ratios suggested that during baseflow conditions, there is a significant groundwater contribution to the river. The Mississippi River thus serves as a drainage channel for pesticide-contaminated surface and groundwater from the midwestern United States. Conservative estimates of annual mass transport indicated that about 160 t of atrazine, 71 t of cyanazine, 56 t of metolachlor, and 18 t of alachlor were discharged into the Gulf of Mexico in 1991.

  5. A National Pilot Study of Mercury Contamination of Aquatic Ecosystems Along Multiple Gradients: Bioaccumulation in Fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Helsel, Dennis R.; Wiener, James G.; Echols, Kathy R.

    2001-01-01

    Water, sediment, and fish were sampled in the summer and fall of 1998 at 106 sites from 20 U.S. watershed basins to examine relations of mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic ecosystems. Bioaccumulation of Hg in fish from these basins was evaluated in relation to species, Hg and MeHg in surficial sediment and water, and watershed characteristics. Bioaccumulation was strongly (positively) correlated with MeHg in water (r = 0.63, p < 0.001) but only moderately with the MeHg in sediment (r = 0.33, p < 0.001) or total Hg in water (r = 0.28, p < 0.01). Of the other significantly measured parameters, pH, DOC, sulfate, sediment LOI, and the percent wetlands of each basin were also significantly correlated with Hg bioaccumulation in fish. The best model for predicting Hg bioaccumulation included Me Hg in water, PH of the water, % wetlands in the basin, and the AVS content of the sediment. These four variables accounted for 45% of the variability of the fish fillet Hg concentration normalized (divided) by total length; however, the majority was described by MeHg in water. A MeHg water concentration 0.12 ng/L was on average, associated with a fish fillet Hg concentration of 0.3 mg/kg wet weight for an age-3 fish when all species were considered. For age-3 largemouth bass, a MeHg water concentration of 0.058 ng/L was associated with the 0.3 mg/kg fillet concentration. Based on rankings for Hg in sediment, water, and fish, sampling sites from the following five study basins had the greatest Hg contamination: Nevada Basin and Range, South Florida Basin, Sacramento River Basin (California), Santee River Basin and Caostal Drainages (South Carolina), and the Long Island and New Jersey Coastal DRainags. A sampling and analysis strategy based on this pilot study is planned for all USGS/NAWQA study units over the next decade.

  6. Identification of human and animal fecal contamination after rainfall in the Han River, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Heetae; Lee, Jung Eun; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ko, Gwang Pyo

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effect of rainfall on the levels and sources of microbial contamination in the Han River, Korea. Thirty-four samples were collected at two sampling sites located upstream and downstream in the river from July 2010 to February 2011. Various fecal indicator microorganisms, including total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., somatic and male-specific (F+) coliphage, and four major enteric viruses were analyzed. Rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of fecal coliform and norovirus at both sampling sites. Additionally, rainfall was positively correlated with the levels of total coliform, E. coli, Enterococcus spp., and F+ coliphage at the upstream site. To identify the source of fecal contamination, microbial source tracking (MST) was conducted using both male-specific (F+) RNA coliphage and the Enterococcus faecium esp gene as previously described. Our results clearly indicated that the majority of fecal contamination at the downstream Han River site was from a human source. At the upstream sampling site, contamination from human fecal matter was very limited; however, fecal contamination from non-point animal sources increased following rainfall. In conclusion, our data suggest that rainfall significantly affects the level and source of fecal contamination in the Han River, Korea.

  7. Arsenic Speciation in Blue Mussels (Mytilus edulis) Along a Highly Contaminated Arsenic Gradient

    SciTech Connect

    Whaley-Martin, K.J.; Koch, I.; Moriarty, M.; Reimer, K.J.

    2012-11-01

    Arsenic is naturally present in marine ecosystems, and these can become contaminated from mining activities, which may be of toxicological concern to organisms that bioaccumulate the metalloid into their tissues. The toxic properties of arsenic are dependent on the chemical form in which it is found (e.g., toxic inorganic arsenicals vs nontoxic arsenobetaine), and two analytical techniques, high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), were used in the present study to examine the arsenic species distribution in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) obtained from an area where there is a strong arsenic concentration gradient as a consequence of mining impacted sediments. A strong positive correlation was observed between the concentration of inorganic arsenic species (arsenic compounds with no As-C bonds) and total arsenic concentrations present in M. edulis tissues (R{sup 2} = 0.983), which could result in significant toxicological consequences to the mussels and higher trophic consumers. However, concentrations of organoarsenicals, dominated by arsenobetaine, remained relatively constant regardless of the increasing As concentration in M. edulis tissue (R{sup 2} = 0.307). XANES bulk analysis and XAS two-dimensional mapping of wet M. edulis tissue revealed the presence of predominantly arsenic-sulfur compounds. The XAS mapping revealed that the As(III)-S and/or As(III) compounds were concentrated in the digestive gland. However, arsenobetaine was found in small and similar concentrations in the digestive gland as well as the surrounding tissue suggesting arsenobetaine may being used in all of the mussel's cells in a physiological function such as an intracellular osmolyte.

  8. Attenuation of wastewater-derived contaminants in an effluent-dominated river.

    PubMed

    Fono, Lorien J; Kolodziej, Edward P; Sedlak, David L

    2006-12-01

    Although wastewater-derived chemical contaminants undergo transformation through a variety of mechanisms, the relative importance of processes such as biotransformation and photolysis is poorly understood under conditions representative of large rivers. To assess attenuation rates under conditions encountered in such systems, samples from the Trinity River were analyzed for a suite of wastewater-derived contaminants during a period when wastewater effluent accounted for nearly the entire flow of the river over a travel time of approximately 2 weeks. While the concentration of total adsorbable organic iodide, a surrogate for recalcitrant X-ray phase contrast media in wastewater, was approximately constant throughout the river, concentrations of ethylenediamine tetraacetate, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, metoprolol, and naproxen all decreased between 60% and 90% as the water flowed downstream. Comparison of attenuation rates estimated in the river with rates measured in laboratory-scale microcosms suggests that biotransformation was more important than photolysis for most of the compounds. Further evidence for biotransformation in the river was provided by measurements of the enantiomeric fraction of metoprolol, which showed a gradual decrease as the water moved downstream. Results of this study indicate that natural attenuation can result in significant decreases in concentrations of wastewater-derived contaminants in large rivers.

  9. Influential environmental gradients and spatiotemporal patterns of fish assemblages in the unimpounded Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barko, V.A.; Palmer, M.W.; Herzog, D.P.; Ickes, B.S.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated variation of fish assemblages in response to environmental factors using Long Term Resource Monitoring Program data. Data were collected from 1993 to 2000 from five physical habitats in the unimpounded upper Mississippi River. We captured 89 species composing 18 families. Of these, 26% were fluvial specialists, 25% were fluvial dependent and 49% were generalists. The numerically dominant component of the adult fish assemblage (species accounting for >10% of total catch) accounted for 50% of the assemblage and was comprised of only three species: gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum; 25%), common carp (Cyprinus carpio, 15%) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, 10%). The dominant component of the YOY fish assemblage was comprised of only two species, which accounted for 76% of the total catch: freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens; 39%) and gizzard shad (37%). We used a cross-validation multivariate approach to explore how adult and young-of-the-year (YOY) assemblages varied with respect. to physical habitat and environmental gradients. Furthermore, we were interested how the fish assemblages changed over time. Partial canonical correspondence analyses (pCCA) demonstrated significant effects of physical habitats. Such effects differed between young-of-the-year and adult fishes. The four main environmental gradients influencing overall assemblage structure for both age groups were river elevation, water velocity, conductivity, and depth of gear deployment. Morisita's index revealed similar adult assemblage structure over time. However, the YOY assemblage present in 1995 was dissimilar from assemblages present during the other years. We speculate this is a lag effect from the backwater spawning episodes (floodpulse) that occurred with the 500-y flood in 1993. Shannon-Weiner diversity and Camargo's evenness indices were low, but stable across years for the adult assemblage, but varied across years for the YOY assemblage.

  10. Effects of Reservoirs on Nutrient Concentrations and Ratios along the Longitudinal Gradient of Danube River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo Borda, J. S.; Gettel, G. M.; Irvine, K.

    2015-12-01

    Reservoirs reduce water flow and increase the retention time which can provide conditions to increase primary production, sedimentation and nutrient retention. As a consequence, nutrient ratios and fluxes of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and silica (Si) may be altered which in turn affects the identity of limiting nutrients and the dynamics of primary production in downstream ecosystems. Residence time as well as the position of reservoirs along the longitudinal gradient (headwaters vs. mouth) may affect these processes. The Danube River Basin is one example where reservoirs have likely altered nutrient stoichiometry along the longitudinal gradient. It has a dam every 17 Km in the upper 1000 km of the river along with a very large dam complex (Iron Gates Dam) 117- Km from the mouth. There has been there has been an observed decline in Si flux, which may have led to changes in phytoplankton community structure in the Black Sea, but for which the causes for this decline are not yet clear. The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of reservoirs from headwaters to the mouth on nutrient stoichiometry in the Danube Basin. Data on dissolved Si, N, and P concentrations from 1996 to 2012 were analyzed from 40 monitoring stations from the TransNational Monitoring Network (TNMN), which are located in the main stem of the Danube. Time series analysis is used to compare nutrient concentrations and ratios both through seasons and through the 15 year time-period. The monitoring stations are located above and below reservoirs in order to analyze the effect of reservoirs on nutrient ratios and fluxes. Preliminary results show that relationship of dissolved inorganic N (DIN): soluble reactive P (SRP) range from 207 to 76, while DIN:Si ratio ranges from 1.89 to 0.2 from the headwaters to the mouth.

  11. The geomorphic function and characteristics of large woody debris in low gradient rivers, coastal Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magilligan, F. J.; Nislow, K. H.; Fisher, G. B.; Wright, J.; Mackey, G.; Laser, M.

    2008-05-01

    The role, function, and importance of large woody debris (LWD) in rivers depend strongly on environmental context and land use history. The coastal watersheds of central and northern Maine, northeastern U.S., are characterized by low gradients, moderate topography, and minimal influence of mass wasting processes, along with a history of intensive commercial timber harvest. In spite of the ecological importance of these rivers, which contain the last wild populations of Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar) in the U.S., we know little about LWD distribution, dynamics, and function in these systems. We conducted a cross-basin analysis in seven coastal Maine watersheds, documenting the size, frequency, volume, position, and orientation of LWD, as well as the association between LWD, pool formation, and sediment storage. In conjunction with these LWD surveys, we conducted extensive riparian vegetation surveys. We observed very low LWD frequencies and volumes across the 60 km of rivers surveyed. Frequency of LWD ≥ 20 cm diameter ranged from 15-50 pieces km - 1 and wood volumes were commonly < 10-20 m 3 km - 1 . Moreover, most of this wood was located in the immediate low-flow channel zone, was oriented parallel to flow, and failed to span the stream channel. As a result, pool formation associated with LWD is generally lacking and < 20% of the wood was associated with sediment storage. Low LWD volumes are consistent with the relatively young riparian stands we observed, with the large majority of trees < 20 cm DBH. These results strongly reflect the legacy of intensive timber harvest and land clearing and suggest that the frequency and distribution of LWD may be considerably less than presettlement and/or future desired conditions.

  12. The biogeochemistry of carbon across a gradient of streams and rivers within the Congo Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P. J.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Dinga, B. J.; Poulsen, J. R.; Hernes, P. J.; Fiske, G.; Salter, M. E.; Wang, Z. A.; Hoering, K. A.; Six, J.; Holmes, R. M.

    2014-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and inorganic carbon (DIC, pCO2), lignin biomarkers, and theoptical properties of dissolved organic matter (DOM) were measured in a gradient of streams and rivers within the Congo Basin, with the aim of examining how vegetation cover and hydrology influences the composition and concentration of fluvial carbon (C). Three sampling campaigns (February 2010, November 2010, and August 2011) spanning 56 sites are compared by subbasin watershed land cover type (savannah, tropical forest, and swamp) and hydrologic regime (high, intermediate, and low). Land cover properties predominately controlled the amount and quality of DOC, chromophoric DOM (CDOM) and lignin phenol concentrations (∑8) exported in streams and rivers throughout the Congo Basin. Higher DIC concentrations and changing DOM composition (lower molecular weight, less aromatic C) during periods of low hydrologic flow indicated shifting rapid overland supply pathways in wet conditions to deeper groundwater inputs during drier periods. Lower DOC concentrations in forest and swamp subbasins were apparent with increasing catchment area, indicating enhanced DOC loss with extended water residence time. Surface water pCO2 in savannah and tropical forest catchments ranged between 2,600 and 11,922 µatm, with swamp regions exhibiting extremely high pCO2 (10,598-15,802 µatm), highlighting their potential as significant pathways for water-air efflux. Our data suggest that the quantity and quality of DOM exported to streams and rivers are largely driven by terrestrial ecosystem structure and that anthropogenic land use or climate change may impact fluvial C composition and reactivity, with ramifications for regional C budgets and future climate scenarios.

  13. Presence and biological effects of emerging contaminants in Llobregat River basin: a review.

    PubMed

    González, Susana; López-Roldán, Ramón; Cortina, Jose-Luis

    2012-02-01

    Llobregat River (North-East Spain) is the most important drinking water source for Barcelona and its surrounding area. As one of the only water sources in the area the river water have been overexploited and effluents from more than 30 urban wastewater treatment plants, industries and agriculture runoffs have been discharged into the river. This article reviews the presence of emerging contaminants published during the last decades, emphasizing on the observed effects on ecosystems caused by the contamination. Pesticides, surfactants, estrogens, pharmaceuticals and personal care products and even abuse drugs are the main groups detected in different studies, reporting alterations in species composition, abundance or biomass and endocrine disruption measured by alterations in enzymatic activity or specific protein production. The information available provides an overview of the river status according to the Water Framework Directive.

  14. Quantifying the dilution of the radiocesium contamination in Fukushima coastal river sediment (2011–2015)

    PubMed Central

    Evrard, Olivier; Laceby, J. Patrick; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Jaegler, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène

    2016-01-01

    Fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident resulted in a 3000-km2 radioactive contamination plume. Here, we model the progressive dilution of the radiocesium contamination in 327 sediment samples from two neighboring catchments with different timing of soil decontamination. Overall, we demonstrate that there has been a ~90% decrease of the contribution of upstream contaminated soils to sediment transiting the coastal plains between 2012 (median – M – contribution of 73%, mean absolute deviation – MAD – of 27%) and 2015 (M 9%, MAD 6%). The occurrence of typhoons and the progress of decontamination in different tributaries of the Niida River resulted in temporary increases in local contamination. However, the much lower contribution of upstream contaminated soils to coastal plain sediment in November 2015 demonstrates that the source of the easily erodible, contaminated material has potentially been removed by decontamination, diluted by subsoils, or eroded and transported to the Pacific Ocean. PMID:27694832

  15. Quantifying the dilution of the radiocesium contamination in Fukushima coastal river sediment (2011-2015).

    PubMed

    Evrard, Olivier; Laceby, J Patrick; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Jaegler, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène

    2016-10-03

    Fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident resulted in a 3000-km(2) radioactive contamination plume. Here, we model the progressive dilution of the radiocesium contamination in 327 sediment samples from two neighboring catchments with different timing of soil decontamination. Overall, we demonstrate that there has been a ~90% decrease of the contribution of upstream contaminated soils to sediment transiting the coastal plains between 2012 (median - M - contribution of 73%, mean absolute deviation - MAD - of 27%) and 2015 (M 9%, MAD 6%). The occurrence of typhoons and the progress of decontamination in different tributaries of the Niida River resulted in temporary increases in local contamination. However, the much lower contribution of upstream contaminated soils to coastal plain sediment in November 2015 demonstrates that the source of the easily erodible, contaminated material has potentially been removed by decontamination, diluted by subsoils, or eroded and transported to the Pacific Ocean.

  16. Quantifying the dilution of the radiocesium contamination in Fukushima coastal river sediment (2011–2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Laceby, J. Patrick; Onda, Yuichi; Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Jaegler, Hugo; Lefèvre, Irène

    2016-10-01

    Fallout from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident resulted in a 3000-km2 radioactive contamination plume. Here, we model the progressive dilution of the radiocesium contamination in 327 sediment samples from two neighboring catchments with different timing of soil decontamination. Overall, we demonstrate that there has been a ~90% decrease of the contribution of upstream contaminated soils to sediment transiting the coastal plains between 2012 (median – M – contribution of 73%, mean absolute deviation – MAD – of 27%) and 2015 (M 9%, MAD 6%). The occurrence of typhoons and the progress of decontamination in different tributaries of the Niida River resulted in temporary increases in local contamination. However, the much lower contribution of upstream contaminated soils to coastal plain sediment in November 2015 demonstrates that the source of the easily erodible, contaminated material has potentially been removed by decontamination, diluted by subsoils, or eroded and transported to the Pacific Ocean.

  17. Morphological Deformities as Biomarkers in Fish from Contaminated Rivers in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peter Lin; Hawkins, William E.; Overstreet, Robin M.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.

    2009-01-01

    Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) were collected seasonally from four contaminated rivers in southwestern Taiwan for studies of morphological deformities that could be used as biomarkers of contamination. Morphological deformities found in tilapia were separated into 15 categories. Overall, the prevalence of deformities such as split fins, lower lip extension and gill deformities were significantly related to various water quality parameters, including low DO and high ammonium, lead and zinc concentrations. The persistence of tilapia in polluted waters and the development of a suite of morphological deformities suggest that tilapia can be used as sentinels of non-point source pollution in rivers. PMID:19742162

  18. Environmental monitoring of Columbia River sediments: Grain-size distribution and contaminant association

    SciTech Connect

    Blanton, M.L.; Gardiner, W.W.; Dirkes, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Based on the results of this study and literature review, the following conclusions can be made: Sediment grain size and TOC (total organic carbon) influence contaminant fate and transport (in general, sediments with higher TOC content and finer grain-size distribution can have higher contaminant burdens than sediments from a given river section that have less TOC and greater amounts of coarse-grained sediments). Physiochemical sediment characteristics are highly variable among monitoring sites along the Columbia River. Sediment grain characterization and TOC analysis should be included in interpretations of sediment-monitoring data.

  19. Distribution and characterization of in-channel large wood in relation to geomorphic patterns on a low-gradient river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moulin, Bertrand; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.

    2011-01-01

    A 177 river km georeferenced aerial survey of in-channel large wood (LW) on the lower Roanoke River, NC was conducted to determine LW dynamics and distributions on an eastern USA low-gradient large river. Results indicate a system with approximately 75% of the LW available for transport either as detached individual LW or as LW in log jams. There were approximately 55 individual LW per river km and another 59 pieces in log jams per river km. Individual LW is a product of bank erosion (73% is produced through erosion) and is isolated on the mid and upper banks at low flow. This LW does not appear to be important for either aquatic habitat or as a human risk. Log jams rest near or at water level making them a factor in bank complexity in an otherwise homogenous fine-grained channel. A segmentation test was performed using LW frequency by river km to detect breaks in longitudinal distribution and to define homogeneous reaches of LWfrequency. Homogeneous reaches were then analyzed to determine their relationship to bank height, channel width/depth, sinuosity, and gradient. Results show that log jams are a product of LW transport and occur more frequently in areas with high snag concentrations, low to intermediate bank heights, high sinuosity, high local LW recruitment rates, and narrow channel widths. The largest concentration of log jams (21.5 log jams/km) occurs in an actively eroding reach. Log jam concentrations downstream of this reach are lower due to a loss of river competency as the channel reaches sea level and the concurrent development of unvegetated mudflats separating the active channel from the floodplain forest. Substantial LW transport occurs on this low-gradient, dam-regulated large river; this study, paired with future research on transport mechanisms should provide resource managers and policymakers with options to better manage aquatic habitat while mitigating possible negative impacts to human interests.

  20. The significance of sediment contamination in the Elbe River floodplain (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalupová, Dagmar; Janský, Bohumír; Langhammer, Jakub; Šobr, Miroslav; Jiři, Medek; Král, Stanislav; Jiřinec, Petr; Kaiglova, Jana; Černý, Michal; Žáček, Miroslav; Leontovyčova, Drahomíra; Halířová, Jarmila

    2015-04-01

    The abstract brings the information about the research that was focused on anthropogenic pollution of river and lake sediments in the middle course of the Elbe River (Czech Republic). The main aim was to identify and to evaluate the significance of old polluted sediments in the river and its side structures (old meanders, cut lakes, oxbow lakes) between Hradec Králové and Mělník (confluence with the Moldau River) and to assess the risk coming from the remobilization of the contaminated matter. The Elbe River floodplain has been highly inhabited since the Middle Ages, and, especially in the 20th century, major industrial plants were founded here. Since that time, the anthropogenic load of the river and it`s floodplain has grown. Although the contaminants bound to the sediment particles are usually stable, the main risk is coming from the fact that under changes in hydrological regime and water quality (floods, changes in pH, redox-potential, presence of complex substances etc.), the pollution can be released and remobilized again. The most endangered areas are: the surroundings of Pardubice (chemical factory Synthesia, Inc.; refinery PARAMO), and Neratovice (chemical factory Spolana, Inc.). The chemical factories situated close to these towns represented the most problematic polluters of the Elbe River especially during 2nd half of 20th century. In the research, the main attention was aimed at subaquatic sediments of selected cut lakes situated in the vicinity of the above mentioned sources of pollution. To describe the outreach of contamination, several further fluvial lakes were taken into account too. Sediment sampling was carried out from boats on lakes and with the help of drilling rig in the floodplain. Gained sediment cores were divided into several parts which were analysed separately. Chemical analyses included substances identified by ICPER (International Commission for the Protection of the Elbe River) as well as chemicals considered as significant in

  1. Review of historical monitoring data on Techa River contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorobiova, M. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Burmistrov, D. S.; Safronova, N. G.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, B. A.; Neta, P. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. The extensive increase in plutonium production during 1948-1955, as well as the absence of reliable waste-management technology, resulted in significant releases of liquid radioactive effluent into the rather small Techa River. This resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside communities; these residents form the cohort of an epidemiologic investigation. Analysis of the available historical monitoring data indicates that the following reliable data sets can be used for reconstruction of doses received during the early periods of operation of the Mayak Production Association: Temporal pattern of specific beta activity of river water for several sites in the upper Techa region since July 1951; average annual values of specific beta activity of river water and bottom sediments as a function of downstream distance for the whole river since 1951; external gamma-exposure rates near the shoreline as a function of downstream distance for the whole Techa River since 1952; and external gamma-exposure rate as a function of distance from the shoreline for several sites in the upper and middle Techa since 1951.

  2. Trends in large wood storage and transport on the low-gradient Roanoke River, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, E. R.; Hupp, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Large wood (LW) provides essential aquatic habitat in fine-grained low-gradient rivers. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of large-river LW data for the Eastern USA, especially in the low relief clay and fine sand dominated Coastal Plain province. The purposes of our study are to determine LW abundance and transport processes for the 210 kilometer (km) Coastal Plain segment of the dam-regulated Roanoke River, North Carolina. Our methods included collecting background geomorphic data including a 200 km channel geometry survey and measurements from 701 bank erosion pins at 36 cross-sections over 132 km. LW concentrations were evaluated over a 177 km reach using georeferenced aerial video taken in March 2007. LW transport was measured using 290 radio tagged LW pieces (mean diameter = 35.0 cm, length = 9.3 m) installed between 2008 and 2010. An additional 54 floating pieces were tagged with aluminum tree tags for a one week flood study in November 2009 (mean diameter = 29.2 cm, length = 5.2 m). The longitudinal distribution of aerially surveyed individual pieces of LW was highly variable with a mean abundance of 55 pieces/km. The abundance of LW in logjams was 59 pieces/km, with logjams concentrated (21.5 logjams/km) in an actively eroding reach with relatively high sinuosity, high local LW production rates, and narrow channel widths. Most jams (70%) are available nearly year round as aquatic habitat, positioned either on the lower bank or submerged at low-water flows. Conversely, individual LW pieces are found on the upper bank, with only 18% of the population located in the channel during low-water flows. Repeat surveys of radio tagged LW determined that transport is common despite dam regulation and a low channel gradient (0.0016). The mean distance travelled by a radio tagged piece of LW was 19.0 km with a maximum of 84.6 km (49 tags moved, 53 stationary, 188 not found). The mean distance travelled by an aluminum tagged LW was 13.3 km with a maximum of 72.12 km

  3. Large wood transport dynamics on the low-gradient Roanoke River, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, E. R.; Hupp, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Large wood (LW) provides essential aquatic habitat in fine-grained low-gradient rivers. Unfortunately, there are relatively few studies on the sources and transport dynamics of large wood in Eastern U.S. rivers. The purposes of our study are to determine LW abundance and transport processes for the 210 kilometer (km) Coastal Plain segment of the dam-regulated Roanoke River, North Carolina. Our methods included collecting background geomorphic data including a 200 km channel geometry survey and measurements from 701 bank erosion pins at 36 cross-sections over 132 km. LW concentrations were evaluated over a 177 km reach using georeferenced aerial video taken in March 2007. LW transport was measured using 290 radio tagged LW pieces (mean diameter = 35.0 cm, length = 9.3 m) installed between 2008 and 2010. An additional 54 floating pieces were tagged with aluminum tree tags for a one week flood study in November 2009 (mean diameter = 29.2 cm, length = 5.2 m). The longitudinal distribution of aerially surveyed individual pieces of LW was highly variable with a mean abundance of 55 pieces/km. The abundance of LW in logjams was 59 pieces/km, with logjams concentrated (21.5 logjams/km) in an actively eroding reach with relatively high sinuosity, high local LW production rates, and narrow channel widths. Most jams (70%) are available nearly year round as aquatic habitat, positioned either on the lower bank or submerged at low-water flows. Conversely, individual LW pieces are found on the upper bank, with only 18% of the population located in the channel during low-water flows. Repeat surveys of radio tagged LW determined that transport is common despite dam regulation and a low channel gradient (0.0016). The mean distance travelled by a radio tagged piece of LW was 11.9 km with a maximum of 101 km (84 tags moved, 96 stationary, 110 not found). The mean distance travelled by an aluminum tagged LW was 13.3 km with a maximum of 72.12 km during the one week flood study (52 LW

  4. Water quality and water contamination in the Harlem River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2015-12-01

    Combined sewer overflows (CSOs) discharge untreated sewage into the Harlem River during rainstorms; which elevated nutrient and bacteria/pathogen levels, degraded water quality, reduced dissolved oxygen levels, impact on fish consumption safety and threatening public health. Swimming, boating, fishing was not safe especially during rainstorms. Harlem River, a 9 miles natural straight connects the Hudson River and the East River, was used for water recreation in the past. Phosphate, ammonia, turbidity, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pathogens levels in CSOs collected during storms were significantly higher than EPA/DEP's standards (phosphate <0.033mg/L; ammonia<0.23mg/L; turbidity<5.25FAU; DO>=4mg/L; fecal coliform<200MPN/100ml; E.Coli.<126MPN/100ml; enterococcus < 104MPN /100ml). The maximum values are: phosphate: 0.181mg/L; ammonia: 2.864mg/L; turbidity: 245 FAU& 882 FAU; fecal coliform>millions MPN/100ml; E.coli > 5000MPN /100ml; enterococcus>10,000MPN/100ml; DO<2.9 mg/L. Data showed that pathogen levels are higher than published data from riverkeepers (enterococcus) and USGS (fecal coliform). PCB 11 (3,3'-dichlorobiphenyl, C12H8Cl2), an indicator of raw sewage and stormwater runoff, is analyzed. Fish caught from the Harlem River is banned from commercial. New York State Department of Health (NYS DOH) suggests that not to eat the fish because concerns of PCBs, dioxin and cadmium. How to reduce CSOs is critical on water quality improvement. Green wall/roof and wetland has been planned to use along the river to reduce stormwater runoff consequently to reduce CSOs volume.

  5. Effects of contaminants in dredge material from the Lower Savannah River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Lasier, P.J.; White, D.H.; Seginak, J.T.

    2000-01-01

    Contaminants entering aquatic systems from agricultural, industrial, and municipal activities are generally sequestered in bottom sediments. The environmental significance of contaminants associated with sediments dredged from Savannah Harbor, Georgia, USA, are unknown. To evaluate potential effects of contaminants in river sediments and sediments dredged and stored in upland disposal areas on fish and wildlife species, solid-phase sediment and sediment pore water from Front River, Back River, an unnamed Tidal Creek on Back River, and Middle River of the distributary system of the lower Savannah River were tested for toxicity using the freshwater amphipod Hyalella azteca. In addition, bioaccumulation of metals from sediments collected from two dredge-disposal areas was determined using the freshwater oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus. Livers from green-winged teals (Anas crecca) and lesser yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) foraging in the dredge-spoil areas and raccoons (Procyon lotor) from the dredge-disposal/river area and an upland site were collected for metal analyses. Survival of H. azteca was not reduced in solid-phase sediment exposures, but was reduced in pore water from several locations receiving drainage from dredge-disposal areas. Basic water chemistry (ammonia, alkalinity, salinity) was responsible for the reduced survival at several sites, but PAHs, metals, and other unidentified factors were responsible at other sites. Metal residues in sediments from the Tidal Creek and Middle River reflected drainage or seepage from adjacent dredge-disposal areas, which could potentially reduce habitat quality in these areas. Trace metals increased in L. variegatus exposed in the laboratory to dredge-disposal sediments; As, Cu, Hg, Se, and Zn bioaccumulated to concentrations higher than those in the sediments. Certain metals (Cd, Hg, Mo, Se) were higher in livers of birds and raccoons than those in dredge-spoil sediments suggesting bioavailability. Cadmium, Ct, Hg, Pb

  6. Contamination profiles of perfluoroalkyl substances in five typical rivers of the Pearl River Delta region, South China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chang-Gui; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, You-Sheng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Peng, Feng-Jiao; Huang, Guo-Yong

    2014-11-01

    A survey on contamination profiles of eighteen perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was performed via high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for surface water and sediments from five typical rivers of the Pearl River Delta region, South China in summer and winter in 2012. The total concentrations of the PFASs in the water phase of the five rivers ranged from 0.14 to 346.72 ng L(-1). The PFAS concentrations in the water phase were correlated positively to some selected water quality parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD) (0.7913) and conductivity (0.5642). The monitoring results for the water samples showed significant seasonal variations, while those for the sediment samples showed no obvious seasonal variations. Among the selected 18 PFASs, perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was the dominant PFAS compound both in water and sediment for two seasons with its maximum concentration of 320.5 ng L(-1) in water and 11.4 ng g(-1) dry weight (dw) in sediment, followed by perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) with its maximum concentration of 26.48 ng L(-1) in water and 0.99 ng g(-1) dw in sediment. PFOS and PFOA were found at relatively higher concentrations in the Shima River and Danshui River than in the other three rivers (Xizhijiang River, Dongjiang River and Shahe River). The principal component analysis for the PFASs concentrations in water and sediment separated the sampling sites into two groups: rural and agricultural area, and urban and industrial area, suggesting the PFASs in the riverine environment were mainly originated from industrial and urban activities in the region.

  7. Contamination of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in Chao Phraya River and Bangpakong River, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kunacheva, Chinagarn; Boontanon, Suwanna Kitpati; Fujii, Shigeo; Tanaka, Shuhei; Musirat, Chanatip; Artsalee, Chattakarn; Wongwattana, Thana

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been used for many years, and are distributed all over the world. This study focused on occurrences of PFCs, especially perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctonoic acid (PFOA) in Thai rivers and industrial estate discharges, while comparing results with rivers of other Asian countries (Japan, China, and Malaysia). Surveys were conducted in Chao Phraya River, Bangpakong River and three industrial estates. A solid phase extraction (SPE) and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS were used for the analysis of these chemicals. The average concentrations of PFOS and PFOA were 1.9 and 4.7 ng/L, respectively in Chao Phraya River, while lower concentrations were detected in Bangpakong River with the averages of 0.7 ng/L for both PFOS and PFOA. Higher concentrations were detected in all industrial estate discharges with the averages of 64.3 ng/L for PFOA and 17.9 ng/L for PFOS., Total loadings from three industrial estates were 1.93 g/d for PFOS and 11.81 g/d for PFOA. The concentration levels in Thai rivers were less than rivers in Japan, China, and Malaysia. However, PFCs loading rate of Chao Phraya River was much higher than Yodo River (Japan), due to the higher flow rate. The other six PFCs were found above the Limit of Quantification (LOQ) in most samples. PFHxS and PFNA were also highly detected in some river samples.

  8. Trace element transport in western Siberian rivers across a permafrost gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.; Manasypov, Rinat M.; Loiko, Sergey V.; Krickov, Ivan A.; Kopysov, Sergey G.; Kolesnichenko, Larisa G.; Vorobyev, Sergey N.; Kirpotin, Sergey N.

    2016-03-01

    Towards a better understanding of trace element (TE) transport in permafrost-affected Earth surface environments, we sampled ˜ 60 large and small rivers (< 100 to ≤ 150 000 km2 watershed area) of the Western Siberian Lowland (WSL) during spring flood and summer and winter baseflow across a 1500 km latitudinal gradient covering continuous, discontinuous, sporadic and permafrost-free zones. Analysis of ˜ 40 major and TEs in the dissolved (< 0.45 µm) fraction allowed establishing main environmental factors controlling the transport of metals and TEs in rivers of this environmentally important region. No statistically significant effect of the basin size on most TE concentrations was evidenced. Two groups of elements were distinguished: (1) elements that show the same trend throughout the year and (2) elements that show seasonal differences. The first group included elements decreasing northward during all seasons (Sr, Mo, U, As, Sb) marking the underground water influence of river feeding. The elements of the second group exhibited variable behavior in the course of the year. A northward increase during spring period was mostly pronounced for Fe, Al, Co, Zn and Ba and may stem from a combination of enhanced leaching from the topsoil and vegetation and bottom waters of the lakes (spring overturn). A springtime northward decrease was observed for Ni, Cu, Zr and Rb. The increase in element concentration northward was observed for Ti, Ga, Zr and Th only in winter, whereas Fe, Al, rare earth elements (REEs), Pb, Zr, and Hf increased northward in both spring and winter, which could be linked to leaching from peat and transport in the form of Fe-rich colloids. A southward increase in summer was strongly visible for Fe, Ni, Ba, Rb and V, probably due to peat/moss release (Ni, Ba, Rb) or groundwater feeding (Fe, V). Finally, B, Li, Cr, V, Mn, Zn, Cd, and Cs did not show any distinct trend from S to N. The order of landscape component impact on TE concentration in rivers

  9. Evaluation and assessment of baseline metal contamination in surface sediments from the Bernam River, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kadhum, Safaa A; Ishak, Mohd Yusoff; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2016-04-01

    The Bernam River is one of the most important rivers in Malaysia in that it provides water for industries and agriculture located along its banks. The present study was conducted to assess the level of contamination of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, Sn, and Fe) in surface sediments in the Bernam River. Nine surface sediment samples were collected from the lower, middle, and upper courses of the river. The results indicated that the concentrations of the metals decreased in the order of Sn > Cr > Ni > Fe > Cd (56.35, 14.90, 5.3, 4.6, and 0.62 μg/g(1) dry weight). Bernam River sediments have moderate to severe enrichment for Sn, moderate for Cd, and no enrichment for Cr, Ni, and Fe. The contamination factor (CF) results demonstrated that Cd and Sn are responsible for the high contamination. The pollution load index (PLI), for all the sampling sites, suggests that the sampling stations were generally unpolluted with the exception of the Bagan Tepi Sungai, Sabak Bernam, and Tanjom Malim stations. Multivariate techniques including Pearson's correlation and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to apportion the various sources of the metals. The results suggested that the sediment samples collected from the upper course of the river had lower metal concentrations, while sediments in the middle and lower courses of the river had higher metal concentrations. Therefore, our results can be useful as a baseline data for government bodies to adopt corrective measure on the issues related to heavy metal pollution in the Bernam River in the future.

  10. Determination of bioavailable contaminants in the lower Missouri River following the flood of 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petty, J.D.; Poulton, B.C.; Charbonneau, C.S.; Huckins, J.N.; Jones, S.B.; Cameron, J.T.; Prest, H.F.

    1998-01-01

    The semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) technology was employed to determine the presence of bioavailable organochlorine pesticides (OCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)in the water of the main stem of the lower Missouri River and three of its tributaries. The SPMDs were deployed in 1994 following the extensive flood of 1993. Specifically, the SPMDs were deployed for 28 days at Wilson State Park, IA; Nebraska City, NE; Parkville, MO; the Kansas River in Kansas City, KS; Napoleon, MO; the Grand River; Glasgow, MO; the Missouri River upstream from the confluence of the Gasconade River; the Gasconade River, and Hermann, MO. Contaminant residues were found at all sites and at higher concentrations than found in the earlier pre-flood sampling. For example, in the present study, dieldrin was found to range from a low of 110 ng/sample in the Gasconade River to a high of 2000 ng/sample at Glasgow, while in the pre- flood sampling, dieldrin ranged from a low of 64 ng/sample at Sioux City to a high of 800 ng/sample at Glasgow. In contrast to the 1992 sampling, residues of PCBs were found at all 1994 sampling sites except the Gasconade River. Samples from Wilson State Park and the Grand River had 3100 and 2700 ng of PCBs/sample, respectively. These two concentrations are about an order of magnitude higher than the older sites and are likely indicative of point source inputs. PAHs were present in SPMD samples from three sites near Kansas City. The contaminant residues sequestered by the SPMDs represent an estimation of the bioavailable (via respiration) contaminants present in the main stem of the lower Missouri River and three of its major tributaries following an extensive flood event.The semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) technology was employed to determine the presence of bioavailable organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons in the water of the main stem of the lower Missouri River and

  11. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills.

    PubMed

    Baker, Ronald J; Reilly, Timothy J; Lopez, Anthony; Romanok, Kristin; Wengrowski, Edward W

    2015-09-01

    A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically-based transport model or other available Domenico-based applications, but is suitable for quickly assessing the level of concern posed by a landfill or other contaminant point source before expensive and lengthy monitoring or remediation measures are taken. In addition to quantifying the level of concern using historic groundwater-monitoring data, the tool allows for archiving model scenarios and adding refinements as new data become available.

  12. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Ronald J.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Lopez, Anthony R.; Romanok, Kristin M.; Wengrowski, Edward W

    2015-01-01

    A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically-based transport model or other available Domenico-based applications, but is suitable for quickly assessing the level of concern posed by a landfill or other contaminant point source before expensive and lengthy monitoring or remediation measures are taken. In addition to quantifying the level of concern using historic groundwater-monitoring data, the tool allows for archiving model scenarios and adding refinements as new data become available.

  13. River restoration strategies in channelized, low-gradient landscapes of West Tennessee, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.P.; Diehl, T.H.; Turrini-Smith, L. A.; Maas-Baldwin, J.; Croyle, Z.

    2009-01-01

    West Tennessee has a complex history of watershed disturbance, including agricultural erosion, channelization, accelerated valley sedimentation, and the removal and reestablishment of beaver. Watershed management has evolved from fl oodplain drainage via pervasive channelization to include local drainage canal maintenance and local river restoration. Many unmaintained canals are undergoing excessive aggradation and complex channel evolution driven by upland erosion and low valley gradient. The locus of aggradation in fully occluded canals (valley plugs) moves up-valley as sediment continues to accumulate in the backwater behind the plug. Valley plugs that cause canal avulsion can lead to redevelopment of meandering channels in less disturbed areas of the fl oodplain, in a process of passive self-restoration. Some valley plugs have brought restored fl oodplain function, reoccupation of extant historic river channels, and formation of a "sediment shadow" that protects downstream reaches from excess sedimentation. Despite the presence of numerous opportunities, there is presently no mechanism for including valley plugs in mitigation projects. In 1997 a survey of 14 reference reach cross sections documented relations between drainage area and bankfull geometry of relatively unmodified streams in West Tennessee. Reassessment of seven of those sites in 2007 showed that one had been dammed by beaver and that two sites could not be analyzed further because of signifi cant vertical or lateral instability. In contrast to other regions of North America, the results suggest that stream channels in this region fl ood more frequently than once each year, and can remain out of banks for several weeks each year. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  14. Particle-Associated Archaea Across a Salinity Gradient in the Tidally Influenced Broadkill River, DE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddle, J.; Yoshimura, K.

    2015-12-01

    Particulate matter in marine and aquatic systems has been shown to host microbial communities distinct from the free-living fraction, which is attributed to the concentration of nutrients and the presence of microhabitats within these particles. Some of these microhabitats include anoxic zones within the interior of the particles, allowing the presence of anaerobic microbes. While several studies have explored the bacterial community composition of particulate matter in marine, estuarine, and riverine systems, there have been fewer studies analyzing the archaeal community. As such, the implication of particle-associated anaerobic archaea in an oxygenated water column environment has not been fully explored. We investigated near shore particle-associated archaea to determine the extent to which the potential anaerobic habitat of particles has in allowing global distribution of anaerobic sediment associated archaea. In this study, the archaeal community structure of size-fractioned particles was analyzed for the presence of archaeal groups along a salinity gradient in the tidally influenced Broadkill River. Four freshwater to brackish stations were analyzed as well as one marine station. It was found that members of methanogen groups and the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota Group were preferentially enriched on larger particles in fresh and brackish river water, but the community at the marine station was consistent between particle sizes with very few members of anaerobic sedimentary groups present. These results suggest that larger particles may have a greater potential for an anaerobic interior habitat and that in addition to salinity, particle composition may be a factor that dictates which archaeal groups can thrive. The presence of anaerobic sedimentary archaeal groups within larger particles also suggests the plausibility for entrained particulate matter as a transport and distribution mechanism for sedimentary archaeal groups throughout the ocean.

  15. Exact analytical solutions for contaminant transport in rivers 2. Transient storage and decay chain solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contaminant transport processes in streams, rivers, and other surface water bodies can be analyzed or predicted using the advection-dispersion equation and related transport models. In part 1 of this two-part series we presented a large number of one- and multi-dimensional analytical solutions of t...

  16. Exact analytical solutions for contaminant transport in rivers 1. The equilibrium advection-dispersion equation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analytical solutions of the advection-dispersion equation and related models are indispensable for predicting or analyzing contaminant transport processes in streams and rivers, as well as in other surface water bodies. Many useful analytical solutions originated in disciplines other than surface-w...

  17. PREDICTION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN THE MAURICE RIVER-UNION LAKE, NEW JERSEY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a sediment and contaminant transport model and its application to the Maurice River-Union Lake system in southern New Jersey, USA for the purpose of characterizing and forecasting sediment and arsenic distributions before and after proposed dredging activitie...

  18. PREDICTION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TRANSPORT IN THE MAURICE RIVER-UNION LAKE, NEW JERSEY, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    A sediment and contaminant transport model and its application to the Maurice River-Union Lake system in southern New Jersey, USA is described. The application is meant to characterize and forecast sediment and arsenic (As) distributions before and after proposed dredging activit...

  19. Changes in productivity and contaminants in bald eagles nesting along the lower Columbia River, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buck, J.A.; Anthony, R.G.; Schuler, C.A.; Isaacs, F.B.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies documented poor productivity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the lower Columbia River (LCR), USA, and elevated p,p???-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and furans in eagle eggs. From 1994 to 1995, we collected partially incubated eggs at 19 of 43 occupied territories along the LCR and compared productivity and egg contaminants to values obtained in the mid-1980s. We found higher productivity at new nesting sites along the river, yet productivity at 23 older breeding territories remained low and was not different (p = 0.713) between studies. Eggshell thickness at older territories had not improved (p = 0.404), and eggshells averaged 11% thinner than shells measured before dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane use. Decreases in DDE (p = 0.022) and total PCBs (p = 0.0004) in eggs from older breeding areas occurred between study periods. Productivity was not correlated to contaminants, but DDE, PCBs, and dioxin-like chemicals exceeded estimated no-effect values. Some dioxin-like contaminants in eggs were correlated to nest location, with highest concentrations occurring toward the river's mouth where productivity was lowest. Although total productivity increased due to the success of new nesting pairs in the region, egg contaminants remain high enough to impair reproduction at older territories and, over time, may alter productivity of new pairs nesting near the river's mouth. ?? 2005 SETAC.

  20. Changes in productivity and contaminants in bald eagles nesting along the lower Columbia River, USA.

    PubMed

    Buck, Jeremy A; Anthony, Robert G; Schuler, Carol A; Isaacs, Frank B; Tillitt, Donald E

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies documented poor productivity of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in the lower Columbia River (LCR), USA, and elevated p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, and furans in eagle eggs. From 1994 to 1995, we collected partially incubated eggs at 19 of 43 occupied territories along the LCR and compared productivity and egg contaminants to values obtained in the mid-1980s. We found higher productivity at new nesting sites along the river, yet productivity at 23 older breeding territories remained low and was not different (p = 0.713) between studies. Eggshell thickness at older territories had not improved (p = 0.404), and eggshells averaged 11% thinner than shells measured before dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane use. Decreases in DDE (p = 0.022) and total PCBs (p = 0.0004) in eggs from older breeding areas occurred between study periods. Productivity was not correlated to contaminants, but DDE, PCBs, and dioxin-like chemicals exceeded estimated no-effect values. Some dioxin-like contaminants in eggs were correlated to nest location, with highest concentrations occurring toward the river's mouth where productivity was lowest. Although total productivity increased due to the success of new nesting pairs in the region, egg contaminants remain high enough to impair reproduction at older territories and, over time, may alter productivity of new pairs nesting near the river's mouth.

  1. USING THE SEDIMENT QUALITY TRIAD (SQT) APPROACH TO ASSESS SEDIMENTARY CONTAMINATION IN THE ANACOSTIA RIVER, WASHINGTON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using the Sediment Quality Triad (SQT) Approach to Assess Sedimentary Contamination in the Anacostia River, Washington, D.C. Velinsky, DJ*1, Ashley, JTF1,2, Pinkney, F.3, McGee, BL3 and Norberg-King, TJ.4 1Academy of Natural Sciences-PCER, Philadelphia, PA. 2Philadelphia Universi...

  2. Microbial and chemical contamination during and after flooding in the Ohio River-Kentucky, 2011.

    PubMed

    Yard, Ellen E; Murphy, Matthew W; Schneeberger, Chandra; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Hoo, Elizabeth; Freiman, Alexander; Lewis, Lauren S; Hill, Vincent R

    2014-09-19

    Surface water contaminants in Kentucky during and after 2011 flooding were characterized. Surface water samples were collected during flood stage (May 2-4, 2011; n = 15) and after (July 25-26, 2011; n = 8) from four different cities along the Ohio River and were analyzed for the presence of microbial indicators, pathogens, metals, and chemical contaminants. Contaminant concentrations during and after flooding were compared using linear and logistic regression. Surface water samples collected during flooding had higher levels of E. coli, enterococci, Salmonella, Campylobacter, E. coli O157:H7, adenovirus, arsenic, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to surface water samples collected 3-months post-flood (P < 0.05). These results suggest that flooding increases microbial and chemical loads in surface water. These findings reinforce commonly recommended guidelines to limit exposure to flood water and to appropriately sanitize contaminated surfaces and drinking wells after contamination by flood water.

  3. CFD modeling of the dispersion of contaminants in the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Wendel, M.W.; Williams, P.T.; Platfoot, J.H.

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a multi-dimensional, transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for the entrance region of the confluence of White Oak Creek and the Clinch River that will produce accurate predictions for dispersion of contaminants within a segment of the river. The objective is to develop the capability to predict the multi-dimensional distribution of contaminant concentration in the Clinch River. The numerical model was defined using the commercial computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) computer program CFX Version 4, developed by AEA Technology Engineering Software, Inc. the program solves the Navier-Stokes, energy and species-transport equations with the SIMPLEC finite-volume method. A scalar advection-diffusion equation was defined to represent transport of the contaminant within the flow field. CFX has a multiblock capability that allows an accurate representation of the true river geometry. The present study represents the first application of a general-purpose turbulence model to the Clinch River dispersion problem.

  4. Sewage contamination in the upper Mississippi River as measured by the fecal sterol, coprostanol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Writer, J.H.; Leenheer, J.A.; Barber, L.B.; Amy, G.L.; Chapra, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    The molecular sewage indicator, coprostanol, was measured in bed sediments of the Mississippi River for the purpose of determining sewage contamination. Coprostanol is a non-ionic, non-polar, organic molecule that associates with sediments in surface waters, and concentrations of coprostanol in bed sediments provide an indication of long-term sewage loads. Because coprostanol concentrations are dependent on particle size and percent organic carbon, a ratio between coprostanol (sewage sources) and cholestanol + cholesterol (sewage and non-sewage sources) was used to remove the biases related to particle size and percent organic carbon. The dynamics of contaminant transport in the Upper Mississippi River are influenced by both hydrologic and geochemical parameters. A mass balance model incorporating environmental parameters such as river and tributary discharge, suspended sediment concentration, fraction of organic carbon, sedimentation rates, municipal discharges and coprostanol decay rates was developed that describes coprostanol concentrations and therefore, expected patterns of municipal sewage effects on the Upper Mississippi River. Comparison of the computed and the measured coprostanol concentrations provides insight into the complex hydrologic and geochemical processes of contaminant transport and the ability to link measured chemical concentrations with hydrologic characteristics of the Mississippi River.

  5. Risk assessment for arsenic-contaminated groundwater along River Indus in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Unaib; Mahar, Gohar; Siddique, Azhar; Fatmi, Zafar

    2017-02-01

    The study determined the risk zone and estimated the population at risk of adverse health effects for arsenic exposure along the bank of River Indus in Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 216 randomly selected villages of one of the districts along River Indus. Wells of ten households from each village were selected to measure arsenic levels. The location of wells was identified using global positioning system device, and spatial variations of the groundwater contamination were assessed using geographical information system tools. Using layers of contaminated drinking water wells according to arsenic levels and population with major landmarks, a risk zone and estimated population at risk were determined, which were exposed to arsenic level ≥10 µg/L. Drinking wells with arsenic levels of ≥10 µg/L were concentrated within 18 km near the river bank. Based on these estimates, a total of 13 million people were exposed to ≥10 µg/L arsenic concentration along the course of River Indus traversing through 27 districts in Pakistan. This information would help the researchers in designing health effect studies on arsenic and policy makers in allocating resources for designing focused interventions for arsenic mitigation in Pakistan. The study methods have implication on similar populations which are affected along rivers due to arsenic contamination.

  6. Contaminants in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from the upper Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, D.D.; Ikonomou, M.G.; Rantalaine, A.L.; Rogers, I.H.; Sutherland, D.; Oostdam, J. Van

    1997-03-01

    Four white sturgeon were collected from the upper Fraser River near Prince George, British Columbia, Canada, in the fall of 199a and 1992. Two additional fish were taken from the Fraser River near Williams Lake, some 250 km downstream of Prince George. Samples of white muscle, red muscle, liver, and roe were analyzed for metals, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), non-ortho and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorophenols to determine whether the tissues of this species were acceptable for human consumption. The concentrations of mercury in the white muscle and liver of several fish from the upper Fraser River exceeded the provincial tissue residue criteria for people who consumed low quantities of fish. The concentrations of PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs (expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin toxic equivalents) in red muscle and liver of these fish exceeded the Health Canada working guidelines for the protection of human health. By comparison, white sturgeon collected in the lower Fraser River had much lower concentrations of metals and organic contaminants. The differences in contaminant burdens in fish from the two widely separated reaches of the river reflect their proximity to or distance from known contaminant sources.

  7. Trace elements transport in western Siberia rivers across a permafrost gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokrovsky, O. S.; Manasypov, R. M.; Loiko, S.; Krickov, I. A.; Kopysov, S. G.; Kolesnichenko, L. G.; Vorobyev, S. N.; Kirpotin, S. N.

    2015-11-01

    Towards a better understanding of trace element transport in permafrost-affected Earth surface environments, we sampled ∼ 60 large and small rivers (< 100 to ≤ 150 000 km2 watershed area) of Western Siberia Lowland (WSL) during spring flood and summer and winter base-flow across a 1500 km latitudinal gradient covering continuous, discontinuous, sporadic and permafrost-free zones. Analysis of ∼ 40 major and trace elements in dissolved (< 0.45 μm) fraction allowed establishing main environmental factors controlling the transport of metals and trace elements in rivers of this environmentally important region. No statistically significant effect of the basin size on most TE concentration was evidenced. Three category of trace elements were distinguished according to their concentration - latitude pattern: (i) increasing northward in spring and winter (Fe, Al, Ga (only winter), Ti (only winter), REEs, Pb, Zr, Hf, Th (only winter)), linked to leaching from peat and/or redox processes and transport in the form of Fe-rich colloids, (ii) decreasing northward during all seasons (Sr, Mo, U, As, Sb) marking the underground water influence of river feeding and (iii) elements without distinct trend from S to N whose variations within each latitude range were higher than the difference between latitudinal ranges (B, Li, Ti (except summer), Cr, V, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cs, Hf, Th). In addition to these general features, specific, northward increase during spring period was mostly pronounced for Fe, Mn, Co, Zn and Ba and may stem from a combination of enhanced leaching from the topsoil and vegetation and bottom waters of the lakes (spring overturn). A spring time northward decrease was observed for Ni, Cu, Zr, Rb. The southward increase in summer was strongly visible for Fe, Ni, Ba, Rb and V, probably due to peat/moss release (Ni, Ba, Rb) or groundwater feeding (Fe, V). The Principal Component Analysis demonstrated two main factors potentially controlling the ensemble of TE

  8. Contaminant levels and toxicity of sediments and water of Baltimore Harbor and Back River, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, D.T.; Jacobs, F.; Mehrotra, N.

    1995-12-31

    The Patapsco and Back River Watershed drains the Baltimore metropolitan area, Maryland`s most heavily industrialized and urbanized region. Due to the intensive development and industrialization of the Baltimore metropolitan area over the past 250 years, high levels of contaminants have been discharged into Baltimore Harbor on the Patapsco River and into the Back River. Pollutants historically discharged include heavy metals, petroleum hydrocarbons, pesticides, cyanide, sewage, other organic chemicals, and nutrients. Sources have included industrial and municipal discharges, sewerage overflows, urban runoff, and leaks and spills from vessels and on-land facilities. The Maryland Department of the Environment undertook this study of ambient conditions as part of a developing strategy to assess and improve conditions in the Chesapeake Bay and its tributaries. Past studies were compiled, evaluated, and synthesized to identify the areas of degraded conditions and contaminants of possible concern. Sediment contaminant levels were assessed using historical sediment chemistry data, Effects Range Low and Median concentrations (ER-L and ER-M) as toxicological benchmarks, and a sum of toxicity units approach for multiple contaminants. Data on toxicity testing and biological monitoring was compared to sediment and water quality data. Fish tissue data were used to examine bioaccumulated chemicals. A computerized Geographical Information System (GIS) was used to manipulate and display complex geographical data. The final identification of areas and chemicals of potential concern relied on a syntheses of these results as well as information on present and past contaminant loadings.

  9. Preliminary evaluation of heavy metal contamination in the Zarrin-Gol River sediments, Iran.

    PubMed

    Malvandi, Hassan

    2017-04-15

    The major objectives of the study were to test the hypothesis of the Zarrin-Gol River as a reference site for ecotoxicological studies and to assess the contamination degree of heavy metals and metalloids in the river using four contamination indices. For these purposes, eleven heavy metal and metalloid concentrations were analyzed. The average concentrations (mgkg(-1)) in the sediments were: 37.67 (chromium) 286.28 (manganese), 13,751.04 (iron), 8.79 (cobalt), 12.39 (nickel), 32.68 (zinc), 21.91 (arsenic), 40.59 (selenium), 2923.86 (aluminum), ND (silver) and 785.96 (magnesium). Contamination factor, enrichment factor, pollution load index, and geoaccumulation index were calculated to evaluate the contamination degree and influence of human activities on heavy metal levels. The contamination indices of the sediment samples showed that arsenic and selenium were the highest pollutants. The results indicated that the Zarrin-Gol River could not be used as a reference site at least for arsenic and selenium.

  10. Modeling fecal coliform contamination in a tidal Danshuei River estuarine system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting; Young, Chih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional fecal coliform transport model was developed and incorporated into a hydrodynamic model to obtain a better understanding of local microbiological water quality in the tidal Danshuei River estuarine system of northern Taiwan. The model was firstly validated with the salinity and fecal coliform data measured in 2010. The concentration comparison showed quantitatively good agreement between the simulation and measurement results. Further, the model was applied to investigate the effects of upstream freshwater discharge variation and fecal coliform loading reduction on the contamination distributions in the tidal estuarine system. The qualitative and quantitative analyses clearly revealed that low freshwater discharge resulted in higher fecal coliform concentration. The fecal coliform loading reduction considerably decreased the contamination along the Danshuei River-Tahan Stream, the Hsintien Stream, and the Keelung River.

  11. Suspended sediment and organic contaminants in the San Lorenzo River, California, water years 2009-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Draut, Amy E.; Conaway, Christopher H.; Echols, Kathy R.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Ritchie, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This report presents analyses of suspended sediment and organic contaminants measured during a two-year study of the San Lorenzo River, central California, which discharges into the Pacific Ocean within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary. Most suspended-sediment transport occurred during flooding caused by winter storms; 55 percent of the sediment load was transported by the river during a three-day flood in January 2010. Concentrations of polyaromatic hydrocarbons can exceed regulatory criteria during high-flow events in the San Lorenzo River. These results highlight the importance of episodic sediment and contaminant transport in steep, mountainous, coastal watersheds and emphasize the importance of understanding physical processes and quantifying chemical constituents in discharge from coastal watersheds on event-scale terms.

  12. Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidullah, S.; Tariq, S.; Shah, M. T.; Bishop, M. P.; Kamp, U.; Olsenholler, J.

    2002-05-01

    Baseline for Monitoring Water Resources Along Kabul and Indus Rivers of Pakistan for Potential Terrorist Contamination Terrorism has temporarily constrained the dynamism of the world it was enjoying before September 11, 2001, but also has opened avenues for people of all ethnicities, creeds, and professions to join hands in combating it. Scientific efforts to combat terrorism are likely to lead to better use of existing scientific knowledge as well as to discoveries that will increase world organization, interconnectivity, and peace promotion. Afghanistan and surrounding regions are major focal points for current anti-terrorist activities of the USA and its allies, including Pakistan. The United States, Pakistan, and Afghanistan have shared many similar political objectives, as well as differences, in cold war and post-cold-war eras, reflected by variable provisions of material aid. It is well recognized that understanding Afghanistan requires comprehension of the Pakistan situation as well, especially for common resources. Water is paramount because it is absolutely vital, but can be contaminated by internal or cross-border terrorism. The Kabul and Indus rivers originate in the Hindu Kush - Himalaya ranges. The Kabul River flows from Afghanistan into Pakistan, and after irrigating Peshawar basin, joins the Indus. The Indus, after its origin in Tibet and flow through the Indian Himalaya, enters Pakistan and flows south as the irrigation lifeblood of the country. Any terroristic addition of radioactive nuclides or contaminants to either river could dramatically impact the dependent riverine ecologies. Monitoring cells thus need to be established at locations in Afghanistan and Pakistan to assess base-line river variances for possible future contamination by terrorists. This paper presents a general view and the physical and chemical parameters of parts of the two rivers, and of the surrounding underground water in Peshawar Basin, including pH, conductivity, total

  13. Large-scale spatial variability of riverbed temperature gradients in Snake River fall Chinook salmon spawning areas

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2007-02-01

    In the Snake River basin of the Pacific northwestern United States, hydroelectric dam operations are often based on the predicted emergence timing of salmon fry from the riverbed. The spatial variability and complexity of surface water and riverbed temperature gradients results in emergence timing predictions that are likely to have large errors. The objectives of this study were to quantify the thermal heterogeneity between the river and riverbed in fall Chinook salmon spawning areas and to determine the effects of thermal heterogeneity on fall Chinook salmon emergence timing. This study quantified river and riverbed temperatures at 15 fall Chinook salmon spawning sites distributed in two reaches throughout 160 km of the Snake River in Hells Canyon, Idaho, USA, during three different water years. Temperatures were measured during the fall Chinook salmon incubation period with self-contained data loggers placed in the river and at three different depths below the riverbed surface. At all sites temperature increased with depth into the riverbed, including significant differences (p<0.05) in mean water temperature of up to 3.8°C between the river and the riverbed among all the sites. During each of the three water years studied, river and riverbed temperatures varied significantly among all the study sites, among the study sites within each reach, and between sites located in the two reaches. Considerable variability in riverbed temperatures among the sites resulted in fall Chinook salmon emergence timing estimates that varied by as much as 55 days, depending on the source of temperature data used for the estimate. Monitoring of riverbed temperature gradients at a range of spatial scales throughout the Snake River would provide better information for managing hydroelectric dam operations, and would aid in the design and interpretation of future empirical research into the ecological significance of physical riverine processes.

  14. Bioavailability of sediment-associated mercury to Hexagenia mayflies in a contaminated floodplain river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naimo, T.J.; Wiener, J.G.; Cope, W.G.; Bloom, N.S.

    2000-01-01

    We examined the bioavailability of mercury in sediments from the contaminated Sudbury River (Massachusetts, U.S.A.). Mayfly nymphs (Hexagenia) were exposed in four 21-day bioaccumulation tests to contaminated and reference sediments (treatments) from reservoirs, flowing reaches, palustrine wetlands, and a riverine lake. Mean total mercury (Sigma Hg) ranged from 880 to 22 059 ng.g dry weight(-1) in contaminated sediments and from 90 to 272 ng.g(-1) in reference sediments. Mean final concentrations of methyl mercury (MeHg) in test water were greatest (8-47 ng Hg.L-1) in treatments with contaminated wetland sediments, which had mean Sigma Hg ranging from 1200 to 2562 ng.g(-1). In mayflies, final mean concentrations of MeHg were highest in treatments with contaminated wetland sediments (122-183 ng Hg.g(-1)), intermediate in treatments with contaminated sediments from reservoirs, flowing reaches, and a riverine lake (75-127 ng Hg.g(-1)), and lowest in treatments with reference sediments (32-41 ng Hg.g(-1)). We conclude that the potential entry of MeHg into the benthic food chain was greater in contaminated palustrine wetlands than in the contaminated reservoirs, which had the most contaminated sediments.

  15. Bacteria and emerging chemical contaminants in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Since the enactment of the Clean Water Act in 1972, awareness of the quality of the Nation's water has continued to improve. Despite improvements to wastewater-treatment systems and increased regulation on waste discharge, bacterial and chemical contamination is still a problem for many rivers and lakes throughout the United States. Pathogenic microorganism and newly recognized chemical contaminants have been found in waters that are used for drinking water and recreation (Rose and Grimes, 2001; Kolpin and others, 2002). This summary of bacteria and emerging-chemical-contaminant monitoring in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin (fig. 1) was initiated by the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project (LSCRMP) in 2003, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), the Counties of Macomb, Oakland, St. Clair, and Wayne, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS).

  16. Occurrence of perchloroethylene in surface water and fish in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination.

    PubMed

    Wittlingerová, Zdena; Macháčková, Jiřina; Petruželková, Anna; Zimová, Magdalena

    2016-03-01

    Long-term monitoring of the content of perchloroethylene (PCE) in a river ecosystem affected by groundwater contamination was performed at a site in the Czech Republic. The quality of surface water was monitored quarterly between 1994 and 2013, and fish were collected from the affected ecosystem to analyse the content of PCE in their tissue in 1998, 2011 and 2012. Concentrations of PCE (9-140 μg/kg) in the tissue of fish collected from the contaminated part of the river were elevated compared to the part of the river unaffected by the contamination (ND to 5 μg/kg PCE). The quality of surface water has improved as a result of groundwater remediation during the evaluated period. Before the remedial action, PCE concentrations ranged from 30 to 95 μg/L (1994-1997). Following commencement of remedial activities in September 1997, a decrease in the content of PCE in the surface water to 7.3 μg/L (1998) and further to 1 μg/L (2011) and 1.1 μg/L (2012) led to a progressive decrease in the average concentration of PCE in the fish muscle tissue from 79 μg/kg (1998) to 24 (2011) and 30 μg/kg (2012), respectively. It was determined that the bioconcentration of PCE does not have a linear dependence because the decrease in contamination in the fish muscle tissue is not directly proportional to the decrease in contamination in the river water. The observed average bioconcentration factors were 24 and 28 for the lower concentrations of PCE and 11 for the higher concentrations of PCE in the river. In terms of age, length and weight of the collected fish, weight had the greatest significance for bioconcentration, followed by the length, with age being evaluated as a less significant factor.

  17. [Porewater Dissolved Methane in Cyperus malaccensis Marshes Along Salinity Gradient in the Minjiang River Estuary].

    PubMed

    Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zi-chuan; Du, Wei-ning; Huang, Jia-fang; Tong, Chuan

    2015-10-01

    Physicochemical properties of soil and dissolved methane concentrations of porewater in the sediments of the Cyperus malaccensis marshes along a salinity gradient in the Minjiang River estuary were evaluated, and the spatial-temporal characteristics and main impact factors were discussed. The average concentrations of dissolved methane in porewater were 331.18, 299.94 and 638.58 μmol x L(-1), respectively in the Shanyutan, Bianfuzhou and Xiayangzhou wetlands in summer. In the winter, they were 9.04, 266.67 and 322.68 μmol x L(-1), respectively. The dissolved methane concentration in porewater was higher in summer than those in winter (P < 0.05). Overall, the concentrations of dissolved methane in porewatdr showed an increasing trend from brackish to freshwater marshes. Multivariate statistics analysis showed that the concentrations of dissolved methane in porewater was positively correlated with soils temperature and DOC (P < 0.05), but negatively correlated with soils pH, salinity, and the concentrations of porewater SO4(2-) and Cl-. Spatial-temporal distribution of porewater dissolved methane in estuarine marshes represents a final result of multiple factors, including soil physicochemical properties and hydrodynamic condition.

  18. Model evaluation of faecal contamination in coastal areas affected by urban rivers receiving combined sewer overflows.

    PubMed

    Shibata, T; Kojima, K; Lee, S A; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    Odaiba seaside park is one of the most popular waterfronts in Tokyo Bay, but is easily affected by wet weather pollutant loads through combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The monitoring data of Escherichia coli clearly showed high faecal contamination after a rainfall event on 9-11 November 2007. We estimated the amounts of discharge volume and E. coli pollutant loads of urban rivers receiving CSO from rainfall chambers as well as pumping stations and primary effluent discharge. The result suggested that Sumida River and Meguro River were more influential to the Odaiba coastal area than other sources including the nearest wastewater treatment plant. Subsequently, we simulated the dynamic behaviour of E. coli by a three-dimensional (3D) hydro-dynamic and water quality model. The model simulation reproduced that E. coli concentration after the rainfall event increased rapidly at first and later gradually decreased. The simulations with and without inflow pollutant loads from urban rivers suggested that the E. coli concentration can be influenced by the Meguro River just after the rainfall event and Sumida River about 1 week later. From the spatial and temporal distribution of surface E. coli concentration, after at least 6 days from the rainfall event, high faecal contamination spread to the whole of the coastal area.

  19. Zinc speciation in the suspended particulate matter of an urban river (Orge, France): influence of seasonality and urbanization gradient.

    PubMed

    Le Pape, Pierre; Quantin, Cécile; Morin, Guillaume; Jouvin, Delphine; Kieffer, Isabelle; Proux, Olivier; Ghanbaja, Jaafar; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-10-21

    Among trace metal pollutants, zinc is the major one in the rivers from the Paris urban area, such as the Orge River, where Zn concentration in the suspended particulate matter (SPM) can reach 2000 mg/kg in the most urbanized areas. In order to better understand Zn cycling in such urban rivers, we have determined Zn speciation in SPM as a function of both the seasonal water flow variations and the urbanization gradient along the Orge River. Using TEM/SEM-EDX and linear combination fitting (LCF) of EXAFS data at the Zn K-edge, we show that Zn mainly occurs as tetrahedrally coordinated Zn(2+) sorbed to ferrihydrite (37-46%), calcite (0-37%), amorphous SiO2 (0-21%), and organic-P (0-30%) and as octahedrally coordinated Zn(2+) in the octahedral layer of phyllosilicates (18-25%). Moreover, the Zn speciation pattern depends on the river flow rate. At low water flow, Zn speciation changes along the urbanization gradient: geogenic forms of Zn inherited from soil erosion decrease relative to Zn bound to organic-phosphates and amorphous SiO2. At high water flow, Zn speciation is dominated by soil-borne forms of Zn regardless the degree of urbanization, indicating that erosion of Zn-bearing minerals dominates the Zn contribution to SPM under such conditions.

  20. Rainfall-runoff model for prediction of waterborne viral contamination in a small river catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelati, E.; Dommar, C.; Lowe, R.; Polcher, J.; Rodó, X.

    2013-12-01

    We present a lumped rainfall-runoff model aimed at providing useful information for the prediction of waterborne viral contamination in small rivers. Viral contamination of water bodies may occur because of the discharge of sewage effluents and of surface runoff over areas affected by animal waste loads. Surface runoff is caused by precipitation that cannot infiltrate due to its intensity and to antecedent soil water content. It may transport animal feces to adjacent water bodies and cause viral contamination. We model streamflow by separating it into two components: subsurface flow, which is produced by infiltrated precipitation; and surface runoff. The model estimates infiltrated and non-infiltrated precipitation and uses impulse-response functions to compute the corresponding fractions of streamflow. The developed methodologies are applied to the Glafkos river, whose catchment extends for 102 km2 and includes the city of Patra. Streamflow and precipitation observations are available at a daily time resolution. Waterborne virus concentration measurements were performed approximately every second week from the beginning of 2011 to mid 2012. Samples were taken at several locations: in river water upstream of Patras and in the urban area; in sea water at the river outlet and approximately 2 km south-west of Patras; in sewage effluents before and after treatment. The rainfall-runoff model was calibrated and validated using observed streamflow and precipitation data. The model contribution to waterborne viral contamination prediction was benchmarked by analyzing the virus concentration measurements together with the estimated surface runoff values. The presented methodology may be a first step towards the development of waterborne viral contamination alert systems. Predicting viral contamination of water bodies would benefit sectors such as water supply and tourism.

  1. Heavy metals contamination potential and distribution in sediments of the River Turia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Maiquez Moya, Mónica; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge on the state of waters and sediments of the rivers in the European Union is compulsory. Identification and quantification and monitoring of contaminants is somewhat established in the Water Framework Directive, so it can be acquired a reliable knowledge of the quality for further application of corrective messures can be developed when required. Heavy metals is one of the groups of contaminants that appear in the list of priority substances and in the legislation, so it is essential to attend its study to provide knowledge on the existing loads in different environmental matrices, such as sediments. This work presents a procedure that determines the presence and degree of concentration of a group of seven heavy metals (Co, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the sediments of the River Turia, a typical Mediterranean River, located in the East of the Iberian Peninsula. The methodology includes their identification in two years (2012, 22 sampling points, and 2013, 27 sampling points). Two pollution index, one individual (Geo-accumulation Igeo, Igeo) that estimated the potential contamination of each metal and a synthetic one (Potential ecorisk index range, PERI) which gets the potential contamination of all 7 grouped applied to each set of data. In addition, to establish possible spatial patterns it has been developed an analysis of the distribution of both indicators and on both dates with Geographic Information Systems, for that purpose it has been divided the River into three segments: upper part (represented by 10 points in 2012 and 13 in 2013), middle part (with 7 points in 2012 and 6 in 2013) and lower section (with 5 points in 2012 and 8 in 2013). Results show that lower concentrations of contaminants were given in 2012 than in 2013. In 2012 the Igeo index, which is distributed in a qualitative range of seven categories ranging from low pollution to very high pollution, are only meaningful for Zn, with "low to moderate" pollution in 13 places (6 points in

  2. Subcellular Distribution of Heavy Metals in Organs of Bivalve Modiolus Modiolus Living Along a Metal Contamination Gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgurskaya, Olga V.; Kavun, Victor Ya.

    2006-03-01

    Concentration and distribution of Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, Ni among subcellular fractions (cellular membrane structures and cytosol) and Zn, Cu, Cd among cytoplasmic proteins in the kidney and digestive gland of mussel Modiolus modiolus living along a polymetallic concentration gradient were studied. It was found in the kidney of M. modiolus from contaminated sites that the Fe percent increased in the “membrane” fraction, whereas Zn, Pb, Ni and Mn percent increased in the cytosol compared to the kidney of the control mussel. Note kidney cytosol of M. modiolus from clean and contaminated sites sequestered major parts of Cu and Cd. In the digestive gland of M. modiolus from contaminated sites Fe, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni percent increased in the “membrane” fraction, whereas Cu, Pb percent increased in the cytosol compared to digestive gland of control mussel. Gel-filtration chromatography shows kidney of M. modiolus contains increased metallothionein-like protein levels irrespective of ambient dissolved metal concentrations. It was shown that the metal detoxification system in the kidney and digestive gland of M. modiolus was efficient under extremely high ambient metal levels. However, under complex environmental contamination in the kidney of M. modiolus, the metal detoxification capacity of metallothionein-like proteins was damaged.

  3. Mercury Contamination in an Indicator Fish Species from Andean Amazonian Rivers Affected by Petroleum Extraction.

    PubMed

    Webb, Jena; Coomes, Oliver T; Mainville, Nicolas; Mergler, Donna

    2015-09-01

    Elevated mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish from Amazonia have been associated with gold-mining, hydroelectric dams and deforestation but few studies consider the role of petroleum extraction. Hg levels were determined in fish samples collected in three river basins in Ecuador and Peru with contrasting petroleum exploitation and land-use characteristics. The non-migratory, piscivorous species, Hoplias malabaricus, was used as a bioindicator. The rate of Hg increase with body weight for this species was significantly higher on the Corrientes River, near the site of a recent oil spill, than on the other two rivers. In the absence of substantial deforestation and other anthropogenic sources in the Corrientes River basin, this finding suggests that oil contamination in Andean Amazonia may have a significant impact on Hg levels in fish.

  4. Contamination and ecological risk assessment of toxic trace elements in the Xi River, an urban river of Shenyang city, China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunye; He, Mengchang; Liu, Xitao; Guo, Wei; Liu, Shaoqing

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the enrichment, contamination, and ecological risk posed by toxic trace elements in the sediments of the Xi River in the industrialized city of Shenyang, China. Surface sediment and sediment core were collected; analyzed for toxic trace elements; and assessed with an index of geoaccumulation (Igeo), enrichment factor (EF) value, potential ecological risk factor (Er), ecological risk index (RI), and probable effect concentration quotient (PECQ). Elemental concentrations (milligram per kilogram) were 8.5-637.9 for As, 6.5-103.9 for Cd, 12.2-21.9 for Co, 90.6-516.0 for Cr, 258.1-1,791.5 for Cu, 2.6-19.0 for Hg, 70.5-174.5 for Ni, 126.9-1,405.8 for Pb, 3.7-260.0 for Sb, 38.4-100.4 for V, and 503-4,929 for Zn. The Igeo, EF, Er, and PECQ indices showed that the contamination of Cd and Hg was more serious than that of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn, whereas the presence of Co and V might be primarily from natural sources. The Igeo index for Cr and Ni might underestimate the degree of contamination, potentially as a result of high concentrations of these elements in the shale. The RI index was higher than 600, indicating a notably high ecological risk of sediment for the river. The average PECQ for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn ranged from 1.4 to 4.1 for surface sediment and from 5.2 to 9.6 in the sediment cores, indicating a high potential for an adverse biological effect. It was concluded that the sediment in the Xi River was severely contaminated and should be remediated as a hazardous material.

  5. Scale-dependency of macroinvertebrate communities: responses to contaminated sediments within run-of-river dams.

    PubMed

    Colas, Fanny; Archaimbault, Virginie; Devin, Simon

    2011-03-01

    Due to their nutrient recycling function and their importance in food-webs, macroinvertebrates are essential for the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. These organisms also constitute an important component of biodiversity. Sediment evaluation and monitoring is an essential aspect of ecosystem monitoring since sediments represent an important component of aquatic habitats and are also a potential source of contamination. In this study, we focused on macroinvertebrate communities within run-of-river dams, that are prime areas for sediment and pollutant accumulation. Little is known about littoral macroinvertebrate communities within run-of-river dam or their response to sediment levels and pollution. We therefore aimed to evaluate the following aspects: the functional and structural composition of macroinvertebrate communities in run-of-river dams; the impact of pollutant accumulation on such communities, and the most efficient scales and tools needed for the biomonitoring of contaminated sediments in such environments. Two run-of-river dams located in the French alpine area were selected and three spatial scales were examined: transversal (banks and channel), transversal x longitudinal (banks/channel x tail/middle/dam) and patch scale (erosion, sedimentation and vegetation habitats). At the patch scale, we noted that the heterogeneity of littoral habitats provided many available niches that allow for the development of diversified macroinvertebrate communities. This implies highly variable responses to contamination. Once combined on a global 'banks' spatial scale, littoral habitats can highlight the effects of toxic disturbances.

  6. Geochemical baseline level and function and contamination of phosphorus in Liao River Watershed sediments of China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shaoqing; Wang, Jing; Lin, Chunye; He, Mengchang; Liu, Xitao

    2013-10-15

    The quantitative assessment of P contamination in sediments is a challenge due to sediment heterogeneity and the lacking of geochemical background or baseline levels. In this study, a procedure was proposed to determine the average P background level and P geochemical baseline level (GBL) and develop P geochemical baseline functions (GBF) for riverbed sediments of the Liao River Watershed (LRW). The LRW has two river systems - the Liao River System (LRS) and the Daliao River System (DRS). Eighty-eight samples were collected and analyzed for P, Al, Fe, Ca, organic matter, pH, and texture. The results show that Fe can be used as a better particle-size proxy to construct the GBF of P (P (mg/kg) = 39.98 + 166.19 × Fe (%), R(2) = 0.835, n = 66). The GBL of P was 675 mg/kg, while the average background level of P was 355 mg/kg. Noting that many large cities are located in the DRS watershed, most of the contaminated sites were located within the DRS and the riverbed sediments were more contaminated by P in the DRS watershed than in the LRS watershed. The geochemical background and baseline information of P are of great importance in managing P levels within the LRW.

  7. [Niches of plant species in wetlands of the Yellow River Delta under gradients of water table depth and soil salinity].

    PubMed

    He, Qiang; Cui, Bao-Shan; Zhao, Xin-Sheng; Fu, Hua-Ling

    2008-05-01

    Ordination methods were used to arrange in turn the 19 plant species in wetlands of the Yellow River Delta under gradients of water table depth and soil salinity, and to classify them into three ecological species groups, i. e. low, medium, and high water table depth/soil salinity ecological species groups. Their niche breadths and niche overlaps under the two gradients were also analyzed. The results indicated that for the gradient of water table depth, the species in medium water table depth ecological species group, such as Phragmites australis and Suaeda salsa, occupied a broad niche breadth, and those in high water table depth ecological species group, such as Typha orientalis and Myriophyllum spicatum, occupied the narrowest niche breadth. For the gradient of soil salinity, the species in high soil salinity ecological species group, such as Suaeda salsa and Tamarix chinensis, occupied a broad niche breadth, while those belonging to the medium and low soil salinity ecological species groups occupied a narrow niche breadth. The niche overlaps changed regularly along the gradients of water table depth and soil salinity. In general, the niche overlaps between the plant species of the same ecological species groups were large, whilst those between the plant species of different ecological species groups were small. Niche differentiations of the plant species under the gradients of water table depth and soil salinity might promote species coexistence, and contribute to the explanation of plant zonation mechanisms in this Delta.

  8. Air-Seawater Exchange of Organochlorine Pesticides along the Sediment Plume of a Large Contaminated River.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tian; Guo, Zhigang; Li, Yuanyuan; Nizzetto, Luca; Ma, Chuanliang; Chen, Yingjun

    2015-05-05

    Gaseous exchange fluxes of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) across the air-water interface of the coastal East China Sea were determined in order to assess whether the contaminated plume of the Yangtze River could be an important regional source of OCPs to the atmosphere. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) were the most frequently detected OCPs in air and water. Air-water exchange was mainly characterized by net volatilization for all measured OCPs. The net gaseous exchange flux ranged 10-240 ng/(m2·day) for γ-HCH, 60-370 ng/(m2·day) for trans-CHL, 97-410 ng/(m2·day) for cis-CHL, and ∼0 (e.g., equilibrium) to 490 ng/(m2·day) for p,p'-DDE. We found that the plume of the large contaminated river can serve as a significant regional secondary atmospheric source of legacy contaminants released in the catchment. In particular, the sediment plume represented the relevant source of DDT compounds (especially p,p'-DDE) sustaining net degassing when clean air masses from the open ocean reached the plume area. In contrast, a mass balance showed that, for HCHs, contaminated river discharge (water and sediment) plumes were capable of sustaining volatilization throughout the year. These results demonstrate the inconsistencies in the fate of HCHs and DDTs in this large estuarine system with declining primary sources.

  9. Assessment of decadal changes in sediment contamination in a large connecting channel (Detroit River, North America).

    PubMed

    Szalinska, Ewa; Grgicak-Mannion, Alice; Haffner, G Douglas; Drouillard, Ken G

    2013-11-01

    Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Zn) and organic contaminants (PCBs, PAHs) were investigated in samples from the Detroit River (Great Lakes, North America) in 1999 and 2008/09 collected using a stratified random sampling design. Getis-Ord geospatial analysis was used to further establish locations of areas demonstrating significantly high and low contaminant concentrations in the river. Based on the stratified random sampling design, a majority of the examined metals and organic contaminants demonstrated little or no trends with respect to regional sediment concentrations and river-wide mass balances over the investigated time interval. The Getis-Ord analysis revealed local scales of contaminated and clean areas which did not conform to the original strata used in the geostatistical sampling design. It is suggested that geospatial analyses such as Getis-Ord be used in the design of future sediment quality surveys to refine locations of strata that can simultaneously address sediment recovery over system-wide, regional and local spatial scales.

  10. PCB contamination in soils of the Pearl River Delta, South China: levels, sources, and potential risks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibo; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying; Wan, Hongfu

    2013-08-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contamination in tropical and sub-tropical areas and the associated risks have attracted great concern. A total of 69 samples representing five distinct land types were collected to assess PCB concentrations in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China, including spatial distributions in soils of the area, the probable anthropogenic sources, and related potential risks. PCBs concentrations in soils of the PRD ranged from 0.3 to 202 ng g(-1). More severe PCBs contamination was presented in the western part than in the eastern part of the PRD region. The PCBs were dominated by low-chlorinated biphenyls; however, the proportion of higher-chlorinated biphenyls was elevated with the influence of industrial activities. Principal component analysis indicated that PCBs contamination in soils of the PRD region was mainly associated with 1#PCBs, while 2#PCB and e-waste emission in South China also accounted for it partly, especially to the industrial activity severely impacted areas. Toxic equivalent (TEQ) of the dioxin-like PCBs in the soils indicated that higher risk of PCB contamination was presented in the Dongjiang River Valley (55 ng TEQ kg(-1), on average) than in the Xijiang River Valley, and were mostly contributed by the congener of PCB126.

  11. Assessment of contamination and biomarker responses in two species of herons on the St. Lawrence river.

    PubMed

    Champoux, Louise; Rodrigue, Jean; Desgranges, Jean-Luc; Trudeau, Suzanne; Hontela, Alice; Boily, Monique; Spear, Philip

    2002-10-01

    This study was undertaken to validate potential biomarkers of exposure and effects due to chemical contaminants in breeding colonies of the Great Blue Heron and the Black-crowned Night-Heron on the St. Lawrence River. Eggs and fledglings from both species were collected from many colonies along the River. The fledglings from colonies in freshwater and brackish water were more contaminated by mercury and PCBs than those from estuarine and gulf colonies. With respect to fledglings of the two heron species, some morphometric and blood biochemical measurements, including plasma thyroid hormones and retinol, were significantly different among colonies. Significant differences were also observed in liver retinoids, EROD and porphyrins among colonies. The results of this study suggest that plasma retinoids and thyroid hormones are good biomarkers of exposure and effects, and are sufficiently sensitive to reflect local and regional variations in contamination. Along with the measure of contaminants in egg and plasma, they constitute non-invasive biomarkers which represent an important criteria for long term monitoring of wildlife species. It is concluded that the Great Blue Heron is an appropriate sentinel species in the surveillance network for the St. Lawrence River.

  12. Assessing Changes to Organic Contaminant Fluxes from Contaminated Sediments Following Dam Removal in an Urbanized River

    EPA Science Inventory

    Restoration of rivers and their associated ecosystems is a growing priority for government agencies (e.g., NOAA, USDA), as well as conservation organizations. Dam removal is a major component of many restoration projects credited with reintroducing fish species, improving water ...

  13. Screening tool to evaluate the vulnerability of down-gradient receptors to groundwater contaminants from uncapped landfills

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Ronald J.; Reilly, Timothy J.; Lopez, Anthony; Romanok, Kristin; Wengrowski, Edward W.

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A spreadsheet-based risk screening tool for groundwater affected by landfills is presented. • Domenico solute transport equations are used to estimate downgradient contaminant concentrations. • Landfills are categorized as presenting high, moderate or low risks. • Analysis of parameter sensitivity and examples of the method’s application are given. • The method has value to regulators and those considering redeveloping closed landfills. - Abstract: A screening tool for quantifying levels of concern for contaminants detected in monitoring wells on or near landfills to down-gradient receptors (streams, wetlands and residential lots) was developed and evaluated. The tool uses Quick Domenico Multi-scenario (QDM), a spreadsheet implementation of Domenico-based solute transport, to estimate concentrations of contaminants reaching receptors under steady-state conditions from a constant-strength source. Unlike most other available Domenico-based model applications, QDM calculates the time for down-gradient contaminant concentrations to approach steady state and appropriate dispersivity values, and allows for up to fifty simulations on a single spreadsheet. Sensitivity of QDM solutions to critical model parameters was quantified. The screening tool uses QDM results to categorize landfills as having high, moderate and low levels of concern, based on contaminant concentrations reaching receptors relative to regulatory concentrations. The application of this tool was demonstrated by assessing levels of concern (as defined by the New Jersey Pinelands Commission) for thirty closed, uncapped landfills in the New Jersey Pinelands National Reserve, using historic water-quality data from monitoring wells on and near landfills and hydraulic parameters from regional flow models. Twelve of these landfills are categorized as having high levels of concern, indicating a need for further assessment. This tool is not a replacement for conventional numerically

  14. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in Mamut river sediments using sediment quality guidelines and geochemical indices.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Ali, Bibi Noorarlijannah; Lin, Chin Yik; Cleophas, Fera; Abdullah, Mohd Harun; Musta, Baba

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the concentration of selected heavy metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the Mamut river sediments and evaluate the degree of contamination of the river polluted by a disused copper mine. Based on the analytical results, copper showed the highest concentration in most of the river samples. A comparison with Interim Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (ICSQG) and Germany Sediment Quality Guidelines (GSQG) indicated that the sediment samples in all the sampling stations, except Mamut river control site (M1), exceeded the limit established for Cu, Ni, and Pb. On the contrary, Zn concentrations were reported well below the guidelines limit (ICSQG and GSQG). Mineralogical analysis indicated that the Mamut river sediments were primarily composed of quartz and accessory minerals such as chalcopyrite, pyrite, edenite, kaolinite, mica, and muscovite, reflected by the geological character of the study area. Enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index (Igeo) were calculated to evaluate the heavy metal pollution in river sediments. Igeo values indicated that all the sites were strongly polluted with the studied metals in most sampling stations, specifically those located along the Mamut main stream. The enrichment factor with value greater than 1.5 suggested that the source of heavy metals was mainly derived from anthropogenic activity such as mining. The degree of metal changes (δfold) revealed that Cu concentration in the river sediments has increased as much as 20 to 38 folds since the preliminary investigation conducted in year 2004.

  15. Heavy metal contamination status and source apportionment in sediments of Songhua River Harbin region, Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Zuo, Wei; Zhan, Wei; Zhang, Jian

    2016-07-09

    The Songhua River represents one of the seven major river systems in China. It flows through Harbin city with 66 km long, locating in the northern China with a longer winter time. This paper aimed to study concentration distributions, stability, risk assessment, and source apportionment of heavy metals including chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni) in 11 selected sections of the Songhua River Harbin region. Results showed that Cr, Cd, Pb, Hg, and As exceeded their respective geochemical background values in sediments of most monitoring sections. Compared with other important rivers and lakes in China, Cr, Hg, Cd, and As pollutions in surface sediments were above medium level. Further analysis of chemical speciation indicated that Cr and As in surface sediments were relatively stable while Pb and Cd were easily bioavailable. Correlation analysis revealed sources of these metals except As might be identical. Pollution levels and ecological risks of heavy metals in surface sediments presented higher in the mainstream region (45° 47.0' N ~ 45° 53.3' N, 126° 37.0' E ~ 126° 42.1' E). Source apportionment found Hejiagou and Ashi River were the main contributors to metal pollution of this region. Thus, anthropogenic activities along the Hejiagou and Ashi River should be restricted in order to protect the Songhua River Harbin region from metal contamination.

  16. The Interaction between Logjams, Channel Evolution, and Sports Fisheries on a Dam Regulated Low Gradient River.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, E.; Hupp, C. R.; Moulin, B.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine the interaction between in-stream large wood (LW), bank erosion, and sports fisheries in the 210 river kilometer (km) Coastal Plain segment of the dam-regulated Roanoke River, North Carolina. Methods included collecting background geomorphic data including a 200 km channel geometry survey and measurements from 701 bank erosion pins at 36 cross-sections over 132 km. LW concentrations were evaluated over a 177 km reach using georeferenced aerial video taken during regulated low flow (56 m3/s). LW transport was measured using 290 radio tagged LW pieces (mean diameter = 35.0 cm, length = 9.3 m) installed between 2008 and 2010. Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) were surveyed in 2010 at 29 sites using a boat mounted electroshock unit. The abundance of LW in logjams was 59 pieces/km and these were concentrated (21.5 logjams/km) in an actively eroding reach with relatively high sinuosity, high local LW production rates, and narrow channel widths. Most jams (70%) are available nearly year round as aquatic habitat, positioned either on the lower bank or submerged at low-water flows. The actively eroding reach is adjusting to upstream dam regulation by channel widening. The channel upstream of this reach has widened and stabilized while the channel downstream of the eroding reach is still relatively narrow but with lower bank erosion rates. Repeat surveys of radio tagged LW determined that transport was common throughout the study area despite dam regulation and a low channel gradient (0.0016). The mean distance travelled by a radio tagged piece of LW was 11.9 km with a maximum of 101 km (84 tags moved, 96 stationary, 110 not found). Radio tagged LW that moved during the study was found at low flow either in logjams (44%), as individual LW (43%), or submerged mid-channel (14%). Largemouth bass biomass density (g/hr effort) was highest in the actively eroding reach where logjams were most common. Our results support the

  17. Faecal contamination of water and sediment in the rivers of the Scheldt drainage network.

    PubMed

    Ouattara, Nouho Koffi; Passerat, Julien; Servais, Pierre

    2011-12-01

    The Scheldt watershed is characterized by a high population density, intense industrial activities and intensive agriculture and breeding. A monthly monitoring (n = 16) of the abundance of two faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci (IE), showed that microbiological water quality of the main rivers of the Scheldt drainage network was poor (median values ranging between 1.4 × 10(3) and 4.0 × 10(5) E. coli (100 mL)( -1) and between 3.4 × 10(2) and 7.6 × 10(4) IE (100 mL)( -1)). The Zenne River downstream from Brussels was particularly contaminated. Glucuronidase activity was measured in parallel and was demonstrated to be a valid surrogate for a rapid evaluation of E. coli concentration in the river waters. FIB were also investigated in the river sediments; their abundance was sometimes high (average values ranging between 2.1 × 10(2) and 3.3 × 10(5) E. coli g( -1) and between 1.0 × 10(2) and 1.7 × 10(5) IE g( -1)) but was not sufficient to contribute significantly to the river water contamination during resuspension events, except for the Scheldt and the Nethe Rivers. FIB were also quantified in representative point sources (wastewater treatment plants) and non-point sources (runoff water and soil leaching on different types of land use) of faecal contamination. The comparison of the respective contribution of point and non-point sources at the scale of the Scheldt watershed showed that point sources were largely predominant.

  18. Spatiotemporal characteristics of organic contaminant concentrations and ecological risk assessment in the Songhua River, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ce; Cyterski, Mike; Feng, Yujie; Gao, Peng; Sun, Qingfang

    2015-11-01

    To control source pollution and improve water quality, an understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of organic contaminant concentrations in affected receiving waters is necessary. The Songhua River in northeast China is the country's third-largest domestic river and loadings of organic contaminants along an industrialized section have made it the focal point of a national pollution reduction plan. In addition to water quality issues, management of the Songhua River basin must also address local economic development, aquatic ecosystem sustainability and political relationships with Russia. In three periods spanning 2006 to 2010, eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and eight phenols were measured in surface waters at ten monitoring sites along the river. A generalized linear model (GLM) was used to characterize water quality at different sites and time periods. Chemical concentrations of the organic compounds showed significant sinusoidal seasonal patterns and the concentrations declined significantly from 2006 to 2010, possibly due to management practices designed to control water pollution. A critical body residue analysis showed that water concentrations measured during the winter of 2007 across all monitoring sites, but especially at S1-Shaokou and S2-Songhuajiangcun, presented a high risk for fish species. The spatiotemporal characteristics of water quality and estimated ecological risks shown here add to the body of knowledge to develop policies on industrial output and pollution management strategies for the Songhua River basin.

  19. Corticosterone stress response in tree swallows nesting near polychlorinated biphenyl- and dioxin-contaminated rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franceschini, M.D.; Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Reed, J.M.; Romero, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    We assayed baseline and stress-induced corticosterone concentrations from adult female and nestling tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, from New England, USA, sites with different levels of contamination with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). Corticosterone was compared over 2 years from a highly contaminated PCB site along the Housatonic River (Berkshire County, MA, USA), a midrange contaminated site upstream, and a reference site. Adult females (n = 29), sampled only in 2003, showed an inverted-U association with PCBs, with higher stress-induced corticosterone with midrange contamination than at the high-contamination site. In nestlings, stress-induced corticosterone was highest for the highly contaminated site compared with the other sites in 2003 (n = 53, 29 nests), with no difference among sites in 2004 (n = 93, 27 nests). In 2004, we began testing mechanisms underlying these changes in nestlings at the high- and low-PCB sites. Corticosterone response to dexamethasone injection (used to test negative feedback) was not different between sites, but stress-induced corticosterone was reduced at the contaminated site after adrenocorticotropin hormone injection (used to test adrenal responsiveness), suggesting an inhibited ability to mount a stress response. We also compared nestlings from a stretch of the Woonasquatucket River, Rhode Island, USA, heavily contaminated with TCDD (n = 80, 43 nests) with nestlings from an upstream site that had lower levels of TCDD and the Berkshire County reference site. Although there were no stress-induced differences, baseline corticosterone was lower at the higher TCDD site than at the reference site. Altogether these findings suggest that tree swallows chronically exposed to high PCB and TCDD levels exhibit altered baseline and stress-induced corticosterone responses, but the patterns of alteration might not be predictable. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  20. Microbial community structures in anoxic freshwater lake sediment along a metal contamination gradient.

    PubMed

    Gough, Heidi L; Stahl, David A

    2011-03-01

    Contamination, such as by heavy metals, has frequently been implicated in altering microbial community structure. However, this association has not been extensively studied for anaerobic communities, or in freshwater lake sediments. We investigated microbial community structure in the metal-contaminated anoxic sediments of a eutrophic lake that were impacted over the course of 80 years by nearby zinc-smelting activities. Microbial community structure was inferred for bacterial, archaeal and eukaryotic populations by evaluating terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) patterns in near-surface sediments collected in triplicate from five areas of the lake that had differing levels of metal contamination. The majority of the fragments in the bacterial and eukaryotic profiles showed no evidence of variation in association with metal contamination levels, and diversity revealed by these profiles remained consistent even as metal concentrations varied from 3000 to 27,000 mg kg(-1) total Zn, 0.125 to 11.2 μ pore water Zn and 0.023 to 5.40 μM pore water As. Although most archaeal fragments also showed no evidence of variation, the prevalence of a fragment associated with mesophilic Crenarchaeota showed significant positive correlation with total Zn concentrations. This Crenarchaeota fragment dominated the archaeal TRFLP profiles, representing between 35% and 79% of the total measured peak areas. Lake DePue 16S rRNA gene sequences corresponding to this TRFLP fragment clustered with anaerobic and soil mesophilic Crenarchaeota sequences. Although Crenarchaeota have been associated with metal-contaminated groundwater and soils, this is a first report (to our knowledge) documenting potential increased prevalence of Crenarchaeota associated with elevated levels of metal contamination.

  1. Assessing Organic Contaminant Fluxes from Contaminated Sediments Following Dam Removal in an Urbanized River

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, methods and approaches were developed and tested to assess changes in contaminant fluxes resulting from dam removal in a riverine system. Sediment traps and passive samplers were deployed to measure particulate and dissolved PAHs and PCBs in the water column prior...

  2. A methodology for estimating risks associated with landslides of contaminated soil into rivers.

    PubMed

    Göransson, Gunnel; Norrman, Jenny; Larson, Magnus; Alén, Claes; Rosén, Lars

    2014-02-15

    Urban areas adjacent to surface water are exposed to soil movements such as erosion and slope failures (landslides). A landslide is a potential mechanism for mobilisation and spreading of pollutants. This mechanism is in general not included in environmental risk assessments for contaminated sites, and the consequences associated with contamination in the soil are typically not considered in landslide risk assessments. This study suggests a methodology to estimate the environmental risks associated with landslides in contaminated sites adjacent to rivers. The methodology is probabilistic and allows for datasets with large uncertainties and the use of expert judgements, providing quantitative estimates of probabilities for defined failures. The approach is illustrated by a case study along the river Göta Älv, Sweden, where failures are defined and probabilities for those failures are estimated. Failures are defined from a pollution perspective and in terms of exceeding environmental quality standards (EQSs) and acceptable contaminant loads. Models are then suggested to estimate probabilities of these failures. A landslide analysis is carried out to assess landslide probabilities based on data from a recent landslide risk classification study along the river Göta Älv. The suggested methodology is meant to be a supplement to either landslide risk assessment (LRA) or environmental risk assessment (ERA), providing quantitative estimates of the risks associated with landslide in contaminated sites. The proposed methodology can also act as a basis for communication and discussion, thereby contributing to intersectoral management solutions. From the case study it was found that the defined failures are governed primarily by the probability of a landslide occurring. The overall probabilities for failure are low; however, if a landslide occurs the probabilities of exceeding EQS are high and the probability of having at least a 10% increase in the contamination load

  3. Combining high resolution vertical gradients and sequence stratigraphy to delineate hydrogeologic units for a contaminated sedimentary rock aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Jessica R.; Parker, Beth L.; Arnaud, Emmanuelle; Runkel, Anthony C.

    2016-03-01

    Hydrogeologic units (HGUs), representing subsurface contrasts in hydraulic conductivity, form the basis for all conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow. However, conventionally, delineation of these units relies heavily on data sets indirect with respect to hydraulic properties. Here, we use the spatial and temporal characteristics of the vertical component of hydraulic gradient (i.e., vertical gradient) as the primary line of evidence for delineating HGUs for Cambrian-Ordovician sedimentary rocks at a site in Dane County, Wisconsin. The site includes a 16 km2 area encompassing a 3 km long mixed organic contaminants plume. The vertical gradients are derived from hydraulic head profiles obtained using high resolution Westbay multilevel systems installed at 7 locations along two, orthogonal 4 km long cross-sections and monitoring to depths between 90 and 146 m with an average of 3-4 monitoring zones per 10 m. These vertical gradient cross-sections reveal 11 laterally extensive HGUs with contrasting vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv). The position and thickness of the Kv contrasts are consistently associated with sequence stratigraphic features (maximum flooding intervals and sequence boundaries) distinguished at the site using cores and borehole geophysical logs. The same sequence stratigraphic features are also traceable across much of the Cambrian-Ordovician aquifer system of the Midwest US. The vertical gradients and sequence stratigraphy were arrived at independently and when combined provide a hydraulically calibrated sequence stratigraphic framework for the site. This framework provides increased confidence in the precise delineation and description of the nature of HGU contacts in each borehole, reduced uncertainty in interpolation of the HGUs between boreholes, and some capability to predict HGU boundaries and thickness in offsite areas where high resolution hydraulic data sets are not available. Consequently, this HGU conceptual model will

  4. Effects of land use change and sediment mobilization on coastal contamination (Coatzacoalcos River, Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos; Martínez-Herrera, Víctor; Pérez-Bernal, Libia Hascibe; Preda, Michel; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Gastaud, Janine; Quejido-Cabezas, Alberto José

    2012-04-01

    Coastal ecosystems are subject to many anthropogenic pressures, including pollution and the enhancement of sedimentation due to human activities. The lower reach of the Coatzacoalcos River is considered to be the most polluted coastal area of Mexico due to the presence of major petrochemical production centers in its watershed. In order to show the impact of land use change and industrial activities on the adjacent coastal environment of the Coatzacoalcos River, we reconstructed the historical changes of sediment transport and trace metals contamination based on the study of a 210Pb dated sediment core. Several geochemical indicators, such as clay mineral content, the concentrations of reference elements (Al, Ca, Sr, Rb) and the carbon isotope ratio (δ13C) revealed a change of sediment and contamination sources since the early 80s, in coincidence with the large industrial and urban development in the area. We conclude that the increased contaminant loads were related to terrestrial sources, likely contaminated and eroded soils from the catchment, due to extensive land use changes. Although the contaminant enrichment since the early 80s was low, As, Hg and Ni concentrations show potentially dangerous levels and exceed the USEPA-ERL concentration benchmarks, thus constituting a potential threat to marine aquatic life and humans through seafood consumption.

  5. Water contaminations in Karaj dam's rivers and their relationship with outcrop rocks with using GIS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadmehr, Mehdi; Bafekr, Gilava; Pirouz, Mortaza

    2010-05-01

    Karaj Dam is located in the middle part of Alborz Mountain and its distance from Capital city, Tehran, is 63 kilometers. Watershed area approximately is 1000 square kilometers, average rate of rainfall is 625 mm per year and watershed altitude is between 4900 to 1700 meters from open sea. Karaj Dam is as a drinking water source for Tehran and Karaj cities and 21000 hectares of agricultural irrigation. Our studies is connected with As, Pb, Sb, Hg, Mo contaminant elements . We used 194 rock samples for chemical analysis and 12 water quality control stations. Chemical analysis values of rocks in the GIS divided into different classes with regard to the standard allowable values. We used SRTM data to find major catchments area and small watershed basin area behind the dam. After the necessary calculations, we determined which small basin area can be important to make more elements to pollution. The results compared with 12 water quality control stations and direct connection between the chemical composition of the rocks and water contaminated that comes from that area are very obvious. Our Study shows that natural contaminations can be enter to cycle from the southern part of basin, 14 kilometers from dam to east. Water contaminations is located along Shahrestanak river to Shahrestanak bridge and then to Mahan factory. The catchment's area for this river has highest amount of As, Sb, Pb and water quality control stations close that area show high contamination.

  6. Lifestyle and mercury contamination of Amerindian populations along the Beni river (lowland Bolivia).

    PubMed

    Monrroy, Selma Ximena Luna; Lopez, Ronald Wily; Roulet, Marc; Benefice, Eric

    2008-11-01

    The objective of this paper was to document mercury contamination of Amerindian populations living along the Beni River in Bolivia and to examine risk factors related to their lifestyle. A cross-sectional survey was performed among 15 communities on the flood plains of the Beni River at the foothills of the Andes. Hair mercury content (H-Hg) served as a bioindicator of mercury contamination. Mercury values were available for 556 people. Four indicators of lifestyle were analyzed: community accessibility, subsistence activity, fish consumption, and ethnicity (i.e., members of the Tacana or Ese Ejja ethnic group). The median of H-Hg was equal to 4.0 microg/g (95% CI [confidence interval] = 3.6-4.4). Approximately 86% of the subjects had H-Hg values lower than 10 microg/g. No significant differences existed in H-Hg between adult women and children, nor according to age group. Subjects belonging to the Ese Ejja ethnic group had higher H-Hg than subjects from the Tacanas ethnic group. Communities accessible only by canoe were more frequently contaminated than those accessible by road. Subjects who ate at least one serving of fish per day had higher H-Hg, and families who maintained substantial fishing activity were more strongly contaminated. Contamination levels were found to be low compared with other Amazonian studies. The most strongly affected groups, however, were those which preserved a traditional way of life and were the most economically and socially disadvantaged.

  7. Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in The Foodweb in The Lower Columbia River: USGS ConHab Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, E. B.; Alvarez, D.; Counihan, T.; Elias, E.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hardiman, J.; Jenkins, J.; Mesa, M.; Morace, J.; Patino, R.; Torres, L.; Waite, I.; Zaugg, S.

    2012-12-01

    An interdisciplinary study, USGS Columbia River Contaminants and Habitat Characterization (ConHab) project, investigates transport pathways, chemical fate, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington. Polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were co-deployed at each of 10 sites in 2008 to provide a measure of the dissolved concentrations of select PBDEs, chlorinated pesticides, and other EDCs. PBDE-47 was the most prevalent of the PBDEs detected. Numerous organochlorine pesticides, both banned and current-use, including hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan, and the endosulfan degradation products, were measured at each site. EDCs commonly detected included a series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), fragrances (galaxolide), pesticides (chlorpyrifos and atrazine), plasticizers (phthalates), and flame retardants (phosphates). The downstream sites tended to have the highest concentrations of contaminants in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010 passive samplers were deployed and resident largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and surface bed sediments were collected at three of the original sites representing a gradient of exposure based on 2008 results. Brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues were analyzed. Chemical concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and, lastly, fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples ranged from <1 to 400 ng g-1 wet tissue. PBDEs, organochlorine pesticides, DDT and its degradates, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected at all sites in nearly all organs tested. PBDE congeners most frequently detected and at the highest concentrations were PBDE-47 > PBDE-100 > PBDE-154

  8. Subcellular partitioning of metals in Aporrectodea caliginosa along a gradient of metal exposure in 31 field-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Beaumelle, Léa; Gimbert, Frédéric; Hedde, Mickaël; Guérin, Annie; Lamy, Isabelle

    2015-07-01

    Subcellular fractionation of metals in organisms was proposed as a better way to characterize metal bioaccumulation. Here we report the impact of a laboratory exposure to a wide range of field-metal contaminated soils on the subcellular partitioning of metals in the earthworm Aporrectodea caliginosa. Soils moderately contaminated were chosen to create a gradient of soil metal availability; covering ranges of both soil metal contents and of several soil parameters. Following exposure, Cd, Pb and Zn concentrations were determined both in total earthworm body and in three subcellular compartments: cytosolic, granular and debris fractions. Three distinct proxies of soil metal availability were investigated: CaCl2-extractable content dissolved content predicted by a semi-mechanistic model and free ion concentration predicted by a geochemical speciation model. Subcellular partitionings of Cd and Pb were modified along the gradient of metal exposure, while stable Zn partitioning reflected regulation processes. Cd subcellular distribution responded more strongly to increasing soil Cd concentration than the total internal content, when Pb subcellular distribution and total internal content were similarly affected. Free ion concentrations were better descriptors of Cd and Pb subcellular distribution than CaCl2 extractable and dissolved metal concentrations. However, free ion concentrations and soil total metal contents were equivalent descriptors of the subcellular partitioning of Cd and Pb because they were highly correlated. Considering lowly contaminated soils, our results raise the question of the added value of three proxies of metal availability compared to soil total metal content in the assessment of metal bioavailability to earthworm.

  9. The grain size of fluvial and hillslope sediments across an erosion gradient in the Feather River Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudd, Simon; Attal, Mikael; Hurst, Martin; Yoo, Kyungsoo; Weinman, Beth; Naylor, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Grain size in hillslope sediments is conditioned by erosion rates and processes, and these sediments are then delivered to channels. How the channels respond to and modify these characteristics dictate whether rivers aggrade or erode their substrate. We investigate how the grain size of hillslope and fluvial sediments respond to an erosion gradient within the Feather River basin in northern California. Studied basins are underlain exclusively by tonalite lithology. Erosion rates vary over an order of magnitude, from >250 mm ka-1 in the Feather River canyon to <15 mm ka-1 on an adjacent low-relief plateau. Hillslope particle size increases with increasing steepness, a proxy for erosion rate. We hypothesise that, in our soil samples, the measured 10-fold increase in D50 and doubling of the amount of fragments larger than 1 mm when slope increases from 0.38 to 0.83 m m-1 is due to a decrease in the residence time of rock fragments, causing particles to be exposed for shorter periods of time to processes that can reduce grain size. For slopes in excess of 0.7 m m-1, landslides and scree cones supply much coarser sediment to rivers, with D50 and D84 more than one order of magnitude larger than in soils. In the tributary basins of the Feather River, a prominent knickpoint separates the rapidly eroding canyon from the slowly eroding plateau. Downstream of the break in slope, fluvial sediment grain size increases, due to an increase in flow competence (mostly driven by channel steepening) as well as a change in sediment source and in sediment dynamics: on the plateau, rivers transport easily mobilized fine-grained sediment derived exclusively from soils. In the Feather River Canyon, mass wasting processes supply a wide range of grain sizes that rivers entrain selectively, depending on the competence of their flow.

  10. Fate of a metal-resistant inoculum in contaminated and pristine soils assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen, J.R.; Chang, Y.J.; MacNaughton, S.J.; Leung, K.T.; Flemming, C.A. . Center for Environmental Biotechnology); Whitaker, S.L.; Hicks, C.L. ); White, D.C. . Center for Environmental Biotechnology Oak Ridge National Lab., TN . Environmental Sciences Div.)

    1999-06-01

    Cesium, cadmium, cobalt, and strontium are four contaminants frequently found in soils at biotoxic levels. Introduction of certain nongenetically modified bacteria has been frequently suggested as a method for the immobilization of heavy metal contaminants in soil, thereby reducing runoff and bioavailability. In this study, the authors have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to track the survival of the five bacterial species added to soil microcosms with and without the addition of a mixture of these metals. The PCR primers targeted conserved regions of the 165 rDNA molecular present in all bacteria. The reaction products were shown to reflect the relative abundance of the bacteria both in mixtures of pure cultures and against a background of all the eubacterial species present in the soil following inoculation. Three of the species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa FRD-1, Shewanella putrifaciens 200, and Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough) decreased rapidly following inoculation into both soils. The proportion of Alcaligenes eutrophus CH34 remained at a constant level throughout the 8-week experiment in both soil treatments. Sphingomonas aromaticivorans B0695 showed toxic metal-dependent survival in that its relative abundance dropped rapidly in pristine soil but remained at approximately inoculation levels throughout the experiment in contaminated microcosms.

  11. Surficial geologic maps along the riparian zone of the Animas River and its headwater tributaries, Silverton to Durango, Colorado, with upper Animas River watershed gradient profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blair, R.W.; Yager, D.B.; Church, S.E.

    2002-01-01

    This product consists of Adobe Acrobat .PDF format documents for 10 surficial geologic strip maps along the Animas River watershed from its major headwater tributaries, south to Durango, Colorado. The Animas River originates in the San Juan Mountains north of the historic mining town of Silverton, Colorado. The surficial geologic maps identify surficial deposits, such as flood-plain and terrace gravels, alluvial fans, glacial till, talus, colluvium, landslides, and bogs. Sixteen primary units were mapped that included human-related deposits and structures, eight alluvial, four colluvial, one glacial, travertine deposits, and undifferentiated bedrock. Each of the surficial geologic strip maps has .PDF links to surficial geology photographs, which enable the user to take a virtual tour of these deposits. Geochemical data collected from mapped surficial deposits that pre- and postdate mining activity have aided in determining the geochemical baseline in the watershed. Several photographs with their corresponding geochemical baseline profiles are accessible through .PDF links from several of the maps. A single coverage for all surficial deposits mapped is included as an ArcInfo shape file as an Arc Export format .e00 file. A gradient map for major headwater tributary streams to the Animas River is also included. The gradient map has stream segments that are color-coded based on relative variations in slope and .PDF format links to each stream gradient profile. Stream gradients were derived from U.S. Geological Survey 10-m digital elevation model data. This project was accomplished in support of the U.S. Geological Survey's Abandoned Mine Lands Initiative in the San Juan Mountains, Colorado.

  12. Reconnaissance of contaminants in selected wastewater-treatment-plant effluent and stormwater runoff entering the Columbia River, Columbia River Basin, Washington and Oregon, 2008-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morace, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    With a better understanding of the presence of these contaminants in the environment, future work can focus on developing research to characterize the effects of these contaminants on aquatic life and prioritize toxic-reduction efforts for the Columbia River Basin.

  13. Oxidation of retinoic acids in hepatic microsomes of wild bullfrogs Lithobates catesbeianus environmentally-exposed to a gradient of agricultural contamination.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Janik; Filion, Sébastien; Spear, Philip; Paquin, Joanne; Boily, Monique

    2012-07-01

    Agricultural contaminants are suspected of contributing to the increased incidence of deformities and the decline of amphibians populations worldwide. Many authors have further suggested that a retinoid effect could be implicated in teratogenic mechanisms since the reported deformities resemble those caused by abnormal levels of retinoic acid (RA). We previously reported altered retinoid concentrations in male bullfrogs from the Yamaska River basin (Québec, Canada) associated with moderate-to-high agricultural activity, and the findings were consistent with a possible effect on hepatic RA oxidation. An in vitro assay was therefore optimized and hepatic microsomal RA oxidation in bullfrogs was found to be quite different from that of other vertebrates. With either all-transRA (atRA) or 13cisRA as the substrate, the major metabolite generated was at4-oxo-RA. The reaction with 13cisRA as substrate, markedly greater compared with atRA, was enhanced in the presence of a reducing agent and inhibited by cytochrome P450 inhibitors in a dose-dependent manner. Hepatic RA oxidation in male bullfrogs showed significant differences between sites with no clear relationship to a gradient of agricultural activity or 13cis-4-oxo-RA quantified in plasma. In contrast, the in vitro RA oxidation in females increased with the levels of contamination and coincided in vivo with higher plasma 13cis-4-oxo-RA concentration. The levels of circulating 4-oxo-derivatives could be influenced by hepatic RA oxidative metabolism as well as isomerization conditions or RA precursor levels.

  14. Dredging as remediation for white phosphorus contamination at Eagle River Flats, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, M.R.; Collins, C.M.

    1998-08-01

    The Eagle River Flats impact area is a Ft. Richardson Superfund site. It is a salt marsh that is contaminated with white phosphorus (WP), and remediation of sediments in permanently ponded areas may require dredging. A remotely piloted dredging system was designed, constructed, and deployed at the Flats as part of the overall site remediation feasibility study. Experience gained over two years of engineering study and contract operation indicates that, although feasible and effective, this alternative is slow, difficult, and very expensive.

  15. [Contamination characteristics and source analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in multimedium in karst underground river].

    PubMed

    Lu, Li; Wang, Zhe; Pei, Jian-Guo

    2015-03-01

    In order to understand the contamination characteristics of PAHs in different environmental mediums of karst underground river, the authors chose the Qingshuiquan underground river as the study object. Based on the data of air, groundwater, sediment and soil samples collected during the same period from 2013 to 2014, contrastive analysis was conducted in light of the component spectra, the distribution features and the characteristic ratios as well as the chemical and physical properties of 16 kinds of PAHs. The results showed that 3 kinds of PAHs with 2-3 rings (naphthalenes, phenanthrene and fluoranthene) were dominant in the air and underground river water, which accounted for 71.66% and 54.84% of the total PAHs. And PAHs with 4-6 rings were dominant in the soil and sediment of the underground river, which accounted for 54.26% and 65.06% of the total .PAHs. The distribution of PAHs in environmental mediums along the underground river indicated that the mean concentration PAHs in upstream area was less than that of midstream, and that of midstream was less than that of downstream, because of pollution discharge and absorption. The ratios of specific PAHs indicated that the PAHs sources in upstream rural area mainly came from the combustion of grassy, wood and coal, the PAHs sources in Ganhuai village were mainly originated from petroleum, and the PAHs sources in the outlet of the underground river mainly came from both petroleum and its combustion.

  16. Histologic, immunologic and endocrine biomarkers indicate contaminant effects in fishes of the Ashtabula River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iwanowicz, L.R.; Blazer, V.S.; Hitt, N.P.; McCormick, S.D.; Devault, D.S.; Ottinger, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    The use of fish as sentinels of aquatic ecosystem health is a biologically relevant approach to environmental monitoring and assessment. We examined the health of the Ashtabula River using histologic, immunologic, and endocrine biomarkers in brown bullhead (BB; Ameiurus nebulosus) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and compared fish collected from a reference site (Conneaut Creek). Seasonal analysis was necessary to distinguish differences in fish between the two rivers. Overall BB from the Ashtabula River had a lower condition factor and significantly more macrophage aggregates than those from the reference site. Reduced bactericidal and cytotoxic-cell activity was observed in anterior kidney leukocytes from both BB and largemouth bass from the Ashtabula River. Lower plasma thyroxine and triiodo-L-thyronine in both species in the Ashtabula River indicated disruption of the thyroid axis. Differences in physiological biomarker responses were supported by body burden chemical concentrations when data were analyzed on a seasonal basis. The use of two fish species added a level of rigor that demonstrated biological effects were not exclusive to a single species. The results provide strong evidence that contaminants have affected fish in the Ashtabula River, a Great Lakes Area of Concern, and provide a baseline by which to evaluate remediation activities.

  17. The Farther the Better: Effects of Multiple Environmental Variables on Reef Fish Assemblages along a Distance Gradient from River Influences

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Leonardo M.; Teixeira-Neves, Tatiana P.; Pereira-Filho, Guilherme H.; Araújo, Francisco G.

    2016-01-01

    The conservation and management of site-attached assemblages of coastal reefs are particularly challenging because of the tremendous environmental variation that exists at small spatial scales. In this sense, understanding the primary sources of variation in spatial patterns of the biota is fundamental for designing effective conservation policies. We investigated spatial variation in fish assemblages around the windward and leeward sides of coastal islands situated across a gradient of riverine influence (13 km in length). Specifically, relationships between rocky reef fish assemblages and benthic, topographic and physical predictors were assessed. We hypothesized that river induced disturbances may overcome local habitat features in modeling spatial patterns of fish distribution. Fish assemblages varied primarily due to the strong directional gradient of riverine influence (22.6% of the estimated components of variation), followed by topographic complexity (15%), wave exposure (9.9%), and benthic cover (8%). The trophic structure of fish assemblages changed from having a high abundance of invertebrate feeders in macroalgae-dominated reefs close to river mouths to a high proportion of herbivores, planktivores and invertebrate feeder species in reefs with large boulders covered by epilithic algal matrices, as the distance from rivers increased. This gradient led to an increase of 4.5-fold in fish richness and fish trophic group diversity, 11-fold in fish biomass and 10-fold in fish abundance. Our results have implications for the conservation and monitoring of assemblages patchily distributed at small spatial scales. The major role of distance from river influences on fish assemblages rather than benthic cover and topographic complexity suggest that managing land-based activities should be a conservation priority toward reef restoration. PMID:27907017

  18. Mercury contamination in fish in midcontinent great rivers of the United States: Importance of species traits and environmental factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg concentrations. Concentrations were generally lower than th...

  19. Mercury Contamination in Fish in Midcontinent Great Rivers of the United States: Importance of Species Traits and Environmental Factors

    EPA Science Inventory

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg accumulation. Concentrations were generally lower (80% of ...

  20. CROSS-INDUCTION OF PYRENE AND PHENANTHRENE IN MYCOBACTERIUM SP. ISOLATED FROM POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATED RIVER SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading culture enriched from contaminated river sediments and a Mycobacterium sp. isolated from the enrichment were tested to investigate the possible synergistic and antagonistic interactions affecting the degradation of pyrene in the p...

  1. Microbial communities along biogeochemical gradients in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Karolin; Kleinsteuber, Sabine; Schleinitz, Kathleen M; Fetzer, Ingo; Spott, Oliver; Stange, Florian; Lohse, Ute; Franz, Janett; Neumann, Franziska; Gerling, Sarah; Schmidt, Christian; Hasselwander, Eyk; Harms, Hauke; Wendeberg, Annelie

    2013-09-01

    Micro-organisms are known to degrade a wide range of toxic substances. How the environment shapes microbial communities in polluted ecosystems and thus influences degradation capabilities is not yet fully understood. In this study, we investigated microbial communities in a highly complex environment: the capillary fringe and subjacent sediments in a hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer. Sixty sediment sections were analysed using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) fingerprinting, cloning and sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes, complemented by chemical analyses of petroleum hydrocarbons, methane, oxygen and alternative terminal electron acceptors. Multivariate statistics revealed concentrations of contaminants and the position of the water table as significant factors shaping the microbial community composition. Micro-organisms with highest T-RFLP abundances were related to sulphate reducers belonging to the genus Desulfosporosinus, fermenting bacteria of the genera Sedimentibacter and Smithella, and aerobic hydrocarbon degraders of the genus Acidovorax. Furthermore, the acetoclastic methanogens Methanosaeta, and hydrogenotrophic methanogens Methanocella and Methanoregula were detected. Whereas sulphate and sulphate reducers prevail at the contamination source, the detection of methane, fermenting bacteria and methanogenic archaea further downstream points towards syntrophic hydrocarbon degradation.

  2. Analysis of groundwater contamination using concentration-time series recorded during an integral pumping test: bias introduced by strong concentration gradients within the plume.

    PubMed

    Zeru, Allelign; Schäfer, Gerhard

    2005-12-01

    When only few monitoring wells are available to assess the extent and level of groundwater contamination, inversion of concentration breakthrough curves acquired during an integral pumping test can be used as an alternative quantification method. The idea is to use concentration-time series recorded during integral pumping tests through an inversion technique to estimate contaminant mass fluxes crossing a control plane. In this paper, we examine how a longitudinal concentration gradient along a contaminant plume length scale affects the estimated inversed-concentration distribution and its associated mass flux. The analytically inversed-concentration distribution at the imaginary control plane (ICP) is compared to a numerically generated concentration distribution, treating the latter one as a "real contaminant plume" characterized by the presence of a longitudinal concentration gradient. It is found that the analytically inversed-concentration can lead to overestimation or underestimation of concentration distribution values depending on the transport time period and dispersivity values. At lower dispersivity values, with shorter transport time periods, the analytically inversed-concentration distribution overestimates the "real" concentration distribution. A better fit of the estimated concentration distribution to the "real" one is observed when the transport time period increases, i.e. when the advective front has already crossed the ICP. However, for higher dispersivity values, underestimation of the real concentration distribution is observed. Deviation of the inversed-concentration distribution from the "real" one is assessed for a site-specific concentration gradient term. A concentration gradient adjusted contaminant mass flux is thus formulated to evaluate groundwater contamination levels at a given time period through an ICP. This concentration gradient ratio can indicate whether the ICP is well positioned to evaluate accurately contaminant mass fluxes

  3. The Speciation of Groundwater Contaminated with Coal Pile Leachate at the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, M.E.; Nichols, R.L.

    1995-05-15

    Modeling the transport of contaminant metals and designing systems for their remediation requires an understanding of the metal`s speciation. Thus, analysis of contaminant speciation and evaluation of the processes that can change the speciation should be done during characterization of the contaminated site. This approach is being used at the Savannah River Site for a metals contaminated site that will serve as a test platform for metals remediation technologies. The site is adjacent to a coal storage pile and the basin that contains the coal pile runoff. A network of well clusters allows definition of the plume, including profiles of contamination with depth. The groundwater is acidic (pH {approx} 2) and contains high concentrations of sulfate (up to 2300 mg/l) and metals, with chromium, nickel, cadmium and lead exceeding drinking water standards. Aluminum and total iron concentrations range up to 1326 mg/l and 7991 mg/l, respectively. Speciation calculations on dissolved contaminants indicate that as much as 65% of the lead, 54% of the cadmium, and 34% of the nickel may be present in sulfate complexes. Chromium occurs predominantly as Cr{sup +3}. There is evidence that some contaminant metals may be associated with colloidal material. Contamination in the groundwater is stratified with concentrations decreasing over a depth range of 3 meters (10 feet). Fluid-rock interactions explain the non-uniform behavior of dissolved components with depth. Mass balance considerations suggest that the interactions are dominated by Kaolinite dissolution coupled with precipitation of phases containing aluminum, ferric iron, silica, and sulfate, as well as co- precipitation of contaminant metals.

  4. Diversity and Distribution of Arsenic-Related Genes Along a Pollution Gradient in a River Affected by Acid Mine Drainage.

    PubMed

    Desoeuvre, Angélique; Casiot, Corinne; Héry, Marina

    2016-04-01

    Some microorganisms have the capacity to interact with arsenic through resistance or metabolic processes. Their activities contribute to the fate of arsenic in contaminated ecosystems. To investigate the genetic potential involved in these interactions in a zone of confluence between a pristine river and an arsenic-rich acid mine drainage, we explored the diversity of marker genes for arsenic resistance (arsB, acr3.1, acr3.2), methylation (arsM), and respiration (arrA) in waters characterized by contrasted concentrations of metallic elements (including arsenic) and pH. While arsB-carrying bacteria were representative of pristine waters, Acr3 proteins may confer to generalist bacteria the capacity to cope with an increase of contamination. arsM showed an unexpected wide distribution, suggesting biomethylation may impact arsenic fate in contaminated aquatic ecosystems. arrA gene survey suggested that only specialist microorganisms (adapted to moderately or extremely contaminated environments) have the capacity to respire arsenate. Their distribution, modulated by water chemistry, attested the specialist nature of the arsenate respirers. This is the first report of the impact of an acid mine drainage on the diversity and distribution of arsenic (As)-related genes in river waters. The fate of arsenic in this ecosystem is probably under the influence of the abundance and activity of specific microbial populations involved in different As biotransformations.

  5. Impact of rapid urbanisation and industrialisation on river sediment metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Hayzoun, H; Garnier, C; Durrieu, G; Lenoble, V; Bancon-Montigny, C; Ouammou, A; Mounier, S

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at evidencing contaminant inputs from a rapidly growing population and the accompanying anthropogenic activities to river sediments. The Fez metropolitan area and its impacts on the Sebou's sediments (the main Moroccan river) were chosen as a case study. The Fez agglomeration is surrounded by the river Fez, receiving the wastewaters of this developing city and then flowing into the Sebou. The sediment cores from the Fez and Sebou Rivers were extracted and analysed for major elements, butyltins and toxic metals. Normalised enrichment factors and geoaccumulation index were calculated. Toxicity risk was assessed by two sets of sediment quality guideline (SQG) indices. A moderate level of contamination by butyltins was observed, with monobutyltin being the dominant species across all sites and depths. The lowest level of metal pollution was identified in the Sebou's sediments in upstream of Fez city, whilst the Fez' sediments were heavily polluted and exhibited bottom-up accumulation trends, which is a clear signature of recent inputs from the untreated wastewaters of Fez city. Consequently, the sediments of Fez and Sebou at the downstream of the confluence were found to be potentially toxic, according to the SQG levels. This finding is concerned with aquatic organisms, as well as to the riverside population, which is certainly exposed to these pollutants through the daily use of water. This study suggests that although Morocco has adopted environmental regulations aiming at restricting pollutant discharges into the natural ecosystems, such regulations are neither well respected by the main polluters nor efficiently enforced by the authorities.

  6. Reducing monitoring costs in industrially contaminated rivers: cluster and regression analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Ruman, M; Olkowska, E; Kozioł, K; Absalon, D; Matysik, M; Polkowska, Ż

    2014-03-01

    Monitoring contamination in river water is an expensive procedure, particularly for developing countries where pollution is a significant problem. This study was conducted to provide a pollution monitoring strategy that reduces the cost of laboratory analysis. The new monitoring strategy was designed as a result of cluster and regression analysis on field data collected from an industrially influenced river. Pollution sources in the study site were coal mining, metallurgy, chemical industry, and metropolitan sewage. This river resembles those in other areas of the world, including developing countries where environmental monitoring is financially constrained. Data were collected on variability of contaminant concentrations during four seasons at the same points on tributaries of the river. The variables described in the study are pH, electrical conductivity, inorganic ions, trace elements, and selected organic pollutants. These variables were divided into groups using cluster analysis. These groups were then tested using regression models to identify how the behavior of one variable changes in relation to another. It was found that up to 86.8% of variability of one parameter could be determined by another in the dataset. We adopted 60, 65, and 70% determination levels () for accepting a regression model. As a result, monitoring could be reduced by 15 (60% level) and 10 variables (65 and 70%) out of 43, which comprises 35 and 23% of the monitored variable total. Cost reduction would be most effective if trace elements or organic pollutants were excluded from monitoring because these are the constituents most expensive to analyze.

  7. Structure of Sediment-Associated Microbial Communities along a Heavy-Metal Contamination Gradient in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Gillan, David C.; Danis, Bruno; Pernet, Philippe; Joly, Guillemette; Dubois, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Microbial community composition and structure were characterized in marine sediments contaminated for >80 years with cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. Four sampling sites that encompass a wide range of sediment metal loads were compared in a Norwegian fjord (Sørfjord). HCl-extractable metals and organic matter constantly decreased from the most contaminated site (S1) to the control site (S4). All sampling sites presented low polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations (Σ7PCB < 7.0 ng g [dry weight]−1). The biomass ranged from 4.3 × 108 to 13.4 × 108 cells g (dry weight) of sediments−1 and was not correlated to metal levels. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis indicated that diversity was not affected by the contamination. The majority of the partial 16S rRNA sequences obtained were classified in the γ- and δ-Proteobacteria and in the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides (CFB) bacteria. Some sequences were closely related to other sequences from polluted marine sediments. The abundances of seven phylogenetic groups were determined by using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). FISH was impaired in S1 by high levels of autofluorescing particles. For S2 to S4, the results indicated that the HCl-extractable Cu, Pb, and Zn were negatively correlated with the abundance of γ-Proteobacteria and CFB bacteria. δ-Proteobacteria were not correlated with HCl-extractable metals. Bacteria of the Desulfosarcina-Desulfococcus group were detected in every site and represented 6 to 14% of the DAPI (4′,6′-diamidino-2-phenylindole) counts. Although factors other than metals may explain the distribution observed, the information presented here may be useful in predicting long-term effects of heavy-metal contamination in the marine environment. PMID:15691917

  8. Snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as biomonitors of lead contamination of the Big River in Missouri`s Old Lead Belt

    SciTech Connect

    Overmann, S.R.; Krajicek, J.J.

    1995-04-01

    The usefulness of common snapping turtles (Chelydra serpentina) as biomonitors of lead (Pb) contamination of aquatic ecosystems was assessed. Thirty-seven snapping turtles were collected from three sites on the Big River, an Ozarkian stream contaminated with Pb mine tailings. Morphometric measurements, tissue Pb concentrations (muscle, blood, bone, carapace, brain, and liver), {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase ({delta}-ALAD) activity, hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma glucose, osmolality, and chloride ion content were measured. The data showed no effects of Pb contamination on capture success or morphological measurements. Tissue Pb concentrations were related to capture location. Hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma glucose, and plasma chloride ion content were not significantly different with respect to capture location. The {delta}-ALAD activity levels were decreased in turtles taken from contaminated sites. Lead levels in the Big River do not appear to be adversely affecting the snapping turtles of the river. Chelydra serpentina is a useful species for biomonitoring of Pb-contaminated aquatic environments.

  9. Epilithic algae distribution along a chemical gradient in a naturally acidic river, Río Agrio (Patagonia, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Baffico, Gustavo D

    2010-04-01

    The epilithic algae distribution along a pH gradient and the relationship between the chemical gradient and biomass development were studied in Río Agrio, a naturally acidic river located in Patagonia (Argentina). The epilithic community was monitored during the summer of three consecutive years in sites located above and below the entrance of tributaries. The epilithic community showed differences between sites based on the chemical composition of the water and the precipitates that appear on the streambed of the river. The lowest biomass, diversity, and number of species were found at the most extreme part of the river in terms of pH (ca. 2) and element concentrations. Euglena mutabilis was the dominant species in this section of the river. As pH increased (ca. 3), the community changed to be dominated by filamentous green algae (Ulothrix spp., Mougeotia sp., Klebsormidium sp.) showing luxuriant growths in terms of biomass. With the inflow of a neutral tributary, the pH of Río Agrio increased above 3, and the precipitates of orange-red iron hydroxides appeared. The algal community was not affected by these precipitates or the low P concentrations, along the next 30 km of river downstream from this site. The apparent physical stress that the precipitates impose on algae is in fact a dynamic reservoir of P because diel cycle of Fe could be promoting precipitation and redissolution processes that binds and releases P from these precipitates. Where the pH increased above 6, precipitates of aluminum hydroxides appeared. At this site, the epilithic biomass and density decreased, some algae species changed, but the diversity and the number of species in general remained consistent with the upstream values. The physical stress of the Al precipitates on the algae is added to the chemical stress that represents the sequestering of P in these precipitates that are not redissolved, resulting P a limiting nutrient for algae growth.

  10. Contamination characteristics of organochlorine pesticides in multimatrix sampling of the Hanjiang River Basin, southeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia; Qi, Shihua; Yao, Jun; Yang, Dan; Xing, Xinli; Liu, Hongxia; Qu, Chengkai

    2016-11-01

    Hanjiang River, the second largest river in Guangdong Province, Southern China, is the primary source of drinking water for the cities of Chaozhou and Shantou. Our previous studies indicated that soils from an upstream catchment area of the Hanjiang River are moderately contaminated with organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), which can easily enter the river system via soil runoff. Therefore, OCPs, especially downstream drinking water sources, may pose harmful health and environmental risks. On the basis of this hypothesis, we measured the OCP concentrations in dissolved phase (DP), suspended particle matter (SPM), and surface sediment (SS) samples collected along the Hanjiang River Basin in Fujian and Guangdong provinces. OCP residue levels were quantified through electron capture detector gas chromatography to identify the OCP sources and deposits. The concentration ranges of OCPs in DP, SPM, and SS, respectively, were 2.11-12.04 (ng/L), 6.60-64.77 (ng/g), and 0.60-4.71 (ng/g) for hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and 2.49-4.77 (ng/L), 6.75-80.19 (ng/g), and 0.89-252.27 (ng/g) for dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs). Results revealed that DDTs represent an ecotoxicological risk to the Hanjiang River Basin, as indicated by international sediment guidelines. This study serves as a basis for the future management of OCP concentrations in the Hanjiang River Basin, and exemplifies a pattern of OCP movement (like OCP partition among multimedia) from upstream to downstream. This pattern may be observed in similar rivers in China.

  11. Contaminant removal by wastewater treatment plants in the Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbash, Jack E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Wagner, Richard J.; Wolanek, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Human activities in most areas of the developed world typically release nutrients, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides, and other contaminants into the environment, many of which reach freshwater ecosystems. In urbanized areas, wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are critical facilities for collecting and reducing the amounts of wastewater contaminants (WWCs) that ultimately discharge to rivers, coastal areas, and groundwater. Most WWTPs use multiple methods to remove contaminants from wastewater. These include physical methods to remove solid materials (primary treatment), biological and chemical methods to remove most organic matter (secondary treatment), advanced methods to reduce the concentrations of various contaminants such as nitrogen, phosphorus and (or) synthetic organic compounds (tertiary treatment), and disinfection prior to discharge (Metcalf and Eddy, Inc., 1979). This study examined the extent to which 114 organic WWCs were removed by each of three WWTPs, prior to discharge to freshwater and marine ecosystems, in a rapidly developing area in northwestern Washington State. Removal percentages for each WWC were estimated by comparing the concentrations measured in the WWTP influents with those measured in the effluents. The investigation was carried out in the 700-mi2Stillaguamish River Basin, the fifth largest watershed that discharges to Puget Sound (fig. 1).

  12. How do long-term development and periodical changes of river-floodplain systems affect the fate of contaminants? Results from European rivers.

    PubMed

    Lair, G J; Zehetner, F; Fiebig, M; Gerzabek, M H; van Gestel, C A M; Hein, T; Hohensinner, S; Hsu, P; Jones, K C; Jordan, G; Koelmans, A A; Poot, A; Slijkerman, D M E; Totsche, K U; Bondar-Kunze, E; Barth, J A C

    2009-12-01

    In many densely populated areas, riverine floodplains have been strongly impacted and degraded by river channelization and flood protection dikes. Floodplains act as buffers for flood water and as filters for nutrients and pollutants carried with river water and sediment from upstream source areas. Based on results of the EU-funded "AquaTerra" project (2004-2009), we analyze changes in the dynamics of European river-floodplain systems over different temporal scales and assess their effects on contaminant behaviour and ecosystem functioning. We find that human-induced changes in the hydrologic regime of rivers have direct and severe consequences on nutrient cycling and contaminant retention in adjacent floodplains. We point out the complex interactions of contaminants with nutrient availability and other physico-chemical characteristics (pH, organic matter) in determining ecotoxicity and habitat quality, and draw conclusions for improved floodplain management.

  13. Fate and transport of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate in a sewage- contaminated aquifer: A comparison of natural-gradient pulsed tracer tests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krueger, C.J.; Barber, L.B.; Metge, D.W.; Field, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Two natural-gradient tracer tests were conducted to determine the transport and biodegradation behavior of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) surfactant under in situ conditions in a sewage-contaminated aquifer. The tests were conducted in two biogeochemically distinct zones of the aquifer: (1) an aerobic uncontaminated zone (oxic zone) and (2) a moderately aerobic, sewage-contaminated zone (transition zone). Chromatographic separation of the surfactant mixture was observed in both zones and attributed to the retardation of the longer alkyl chain homologues during transport. No significant loss of IAS mass was observed for the oxic zone while 20% of the LAS mass injected into the transition zone was removed due to biodegradation. Biodegradation preferentially removed the longer alkyl chain homologues and the external isomers (i.e., 2- and 3-phenyl). The removal of LAS mass coincided with a decrease in dissolved oxygen concentrations, the appearance of LAS metabolites, and an increase in the number of free-living bacteria with a concomitant change in bacteria morphology. The formation of LAS metabolites accounted for 86% of the LAS mass removed in the transition zone. Over the duration of the test, sorption and biodegradation enriched the LAS mixture in the more water-soluble and biologically resistant components.Two natural-gradient tracer tests were conducted to determine the transport and biodegradation behavior of linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LAS) surfactant under in situ conditions in a sewage-contaminated aquifer. The tests were conducted in two biogeochemically distinct zones of the aquifer: (1) an aerobic uncontaminated zone (oxic zone) and (2) a moderately aerobic, sewage-contaminated zone (transition zone). Chromatographic separation of the surfactant mixture was observed in both zones and attributed to the retardation of the longer alkyl chain homologues during transport. No significant loss of LAS mass was observed for the oxic zone while 20% of the LAS

  14. Selected trace-element and organic contaminants in the streambed sediments of the Potomac River Basin, August 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerhart, James M.; Blomquist, Joel D.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the occurrence and distribution of five selected contaminants in streambed sediments at 22 stream sites in the Potomac River Basin. Lead, mercury, and total DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) were detected at all sites, and chlordane and total PCB's (polychlorinated biphenyls) were detected at most sites. At six sites, streambed-sediment concentrations of contaminants were detected at levels with the potential to cause frequent adverse effects on aquatic organisms that live in the sediments. Chlordane was detected at these high levels at sampling sites on the Anacostia River, the North Branch Potomac River, Bull Run, and Accotink Creek; mercury was detected at these levels at sites on the South River and the South Fork Shenandoah River; and total PCB's were detected at these levels at the site on the South Fork Shenandoah River. The highest concentrations of all five contaminants generally occurred at sampling sites downstream from areas with industrial plants, urban centers, or orchard and agricultural activity. The occurrence of these contaminants in streambed sediments of the Potomac River Basin is of concern because the contaminants (1) are environmentally persistent, (2) are available for downstream transport during high streamflow periods, and (3) have the potential to cause adverse effects on the health of aquatic organisms and humans through bioaccumulation.

  15. Sediment deposition and inventory of chemical contaminants in the tidal Anacostia River, Washington, DC

    SciTech Connect

    Velinsky, D.J.; Wade, T.L.; Gammisch, B.; Cornwell, J.

    1995-12-31

    To determine the historical inputs and loads of sediment contaminants in the lower Anacostia River, six 3 meter gravity cores were collected in 1995. The down-core distributions of trace metals and organic contaminants (e.g., PCBs, DDTs, and PAHs) were determined. Dating of three cores using {sup 210}Pb indicate a substantial mixed layer in the upper 10 to 25 cm and an exponential {sup 210}Pb decrease to 3 meters. Sedimentation rates of 2 to 3 cm/yr were estimated and are in agreement with estimates based on pollen and sediment mass balance calculations. This suggests that bottom core sections are between 100 and 150 yrs old. However, contaminant levels were elevated in the bottom sections of most cores with levels of Pb, Cd, tPCBs, and tPAHs ranging from 23 to 610 {micro}g/g, 0.15 to 5.2 {micro}g/g, 3.9 to 1,745 ng/g, and 110 to 49,000 ng/g, respectively. These levels suggest either post-depositional migration of material or that {sup 210}Pb profiles are not representative of the true deposition. To help validate the {sup 210}Pb-age-depth profiles, the distribution of {sup 137}Cs is currently being determined for these cores. Generally, the depth distribution of most contaminants were surface maximum with lower concentrations at depth, or mid-depth maximum. However some cores had contaminant concentrations that increased with depth. The down core distributions and the results of the sub-bottom profiling will be used to help establish a better contaminant mass balance for the Anacostia River.

  16. Ground-water flow and contaminant transport at a radioactive-materials processing site, Wood River Junction, Rhode Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryan, Barbara J.; Kipp, Kenneth L.

    1997-01-01

    Liquid wastes from an enriched-uranium cold-scrap recovery plant at Wood River Junction, Rhode Island, were discharged to the environment through evaporation ponds and trenches from 1966 through 1980. Leakage from the ponds and trenches resulted in a plume of contaminated ground water extending northwestward to the Pawcatuck River through a highly permeable sand and gravel aquifer of glacial origin.

  17. Identifying Sources of Non-fallout Nuclear Contamination in Hudson River Sediments by Plutonium and Neptunium isotope ratios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, T. C.; Chillrud, S. N.

    2002-12-01

    In an effort to identify and characterize nuclear contaminants released from sources contained within the Hudson River drainage basin, Pu isotopes and 237Np have been measured in a series of sediment cores collected from various locations within the region. During the last several decades, the Hudson River has received input of radioactive contamination from several sources. The first and most significant, has been global fallout, which was a result of atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons primarily by governments of the United States and Former Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s. The second, is contamination resulting from reactor releases at the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant (IPNPP) located on the Hudson River about 35 miles north of New York City. This facility began operation in 1962. A third source of radioactive contamination to the region is contamination resulting from activities at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) located on the Mohawk River, which began operation in 1946. Our research entails identifying different sources of nuclear contamination by measurement of plutonium and neptunium isotopic ratios by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The isotopic composition of a nuclear contaminant is a sensitive indicator of its origin. By comparing the isotopic composition measured in fluvial sediments to mean values reported for global fallout (i.e. 240Pu/239Pu = 0.18 ñ 0.014, 237Np/239Pu = 0.48 ñ 0.07, and 241Pu/239Pu = .00194 ñ 00028) it is possible to identify contaminants as non-fallout in origin. To date, we have analyzed selected samples from 3 sediment cores collected from the following locations: 1) the Mohawk River downstream of KAPL, 2) the Hudson River above its confluence with the Mohawk River, and 3) the lower Hudson River at a location in close proximity to IPNPP. Isotopic analysis of sediments from the Mohawk River indicates contamination that is clearly non-fallout in origin (240Pu/239Pu ranges between 0

  18. Tracing the dispersion of sediment contaminated with fallout radionuclides along the main rivers draining the contaminated plume in Fukushima Prefecture (Japan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, O.; Patin, J.; Lefèvre, I.; Chartin, C.; Ayrault, S.; Bonté, Ph.; Onda, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident led to the release of important quantities of radionuclides into the environment. Several of those substances (e.g., Cs-134; Cs-137) strongly sorb onto soil particles. Resulting radiations lead to an external exposure threat associated with the spatial distribution of radionuclides. This threat, associated with the possibility of transfer of contamination to plants and direct ingestion of contaminated particles, will affect human activities such as agriculture, forest exploitation and fishing for long periods of time, depending on the half life of the radionuclides (e.g., 2 yrs for Cs-134; 30 yrs for Cs-137). Furthermore, sediment can be a preferential vector of contaminants in rivers, and its transfer can lead to the dispersion of radioactive contamination across larger areas over time. We present here preliminary results obtained during a field campaign conducted in November 2011 in a part of Fukushima Prefecture located in the main contamination plume and covering an area of about 5000 km2. We had the unique opportunity to measure and "trace" the dispersion of sediment contaminated with radionuclides shortly after the catastrophe. In total, 125 soil and sediment samples were collected along the main rivers of the area (i.e., Abukuma, Nitta, Mano, Kutchibuto and Hirose Rivers). This hydrological network drains the contamination plume located 20 to 80 km northwest of Fukushima Dai-ichi power plant. Furthermore, radiation dose rates were measured all throughout the field survey. Preliminary results show that, 8 months after the accident, radiation dose rates constitute a good proxy to trace contamination dispersion in the region, especially along rivers. Radiation dose rates varied between 0.5 µSv/h and 200 µSv/h in the field. Transfer of contaminated sediment has already started in rivers, and it was accelerated by the occurrence of violent typhoons in the region between July and October, 2011. Main gamma

  19. Food contamination from epoxy resins and organosols used as can coatings: analysis by gradient NPLC.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, M; Grob, K

    1998-07-01

    Normal phase LC with gradient elution enabled the analysis of a broadened range of oligomers of BADGE (Bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether) and Novolak compounds in canned foods, such as sea foods in oil, meat products and soups. A major component released from Bisphenol-A resins was identified as the cyclo-(Bisphenol-A monoglycidyl ether) dimer and was commonly present in foods at concentrations of around 1 mg/kg. For the epoxy Novolaks, concentrations of the three- to six-ring compounds often far exceeded those of BFDGE (Bisphenol-F diglycidyl ether) and reached 20 mg/kg in foods. A two-step acylation is proposed for the detection of epoxy components.

  20. Survey of Chemical Contaminants in the Hanalei River, Kaua'i, Hawai'i, 2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orazio, Carl E.; May, Thomas W.; Gale, Robert W.; Meadows, John C.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Echols, Kathy R.; Steiner, William W.M.; Berg, Carl J.

    2007-01-01

    The Hanalei River on the island of Kaua'i in Hawai'i was designated an American Heritage River in 1998, providing special attention to natural resource protection, economic revitalization, and historic and cultural preservation. Agricultural, urban, and tourism-related activities are potential sources of contamination within the Hanalei River watershed. The objective of this study was to measure certain persistent organic chemicals and elements in the Hanalei River. During a relatively low-flow period in December of 2001, samples of native Akupa sleeper fish (Eleotris sandwicensis), freshwater Asian clam (Corbicula fluminea), giant mud crab (Scylla serrata), surface water, and stream bed sediment were collected from a lower estuarine reach of the river near its mouth at Hanalei Bay and from an upper reach at the Hanalei National Wildlife Refuge. Samples were analyzed for residues of urban and agricultural chemicals including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and elements (including mercury, lead, cadmium, arsenic, and selenium). Organic contaminants were extracted from the samples with solvent, enriched, and then analyzed by gas chromatographic analysis with electron capture or mass spectrometric detection. Samples were acid-digested for semi-quantitative analysis for elements by inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and for quantitative analysis by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorinated biphenyls in biota, surface water, and bed sediment sampled from the Hanalei River ranged from nondetectable to very low levels. Polychlorinated biphenyls were below detection in all samples. Dieldrin, the only compound detected in the water samples, was present at very low concentrations of 1-2 nanograms per liter. Akupa sleeper fish and giant mud crabs from the lower reach ranged from 1 to 5 nanograms per gram (wet weight

  1. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in Hindon River sediments: a chemometric and geochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Chabukdhara, Mayuri; Nema, Arvind K

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the level of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in the surface sediments of the Hindon River, India that receives both treated and untreated municipal and industrial discharges generated in and around Ghaziabad, India. Mean metals concentrations (mg kg(-1)) were in the range of; Cu: 21.70-280.33, Cd: 0.29-6.29, Fe: 4151.75-17318.75, Zn: 22.22.50-288.29, Ni: 13.90-57.66, Mn: 49.55-516.97, Cr: 17.48-33.70 and Pb: 27.56-313.57 respectively. Chemometric analysis was applied to identify contribution sources by heavy metals while geochemical approaches (enrichment factor and geo-accumulation index) were exploited for the assessment of the enrichment and contamination level of heavy metals in the river sediments. Chemometric analysis suggested anthropic origin of Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, and Ni while Fe showed lithogenic origin. Mn and Cr was associated and controlled by mixed origin. Geochemical approach confirms the anthropogenic influence of heavy metal pollution in the river sediments. The study suggests that a complementary approach that integrates chemometric analysis, sediment quality criteria, and geochemical investigation should be considered in order to provide a more accurate appraisal of the heavy metal pollution in river sediments. Consequently, it may serve to undertake and design effective strategies and remedial measures to prevent further deterioration of the river ecosystem in future.

  2. MFO activity and contaminant analysis of overwintering juvenile chinook salmon in the Fraser River

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.; Glickman, B.; Addison, R.; Gordon, R.; Martens, D.

    1995-12-31

    Various organic contaminants, including some PAHs, PCBs and chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans, induce liver cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP 1A1) and its associated enzyme activity (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase; EROD). In this study, analysis of carcasses for dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and PCBs were compared to liver MFO activity. Juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were sampled in March, 1994 at a reference site on the Nechako River free from the influence of industrial activity and at sites near Prince George, Stoner, Longbar and Soda Creek on the Fraser River, and on the Thompson River. Fish from the Nechako site had the lowest MFO activities, accompanied by the lowest whole body dioxin and furan concentrations. Fish from Longbar, Soda Creek and the Thompson River had the highest MFO activities. Fish from Prince George contained the highest dioxin concentrations, but furans and mono-ortho substituted PCBs were highest at the Soda Creek and Thompson sites. MFO activity correlated most strongly with PCB concentrations. The results of this study suggest that liver MFO activity in O. tshawytscha could be employed as one biological index of environmental quality in the Fraser River.

  3. Evaluation of an alternate method for sampling benthic macroinvertebrates in low-gradient streams sampled as part of the National Rivers and Streams Assessment.

    PubMed

    Flotemersch, Joseph E; North, Sheila; Blocksom, Karen A

    2014-02-01

    Benthic macroinvertebrates are sampled in streams and rivers as one of the assessment elements of the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Rivers and Streams Assessment. In a 2006 report, the recommendation was made that different yet comparable methods be evaluated for different types of streams (e.g., low gradient vs. high gradient). Consequently, a research element was added to the 2008-2009 National Rivers and Streams Assessment to conduct a side-by-side comparison of the standard macroinvertebrate sampling method with an alternate method specifically designed for low-gradient wadeable streams and rivers that focused more on stream edge habitat. Samples were collected using each method at 525 sites in five of nine aggregate ecoregions located in the conterminous USA. Methods were compared using the benthic macroinvertebrate multimetric index developed for the 2006 Wadeable Streams Assessment. Statistical analysis did not reveal any trends that would suggest the overall assessment of low-gradient streams on a regional or national scale would change if the alternate method was used rather than the standard sampling method, regardless of the gradient cutoff used to define low-gradient streams. Based on these results, the National Rivers and Streams Survey should continue to use the standard field method for sampling all streams.

  4. Reconstructing mercury contamination of a steep, gravel-bed river using reservoir theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skalak, K.; Pizzuto, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    We address a frequently encountered but largely unsolved problem: how to chronologically order geological samples without relative or absolute age dating. Mercury was released into the South River, Virginia, between 1930 and 1950 from a manufacturing process related to nylon production. 187 samples from 21 fine-grained deposits that formed in the lee of woody debris along a 20 km study reach record past mercury concentrations on suspended sediment carried by the South River. Only 15 radiometric dates are available, however, so concentrations cannot be ordered in time. Conceptually, we treat all of the deposits as a single reservoir exchanging contaminated sediments with the adjacent water column, and assume that the total sediment mass in storage and the distribution of sediment ages are time invariant. Using reservoir theory, our approach completely defines timescales of sediment and mercury reworking, allowing us to compute the preserved distribution of mercury concentrations in deposits from any time series of suspended sediment mercury concentrations. Reconstructed concentrations can be used to compute historic mercury fluxes if the discharge is known. Trial mercury concentration time series are considered to be consistent with our observational data if the predicted distribution of preserved concentrations is within ~ 1% (rms error) of the distribution observed in 2007. Many different histories fit our data, so we assume that peak contamination occurred sometime during the period of mercury use at the plant. Our model results demonstrate that concentrations have decreased by approximately 2 orders of magnitude since 1950. During years of peak contamination, a maximum of 900-1100 kg of mercury was stored in the deposits, compared to only 80 kg today. Simulations of future Hg removal suggest that 100-yr timescales will be needed for the South River to cleanse its channel perimeter of Hg-contaminated sediments through natural processes.

  5. Mercury induced community tolerance in microbial biofilms is related to pollution gradients in a long-term polluted river.

    PubMed

    Kovac Virsek, Manca; Hubad, Barbara; Lapanje, Ales

    2013-11-15

    The net toxicity of different forms of mercury, in the long-term during their transformation processes, leads to the selection of resistant bacterial cells and this result in community tolerance which is pollution induced. Accordingly, based on profiles of a bacterial community structure, analysis of Hg resistant culturable bacteria and quantification of merA genes, we assessed development of pollution induced community tolerance in a mercury-polluted gradient in the Idrijca River. TTGE analysis did not show effects of mercury pollution to bacterial community diversity, while quantification of merA genes showed that merA genes can be correlated precisely (R(2)=0.83) with the total concentration of mercury in the biofilm microbial communities in the pollution gradient.

  6. Using Stressor Gradients to Determine Reference Expectations for Great River Fish Assemblages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determining reference conditions for large and great rivers like the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers is difficult because there are few, if any, reaches in minimally disturbed condition. In this paper, we describe a method for determining internal reference conditions usin...

  7. Mercury contamination in the vicinity of a derelict chlor-alkali plant. Part I: sediment and water contamination of Lake Balkyldak and the River Irtysh.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Susanne M; Ilyushchenko, Mikhail A; Kamberov, Irken M; Tanton, Trevor W

    2007-08-01

    A mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant operated in Pavlodar, Northern Kazakhstan, for 18 years and caused widespread contamination of the surrounding environment. Untreated wastewater from the plant was discharged to Lake Balkyldak, a shallow impounded lake without an outlet. The nearby River Irtysh was also suspected to be impacted by mercury (Hg) via the transport of contaminated groundwater. We took sediment and water samples from both aquatic systems, and also sampled soils along the shoreline of the lake and in the Irtysh flood plain. Sediments from Lake Balkyldak were found to be very heavily contaminated, with Hg concentrations in the surface layer reaching up to approximately 1500 mg kg(-1) near the wastewater outfall pipe. The contaminated lake sediments are prone to wind-driven resuspension and are acting as a strong source of Hg to the water column. Unfiltered lake water samples taken in shallow areas within 10-15 m from the shoreline contained from 0.11 microg Hg L(-1) in the less contaminated northern part of the lake to 1.39 microg L(-1) near the pollutant outfall in the south (up to 7.3 microg L(-1) on windy days). Sediments from the River Irtysh were only slightly impacted, with maximum Hg concentrations of 0.046 mg kg(-1) in the old river channel and 0.36 mg kg(-1) in floodplain oxbow lakes. In water samples from the River Irtysh, Hg was generally not detected, although trace concentrations (3 to 9 ng L(-1)) were found in some samples taken from oxbow lakes. We conclude that the river is not significantly impacted by Hg, but the highly contaminated Lake Balkyldak poses a threat and is in need of remediation. Potential remediation options for the lake are reviewed and are discussed in the context of experiences made at other Hg-contaminated sites.

  8. Assessing the Effects of Bioturbation on Metal Bioavailability in Contaminated Sediments by Diffusive Gradients in Thin Films (DGT).

    PubMed

    Amato, Elvio D; Simpson, Stuart L; Remaili, Timothy M; Spadaro, David A; Jarolimek, Chad V; Jolley, Dianne F

    2016-03-15

    The burrowing and feeding activities of benthic organisms can alter metal speciation in sediments and affect an organisms' exposure to metals. Recently, the performance of the in situ technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) for predicting metal bioavailability has been investigated in response to the increasing demand of considering contaminant bioavailability in sediment quality assessments. In this study, we test the ability of the DGT technique for predicting the metal bioavailability in clean and contaminated sediments that are being subjected to varying degrees of sediments disturbance: low bioturbation (bivalve Tellina deltoidalis alone) and high bioturbation (bivalve and actively burrowing amphipod, Victoriopisa australiensis). Significant release of DGT-labile Cd, Ni, Pb, and Zn, but lower Cu and Fe, occurred in the pore and overlying waters of sediments exposed to high bioturbation conditions, resulting in higher bioaccumulation of zinc in bivalves. Strong relationships were found between bioaccumulation of Pb and Zn and time-integrated DGT-metal fluxes, whereas poor relationships were obtained using total or dilute-acid extractable metal concentrations. This results demonstrate that DGT is a useful tool for assessing metal bioavailability in sediments and can provide useful predictions of metal bioavailable to benthic organisms in dynamic sediment environments.

  9. Growth rate responses of Missouri and lower Yellowstone river fishes to a latitudinal gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pegg, M.A.; Pierce, C.L.

    2001-01-01

    Growth rate coefficients estimated for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus, emerald shiners Notropis atherinoides, freshwater drums Aplodinotus grunniens, river carpsuckers Carpiodes carpio and saugers Stizostedion canadense collected in 1996-1998 from nine river sections of the Missouri and lower Yellowstone rivers at two life-stages (young-of-the-year and age 1 + years) were significantly different among sections. However, they showed no river-wide latitudinal trend except for age 1 + years emerald shiners that did show a weak negative relation between growth and both latitude and length of growing season. The results suggest growth rates of fishes along the Missouri River system are complex and could be of significance in the management and conservation of fish communities in this altered system. ?? 2001 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Denitrification in nitrate-contaminated groundwater: Occurrence in steep vertical geochemical gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Howes, B.L.; Duff, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    A relatively narrow vertical zone (5-6 m thick) of NO3- containing groundwater was identified using multilevel sampling devices in a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, USA. The aquifer has been chronically contaminated by surface disposal of treated sewage 0.3 km upgradient from the study area. The NO3- zone was anoxic and contained high concentrations of N2O (16.5 ??M), suggesting that it was a zone of active denitrification. Denitrifying activity was confirmed with direct measurement using acetylene block incubations with aquifer core material; the peak rate was 2.4 nmol N reduced (g sed)-1 day-1. Concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon and N2 were close to atmospheric equilibrium in uncontaminated groundwater, but were more than 2 times higher within the contaminant plume. Excess CO2 and N2 suggested in situ formation with a stoichiometry of C and N mineralized via denitrification of 0.8 (C/N). Denitrification within the aquifer resulted in an increase in the natural ??15N of NO3- (from +13.6 to +42.0%.) and the N2 produced, with an isotopic enrichment factor, ??{lunate}, of -13.9%.. Vertical profiles of NH4+ and ??15N of NH4+ indicated that dissimilatory reduction of NO3- to NH4+ was also occurring but mass balance calculations indicated that denitrification was the predominant process. These results demonstrate that a combination approach using field mass balance, stable isotope analysis, and laboratory incubations yields useful insight as to the significance of denitrification in aquifer sediments and that closely spaced vertical sampling is necessary to adequately quantify the processes controlling C and N transport and transformation within these environments. ?? 1991.

  11. Evaluation of ecological risk of metal contamination in river Gomti, India: a biomonitoring approach.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sanjay Kumar; Chabukdhara, Mayuri; Kumar, Praveen; Singh, Jaswant; Bux, Faizal

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of heavy metal pollution in river Gomti and associated ecological risk. River water, sediments and locally abundant mollusk (Viviparus (V.) bengalensis) were sampled from six different sites and analyzed for seven metals: Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Copper (Cu), Manganese (Mn), Nickel (Ni), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn). Mean metal concentrations (mg/l) in river water were 0.024 for Cd, 0.063 for Cr, 0.022 for Cr, 0.029 for Mn, 0.044 for Ni, 0.018 for Pb and 0.067 for Zn. In river sediments, the concentrations (mg/kg dry wt) were 5.0 for Cd, 16.2 for Cr, 23.2 for Cr, 203.2 for Mn, 23.9 for Ni, 46.2 for Pb and 76.3 for Zn, while in V. bengalensis mean metal concentrations (mg/kg, dry wt) were 0.57 for Cd, 12.0 for Cr, 30.7 for Cu, 29.9 for Mn, 8.8 for Ni, 3.6 for Pb and 48.3 for Zn. Results indicated elevated concentrations of Cu, Zn and Mn in V. bengalensis as compared to other non-essential elements. Potential ecological risk (RI) in sediments showed high to very high metal contamination. Cluster analysis indicated that Pb, Zn, Cd and Ni in sediments may have anthropogenic sources. The findings thus suggest heavy metal contamination of river water and sediments have reached alarming levels, which is well corroborated by elevated level of metal accumulation in V. bengalensis.

  12. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Metals along a Salinity Gradient in a River Estuary of the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, S.; Xu, Y. J.

    2015-12-01

    Saltwater intrusion has become a significant problem for many coastal rivers due to global climate change and the continuous sea level rise. The flocculation of dissolved metals during estuarine mixing plays a critical role in self-purification of metals. A number of studies have investigated pH and salinity effects on metal mobility. Many of these studies were conducted in a laboratory setting. The reported field studies considered only few metals and their dynamics under marginal pH / salinity variation, typically over a short period of time. Since the spring of 2013, we have been conducting a study on spatiotemporal distribution of metals along a 90-km reach of the Calcasieu River estuary in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Monthly field trips were made to conduct in-situ measurements and collect water samples at six sites along the river. In addition, sediment samples from the riverbed surface were collected at the same sites four times to assess metal accumulation. Field measurements included water temperature, pH, salinity, and specific conductivity; Water samples were analyzed for concentration of a range of metals including Al, Ba, B, Cd, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, K, Si, Ag, Na, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn. The estuarine river reach showed a wide range of salinity and pH (salinity: 0.04 - 21.78 ppt; pH: 6.2-8.1), strongly affected by river hydrology and tidal mixing. Concentration and spatial distribution of the metals in river water show response to flow regimes from the low (400 cfs) to the intermediate (400-2600 cfs) and high flows. This paper presents the dynamics of the metals under varying flow, pH and salinity gradients over the seasons and discusses a potential "intrusion" of metal accumulation in riverbed upstream as sea level rise persists.

  13. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during high floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, Tatyana; Lepikhin, Anatoly; Parshakova, Yanina; Tiunov, Alexey

    2016-04-01

    Today, the potential impact of extremely high floods, which in the last years have become a rather frequent weather-related disaster, is the problem of primary concern. In studies of the potential impact of floods the emphasis is placed first of all on the estimation of possible flood zones and the analysis of the flow regimes in these zones. However, in some cases the hydrochemical parameters related to changes in the chemical composition of water are more important than the hydraulic parameters. It is generally believed that the higher is the flow rate, the more intensive is the process of dissolution, i.e. the lower is the concentration of limiting contaminants in water. However, this statement is valid provided that flooding does not activate new sources of water pollution such as contaminated floodplain water bodies located in the vicinity of water supply systems. Being quite reliable and safe at small and moderate discharges, in the case of extremely high level of river waters they become intensive sources of water pollution, essentially limiting the water consumption schedule for downstream water consumers. It should be noted that compared to the well-studied mechanisms of waste discharge due to failure of hydraulic engineering structures by flood waves, the mechanisms of pollutant washout from the contaminated floodplain water bodies by the flood waves is still poorly understood. We analyze the impacts of such weather-related events on the quality of water in the water intake system, taking as an example, the section of the Vyatka River located in the Prikamskaya lowland of the Russian Federation. The risk of river pollution due to washout from the contaminated floodplain water bodies during high floods is studied by hydrodynamical modeling in the framework of combined approach using one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic models are implemented and by in situ measurements. It is shown that during high floods the removal of pollutants from the

  14. Living in highly dynamic polluted river floodplains, do contaminants contribute to population and community effects?

    PubMed

    Klok, Chris; Kraak, Michiel H S

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to collect evidence for the effects of contaminants on biota in a highly dynamic river Rhine floodplain. To this purpose we reviewed the results of circa 10 studies performed in this floodplain. The floodplain was contaminated with elevated levels of cadmium, copper, PAHs, and PCBs and high levels of zinc which were at some sites above legislative values. The results showed that the present contaminants were accumulated by the floodplain inhabiting organisms, but meanwhile population and community effects were ambiguous. Only for the mayfly Ephoron virgo clear effects were detected at the level of the single floodplain. The absence of clear population and community effects is puzzling since at lower contaminant concentrations adverse effects were detected in other environments. Factors that may mask toxic effects include flooding and food quality and quantity. We conclude that given the site specific conditions, being an open, eutrophic system with a highly dynamic flooding pattern, assessment of the contribution of toxicants to observed population density or biomass and community composition requires 1] an increase in number of replicates; 2] a larger scale of investigation and 3] comparison to stable systems with comparable contamination levels.

  15. Reconstructing the small river basin sediment budget and associated particle-bound contaminants redistribution (Chern River, European Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Vladimir; Aseeva, Elena; Golosov, Valentin

    2015-04-01

    Reconstruction of the basin-scale sediment budget and associated particle-bound pollutants redistribution was carried out within the upper part of the Chern River basin (133 km2). It involved application of integrated approach based on use of several independent techniques. The study river basin is located on the border between the Orel and Kursk Regions of the Central European Russia nearby the Mikhailovskiy opencast iron ore mine and processing plant, which are believed to be the main local sources of air-borne pollutants. In addition, the basin was contaminated by radionuclide fallout after the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Combination of geomorphic, geochemical, soil survey and geodetic methods has allowed authors to evaluate dynamics of sediment and contaminants redistribution for the last 50 years (since the beginning of a mining activity) within the upper part of the basin upstream from the reservoir, located in the middle reach of the main valley. Main techniques applied were field description of soil or sediment sections, the 137Cs radioactive tracer (for estimation average soil loss rates from eroding cultivated hillslopes and for reconstruction of accumulation rates and sediment microstratigraphy for deposition locations such as main river floodplain and bottoms of small dry valleys), chemical analysis (content of selected heavy metals and As - both in mobile forms by atomic absorption spectroscopy and total by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, organic C content, pH), geomorphic and detailed geodetic survey of selected key sections of the Chern River floodplain, calculation of average soil erosion rates for cultivated area of the studied part of the basin by the empirical model. In addition, two detailed bottom sediment cores were taken from the reservoir bottom which intercepts practically all the sediment delivered from the upper part of the basin. Integrating the obtained data, it has been found out that substantial changes of the sediment budget took

  16. Lead poisoning of waterfowl by contaminated sediment in the Coeur D'Alene River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sileo, L.; Creekmore, L.H.; Audet, D.J.; Snyder, M.R.; Meteyer, C.U.; Franson, J. Christian; Locke, L.N.; Smith, M.R.; Finley, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho has been contaminated by mine tailings that have impaired the health of wildlife since the early 1900s. In other parts of the world, virtually all lead poisoning of waterfowl is caused by the ingestion of manmade lead artifacts, primarily spent lead shotshell pellets or, occasionally, fishing sinkers. However, in the Coeur d'Alene River basin in Idaho, nonartifactual lead poisoning was the ultimate cause of death of most of 219 (77%) of 285 waterfowl carcasses that had been found sick or dead from 1992 through 1997. The majority of these 219 waterfowl (172 tundra swans [Cygnus columbianus], 33 Canada geese [Branta canadensis], and 14 other species) were poisoned by ingesting river sediment that was contaminated with lead. The next most common cause of death (20 instances, 7%) was lead poisoning accompanied by ingested shotshell pellets. The remaining 46 waterfowl succumbed to trauma, infectious diseases (aspergillosis, avian cholera, tuberculosis), or miscellaneous problems, or the cause of death was not determined.

  17. Description and sources of contamination by Campylobacter spp. of river water destined for human consumption in Brittany, France.

    PubMed

    Denis, M; M Tanguy; Chidaine, B; Laisney, M-J; Mégraud, F; Fravalo, P

    2011-10-01

    Presence or absence of Campylobacter spp. in water of five rivers upstream from an intake point for drinking water production was investigated, and isolates genetically compared with human, pig and poultry isolates in order to determine their source. River water and drinking water obtained from these rivers were sampled one time per month, over a period of one year, and tested for Campylobacter. Isolates were typed by PFGE. Campylobacter was not detected in treated drinking water, but 50% of the river samples were contaminated. Contamination was observed on the four seasons. In total, 297 Campylobacter isolates were collected and generated 46 PFGE profiles. Campylobacter jejuni was the most frequently detected species in samples (74.1% of the isolates), followed by Campylobacter coli (17.8%) and Campylobacter lari (8.1%). Forty-two of the 46 PFGE profiles were unique. Only one genotype was detected three times in a river during the year and four genotypes in two different rivers. When compared to animal and human Campylobacter PFGE profiles, 14, 11 and one Campylobacter genotypes from water were genetically closed to human, poultry, and pig Campylobacter genotypes, respectively. The Campylobacter population displayed a high level of genetic diversity, suggesting that contamination originated from various origins. Human, poultry and pig were sources of contamination of the river by Campylobacter. Finally, no Campylobacter were detected in drinking water, indicating that the risk of outbreaks due to consumption of drinking water is low.

  18. Adult tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Housatonic River, Massachusetts, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Hines, J.E.; Nichols, J.D.; Dummer, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were captured and banded at six sites that differed in polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination levels in the Housatonic River watershed, western Massachusetts, USA, from 2000 through 2004 to test the prediction that apparent survival rates of females in more contaminated areas were lower than those from less contaminated areas. We also tested whether plumage coloration affected over-winter survival and whether concentrations of PCBs in eggs differed between birds that did and that did not return the following year. Apparent survival rates were calculated using mark?recapture methods and compared using Akaike's Information Criterion. Model-adjusted survival rates ranged from 0.365 to 0.467 for PCB-contaminated females and between 0.404 and 0.476 for reference females. Models with either survival or capture probability modeled as functions of treatment (degree of PCB contamination), year, and age received some support. The model-averaged parameter estimate reflecting a treatment effect for high-PCB birds was negative ( = -0.046, SE() = 0.0939). Fifty-four percent of the total model weights involved models in which survival was a function of PCB treatment. Eggs were collected for contaminant analyses from a random sample of females that did and that did not return the following year. Concentrations of total PCBs were the same or higher in the eggs of females that returned compared to the eggs of those that did not return at both the highly and the moderately contaminated PCB sites. This may have resulted from higher-quality females with higher lipid reserves being more likely than lower-quality females to return the following year. Percentage lipid was positively correlated with total PCBs in eggs. Survival rates were similar among swallows with brown versus blue plumage.

  19. Risks posed by trace organic contaminants in coastal sediments in the Pearl River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Fung, C N; Zheng, G J; Connell, D W; Zhang, X; Wong, H L; Giesy, J P; Fang, Z; Lam, P K S

    2005-10-01

    Local marine environments in China's Pearl River Delta (PRD), the most rapidly developing region in one of the world's fastest growing economies, have been experiencing significant environmental stress during the past decades. This investigation was conducted to determine the status and trends of persistence organic pollutants (POPs) such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides and dioxin-related compounds in marine sediments collected from sixteen coastal stations in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in March 2003. Elevated concentrations of PAHs (94-4300 ng/g), PCBs (6.0-290 ng/g), PHCs (14-150 microg/g), and DDTs (1.4-600 ng/g) were detected in sediment samples. In addition, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-like activities in the sediment samples were estimated to range from 0.3 to 440 pg TCDD-EQ/g. Sediments collected from Xiashan contained the greatest concentrations of trace organic contaminations amongst all the sampling stations in the present study. The degree of trace organic contamination was, in general, more severe at stations situated along the west shores of the PRD than their counterparts in the east. A preliminary assessment was performed to examine the probable risks to the marine ecosystem due to POPs. The results showed that OC pesticide contamination in the PRD was particularly serious and might pose a threat to the health of the marine inhabitants.

  20. Effects of sediment contamination by artisanal gold mining on Chironomus riparius in Mabubi River, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibunda, R. T.; Pereka, A. E.; Tungaraza, C.

    The contamination of sediments by mercury from in artisanal gold mining has been only assessed through bulk chemical analysis and subsequent comparison with reference values from uncontaminated areas. However, measurement of contaminant levels alone has a limited ability to predict adverse effects on living resources. This study investigated the possible effects of contamination of sediments in Mabubi River by mercury drained from Mugusu artisanal gold mine on the survival, growth and emergency of the benthic midge Chironomus riparius. Sediments collected downstream from the Mugusu Mine impaired growth and delayed emergence of the midges but did not impair survival. Mean dry body weight of larvae from sediments collected 3 km down stream (1012 μg) was significantly lower than those from the control sediment ( p < 0.05). Compared to the control sediment, the emergence of the midges from sediments collected up to 6 km downstream of the mining activity were delayed for four days. In conclusion, chemistry and ecotoxicity results from this study suggest that sediments collected in the Mabubi River downstream of the Mugusu mine adversely affect C. riparius and probably other fauna and as such present a considerable local environmental risk.

  1. Dredging and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Custer, Thomas W; Dummer, Paul M; Custer, Christine M; Warburton, David

    2013-11-01

    In 2008 and 2009, dredge material from the Mississippi River in Pool 8 south of Brownsville, Minnesota was used to construct nearby islands. Chemical analysis of sediment in 2001 and 2002 in the area to be dredged indicated detectable concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), whose diet is mainly aquatic invertebrates, were used to evaluate contaminant exposure in both the dredged and newly created habitat. Organic and inorganic contaminant data were collected from tree swallows in 2007 through 2010 at one study site near the dredging operation, a reference study site upriver from the dredging activity, one study site down river from the dredging activity, and one study site on a newly created island (2009 and 2010 only). Organic and element concentrations were at background levels in all samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl and p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations in tree swallow nestlings decreased at all study sites over the period 2007 to 2010 including the island study site between 2009 and 2010. Element concentrations in tree swallow livers for the non-island study sites did not show a trend among years in relation to the dredging. Selenium concentrations at the newly created island were higher and cadmium concentrations were lower in 2010 than 2009. Hatching success of eggs in successful nests was not associated with dredging activities.

  2. Dredging and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Thomas W.; Dummer, Paul; Custer, Christine M.; Warburton, David

    2013-01-01

    n 2008 and 2009, dredge material from the Mississippi River in Pool 8 south of Brownsville, Minnesota was used to construct nearby islands. Chemical analysis of sediment in 2001 and 2002 in the area to be dredged indicated detectable concentrations of organic and inorganic contaminants. Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor), whose diet is mainly aquatic invertebrates, were used to evaluate contaminant exposure in both the dredged and newly created habitat. Organic and inorganic contaminant data were collected from tree swallows in 2007 through 2010 at one study site near the dredging operation, a reference study site upriver from the dredging activity, one study site down river from the dredging activity, and one study site on a newly created island (2009 and 2010 only). Organic and element concentrations were at background levels in all samples. Polychlorinated biphenyl and p,p′-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene concentrations in tree swallow nestlings decreased at all study sites over the period 2007 to 2010 including the island study site between 2009 and 2010. Element concentrations in tree swallow livers for the non-island study sites did not show a trend among years in relation to the dredging. Selenium concentrations at the newly created island were higher and cadmium concentrations were lower in 2010 than 2009. Hatching success of eggs in successful nests was not associated with dredging activities.

  3. Contamination, toxicity and speciation of heavy metals in an industrialized urban river: Implications for the dispersal of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Zhou, Haichao; Tam, Nora F Y; Tian, Yu; Tan, Yang; Zhou, Song; Li, Qing; Chen, Yongheng; Leung, Jonathan Y S

    2016-03-15

    Urban rivers are often utilized by the local residents as water source, but they can be polluted by heavy metals due to industrialization. Here, the concentrations, toxicity, speciation and vertical profiles of heavy metals in sediment were examined to evaluate their impact, dispersal and temporal variation in Dongbao River. Results showed that the sediment in the industrialized areas was seriously contaminated with Cr, Cu and Ni which posed acute toxicity. Heavy metals, except Cr and Pb, were mainly associated with non-residual fractions, indicating their high mobility and bioavailability. The non-industrialized areas were also seriously contaminated, suggesting the dispersal of heavy metals along the river. The surface sediment could be more contaminated than the deep sediment, indicating the recent pollution events. Overall, when the point sources are not properly regulated, intense industrialization can cause both serious contamination and dispersal of heavy metals, which have far-reaching consequences in public health and environment.

  4. Assessment of Contaminant Exposure and Effects on Ospreys Nesting along the Lower Duwamish River, Washington, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Branden L.; Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Davis, Jay W.; Schulz, Edmund P.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of contaminants on osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the lower Duwamish River (LDR), Washington, and used the upper reach of the Willamette River (WR), Oregon, as a reference site. Osprey eggs and nestling blood (plasma) were collected at nests along the LDR (11 eggs, 7 plasmas) and WR (10 eggs, 6 plasmas) in 2006-07 and analyzed for contaminants. Additionally, hematology and serum chemistries were determined in the blood/plasma samples of nestlings (about 35-45 days old) and were used as potential indicators of stress induced by contaminant exposure. Detailed foraging information for ospreys nesting along the LDR was collected and evaluated to better understand contaminant profiles observed in the eggs and plasma. Additional residue data from 26 osprey eggs collected and analyzed in 2002-03 from nests along the LDR, Snohomish River Estuary (SRE) and Lake Washington (LW) in the Puget Sound (PS) region also were evaluated.

  5. Contemporary weathering fluxes and the importance of solute reservoirs along an erosional gradient, Feather River, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouba, C.; Maher, K.; Rosen, V. B.; Weinman, B. A.; Yoo, K.; Mudd, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    At a field site adjacent to the Middle Fork Feather River, California, we have exploited three proximate hillslopes experiencing different physical erosion rates in order to investigate the relationship between erosion rates and contemporary solute fluxes. Using seasonal measurements and detailed depth profiles we can further assess the role that physical heterogeneity in soil structure and temporal variability in runoff play in determining chemical denudation rates. We measured the elemental compositions of primarily "immobile" solute in soil (1:1 soil to water leach), extractable or "mobile" solute in soil (suction lysimeters) and spatially integrated "average" solute in streamwaters across the three hillslope transects. These three solute measures are interpreted to reflect different reservoirs of solute within the weathering zone. Relative to streamwater, we find the highest concentrations of dissolved Na and Si in the immobile reservoir, probably associated with micropores, and much lower concentrations in the mobile reservoir, probably associated with preferential flow paths. This suggests that streamwater represents mixing between two solute reservoirs with very different mean solute residence times, and that solute residence times are partly decoupled from water residence times as a result of physical heterogeneity. The contribution of immobile solute to streamwater is approximately 30% of the total solute, and is greater at higher erosion rate. Contributions from the immobile reservoir to surface waters strongly buffer the solute concentrations in streams, and could provide a mechanism for the chemostatic behavior of the tributary in this catchment. The depth gradients in the concentrations of weathering-derived solutes (Na and Si) also vary with erosion rate, although all transects reach similar concentrations in the saprolite (at about 100 to 140 cm). Slightly higher Si concentrations are observed in the low erosion rate profiles. Annual mobile water

  6. Fluctuating asymmetry and mentum gaps in populations of the midge Chironomus riparius (Diptera: Chironomidae) from a metal-contaminated River

    SciTech Connect

    Groenendijk, D.; Zeinstra, L.W.M.; Postma, J.F.

    1998-10-01

    The developmental stability of both metal-exposed and nonexposed Chironomus riparius populations from the lowland River Dommel was investigated using fluctuating asymmetry (FA) and the incidence of mentum gaps. It was hypothesized that larval development was affected by the influx of Cd, Zn, Fe, Cu, and Pb directly by chemical stress, as well as through inbreeding of metal-adapted and nonadapted specimens. Morphological para/meters were therefore assessed in field-collected larvae and in clean, laboratory-cultured, first-generation (F1) larvae. Fluctuating asymmetry values and mentum gap incidence at contaminated field sites were significantly higher than at clean, upstream locations. Furthermore, FA values of clean, laboratory-cultured F1 larvae generally fell to reference values, indicating the direct effect of metal pollution on developmental aberrations. Mentum gaps were not observed in clean F1 cultures. Slightly elevated FA values were, however, still observed in clean F1 larvae from polluted locations downstream from the metal input. This residual disturbance was thought to reflect genetic stress emerging from interbreeding between metal-adapted and nonadapted specimens. Fluctuating asymmetry and mentum gaps together serve as a useful ecotoxicological marker for metal stress and, when combined with in situ studies and F1 cultures, allow for analysis of the response of animal populations to spatial and temporal gradients in metal exposure.

  7. Presumptive Sources of Fecal Contamination in Four Tributaries to the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathes, Melvin V.; O'Brien, Tara L.; Strickler, Kriston M.; Hardy, Joshua J.; Schill, William B.; Lukasik, Jerzy; Scott, Troy M.; Bailey, David E.; Fenger, Terry L.

    2007-01-01

    Several methods were used to determine the sources of fecal contamination in water samples collected during September and October 2004 from four tributaries to the New River Gorge National River -- Arbuckle Creek, Dunloup Creek, Keeney Creek, and Wolf Creek. All four tributaries historically have had elevated levels of fecal coliform bacteria. The source-tracking methods used yielded various results, possibly because one or more methods failed. Sourcing methods used in this study included the detection of several human-specific and animal-specific biological or molecular markers, and library-dependent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis that attempted to associate Escherichia coli bacteria obtained from water samples with animal sources by matching DNA-fragment banding patterns. Evaluation of the results of quality-control analysis indicated that pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis was unable to identify known-source bacteria isolates. Increasing the size of the known-source library did not improve the results for quality-control samples. A number of emerging methods, using markers in Enterococcus, human urine, Bacteroidetes, and host mitochondrial DNA, demonstrated some potential in associating fecal contamination with human or animal sources in a limited analysis of quality-control samples. All four of the human-specific markers were detected in water samples from Keeney Creek, a watershed with no centralized municipal wastewater-treatment facilities, thus indicating human sources of fecal contamination. The human-specific Bacteroidetes and host mitochondrial DNA markers were detected in water samples from Dunloup Creek, Wolf Creek, and to a lesser degree Arbuckle Creek. Results of analysis for wastewater compounds indicate that the September 27 sample from Arbuckle Creek contained numerous human tracer compounds likely from sewage. Dog, horse, chicken, and pig host mitochondrial DNA were detected in some of the water samples with the exception of the

  8. The Detroit River: Effects of contaminants and human activities on aquatic plants and animals and their habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Kenaga, David

    1991-01-01

    Despite the extensive urbanization of its watershed, the Detroit River still supports diverse fish and wildlife populations. Conflicting uses of the river for waste disposal, water withdrawals, shipping, recreation, and fishing require innovative management. Chemicals added by man to the Detroit River have adversely affected the health and habitats of the river's plants and animals. In 1985, as part of an Upper Great Lakes Connecting Channels Study sponsored by Environment Canada and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, researchers exposed healthy bacteria, plankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, fish, and birds to Detroit River sediments and sediment porewater. Negative impacts included genetic mutations in bacteria; death of macroinvertebrates; accumulation of contaminants in insects, clams, fish, and ducks; and tumor formation in fish. Field surveys showed areas of the river bottom that were otherwise suitable for habitation by a variety of plants and animals were contaminated with chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy metals and occupied only by pollution-tolerant worms. Destruction of shoreline wetlands and disposal of sewage and toxic substances in the Detroit River have reduced habitat and conflict with basic biological processes, including the sustained production of fish and wildlife. Current regulations do not adequately control pollution loadings. However, remedial actions are being formulated by the U.S. and Canada to restore degraded benthic habitats and eliminate discharges of toxic contaminants into the Detroit River.

  9. Developing Depositional Models for Mercury Contaminated Floodplain Deposits Using Geomorphic Mapping and GIS in South River, Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbieri, A.; Pizzuto, J.; O'Neal, M. A.; Rhoades, E.

    2007-12-01

    Mercury was introduced into the South River from the 1930s to the 1950s from an industrial plant in Waynesboro, Virginia. Mercury contamination in fish tissue continues to exceed acceptable levels. The contaminated sediments in the river's floodplains are probably the present source of mercury to the South River ecosystem. Locating and determining the extent and depositional history of these deposits are important for understanding the mercury cycle in the river as well as for remediation plans. The South River is a sinuous, single thread alluvial river with frequent bedrock exposures along its bed and banks. Overbank deposits are discontinuous and thin. Rates of lateral migration by the South River are extremely low, averaging 0.02 m/yr, and the river has been influenced by mill dams along a 19 km study reach. This 19 km section of the 37 km river reach was selected for the study because of its high concentration of Hg. Six different categories of floodplain deposits dating from 1937-2005 have been identified throughout the river using studies of historical aerial photographs in a GIS framework, field mapping, dendro- and radionuclide dating, grain size and Hg analysis. Not surprisingly, traditional depositional models of meandering rivers do not apply. Floodplain depositional units include mill dam deposits, point bar/bench deposits, concave bank bench deposits, islands, cattle deposits, and tributary confluences deposits. The most important deposits for sequestering historic mercury are those that also store the most silt and clay. These include mill dam deposits, point bar/bench deposits, concave bank deposits, and tributary confluence deposits. Many of these deposits represent reservoirs of mercury-contaminated sediments that could supply significant amounts of mercury into the river presently and in the future.

  10. Heavy metal contamination of river Yamuna, Haryana, India: Assessment by Metal Enrichment Factor of the Sediments.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, A; Kansal, Ankur; Santosh; Meena; Kumari, Shiv; Kaushik, C P

    2009-05-15

    Concentration of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni) in water, plants and sediments of river Yamuna flowing in Haryana through Delhi are reported here selecting 14 stations covering the upstream and downstream sites of major industrial complexes of the State. Some important characteristics of river water and sediments (pH, EC, Cl(-), SO(3)(2-), and PO(4)(3-) in water and sediments, COD of water and organic matter content of sediments) were also analysed and inter-relationships of all these parameters with heavy metal concentration in different compartments were examined. The sediments of the river show significant enrichment with Cd and Ni indicating inputs from industrial sources. Concentrations of Cr are moderate and show high enrichment values only at a few sites. Enrichment factor for Fe is found to be <1, showing insignificant effect of anthropogenic flux. Concentrations of these metals in river water are generally high exceeding the standard maximum permissible limits prescribed for drinking water, particularly in the downstream sites. The aquatic plants show maximum accumulation of Fe. The other heavy metals Cd, Cr and Ni, though less in concentration, show some accumulation in the plants growing in contaminated sites. Interrelationships of metal concentration with important characteristics of water and sediment have been analysed. Analysis of heavy metals in water, sediments and littoral flora in the stretch of river Yamuna is first study of itself and interrelationship of metal concentration and other important characteristics make the study significant and interesting in analysing the pollution load at different points of the river body.

  11. Forced gradient infiltration experiments: effect on the release processes of mobile particles and organic contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagels, B.; Reichel, K.; Totsche, K. U.

    2009-04-01

    Mobile colloidal and suspended matter is likely to affect themobility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the unsaturatedsoil zone at contaminated sites. We studied the release of mobile (organic) particles (MOPs), which include among others dissolved and colloidal organic matter in response to forced sprinkling infiltration and multiple flow interrupts using undisturbed zero-tensionlysimeters. The aim was to assess the effect of these MOPs on the exportof PAHs and other contaminants in floodplain soils. Seepage water samples were analyzed for dissolvedand colloidal organic carbon (DOC), PAH, suspended particles, pH, electrical conductivity, turbidity,zeta potential and surface tension in the fraction smaller 0.7 m. In additional selected PAH were analysed in the size fraction > 0.7 m. Bromide was used as a conservative tracer to determine the flow regime. First arrival of bromide was detected 3.8 hours after start of irrigation. The concentration gradually increased and reached a level of C/C0=0.1 just before the flow interrupt (FI). After flow was resumed, effluent bromide concentration was equal to the concentration before the FI. Ongoing irrigation caused a breakthrough wave, which continuously increased until the bromide concentration reached ~100% of the input concentration. A high-intensity rain event of 4 L m -2 h-1 upon summer-dried lysimeters results in a release of particles in a the size of 250-400 nm. In addition it seems that with the initial exported seepage water surface-active agents are released which is indicated by the decrease of the surface to 60 mN m-1 (Pure water: 72mN m-1). The turbidity values range from 8-14 FAU. The concentration of DOC is about 30-40 mg L-1 in the initial effluent fractions and equilibrates to 15 mg L-1 with ongoing percolation. The PAHs in the fraction < 0.7 m amount to 0.02 g L-1, and 0.05 g L-1 in the fraction > 0.7 m. After establishing steady state flow conditions, first arrival of bromide was detected

  12. Spatial distribution of copepods along the salinity gradient of Perai river estuary, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Johan, I; Maznah, W O Wan; Mashhor, M; Abu Hena, M K; Amin, S M N

    2012-07-01

    Investigation on copepod communities in Perai river estuary was conducted from November 2005 to May 2006. Five stations were established for monthly sampling and were located from the river mouth to the upper reaches of the river. Copepod samples were collected from vertical tows using a standard zooplankton net. The Perai river estuary was slightly stratified and salinity decreases significantly from the mouth of the river towards the upper reaches of the river. A total of 28 species of copepods were recorded and comprised of 14 families, Paracalanidae, Oithonidae, Corycaeidae, Acartiidae, Calanidae, Centropagidae, Eucalanidae, Pontellidae, Pseudodiaptomidae, Tortanidae, Ectinosomatidae, Euterpinidae, Clausidiidae and Cyclopidae. A total of 10 species showed high positive affiliation towards salinity (R > 0.60), Acartia spinicauda, Euterpina acutifrons, Microsetella norvegica, Oithona nana, Oithona simplex, Paracalanus crassirostris, Paracalanus elegans, Paracalanus parvus, Pseudodiaptomus sp. and Hemicyclops sp. The copepod species Pseudodiaptomus dauglishi were negatively affiliated towards salinity (R = -0.71). The copepod assemblages classified into two distinct groups according to salinity regimes, euryhaline-polyhaline group (25 marine affiliated species) and oligohaline-mesohaline group (3 freshwater affiliated species).

  13. Assessment of heavy metal contamination and mineral magnetic characterization of the Asopos River sediments (Central Greece).

    PubMed

    Botsou, F; Karageorgis, A P; Dassenakis, E; Scoullos, M

    2011-03-01

    The content and distribution of heavy metals in sediments of the intermittent and contaminated Asopos River, located in Central Greece, was assessed by means of total dissolution, dilute acid and sequential extraction procedures. Mineral magnetic properties were used as proxy parameters of transport mechanisms of land-derived material to the sea. The combination of enrichment factors estimated against local background levels and the levels of labile metals revealed that surface sediments are enriched in Cu, Cd, Ni and Cr. The low flow of the system allows particles and organic matter to accumulate in the estuarine shallow "pools" where they undertake a series of redox reactions, authigenic formation, etc. The most fine of these particles, which are metal rich, are transported to relatively long distances off the Asopos River mouth, even under low energy conditions, converting the system to a secondary source of pollution for the adjacent marine environment.

  14. Contaminant residues in fish and sediments from lakes in the Atchafalaya River Basin (Louisiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winger, P.V.; Andreasen, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Conversion of bottomland hardwood forests agricultural land has reduced habitat and water quality in many lakes in the floodplain of the lower Mississippi River. The objectives of this study were to ascertain current contaminant residue concentrations in fish and sediment from lakes in the Atchafalaya River Basin and to determine the influence of overflow and agricultural land use on contaminant levels. Fish and sediment samples were collected from eight lakes that differed in overflow (no overflow, headwater overflow, backwater overflow) and land-use characteristics (presence or absence of agricultural land). Residue analysis of 24 sediment and 82 fish samples collected from the study lakes showed that contaminant residues were uniformly low. Total DDT concentrations, consisting mainly of DDE, were found in 98% of the fish samples and generally were the highest residues though they rarely exceeded 0.50 ug/g. Dieldrin, -BHC and -BHC, in concentrations rarely exceeding 0.05 ug/g, were detected in about 50% of the fish samples. Total organochlorine pesticide and PCB residues were less than 2.00 ug/g in all fish from all lakes, except for a 3.46 ug/g total in spotted gar (Lepisosteus oculatus) from one lake. Sediments were free from pesticide residues except for occasional traces (0.01 ug/g) of -BHC. Metal residue concentrations in fish and sediment samples were typical of uncontaminated areas. Lake systems in the Atchafalaya River Basin appeared to be relatively uncontaminated by agricultural pesticides, but metal and organic residues in fish were similar from lakes with the same land-use and overflow characteristics.

  15. Quantifying modern erosion rates and river-sediment contamination in the Bolivian Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vezzoli, Giovanni; Ghielmi, Giacomo; Mondaca, Gonzalo; Resentini, Alberto; Villarroel, Elena Katia; Padoan, Marta; Gentile, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    We use petrographic, mineralogical and geochemical data on modern river sediments of the Tupiza basin in the Bolivian Andes to investigate the relationships among human activity, heavy-metal contamination of sediments and modern erosion rates in mountain fluvial systems. Forward mixing model was used to quantify the relative contributions from each main tributary to total sediment load of the Tupiza River. The absolute sediment load was estimated by using the Pacific Southwest Inter Agency Committee model (PSIAC, 1968) after two years of geological field surveys (2009; 2010), together with data obtained from the Instituto Nacional del Agua public authority (INA, 2007), and suspended-load data from Aalto et al. (2006). Our results indicate that the sediment yield in the drainage basin is 910 ± 752 ton/km2year and the mean erosion rate is 0.40 ± 0.33 mm/year. These values compare well with erosion rates measured by Insel et al. (2010) using 10Be cosmogenic radionuclide concentrations in Bolivian river sediments. More than 40% of the Tupiza river load is produced in the upper part of the catchment, where highly tectonized and weathered rocks are exposed and coupled with sporadic land cover and intense human activity (mines). In the Rio Chilco basin strong erosion of upland valleys produce an increase of erosion (˜10 mm/year) and the influx of large amounts of sediment by mass wasting processes. The main floodplain of the Tupiza catchment represents a significant storage site for the heavy metals (˜657 ton/year). Fluvial sediments contain zinc, lead, vanadium, chromium, arsenic and nickel. Since the residence time of these contaminants in the alluvial plain may be more than 100 years, they may represent a potential source of pollution for human health.

  16. Imbalance of Nature due to Contaminant Loads in the Culiacan River Watershed, Sinaloa, México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Páez, F.; Ley-Aispuro, E.

    2013-05-01

    The Culiacan River discharges runoff from a large agricultural watershed into the wetlands at Ensenada de Pabellones ranked as a priority marine region of Mexico due to its high biodiversity and the economic importance of its fishing resources. This research estimated potential contaminant loads for BOD5, TSS, N and P from stormwater runoff and associated land use in the watershed. Previous studies had demonstrated the imbalance of nature due to land use change causing contamination by heavy metals, pesticides, sediment, phosphorus and eutrophication (Lopez and Osuna, 2002; Green and Paez, 2004, Gonzalez et al., 2006; Osuna et al., 2007). The methodology included: Characterizing the watershed according to land use, soil, vegetation, annual runoff and population density by sub-watershed; estimating the potential contaminant load and annual average concentrations of contaminants using the PLOAD program, comparing the result with monitored contaminant concentrations; and identifying the impact of pollutant loads in the watershed and coastal ecosystems and proposing management strategies to reduce or reverse the imbalance of nature caused by contamination in the Culiacan River watershed. Calculated contaminant loads in tonne/year were 13,682.4 of BOD5; 503,621.8 of TSS; 5,975.7 of N and 1,789.1 of P. The Tamazula and Humaya rivers watersheds provide 72% of the total load of BOD5, 68.5% of TSS, 77.6% of N and 62.7% of P discharged to the wetlands. Monitored results include: 89% of temperature observations were above 21°C, which is stressful to aquatic life due to a subsequent decrease in dissolved oxygen; 100% of the observations of P exceeded the ecological criteria for water quality; 71.5% of the observations for DO from 2001 to 2011, were above the ecological criteria for protection of aquatic life and 91.5% met the criteria for use in drinking water; 100% of the observations for BOD5 values remained in the range of Excellent to Good; 22% of the observations for the

  17. Comprehensive assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediment of the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent shelf.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongqiang; Chen, Fanrong; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Jinsong; Wu, Shijun; Kang, Mingliang

    2012-09-01

    Total metal concentrations (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb), acid volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals (AVS-SEM), and heavy metal fractionation were used to assess the heavy metals contamination status and ecological risk in the sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and adjacent shelf. Elevated concentrations at estuarine sites and lower concentrations at adjacent shelf sites are observed, especially for Cu and Zn. Within the PRE, the concentration of heavy metals in the western shore was mostly higher than that in the middle shore. The metals from anthropogenic sources mainly occur in the labile fraction and may be taken up by organisms as the environmental parameters change. A combination of total metal concentrations, metal contamination index and sequential extraction analysis is necessary to get the comprehensive information on the baseline, anthropogenic discharge and bioavailability of heavy metals.

  18. [Investigation of nitrogen, phosphorus and microbial contamination in Laolongdong underground river system of Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Lan, Jia-Cheng; Yang, Ping-Heng; Ren, Kun; Chen, Xue-Bin; Xu, Xin; Hu, Ning

    2014-04-01

    With urbanization, groundwater in China has been widely polluted. Karst groundwater is important in southwest China, and would be difficult to recover once contaminated. NO3(-), PO4(3), NH4(+), total coliform, total E. coli and fecal coliform were chosen as indexes in the study of groundwater of Laolongdong Underground River System in Nanshan Mountain, Chongqing. After a few years of survey, the results showed that NO3(-), NH4(+) and PO4(3-) concentrations in the water were all above the nature value, especially NH4(+) and PO4(3-). The NO3(-) concentration of Guihuawan spring ranged from 19.78-68.55 mg x L(-1), in some months, above the recommended water quality guideline (50 mg x L(-1)) according to Standards for Drinking Water Quality set by World Health Organization. NH4(+) and PO4(3-) concentrations in Laolongdong underground river varied from 2.71-12.92 mg x L(-1) and 0.16-11.22 mg x L(-1). The NO3(-) concentration in Laolongdong underground river was lower than in karst spring; however, the concentrations of NH4(+) and PO4(3-) were higher than in the spring. It seemed that the NO3(-) concentration tended to decrease from 2008 to 2013 in the underground river caused by urbanization, reduction of farmland and reducing environment. However, waste water with a high PO4(3-) concentration led to an increasing trend in the PO4(3-) concentration in underground river. Microbial contamination was extremely serious, and even far exceeded class V of water quality standards of China. For example, the concentration of fecal coliform in the groundwater ranged from 3.4 x 10(4)-3.68 x 10(4) CFU x mL(-1). Because of the special hydrogeological structure, karst depressions, skylights and sinkholes can lead pollutants easily to the underground water. Agriculture activity, sewage from towns, enterprises and residential areas were the major sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and microbial contamination.

  19. Integrated electrokinetics-adsorption remediation of saline-sodic soils: effects of voltage gradient and contaminant concentration on soil electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Essa, Mohammed Hussain; Mu'azu, Nuhu Dalhat; Lukman, Salihu; Bukhari, Alaadin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, an integrated in situ remediation technique which couples electrokinetics with adsorption, using locally produced granular activated carbon from date palm pits in the treatment zones that are installed directly to bracket the contaminated soils at bench-scale, is investigated. Natural saline-sodic clay soil, spiked with contaminant mixture (kerosene, phenol, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg), was used in this study to investigate the effects of voltage gradient, initial contaminant concentration, and polarity reversal rate on the soil electrical conductivity. Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was used for the experimental design and response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to model, optimize, and interpret the results obtained using Design-Expert version 8 platform. The total number of experiments conducted was 15 with voltage gradient, polarity reversal rate, and initial contaminant concentration as variables. The main target response discussed in this paper is the soil electrical conductivity due to its importance in electrokinetic remediation process. Responses obtained were fitted to quadratic models whose R (2) ranges from 84.66% to 99.19% with insignificant lack of fit in each case. Among the investigated factors, voltage gradient and initial contaminant concentration were found to be the most significant influential factors.

  20. Sediment-hosted contaminants and distribution patterns in the Mississippi and Atchafalaya River Deltas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flocks, James G.; Kindinger, Jack G.; Ferina, Nicholas; Dreher, Chandra

    2002-01-01

    The Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers transport very large amounts of bedload and suspended sediments to the deltaic and coastal environments of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Absorbed onto these sediments are contaminants that may be detrimental to the environment. To adequately assess the impact of these contaminants it is first necessary to develop an understanding of sediment distribution patterns in these deltaic systems. The distribution patterns are defined by deltaic progradational cycles. Once these patterns are identified, the natural and industrial contaminant inventories and their depositional histories can be reconstructed. Delta progradation is a function of sediment discharge, as well as channel and receiving-basin dimensions. Fluvial energy controls the sediment distribution pattern, resulting in a coarse grained or sandy framework, infilled with finer grained material occupying the overbank, interdistributary bays, wetlands and abandoned channels. It has been shown that these fine-grained sediments can carry contaminants through absorption and intern them in the sediment column or redistribute them depending on progradation or degradation of the delta deposit. Sediment distribution patterns in delta complexes can be determined through high-resolution geophysical surveys and groundtruthed with direct sampling. In the Atchafalaya and Mississippi deltas, remote sensing using High-Resolution Single-Channel Seismic Profiling (HRSP) and Sidescan Sonar was correlated to 20-ft vibracores to develop a near-surface geologic framework that identifies variability in recent sediment distribution patterns. The surveys identified bedload sand waves, abandoned-channel back-fill, prodelta and distributary mouth bars within the most recently active portions of the deltas. These depositional features respond to changes in deltaic processes and through their response may intern or transport absorbed contaminants. Characterizing these features provides insight into the

  1. Mapping of contamination at Savannah River Site FBWU by INEEL trolley

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.V.; Gehrke, R.J.; Helmer, R.G.; Josten, N.

    1998-01-01

    The Ford Building Waste Unit (FBWU) 643-11G is a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act/Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (RCRA/CERCLA) designated site at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in Aiken, South Carolina. Pre-Work Plan Characterization at the FBWU in May 1996 indicated that radiological contamination was present in surface and near surface soils and identified cesium-137, {sup 137}Cs, the unit specific contaminant, as being primarily in the top 15 cm of soil. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) sent the dig-face trolley system to SRS where it demonstrated its capability over a 6.1-m (20 ft.) x 9.6-m (30 ft.) area to rapidly map the contamination on-line with its large area plastic scintillation detector. Also, an extended-range (10 keV to 3 MeV) Ge detector was used at selected locations to identify and quantify the {sup 137}Cs contamination. The coordinate locations of each measurement acquired in either the scanning or fixed position mode was obtained with a survey system based on radial encoders. Topography measurements were also made during measurements to permit correction of field of view and activity concentrations for changes in the ground to detector distance.

  2. Chemical contaminants, lymphocystis, and dermal sarcoma in walleyes spawning in the Thames River, Ontario

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, I.R.; Johnson, A.F. ); MacLennan, D. ); Manson, H. )

    1992-09-01

    Chemical contaminants may play a role in the etiology of external skin lesions on walleyes Stizostedion vitreum in the Great Lakes. We examined the population of walleyes spawning in the Thames River, Ontario, for skin lesions, and compared contaminant levels in walleyes with conspicuous lesions to contaminant levels in visibly normal walleyes. In 1987, 9% of postspawning downstream migrants exhibited skin lesions. Twenty affected fish, many with multiple abnormalities, were autopsied and the external skin lesions were examined histologically. Eight walleyes were affected by only lymphocystis, seven by only dermal sarcoma, four by both conditions, and one by a calcareous nodule; 68% of the individual lesions affecting these walleyes were lymphocystis. Muscle tissue from the walleyes with lymphocystis or dermal sarcoma had lower concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls, hexachlorobenzene, and the DDT metabolite p,p-DDE than did muscle from unaffected walleyes. Thus, it appears unlikely that contaminants, such as measured in this study, increase the susceptibility of these walleyes to skin diseases such as lymphocystis and dermal sarcoma. 24 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Simulating Heterogeneous Infiltration and Contaminant leaching Processes at Chalk River, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, M. A.; Ireson, A. M.; Keim, D.

    2015-12-01

    A study is conducted at a waste management area in Chalk River, Ontario to characterize flow and contaminant transport with the aim of contributing to improved hydrogeological risk assessment in the context of waste management. Field monitoring has been performed to gain insights into the unsaturated zone characteristics, moisture dynamics, and contaminant transport rates. The objective is to provide quantitative estimates of surface fluxes (quantification of infiltration and evaporation) and investigations of unsaturated zone processes controlling water infiltration and spatial variability in head distributions and flow rates. One particular issue is to examine the effectiveness of the clayey soil cap installed to prevent infiltration of water into the waste repository and the top sand soil cover above the clayey layer to divert the infiltrated water laterally. The spatial variability in the unsaturated zone properties and associated effects on water flow and contaminant transport observed at the site, have led to a concerted effort to develop improved model of flow and transport based on stochastic concepts. Results obtained through the unsaturated zone model investigations are combined with the hydrogeological and geochemical components and develop predictive tools to assess the long term fate of the contaminants at the waste management site.

  4. Long term impact of PAH contamination in soils on the water quality in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons constitute a large family of hazardous contaminants that are mainly released into the environment by incomplete combustion of organic matter. In the Seine River (France), high concentrations of these compounds measured in the water bodies might prevent to meet the international environmental targets requested by EU Water Framework Directive. This issue is of particular concern as PAH emissions have been steadily decreasing for several decades. Consequently, both the origin and the persistence of these pollutants have to be investigated. PAHs are known to bind onto organic matter in soils and large amount of these compounds may be found in this compartment. In order to investigate the role of soils as a contamination buffer, an ambitious sampling strategy was implemented in an upstream agricultural subcatchment (104 km²) for an entire hydrological year. The samples were collected in the different compartments (atmospheric fallout (n = 42), soil (n = 33), river water (n = 26) and suspended sediment (n=101)) and allowed to quantify the current fluxes of PAHs in the environment and to estimate their stocks in soils (12 to 220 kg.km-²). Annual mass balance calculation was conducted at the catchment scale and showed that current PAH losses were mainly due to losses (biodegradation, photo-oxidation and volatilization) within the catchments (about 80%), whereas exports due to soil erosion and riverine transport appeared to be of minor importance. When comparing the stocks in soils and the estimated annual losses, PAHs showed long decontamination times in soils (40 to 1850 years). The fate of PAHs in the catchment varied from one compound to another and was controlled by meteorological and hydrological parameters. This result highlights that soils are likely to play an important role as a secondary source for riverine contamination for a long period of time. To investigate further the relationship between the presence of PAHs in soils and

  5. Land surface phenology and land surface temperature changes along an urban-rural gradient in Yangtze River Delta, china.

    PubMed

    Han, Guifeng; Xu, Jianhua

    2013-07-01

    Using SPOT/VGT NDVI time series images (2002-2009) and MODIS/LST images (2002-2009) smoothed by a Savitzky-Golay filter, the land surface phenology (LSP) and land surface temperature (LST), respectively, are extracted for six cities in the Yangtze River Delta, China, including Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing, Changzhou, Wuxi, and Suzhou. The trends of the averaged LSP and LST are analyzed, and the relationship between these values is revealed along the urban-rural gradient. The results show that urbanization advances the start of the growing season, postpones the end of the growing season, prolongs the growing season length (GSL), and reduces the difference between maximal NDVI and minimal NDVI in a year (NDVIamp). More obvious changes occur in surface vegetation phenology as the urbanized area is approached. The LST drops monotonously and logarithmically along the urban-rural gradient. Urbanization generally affects the LSP of the surrounding vegetation within 6 km to the urban edge. Except for GSL, the difference in the LSP between urban and rural areas has a significant logarithmic relationship with the distance to the urban edge. In addition, there is a very strong linear relationship between the LSP and the LST along the urban-rural gradient, especially within 6 km to the urban edge. The correlations between LSP and gross domestic product and population density reveal that human activities have considerable influence on the land surface vegetation growth.

  6. Fate and transportation of PAH and metal contaminants in the Anacostia River tidal region. Program overview, June 1997--June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Coffin, R.B.; Pohlman, J.W.; Mitchell, C.S.

    1999-02-12

    PAH and metal contaminant transport has been studied in the Anacostia River tidal region quarterly since June 1997. Data from this report indicates that the physical transport of total suspended solids (TSS) through the tidal region of the Anacostia River has a substantial impact on the concentrations and fate of PAHs. Result show that the upper tidal region is a source of PAHs to the lower region. To initiate an understanding of the fate of PAHs attached to TSS, sediment traps were placed through the river. Sediment deposition at the wide and deep region of the river was similar to or greater than values measured in the upper regions where TSS concentrations are elevated This observation has been supported with the following approaches: (1) comparison of river volumes in the upper river relative to the wide and deep region, and (2) measurements in the variation of current velocity through the river. These results indicate that this segment of the river is a region of substantial sedimentation of TSS attached PAHs attached. This correlates with previous studies that report high concentrations of PAH contaminants in sediments at this region of the river.

  7. Integrated modelling of faecal contamination in a densely populated river-sea continuum (Scheldt River and Estuary).

    PubMed

    de Brauwere, Anouk; Gourgue, Olivier; de Brye, Benjamin; Servais, Pierre; Ouattara, Nouho Koffi; Deleersnijder, Eric

    2014-01-15

    In order to simulate the long-term (months-years) median Escherichia coli distributions and variations in the tidal Scheldt River and Estuary, a dedicated module was developed for the Second-generation Louvain-la-Neuve Ice-ocean Model (SLIM, www.climate.be/slim). The resulting model (SLIM-EC2) presents two specific and new features compared to the older SLIM-EC model version. The first is that the E. coli concentrations in the river are split in three fractions: the free E. coli in the water column, the ones attached to suspended solids and those present in the bottom sediments, each with their own transport, decay and settling-resuspension dynamics. The bacteria attached to particles can settle and survive on the bottom, where they can be brought back in the water column during resuspension events. The second new feature of the model is that it is coupled to the catchment model SENEQUE-EC, which thus provides upstream boundary conditions to SLIM-EC2. The result is an integrated and multi-scale model of the whole Scheldt drainage network from its source down to the Belgian/Dutch coastal zone. This new model reproduces the long-term median E. coli concentration along the Scheldt River and Estuary. An extensive sensitivity study is performed demonstrating the relative robustness of the model with respect to the chosen parameterisations. In addition to reproducing the observed E. coli concentrations in 2007-2008 at various stations, two extreme wastewater management scenarios were considered. Overall, there is no doubt that the Scheldt Estuary acts as a cleaning filter of faecal contamination originating from large Belgian cities. As a result, at the mouth of the Scheldt Estuary E. coli concentration is negligible in all investigated conditions.

  8. The Penobscot River and environmental contaminants: Assessment of tribal exposure through sustenance lifeways

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marshall, Valerie; Kusnierz, Daniel; Hillger, Robert; Ferrario, Joseph; Hughes, Thomas; Diliberto, Janet; Orazio, Carl E.; Dudley, Robert W.; Byrne, Christian; Sugatt, Richard; Warren, Sarah; DeMarini, David; Elskus, Adria; Stodola, Steve; Mierzykowski, Steve; Pugh, Katie; Culbertson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    EPA in collaboration with the Penobscot Indian Nation, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USF&WS) collectively embarked on a four year research study to evaluate the environmental health of the riverine system by targeting specific cultural practices and using traditional science to conduct a preliminary contaminant screening of the flora and fauna of the Penobscot River ecosystem. This study was designed as a preliminary screening to determine if contaminant concentrations in fish, eel, snapping turtle, wood ducks, and plants in Regions of the Penobscot River relevant to where PIN tribal members hunt, fish and gather plants were high enough to be a health concern. This study was not designed to be a statistically validated assessment of contaminant differences among study sites or among species. The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life

  9. Succession of bacterial community structure along the Changjiang River determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library analysis.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Masataka; Nakahara, Tadaatsu; Xu, Baohua; Uchiyama, Hiroo

    2002-10-01

    Bacterial community structure along the Changjiang River (which is more than 2,500 km long) was studied by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and clone library analysis of PCR-amplified 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) with universal bacterial primer sets. DGGE profiles and principal-component analysis (PCA) demonstrated that the bacterial community gradually changed from upstream to downstream in both 1998 and 1999. Bacterial diversity, as determined by the Shannon index (H'), gradually decreased from upstream to downstream. The PCA plots revealed that the differences in the bacterial communities among riverine stations were not appreciable compared with the differences in two adjacent lakes, Lake Dongting and Lake Poyang. The relative stability of the bacterial communities at the riverine stations was probably due to the buffering action of the large amount of water flowing down the river. Clone library analysis of 16S rDNA revealed that the dominant bacterial groups changed from beta-proteobacteria and the Cytophaga-Flexibacter-Bacteroides group upstream to high-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria downstream and also that the bacterial community structure differed among the stations in the river and the lakes. The results obtained in this study should provide a reference for future changes caused by construction of the Three Gorges Dam.

  10. Seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination in water and sediments of river Sabarmati and Kharicut canal at Ahmedabad, Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rita N; Solanki, Rajal; Kumar, J I Nirmal

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study is to reveal the seasonal variations in the river water and sediment quality with respect to heavy metal contamination. To get the extent of trace metals contamination, water and sediment samples were collected from five different sites along the course of Sabarmati River and its tributary Kharicut canal in pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. The concentration of trace metals such as chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc was determined using inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. The concentrations of heavy metals were found to be higher in the pre-monsoon season than in the monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in water samples. The pollution load index, contamination factor and degree of contamination (C(d)) in sediments were calculated to know the extent of anthropogenic pressures. The values of C(d) clearly indicated very high degree of contamination at Kharicut canal (S-4: 32.25 and S-5: 54.52) and considerable degree of contamination at three sites of Sabarmati river viz; S-1, S-2 and S-3 with values 14.30, 14.42 and 17.21, respectively. Lead and nickel could not be traced in any of the river water samples.

  11. Imaging high stage river-water intrusion into a contaminated aquifer along a major river corridor using 2D time-lapse surface electrical resistivity tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Wallin, Erin L.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Greenwood, William J.; Zachara, John M.

    2013-03-29

    The Hanford 300 Area is located adjacent to the Columbia River in south-central Washington State, USA, and was a former site for nuclear fuel processing operations. Waste disposal practices resulted in persistent unsaturated zone and groundwater contamination, the primary contaminant of concern being uranium. Uranium behavior at the site is intimately linked with river stage driven groundwater-river water exchange such that understanding the nature of river water intrusion into the 300 Area is critical for predicting uranium desorption and transport. In this paper we use time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to image the inland intrusion of river during high stage conditions. We demonstrate a modified time-lapse inversion approach, whereby the transient water table elevation is explicitly modeled by removing regularization constraints across the water table boundary. This implementation was critical for producing meaningful imaging results. We inverted approximately 1200 data sets (400 per line over 3 lines) using high performance computing resources to produce a time-lapse sequence of changes in bulk conductivity caused by river water intrusion during the 2011 spring runoff cycle over approximately 125 days. The resulting time series for each mesh element was then analyzed using common time series analysis to reveal the timing and location of river water intrusion beneath each line. The results reveal non-uniform flows characterized by preferred flow zones where river water enters and exits quickly with stage increase and decrease, and low permeability zones with broader bulk conductivity ‘break through’ curves and longer river water residence times. The time-lapse ERT inversion approach removes the deleterious effects of changing water table elevation and enables remote and spatial continuous groundwater-river water exchange monitoring using surface based ERT arrays under conditions where groundwater and river water conductivity are in contrast.

  12. Contamination of the Shinano River water with mutagenic substances after the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Takanori; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Shibuya, Norio; Taiyoji, Mayumi; Nishiwaki, Toshikazu; Nakamura, Kazutoshi; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2007-02-01

    While normally monitoring the Shinano River water quality, including examinations for mutagenicity, the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake suddenly occurred on October 23, 2004. However, the influence of this earthquake on the mutagenicity of river water has not yet been well studied. To clarify the regional and seasonal changes in mutagenicity of the Shinano River water, blue rayon was suspended for 24 hrs at 4 sampling sites, once a month from September 2004 through August 2005. Mutagenicity was evaluated by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 (TA98) and TA100 with or without metabolic activation by S9 mixture. To detect and identify poly-aromatic hydrocarbons that may be responsible for the mutagenicity of the river water, we analyzed benzo[a]pyrene, benzophenone, 4-nitrotoluene, or other compounds using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and total ion chromatogram spectra. Positive manifestations of TA98 with S9 mixture were observed at the 4 sampling sites throughout the 12-month test, showing a tendency to be higher at the downstream site and in winter. However, the highest mutagenicity was observed in the sample collected at the most upstream sampling site in December 2004, and fluoranthene or pyrene consisting mainly in coal tar was detected only in the samples collected in December 2004. Although benzo[a]pyrene, benzophenone, and 4-nitrotoluene were below the detection limits, non-mutagens such as aliphatic hydrocarbons or esters were frequently detected. Our findings indicate that either fluoranthene or pyrene was mainly responsible for the mutagenicity of the river water in December 2004, suggesting the possibility of oil contamination caused by the Niigata Chuetsu Earthquake.

  13. Subcellular distribution of trace elements and liver histology of landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) sampled along a mercury contamination gradient.

    PubMed

    Barst, Benjamin D; Rosabal, Maikel; Campbell, Peter G C; Muir, Derek G C; Wang, Xioawa; Köck, Günter; Drevnick, Paul E

    2016-05-01

    We sampled landlocked Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) from four lakes (Small, 9-Mile, North, Amituk) in the Canadian High Arctic that span a gradient of mercury contamination. Metals (Hg, Se, Tl, and Fe) were measured in char tissues to determine their relationships with health indices (relative condition factor and hepatosomatic index), stable nitrogen isotope ratios, and liver histology. A subcellular partitioning procedure was employed to determine how metals were distributed between potentially sensitive and detoxified compartments of Arctic char livers from a low- and high-mercury lake (Small Lake and Amituk Lake, respectively). Differences in health indices and metal concentrations among char populations were likely related to differences in feeding ecology. Concentrations of Hg, Se, and Tl were highest in the livers of Amituk char, whereas concentrations of Fe were highest in Small and 9-Mile char. At the subcellular level we found that although Amituk char had higher concentrations of Tl in whole liver than Small Lake char, they maintained a greater proportion of this metal in detoxified fractions, suggesting an attempt at detoxification. Mercury was found mainly in potentially sensitive fractions of both Small and Amituk Lake char, indicating that Arctic char are not effectively detoxifying this metal. Histological changes in char livers, mainly in the form of melano-macrophage aggregates and hepatic fibrosis, could be linked to the concentrations and subcellular distributions of essential or non-essential metals.

  14. Engineering application of activated alumina adsorption dams for emergency treatment of arsenic-contaminated rivers.

    PubMed

    Dou, Junfeng; Qin, Wei; Ding, Aizhong; Xie, En; Zheng, Lei; Ding, Wencheng

    2015-01-01

    A batch of lab-based adsorption experiments were performed to investigate the arsenic (As) removal efficacy by activated alumina. Four factors including contact time, pH, initial As concentration and different coexisting ions were examined. The adsorbent made of activated alumina (AA) with particles of 2-4 mm diameter showed a high As removal efficiency and the As concentrations of the samples were below 0.05 mg/L when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was operated above 5 min. The As concentrations of the samples could remain below 0.05 mg/L for 30 days. A series of AA adsorption dams coupled with several other supporting adsorption techniques were employed for As-contaminated river restoration. The engineering project functioned well, and the effluent As concentration was below 0.05 mg/L when the influent was between 0.2 and 0.7 mg/L, which met the discharge requirement of the Surface Water Quality Standards criteria III in China. The results demonstrated that AA adsorption dams could be applied for emergency treatments of small- or medium-sized rivers contaminated with As.

  15. Vertical distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in cores from contaminated floodplains of the Yenisey River.

    PubMed

    Standring, W J F; Brown, J E; Dowdall, M; Korobova, E M; Linnik, V G; Volosov, A G

    2009-12-01

    The Mining and Chemical Industrial Combine, Zheleznogorsk (MCIC, previously known as Krasnoyarsk-26) on the River Yenisey has contaminated the surrounding environment with anthropogenic radionuclides as a result of discharges of radioactive wastes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the vertical distribution of anthropogenic contamination ((137)Cs and plutonium) within floodplain areas at different distances from the discharge point. Sites were chosen that display different characteristics with respect to periodic inundation with river water. Cs-137 activity concentrations were in the range 23-3770 Bq/kg (dry weight, d.w.); Pu-239,240 activity concentrations were in the range <0.01-14.2 Bq/kg (d.w.). Numerous sample cores exhibited sub-surface maxima which may be related to the historical discharges from the MCIC. Possible evidence indicating the deposition of earlier discharges at MCIC in deeper core layers was observed in the (238)Pu:(239,240)Pu activity ratio data: a Pu signal discernible from global fallout could be observed in numerous samples. Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 activity concentrations were correlated with the silt fraction (% by mass <63 microm) though no significant correlation was observed between (grain-size) normalised (137)Cs activity concentrations and distance downstream from the MCIC.

  16. Occurrence of Natural Contaminants of Emerging Concern in the Douro River Estuary, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Rita; Maia, Alexandra; Santos, Mariana; Tiritan, Maria Elizabeth; Ribeiro, Cláudia Maria Rosa

    2016-02-01

    Many studies demonstrated the presence of diverse environmental contaminants in the Douro River estuary, such as natural and synthetic estrogens, pharmaceuticals, industrial compounds and pesticides. This estuary is located between two densely populated cities and is highly impacted due to anthropogenic activities, such as industry and agriculture. Although the presence of mycotoxins and phytoestrogens, such as lignans and coumestrans, in the aquatic environment is reported by some authors, their occurrence in Portuguese waters was not investigated yet. To evaluate the presence of phytoestrogens, phytosterols and mycotoxins in Douro River estuary, water samples were collected seasonally at nine sampling points, preconcentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Local flora was collected on the riverside, in the same sampling points, for identification and evaluation of the possible relation to the presence of phytoestrogens and/or phytosterols in the estuarine water. Results showed the ubiquitous presence of mycotoxins, namely deoxynivalenol up to 373.5 ng L(-1). Both phytoestrogens and phytosterols showed a possible seasonal fluctuation, which is in accordance to the life cycle of the local flora and agricultural practices. Physicochemical parameters were also determined for water quality evaluation. This study revealed for the first time the presence of mycotoxins and lignans in estuarine waters from Portugal, and highlights the need to consider natural contaminants in future monitoring programs.

  17. Natural radioactivity and metal contamination of river sediments in the Calabria region, south of Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caridi, F.; Marguccio, S.; D'Agostino, M.; Belvedere, A.; Belmusto, G.

    2016-05-01

    River sediments from eight different sites of the coast of Calabria, south of Italy, were sampled to determine natural radioactivity and metal concentrations, in order to assess any possible radiological hazard, the level of contamination and the possible anthropogenic impact in the area. Gamma and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry were employed and results of this study show that the mean activity concentrations of radium (in secular equilibrium with uranium) ranged from 15.1Bq/kg to 26.7Bq/kg, that of thorium from 21.8Bq/kg to 48.3Bq/kg and that of potassium from 541.3Bq/kg to 1452.2Bq/kg. In terms of mean mass concentrations, XRF analysis revealed that uranium was lower than 1.5ppm (minimum detectable value), thorium ranged from 6.1ppm to 10.3ppm while potassium ranged from 2.5% to 4.4%. The degree of sediment contaminations were computed using an enrichment factor (EF) and geoaccumulation index ( I geo for some potential hazardous elements. Results suggested that enrichment factor and geoaccumulation values of Pb and Mn were greatest among the studied metals. The study revealed that on the basis of computed indexes, the eight investigated rivers can be classified as no polluted ones.

  18. Pathway-based Analysis of Fish Transcriptomics Data across Effluent Gradients in Minnesota Rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger effort to assess the health of streams and rivers in Minnesota, a series of caged fish experiments were conducted in three locations: Ely, Hutchinson, and Rochester. The experimental design placed caged fish (fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas; FHM) across ...

  19. Pathway-based analysis of fish transcriptomics data along effluent gradients in Minnesota rivers

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a larger effort to assess the health of streams and rivers influenced by municipal effluents in Minnesota, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas; FHM) were exposed to ambient surface waters from three locations. The locations were generally representative of the state: ...

  20. Influence of river level on temperature and hydraulic gradients in chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning areas downstream of Bonneville Dam, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R.; Arntzen, Evan V.; Murray, Christopher J.; McGrath, Kathy; Bott, Yi-Ju; Hanrahan, Timothy P.

    2008-02-01

    Chum (Oncorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook (O. tshawytscha) salmon segregate spatially during spawning in the Ives Island side channel of the lower Columbia River downstream from Bonneville Dam. Previous research during one spawning season (2000) suggested that these species selected spawning habitats based on differences in hyporheic temperature and vertical hydraulic gradient (VHG) with the river. In this study, we confirmed the spatial segregation of spawning based on hyporheic characteristics over four years (2001–2004) and examined the effects of load-following operations (power generation to meet short-term electrical demand) at Bonneville Dam on hyporheic function and characteristics. We found that during the study period, hyporheic temperature and VHG in chum salmon spawning areas were highly variable during periods of load-following operation when river levels fluctuated. In contrast, hyporheic water temperature and VHG within chum spawning areas fluctuated less when river levels were not changing due to load-following operation. Variable temperature and VHG could affect chum and fall Chinook salmon spawning segregation and incubation success by altering the cues each species uses to select redd sites. Alterations in site selection would result in a breakdown in the spatial segregation of spawning between chum and fall Chinook salmon, which would expose earlier spawning fall Chinook eggs to a greater risk of dislodgement from later spawning chum salmon. Additional research will be required to fully assess the effects of load-following operations on the hyporheic environment and spawning and incubation success of chum and fall Chinook salmon downstream from Bonneville Dam.

  1. Seasonal Changes in Bacterial and Archaeal Gene Expression Patterns across Salinity Gradients in the Columbia River Coastal Margin

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Maria W.; Herfort, Lydie; Tyrol, Kaitlin; Suciu, Dominic; Campbell, Victoria; Crump, Byron C.; Peterson, Tawnya D.; Zuber, Peter; Baptista, Antonio M.; Simon, Holly M.

    2010-01-01

    Through their metabolic activities, microbial populations mediate the impact of high gradient regions on ecological function and productivity of the highly dynamic Columbia River coastal margin (CRCM). A 2226-probe oligonucleotide DNA microarray was developed to investigate expression patterns for microbial genes involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism in the CRCM. Initial experiments with the environmental microarrays were directed toward validation of the platform and yielded high reproducibility in multiple tests. Bioinformatic and experimental validation also indicated that >85% of the microarray probes were specific for their corresponding target genes and for a few homologs within the same microbial family. The validated probe set was used to query gene expression responses by microbial assemblages to environmental variability. Sixty-four samples from the river, estuary, plume, and adjacent ocean were collected in different seasons and analyzed to correlate the measured variability in chemical, physical and biological water parameters to differences in global gene expression profiles. The method produced robust seasonal profiles corresponding to pre-freshet spring (April) and late summer (August). Overall relative gene expression was high in both seasons and was consistent with high microbial abundance measured by total RNA, heterotrophic bacterial production, and chlorophyll a. Both seasonal patterns involved large numbers of genes that were highly expressed relative to background, yet each produced very different gene expression profiles. April patterns revealed high differential gene expression in the coastal margin samples (estuary, plume and adjacent ocean) relative to freshwater, while little differential gene expression was observed along the river-to-ocean transition in August. Microbial gene expression profiles appeared to relate, in part, to seasonal differences in nutrient availability and potential resource competition. Furthermore, our results

  2. Characterization of mercury contamination in the Androscoggin River, Coos County, New Hampshire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalmers, Ann; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Degnan, James R.; Coles, James; Agee, Jennifer L.; Luce, Darryl

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury (THg) and MeHg in sediment, pore water, and biota in the Androscoggin River were elevated downstream from the former chloralkali facility compared with those upstream from reference sites. Sequential extraction of surface sediment showed a distinct difference in Hg speciation upstream compared with downstream from the contamination site. An upstream site was dominated by potassium hydroxide-extractable forms (for example, organic-Hg or particle-bound Hg(II)), whereas sites downstream from the point source were dominated by more chemically recalcitrant forms (largely concentrated nitric acid-extractable), indicative of elemental mercury or mercurous chloride. At all sites, only a minor fraction (less than 0.1 percent) of THg existed in chemically labile forms (for example, water extractable or weak acid extractable). All metrics indicated that a greater percentage of mercury at an upstream site was available for Hg(II)-methylation compared with sites downstream from the point source, but the absolute concentration of bioavailable Hg(II) was greater downstream from the point source. In addition, the concentration of tin-reducible inorganic reactive mercury, a surrogate measure of bioavailable Hg(II) generally increased with distance downstream from the point source. Whereas concentrations of mercury species on a sediment-dry-weight basis generally reflected the relative location of the sample to the point source, river-reach integrated mercury-species inventories and MeHg production potential (MPP) rates reflected the amount of fine-grained sediment in a given reach. THg concentrations in biota were significantly higher downstream from the point source compared with upstream reference sites for smallmouth bass, white sucker, crayfish, oligochaetes, bat fur, nestling tree swallow blood and feathers, adult tree swallow blood, and tree swallow eggs. As with tin-reducible inorganic reactive mercury, THg in smallmouth bass also increased

  3. Contaminant concentrations in Asian carps, invasive species in the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers.

    PubMed

    Rogowski, D L; Soucek, D J; Levengood, J M; Johnson, S R; Chick, J H; Dettmers, J M; Pegg, M A; Epifanio, J M

    2009-10-01

    Populations of invasive fishes quickly reach extremely high biomass. Before control methods can be applied, however, an understanding of the contaminant loads of these invaders carry is needed. We investigated differences in concentrations of selected elements in two invasive carp species as a function of sampling site, fish species, length and trophic differences using stable isotopes (delta (15)N, delta (13)C). Fish were collected from three different sites, the Illinois River near Havana, Illinois, and two sites in the Mississippi River, upstream and downstream of the Illinois River confluence. Five bighead carp (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis) and five silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) from each site were collected for muscle tissue analyses. Freshwater mussels (Amblema plicata) previously collected in the same areas were used as an isotopic baseline to standardize fish results among sites. Total fish length, trophic position, and corrected (13)C, were significantly related to concentrations of metals in muscle. Fish length explained the most variation in metal concentrations, with most of that variation related to mercury levels. This result was not unexpected because larger fish are older, giving them a higher probability of exposure and accumulation of contaminants. There was a significant difference in stable isotope profiles between the two species. Bighead carp occupied a higher trophic position and had higher levels of corrected (13)C than silver carp. Additionally bighead carp had significantly lower concentrations of arsenic and selenium than silver carp. Stable isotope ratios of nitrogen in Asian carp were at levels that are more commonly associated with higher-level predators, or from organisms in areas containing high loads of wastewater effluent.

  4. Perfluoroalkyl substance contamination of the Llobregat River ecosystem (Mediterranean area, NE Spain).

    PubMed

    Campo, Julian; Pérez, Francisca; Masiá, Ana; Picó, Yolanda; Farré, Marinel la; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    The occurrence and sources of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs: C4-C14, C16, C18 carboxylate, C4, C6-C8 and C10 sulfonates and C8 sulfonamide) were determined in water, sediment, and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain). Analytes were extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (LC-QqQ-MS). All samples were contaminated with at least one PFAS, being the most frequently found perfluorobutanoate (PFBA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (L-PFOS). In general, mean PFAS concentrations measured in sediments (0.01-3.67 ng g(-1)) and biota (0.79-431 μg kg(-1)) samples were higher than those found in water (0.01-233 ng L(-1)). L-PFOS presented very high levels in biota and water, particularly in the Anoia River where a maximum concentration of 2.71 μg L(-1) was related to important industrial activities. However, this pollution does not extend down the Llobregat River according to cumulated values. None of the hazard quotients (HQ) calculated indicate potential risk for the different tropic levels considered (algae, Daphnia sp. and fish). According to Maximum Allowable Concentration (MAC) proposed by the European Commission (L-PFOS) and to Provisional Health Advisory (PHA) values (PFOA, L-PFOS) established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), only two water samples exceeded PHA concentration for L-PFOS.

  5. Impact of chromium-contaminated wastewaters on the microbial community of a river.

    PubMed

    Branco, Rita; Chung, Ana-Paula; Veríssimo, António; Morais, Paula V

    2005-09-01

    The influence of chromium on the microbial community structure was analyzed in a river system subjected to long-term chromium contamination, by plating and by sequencing 16S rRNA genes cloned from DNA extracted from the river sediments. We also analyzed the influence of chromium on the ability of the microbial community to resist and reduce Cr(VI) and on its resistance to antibiotics. Shifts in the microbial community structure were analyzed by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis fingerprinting. The isolates obtained were phylogenetically related to Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria, whereas Acidobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria were only revealed by clone analyses. Cr(VI)-resistant and Cr(VI)-reducing strains were isolated in all sites examined. However, each sample site had a microbial community with a different antibiotic resistance pattern. Our study seems to indicate that in this river ecosystem chromium influenced the microbial communities, altering some of their functional characteristics, such as the percentage of the microbial community able to resist or to reduce Cr(VI) and the phylogenetic groups isolated, but it did not affect the structural diversity. Furthermore, the concentration of Cr(VI) in the sediments could not be correlated with a lower number of bacteria or lower index of generic diversity, neither with the ability of the microbial community to resist or to reduce higher Cr(VI) concentrations.

  6. Shifting dominance of riparian Populus and Tamarix along gradients of flow alteration in western North American rivers.

    PubMed

    Merritt, David M; Poff, N LeRoy

    2010-01-01

    Tamarix ramosissima is a naturalized, nonnative plant species which has become widespread along riparian corridors throughout the western United States. We test the hypothesis that the distribution and success of Tamarix result from human modification of river-flow regimes. We conducted a natural experiment in eight ecoregions in arid and semiarid portions of the western United States, measuring Tamarix and native Populus recruitment and abundance at 64 sites along 13 perennial rivers spanning a range of altered flow regimes. We quantified biologically relevant attributes of flow alteration as an integrated measure (the index of flow modification, IFM), which was then used to explain between-site variation in abundance and recruitment of native and nonnative riparian plant species. We found the likelihood of successful recruitment of Tamarix to be highest along unregulated river reaches and to remain high across a gradient of regulated flows. Recruitment probability for Populus, in contrast, was highest under free-flowing conditions and declined abruptly under even slight flow modification (IFM > 0.1). Adult Tamarix was most abundant at intermediate levels of IFM. Populus abundance declined sharply with modest flow regulation (IFM > 0.2) and was not present at the most flow-regulated sites. Dominance of Tamarix was highest along rivers with the most altered flow regimes. At the 16 least regulated sites, Tamarix and Populus were equally abundant. Given observed patterns of Tamarix recruitment and abundance, we infer that Tamarix would likely have naturalized, spread, and established widely in riparian communities in the absence of dam construction, diversions, and flow regulation in western North America. However, Tamarix dominance over native species would likely be less extensive in the absence of human alteration of river-flow regimes. Restoration that combines active mechanical removal of established stands of Tamarix with a program of flow releases conducive to

  7. Mercury and halogenated organic contaminants in river otters (Lontra canadensis) in New Jersey, USA.

    PubMed

    Stansley, William; Velinsky, David; Thomas, Roger

    2010-10-01

    Liver samples collected from New Jersey river otters (Lontra canadensis) in 2005 and 2007 were tested for Hg, organochlorine (OC) pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The highest mercury concentrations were found in otters living in the Pinelands region, where acidic soils and surface waters enhance Hg bioavailability. The highest individual Hg concentration was 19.8 µg/g wet weight, approximately 60% of the experimentally determined lethal threshold. Concentrations of OC pesticides were generally similar to those in otters from areas of Oregon and Washington close to agricultural and industrial sources. The geometric mean total PCB concentration (540 ng/g wet wt) was similar to the concentration in otters from the heavily populated and industrialized lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington. Seven liver samples that were among the highest in terms of total PCBs were analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins were detected in six of the samples at total concentrations ranging from 172 to 2,783 pg/g wet weight. Polychlorinated dibenzofurans were detected in three of the samples at total concentrations ranging from 1.50 to 2,719 pg/g wet weight. The geometric mean PBDE concentration was 10.6 ng/g wet weight, with a range of 0.82 to 436 ng/g wet weight. No statistically significant relationship was observed between liver contaminant concentrations and land use within an 8-km radius of the trapping location. Overall, the data suggest that contaminant concentrations are not high enough to adversely affect the overall otter population in New Jersey. However, contaminant-related effects on the health or reproductive success of individual otters in some areas are possible.

  8. Body burden contaminants in whole fish tissue and livers from the Slave River (NWT)

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, L.H.; Stephens, G.R.; Peddle, J.; Lafontaine, C.; Whittle, D.M.; Harbicht, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Slave River Environmental Monitoring Program was established in 1990 to assess whether the commercial and subsistence fisheries in the region were being impacted by downstream transport and subsequent bioaccumulation of contaminants in the fish. Lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis), northern pike (Esox lucius), burbot (Lota lota), walleye (Stizostedion vitreum), and longnose suckers (Catostomus catostomus) were collected in the Slave River at Fort Smith (NWT) and whole fish tissue was evaluated for contaminant accumulation. Due to their high lipid concentration and their importance as food source, burbot livers were also analyzed. A broad organochlorine scan was conducted for selected dioxins and furans, total PCB concentrations and individual congeners, pesticide residues such as DDT and its metabolites, dieldrin, lindane, mirex, and toxaphene. Also, PAHs, and various chlorinated phenolics such as chlorophenols, chlorocatechols, and chloroguaiacols were also examined. Although contaminants were detected in the fish, concentrations generally were minimal. Levels of total PCBs in whole fish tissue ranged from 0.006 to 0.08 mg/kg, while average concentrations in burbot livers were 0.23 mg/kg. The toxic dioxin isomer 2,3,7,8-TCDD was detected once in whole fish tissue (walleye) at levels of 0.86 pg/g, while concentrations in burbot livers ranged from 1.2 to 9.96 pg/g. Higher levels of TCDD (11.4 pg/g) were noted in fish caught at the reference site Chitty/Alexie Lake, although this body of water has no known sources of dioxins and furans. The presence of these compounds indicates a long-range transport and deposition mechanism. Toxaphene concentrations in fish averaged 0.3 mg/kg, while concentrations of p,p{prime}-DDE ranged from 0.001 to 0.008 mg/kg over the monitoring period. Levels of PAHs and chlorinated phenolics were generally below analytical detection limits, as were most of the pesticide residues.

  9. Metal contamination and post-remediation recovery in the Boulder River watershed, Jefferson County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Unruh, D.M.; Church, S.E.; Nimick, D.A.; Fey, D.L.

    2009-01-01

    The legacy of acid mine drainage and toxic trace metals left in streams by historical mining is being addressed by many important yet costly remediation efforts. Monitoring of environmental conditions frequently is not performed but is essential to evaluate remediation effectiveness, determine whether clean-up goals have been met, and assess which remediation strategies are most effective. Extensive pre- and post-remediation data for water and sediment quality for the Boulder River watershed in southwestern Montana provide an unusual opportunity to demonstrate the importance of monitoring. The most extensive restoration in the watershed occurred at the Comet mine on High Ore Creek and resulted in the most dramatic improvement in aquatic habitat. Removal of contaminated sediment and tailings, and stream-channel reconstruction reduced Cd and Zn concentrations in water such that fish are now present, and reduced metal concentrations in streambed sediment by a factor of c. 10, the largest improvement in the district. Waste removals at the Buckeye/Enterprise and Bullion mine sites produced limited or no improvement in water and sediment quality, and acidic drainage from mine adits continues to degrade stream aquatic habitat. Recontouring of hillslopes that had funnelled runoff into the workings of the Crystal mine substantially reduced metal concentrations in Uncle Sam Gulch, but did not eliminate all of the acidic adit drainage. Lead isotopic evidence suggests that the Crystal mine rather than the Comet mine is now the largest source of metals in streambed sediment of the Boulder River. The completed removal actions prevent additional contaminants from entering the stream, but it may take many years for erosional processes to diminish the effects of contaminated sediment already in streams. Although significant strides have been made, additional efforts to seal draining adits or treat the adit effluent at the Bullion and Crystal mines would need to be completed to

  10. Assessment of colloidal copper speciation in the Mekong River Delta using diffusive gradients in thin film techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seah, Kahyee Cary; Qasim, Ghulam Hussain; Hong, Yong Seok; Kim, Eunsuk; Kim, Kyung Tae; Han, Seunghee

    2017-03-01

    Colloidal Cu speciation along the salinity gradient in the Mekong River Delta was investigated using diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) probes equipped with diffusive layers that had nominal pore sizes of 390 nm (DGT390) and 45 nm (DGT45). An open pore gel made of 1.5% agarose was used for the 390 nm pore size cutoff, and a restricted gel made of 40% acrylamide monomer was used for the 45 nm cutoff. When DGT390 and DGT45 were deployed in a 0.01 M NaNO3 solution for up to four days, the mean ratio of Cu accumulated in DGT390 to dissolved Cu (dCu) (<0.45 μm) was 1.0, and Cu accumulated in DGT45 to dCu was 0.98. By contrast, when DGT390 and DGT45 probes were deployed in Mekong River water of salinity 0, the ratio increased with increasing deployment time, from 0.15 to 1.0 for DGT390 and from 0.02 to 0.52 for DGT45, for four days. This demonstrates that the slow dissociation of colloidal Cu complex confines the rapid accumulation of colloidal Cu in DGT45, implying the potential of DGT probes for colloidal Cu monitoring. The same DGT probes were deployed in the Mekong River in order to test its in situ applicability. The colloidal fraction, determined by the difference between dCu and Cu accumulated in DGT45, ranged from 67% to 77% of dCu at the low-salinity sites but from 8.7% to 9.1% of dCu at the brackish sites. A large amount of particle suspension typically found at the salinity front of the Mekong River seemed to play a critical role in the transport of Cu by providing dCu and organic colloids from suspended sediment. Based on our test results, employing DGT probes is likely a promising method for monitoring colloidal Cu in natural water.

  11. Multidimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Dispersion of White Oak Creek Contaminants in the Clinch River

    SciTech Connect

    Platfoot, J.H.; Wendel, M.W.; Williams, P.T.

    1996-10-01

    This report describes the simulation of the dispersion and dilution of dissolved or finely suspended contaminants entering the Clinch river from White Oak Creek. The work is accomplished through the application of a commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. This study assumes that contaminants originating in the White Oak Creed watershed, which drains Oak Ridge National Laboratory, will eventually reach the mouth of White Oak Creek and be discharged into the clinch River. The numerical model was developed to support the analysis of the off-site consequences of releases from the ORNL liquid low-level waste system. The system contains storage tanks and transfer lines in Bethel Valley and Melton Valley. Under certain failure modes, liquid low-level waste could be released to White Oak Creek or Melton Branch to White Oak Creek and eventually be discharged to the Clinch River. Since the Clinch River has unrestricted access by the public and water usage from the Clinch River is not controlled by the Department of Energy, such a liquid low-level waste spill would create the possibility of public exposure to the contaminant. This study is limited to the dispersion of the contaminants downstream of the confluence of White Oak Creek.

  12. Severe and contrasted polymetallic contamination patterns (1900-2009) in the Loire River sediments (France).

    PubMed

    Grosbois, C; Meybeck, M; Lestel, L; Lefèvre, I; Moatar, F

    2012-10-01

    The Loire River basin (117,800 km(2), France) has been exposed to multiple sources of metals during the last 150 years, originating from major mining districts (coal and non-ferrous metals) and their associated industrial activities. Geochemical archives are established here from the analysis of a 4m sediment core in the downstream floodplain and then compared to stream bed sediments from pristine monolithological sub-basins and from bed and bank sediments in impacted tributaries. The contamination is assessed for 55 major and trace elements through their enrichment factors to Al (EF), normalized to the pre-anthropogenic background. Archives from 1900 to 2009 show enrichment (EF<1.3) not only for Ba, Be, Cs, Ga, Rb, REE, Sr, V, and Zr but also for U and Th, despite U mining activities until the 1990s. From 1900 to 1950, the level of contamination is severe for Hg, Au, Ag (10contamination is noted for Hg (EF up to 53), Cd (23), Ag (18), Zn (6.2), Cu (6.0), Sn (5.6), Pb(4.8), Sb(4.4) and for new impacted elements as Bi (23.8), As (3.7), Cr (3.4), W (3.1), Mo (2.6), Ni (2.8), Co (1.65) due to mines, smelters, industries and from urban sewers, collected mostly after 1950 (total population of 8.4 million people). The limited dilution by detrital material (Loire sediment load about 1.5 Mt/year) is an additional cause of such severe contamination. After 1950, river eutrophication is well marked by the general increase of endogenic calcite (EF (Ca)=4), diluting all other elements by 20%. From 1980 to 2009, all contaminants, except Au (EF=100), decrease steadily.

  13. Mechanisms for surface contamination of soils and bottom sediments in the Shagan River zone within former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site.

    PubMed

    Aidarkhanov, A O; Lukashenko, S N; Lyakhova, O N; Subbotin, S B; Yakovenko, Yu Yu; Genova, S V; Aidarkhanova, A K

    2013-10-01

    The Shagan River is the only surface watercourse within the former Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS). Research in the valley of the Shagan River was carried out to study the possible migration of artificial radionuclides with surface waters over considerable distances, with the possibility these radionuclides may have entered the Irtysh River. The investigations revealed that radioactive contamination of soil was primarily caused by the first underground nuclear test with soil outburst conducted at the "Balapan" site in Borehole 1004. The surface nuclear tests carried out at the "Experimental Field" site and global fallout made insignificant contributions to contamination. The most polluted is the area in the immediate vicinity of the "Atomic" Lake crater. Contamination at the site is spatial. The total area of contamination is limited to 10-12 km from the crater piles. The ratio of plutonium isotopes was useful to determine the source of soil contamination. There was virtual absence of artificial radionuclide migration with surface waters, and possible cross-border transfer of radionuclides with the waters of Shagan and Irtysh rivers was not confirmed.

  14. Water level management and contaminant exposure to tree swallows nesting on the Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Dummer, P.M.; Custer, Christine M.; Li, A.U.; Warburton, D.; Melancon, M.J.; Hoffman, D.J.; Matson, C.W.; Bickham, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers conducted a water drawdown on Navigation Pool 8 of the Upper Mississippi River during the summers of 2001 and 2002 to increase aquatic vegetation production and thereby improve fish and wildlife habitat. Flooding of previously dried wetlands, however, may increase the rate of mercury methylation and make mercury more available to terrestrial vertebrates that feed in aquatic environments. Our objective was to determine if mercury, other elements, and organochlorine contaminants were more available to vertebrates following the 2001 drawdown. Tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) eggs and nestlings were collected at two sites on Pool 8 and a nearby Reference site in 2000 (pre-2001 drawdown), 2001 (pre-2001 drawdown) and 2002 (post-2001 drawdown) and tissues were analyzed for mercury, other elements, and organochlorine contaminants. Bioindicator measurements of genetic damage, oxidative stress, ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity, and the ratio of liver to nestling mass were also measured in nestlings at all sites and all years. Based on a multivariate analysis, the 2001 drawdown of Pool 8 did not influence element concentrations, organochlorine concentrations, or bioindicator response. Concentrations of inorganic and organochlorine contaminants in tree swallow eggs and nestlings were not at toxic levels. Hatching success did not differ among years and was comparable to the nationwide average.

  15. Non-target screening analyses of organic contaminants in river systems as a base for monitoring measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzbauer, J.

    2009-04-01

    Organic contaminants discharged to the aquatic environment exhibit a high diversity with respect to their molecular structures and the resulting physico-chemical properties. The chemical analysis of anthropogenic contamination in river systems is still an important feature, especially with respect to (i) the identification and structure elucidation of novel contaminants, (ii) to the characterisation of their environmental behaviour and (iii) to their risk for natural systems. A huge proportion of riverine contamination is caused by low-molecular weight organic compounds, like pesticides plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, technical additives etc. Some of them, like PCB or PAH have already been investigated thoroughly and, consequently, their behaviour in aqueous systems is very well described. Although analyses on organic substances in river water traditionally focused on selected pollutants, in particular on common priority pollutants which are monitored routinely, the occurrence of further contaminants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products or chelating agents has received increasing attention within the last decade. Accompanied, screening analyses revealing an enormous diversity of low-molecular weight organic contaminants in waste water effluents and river water become more and more noticed. Since many of these substances have been rarely noticed so far, it will be an important task for the future to study their occurrence and fate in natural environments. Further on, it should be a main issue of environmental studies to provide a comprehensive view on the state of pollution of river water, in particular with respect to lipophilic low molecular weight organic contaminants. However, such non-target-screening analyses has been performed only rarely in the past. Hence, we applied extended non-target screening analyses on longitudinal sections of the rivers Rhine, Rur and Lippe (Germany) on the base of GC/MS analyses. The investigations

  16. Bedload entrainment in low-gradient paraglacial coastal rivers of Maine, U.S.A.: Implications for habitat restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Noah P.; Castele, Michael R.; Wright, Jed R.

    2009-02-01

    The rivers of coastal Maine flow through mainstem lakes and long low-gradient reaches that break the continuum of bedload transport expected in nonparaglacial landscapes. Stream erosion of glacial deposits supplies coarse sediment to these systems. The land use history includes intensive timber harvest and associated dam construction, which may have altered the frequency of substrate-mobilizing events. These watersheds are vital habitat for the last remaining wild anadromous Atlantic salmon in the United States. Future adjustments in channel morphology and habitat quality (via natural stream processes or restoration projects) depend on erosion, transport, and deposition of coarse sediment. These factors motivate our study of competence at four sites in the Sheepscot and Narraguagus watersheds. Three of the four sites behaved roughly similarly, with particle entrainment during intervals that include winter ice and spring flood conditions, and relatively minor bed mobilization during moderate floods in the summer and fall (with a recurrence interval of 2-3 years). The fourth site, on the Sheepscot River mainstem, exhibits more vigorous entrainment of marked particles and more complex three-dimensional channel morphology. This contrast is partially due to local geomorphic conditions that favor high shear stresses (particularly relatively steep gradient), but also likely to nourishment of the bedload saltation system by recruitment from an eroding glacial deposit upstream. Our results suggest that the frequency and magnitude of bedload transport are reach specific, depending on factors including local channel geometry, upstream sediment supply and transport, and formation of anchor ice. This presents a challenge for stream practitioners in this region: different reaches may require contrasting management strategies. Our results underscore the importance of understanding channel processes at a given site and assessing conditions upstream and downstream as a prerequisite

  17. Importance of the Mississippi River Basin for investigating agricultural–chemical contamination of the hydrologic cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, Dana W.

    2000-01-01

    The Mississippi River Basin has undergone dramatic land use and cultural changes over the last 150 years. Approximately 70 million people now live within the basin, representing approximately 27% of the nation's population. This basin has also become one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world in terms of both crops and livestock grown. Approximately 65% of the nation's harvested cropland is grown in this basin, with more than 100 000 metric tons (t) of pesticides and approximately 6 500 000 t of commercial nitrogen fertilizers applied to cropland within the basin annually. The drainage of more than 20 000 000 ha within the basin has been enhanced by means of tile lines and ditches to lower the water table to make the cropland more productive. While removing the water from the soil as intended, this practice also leads to more rapid transport of contaminants to the river, and ultimately the Gulf of Mexico. Furthermore, the extensive chemical use in the Mississippi River Basin has led to the transport of pesticides and nitrate into the region’s streams, aquifers, and atmosphere. An estimated 1 000 000 t of nitrate-N is transported from the Mississippi River Basin into the Gulf of Mexico annually. The peak annual load of herbicides to the Gulf of Mexico has been documented at 1920 t. The fundamental goal of the papers presented in this volume is to provide a scientific basis for decisions necessary to promote sound and efficient agricultural practices and protect the quality of the nation's water resources.

  18. A Reconnaissance for Emerging Contaminants in the South Branch Potomac River, Cacapon River, and Williams River Basins, West Virginia, April-October 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Leiker, Thomas J.

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 a team of scientists from West Virginia Division of Natural Resources and the U. S. Geological Survey found a high incidence of an intersex condition, oocytes in the testes, among smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) in the South Branch Potomac River and the Cacapon River of West Virginia, indicating the possible presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). Possible sources of EDCs include municipal and domestic wastewater, and agricultural and industrial activities. Several sampling strategies were used to identify emerging contaminants, including potential EDCs, and their possible sources in these river basins and at an out-of-basin reference site. Passive water-sampling devices, which accumulate in-stream organic chemical compounds, were deployed for 40-41 days at 8 sampling sites. Sampler extracts were analyzed for a broad range of polar and non-polar organic compounds including pesticides, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and personal-care products. Analysis of passive-sampler extracts found 4 compounds; hexachloro-benzene; pentachloroanisole; 2,2',4,4',5-penta-bromo-diphenyl ether (BDE 47); and 2,2',4,4',6-penta-bromo-diphenyl ether (BDE 99) to be present at every sampled site, including the reference site, and several sites had detectable quantities of other compounds. No detectable quantity of any antibiotics was found in any passive-sampler extract. Effluent samples were analyzed for 39 antibiotics as tracers of human and agricultural waste. Additionally, poultry-processing plant effluent was sampled for roxarsone, an organoarsenic compound used as a poultry-feed additive, and other arsenic species as tracers of poultry waste. Antibiotics were detected in municipal wastewater, aquaculture, and poultry-processing effluent, with the highest number of antibiotics and the greatest concentrations found in municipal effluent. Arsenate was the only arsenic species detected in the poultry-processing plant effluent, at a concentration of 1.0 ?g

  19. The Dnieper River Aquatic System Radioactive Contamination; Long-tern Natural Attenuation And Remediation History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovych, Oleg; Laptev, Genadiy; Kanivets, Vladimir; Konoplev, Alexey

    2013-04-01

    Near 27 year passed after the Chernobyl Accident, and the experience gained to study radionuclide behavior in the aquatic systems and to mitigate water contamination are still pose of interest for scientists, society and regulatory austerities. There are different aspects of radionuclide transport in the environment were studied since the Chernobyl fallout in 1986 covered the river catchments, wetlands, river, lakes/reservoirs and reached the Black Sea. The monitoring time series data set and also data on the radionuclides behavior studies in the water bodies (river, lakes and the Black Sea) are available now in Ukraine and other affected countries. Its causation analyses, considering the main geochemical, physical and chemical and hydrological process, governing by radionuclide mobility and transport on the way from the initially contaminated catchments, through the river-reservoir hydrological system to the Black Sea can help in better understanding of the main factors governing be the radionuclide behavior in the environment. Radionuclide washout and its hydrological transport are determined speciation of radionuclides as well as soil types and hydrological mode and also geochemistry and landscape conditions at the affected areas. Mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides are determined by ratio of radionuclide chemical forms in fallout and site-specific environmental characteristics determining rates of leaching, fixation/remobilization as well as sorption-desorption of mobile fraction (its solid-liquid distribution). In many cases the natural attenuation processes governing by the above mentioned processes supported by water flow transportation and sedimentation played the key role in self-rehabilitation of the aquatic ecosystems. The models developed during post-Chernobyl decade and process parameters studies can help in monitoring and remediation programs planed for Fukusima Daichi affected watersheds areas as well. Some most important monitoring data

  20. Risk Assessment and Mapping of Fecal Contamination in the Ohio River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, A.; Morehead, D.; Teklitz, A.; Yeghiazarian, L.

    2014-12-01

    Decisions in many problems in engineering planning are invariably made under conditions of uncertainty imposed by the inherent randomness of natural phenomena. Water quality is one such problem. For example, the leading cause of surface-water impairment in the US is fecal microbial contamination, which can potentially trigger massive outbreaks of gastrointestinal disease. It is well known that the difficulty in prediction of water contamination is rooted in the stochastic variability of microbes in the environment, and in the complexity of environmental systems.To address these issues, we employ a risk-based design format to compute the variability in microbial concentrations and the probability of exceeding the E. Coli target in the Ohio River Basin (ORB). This probability is then mapped onto the basin's stream network within the ArcGIS environment. We demonstrate how spatial risk maps can be used in support of watershed management decisions, in particular in the assessment of best management practices for reduction of E. Coli load in surface water. The modeling environment selected for the analysis is the Schematic Processor (SP), a suite of geoprocessing ArcGIS tools. SP operates on a schematic, link-and-node network model of the watershed. The National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) is used as the basis for this representation, as it provides the stream network, lakes, and catchment definitions. Given the schematic network of the watershed, SP adds the capability to perform mathematical computations along the links and at the nodes. This enables modeling fate and transport of any entity over the network. Data from various sources have been integrated for this analysis. Catchment boundaries, lake locations, the stream network and flow data have been retrieved from the NHDPlus. Land use data come from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), and microbial observations data from the Ohio River Sanitation Committee. The latter dataset is a result of a 2003

  1. A survey of benthic sediment contaminants in reaches of the Columbia River Estuary based on channel sedimentation characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Counihan, Timothy D.; Waite, Ian R.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Elias, Edwin; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Zaugg, Steven D.

    2014-01-01

    While previous studies have documented contaminants in fish, sediments, water, and wildlife, few specifics are known about the spatial distribution of contaminants in the Columbia River Estuary (CRE). Our study goal was to characterize sediment contaminant detections and concentrations in reaches of the CRE that were concurrently being sampled to assess contaminants in water, invertebrates, fish, and osprey (Pandion haliaetus) eggs. Our objectives were to develop a survey design based on sedimentation characteristics and then assess whether sediment grain size, total organic carbon (TOC), and contaminant concentrations and detections varied between areas with different sedimentation characteristics. We used a sediment transport model to predict sedimentation characteristics of three 16 km river reaches in the CRE. We then compartmentalized the modeled change in bed mass after a two week simulation to define sampling strata with depositional, stable, or erosional conditions. We collected and analyzed bottom sediments to assess whether substrate composition, organic matter composition, and contaminant concentrations and detections varied among strata within and between the reaches. We observed differences in grain size fractions between strata within and between reaches. We found that the fine sediment fraction was positively correlated with TOC. Contaminant concentrations were statistically different between depositional vs. erosional strata for the industrial compounds, personal care products and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons class (Indus–PCP–PAH). We also observed significant differences between strata in the number of detections of Indus–PCP–PAH (depositional vs. erosional; stable vs. erosional) and for the flame retardants, polychlorinated biphenyls, and pesticides class (depositional vs. erosional, depositional vs. stable). When we estimated mean contaminant concentrations by reach, we observed higher contaminant concentrations in the furthest

  2. [The role of the floodplain gradient in structuring of testate amoebae communities in the Ilych River].

    PubMed

    Mazeĭ, Iu A; Malysheva, E A; Lapteva, E M; Komarov, A A; Taskaeva, A A

    2012-01-01

    Forty-two testate amoebae taxa were identified in alluvial soils of floodplain islands in the Ilych River. Among the pedo- and eurybionts, there were aquatic rhizopods. Along the floodplain transect (willow --> meadow --> deciduous forest --> coniferous forest), the testate amoebae community changed directly. There are spatially homogeneous (low beta-diversity) testacean communities but species rich on the local level (high alpha-diversity) within forests. Within willows and meadows, communities are characterized by low alpha-diversity and high heterogeneity that leads to high gamma-diversity.

  3. Transfer of chemical elements from a contaminated estuarine sediment to river water. A leaching assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Manuela; Peres, Sara; Magalhães, M. Clara F.

    2014-05-01

    Wastes of a former Portuguese steel industry were deposited during 40 years on the left bank of the Coina River, which flows into the estuary of the Tagus River near Lisbon. The aim of this study was to evaluate the release of the chemical elements from the contaminated sediment to the river water. A leaching experiment (four replicates) was performed using 1.6 kg/replicate of sediment from a landfill located in the Coina River bank, forming a lagoon subject to tidal influence. River water coming from this lagoon was collected during low tide. This water (200 mL) was added to the moist sediment, contained in cylindrical reactors, and was collected after 24 h of percolation. The leaching experiments were conducted for 77 days being leachates collected at time zero, after 28, 49 and 77 days with the sediment always moist. The sediment was characterized for: pH, electric conductivity (EC), total organic carbon (TOC), extractable phosphorus and potassium, mineral nitrogen, iron from iron oxides (crystalline and non-crystalline) and manganese oxides. Multi-elemental analysis was also made by ICP-INAA. Leachates and river water were analysed for pH, EC, hydrogencarbonate and sulfatetot by titrations, chloride by potentiometry, and multi-elemental composition by ICP-MS. The sediment presented pH=7.2, EC=18.5 dS/m, TOC=147.8 g/kg, high concentrations of extractable phosphorous (62.8 mg/kg) and potassium (1236.8 mg/kg), mineral nitrogen=11.3 mg/kg. The non-crystalline fraction of iron oxides corresponds to 99% (167.5 g Fe/kg) of the total iron oxides, and manganese from manganese oxides was low (52.7 mg/kg). Sediment is considered contaminated. It contained high concentrations (g/kg) of Zn (2.9), Pb (0.9), Cr (0.59), Cu (0.16), As (0.07), Cd (0.005), and Hg (0.001), which are above Canadian values for marine sediments quality guidelines for protection of aquatic life. River water had: pH=8.2, EC=28.6 dS/m, csulfate=1.23 g/L, and [Cl-]=251.6 mg/L. The concentrations of Cd (0

  4. Which lesson can be learnt from a historical contamination analysis of the most polluted river in Europe?

    PubMed

    Lofrano, Giusy; Libralato, Giovanni; Acanfora, Floriana Giuseppina; Pucci, Luca; Carotenuto, Maurizio

    2015-08-15

    The Sarno River trend analysis during the last 60 years was traced focusing on the socio-economic and environmental issues. The river, originally worshiped as a god by Romans, is affected by an extreme level of environmental degradation, being sadly reputed as the most polluted river in Europe. This is the "not to be followed" example of the worst way a European river can be managed. Data about water, sediment, soil, biota and air contamination were collected from scientific papers, monitoring surveys, and technical reports depicting a sick river. Originally, the river was reputed as a source of livelihood, now it is considered a direct threat for human health. Wastewater can still flow through the river partially or completely untreated, waste production associated with the manufacture of metal products and leather tanning continues to suffer from the historical inadequacy of regional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), associated with the partial or no reuse of effluents. All efforts should be devoted to solving the lack of wastewater and waste management, the gap in land planning, improving the capacity of existing WWTPs also via the construction of new sewer sections, restoring Sarno River minimum vital-flow, keeping to a minimum uncontrolled discharges as well as supporting river contracts. The 2015 goal stated by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) is still far to be reached. The lesson has not been learnt yet.

  5. Triad assessment of the impact of chromium contamination on benthic macroinvertebrates in the chusovaya river (Urals, russia)

    PubMed

    Leslie; Pavluk; bij de Vaate A; Kraak

    1999-08-01

    The impact of chromium (Cr) contamination on the benthic macroinvertebrate community of the Chusovaya River in the Ural Mountains of Russia was assessed using a triad approach. The triad consisted of chemical analysis of the contamination in various environmental compartments, examination of the benthic macroinvertebrate community structure, and analysis of ecotoxicological effects on the caddisfly Hydropsyche pellucidula (Trichoptera). Chemical analyses of water, sediments, and detritus indicated that the main contaminant present was indeed Cr and that the level of the Cr contamination near the point source, a severely polluted dead tributary, was extremely high: Downstream Cr concentrations were about 450 times higher in water and 25 times higher in sediments compared with a clean reference site upstream. The contamination at the mouth of the tributary was even more severe: 800 times more Cr in water and 50 times more Cr in sediments. Benthic macroinvertebrate community structure was studied using artificial substrates colonized in situ. Lower species richness was observed at the downstream site compared with the upstream site. Larvae of H. pellucidula collected from the contaminated site on the river bioaccumulated large amounts of Cr and exhibited physical abnormalities. The incidence of tracheal gill damage was significantly higher than at a reference site on the nearby Reshotka River, as was the incidence of discoloration of the anal papillae of these animals. The application of a triad demonstrated that the observed extreme Cr contamination had an adverse effect on aquatic life in the Chusovaya River, both at the community level (reduced diversity) and at the level of individuals (sublethal effects on surviving individuals).http://link.springer-ny. com/link/service/journals/00244/bibs/37n2p182.html

  6. Comparing radiation dose rates in soils and riverine sediment to track the dispersion of radioactive contamination in Fukushima coastal rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Lepage, Hugo; Chartin, Caroline; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Bonté, Philippe; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) accident that occurred in March 2011 led to the formation of a 3000-km² radioactive pollution plume on soils located up to 70 km to the northwest of the damaged site. Forests and paddy fields are the dominant land uses in this mountainous region drained to the Pacific Ocean by several rivers that flow across densely inhabited coastal plains. It is then crucial to track the dispersion of radioactive material conveyed by those rivers to estimate the continental supply of radionuclides to the Ocean and to assess redistribution of radioactive sediment in those catchments. Radiations emitted by this contaminated material may indeed lead to an external exposure threat for local populations. As river discharge and sediment concentration data were not available during the first two years that followed the accident, alternative methods had to be developed to track this dispersion. We therefore organized field campaigns every six months and conducted local ground dose rate measurements to estimate whether fresh sediment drape deposits were more or less contaminated compared to local soils. Overall, our results showed that, in those regions exposed to violent typhoons and spring snowmelt, transfers of sediment are massive and episodic, and that they followed a seasonal cycle in 2011-2012. Then, in May 2013, contamination levels measured in sediment found in the upper parts of the catchments were almost systematically lower than the ones measured in nearby soils, whereas their contamination was higher in the coastal plains. This could have indicated a drying-up of the upstream sources of contamination. However, after the violent typhoons that occurred during summer in 2013, dose rates measured in fresh sediment deposits in November 2013 increased again systematically across the region. We thereby suggest that remobilization of contaminated sediment by typhoons and their storage in reservoirs and in coastal sections of the

  7. Determining Sources and Transport of Nuclear Contamination in Hudson River Sediments with Plutonium, Neptunium, and Cesium isotope ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, T. C.; Chillrud, S. N.; Chaky, D. A.; Simpson, H. J.; McHugh, C. M.; Shuster, E. L.; Bopp, R. F.

    2004-12-01

    Different sources of radioactive contamination contain characteristic and identifiable isotopic signatures, which can be used to study sediment transport. We focus on Pu-239, Pu-240, Np-237 and Cs-137, which are strongly bound to fine grained sediments. The Hudson River drainage basin has received contamination from at least three separate sources: 1) global fallout from atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons, which contributed Pu, Np and Cs; 2) contamination resulting from reactor releases at the Indian Point Nuclear Power Plant (IPNPP) located on the Hudson River Estuary ˜70km north of New York Harbor, where records document releases of Cs-137; 3) contamination resulting from activities at the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) located on the Mohawk River, where incomplete records document releases of Cs-137 but no mention is made of Pu or Np. Here we report measurements of Pu isotopes, Np-237 and Cs-137 for a series of sediment cores collected from various locations within the drainage basin: 1) Mohawk River downstream of KAPL, 2) Hudson River upstream of its confluence with the Mohawk River, and 3) lower Hudson River at a location in close proximity to IPNPP. In addition, we present data from selected samples from two other lower Hudson River locations: One site located ˜30km downstream of IPNPP and another ˜30km upstream of IPNPP. By comparing the isotopic ratios Pu-240/Pu-239, Np-237/Pu-239, and Cs-137/Pu-239, measured in fluvial sediments to mean global fallout values, it is possible to identify and resolve different sources of non-fallout contamination. To date, isotopic data for sediments indicate non-fallout sources of Pu-239, Pu-240, and Cs-137; Np-237, however, appears to originate from global fallout only. Mohawk River sediments downstream of KAPL exhibit enrichments in Pu-239, Pu-240, and Cs-137 that are 7 to 20 times higher than levels expected from global fallout as indicated from Np-237. The elevated levels, non-fallout isotopic signatures

  8. Savannah River Laboratory DOSTOMAN code: a compartmental pathways computer model of contaminant transport

    SciTech Connect

    King, C M; Wilhite, E L; Root, Jr, R W; Fauth, D J; Routt, K R; Emslie, R H; Beckmeyer, R R; Fjeld, R A; Hutto, G A; Vandeven, J A

    1985-01-01

    The Savannah River Laboratory DOSTOMAN code has been used since 1978 for environmental pathway analysis of potential migration of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals. The DOSTOMAN work is reviewed including a summary of historical use of compartmental models, the mathematical basis for the DOSTOMAN code, examples of exact analytical solutions for simple matrices, methods for numerical solution of complex matrices, and mathematical validation/calibration of the SRL code. The review includes the methodology for application to nuclear and hazardous chemical waste disposal, examples of use of the model in contaminant transport and pathway analysis, a user's guide for computer implementation, peer review of the code, and use of DOSTOMAN at other Department of Energy sites. 22 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Organochlorine contaminants in common tern (Sterna hirundo) eggs and young from the river Rhine area (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, L. ); Thybaud, E. ); Caquet, T.; Ramade, F. )

    1994-11-01

    Common terns (Sterna hirundo) exhibit a remarkable range of variation in reproductive success. Several factors are known to contribute to reproductive failure either before hatching or between the time of hatching and fledging : predation pressure, food availability, flooding, competition for nesting sites, and toxic chemicals. Contaminants such as organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDFs), mercury and selenium were proved to significantly impair tern reproduction. During the reproductive period of 1988, an important mortality of common terns was observed in french colonies around the river Rhine. Approximately 50% of the young died a few days after hatching. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the intoxication by chlorinated compounds could have been responsible for the observed reproductive failure. 25 refs., 1 tab.

  10. Point Sources of Emerging Contaminants Along the Colorado River Basin: Impact on Water Use and Reuse in the Arid Southwest

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) (e.g., pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, personal care products) have been detected in waters across the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate point sources of ECs along the Colorado River, from the headwaters in Colorado to the Gulf...

  11. Development of Plasma Vitrification Technology for Contaminated Soil at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Kielpinski, A.L.; Marra, J.C.; Rogers, V.; Schumacher, R.F.; Etheridge, J.; Kirkland, R.

    1995-03-01

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) of the United States Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development is developing treatment technologies for a wide variety of materials containing mixed low-level waste, i.e., having low levels of radioactivity along with hazardous constituents. Vitrification is a promising treatment technology for many of these wastes, including contaminated soil such as that found at the Savannah River Site. Proof-of-principle tests were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of both ex-situ and in-situ vitrification of contaminated soil by means of a plasma torch. A mixture of 89 percent as-excavated Savannah River Site sandy clay loam with 11 percent lime addition was tested. Vitrification of a mixture of this feed, in a 10 in. diameter crucible with a non-transferred arc plasma torch at a nominal 160 kW, was successful. The process produced homogeneous glass (albeit with local compositional variations), surrounded by a skull of incompletely reacted feed. Characterization of the resultant product durability using the Product Consistency Test showed elemental leaching well below the Environmental Assessment glass (which is often used as a minimum standard of glass acceptability in high-level waste glass assessment) for both the glass and the skull regions. Future tests should include doping the soil with hazardous constituents to enable further verification of the wasteform integrity via the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure. In-situ operation was mimicked in the test crucible by segregating the lime additive from the soil within the crucible. Making full use of the available torch maneuvering capabilities (which would likely exceed those of a torch used in-situ) failed to produce a homogeneous melt. Therefore, intimate mechanical mixture of the additive with the soil appears crucial to the success of SRS soil vitrification, and must be included in design considerations for in-situ operation.

  12. Mercury contamination of riverine sediments in the vicinity of a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant in Sagua River, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Bolaños-Álvarez, Yoelvis; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos Manuel; Morabito, Roberto; Díaz-Asencio, Misael; Pinto, Valentina; Gómez-Batista, Miguel

    2016-06-01

    Sediment is a great indicator for assessing coastal mercury contamination. The objective of this study was to assess the magnitude of mercury pollution in the sediments of the Sagua River, Cuba, where a mercury-cell chlor-alkali plant has operated since the beginning of the 1980s. Surface sediments and a sediment core were collected in the Sagua River and analyzed for mercury using an Advanced Mercury Analyser (LECO AMA-254). Total mercury concentrations ranged from 0.165 to 97 μg g(-1) dry weight surface sediments. Enrichment Factor (EF), Index of Geoaccumulation (Igeo) and Sediment Quality Guidelines were applied to calculate the degrees of sediment contamination. The EF showed the significant role of anthropogenic mercury inputs in sediments of the Sagua River. The result also determined that in all stations downstream from the chlor-alkali plant effluents, the mercury concentrations in the sediments were higher than the Probable Effect Levels value, indicating a high potential for adverse biological effects. The Igeo index indicated that the sediments in the Sagua River are evaluated as heavily polluted to extremely contaminated and should be remediated as a hazardous material. This study could provide the latest benchmark of mercury pollution and prove beneficial to future pollution studies in relation to monitoring works in sediments from tropical rivers and estuaries.

  13. The role of rivers in transporting organic contaminants in the marine environment of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzianestis, Ioannis

    2013-04-01

    The study of trace organic contaminants in coastal marine environments and especially in estuarine systems is of great importance, since these areas, being biologically productive and receiving considerable pollutant inputs from land-based sources via river runoff, act as a transit zone in which contaminants are transported to the sea. The aim of this work is to identify the significance of estuarine export of organic pollution in the marine environment of Greece. For this reason, the distribution, composition and sources of hydrocarbon mixtures were investigated in sediments collected from eight major Greek estuarine systems, by using a molecular marker approach and several diagnostic criteria and indices. Surface sediment samples were collected from the estuaries of five rivers in Northern Greece flowing into Aegean sea (Axios, Aliakmonas, Strymon, Nestos, Evros), one river in Central Greece (Asopos) also flowing into Aegean Sea and two rivers in Western Greece flowing into Ionian sea (Acheloos, Acherontas). The highest aliphatic hydrocarbon concentrations (>100 μg/g), indicative of petroleum pollution, were recorded in Asopos estruaries, followed by Aliakmonas, Axios, Strymon and Evros estuaries (50-100 μg/g). On the contrary, in Nestos delta, as well as in Acheloos and Acherontas estuaries, hydrocarbon values were found low and similar to those measured in open sea (< 25 μg/g), indicating that these rivers are not major hydrocarbon suppliers in the marine environment. The unresolved complex mixture (UCM) was the main component of the aliphatic fraction in most cases demonstrating some petroleum inputs in all areas, but high values of the ratio unresolved to resolved compounds (U/R), which are clearly indicative of petroleum residues, were measured only in Asopos, Axios and Evros estuary (U/R: 5.1-10.4). The n-alkane distribution was generally similar with that of total aliphatics. The high molecular weight n-alkanes (>C23) predominated in most cases, showing

  14. Identification of characteristic organic contaminants in wastewaters from modern paper production sites and subsequent tracing in a river.

    PubMed

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Botalova, Oxana; Illgut, Sarah; Bosowski, Sylwana; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2015-12-30

    The paper industry is one of the most significant industrial branches that contributes to water pollution. Recent studies regarding the chemical composition of wastewaters from modern paper production sites are sparse, and organic contaminants originating from this source may remain undetected and uncontrolled. Therefore, for this study, non-target screening analyses of wastewaters from five different paper production sites were performed, including an extended analysis of one facility, for the identification of volatile non-polar to semi-polar organic contaminants. The identified contaminants were also traced in the adjacent river. Several specific agents related to paper production, including photoinitiators, ink and thermal paper constituents, were present in most wastewaters and were therefore considered to be characteristic paper industry contaminants. A couple of contaminants identified in this study are being reported for the first time and might be toxic, but have been neglected in previous studies. Bisphenol A and 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyne-4,7-diol were found in untreated wastewaters, treated wastewater and in river water. Bisphenol A was present in river water downstream from where the paper industry discharges at a concentration that was reported to affect the reproduction of gastropods. Thus, our findings imply that paper industry discharges pose a risk to the populations of sensitive macroinvertebrates.

  15. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals in coastal lagoons of the Po River delta: sediment contamination, bioaccumulation and effects on Manila clams.

    PubMed

    Casatta, Nadia; Stefani, Fabrizio; Pozzoni, Fiorenzo; Guzzella, Licia; Marziali, Laura; Mascolo, Giuseppe; Viganò, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    The large estuary that the River Po forms at its confluence into the Adriatic Sea comprises a multitude of transitional environments, including coastal lagoons. This complex system receives the nutrients transported by the River Po but also its load of chemical contaminants, which may pose a substantial (eco)toxicological risk. Despite the high ecological and economic importance of these vulnerable environments, there is a substantial lack of information on this risk. In light of the recent amendments of the European Water Framework Directive (2013/39/EU), the present study investigated the sediment contamination of six coastal lagoons of the Po delta and its effects on Manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), exposed in situ for 3 months. Sediment contamination and clam bioaccumulation of a wide range of chemicals, i.e. trace metals (Cd, Cr, Ni, Hg, Pb, As), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), alkylphenols (APs), organochlorine compounds (PCBs, DDTs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organotins (TPhT, TBT), suggested a southward increase related to the riverine transports. Where the River Po influence was more direct, the concentrations of contaminants were higher, with nonylphenol and BDE-209 exceeding sediment quality guidelines. Biometric indicators suggested the influence of contamination on organism health; an inverse relationship between PBDEs in sediments and clam condition index has been found, as well as different biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) in the lagoons.

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Green River, Utah. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project consists of the Surface Project (phase 1) and the Ground Water Project (phase 2). For the UMTRA Project site located near Green River, Utah, the Surface Project cleanup occurred from 1988 to 1989. The tailings and radioactively contaminated soils and materials were removed from their original locations and placed into a disposal cell on the site. The disposal cell is designed to minimize radiation emissions and minimize further contamination of ground water beneath the site. The UMTRA Project`s second phase, the Ground Water Project, evaluates the nature and extent of ground water contamination resulting from uranium processing and determines a strategy for ground water compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards established for the UMTRA Project. For the Green River site, the risk assessment helps determine whether human health risks result from exposure to ground water contaminated by uranium processing. This risk assessment report is the first site-specific document prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project at the Green River site. What follows is an evaluation of current and possible future impacts to the public and the environment from exposure to contaminated ground water. The results of this evaluation and further site characterization will be used to determine what is necessary, if anything, to protect human health and the environment while complying with EPA standards.

  17. Assessment of potential impacts of major groundwater contaminants to fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, D.R.; Poston, T.M.; Dauble, D.D.

    1994-10-01

    Past operations of Hanford Site facilities have contaminated the groundwater adjacent to the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, with various chemical and radiological constituents. The groundwater is hydraulically connected to the river and contains concentrations of contaminants that sometimes exceed federal and/or state drinking water standards or standards for the protection of aquatic life. For example, concentrations of chromium in shoreline seeps and springs at most 100 Area operable units exceed concentrations found to be toxic to fish. Nitrate and tritium concentrations in shoreline seeps are generally below drinking water standards and concentrations potentially toxic to aquatic life, but nitrate concentrations may be high enough to synergistically interact with and exacerbate chromium toxicity. The Hanford Reach also supports the largest run of fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Columbia River Basin. Numbers of fall chinook salmon returning to the Hanford Reach have increased relative to other mainstem populations during the last 30 years. Groundwater discharge appears to occur near some salmon spawning areas, but contaminants are generally not detectable in surface water samples. The concentration and potential toxicity of contaminants in the interstitial waters of the substrate where fall chinook salmon embryogenesis occurs are presently unknown. New tools are required to characterize the extent of groundwater contaminant discharge to the Hanford Reach and to resolve uncertainties associated with assessment of potential impacts to fall chinook salmon.

  18. Mercury speciation in floodplain soils and sediments along a contaminated river transect

    SciTech Connect

    Wallschlaeger, D.; Desai, M.V.M.; Spengler, M.; Wilken, R.D.

    1998-09-01

    A novel mercury-specific sequential extraction procedure (SEP) for the assessment of mercury (Hg) speciation in soils and sediments, with emphasis on studying the interaction between Hg and organic matter (OM), was developed and tested. It was applied to determine Hg speciation in floodplain topsoils and surface sediments along the Hg-contaminated part of the river Elbe, and to simultaneously derive some information on the (re)mobilization potentials for Hg from these matrices. The majority of the total Hg in the ecosystem today is bound in the floodplains, which also still geographically reflect the historic emission record. Most of the Hg in both matrices is bound strongly to OM, suggesting low availability. However, distinct differences between Hg speciation in the floodplain soils and sediments were also discovered. Mercury deposited in the floodplains shows speciation patterns that indicate stronger fixation compared with Hg in the sediments. This difference is attributed to the association of Hg with larger quantities of OM, which presumably also has higher molecular weight (MW). By comparison, Hg in the sediments was distributed among weaker binding forms, which are more likely to liberate Hg. Particularly, sediments showed a total lack of sulfidic binding forms for Hg. Pronounced geographical trends were detected in the Hg speciation along the river transect, with a general downstream shift from weaker to stronger binding forms, probably due to increased association with OM. These studies indicate that Hg speciation in riverine ecosystems is dynamic and reflects the chemical mechanisms underlying (bio) geochemical processes like distribution and transport.

  19. Using discriminant analysis to assess polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination in Yongding New River.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Zou, Zhihong; Zou, Hui

    2013-10-01

    Yongding New River has been polluted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are carcinogenic and mutagenic. In three periods (the abundant water period, mean water period, dry water period), ten sites (totally 30 samples) in Yongding New River were clustered into four categories by hierarchical cluster analysis (hierarchical CA). In the same cluster, the samples had the same approximate contamination situation. In order to eliminate the dimensional differences, the data in each sample, containing 16 kinds of PAHs, were standardized with normal standardization and maximum difference standardization. According to the results of the cubic clustering criterion, pseudo F, and pseudo t (2) (PST2), the proper number of clustering for the 30 samples is 4. Before conducting hierarchical CA and K-means cluster analysis on the samples, we used principal component analysis to obtain another group data set. This data set was composed of the principal component scores which are uncorrelated variables. Hierarchical CA and K-means cluster analysis were used to classify the two data sets into four categories. With the classification results of hierarchical CA and K-means cluster analysis, discriminant analysis is applied to determine which method was better for normalization of the original data and which one was proper to cluster the samples and establish discriminant functions so that a new sample can be grouped into the right categories.

  20. Environmental contaminants and biomarker responses in fish from the Columbia River and its tributaries: spatial and temporal trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Schmitt, C.J.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Bartish, T.M.; Anderson, P.J.; Coyle, J.J.; Dethloff, G.M.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2006-01-01

    Fish were collected from 16 sites on rivers in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) from September 1997 to April 1998 to document temporal and spatial trends in the concentrations of accumulative contaminants and to assess contaminant effects on the fish. Sites were located on the mainstem of the Columbia River and on the Snake, Willamette, Yakima, Salmon, and Flathead Rivers. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus sp.), and largescale sucker (Catostomus macrocheilus) were the targeted species. Fish were field-examined for external and internal lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute somatic indices, and tissue and fluid samples were preserved for fish health and reproductive biomarker analyses. Composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site were analyzed for organochlorine and elemental contaminants using instrumental methods and for 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Overall, pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from lower CRB sites and elemental concentrations were greatest in fish from upper CRB sites. These patterns reflected land uses. Lead (Pb) concentrations in fish from the Columbia River at Northport and Grand Coulee, Washington (WA) exceeded fish and wildlife toxicity thresholds (> 0.4 ??g/g). Selenium (Se) concentrations in fish from the Salmon River at Riggins, Idaho (ID), the Columbia River at Vernita Bridge, WA, and the Yakima River at Granger, WA exceeded toxicity thresholds for piscivorous wildlife (> 0.6 ??g/g). Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the basin but were greatest (> 0.4 ??g/g) in predatory fish from the Salmon River at Riggins, ID, the Yakima River at Granger, WA, and the Columbia River at Warrendale, Oregon (OR). Residues of p,p???-DDE were greatest (> 0.8 ??g/g) in fish from agricultural areas of the Snake, Yakima, and Columbia River basins but were not detected in upper CRB fish

  1. Reconstruction of the contamination of the Techa River in 1949-1951 as a result of releases from the "Mayak" Production Association.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Vorobiova, M I; Degteva, M O; Peremyslova, L M; Shishkina, E A; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2012-11-01

    More accurate reconstruction of the radioactive contamination of the Techa River system in 1949-1951 has been made on the basis of refined data on the amounts and the rate of discharge of radionuclides into the Techa River from the Mayak Production Association; this has led to the development of a modified Techa River model that describes the transport of radionuclides through the up-river ponds and along the Techa River and deposition of radionuclides in the river-bottom sediments and flooded areas. The refined Techa River source-term data define more precisely the time-dependent rates of release and radionuclide composition of the releases that occurred during 1949-1951. The Techa River model takes into account the time-dependent characteristics of the releases and considers (a) the transport of radionuclides adsorbed on solid particles originally contained in the discharges or originating in the up-river ponds as a result of stirring up of contaminated bottom sediments and (b) the transport of radionuclides in soluble form. The output of the Techa River model provides concentrations of all source-term radionuclides in the river water, bottom sediments, and floodplain soils at different distances from the site of radioactive releases for the period of major contamination in 1950-1951. The outputs of the model show good agreement with historical measurements of water and sediment contamination. In addition, the river-model output for (90)Sr concentration in the river water is harmonized with retrospective estimates derived from the measurements of (90)Sr in the residents of the Techa Riverside villages. Modeled contamination of the floodplain soils by (137)Cs is shown to be in agreement with the values reconstructed from late measurements of this radionuclide. Reconstructed estimates of the Techa River contamination are being used for the quantification of internal and external doses received by residents of the Techa Riverside communities.

  2. Trace elements and organic contaminants in stream sediments from the Red River of the North Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brigham, M.E.; Tornes, L.H.

    1996-01-01

    To assess the presence and distribution of a variety of hydro-phobic chemicals in streams in the Red River of the North Basin, bottom sediments were analyzed for trace elements, organochlorines, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Glaciolacustrine clays and carbonate minerals are common in fine sediments of the region, and can help explain the distribution of many elements. Aluminum (Al), an indicator of glaciolacustrine clay minerals, correlates strongly (r>0.75, p<0.05) with Cr, Co, Fe, La, Li, K, Sc, and Ti; and moderately (0.55River Basin, Eu, Nb, Ce, La, Nd, and Ni also have strong correlations with Al. Al correlates negatively with major elements associated with carbonate minerals (Ca, Mg, and inorganic carbon). No significant correlations with Al, Ca, or Mg were observed for As, Pb, Mn, Hg, Se, or Ag, which implies that these elements have different environmental sources or behaviors than glaciolacustrine clays or carbonate minerals. Reduction-oxidation processes may influence Mn distribution. Lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) are known to be anthropogenically enriched in the environment--their distribution may indicate environmental enrichment in Red River of the North Basin streams. Organochlorines detected are limited to traces of DDT and its metabolites (mostlyp,p'-DDE). Fourteen PAHs, which are constituents of fossil fuels and of combustion byproducts, were detected in at least halfthe sediment samples; pyrene and fluoranthene were detected in about 90 percent of samples. The contaminants detected in this study were present at low levels, likely indicative of diffuse or remote sources; they occur widely in the environment. 

  3. Microbial responses to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon contamination in temporary river sediments: Experimental insights.

    PubMed

    Zoppini, Annamaria; Ademollo, Nicoletta; Amalfitano, Stefano; Capri, Silvio; Casella, Patrizia; Fazi, Stefano; Marxsen, Juergen; Patrolecco, Luisa

    2016-01-15

    Temporary rivers are characterized by dry-wet phases and represent an important water resource in semi-arid regions worldwide. The fate and effect of contaminants have not been firmly established in temporary rivers such as in other aquatic environments. In this study, we assessed the effects of sediment amendment with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) on benthic microbial communities. Experimental microcosms containing natural (Control) and amended sediments (2 and 20 mg PAHs kg(-1) were incubated for 28 days. The PAH concentrations in sediments were monitored weekly together with microbial community structural (biomass and phylogenetic composition by TGGE and CARD-FISH) and functional parameters (ATP concentration, community respiration rate, bacterial carbon production rate, extracellular enzyme activities). The concentration of the PAH isomers did not change significantly with the exception of phenanthrene. No changes were observed in the TGGE profiles, whereas the occurrence of Alpha- and Beta-Proteobacteria was significantly affected by the treatments. In the amended sediments, the rates of carbon production were stimulated together with aminopeptidase enzyme activity. The community respiration rates showed values significantly lower than the Control after 1 day from the amendment then recovering the Control values during the incubation. A negative trend between the respiration rates and ATP concentration was observed only in the amended sediments. This result indicates a potential toxic effect on the oxidative phosphorylation processes. The impoverishment of the energetic resources that follows the PAH impact may act as a domino on the flux of energy from prokaryotes to the upper level of the trophic chain, with the potential to alter the temporary river functioning.

  4. Bayesian modeling approach for characterizing groundwater arsenic contamination in the Mekong River basin.

    PubMed

    Cha, YoonKyung; Kim, Young Mo; Choi, Jae-Woo; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2016-01-01

    In the Mekong River basin, groundwater from tube-wells is a major drinking water source. However, arsenic (As) contamination in groundwater resources has become a critical issue in the watershed. In this study, As species such as total As (AsTOT), As(III), and As(V), were monitored across the watershed to investigate their characteristics and inter-relationships with water quality parameters, including pH and redox potential (Eh). The data illustrated a dramatic change in the relationship between AsTOT and Eh over a specific Eh range, suggesting the importance of Eh in predicting AsTOT. Thus, a Bayesian change-point model was developed to predict AsTOT concentrations based on Eh and pH, to determine changes in the AsTOT-Eh relationship. The model captured the Eh change-point (∼-100±15mV), which was compatible with the data. Importantly, the inclusion of this change-point in the model resulted in improved model fit and prediction accuracy; AsTOT concentrations were strongly negatively related to Eh values higher than the change-point. The process underlying this relationship was subsequently posited to be the reductive dissolution of mineral oxides and As release. Overall, AsTOT showed a weak positive relationship with Eh at a lower range, similar to those commonly observed in the Mekong River basin delta. It is expected that these results would serve as a guide for establishing public health strategies in the Mekong River Basin.

  5. Organochlorine contaminants in bald eagles and double-crested cormorants nesting along the lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.; Schuler, C.; Anthony, R.; Tillitt, D.

    1995-12-31

    The Columbia River receives numerous contaminants from municipal and industrial permitted discharges, nonpoint pollution, accidental spills, and hazardous waste sites. Poor reproductive success has been documented in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nesting along the river, and concentrations of DDE and PCBs in eagle eggs has been correlated with reduced productivity and significant eggshell thinning. Recently, elevated 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) concentrations also were detected in embryos of bald eagles and double-crested cormorants. The authors collected eggs from 11 bald eagle nest sites in 1994 and from 10 cormorant nest sites in 1993 and 1994 and found organochlorines at concentrations potentially harmful to the species. DDE, PCBS, and 2,3,7,8-TCDD in bald eagle eggs averaged 6.84 parts per million (ppm), 6.15 ppm, and 30 parts per trillion (pptr)fresh weight, respectively. In cormorant eggs, fresh weight values ranged from 1.14 to 13.1 ppm for DDE, 0.98 to 9.67 for total PCBS, and 4.8 to 58 pptr for 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Cormorant eggs subjected to a H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay indicated the amounts of TCDD-Equivalents (TCDD-EQs) present would relate to a 23% egg mortality when compared to dose-response relationships between H4IIE-derived TCDD-EQs and egg mortality rates in double-crested cormorants in the Great Lakes. Preliminary results suggest DDE continues to impair reproductive success in Columbia River bald eagles, and dioxin and PCB concentrations may be impacting double-crested cormorants. Further egg analysis and productivity studies will be conducted in 1995.

  6. Carbonate chemistry dynamics and biological processes along a river-sea gradient (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingrosso, Gianmarco; Giani, Michele; Cibic, Tamara; Karuza, Ana; Kralj, Martina; Del Negro, Paola

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we investigated, for two years and with a bi-monthly frequency, how physical, chemical, and biological processes affect the marine carbonate system in a coastal area characterized by high alkalinity riverine discharge (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea, Mediterranean Sea). By combining synoptic measurements of the carbonate system with in situ determinations of the primary production (14C incorporation technique) and secondary prokaryotic carbon production (3H-leucine incorporation) along a river-sea gradient, we showed that the conservative mixing between river endmember and off-shore waters was the main driver of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) distribution and seasonal variation. However, during spring and summer seasons also the influence of biological uptake and release of DIC was significant. In the surface water of June 2012, the spreading and persistence of nutrient-rich freshwater stimulated the primary production (3.21 μg C L- 1 h- 1) and net biological DIC decrease (- 100 μmol kg- 1), reducing the dissolved CO2 concentration and increasing the pHT. Below the pycnocline of August 2012, instead, an elevated bacterial carbon production rate (0.92 μg C L- 1 h- 1) was related with net DIC increase (92 μmol kg- 1), low dissolved oxygen concentration, and strong pHT reduction, suggesting the predominance of bacterial heterotrophic respiration over primary production. The flux of carbon dioxide estimated at the air-sea interface exerted a low influence on the seasonal variation of the carbonate system. A complex temporal and spatial dynamic of the air-sea CO2 exchange was also detected, due to the combined effects of seawater temperature, river discharge, and water circulation. On annual scale the system was a sink of atmospheric CO2. However, in summer and during elevated riverine discharges, the area close to the river's mouth acted as a source of carbon dioxide. Also the wind speed was crucial in controlling the air-sea CO2

  7. Utility of Microbial Source-Tracking Markers for Assessing Fecal Contamination in the Portage River Watershed, Northwestern Ohio, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kephart, Christopher M.; Bushon, Rebecca N.

    2010-01-01

    An influx of concentrated animal feeding operations in northwest Ohio has prompted local agencies to examine the effects of these industrial farms on water quality in the upper Portage River watershed. The utility of microbial source-tracking (MST) tools as a means of characterizing sources of fecal contamination in the watershed was evaluated. From 2007 to 2008, scientists with the U.S. Geological Survey, Bowling Green State University, and the Wood County Health Department collected and analyzed 17 environmental samples and 13 fecal source samples for Bacteroides-based host-associated DNA markers. At many of the environmental sites tested, MST marker results corroborated the presumptive fecal contamination sources. Results from this demonstration study support the utility of using MST with host-specific molecular markers to characterize the sources of fecal contamination in the Portage River watershed.

  8. Concentration of contaminants in breeding bird eggs from the Colorado River Delta, Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Sapozhnikova, Yelena V; Schlenk, Daniel; Mason, Andrew Z; Hinojosa-Huerta, Osvel; Rivera-Díaz, Juan José; Ramos-Delgado, Norma Alicia; Sánchez-Bon, Gerardo

    2006-06-01

    Organic contaminants (organochlorine [OC], organophosphorus [OP] pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]), and metals (As, Cd, Hg, Pb, and Se) are a concern to avian health in the Colorado River delta, Mexico. We determined concentrations of contaminants in eggs of three breeding species of birds from the delta (mourning doves [Zenaida macroura], burrowing owls [Athene cunicularia], and marsh wrens [Cistothorus palustris]). We collected 27 eggs of mourning doves, eight eggs of burrowing owls, and 18 eggs of marsh wrens for analyses. Polychlorinated biphenyls, OC, and OP pesticides were analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with an electron capture detector, and metals were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The non-ortho PCB congeners (PCB 77 and 126) were found in mourning dove and burrowing owl eggs at concentrations in which hatchability can be affected. Mean selenium concentration found in marsh wren eggs (5.6 microg/g dry wt) exceeded the level of concern. Arsenic and Cd were found at higher than normal concentrations, Hg concentrations did not exceed the level of concern in any of the species, and Pb concentrations were higher in eggs of species subject to hunting. With the exception of lead, marsh wren eggs contained the highest metal concentrations.

  9. Occurrence of Emerging Contaminants in Water and Bed Material in the Missouri River, North Dakota, 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Damschen, William C.; Lundgren, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe, conducted a reconnaissance study to determine the occurrence of emerging contaminants in water and bed sediment within the Missouri River upstream and downstream from the cities of Bismarck and Mandan, North Dakota, and upstream from the city of Fort Yates, North Dakota, during September-October 2007. At each site, water samples were collected twice and bed-sediment samples were collected once. Samples were analyzed for more than 200 emerging contaminants grouped into four compound classes - wastewater compounds, human-health pharmaceutical compounds, hormones, and antibiotics. Only sulfamethoxazole, an antibiotic, was present at a concentration higher than minimum detection limits. It was detected in a water sample collected downstream from the cities of Bismarck and Mandan, and in bed-sediment samples collected at the two sites downstream from the cities of Bismarck and Mandan and upstream from Fort Yates. Sulfamethoxazole is an antibiotic commonly used for treating bacterial infections in humans and animals.

  10. A laboratory based experimental study of mercury emission from contaminated soils in the River Idrijca catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocman, D.; Horvat, M.

    2010-02-01

    Results obtained by a laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS) focused on investigating the kinetics of the mercury emission flux (MEF) from contaminated soils of the Idrija Hg-mine region, Slovenia are presented. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentrations (4-417 μg g-1) and land cover (forest, meadow and alluvial soil) alongside the River Idrijca were analysed to determine the variation in MEF versus distance from the source, regulating three major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature, soil moisture and solar radiation. MEFs ranged from less than 2 to 530 ng m-2 h-1, with the highest emissions from contaminated alluvial soils and soils near the mining district in the town of Idrija. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. The results revealed a strong positive effect of all three parameters investigated on momentum MEF. The light-induced flux was shown to be independent of the soil temperature, while the soil aqueous phase seems to be responsible for recharging the pool of mercury in the soil available for both the light- and thermally-induced flux. The overall flux response to simulated environmental conditions depends greatly on the form of Hg in the soil. Higher activation energies are required for the overall process to occur in soils where insoluble cinnabar prevails compared to soils where more mobile Hg forms and forms available for transformation processes are dominant.

  11. Effect of environmental contaminants in the Mississippi River Basin on carboxylesterases from four aquatic species

    SciTech Connect

    Jaiswal, R.; Huang, T.; Obih, P.; Hartley, W.

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of this study are to investigate the sensitivity of different classes of esterases in various aquatic species to environmental contaminants and the possible use of these enzymes as biomarkers for monitoring the effects of pollutants. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), and the non-specific carboxylesterases (CaE) were analyzed in three fish species, Ictiobus bubalus (small mouth buffalo), Ictiobus cyprinellus (big mouth buffalo) and Lepisosteus oculatus (spotted gar) and the green tree frog, Hyla cinerea. These samples were collected from the Devil`s Swamp Site (DSS), an industrial site known to be highly contaminated at the Mississippi River Basin, and Lake Tunica, a nonindustrial site. ACHE and BuChE activities in the subcellular fractions of liver and brain were significantly lower in fishes and frogs obtained from DSS when compared to the same species obtained from Tunica swamp site. The greatest decrease was observed with ACHE activity in the liver and brain of Ictiobus bubalus from DSS. CaE activity analyzed with p-nitrophenyl acetate was found to be significantly lower in the liver of all three fish species collected from DSS when compared to the same fish species obtained from the Tunica swamp site.

  12. Bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in field-contaminated Anacostia River (Washington, DC) sediment.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiaoxia; Reible, Danny D; Fleeger, John W

    2006-11-01

    Sediment-water partitioning behavior and bioavailability of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; phenanthrene, pyrene, chrysene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene) were measured in field-contaminated sediment collected from moderately polluted regions of the Anacostia River (Washington, DC, U.S.A.). Much of the sediment PAH burden was resistant to desorption: Effective partition coefficients were 2- to 10-fold greater than expected from literature values, and more than 80% of PAHs remained sorbed after treatment of the sediment with a nonionic polymeric adsorbent (Amberlite XAD-2) for 20 h. Bioaccumulation, elimination, and assimilation of each PAH in the deposit-feeding tubificid oligochaete Ilyodrilus templetoni were measured and compared with the equivalent measurements from laboratory-inoculated sediment. Ilyodrilus templetoni effectively accessed the desorption-resistant fraction of these organic contaminants, as exhibited by high single-gut passage assimilation efficiencies (ASEs) of the five PAHs (60% < ASE < 90%). However, steady-state accumulations of PAHs by I. templetoni were very low and consistent with low pore-water concentrations. The present results suggest that steady-state accumulation of PAHs is controlled by pore-water concentrations and is not necessarily related to route of uptake or assimilation efficiencies.

  13. Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in Northern Pike (Esox lucius) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hinck, J E; Blazer, V S; Denslow, N D; Myers, M S; Gross, T S; Tillitt, D E

    2007-05-01

    As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with organochlorine pesticide (total p,p'-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite of biomarkers including somatic indices, hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, vitellogenin concentrations, steroid hormone (17B- ustradiol and 16-kebtestosteront) concentrations, splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs), oocyte atresia, and other microscopic anomalies in various tissues were documented in YRB pike. Mean condition factor (0.50 to 0.68), hepatosomatic index (1.00% to 3.56%), and splenosomatic index (0.09% to 0.18%) were not anomalous at any site nor correlated with any contaminant concentration. Mean EROD activity (0.71 to 17.51 pmol/min/mg protein) was similar to basal activity levels previously measured in pike and was positively correlated with selenium concentrations (r = 0.88, P < 0.01). Vitellogenin concentrations in female (0.09 to 5.32 mg/mL) and male (<0.0005 to 0.097 mg/mL) pike were not correlated with any contaminant, but vitellogenin concentrations >0.01 mg/mL in male pike from multiple sites indicated exposure to estrogenic compounds. Mean steroid hormone concentrations and percent oocyte atresia were not anomalous in pike from any YRB site. Few site differences were significant for mean MA density (1.86 to 6.42 MA/mm(2)), size (812 to 1481 microm(2)), and tissue occupied (MA-%; 0.24% to 0.75%). A linear regression between MA-% and total PCBs was significant, although PCB concentrations were generally low in YRB pike (< or =63 ng/g), and MA-% values in female pike (0.24% to 0.54%) were lower than in male pike (0.32% to 0.75%) at similar PCB concentrations. Greater numbers of MAs were found as

  14. Methylmercury Oxidative Degradation Potentials in Contaminated and Pristine Sediments of the Carson River, Nevada

    PubMed Central

    Oremland, R. S.; Miller, L. G.; Dowdle, P.; Connell, T.; Barkay, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediments from mercury-contaminated and uncontaminated reaches of the Carson River, Nevada, were assayed for sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, denitrification, and monomethylmercury (MeHg) degradation. Demethylation of [(sup14)C]MeHg was detected at all sites as indicated by the formation of (sup14)CO(inf2) and (sup14)CH(inf4). Oxidative demethylation was indicated by the formation of (sup14)CO(inf2) and was present at significant levels in all samples. Oxidized/reduced demethylation product ratios (i.e., (sup14)CO(inf2)/(sup14)CH(inf4) ratios) generally ranged from 4.0 in surface layers to as low as 0.5 at depth. Production of (sup14)CO(inf2) was most pronounced at sediment surfaces which were zones of active denitrification and sulfate reduction but was also significant within zones of methanogenesis. In a core taken from an uncontaminated site having a high proportion of oxidized, coarse-grain sediments, sulfate reduction and methanogenic activity levels were very low and (sup14)CO(inf2) accounted for 98% of the product formed from [(sup14)C]MeHg. There was no apparent relationship between the degree of mercury contamination of the sediments and the occurrence of oxidative demethylation. However, sediments from Fort Churchill, the most contaminated site, were most active in terms of demethylation potentials. Inhibition of sulfate reduction with molybdate resulted in significantly depressed oxidized/reduced demethylation product ratios, but overall demethylation rates of inhibited and uninhibited samples were comparable. Addition of sulfate to sediment slurries stimulated production of (sup14)CO(inf2) from [(sup14)C]MeHg, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid blocked production of (sup14)CH(inf4). These results reveal the importance of sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria in oxidative demethylation of MeHg in anoxic environments. PMID:16535081

  15. Inter- and intraspecific variation in mercury bioaccumulation by snakes inhabiting a contaminated river floodplain.

    PubMed

    Drewett, David V V; Willson, John D; Cristol, Daniel A; Chin, Stephanie Y; Hopkins, William A

    2013-04-01

    Although mercury (Hg) is a well-studied contaminant, knowledge about Hg accumulation in snakes is limited. The authors evaluated Hg bioaccumulation within and among four snake species (northern watersnakes, Nerodia sipedon; queen snakes, Regina septemvittata; common garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis; and rat snakes, Elaphe obsoleta [Pantherophis alleghaniensis]) from a contaminated site on the South River (Waynesboro, VA, USA) and two nearby reference sites. Total Hg (THg) concentrations in northern watersnake tail tissue at the contaminated site ranged from 2.25 to 13.84 mg/kg dry weight (mean: 4.85 ± 0.29), or 11 to 19 times higher than reference sites. Blood THg concentrations (0.03-7.04 mg/kg wet wt; mean: 2.24 ± 0.42) were strongly correlated with tail concentrations and were the highest yet reported in a snake species. Within watersnakes, nitrogen stable isotope values indicated ontogenetic trophic shifts that correlated with THg bioaccumulation, suggesting that diet plays a substantial role in Hg exposure. Female watersnakes had higher mean THg concentrations (5.67 ± 0.46 mg/kg) than males (4.93 ± 0.49 mg/kg), but no significant differences between sexes were observed after correcting for body size. Interspecific comparisons identified differences in THg concentrations among snake species, with more aquatic species (watersnakes and queen snakes) accumulating higher mean concentrations (5.60 ± 0.40 and 4.59 ± 0.38 mg/kg in tail tissue, respectively) than the more terrestrial species, garter snakes and rat snakes (1.28 ± 0.32 and 0.26 ± 0.09 mg/kg, respectively). The results of the present study warrant further investigation of potential adverse effects and will aid in prioritizing conservation efforts.

  16. Methylmercury oxidative degradation potentials in contaminated and pristine sediments of the Carson River, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.; Miller, L.G.; Dowdle, P.; Connell, T.; Barkay, T.

    1995-01-01

    Sediments from mercury-contaminated and uncontaminated reaches of the Carson River, Nevada, were assayed for sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, denitrification, and monomethylmercury (MeHg) degradation. Demethylation of [14C]MeHg was detected at all sites as indicated by the formation of 14CO2 and 14CH4. Oxidative demethylation was indicated by the formation of 14CO2 and was present at significant levels in all samples. Oxidized/reduced demethylation product ratios (i.e., 14CO2/14CH4 ratios) generally ranged from 4.0 in surface layers to as low as 0.5 at depth. Production of 14CO2 was most pronounced at sediment surfaces which were zones of active denitrification and sulfate reduction but was also significant within zones of methanogenesis. In a core taken from an uncontaminated site having a high proportion of oxidized, coarse-grain sediments, sulfate reduction and methanogenic activity levels were very low and 14CO2 accounted for 98% of the product formed from [14C]MeHg. There was no apparent relationship between the degree of mercury contamination of the sediments and the occurrence of oxidative demethylation. However, sediments from Fort Churchill, the most contaminated site, were most active in terms of demethylation potentials. Inhibition of sulfate reduction with molybdate resulted in significantly depressed oxidized/reduced demethylation product ratios, but overall demethylation rates of inhibited and uninhibited samples were comparable. Addition of sulfate to sediment slurries stimulated production of 14CO2 from [14C]MeHg, while 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid blocked production of 14CH4. These results reveal the importance of sulfate-reducing and methanogenic bacteria in oxidative demethylation of MeHg in anoxic environments.

  17. Use of fish farms to assess river contamination: combining biomarker responses, active biomonitoring, and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Quesada-García, Alba; Valdehita, Ana; Torrent, Fernando; Villarroel, Morris; Hernando, M Dolores; Navas, José M

    2013-09-15

    Here we addressed the possible effects of trace levels of contaminants on fish by means of a combination of biomarker responses, active biomonitoring (ABM), and chemical analysis. In environmental studies, cytochromes P4501A (Cyp1A) and Cyp3A and related enzyme activities (7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, EROD, and benzyloxy-4-[trifluoromethyl]-coumarin-O-debenzyloxylase, BFCOD, respectively) are commonly used as biomarkers for evidencing exposure to a variety of contaminants. In a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fish farm that is routinely sampled to obtain references regarding normal levels of such enzyme activities in freshwater fish, we observed a strong and punctual increase in these activities at the end of 2011. In order to shed light on the causes of this induction, we transferred some fish to a fish farm with controlled conditions and examined them using an active biomonitoring (ABM) approach. EROD activity showed a decrease of 80% from the original values after 7 days in the control farm, while BFCOD activity was also reduced after 15 days. Although not significant, a decrease in cyp1A and cyp3A mRNA levels was also observed. To determine the presence of pollutants, water and sediment samples from the river feeding the fish farm were analyzed by two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOF-MS). The screening study reflected a weak inflow of pollutants in the monitored area, which is located far from any industrial activity or densely populated cities. Trace levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and personal care products (the polycyclic musk fragrance HHCB, and triclosan) were detected in sediments, at concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 38 ng/g dry weight, and in water from 4 to 441 ng/L. The approach followed in this study proved useful as a biomonitoring technique for the early detection of trace contaminants.

  18. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the sediments from the Yellow River Wetland National Nature Reserve (the Sanmenxia section), China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Qingli; Wang, Ruiling; Huang, Wenhai; Wang, Wenlin; Li, Xudong

    2015-06-01

    The Yellow River Wetland National Nature Reserve (the Sanmenxia section) is an important area of the Yellow River for two important hydrologic gauging stations: the Sanmenxia reservoir and the Xiaolangdi reservoir. Seven sites along the section were selected: Jiziling, Dinghuwan, Houdi, Canglonghu, Shangcun, Wangguan, and Nancun. After the microwave digestion with aqua regia, concentrations of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Zn, and Mn in the sediments were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry with air-acetylene flame. The results showed that all the concentrations of Cr detected were from the lithogenic source, and 63 % Mn, 48 % Pb, 41 % Cu, 20 % Cd, and 12 % Zn were from the anthropogenic source. The values of the index of geo-accumulation pointed out that there was moderate contamination of Mn at the Dinghuwan (1.04) and Houdi (1.00) sites (class 2), while the modified degree of contamination denoted that the contamination at the Houdi site (2.02) was moderate, nil to very low at the Nancun and Shangcun sites and low at the other sites, consisting with the tendency of pollution load index. For metal toxicity, the sediment pollution index indicated that the sediments of the Canglonghu site were low polluted, that of the Houdi site is nearly slightly contaminated, and those of others were natural and uncontaminated. It was vital to evaluate the degree of contamination with individual and overall elements and even with the metal toxicity. Cu, Pb, and Mn contaminations were aggravated in the Sanmenxia section, and there maybe was one of the main anthropogenic sources of these metals along the Yellow River. The findings were expected to update the current status of the heavy metal pollution in the Sanmenxia section as well as to create awareness concerning the sound condition of the whole reaches of the Yellow River.

  19. Contamination of the Conchos River in Mexico: Does It Pose a Health Risk to Local Residents?

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Arias, Hector; Quintana, César; Jimenez-Castro, Jorge; Quintana, Ray; Gutierrez, Melida

    2010-01-01

    Presently, water contamination issues are of great concern worldwide. Mexico has not escaped this environmental problem, which negatively affects aquifers, water bodies and biodiversity; but most of all, public health. The objective was to determine the level of water contamination in six tributaries of the Conchos River and to relate their levels to human health risks. Bimonthly samples were obtained from each location during 2005 and 2006. Physical-chemical variables (temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (EC), Total solids and total nitrogen) as well as heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Li) were determined. The statistical analysis considered yearly, monthly, and location effects, and their interactions. Temperatures differed only as a function of the sampling month (P < 0.001) and the pH was different for years (P = 0.006), months (P < 0.001) and the interaction years x months (P = 0.018). The EC was different for each location (P < 0.001), total solids did not change and total nitrogen was different for years (P < 0.001), months (P < 0.001) and the interaction years x months (P < 0.001). The As concentration was different for months (P = 0.008) and the highest concentration was detected in February samples with 0.11 mg L−1. The Cr was different for months (P < 0.001) and the interaction years x months (P < 0.001), noting the highest value of 0.25 mg L−1. The Cu, Fe, Mn, Va and Zn were different for years, months, and their interaction. The highest value of Cu was 2.50 mg L−1; for Fe, it was 16.36 mg L−1; for Mn it was 1.66 mg L−1; V was 0.55 mg L−1; and Zn was 0.53 mg L−1. For Ni, there were differences for years (P = 0.030), months (P < 0.001), and locations (P = 0.050), with the highest Ni value being 0.47 mg L−1. The Li level was the same for sampling month (P < 0.001). This information can help prevent potential health risks in the communities established along the river watershed who use this natural resource for swimming

  20. The metallic contamination of the Loire River Basin (France): Spatial and temporal evolution with a multi-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhivert, Elie; Grosbois, Cécile; Desmet, Marc; Curie, Florence; Moatar, Florentina; Meybeck, Michel; Bourrain, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Since the early 19th century, important agricultural, mining and industrial development has been active in Western Europe. The Loire River Basin (117,800 km2, total population of 8.4 Mp) presents a long history of human pressures, reflecting temporal evolution of technological and urban activities (Grosbois et al, 2012). Hence, sediments of the Loire River and its tributaries have recorded partially and/or totally organic, nutrients and trace element contamination. Nowadays, can we determine history of metallic emissions in sediment records and what is the part of these past inputs relative to the actual contamination? Can we point out historical sources of contamination? To answer these questions, two approaches were used in this study. Firstly, in four coring sites in the Loire River Basin, a temporal re-enacting of metallic contamination trapped in sediments was carried out. Based on age-model and inter-element correlations in each core, trace element signals were deconvoluted and compared to actual and specific chemical signatures of anthropogenic inputs (300 bed sediment samples collected downstream of former and current industrial sites like mines, smelters, planting/coating plants, glassware and car industries, metal recycling plants and waste water treatment plants). The second approach was at a larger basin scale, comparing location of these former and actual contamination sources with explanatory factors such as geology, evolution of population density, of industrial activities and of land use. This was done in the main stream of the Loire River and its major tributaries and locally at a smaller scale (0-500 km²). All these approaches emphasized three temporal periods of metallic contamination: (i) the first period begins with the 20th century until 1950, it corresponds to the first increase of major contaminants like Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn; some trace elements like Hg and Sn seem to be present in the Loire sediments much earlier as they

  1. Seasonal bacteriological analysis of Gola river water contaminated with pulp paper mill waste in Uttaranchal, India.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Singh, Shail; Raj, Abhay

    2006-07-01

    The seasonal physico-chemical and microbial quality of Gola river water has been analyzed after confluence of pulp paper mill waste. The study revealed that it has enhanced 20-30 times pollution load of BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, sulphate, chloride, sodium, nitrate, potassium, lignin and phenol after mixing of pulp paper mill waste with river water in all season. Further, it induced the bacterial growth by increasing most probable number value of E. coli was 1.57 x 10(4), 1.6 x 10(4), 1.37 x 10(4) and SPC count was 1.68 x 10(4), 1.64 x 10(4), 1.67 x 10(4)/100 ml during summer, monsoon, winter respectively. While the most probable number value in river water before mixing of pulp paper mill waste was 1.4 x 10(2), 1.82 x 10(2), 1.5 x 10(2) and SPC count was 2.8 x 10(3), 2.89 x 10(3), 2.78 x 10(3)/100 ml during summer, monsoon and winter respectively. This indicated from 88-114 fold increase in most probable number value of E. coli and 56.55-60.0 times increase in SPC count of river water after mixing of effluent in summer, monsoon and winter. Moreover, the most probable number value in effluent itself before mixing was 3.4 x 10(2), 3.3 x 10(2), 2.8 x 10(2) and SPC count was 6 x 10(4), 6.5 x 10(4), 6 x 10(4)/100 ml during summer, monsoon, winter, respectively. Furthermore, it was revealed that the seasonal variation also regulated the bacterial population dynamics as per the physico-chemical quality, in which E. coli was found highest at the rate of (5.9 x 10(4)), E. aerogenes (5.3 x 10(4)), P. aeruginosa (1.3 x 10(4)), S. aureus (3.2 x 10(3)), K. pneumoniae (2.6 x 10(4)), Enteritidis (1.1 x 10(4)) on monsoon season and V. cholerae (7.4 x 10(2)), V. vulnificus (9.2 x 10(2))/100 ml in river water when contaminated with pulp paper mill waste in monsoon season. Thus, the monsoon season showed presence of FC and TC indicated the thermo-tolerant and disease causing group of bacterial population in effluent and its sequence was observed as monsoon>summer>winter. This indicated the

  2. Gill and head kidney antioxidant processes and innate immune system responses of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) exposed to different contaminants in the St. Lawrence River, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dautremepuits, Claire; Marcogliese, David J; Gendron, Andrée D; Fournier, Michel

    2009-01-15

    Biomarkers of oxidative stress metabolism and the innate immune response were examined in gill and head kidney tissue of wild-caught yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected from four sites ranging in type and degree of metal pollution in the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, Canada. Sites were ranked as follows: Ile Dorvalgradient. Total protein content was highest at a site 4 km downstream of municipal effluents (Ilet Vert) exposed to moderate and high levels of heavy metals and faecal coliforms, respectively. Thiol content was highest at the reference site (Ile Dorval) with the lowest contaminant levels. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was highest in fish from the site furthest downstream that was exposed to moderate metal contamination (Iles aux Sables). Glutathione reductase (GRd) activity was high in both gill and head kidney tissue of fish from the reference site (Ile Dorval) and highest in the kidney of fish from the most contaminated site (Beauharnois). Catalase activity was highest in head kidney tissue in fish from this latter site. Ceruloplasmin activity was lowest in head kidney from fish collected at the reference site and highest at Beauharnois. Lysozyme activity was lowest in head kidney tissue from fish at the reference site and highest in tissue from fish at Ilet Vert, downstream of municipal effluents. These results suggest that the direction and magnitude of oxidative stress biomarker response and innate immune function biomarker response vary between tissues and among complex mixtures of contaminants, complicating interpretation of results. Results further suggest that bacterial loading, as measured by faecal coliforms, affects the oxidative stress metabolism and the innate immune response.

  3. Effects of river morphology, hydraulic gradients, and sediment deposition on water exchange and oxygen dynamics in salmonid redds.

    PubMed

    Schindler Wildhaber, Y; Michel, C; Epting, J; Wildhaber, R A; Huber, E; Huggenberger, P; Burkhardt-Holm, P; Alewell, C

    2014-02-01

    Fine sediment decreasing gravel permeability and oxygen supply to incubating salmonid embryos, is often considered the main contributing factor for the observed decline of salmonid populations. However, oxygen supply to salmonid embryos also depends on hydraulic conditions driving water flow through the redd. A more generalized perspective is needed to better understand the constraints on successful salmonid incubation in the many heavily modified fluvial ecosystems of the Northern Hemisphere. The effects of hydraulic gradients, riverbed and redd morphology as well as fine sediment deposition on dissolved oxygen (DO) and water exchange was studied in 18 artificial redds at three sites along a modified river. Fifty percent of the redds in the two downstream sites were lost during high flow events, while redd loss at the upstream site was substantially lower (8%). This pattern was likely related to increasing flood heights from up- to downstream. Specific water infiltration rates (q) and DO were highly dynamic and driven on multiple temporal and spatial scales. Temporally, the high permeability of the redd gravel and the typical pit-tail structure of the new built redds, leading to high DO, disappeared within a month, when fine sediment had infiltrated and the redd structure was leveled. On the scale of hours to days, DO concentrations and q increased during high flows, but decreased during the falling limb of the water level, most likely related to exfiltration of oxygen depleted groundwater or hyporheic water. DO concentrations also decreased under prolonged base flow conditions, when increased infiltration of silt and clay particles clogged the riverbed and reduced q. Spatially, artificial log steps affected fine sediment infiltration, q and interstitial DO in the redds. The results demonstrate that multiple factors have to be considered for successful river management in salmonid streams, including riverbed structure and local and regional hydrogeological

  4. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental contaminants and their effects on fish in the Yukon River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Bartish, Timothy M.; Blazer, Vicki; Denslow, Nancy D.; Gross, Tim S.; Myers, Mark S.; Anderson, Patrick J.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    This project collected, examined, and analyzed 217 fish representing three species at 10 stations in the U.S. portion of the Yukon River Basin (YRB) from May to October 2002. Four sampling sites were located on the Yukon River; two were located on the Porcupine River, and one site was on each of the Ray, Tanana, Tolavana, and Innoko Rivers. Norther pike (Esox lucius), longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus), and burbot (Lota lota) were weighed and measured, and examined in the field for external and internal lesions, and liver, spleen, and gonads were weighed to compute somatic indices. Selected tissues and fluids were collected and preserved for analysis of fish health and reproductive biomarkers. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for organochlorines and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity using H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay.

  5. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Echols, K.R.; Gross, T.S.; May, T.W.; Anderson, P.J.; Coyle, J.J.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (> 1.0????g/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (> 0.1????g/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p???-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (> 1.0????g/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (> 0.5????g/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, ??-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; > 0.11????g/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (> 5??pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites showed

  6. Chemical contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarker responses in fish from the Colorado River and its tributaries.

    PubMed

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Blazer, Vicki S; Denslow, Nancy D; Echols, Kathy R; Gross, Timothy S; May, Tom W; Anderson, Patrick J; Coyle, James J; Tillitt, Donald E

    2007-06-01

    Common carp (Cyprinus carpio), black bass (Micropterus spp.), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were collected from 14 sites in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) to document spatial trends in accumulative contaminants, health indicators, and reproductive biomarkers. Organochlorine residues, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ), and elemental contaminants were measured in composite samples of whole fish, grouped by species and gender, from each site. Selenium (Se) and mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish were elevated throughout the CRB, and pesticide concentrations were greatest in fish from agricultural areas in the Lower Colorado River and Gila River. Selenium concentrations exceeded toxicity thresholds for fish (>1.0 microg/g ww) at all CRB sites except the Gila River at Hayden, Arizona. Mercury concentrations were elevated (>0.1 microg/g ww) in fish from the Yampa River at Lay, Colorado; the Green River at Ouray National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Utah and San Rafael, Utah; the San Juan River at Hogback Diversion, New Mexico; and the Colorado River at Gold Bar Canyon, Utah, Needles, California, and Imperial Dam, Arizona. Concentrations of p,p'-DDE were relatively high in fish from the Gila River at Arlington, Arizona (>1.0 microg/g ww) and Phoenix, Arizona (>0.5 microg/g ww). Concentrations of other formerly used pesticides including toxaphene, total chlordanes, and dieldrin were also greatest at these two sites but did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Currently used pesticides such as Dacthal, endosulfan, gamma-HCH, and methoxychlor were also greatest in fish from the Gila River downstream of Phoenix. Total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs; >0.11 microg/g ww) and TCDD-EQs (>5 pg/g ww) exceeded wildlife guidelines in fish from the Gila River at Phoenix. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also relatively high in carp from the Gila River at Phoenix and in bass from the Green River at Ouray NWR. Fish from some sites

  7. Effects of contaminants on aquatic organisms in the Peace, Athabasca and Slave river basins. Northern River Basins Study synthesis report number 2

    SciTech Connect

    Carey, J.H.; Cordeiro, O.T.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Contaminants Component of the Northern River Basins Study to address the following questions: How the aquatic ecosystems in the Peace, Athabasca, and Slave river basins been affected by exposure to toxic compounds; and what long-term monitoring programs and predictive models are required to provide ongoing assessment of the state of those ecosystems. Research is described in four project areas: A basin-wide survey of biochemical responses to organochlorines and other contaminants in major fish species; a basin-wide survey of the toxicity in bottom and suspended sediments; an assessment of the utility of semi-permeable membrane devices as potential substitutes for wild fish in a long-term monitoring program; and assessment of the feasibility of using small, locally resident fish species as alternates to large adult fish in a long-term biological effects monitoring program.

  8. Fish tissue contamination in the mid-continental great rivers of the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The great rivers of the central United States (Upper Mississippi, Missouri and Ohio rivers) are significant economic and cultural resources, but their ecological condition is not well quantified. The Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program for Great River Ecosystems (EMAP...

  9. Functional gene array-based analysis of microbial community structure in groundwaters with a gradient of contaminant levels

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, P.J.; Wu, L.; Van Nostrand, J.D.; Schadt, C.W.; Watson, D.B.; Jardine, P.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.

    2009-06-15

    To understand how contaminants affect microbial community diversity, heterogeneity, and functional structure, six groundwater monitoring wells from the Field Research Center of the U.S. Department of Energy Environmental Remediation Science Program (ERSP; Oak Ridge, TN), with a wide range of pH, nitrate, and heavy metal contamination were investigated. DNA from the groundwater community was analyzed with a functional gene array containing 2006 probes to detect genes involved in metal resistance, sulfate reduction, organic contaminant degradation, and carbon and nitrogen cycling. Microbial diversity decreased in relation to the contamination levels of the wells. Highly contaminated wells had lower gene diversity but greater signal intensity than the pristine well. The microbial composition was heterogeneous, with 17-70% overlap between different wells. Metal-resistant and metal-reducing microorganisms were detected in both contaminated and pristine wells, suggesting the potential for successful bioremediation of metal-contaminated groundwaters. In addition, results of Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis indicate that nitrate, sulfate, pH, uranium, and technetium have a significant (p < 0.05) effect on microbial community structure. This study provides an overall picture of microbial community structure in contaminated environments with functional gene arrays by showing that diversity and heterogeneity can vary greatly in relation to contamination.

  10. Speciation of iodine isotopes inside and outside of a contaminant plume at the Savannah River Site.

    PubMed

    Schwehr, Kathleen A; Otosaka, Shigeyoshi; Merchel, Silke; Kaplan, Daniel I; Zhang, Saijin; Xu, Chen; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Yeager, Chris M; Santschi, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    A primary obstacle in understanding the fate and transport of the toxic radionuclide (129)I (a thyroid seeker) is an accurate method to distinguish it from the stable isotope, (127)I, and to quantify the various species at environmentally relevant concentrations (~10(-8) M). A pH-dependent solvent extraction and combustion method was paired with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to measure ambient levels of (129)I/(127)I isotope ratios and iodine speciation (iodide (I(-)), iodate (IO3(-)), and organo-I (OI)) in aquatic systems. The method exhibited an overall uncertainty of 10% or less for I(-) and IO3(-), and less than 30% for OI species concentrations and enabled (129)I measurements as low as 0.001 Bq/L (1 Bq/L=10(-13) M). The method was used to analyze groundwater from the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, USA, along a pH, redox potential (Eh), and organic carbon gradient (8-60 μM DOC). The data confirmed that the (129)I/(127)I ratios and species distribution were strongly pH dependent and varied in a systematic manner from the strongly acidic source. While (129)I speciation in plume samples containing total I concentrations >1.7 Bq/L was similar whether measured by AMS or GC-MS ([I(-)]≫[IO3(-)]=[OI]), AMS enabled (129)I speciation measurements at much lower concentrations than what was possible with GC-MS. AMS analyses demonstrated that groundwater samples minimally impacted by the plume were still orders of magnitude higher than ambient (129)I concentrations typically found elsewhere in the USA groundwaters and rivers. This is likely due to past atmospheric releases of volatile (129)I species by SRS nuclear reprocessing facilities near the study site. Furthermore, the results confirmed the existence of (129)I not only as I(-), but also as OI and IO3(-) species.

  11. Biomarkers of contaminant exposure in northern pike (Esox lucius) from the Yukon River Basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hinck, J.E.; Blazer, V.S.; Denslow, N.D.; Myers, M.S.; Gross, T.S.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    As part of a larger investigation, northern pike (n = 158; Esox lucius) were collected from ten sites in the Yukon River Basin (YRB), Alaska, to document biomarkers and their correlations with organochlorine pesticide (total p,p'-DDT, total chlordane, dieldrin, and toxaphene), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and elemental contaminant (arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead, total mercury, selenium, and zinc) concentrations. A suite of biomarkers including somatic indices, hepatic 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity, vitellogenin concentrations, steroid hormone (17B- ustradiol and 16-kebtestosteront) concentrations, splenic macrophage aggregates (MAs), oocyte atresia, and other microscopic anomalies in various tissues were documented in YRB pike. Mean condition factor (0.50 to 0.68), hepatosomatic index (1.00% to 3.56%), and splenosomatic index (0.09% to 0.18%) were not anomalous at any site nor correlated with any contaminant concentration. Mean EROD activity (0.71 to 17.51 pmol/min/mg protein) was similar to basal activity levels previously measured in pike and was positively correlated with selenium concentrations (r = 0.88, P < 0.01). Vitellogenin concentrations in female (0.09 to 5.32 mg/mL) and male (0.01 mg/mL in male pike from multiple sites indicated exposure to estrogenic compounds. Mean steroid hormone concentrations and percent oocyte atresia were not anomalous in pike from any YRB site. Few site differences were significant for mean MA density (1.86 to 6.42 MA/mm2), size (812 to 1481 ??m2), and tissue occupied (MA-%; 0.24% to 0.75%). A linear regression between MA-% and total PCBs was significant, although PCB concentrations were generally low in YRB pike (???63 ng/g), and MA-% values in female pike (0.24% to 0.54%) were lower than in male pike (0.32% to 0.75%) at similar PCB concentrations. Greater numbers of MAs were found as zinc concentrations increased in YRB female pike, but it is unlikely that this is a causative relationship

  12. Adult tree swallow survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Hudson River, New York, USA, between 2006 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Custer, Christine M; Custer, Thomas W; Hines, James E

    2012-08-01

    The upper Hudson River basin in east central New York, USA, is highly contaminated, primarily with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Reduced adult survival has been documented in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) at a similarly PCB-contaminated river system in western Massachusetts. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether adult survival of tree swallows was likewise affected in the Hudson River basin. Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 521 female tree swallows were banded, of which 148 were retrapped at least once. The authors used Program MARK and an information theoretic approach to test the hypothesis that PCB contamination reduced annual survival of female tree swallows. The model that best described the processes that generated the capture history data included covariate effects of year and female plumage coloration on survival but not PCB/river. Annual survival rates of brown-plumaged females (mostly one year old) were generally lower (mean phi=0.39) than those of blue-plumaged females (mean phi=0.50, one year or older). Poor early spring weather in 2007 was associated with reduced survival in both plumage-color groups compared to later years. Models with the effects of PCB exposure on survival (all ΔAICc values >5.0) received little support.

  13. Adult tree swallow survival on the polychlorinated biphenyl-contaminated Hudson River, New York, USA, between 2006 and 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, Thomas W.; Hines, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The upper Hudson River basin in east central New York, USA, is highly contaminated, primarily with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Reduced adult survival has been documented in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) at a similarly PCB-contaminated river system in western Massachusetts. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether adult survival of tree swallows was likewise affected in the Hudson River basin. Between 2006 and 2010, a total of 521 female tree swallows were banded, of which 148 were retrapped at least once. The authors used Program MARK and an information theoretic approach to test the hypothesis that PCB contamination reduced annual survival of female tree swallows. The model that best described the processes that generated the capture history data included covariate effects of year and female plumage coloration on survival but not PCB/river. Annual survival rates of brown-plumaged females (mostly one year old) were generally lower (mean phi = 0.39) than those of blue-plumaged females (mean phi = 0.50, one year or older). Poor early spring weather in 2007 was associated with reduced survival in both plumage-color groups compared to later years. Models with the effects of PCB exposure on survival (all ΔAICc values >5.0) received little support.

  14. Metals-contaminated benthic invertebrates in the Clark Fork River, Montana: Effects on age-0 brown trout and rainbow trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Daniel F.; Farag, Aïda M.; Bergman, Harold L.; Delonay, Aaron J.; Little, Edward E.; Smiths, Charlie E.; Barrows, Frederic T.

    1995-01-01

    Benthic organisms in the upper Clark Fork River have recently been implicated as a dietary source of metals that may be a chronic problem for young-of-the-year rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In this present study, early life stage brown trout (Salmo trutta) and rainbow trout were exposed for 88 d to simulated Clark Fork River water and a diet of benthic invertebrates collected from the river. These exposures resulted in reduced growth and elevated levels of metals in the whole body of both species. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, and Pb increased in whole brown trout; in rainbow trout, As and Cd increased in whole fish, and As also increased in liver. Brown trout on the metals-contaminated diets exhibited constipation, gut impaction, increased cell membrane damage (lipid peroxidation), decreased digestive enzyme production (zymogen), and a sloughing of intestinal mucosal epithelial cells. Rainbow trout fed the contaminated diets exhibited constipation and reduced feeding activity. We believe that the reduced standing crop of trout in the Clark Fork River results partly from chronic effects of metals contamination in benthic invertebrates that are important as food for young-of-the-year fish.

  15. Movements of adult chinook salmon during spawning migration in a metals-contaminated system, Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, J.N.; Woodward, D.F.; Farag, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Spawning migration of adult male chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha was monitored by radio telemetry to determine their response to the presence of metals contamination in the South Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River, Idaho. The North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River is relatively free of metals contamination and was used as a control. In all, 45 Chinook salmon were transported from their natal stream. Wolf Lodge Creek, tagged with radio transmitters, and released in the Coeur d'Alene River 2 km downstream of the confluence of the South Fork and the North Fork of the Coeur d'Alene River. Fixed telemetry receivers were used to monitor the upstream movement of the tagged chinook salmon through the confluence area for 3 weeks after release. During this period, general water quality and metals concentrations were monitored in the study area. Of the 23 chinook salmon observed to move upstream from the release site and through the confluence area, the majority (16 fish, 70%) moved up the North Fork, and only 7 fish (30%) moved up the South Fork, where greater metals concentrations were observed. Our results agree with laboratory findings and suggest that natural fish populations will avoid tributaries with high metals contamination.

  16. Spatial and temporal trends in occurrence of emerging and legacy contaminants in the Lower Columbia River 2008-2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, David A.; Perkins, Stephanie D.; Nilsen, Elena B.; Morace, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    The Lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington, USA, is an important resource for aquatic and terrestrial organisms, agriculture, and commerce. An 86-mile stretch of the river was sampled over a 3 year period in order to determine the spatial and temporal trends in the occurrence and concentration of water-borne organic contaminants. Sampling occurred at 10 sites along this stretch and at 1 site on the Willamette River using the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) passive samplers. Contaminant profiles followed the predicted trends of lower numbers of detections and associated concentrations in the rural areas to higher numbers and concentrations at the more urbanized sites. Industrial chemicals, plasticizers, and PAHs were present at the highest concentrations. Differences in concentrations between sampling periods were related to the amount of rainfall during the sampling period. In general, water concentrations of wastewater-related contaminants decreased and concentrations of legacy contaminants slightly increased with increasing rainfall amounts.

  17. Spatial and temporal trends in occurrence of emerging and legacy contaminants in the Lower Columbia River 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, David; Perkins, Stephanie; Nilsen, Elena; Morace, Jennifer

    2014-06-15

    The Lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington, USA, is an important resource for aquatic and terrestrial organisms, agriculture, and commerce. An 86-mile stretch of the river was sampled over a 3year period in order to determine the spatial and temporal trends in the occurrence and concentration of water-borne organic contaminants. Sampling occurred at 10 sites along this stretch and at 1 site on the Willamette River using the semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) and the polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) passive samplers. Contaminant profiles followed the predicted trends of lower numbers of detections and associated concentrations in the rural areas to higher numbers and concentrations at the more urbanized sites. Industrial chemicals, plasticizers, and PAHs were present at the highest concentrations. Differences in concentrations between sampling periods were related to the amount of rainfall during the sampling period. In general, water concentrations of wastewater-related contaminants decreased and concentrations of legacy contaminants slightly increased with increasing rainfall amounts.

  18. The distribution and history of nuclear weapons related contamination in sediments from the Ob River, Siberia as determined by isotopic ratios of plutonium and neptunium.

    PubMed

    Kenna, T C; Sayles, F L

    2002-01-01

    Isotopic ratios of Pu and Np measured in sediment cores from 5 locations in the Ob River drainage basin show clear evidence of input from sources other than global fallout (non-fallout sources). Historical contaminant records obtained by combining isotopic ratio information with chronological information indicate that non-fallout inputs are from several sources that have varied significantly over the past 50 years. Unique isotopic signatures observed in sediments from tributaries that drain areas containing known or suspected sources of non-fallout contamination are used to identify the source of materials in sediments collected at downstream locations. These data can lead to a better understanding of the transport behavior, fate, and relative importance of particle reactive, weapons related contaminants originating from the nuclear facilities Mayak. Tomsk-7, and Semipalitinsk, which lie within the drainage basin. From our work to date, we draw the following conclusions: (1) Persistent non-fallout contamination is observed in the Ob River above its confluence with the Irtysh River, indicating contamination from the Tomsk-7 facility. (2) Non-fallout contamination in the Tobol River above its confluence with the Irtysh River indicates contamination from the Mayak facility. (3) Non-fallout contamination in the Irtysh River above its confluence with the Tobol River indicates contamination from the Semipalitinsk weapons test site. (4) The occurrence of isotopic ratios in Ob Delta sediments that are similar to those observed in source tributaries suggests that contamination from at least two sources has been transported along the length of the river system. (5) Global fallout, a result of high-yield atmospheric weapons tests conducted by the FSU and USA primarily, is the dominant source of Pu and Np to the region; however, there have been brief periods when inputs from non-fallout sources exceeded those from global fallout.

  19. Use of preserved museum fish to evaluate historical and current mercury contamination in fish from two rivers in Oklahoma, USA.

    PubMed

    Hill, J Jaron; Chumchal, Matthew M; Drenner, Ray W; Pinder, John E; Drenner, S Matthew

    2010-02-01

    We examined the effects of a commonly used preservation technique on mercury concentration in fish tissue. After fixing fish muscle tissue in formalin followed by preservation in isopropanol, we found that mercury concentration in fish muscle tissue increased by 18%, reaching an asymptote after 40 days. We used formalin-isopropanol-preserved longear sunfish (Lepomis megalotis) from the Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History to examine historical changes and predict current mercury concentrations in fish from two rivers in southeastern Oklahoma. Glover River was free-flowing, while Mountain Fork River was impounded in 1970 and a coldwater trout fishery was established upstream from the collection site in 1989. Mercury concentrations in longear sunfish from Glover River showed no historical changes from 1963 to 2001. Mercury concentrations in longear sunfish from Mountain Fork River showed no change from 1925 to 1993 but declined significantly from 1993 to 2003. We also compared mercury concentrations of the most recently collected longear sunfish in the museum to mercury concentrations of unpreserved fish collected from the rivers in 2006. Concentrations of mercury in museum fish were not significantly different from mercury concentrations in unpreserved fish we collected from the rivers. Our study indicates that preserved museum fish specimens can be used to evaluate historical changes and predict current levels of mercury contamination in fish.

  20. A Bayesian Approach to Integrated Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment for the South River, Virginia Mercury-Contaminated Site.

    PubMed

    Harris, Meagan J; Stinson, Jonah; Landis, Wayne G

    2017-01-25

    We conducted a regional-scale integrated ecological and human health risk assessment by applying the relative risk model with Bayesian networks (BN-RRM) to a case study of the South River, Virginia mercury-contaminated site. Risk to four ecological services of the South River (human health, water quality, recreation, and the recreational fishery) was evaluated using a multiple stressor-multiple endpoint approach. These four ecological services were selected as endpoints based on stakeholder feedback and prioritized management goals for the river. The BN-RRM approach allowed for the calculation of relative risk to 14 biotic, human health, recreation, and water quality endpoints from chemical and ecological stressors in five risk regions of the South River. Results indicated that water quality and the recreational fishery were the ecological services at highest risk in the South River. Human health risk for users of the South River was low relative to the risk to other endpoints. Risk to recreation in the South River was moderate with little spatial variability among the five risk regions. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis identified stressors and other parameters that influence risk for each endpoint in each risk region. This research demonstrates a probabilistic approach to integrated ecological and human health risk assessment that considers the effects of chemical and ecological stressors across the landscape.

  1. Application of temperature gradient gel electrophoresis to the study of yeast diversity in the estuary of the Tagus river, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2004-12-01

    Temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE) was employed for the assessment of yeast diversity in the estuary of the Tagus river (Portugal). The molecular detection of yeasts was carried out directly from water samples and, in parallel, a cultivation approach by means of an enrichment step was employed. A nested PCR was employed to obtain a fungal amplicon containing the D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. For identification the TGGE bands were extracted, re-amplified, and sequenced. Fourteen fungal taxa were detected and all except one were yeasts. Most yeast sequences corresponded to members of the Ascomycota and only three belonged to the Basidiomycota. Five yeasts (four ascomycetes and one basidiomycete) could not be identified to the species level due to the uniqueness of their sequences. The number of species detected after enrichment was higher than the number of taxa found using the direct detection method. This suggests that some yeast populations are present in densities that are below the detection threshold of the method. With respect to the analysis of the yeast community structure, our results indicate that the dominant populations belong to Debaryomyces hansenii, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Cryptococcus longus, and to an uncultured basidiomycetous yeast phylogenetically close to Cr. longus. The combined analysis of direct detection and cultivation approaches indicates a similar community structure at the two sampled sites since nine species were present at both localities.

  2. Tidal river sediments in the Washington, D.C. area. 111 Biological effects associated with sediment contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Schlekat, C.E.; McGee, B.L.; Boward, D.M.

    1994-06-01

    Sediment toxicity and benthic marcroinvertebrate community structure were measured as one component of a study conceived to determine the distribution and effect of sediment contamination in tidal freshwater portions of the Potomac and Anacostia rivers in the Washington, D.C., area. Samples were collected at 15 sites. Analyses included a partial life cycle (28 d) whole sediment test using the amphipod Hyalella azteca (Talitridae) and an assessment of benthic community structure. Survival and growth (as estimated by amphipod length) were experimental endpoints for the toxicity test. Significant mortality was observed in 5 to 10 sites in the lower Anacostia River basin and at the main channel Potomac River site. Sublethal toxicity, as measured by inhibition of amphipod growth, was not observed. Toxicity test results were in general agreement with synoptically measured sediment contaminant concentrations. Porewater total ammonia (NH{sub 3} + NH{sub 4}{sup +}) appears to be responsible for the toxicity of sediments from the Potomac River, while correlation analysis and simultaneously extracted metals: acid volatile sulfide (SEM:AVA) results suggest that the toxicity associated with Anacostia River sediments was due to organic compounds. Twenty-eight macroinvertebrate taxa were identified among all sites, with richness varying from 5 to 17 taxa per site. Groups of benthic assemblages identified by group-average cluster analysis exhibited variable agreement with sediment chemical and sediment toxicity results. Integration of toxicological, chemical, and ecological components suggests that adverse environmental effects manifest in lower Anacostia River benthos result from chemical contamination of sediment. 37 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Recent changes in contaminant levels in the Bow River following the installation of a containment system at the Canada cresote site

    SciTech Connect

    Sosiak, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1989, a liquid mixture of various contaminants including creosote and PCP was found seeping into the Bow River adjacent to an abandoned wood preservatives plant site in Calgary. A temporary berm was built in the river around the seepage area in 1989 and permanent barriers to contaminant flow were installed in 1995 and 1996. This report evaluates changes in water quality in the river over the two years since the containment system was installed. Contaminant levels are compared before and after installation at sites downstream and upstream from the abandoned plant. Results are presented for such compounds as naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, dibenzofuran, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene.

  4. Recent changes in contaminant levels in the Bow River following the installation of a containment system at the Canada cresote site

    SciTech Connect

    Sosiak, A.

    1999-11-01

    In 1989, a liquid mixture of various contaminants including creosote and PCP was found seeping into the Bow River adjacent to an abandoned wood preservatives plant site in Calgary. A temporary berm was built in the river around the seepage area in 1989 and permanent barriers to contaminant flow were installed in 1995 and 1996. This report evaluates changes in water quality in the river over the two years since the containment system was installed. Contaminant levels are compared before and after installation at sites downstream and upstream from the abandoned plant. Results are presented for such compounds as naphthalene, pentachlorophenol, dibenzofuran, benzo(a)pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene.

  5. Contamination of the River Ganga and its toxic implication in the blood parameters of the major carp Labeo rohita (Ham).

    PubMed

    Vaseem, Huma; Banerjee, T K

    2013-08-01

    A field study was conducted to examine different physicochemical properties of water and various haematological and biochemical parametres of the fish Labeo rohita collected from the Ganga River (National river of India) at Varanasi district, India. The water was found to be greatly contaminated with a number of dissolved metals (Fe, Cr, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni and Pb) whose concentrations were above the safe limits suggested by Bureau of Indian Standard (BIS 1991) for drinking water (Fe, 1,353.33 %; Cr, 456 %; Mn, 553.33 %; Ni, 4,490 % and Pb, 1,410 %). The metal accumulation in the fish blood was very high (Fe, 2,408 %; Cr, 956.57 %; Zn, 464.90 %; Cu, 310.57 %; Mn, 1,115.48 %) in comparison to the control fish maintained under strict quality control. Lower values of the various haematological parameters (total erythrocytes count, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and O2-carrying capacity) in the river fish in comparison to the control indicate toxic manifestation exerted by the contaminated river water on the fish. The higher level of total leucocytes count further illustrates stressed condition of the river fish. The toxic impact of the Ganga water is also expressed in the fish by the presence of higher levels of cholesterol, glucose, elevated activities of the enzymes aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase, and lowered protein concentration.

  6. The risk of river pollution due to washout from contaminated floodplain water bodies during periods of high magnitude floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubimova, T.; Lepikhin, A.; Parshakova, Ya.; Tiunov, A.

    2016-03-01

    The risk of river pollution due to washout (removal of pollutants) from contaminated floodplain water bodies (floodplain lakes and quarries whose origin is related to the large-scale mining of nonmetallic building materials in the floodplain zone) during high magnitude flood periods is analyzed using a combination of one-, two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling and in situ measurements. The modeling performed for the floodplain water bodies contaminated by N compounds shows that during large magnitude floods washout occurs. The washout process consists of two stages: an initial rapid stage lasting about two hours during which the upper (3-4 m thick) layer is washed out, followed by a second stage when the concentration of NH4-N in the floodplain water body remains nearly constant. The maximum contaminant concentration in the river in the vicinity of a water intake for drinking water located 21 km downstream is attained about 9 h from the beginning of the flood; concentration of NH4-N can reach values several times larger than acceptable concentration guidelines. The initial primary peak in contaminant concentration at the water intake is followed by a slight decrease in contaminant concentration; a second peak related to the contaminant transport through the inundated floodplain subsequently occurs, after which the concentration slowly decreases, reaching acceptable values after 30-40 h. Contaminated floodplain water bodies located near drinking water supply systems are not significant sources of contamination during small and moderate floods, but during high magnitude floods, they can become sources of water pollution. Operational measures that can decrease potential health risks are discussed.

  7. Modern space/time geostatistics using river distances: data integration of turbidity and E. coli measurements to assess fecal contamination along the Raritan River in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Money, Eric S; Carter, Gail P; Serre, Marc L

    2009-05-15

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a widely used indicator of fecal contamination in water bodies. External contact and subsequent ingestion of bacteria coming from fecal contamination can lead to harmful health effects. Since E. coli data are sometimes limited, the objective of this study is to use secondary information in the form of turbidity to improve the assessment of E. coli at unmonitored locations. We obtained all E. coli and turbidity monitoring data available from existing monitoring networks for the 2000-2006 time period for the Raritan River Basin, New Jersey. Using collocated measurements, we developed a predictive model of E. coli from turbidity data. Using this model, soft data are constructed for E. coli given turbidity measurements at 739 space/time locations where only turbidity was measured. Finally, the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) method of modern space/time geostatistics was used for the data integration of monitored and predicted E. coli data to produce maps showing E. coli concentration estimated daily across the river basin. The addition of soft data in conjunction with the use of river distances reduced estimation error by about 30%. Furthermore, based on these maps, up to 35% of river miles in the Raritan Basin had a probability of E coli impairment greater than 90% on the most polluted day of the study period.

  8. Atrazine contamination in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China and associated health risks.

    PubMed

    Sun, J T; Pan, L L; Zhan, Yu; Tsang, Daniel C W; Zhu, L Z; Li, X D

    2017-04-01

    Atrazine is one of the most widely applied and persistent herbicides in the world. In view of limited information on the regional contamination of atrazine in soils in China, this study investigated the spatial distribution and environmental impacts of atrazine in agricultural soils collected from the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) as an illustrative analysis of rapidly developing regions in the country. The results showed that the concentrations of atrazine in the YRD agricultural soils ranged from <1.0 to 113 ng/g dry weight, with a mean of 5.7 ng/g, and a detection rate of 57.7 % in soils. Pesticide factory might be a major source for the elevated levels of atrazine in Zhejiang Province. The contamination of atrazine was closely associated with land use types. The concentrations and detection rates of atrazine were higher in corn fields and mulberry fields than in rice paddy fields. There was no significant difference in compositions of soil microbial phospholipids fatty acids among the areas with different atrazine levels. Positive relationship (R = 0.417, p < 0.05, n = 30) was observed between atrazine and total microbial biomass. However, other factors, such as soil type and land management practice, might have stronger influences on soil microbial communities. Human health risks via exposure to atrazine in soils were estimated according to the methods recommended by the US EPA. Atrazine by itself in all the soil samples imposed very low carcinogenic risks (<10(-6)) and minimal non-cancer risks (hazard index <1) to adults and children.

  9. Growth and secondary production of aquatic insects along a gradient of Zn contamination in Rocky Mountain streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlisle, D.M.; Clements, W.H.

    2003-01-01

    Secondary production estimates from several Rocky Mountain streams were used to test hypotheses about the effects of chronic metal contamination on insect populations and ecosystem processes. Quantitative samples of chemistry, habitat, and benthic insects were collected monthly during the ice-free period (May-November) from five 2nd- to 3rd-order streams that varied primarily in Zn contamination. Secondary production was estimated for the 19 dominant taxa using increment-summation, size-frequency, and P/B methods. Uncertainty was estimated by bootstrapping estimates of mean abundance, biomass, and cohort production intervals. Secondary production of metal-sensitive Heptageniidae (Rhithrogena robusta, Cinygmula spp., and Epeorus longimanus) was lower in lightly to moderately contaminated streams than in reference streams. Experiments were done to determine whether herbivore growth was influenced by food quality in contaminated streams. Growth estimates from field and microcosm experiments revealed that low mayfly production in contaminated streams was caused mostly by reduced population abundances. Production of predatory stoneflies was also lower in contaminated streams than reference streams. Estimates of the trophic basis of production revealed that, although the relative contribution to community production from various food sources was similar among streams, total production attributable to algae and animal prey declined in contaminated streams. Much of the reduction in herbivory in contaminated streams was the result of lower production of heptageniids, especially R. robusta. Assemblage and taxon-specific estimates of secondary production were sensitive to variation in metal contamination and indicated that relatively low metal concentrations may have ecosystem-wide consequences for energy flow.

  10. Heavy metal contamination of the Sacca di Goro lagoon area (Po River Delta, Northern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapti-Caputo, Dimitra

    2010-05-01

    The lagoon area of the Sacca di Goro, within the Po River delta, is ca. 20 km2 wide, with a mean depth of 1.5 m and a mean salinity of 29%o. It holds a major naturalistic interest as well as an economic one due to the aquaculture activities (mussels and clams). In this lagoon system, the quality of the sea-bottom sediments is crucial not only for the cultivated species, but also for the potential bio-accumulation problems in heavy metals. The definition of the qualitative status of the lagoon sediments is crucial for adopting the best management strategies and the protection of the environmental conditions. We determined the concentration in SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MgO, MnO, CaO, Na2O, K2O, P2O5, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, La, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Th, V, Y, Zn, Cu, Ga, Nd, S and Sr, of 31 samples homogeneously collected over the lagoon area. This large dataset allowed i) to define the environmental quality of the sediments, ii) to recognise the areas with the higher contamination risk; and iii) to emphasise the local occurrence of polluting phenomena associated to chromium, nickel, vanadium, cobalt, lead, zinc and copper.

  11. Combined steam distillation and electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) treatment of river sediment contaminated by PCBs.

    PubMed

    Chiarenzelli, J R; Scrudato, R J; Wunderlich, M L; Pagano, J J

    2001-12-01

    A combined treatment process utilizing steam distillation followed by electrochemical peroxidation (ECP) has been utilized to remove >90% of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in St. Lawrence River sediment and destroy 95% of the PCBs recovered in the condensate. 2 l of condensate were collected by boiling 500 grams of sediment containing approximately 4.3 mg PCBs. Most of the PCBs (82.3%) were recovered as a small volume (<1 ml) of yellow oil floating on the condensate and coating glassware surfaces. The aqueous phase PCBs (182 microg/l) were destroyed (95%) by three sequential ECP treatments at 16.8 degrees C and pH 5, utilizing 1 ml of H2O2 (3%) and periodically reversed current (0.75-1.0 A @ 10 volts). Oxidation is primarily mediated by hydroxyl radicals produced by the reaction of hydrogen peroxide with electrochemically generated ferrous iron (Fenton's reagent). This work suggests steam extraction, in combination with advanced oxidation technologies, provides an effective treatment strategy for contaminated solids.

  12. EFFECTS OF SEDIMENT CONTAMINANTS AND ENVIRONMENTAL GRADIENTS ON MACROBENTHIC COMMUNITY TROPHIC STRUCTURE IN GULF OF MEXICO ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrobenthic communities from estuaries throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico were studied to assess the influence of sediment contaminants and natural environmental factors on macrobenthic community trophic structure. Community trophic data were also used to evaluate whether re...

  13. POPULATION GENETIC STRUCTURE OF A NON-MIGRATORY MARINE FISH FUNDULUS HETERCLITUS ACROSS A STRONG GRADIENT OF PCB CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of the estuarine fish Fundulus heteroclitus indigenous to contaminated sites exhibit heritable resistance to some of the toxic effects of early life-stage exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This evolved tolerance provides evidence of strong selection by PCB...

  14. Heavy metal contamination in Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812) (Testudines: Chelidae) in a River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Piña, C I; Lance, V A; Ferronato, B O; Guardia, I; Marques, T S; Verdade, L M

    2009-12-01

    The Piracicaba River basin is considered the most disturbed river basin in the state of São Paulo. Considerable amounts of agricultural residues are seasonally drained into the river, and the region is also highly urbanized and industrialized with an incipient sewage treatment system. The presence of heavy metals has been previously reported for the water and riverbed in Piracicaba river basin. In this study we evaluated 13 heavy metals in the blood of 37 Geoffroy's side-necked turtles, Phrynops geoffroanus, from Piracicaba River and Piracicamirim Creek, one of its tributaries. Blood levels of As, Co, Cr, Se and Pb varied among sites, whereas Sn varied between males and females. However, no obvious pathology was detected. Serum level of Cu (2,194 ng g(-1)) and Pb (1,150 ng g(-1)) found in this study are the highest ever described for any reptile; however, no clinical symptoms have been detected in the present study. There is no information about the time scale of such contamination, which could be currently subclinical and yet lead to a breakdown in the population reproductive success in a few years. Based on the present study, legal enforcement is urged in order to locate and extirpate heavy metal sources in the Piracicaba River basin. In addition, monitoring should include humans and commercial fish consumed in local markets.

  15. Spatial structure of floodplain soil radionuclide contamination of the Enisey River near the Krasnoyarsk Mining and Chemical Combine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linnik, V. G.; Brown, J. E.; Potapov, V. N.; Surkov, V. V.

    2012-04-01

    Enisey River floodplain soils were contaminated by technogenic radionuclides arising from operations at the Krasnoyarsk Mining Chemical Combine (KMCC) from 1958 to 1992. The radioecological situtation of the Enisey flood plain landscapes has been formed by the interaction of two factors: (i) characteristics of radionuclide discharges to the aquatic environment, (ii) hydrological regime of the Enisey River. The radionuclide discharge determined the potential extent of contamination, while the river hydrology was responsible for its transport over considerable distances. The erection of the dam of the Krasnoyarsk power station in 1970 changed the hydrological regime of the Enisey River. The water discharge and suspended sediments became uniform in all seasons and extreme floods, extending over high floodplain areas, ceased. The distribution of radioactive contamination within floodplain soils downstream from the KMCC was studied with the objectives of mapping contamination levels and analyzing the spatial structure of radionuclide distributions arising from floodplain formation. Based on a digital elevation model of floodplain landscapes at a strip of KMCC-Strelka the flooded area of the Enisey River was determined. In 1960 to 1970, deposition of contaminated sediments occurred at heights less than 6 m over an area of 99,2 km2, in 1970-1992 the flooded area with a height less than 3,5 m was of 38,2 km2. Since radiocaesium in the Enisey River primarily occurs in a well fixed sediment-associated form it is possible to use the analysis of landscape structure within the floodplain to detect lithologo-geomorphological zones corresponding to a varying degree of 137Cs contamination. Radionuclide contamination was measured using in situ gamma spectrometry and soil sampling undertaken at control points. Maximum 137Cs contamination densities (700 kBq m-2) were found on low- and middle-level floodplains of Beriozovy Island (16 km from the KMCC). The contamination density of 60

  16. Contaminated Sediment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors pose risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans.

  17. Water erosion susceptibility mapping by applying Stochastic Gradient Treeboost to the Imera Meridionale River Basin (Sicily, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angileri, Silvia Eleonora; Conoscenti, Christian; Hochschild, Volker; Märker, Michael; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Agnesi, Valerio

    2016-06-01

    Soil erosion by water constitutes a serious problem affecting various countries. In the last few years, a number of studies have adopted statistical approaches for erosion susceptibility zonation. In this study, the Stochastic Gradient Treeboost (SGT) was tested as a multivariate statistical tool for exploring, analyzing and predicting the spatial occurrence of rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion. This technique implements the stochastic gradient boosting algorithm with a tree-based method. The study area is a 9.5 km2 river catchment located in central-northern Sicily (Italy), where water erosion processes are prevalent, and affect the agricultural productivity of local communities. In order to model soil erosion by water, the spatial distribution of landforms due to rill-interrill and gully erosion was mapped and 12 environmental variables were selected as predictors. Four calibration and four validation subsets were obtained by randomly extracting sets of negative cases, both for rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion models. The results of validation, based on receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves, showed excellent to outstanding accuracies of the models, and thus a high prediction skill. Moreover, SGT allowed us to explore the relationships between erosion landforms and predictors. A different suite of predictor variables was found to be important for the two models. Elevation, aspect, landform classification and land-use are the main controlling factors for rill-interrill erosion, whilst the stream power index, plan curvature and the topographic wetness index were the most important independent variables for gullies. Finally, an ROC plot analysis made it possible to define a threshold value to classify cells according to the presence/absence of the two erosion processes. Hence, by heuristically combining the resulting rill-interrill erosion and gully erosion susceptibility maps, an integrated water erosion susceptibility map was created. The

  18. Heavy metals and metalloids in the surface sediments of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan, China: distribution, contamination, and ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Chai, Liyuan; Li, Huan; Yang, Zhihui; Min, Xiaobo; Liao, Qi; Liu, Yi; Men, Shuhui; Yan, Yanan; Xu, Jixin

    2017-01-01

    Here, we aim to determine the distribution, ecological risk and sources of heavy metals and metalloids in the surface sediments of the Xiangjiang River, Hunan Province, China. Sixty-four surface sediment samples were collected in 16 sites of the Xiangjiang River, and the concentrations of ten heavy metals and metalloids (Mn, Zn, Cr, V, Pb, Cu, As, Ni, Co, and Cd) in the sediment samples were investigated using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and an atomic fluorescence spectrophotometer (AFS), respectively. The results showed that the mean concentrations of the ten heavy metals and metalloids in the sediment samples followed the order Mn > Zn > Cr > V > Pb > Cu > As ≈ Ni >Co > Cd. The geoaccumulation index (I geo), enrichment factor (EF), modified degree of contamination (mCd), and potential ecological risk index (RI) revealed that Cd, followed by Pb, Zn, and Cu, caused severely contaminated and posed very highly potential ecological risk in the Xiangjiang River, especially in Shuikoushan of Hengyang, Xiawan of Zhuzhou, and Yijiawan of Xiangtan. The Pearson's correlation coefficient (PCC) analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) indicated that the ten heavy metals and metalloids in the sampling sediments of the Xiangjiang River were classified into three groups: (1) Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu which possibly originated from Shuikoushan, Xiawan, and Yijiawan clustering Pb-Zn mining and smelting industries; (2) Co, V, Ni, Cr, and Al from natural resources; and (3) Mn and As. Therefore, our results suggest that anthropogenic activities, especially mining and smelting, have caused severe contamination of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu and posed very high potential ecological risk in the Xiangjiang River.

  19. Occurrence and distribution of contaminants in bottom sediment and water of the Barron River Canal, Big Cypress National Preserve, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Ronald L.; McPherson, Benjamin F.

    2001-01-01

    Trace elements and organic contaminants in bottom-sediment samples collected from 10 sites on the Barron River Canal and from one site on the Turner River in October 1998 had patterns of distribution that indicated different sources. At some sites on the Barron River Canal, lead, copper, and zinc, normalized to aluminum, exceeded limits normally considered as background and may be enriched by human activities. Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and p-cresol, normalized against organic carbon, had patterns of distribution that indicated local sources of input from a road or vehicular traffic or from an old creosote wood treatment facility. Phthalate esters and the traces elements arsenic, cadmium, and zinc were more widely distributed with the highest normalized concentrations occurring at the Turner River background site, probably due to the high percentage of fine sediment (74% less than 63 micrometers) and high organic carbon concentration (42%) at that site and the binding effect of organic carbon on trace elements and trace organic compounds. Low concentrations of pesticides or pesticide degradation products were detected in bottom sediment (DDD and DDE, each less than 3.5 µg/kg) and water (9 pesticides, each less than 0.06 µ/L), primarily in the northern reach of the Barron River Canal where agriculture is a likely source. Although a few contaminants approached criteria that would indicate adverse effects on aquatic life, none exceeded the criteria, but the potential synergistic effects of mixtures of contaminants found at most sites are not included in the criteria.

  20. The multiple stressor ecological risk assessment for the mercury-contaminated South River and upper Shenandoah River using the Bayesian network-relative risk model.

    PubMed

    Landis, Wayne G; Ayre, Kimberley K; Johns, Annie F; Summers, Heather M; Stinson, Jonah; Harris, Meagan J; Herring, Carlie E; Markiewicz, April J

    2017-01-01

    We have conducted a regional scale risk assessment using the Bayesian Network Relative Risk Model (BN-RRM) to calculate the ecological risks to the South River and upper Shenandoah River study area. Four biological endpoints (smallmouth bass, white sucker, Belted Kingfisher, and Carolina Wren) and 4 abiotic endpoints (Fishing River Use, Swimming River Use, Boating River Use, and Water Quality Standards) were included in this risk assessment, based on stakeholder input. Although mercury (Hg) contamination was the original impetus for the site being remediated, other chemical and physical stressors were evaluated. There were 3 primary conclusions from the BN-RRM results. First, risk varies according to location, type and quality of habitat, and exposure to stressors within the landscape. The patterns of risk can be evaluated with reasonable certitude. Second, overall risk to abiotic endpoints was greater than overall risk to biotic endpoints. By including both biotic and abiotic endpoints, we are able to compare risk to endpoints that represent a wide range of stakeholder values. Third, whereas Hg reduction is the regulatory priority for the South River, Hg is not the only stressor driving risk to the endpoints. Ecological and habitat stressors contribute risk to the endpoints and should be considered when managing this site. This research provides the foundation for evaluating the risks of multiple stressors of the South River to a variety of endpoints. From this foundation, tools for the evaluation of management options and an adaptive management tools have been forged. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:85-99. © 2016 SETAC.

  1. Contaminants of legacy and emerging concern in largescale suckers (Catostomus macrocheilus) and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nilsen, Elena B.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Alvarez, David A.; Morace, Jennifer L.; Waite, Ian R.; Counihan, Timothy D.; Hardiman, Jill M.; Torres, Leticia; Patino, Reynaldo; Mesa, Matthew G.; Grove, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We investigated occurrence, transport pathways, and effects of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants and other endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in aquatic media and the foodweb in the lower Columbia River. In 2009 and 2010, foodweb sampling at three sites along a gradient of contaminant exposure near Skamania (Washington), Columbia City (Oregon) and Longview (Washington) included water (via passive samplers), bed sediment, invertebrate biomass residing in sediment, a resident fish species (largescale suckers [Catostomus macrocheilus]), and eggs from osprey (Pandion haliaetus). This paper primarily reports fish tissue concentrations. In 2009, composites of fish brain, fillet, liver, stomach, and gonad tissues revealed that overall contaminant concentrations were highest in livers, followed by brain, stomach, gonad, and fillet. Concentrations of halogenated compounds in tissue samples from all three sites ranged from < 1 to 400 nanograms per gram of wet tissue. Several chemical classes, including PBDEs, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were detected at all sites and in nearly all fish tissues sampled. In 2010, only fish livers were sampled and inter-site concentration differences were not as pronounced as in 2009. Chemical concentrations in sediments, fish tissues, and osprey eggs increased moving downstream from Skamania to the urbanized sites near Columbia City and Longview. Numerous organochlorine (OC) pesticides, both banned and currently used, and PBDEs, were present at each site in multiple media and concentrations exceeded environmental quality benchmarks in some cases. Frequently detected OC compounds included hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its degradates, chlorpyrifos, and oxyfluorofen. Biomagnification of BDE47, 100, 153, and 154 occurred in largescale suckers and osprey eggs. Results support the hypothesis that contaminants in the environment lead to

  2. Bioremediation of Petroleum and Radiological Contaminated Soils at the Savannah River Site: Laboratory to Field Scale Applications

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGMON, ROBINL.

    2004-06-07

    In the process of Savannah River Site (SRS) operations limited amounts of waste are generated containing petroleum, and radiological contaminated soils. Currently, this combination of radiological and petroleum contaminated waste does not have an immediate disposal route and is being stored in low activity vaults. SRS developed and implemented a successful plan for clean up of the petroleum portion of the soils in situ using simple, inexpensive, bioreactor technology. Treatment in a bioreactor removes the petroleum contamination from the soil without spreading radiological contamination to the environment. This bioreactor uses the bioventing process and bioaugmentation or the addition of the select hydrocarbon degrading bacteria. Oxygen is usually the initial rate-limiting factor in the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Using the bioventing process allowed control of the supply of nutrients and moisture based on petroleum contamination concentrations and soil type. The results of this work have proven to be a safe and cost-effective means of cleaning up low level radiological and petroleum-contaminated soil. Many of the other elements of the bioreactor design were developed or enhanced during the demonstration of a ''biopile'' to treat the soils beneath a Polish oil refinery's waste disposal lagoons. Aerobic microorganisms were isolated from the aged refinery's acidic sludge contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Twelve hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria were isolated from the sludge. The predominant PAH degraders were tentatively identified as Achromobacter, Pseudomonas Burkholderia, and Sphingomonas spp. Several Ralstonia spp were also isolated that produce biosurfactants. Biosurfactants can enhance bioremediation by increasing the bioavailability of hydrophobic contaminants including hydrocarbons. The results indicated that the diversity of acid-tolerant PAH-degrading microorganisms in acidic oil wastes may be much greater than previously

  3. A computer program for estimating instream travel times and concentrations of a potential contaminant in the Yellowstone River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2006-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is very important in a variety of ways to the residents of southeastern Montana; however, it is especially vulnerable to spilled contaminants. In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Montana Department of Environmental Quality, initiated a study to develop a computer program to rapidly estimate instream travel times and concentrations of a potential contaminant in the Yellowstone River using regression equations developed in 1999 by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to describe these equations and their limitations, describe the development of a computer program to apply the equations to the Yellowstone River, and provide detailed instructions on how to use the program. This program is available online at [http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/sir2006-5057/includes/ytot.xls]. The regression equations provide estimates of instream travel times and concentrations in rivers where little or no contaminant-transport data are available. Equations were developed and presented for the most probable flow velocity and the maximum probable flow velocity. These velocity estimates can then be used to calculate instream travel times and concentrations of a potential contaminant. The computer program was developed so estimation equations for instream travel times and concentrations can be solved quickly for sites along the Yellowstone River between Corwin Springs and Sidney, Montana. The basic types of data needed to run the program are spill data, streamflow data, and data for locations of interest along the Yellowstone River. Data output from the program includes spill location, river mileage at specified locations, instantaneous discharge, mean-annual discharge, drainage area, and channel slope. Travel times and concentrations are provided for estimates of the most probable velocity of the peak concentration and the maximum probable velocity of the peak concentration. Verification of estimates of instream travel times and

  4. The organic contamination survey and health risk assessment of 16 source water reservoirs in Haihe River basin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jijun; Liu, Linghua; Liu, Xiaoru; Lu, Jin; Hao, Hong; Yuan, Hao; Zhou, Huaidong

    2012-01-01

    Although contamination by organic pollutants has previously been reported to occur in the Haihe River basin, few studies have been carried out on the levels of source water reservoir contamination and the health risk in the Haihe River basin. To understand the organic pollution status of the reservoirs in the Haihe River basin, samples were collected from 16 source water reservoirs. The samples were analyzed for the representative organic pollutants, which included benzene homologues, chlorobenzene compounds, organophosphorus pesticides, and nitrobenzene compounds, a total in all of 17 compounds. It was observed that the concentrations of the 17 compounds in the 16 reservoirs were all less than the limit laid down by Chinese surface water quality standards. In addition, benzene, toluene, nitrobenzene, p-nitrochlorobenzene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene, dichlorvos, demeton, dimethoate methyl parathion, malathion and parathion were frequently detected in the 16 source water reservoirs, especially the organophosphorus pesticides; the detection rates of dichlorvos, dimethoate, methyl parathion, malathion and parathion were all 100% in the 16 source water reservoirs. The detection rate of target compounds suggested that organic pollution had been common in the source water of the Haihe River basin. The health risk assessment results suggested that the noncarcinogenic risk hazard quotient values of the target compounds were less than one, and the cancer risk values were all below 1 × 10(-6), which indicated that the heath risk produced by the target compounds in the 16 reservoirs was at an acceptable level.

  5. Status of riverine soils of a Mediterranean river catchment (the Turia river, Spain) regarding potential contamination of heavy metals and pesticides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Pascual, Juan Antonio; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-04-01

    Rivers are sink structures receiving diffuse contamination mainly from agricultural practices. Hydrological dynamics of these watercourses favour, by one hand, the transport of contaminants (dissolved, complexed or adsorbed to suspended particles) and, by the other, their accumulation in sediments. These circumstances affect at different scales the quality of soils, waters, and the entire riverine ecosystems. In this work, 7 heavy metals and 50 pesticides were monitored in riverine soils of the Turia River catchment. From the source to the mounth, along the entiere river, 22 sampling points were selected for sampling according different lithologies, land uses, population size and the proximity to waste waters treatment plants (WWTPs). Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn were analysed to determine its total and extractable contents in soils. Total content of metals was established by microwave acid digestion and the extractable fraction in soils and sediments by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of the selected metals. Pesticide residues were extracted from the soil samples using the QuEchERS method and determined by Liquid Chromatograph-tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Recoveries ranged from 40 to 105 %. The limits of quantification ranged from 0.1 to 5.0 ng g-1. The higest levels of total and extractable Cd, Co, Cr and Ni were determined near the Benageber reservoir, located in the middle course of the river, where an important forest fires occurred a year ago. High levels of metals, mainly Cr and Zn, appeared headwaters in the Alfambra tributary. This deserves special mention because it was selected as a little impacted area that could serve as non-contaminated reference for the river. From the 50 pesticides condsidered, 26 were detected, with the highest levels for acetochlor (290.00 ng g-1) and a degradation product of terbutyazine - terbuthylazine deethyl - (234.75 ng g-1

  6. PAH concentration gradients and fluxes through sand cap test cells installed in situ over river sediments containing coal tar.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Sang; Nyberg, Leila M; Jenkinson, Byron; Jafvert, Chad T

    2013-08-01

    Short-term performance of permeable sand cap test cells, installed over sediment containing liquid coal tar was monitored on the Grand Calumet River (Hammond, Indiana, USA). The sand cap test cells included two sand-only cells, two test cells containing a sand/peat mixed layer, two test cells containing a sand/organoclay mixed layer, and two sediment control cells. In each test cell, six monocyclic and twelve polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs and PAHs) were monitored over an 18 month period, and interfacial water flow was monitored periodically. Seepage velocities ranged from 3.8 cm per day into the sediments to 3.2 cm per day out of the sediments, with discharge out of the sediments being observed more often. A ferric iron test indicated that stratified oxic-anaerobic layers were formed in the caps. Within the sand caps, concentrations of MAHs and PAHs fluctuated with time, and this fluctuation was more significant near the bottom. Near the top, most of the MAHs and PAHs were attenuated above 95% in the first year of the study, but their attenuation rates decreased in the second year due to recontamination of the surface of the caps by the surrounding sediments. Functional genes involved in PAH degradation were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in upper and lower sections of the caps for each of the three treatments. Bacterial communities were characterized by PCR amplification of 16s rRNA genes and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results indicate that the rate and direction of sediment porewater flow is an important factor for properly designing any remedial sand cap, and that biodegradation of many of the MAH and PAH compounds was likely a major removal mechanism leading to attenuation through the test cells.

  7. Geochemical characteristics of an urban river: Geochemical contamination and urban stream syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacAvoy, S. E.; Connor, N.; Sarraino, S.; Frantz, D.; Bushaw-Newton, K. L.

    2013-12-01

    The Anacostia River in Washington, D.C. is among the 10 most contaminated rivers in the USA, containing sewage, metals, PAHs, and PCBs. The biogeochemical characteristics of urban rivers, including the Anacostia, remain largely unstudied. Here we examine the base-flow geochemistry of the tidal freshwater Anacostia over a two-year period (April 2010- April 2012), concentrating on water chemistry (pH, hardness, SAR, alkalinity, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, Al, Ba, Ni, P, S, Sr, NO3, NH4, PO4) at 3 locations in the stream. Mean NO3was generally between 1.1 and 1.3 mg/L, although occasionally concentrations increased to 3-4 mg/L at all sites. NH4 was very low generally (0.0 to 0.3 mg/L) with occasional peaks of 1.5-3.9 mg/L downstream. A Principle Components Analysis of stream chemistry showed that the upstream site had two components that explained 34.2 and 29.2% of the data variance; PC1 was most strongly negatively correlated with Ca (-.896), Mg (-.585) and hardness (-.823), and was positively correlated with Ba (which is sometimes associated with disturbance), B, NO3, P, PO4, Sr and Al. PC2 was strongly correlated with Mg, K, S, Ni and NH4. Na was positively and significantly correlated with both components, but more so with PC1. At the middle and downstream sites, two components explained 41 to 44% (PC1) and 22 to 28% (PC2) of the data set variance respectively. The components were essentially the same as the upstream site, with the dominance switched. PC1 was positively and highly correlated with ions associated with bedrock components (Ca, Mg, K, Na, and pH but also S and NH4). PC2 was not positively correlated with any of the dominant geochemical variables, but was negatively correlated with Ca and K and positively correlated with NO3, Ba and Mn. The principle components analysis suggests that there is a strong geochemical component and weaker anion/nitrate component contributing to the ion distribution, and their relative dominance changes moving downstream

  8. Occurrence and accumulation of pesticides and organic contaminants in river sediment, water and clam tissues from the San Joaquin River and tributaries, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Domagalski, J.L.; Hostettler, F.D.; Brown, L.R.; Rapp, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1992 to assess the effects of anthropogenic activities and land use on the water quality of the San Joaquin River and its major tributaries. This study focused on pesticides and organic contaminants, looking at distributions of contaminants in water, bed and suspended sediment, and the bivalve Corbicula fluminea. Results indicated that this river system is affected by agricultural practices and urban runoff. Sediments from Dry Creek contained elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), possibly derived from urban runoff from the city of Modesto; suspended sediments contained elevated amounts of chlordane. Trace levels of triazine herbicides atrazine and simazine were present in water at most sites. Sediments, water, and bivalves from Orestimba Creek, a westside tributary draining agricultural areas, contained the greatest levels of DDT (1,1,1-trichloro-2-2-bis[p-chlorophenyl]ethane), and its degradates DDD (1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis[p-chlorophenyl]ethane), and DDE (1,1-dichloro-2,2- bis[p-chlorophenyl]ethylene). Sediment adsorption co efficients (K(oc)), and bioconcentration factors (BCF) in Corbicula of DDT, DDD, and DDE at Orestimba Creek were greater than predicted values. Streams of the western San Joaquin Valley can potentially transport significant amounts of chlorinated pesticides to the San Joaquin River, the delta, and San Francisco Bay. Organochlorine compounds accumulate in bivalves and sediment and may pose a problem to other biotic species in this watershed.

  9. Reproduction and environmental contamination in tree swallows nesting in the Fox River drainage and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, C.M.; Custer, T.W.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L.; Melancon, M.J.

    1998-09-01

    Concentration, accumulation, and effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on reproduction in tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were studied at four sites in the Fox River drainage and in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, Wisconsin, USA, in 1994 and 1995. Total PCBs in eggs and newly hatched young and 12-d-old nestlings at two contaminated sites (Kidney Island and Arrowhead) were higher than concentrations at two reference sites. Concentrations of 11 PCB congeners were also higher at contaminated compared to reference sites. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulated in nestlings at a higher rate at contaminated sites compared to reference locations. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) was the only other organochlorine found in all samples; concentrations for all samples averaged {le}0.20 {micro}g/g wet weight. Total PCBs and p,p{prime}-DDE concentrations did not differ among clutches where all eggs hatched, some eggs hatched, and no eggs hatched.

  10. Distributions and fate of chlorinated pesticides, biomarkers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments along a contamination gradient from a point-source in San Francisco Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pereira, W.E.; Hostettler, F.D.; Rapp, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    The distribution and fate of chlorinated pesticides, biomarkers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in surficial sediments along a contamination gradient in the Lauritzen Canal and Richmond Harbor in San Francisco Bay was investigated. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry. Biomarkers and PAHs were derived primarily from weathered petroleum. DDT was reductively dechlorinated under anoxic conditions to DDD and several minor degradation products, DDMU, DDMS, and DDNU. Under aerobic conditions, DDT was dehydrochlorinated to DDE and DBP. Aerobic degradation of DDT was diminished or inhibited in zones of high concentration, and increased significantly in zones of lower concentration: Other chlorinated pesticides identified in sediment included dieldrin and chlordane isomers. Multivariate analysis of the distributions of the DDTs suggested that there are probably two sources of DDD. In addition, DDE and DDMU are probably formed by similar mechanisms, i.e. dehydrochlorination. A steep concentration gradient existed from the Canal to the Outer Richmond Harbor, but higher levels of DDD than those found in the remainder of the Bay indicated that these contaminants are transported on particulates and colloidal organic matter from this source into San Francisco Bay. Chlorinated pesticides and PAHs may pose a potential problem to biota in San Francisco Bay.

  11. Impact of erosion and transfer processes in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contamination of water bodies in the Seine River basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) reach problematic concentrations in water and sediment of numerous streams of the world. In the Seine River (France), they prevent to achieve the good chemical status enforced by European law. However, the provenance and the fate of PAHs found in rivers are still poorly understood. Here, we combined chemical and fallout radionuclide measurements conducted on a large number of suspended sediment (SS) (n = 231) and soil (n = 37) samples collected at 62 sites during an entire hydrological year. A model was developed to estimate mean PAH concentration in sediment from the population density in the drainage area and good relationships were found during both low stage and flood periods. Influence of human population also appeared to be stronger during the latter period. However, some discrepancies between measured and modeled PAH concentrations were observed and the role of the origin of SS was investigated. During the low flow period, the observed differences were explained by the provenance of river sediment (agricultural topsoil vs. eroded channel banks). Time-averaged PAH concentrations measured in suspended sediment collected in the catchments where erosion of agricultural topsoil dominated were systematically higher than the predicted values. On the contrary, in the catchments where erosion mainly occurred in deep soil or river embankment, the supply of particles protected from atmospheric fallout contamination led to measure concentrations below the predicted values. As this relationship between population density and SS contamination was no longer valid during the flood period, the role of transfer times was also investigated. The percentages of freshly eroded sediment in samples were determined by comparing the 7Be/210Pb ratio in rainfall and SS. An annual turn-over cycle of sediment was observed but no relationship was found between PAH contamination and residence times of particles within rivers. This result suggested

  12. Historical contamination of PAHs, PCBs, DDTs, and heavy metals in Mississippi River Delta, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay sediment cores.

    PubMed

    Santschi, P H; Presley, B J; Wade, T L; Garcia-Romero, B; Baskaran, M

    2001-07-01

    Profiles of trace contaminant concentrations in sediment columns can be a natural archive from which pollutant inputs into coastal areas can be reconstructed. Reconstruction of historical inputs of anthropogenic chemicals is important for improving management strategies and evaluating the success of recent pollution controls measures. Here we report a reconstruction of historical contamination into three coastal sites along the US Gulf Coast: Mississippi River Delta, Galveston Bay and Tampa Bay. Within the watersheds of these areas are extensive agricultural lands as well as more than 50% of the chemical and refinery capacity of the USA. Despite this pollution potential, relatively low concentrations of trace metals and trace organic contaminants were found in one core from each of the three sites. Concentrations and fluxes of most trace metals found in surface sediments at these three sites, when normalized to Al, are typical for uncontaminated Gulf Coast sediments. Hydrophobic trace organic contaminants that are anthropogenic (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, DDTs, and polychlorinated biphenyls) are found in sediments from all locations. The presence in surface sediments from the Mississippi River Delta of low level trace contaminants such as DDTs, which were banned in the early 1970's, indicate that they are still washed out from cultivated soils. It appears that the DDTs profile in that sediment core was produced by a combination of erosion processes of riverine and other sedimentary deposits during floods. Most of the pollutant profiles indicate that present-day conditions have improved from the more contaminated conditions in the 1950-1970's, before the advent of the Clean Water Act.

  13. Subsurface Nitrogen-Cycling Microbial Communities at Uranium Contaminated Sites in the Colorado River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardarelli, E.; Bargar, J.; Williams, K. H.; Dam, W. L.; Francis, C.

    2015-12-01

    Throughout the Colorado River Basin (CRB), uranium (U) persists as a relic contaminant of former ore processing activities. Elevated solid-phase U levels exist in fine-grained, naturally-reduced zone (NRZ) sediments intermittently found within the subsurface floodplain alluvium of the following Department of Energy-Legacy Management sites: Rifle, CO; Naturita, CO; and Grand Junction, CO. Coupled with groundwater fluctuations that alter the subsurface redox conditions, previous evidence from Rifle, CO suggests this resupply of U may be controlled by microbially-produced nitrite and nitrate. Nitrification, the two-step process of archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidation followed by bacterial nitrite oxidation, generates nitrate under oxic conditions. Our hypothesis is that when elevated groundwater levels recede and the subsurface system becomes anoxic, the nitrate diffuses into the reduced interiors of the NRZ and stimulates denitrification, the stepwise anaerobic reduction of nitrate/nitrite to dinitrogen gas. Denitrification may then be coupled to the oxidation of sediment-bound U(IV) forming mobile U(VI), allowing it to resupply U into local groundwater supplies. A key step in substantiating this hypothesis is to demonstrate the presence of nitrogen-cycling organisms in U-contaminated, NRZ sediments from the upper CRB. Here we investigate how the diversity and abundances of nitrifying and denitrifying microbial populations change throughout the NRZs of the subsurface by using functional gene markers for ammonia-oxidation (amoA, encoding the α-subunit of ammonia monooxygenase) and denitrification (nirK, nirS, encoding nitrite reductase). Microbial diversity has been assessed via clone libraries, while abundances have been determined through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), elucidating how relative numbers of nitrifiers (amoA) and denitrifiers (nirK, nirS) vary with depth, vary with location, and relate to uranium release within NRZs in sediment

  14. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in water and sediments of Trepça and Sitnica rivers, Kosovo, using pollution indicators and multivariate cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferati, Flora; Kerolli-Mustafa, Mihone; Kraja-Ylli, Arjana

    2015-06-01

    The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in water and sediment samples from Trepça and Sitnica rivers were determined to assess the level of contamination. Six water and sediment samples were collected during the period from April to July 2014. Most of the water samples was found within the European and Kosovo permissible limits. The highest concentration of As, Cd, Pb, and Zn originates primarily from anthropogenic sources such discharge of industrial water from mining flotation and from the mine waste eroded from the river banks. Sediment contamination assessment was carried out using the pollution indicators such as contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (Cd), modified degree of contamination (mCd), pollution load index (PLI), and geo-accumulation index (Igeo). The CF values for the investigated metals indicated a high contaminated nature of sediments, while the Cd values indicated a very high contamination degree of sediments. The mCd values indicate a high degree of contamination of Sitnica river sediment to ultrahigh degree of contamination of Trepça river sediment. The PLI values ranged from 1.89 to 14.1 which indicate that the heavy metal concentration levels in all investigated sites exceeded the background values and sediment quality guidelines. The average values of Igeo revealed the following ranking of intensity of heavy metal contamination of the Trepça and Sitnica river sediments: Cd > As > Pb > Zn > Cu > Co > Cr > Ni. Cluster analysis suggests that As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn are derived from anthropogenic sources, particularly discharges from mining flotation and erosion form waste from a zinc mine plant. In order to protect the sediments from further contamination, the designing of a monitoring network and reducing the anthropogenic discharges are suggested.

  15. Mercury contamination in fish in midcontinent great rivers of the united states: Importance of species traits and environmental factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, D.M.; Blocksom, K.A.; Lazorchak, J.M.; Jicha, T.; Angradi, T.R.; Bolgrien, D.W.

    2010-01-01

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg accumulation. Concentrations were generally lower (80% of values between 20?200 ng g1 wet weight) than those reported for other regions (e.g., upper Midwest and Northeast U.S.). Mercury exceeded the risk threshold for belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon, the most sensitive species considered) in 33?75% of river length and 1?7% of river length for humans. Concentrations were lower in the Missouri than in the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, consistent with continental-scale patterns in atmospheric Hg deposition. Body size and trophic guild were the best predictors of Hg concentrations, which were highest in large-bodied top predators. Site geochemical and landscape properties were weakly related with fish Hg. Moreover, relationships often ran contrary to conventional wisdom, and the slopes of the relationships (positive or negative) were inconsistent among fish guilds and rivers. For example, sulfate is positively associated with fish Hg concentrations but was negatively correlated with Hg in five of six regression models of tissue concentrations. Variables such as pH, acid neutralizing capacity, and total phosphorus did not occur at levels associated with high fish Hg concentrations, partially explaining the relatively low Hg values we observed. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  16. Mercury contamination in fish in midcontinent great rivers of the United States: importance of species traits and environmental factors.

    PubMed

    Walters, David M; Blocksom, Karen A; Lazorchak, James M; Jicha, Terri; Angradi, Theodore R; Bolgrien, David W

    2010-04-15

    We measured mercury (Hg) concentrations in whole fish from the Upper Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers to characterize the extent and magnitude of Hg contamination and to identify environmental factors influencing Hg accumulation. Concentrations were generally lower (80% of values between 20-200 ng g(-1) wet weight) than those reported for other regions (e.g., upper Midwest and Northeast U.S.). Mercury exceeded the risk threshold for belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon, the most sensitive species considered) in 33-75% of river length and 1-7% of river length for humans. Concentrations were lower in the Missouri than in the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers, consistent with continental-scale patterns in atmospheric Hg deposition. Body size and trophic guild were the best predictors of Hg concentrations, which were highest in large-bodied top predators. Site geochemical and landscape properties were weakly related with fish Hg. Moreover, relationships often ran contrary to conventional wisdom, and the slopes of the relationships (positive or negative) were inconsistent among fish guilds and rivers. For example, sulfate is positively associated with fish Hg concentrations but was negatively correlated with Hg in five of six regression models of tissue concentrations. Variables such as pH, acid neutralizing capacity, and total phosphorus did not occur at levels associated with high fish Hg concentrations, partially explaining the relatively low Hg values we observed.

  17. Effects of contaminant exposure on reproductive success of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in Delaware River and Bay, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toschik, P.C.; Rattner, B.A.; McGowan, P.C.; Christman, M.C.; Carter, Daniel B.; Hale, R.C.; Matson, C.W.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Despite serious water-quality problems and pollutant loading and retention, Delaware River and Bay (USA) provide important wildlife habitat. In 2002, we conducted a comprehensive evaluation of contaminant exposure and reproduction of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) breeding in Delaware River and Bay. Sample eggs were collected from 39 nests and analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and mercury; a subset of 15 eggs was analyzed for perfluorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The fate of each nest was monitored weekly. Concentrations of 10 organochlorine pesticides or metabolites, total PCBs, and several toxic PCB congeners were greater (p < 0.05) in eggs collected between the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal (C and D Canal) and Trenton (Delaware River and northern Bay) compared to other sites. Concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE; 0.785-3.84 mug/g wet wt) and total PCBs (5.50-14.5 mug/g wet wt) in eggs collected between the C and D Canal and Trenton were similar to levels recently found in the Chesapeake Bay. In all study segments, at least one young fledged from 66 to 75% of nests. Productivity for Delaware Inland Bays (reference area) and southern Delaware Bay was 1.17 and 1.42 fledglings/active nest, respectively; north of the C and D Canal, productivity was 1.00 fledgling/active nest, which is marginally adequate to maintain the population. Using these data, a logistic regression model found that contaminant concentrations (p,p'-DDE, heptachlor epoxide, chlordane and metabolites, and total PCBs) were predictive of hatching success. Several perfluorinated compounds and PBDEs were detected in eggs at concentrations approaching 1 mug/g wet weight. These findings provide evidence that contaminants continue to be a significant stressor on osprey productivity in the northern Delaware River and Bay.

  18. Arsenic contamination in the freshwater fish ponds of Pearl River Delta: bioaccumulation and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhang; Chen, Kun-Ci; Li, Kai-Bin; Nie, Xiang-Ping; Wu, Sheng Chun; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-07-01

    This study investigated the extent of arsenic (As) contamination in five common species of freshwater fish (northern snakehead [Channa argus], mandrarin fish [Siniperca chuatsi], largemouth bass [Lepomis macrochirous], bighead carp [Aristichthys nobilis] and grass carp [Ctenopharyngodon idellus]) and their associated fish pond sediments collected from 18 freshwater fish ponds around the Pearl River Delta (PRD). The total As concentrations detected in fish muscle and sediment in freshwater ponds around the PRD were 0.05-3.01 mg kg(-1) wet weight (w. wt) and 8.41-22.76 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt), respectively. In addition, the As content was positively correlated (p < 0.05) to total organic carbon (TOC) contents in sediments. Biota sediment accumulation factor (BSAF) showed that omnivorous fish and zooplankton accumulated higher concentrations of heavy metals from the sediment than carnivorous fish. In addition, feeding habits of fish also influence As accumulation in different fish species. In this study, two typical food chains of the aquaculture ponds were selected for investigation: (1) omnivorous food chain (zooplankton, grass carp and bighead carp) and (2) predatory food chain (zooplankton, mud carp and mandarin fish). Significant linear relationships were obtained between log As and δ (15)N. The slope of the regression (-0.066 and -0.078) of the log transformed As concentrations and δ (15)N values, as biomagnifications power, indicated there was no magnification or diminution of As from lower trophic levels (zooplankton) to fish in the aquaculture ponds. Consumption of largemouth bass, northern snakehead and bighead carp might impose health risks of Hong Kong residents consuming these fish to the local population, due to the fact that its cancer risk (CR) value exceeded the upper limit of the acceptable risk levels (10(-4)) stipulated by the USEPA.

  19. Induced metal redistribution and bioavailability enhancement in contaminated river sediment during in situ biogeochemical remediation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongzhou; Zhang, Zhen; Mao, Yanqing; Yan, Dickson Y S

    2016-04-01

    In situ sediment remediation using Ca(NO3)2 or CaO2 for odor mitigation and acid volatile sulfide (AVS) and organic pollutant (such as TPH and PAHs) removal was reported in many studies and fieldwork. Yet, the associated effects on metal mobilization and potential distortion in bioavailability were not well documented. In this study, contaminated river sediment was treated by Ca(NO3)2 and CaO2 in bench studies. Through the investigation of AVS removal, organic matter removal, the changes in sediment oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), microbial activity, and other indigenous parameters, the effects on metal bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and fraction redistribution in sediment were evaluated. The major mechanisms for sediment treated by Ca(NO3)2 and CaO2 are biostimulation with indigenous denitrifying bacteria and chemical oxidation, respectively. After applying Ca(NO3)2 and CaO2, the decreases of metal concentrations in the treated sediment were insignificant within a 35-day incubation period. However, the [SEMtot-AVS]/f OC increased near to the effective boundary of toxicity (100 μmol g(-1) organic carbon (OC)), indicating that both bioavailability and bioaccessibility of metals (Cu, Zn, and Ni) to benthic organisms are enhanced after remediation. Metals were found redistributed from relatively stable fractions (oxidizable and residual fractions) to weakly bound fractions (exchangeable and reducible fractions), and the results are in line with the enhanced metal bioavailability. Compared with Ca(NO3)2, CaO2 led to higher enhancement in metal bioavailability and bioaccessibility, and more significant metal redistribution, probably due to its stronger chemical reactive capacity to AVS and sediment organic matter. The reactions in CaO2-treated sediment would probably shift from physicochemical to biochemical heterotrophic oxidation for sediment organic matter degradation. Therefore, further investigation on the long-term metal redistribution and associated

  20. Aquatic communities and contaminants in fish from streams of the Red River of the North basin, Minnesota and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldstein, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Available data on the ecology of aquatic organisms in the Red River of the North Basin, a study unit of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, were collated from numerous sources. Lack of information for invertebrates and algae precluded a general summary of distribution and ecology throughout the basin. Data on fish species distributions in the major streams of the Red River of the North Basin were analyzed based on the drainage area of the stream and the number of ecoregions the stream flowed through. Species richness increased with both drainage area (log drainage area in square kilometers, R2=0.41, p=0.0055) and the number of ecoregions a river flowed through. However, theses two factors are autocorrelated because the larger the drainage, the more likely that the river will flow through more than one ecoregion. A cluster analysis identified five river groups based on similarity of species within the fish community. Analysis of trophic and taxonomic composition provided justification for the cluster groups. There were significant differences (p=0.05) in the trophic composition of the river cluster groups with respect to the number of predator species, omnivore species, benthic insectivore species, and general insectivore species. Although there were no significant differences in the number of species in the bass and sunfish family or the sucker family, the number of species in the minnow family and the darter subfamily were different (p=0.05) among the groups identified by cluster analysis. Data on contaminant concentrations in fish from the Red River of the North indicated that most trace elements and organochlorine compounds present in tissues were not at levels toxic to fish or humans. Minnesota and North Dakota have issued a fish consumption advisory based on levels of mercury and (or) PCBs found in some species.

  1. Octanol-solubility of dissolved and particulate trace metals in contaminated rivers: implications for metal reactivity and availability.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew; Mawji, Edward

    2005-05-01

    The lipid-like, amphiphilic solvent, n-octanol, has been used to determine a hydrophobic fraction of dissolved and particulate trace metals (Al, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in contaminated rivers. In a sample from the River Clyde, southwest Scotland, octanol-solubility was detected for all dissolved metals except Co, with conditional octanol-water partition coefficients, D(ow), ranging from about 0.2 (Al and Cu) to 1.25 (Pb). In a sample taken from the River Mersey, northwest England, octanol-solubility was detected for dissolved Al and Pb, but only after sample aliquots had been spiked with individual ionic metal standards and equilibrated. Spiking of the River Clyde sample revealed competition among different metals for hydrophobic ligands. Metal displacement from hydrophobic complexes was generally most significant following the addition of ionic Al or Pb, although the addition of either of these metals had little effect on the octanol-solubility of the other. In both river water samples hydrophobic metals were detected on the suspended particles retained by filtration following their extraction in n-octanol. In general, particulate Cu and Zn (up to 40%) were most available, and Al, Co and Pb most resistant (<1%) to octanol extraction. Distribution coefficients defining the concentration ratio of octanol-soluble particle-bound metal to octanol-soluble dissolved metal were in the range 10(3.3)-10(5.3)mlg(-1). The presence of hydrophobic dissolved and particulate metal species has implications for our understanding of the biogeochemical behaviour of metals in aquatic environments. Specifically, such species are predicted to exhibit characteristics of non-polar organic contaminants, including the potential to penetrate the lipid bilayer. Current strategies for assessing the bioavailability and toxicity of dissolved and particulate trace metals in natural waters may, therefore, require revision.

  2. A Diffusive Gradient-in-Thin-Film Technique for Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Cd in Soil Contaminated with Cd and Pb

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peifang; Wang, Teng; Yao, Yu; Wang, Chao; Liu, Cui; Yuan, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Management of heavy metal contamination requires accurate information about the distribution of bioavailable fractions, and about exchange between the solid and solution phases. In this study, we employed diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) and traditional chemical extraction methods (soil solution, HOAc, EDTA, CaCl2, and NaOAc) to determine the Cd bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of Pb. Two typical terrestrial species (wheat, Bainong AK58; maize, Zhengdan 958) were selected as the accumulation plants. The results showed that the added Pb may enhance the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction which is indicated by the increasing concentration of Cd accumulating in the plant tissues. The DGT-measured Cd concentrations and all the selected traditional extractants measured Cd concentrations all increased with increasing concentration of the addition Pb which were similar to the change trends of the accumulated Cd concentrations in plant tissues. Moreover, the Pearson regression coefficients between the different indicators obtained Cd concentrations and plants uptake Cd concentrations were further indicated significant correlations (p < 0.01). However, the values of Pearson regression coefficients showed the merits of DGT, CaCl2, and Csol over the other three methods. Consequently, the in situ measurement of DGT and the ex situ traditional methods could all reflect the inhibition effects between Cd and Pb. Due to the feature of dynamic measurements of DGT, it could be a robust tool to predict Cd bioavaiability in complex contaminated soil. PMID:27271644

  3. A Diffusive Gradient-in-Thin-Film Technique for Evaluation of the Bioavailability of Cd in Soil Contaminated with Cd and Pb.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peifang; Wang, Teng; Yao, Yu; Wang, Chao; Liu, Cui; Yuan, Ye

    2016-06-02

    Management of heavy metal contamination requires accurate information about the distribution of bioavailable fractions, and about exchange between the solid and solution phases. In this study, we employed diffusive gradients in thin-films (DGT) and traditional chemical extraction methods (soil solution, HOAc, EDTA, CaCl₂, and NaOAc) to determine the Cd bioavailability in Cd-contaminated soil with the addition of Pb. Two typical terrestrial species (wheat, Bainong AK58; maize, Zhengdan 958) were selected as the accumulation plants. The results showed that the added Pb may enhance the efficiency of Cd phytoextraction which is indicated by the increasing concentration of Cd accumulating in the plant tissues. The DGT-measured Cd concentrations and all the selected traditional extractants measured Cd concentrations all increased with increasing concentration of the addition Pb which were similar to the change trends of the accumulated Cd concentrations in plant tissues. Moreover, the Pearson regression coefficients between the different indicators obtained Cd concentrations and plants uptake Cd concentrations were further indicated significant correlations (p < 0.01). However, the values of Pearson regression coefficients showed the merits of DGT, CaCl₂, and Csol over the other three methods. Consequently, the in situ measurement of DGT and the ex situ traditional methods could all reflect the inhibition effects between Cd and Pb. Due to the feature of dynamic measurements of DGT, it could be a robust tool to predict Cd bioavaiability in complex contaminated soil.

  4. LINKING GREAT WATERSHEDS AND RIVERS TO FORECAST THE IMPACT OF CONTAMINANT STRESSORS ON LARGE RECEIVING WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contaminated sediments are pervasive within the waters of the nation. A number of contaminants are bioaccumulative and are an unacceptable risk to the ecosystem, including humans. Many sites having contaminated sediments are contained within state 305(b) and 303(d) listings and w...

  5. Suspended sediment yield and metal contamination in a river catchment affected by El Niño events and gold mining activities: the Puyango river basin, southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarras-Wahlberg, N. H.; Lane, S. N.

    2003-10-01

    The suspended sediment yield and the transfer of polluted sediment are investigated for the Puyango river basin in southern Ecuador. This river system receives metal (Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb and Zn) and cyanide pollution generated by mining, and is associated with large-scale hydrological variability, which is partly governed by El Niño events. Field sampling and statistical modelling methods are used to quantify the amount of mine tailings that is discharged into the basin. Annual suspended sediment yields are estimated using a novel combination of the suspended sediment rating method and Monte Carlo simulations, which allow for propagation of the uncertainties of the calculations that lead to final load estimates. Geochemical analysis of suspended and river bed sediment is used to assess the dispersion and long-term fate of contaminated sediment within the river catchment. Knowledge of the inter- and intra-annual variation in suspended sediment yield is shown to be crucial for judging the importance of mining discharges, and the extent to which the resultant pollution is diluted by river flows. In wet years, polluted sediments represent only a very small proportion of the yield estimates, but in dry years the proportion can be significant. Evidence shows that metal contaminated sediments are stored in the Puyango river bed during low flows. Large flood events flush this sediment periodically, both on an annual cycle associated with the rainy season, and also related to El Niño events. Therefore, environmental impacts of mining-related discharges are more likely to be severe during dry years compared with wet years, and in the dry season rather than the wet season. The hydrological consequences of El Niño events are shown to depend upon the extent to which these events penetrate inland. It is, thus, shown that the general conclusion that El Niño events can significantly affect suspended sediment yields needs evaluation with respect to the particular way in which those

  6. CO2, CH4 and N2O dynamics in Belgian rivers across a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Darchambeau, François; Beulen, Aurore

    2014-05-01

    Two rivers and two streams close to the city of Liège in Belgium (Meuse, Ourthe, Geer and Blanc Gravier) were sampled to describe the dynamics of CO2, CH4 and N2O (for the first time in Belgium for freshwaters). The four systems were chosen to cover a gradient of size (stream to river) and of human influence (mainly forested to mainly agricultural watersheds). The study covers the period from February 2011 to March 2013 with weekly sampling in surface waters. The variables were very contrasted in the four systems, the Geer showing a strong enrichment in nitrogen NH4+ et NO2-) and phosphorous in relation to the other three systems. The O2 concentrations were much lower, and the concentration of CH4, N2O and pCO2 were much higher in the Geer than in other three systems. The concentrations in CH4, N2O and pCO2 were higher in the Ourthe than in the Meuse and than in the Blanc Gravier. Marked seasonal variations were observed in the 4 systems. In general the concentration of CH4, N2O and pCO2 were higher in summer than in winter. This is related on one hand to the increase of temperature in summer that stimulates bacterial activity. Also in summer, the availability of organic matter for bacterial activity is higher after the spring phytoplankton blooms and also from allochthnous inputs from the watersheds. The increase of temperature and bacterial consumption of O2 in the water column leads to a lesser O2 penetration in the sediments that could stimulate benthic anaerobic processes among which methanogenesis and denitrification, leading to an increase of CH4 and N2O in the water column. Also, the production of N2O by denitrification strongly increases at low O2. During low water, the increase of residence time of the water mass and the decrease of current (decrease of degasing) allow an accumulation of CO2, CH4 and N2O in the water column. On the contrary during high water, dilution and increase of current (increase of degasing) lead to a decrease of concentrations

  7. Contamination by polybrominated diphenyl ethers and persistent organochlorines in catfish and feed from Mekong River Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Minh, Nguyen Hung; Minh, Tu Binh; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Viet, Pham Hung; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Tuyen, But Cach; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-10-01

    Commercial feeds for aquaculture and catfish samples were collected from the Mekong River Delta, Vietnam, for determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and selected persistent organochlorines, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane-related compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The most abundant contaminants were DDTs, with concentrations ranging from 10 to 700 ng/g lipid weight, followed by PCBs (1.0-80 ng/g), CHLs (<0.01-8.2 ng/g), PBDEs (0.12-3.7 ng/g), HCHs (<0.03-5.1 ng/g), and HCB (<0.07-3.2 ng/g). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers were detected in all samples, suggesting their widespread contamination in the region. However, PBDE contamination levels in the present catfish specimens were low in comparison to levels worldwide. Interestingly, residue levels of all the contaminants were significantly higher in catfish collected near a municipal dumping site compared to farmed catfish. This suggests that runoffs from the dumping site during floods and rains may have brought pollutants to the surrounding areas. Contamination pattern in aquaculture feeds revealed elevated levels of PCBs and PBDEs in samples from foreign companies, perhaps implying their higher residues in some imported ingredients. Congener profiles of PBDEs and PCBs demonstrated similarity between the farmed catfish and the aquaculture feeds, suggesting these feeds as a major source of pollution to the farmed catfish. On the other hand, the PBDE and PCB profiles in the dumpsite catfish are clearly different from those of the farmed catfish, revealing their exposure to different sources. Risk assessment showed significantly higher intake of the contaminants by people who eat catfish cultured near the dumping areas. Further investigation regarding fate and occurrence of the contaminants in dumping sites is necessary.

  8. Linking community tolerance and structure with low metallic contamination: a field study on 13 biofilms sampled across the Seine river basin.

    PubMed

    Fechner, Lise C; Gourlay-Francé, Catherine; Tusseau-Vuillemin, Marie-Hélène

    2014-03-15

    It is difficult to assess the biological consequences of diffuse water contamination by micropollutants which are present in rivers at low, even sublethal levels. River biofilms, which respond quickly to changes of environmental parameters, are good candidates to acquire knowledge on the response of aquatic organisms to diffuse chemical contamination in the field. The study was designed as an attempt to link biofilm metal tolerance and metallic contamination in a field survey covering 13 different sampling sites in the Seine river basin (north of France) with low contamination levels. Cd and Zn tolerance of heterotrophic communities was assessed using a short-term toxicity test based on β-glucosidase activity. Metal tolerance levels varied between sites but there was no obvious correlation between tolerance and corresponding water contamination levels for Cd and Zn. Indeed, metallic contamination at the sampling sites remained subtle when compared to water quality standards (only two sampling sites had either Zn or both Cu and Zn concentrations exceeding the Environmental Quality Standards set by the EU Water Framework Directive). Yet, multivariate analysis of the data using Partial Least Squares Regression revealed that both metallic and environmental parameters were important variables explaining the variability of metal tolerance levels. Automated Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer Analysis (ARISA) was also performed on both bacterial and eukaryotic biofilm communities from the 13 sampling sites. Multivariate analysis of ARISA fingerprints revealed that biofilms with similar tolerance levels have similar ARISA profiles. Those results confirm that river biofilms are potential indicators of low, diffuse contamination levels of aquatic systems.

  9. Sedimentary biomarkers along a contamination gradient in a human-impacted sub-estuary in Southern Brazil: a multi-parameter approach based on spatial and seasonal variability.

    PubMed

    de Abreu-Mota, Michelle Alves; de Moura Barboza, Carlos Alberto; Bícego, Márcia C; Martins, César C

    2014-05-01

    The composition and seasonal variations of sedimentary organic matter were investigated along the Cotinga sub-estuary, located in Paranaguá Bay, a large South American estuary where urban activities and the primary Brazilian grain shipping port are sources of pollution. Steroids and hydrocarbons were analyzed in surface sediments collected during the austral winter (2008) and summer (2009) in three distinct sectors, along this sub-estuary in a presumed gradient of fecal contamination. Concentrations ranged from 0.28 to 7.33 μgg (-1) (in dry sample weight thereafter),

    contamination. The highest ΣPAHs concentrations were found during the summer in the middle sector of the sub-estuary but were below the threshold effect levels (TEL), suggesting the absence of contamination by PAHs. Selected PAH isomer ratios indicated pyrolytic sources, whereas fecal sterols indicated decreasing sewage contamination from sub-estuary to the open ocean. The absence of correlation between organic markers and grain-size parameters suggested no preferential deposition sites of organic matter in the study area. The Principal Components Analysis suggested spatial variation in the distribution of sterols and AHs; however, temporal variations were only evident in the distribution of PAHs.

  10. Multidisciplinary work on barium contamination of the karstic upper Kupa River drainage basin (Croatia and Slovenia); calling for watershed management.

    PubMed

    Francisković-Bilinski, S; Bilinski, H; Grbac, R; Zunić, J; Necemer, M; Hanzel, D

    2007-02-01

    The present work was designed as an extension of a previous study of a barium anomaly observed in stream sediments of the Kupa River. In its upper part the Kupa River drains a region underlain by a trans-boundary aquifer. The river is a significant water resource in a region of tourism, sport, and fishing in both Croatia and Slovenia. The contamination source is situated in Homer (Lokve), Croatia, where barite was mined until 10 years ago. The barium processing waste material (<3-mm fraction) was carelessly deposited in gardens, forests, and into a sinkhole, which has an underground link with the Kupica River, a tributary of the Kupa River. Barium waste and stream sediments were analyzed using comparative techniques: X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and grain size analysis. XRD of the waste material identified the major minerals quartz, barite, and dolomite and the Fe-containing minor minerals muscovite and goethite. Barite was identified as a minor or trace mineral in the Kupica River sediments. XRF analysis of the waste material has shown Ba and Fe to be the predominant elements, Ca and K to be minor elements, and Mn, Zn, Sr, Pb, Co, Cu, As, Zr, Rb, Y, and Mo to be trace elements. Mössbauer spectroscopy performed at room temperature (RT) was used to study iron minerals, particularly to obtain information on the valence status of Fe ions. Grain size analysis of the waste material (<63-microm fraction) has shown that it contains 23.5% clay-size material in comparison with 7-8% clay-size material in stream sediments. It is our aim to combine geochemical and medical methods to investigate the possible impact of waste disposal on human health in Lokve. At this stage of the work, concentrations of Ba and other toxic elements in the water compartment of the Kupica River (a source of drinking water) have not been monitored by Croatian Waters (name of the Croatian water authorities). The necessity of such measurements in future

  11. Intersex Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) from a Contaminated River in Taiwan: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peter Lin; Tsai, Shinn-Shoung

    2009-01-01

    River pollution in Taiwan is rather serious, but so far there have been no reports of fish intersex problems. This report reveals that 50% male tilapia in the Era-Jiin River of southern Taiwan were found to be feminized in an October 8, 1994 collection from station EJ-2 of this river. After discounting all other possible causative factors, and correlating with endocrine disrupting chemicals found in this river, we suggest that there is a great possibility that the occurrence of intersex tilapia was caused by these chemicals. The above finding suggests that greater attention needs to be given to endocrine disrupting chemicals problems. PMID:22069529

  12. Biomonitoring of Environmental Status and Trends (BEST) Program: Environmental Contaminants and their Effects on Fish in the Mississippi River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmitt, Christopher J.

    2002-01-01

    We collected, examined, and analyzed 1378 fish of 22 species from 47 sites in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) during 1995 and from a reference site in 1996. The sampling sites in the MRB represented National Contaminant Biomonitoring Program (NCBP) stations situated at key points on major rivers and National Water- Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) stations located on lower-order rivers and streams in the Eastern Iowa Basins (EIB) and Mississippi Embayment (MSE) Study Units. The reference site was the water supply system of the USGS-Leetown Science Center in rural Jefferson County, WV. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio; carp) and black basses (Micropterus spp.; bass), the targeted species, together represented 82% of the fish collected. Each fish was examined in the field for externally and internally visible gross lesions, selected organs were weighed to compute various ponderal and organo-somatic indices, and selected tissues and fluids were obtained and preserved for analysis of biomarkers. Fish health indicators included splenic macrophage aggregates, lysozyme activity, and hispathological analysis of liver, kidney, and other tissues. Reproductive biomarkers included analysis of plasma concentrations of vitellogenin (vtg) and the sex steroid hormones 17-estradiol (E2) and 11-ketotestosterone (11- kt); and the histological determination of percent oocyte atresia (in female fish) and gonadal stage. Hepatic ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity was also measured. Composite samples of whole fish from each station were grouped by species and gender and analyzed for persistent organochlorine and elemental contaminants and for dioxin-like activity (TCDD-EQ) using the H4IIE rat hepatoma cell bioassay. Organochlorine and inorganic contaminant concentrations in fish were generally low relative to historical levels at most sites, but remained present at concentrations representing threats to piscivorous wildlife in some locations. Toxaphene and DDT (mostly as p

  13. Contamination characteristics, ecological risk and source identification of trace metals in sediments of the Le'an River (China).

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiyang; Chen, Ruihui; Teng, Yanguo; Wu, Jin

    2016-03-01

    Recognizing the pollution characteristics of trace metals in river sediments and targeting their potential sources are of key importance for proposing effective strategies to protect watershed ecosystem health. In this study, a comprehensive investigation was conducted to identify the contamination and risk characteristics of trace metals in sediments of Le'an River which is a main tributary of the largest freshwater lake in China, Poyang Lake. To attain this objective, several tools and models were considered. Geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor were used to understand the general pollution characteristic of trace metals in sediments. Discriminant analysis was applied to identify the spatial variability of sediment metals. Sediment quality guidelines and potential ecological risk index were employed for ecological risk evaluation. Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least square was proposed to extract potential pollution sources, as well as the application of Monte-Carlo simulation for uncertainty analysis of source identification. Results suggested that the sediments in Le'an River were considerably polluted by the investigated trace metals (Cd, Cr, As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni). Sediment concentrations of these metals showed significant spatial variations. The potential ecological risk lay in high level. Comparatively speaking, the metals of Cd, Cu and Hg were likely to result in more harmful effects. Mining activities and the application of fertilizers and agrochemicals were identified as the main anthropogenic sources. To protect the ecological system of Le'an River and Poyang Lake watershed, industrial mining and agricultural activities in this area should to be strictly regulated.

  14. Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the surrounding soils and surface sediments in Xiawangang River, Qingshuitang District.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Min; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Chang; Ma, Xiaoying; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Jiachao; Lu, Lunhui; Yu, Qian; Hu, Langping; Liu, Lifeng

    2013-01-01

    Xiawanggang River region is considered to be one of the most polluted areas in China due to its huge amount discharge of pollutants and accumulation for years. As it is one branch of Xiang River and the area downstream is Changsha city, the capital of Hunan Province, the ecological niche of Xiawangang River is very important. The pollution treatment in this area was emphasized in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan of Chinese government for Xiang River Water Environmental Pollution Control. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution and provide the base information in this region for The Twelfth Five-Year Plan, contents and fractions of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) covering both sediments and soils were analyzed to study their contamination state. Three different indexes were applied to assess the pollution extent. The results showed this area was severely polluted by the four heavy metals, and the total concentrations exceeded the Chinese environmental quality standard for soil, grade III, especially for Cd. Moreover, Cd, rated as being in high risk, had a high mobility as its great contents of exchangeable and carbonates fractions in spite of its relative low content. Regression analysis revealed clay could well explain the regression equation for Cd, Cu and Zn while pH and sand could significantly interpret the regression equation for Pb. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between Non-residual fraction and I(geo) for all the four metals. Correlation analysis showed four metals maybe had similar pollution sources.

  15. [Contamination and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and in Karst underground river catchment].

    PubMed

    Lan, Jia-Cheng; Sun, Yu-Chuan; Tian, Ping; Lu, Bing-Qing; Shi, Yang; Xu, Xin; Liang Zuo-Bing; Yang, Ping-Heng

    2014-10-01

    Water samples in Laolongdong underground river catchment were collected to determine the concentration, compositional profiles, and evaluate ecological risk of 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs were measured by GC/MS. The total concentrations of 16 PAH ranged from 81.5-8019 ng · L(-1) in underground river, 288.7-15,200 ng · L(-1) in karst springs, and 128.4-2,442 ng · L(-1) in surface water. Affected by waste water from Huangjueya town, concentrations of PAHs in underground river were higher than those in surface water and waste water from sinkhole. The PAHs profiles were dominated by 3 ring PAHs. There were differences of monthly variations of PAHs contents in the water, due to waste water, season and different characteristics of PAH. Surface water and waste water from sinkhole played an important role on contamination in the river. The levels of ecological risk were generally moderately polluted and heavily polluted according to all detected PAH compounds in the water.

  16. Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in the Surrounding Soils and Surface Sediments in Xiawangang River, Qingshuitang District

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Chang; Ma, Xiaoying; Chen, Ming; Zhang, Jiachao; Lu, Lunhui; Yu, Qian; Hu, Langping; Liu, Lifeng

    2013-01-01

    Xiawanggang River region is considered to be one of the most polluted areas in China due to its huge amount discharge of pollutants and accumulation for years. As it is one branch of Xiang River and the area downstream is Changsha city, the capital of Hunan Province, the ecological niche of Xiawangang River is very important. The pollution treatment in this area was emphasized in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan of Chinese government for Xiang River Water Environmental Pollution Control. In order to assess the heavy metal pollution and provide the base information in this region for The Twelfth Five-Year Plan, contents and fractions of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) covering both sediments and soils were analyzed to study their contamination state. Three different indexes were applied to assess the pollution extent. The results showed this area was severely polluted by the four heavy metals, and the total concentrations exceeded the Chinese environmental quality standard for soil, grade III, especially for Cd. Moreover, Cd, rated as being in high risk, had a high mobility as its great contents of exchangeable and carbonates fractions in spite of its relative low content. Regression analysis revealed clay could well explain the regression equation for Cd, Cu and Zn while pH and sand could significantly interpret the regression equation for Pb. Moreover, there was a significant correlation between Non-residual fraction and Igeo for all the four metals. Correlation analysis showed four metals maybe had similar pollution sources. PMID:23951103

  17. Bioaccumulation of metals by Hyalella azteca exposed to contaminated sediments from the upper Clark Fork River, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Ingersoll, C.G.; Brumbaugh, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Kemble, N.E. . Midwest Science Center)

    1994-12-01

    Macroinvertebrate contaminated with metals in the Clark Fork River of Montana have been demonstrated to be a potentially toxic component in the diet of trout. Because sediment was the suspected source of metals to these invertebrates, bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from sediment was evaluated by exposing the amphipod Hyalella azteca for 28 d in the laboratory to samples of sediment collected from depositional areas of the Clark Fork River. Benthic invertebrates collected from riffles adjacent to the depositional areas were also analyzed for metals. The pattern of metal accumulation between laboratory-exposed and field-collected animals was similar; however, the concentrations of metals in laboratory-exposed amphipods were often 50 to 75% less than were the concentrations of metals in the field-collected invertebrates. These findings indicate that sediment is a significant source of metals to invertebrates in the Clark Fork River. Additional studies should be conducted to determine threshold concentrations for effects of dietary metals on fish. Long-term monitoring of the river should include sampling benthic invertebrates for metal accumulation.

  18. Bioaccumulation of metals by Hyalella azteca exposed to contaminated sediments from the upper Clark Fork River, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dwyer, F. James; Kemble, Nile E.

    1994-01-01

    Macroinvertebrates contaminated with metals in the Clark Fork River of Montana have been demonstrated to be a potentially toxic component in the diet of trout Because sediment was the suspected source of metals to these invertebrates, bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn from sediment was evaluated by exposing the amphipod Hyalella azteca for 28 d in the laboratory to samples of sediment collected from depositional areas of the Clark Fork River Benthic invertebrates collected from riffles adjacent to the depositional areas were also analyzed for metals The pattern of metal accumulation between laboratory-exposed and field-collected animals was similar, however, the concentrations of metals in laboratory exposed amphipods were often 50 to 75% less than were the concentrations of metals in the field collected invertebrates These findings indicate that sediment is a significant source of metals to invertebrates in the Clark Fork River Additional studies should be conducted to determine threshold concentrations for effects of dietary metals on fish Long-term monitoring of the river should include sampling benthic invertebrates for metal accumulation.

  19. Health risks of metals in contaminated farmland soils and spring wheat irrigated with Yellow River water in Baotou, China.

    PubMed

    Si, Wantong; Liu, Jumei; Cai, Lu; Jiang, Haiming; Zheng, Chunli; He, Xiaoying; Wang, Jianying; Zhang, Xuefeng

    2015-02-01

    The consumption of water and food crops contaminated with metals is a major food chain route for human exposure. We investigated the health risks of metals in Yellow River (YR) water, farmland soil and spring wheat in the Baotou region, northern China. Data indicated that long-term irrigation with polluted YR water led to metal accumulation in local farmland soil and spring wheat. The consumption of YR water and spring wheat in Baotou region can cause adverse health effects to local people, specifically because of Hg, Pb, and Se in YR water and Cu, Zn, Cd, and Mn in spring wheat. The integrative risk of various metals depends mainly on the spring wheat intake. Current results emphasized the need for routine monitoring and management in order to avoid contamination of YR water and spring wheat from the wastewater irrigation system in Baotou region.

  20. Environmental Assessment for the off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry from the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared by the Department of Energy (DOE) to assess the potential environmental impacts of off-site commercial cleaning of lead and asbestos contaminated laundry generated at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. The proposed action constitutes an addition to the already-implemented action of sending controlled and routine SRS laundry to an off-site commercial facility for cleaning. This already-implemented action was evaluated in a previous EA (i.e., DOE/EA-0990; DOE, 1994) prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  1. Evaluation of pepper mild mottle virus, human picobirnavirus and Torque teno virus as indicators of fecal contamination in river water.

    PubMed

    Hamza, Ibrahim Ahmed; Jurzik, Lars; Uberla, Klaus; Wilhelm, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A reliable indicator is needed to predict and reduce the risk of infection associated with fecal contamination of surface water. Since Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV), human picobirnaviruses (hPBV) and Torque teno virus (TTV) have been detected at substantial levels in human feces, we explored whether detection of nucleic acids of these viruses is a suitable indicator of fecal contamination in river water. From September 2008 to December 2009, water samples (n = 111) were collected from the Ruhr and Rhine rivers and from the influents and effluents of a wastewater plant (n = 12). Quantitative real time (RT-) PCR was used to determine the abundance of PMMoV, hPBV, and TTV in comparison to human adenoviruses (HAdV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV) that are frequently detected in surface water and were previously proposed as indicators. While PMMoV was detected in all river water samples, the other viruses were detected less frequently. The concentration of the studied viruses in positive river water ranged from 5 × 10(1) to 1.07 × 10(6) genome equivalents per liter (gen.equ./l). All wastewater samples were positive for PMMoV, HAdV and HPyV, while TTV and hPBV were detected in 6/12 and 3/12 of samples, respectively. To determine if PMMoV is specific to human-derived fecal waste, fecal samples from human (n = 20) and animal (n = 53) were also tested. In contrast to the ubiquity of PMMoV in human feces (19/20) the virus was only detected at low concentration in a minority of the animal fecal samples tested (7/15 from chicken, 1/10 from Geese and 1/6 from cows). Therefore, in this setting TTV and hPBV do not seem to be suitable indicators of fecal contamination in water. Whereas, the high excretion level and dissemination of PMMoV in human sewage and river water suggest that PMMoV could be a promising indicator of fecal pollution in surface water.

  2. Emerging and Conventional Contaminants Discharging into the Dnieper River, Kyiv, Ukraine.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dnieper River runs through the center of Ukraine from Belarus and Russia in the north and heads south emptying into the Black Sea. Along the way, the Dnieper River passes by several large Ukrainian cities including Chornobyl, the capital Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk, and Kherson, an...

  3. Emerging and Conventional Contaminants Discharging into the Dnieper River, Kyiv, Ukraine

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dnieper River runs through the center of Ukraine from Belarus and Russia in the north and empties into the Black Sea in the south. En-route, the Dnieper River passes through several large Ukrainian cities including Chornobyl, the capital Kyiv, Dnipropetrovsk, and Kherson, an...

  4. CONNECTICUT RIVER FISH TISSUE CONTAMINANT STUDY (2000): ECOLOGICAL AND HUMAN HEALTH RISK SCREENING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The study targeted commonly caught recreational fish, as well as other fish that are important in the river food chain. Smallmouth bass, white suckers and yellow perch were collected during 2000 from the mainstem of the Connecticut River and composite samples were analyzed for t...

  5. High levels of mercury contamination in multiple media of the Carson River drainage basin of Nevada: implications for risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Gustin, M S; Taylor, G E; Leonard, T L

    1994-01-01

    Approximately 5.5 x 109 g (4.0 x 105) of mercury was discharged into the Carson River Drainage Basin of west-central Nevada during processing of the gold- and silver-rich Comstock ore in the late 1800s. For the past 13 decades, mercury has been redistributed throughout 500 km2 of the basin, and concentrations are some of the highest reported values in North America. This article documents the concentrations of mercury in the air, water, and substrate at both contaminated and noncontaminated sites within the basin and discusses the implications for risk assessment. At contaminated areas, the range of mercury concentrations are as follows: mill tailings, 3-1610 micrograms/g; unfiltered reservoir water, 53-591 ng/l; atmospheric vapor, 2-294 ng/m3. These values are three to five orders of magnitude greater than natural background. In all media at contaminated sites, concentrations are spatially variable, and air and water mercury concentrations vary temporally. The study are in situated in a natural mercuriferous belt, and regional background mercury concentrations in all environmental media are higher than values typically cited for natural background. As a mercury-contaminated site in North America, the Carson River Drainage Basin is unusual for a number of reasons, including its location in a natural mercuriferous belt, high and sustained levels of anthropogenic mercury inputs, long exposure time, aridity of the climate, and the riparian setting in an arid landscape, where biological activity is concentrated in the same areas that contain high levels of mercury in multiple media. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 4. Figure 4. PMID:9657709

  6. Assessing cadmium and vanadium accumulation using diffusive gradient in thin-films (DGT) and phytoplankton in the Churchill River estuary, Manitoba.

    PubMed

    Mangal, V; Zhu, Y; Shi, Y X; Guéguen, C

    2016-11-01

    Diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) and phytoplankton communities were evaluated for the measurement of Cd and V at environmentally relevant concentrations in laboratory settings and in the Churchill River estuary (Manitoba, Canada) during an annual spring melt. Despite rapid changes in hydrology and water quality, DGT samplers and intracellular Cd and V concentrations were positively correlated (0.79 < r(2) < 0.99), suggesting comparable accumulation trends between both DGT-labile and intracellular monitoring techniques. The largest accumulated concentrations of both Cd and V by DGT and phytoplankton accumulation methods were found later into the river discharge period. In controlled settings, accumulated Cd and V concentrations by the diatom Attheya septentrionalis displayed a strong correlation with metals accumulated by DGTs (r(2) > 0.99). Principal component analysis (PCA) reinforced similarities between both metal monitoring techniques and assessed how changing environmental variables during the river discharge period influenced each monitoring technique. Cd accumulation was influenced by DOC concentrations and protein-like DOM whereas ionic strength (i.e. conductivity) and humic-like DOM influenced V accumulation. The present findings suggest that (1) DGT is a versatile tool for monitoring bioaccumulation of Cd and V in highly dynamic environmental systems and (2) DOC concentration, DOM composition, conductivity, pH, and river discharge influence the bioavailability of Cd and V in estuarine and riverine waters.

  7. Characterization of the geology and contaminant distribution at the six phase heating demonstration site at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Eddy-Dilek, C.A.; Jarosch, T.R.; Keenan, M.A.; Parker, W.H.; Poppy, S.P.; Simmons, J.L.

    1994-06-30

    The objective of the Volatile Organic Compounds in Non-arid Soils Integrated Demonstration at the Savannah River Site is to evaluate innovative remediation, characterization, and monitoring systems to facilitate restoration of contaminated sites. The focus of the third phase of the Integrated Demonstration is to evaluate the use of heating technologies, both radio frequency and ohmic heating, to enhance the removal of contamination from clay layers. This report documents characterization data collected in support of the ohmic heating demonstration performed by researchers from PNL. The data presented and discussed in this report include a general description of the site including location of piezometers and sensors installed to monitor the remedial process, and detailed geologic cross sections of the study site, sampling and analysis procedures for sediment samples, tabulations of moisture and VOC content of the sediments, models of the distribution of contamination before and after the test, and a comparison of the volume estimations of contaminated material before and after the test. The results show that the heating process was successful in mobilizing and removing solvent from the heated interval.

  8. Tissue mercury concentrations and adrenocortical responses of female big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) near a contaminated river.

    PubMed

    Wada, Haruka; Yates, David E; Evers, David C; Taylor, Robert J; Hopkins, William A

    2010-10-01

    Much of the research on mercury (Hg) in wild vertebrates has focused on piscivores and other animals at high trophic levels. However, recent studies indicated that insectivorous terrestrial vertebrates may also be at risk. In the present study, we examined blood and fur Hg concentrations as well as the adrenocortical responses of insectivorous big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) near the Hg-contaminated South River, VA and a nearby reference area. Baseline glucocorticoids and adrenocortical responses to handling have been widely used to assess the influence of environmental stressors because plasma glucocorticoids rise in response to various physical, psychological, and physiological challenges. Female bats captured at the contaminated site had 2.6 times higher blood and fur Hg concentrations than those captured at the reference site (blood: 0.11 vs. 0.04 μg/g wet weight; fur: 28.0 vs. 10.9 μg/g fresh weight). Fur Hg concentrations at the contaminated site were higher than most wild omnivorous and carnivorous mammals reported in the literature. Although fur and blood Hg concentrations were tightly correlated, fur Hg concentrations averaged 260 times higher than concentrations in blood. This suggests that fur may be an important depuration route for bats, just as it is in other mammals. Despite the high Hg concentrations in bat tissue, we did not observe any site difference in adrenocortical responses. Our results suggest that the bats at the contaminated site were exposed to Hg concentrations below those causing adverse effects on their adrenal axis.

  9. Environmental contaminants in great blue herons (Ardea herodias) from the lower Columbia and Willamette Rivers, Oregon and Washington, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, C.M.; Anthony, R.G.

    1999-12-01

    Great blue heron (Ardea herodias) eggs and prey items were collected from six colonies in Oregon and Washington, USA, during 1994 to 1995. Contaminant concentrations, reproductive success, and biomagnification factors were determined and effects of residue levels were measured by H4IIE rat hepatoma bioassays. Mean residue concentrations in heron eggs and prey items were generally low. However, elevated concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in eggs and prey from Ross Island on the Willamette River. Biomagnification factors varied among sites. Sites were not significantly different in H4IIE tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), although the TCDD-EQ for Karlson Island was 9 to 20 times greater than that of any other site. Large differences existed between toxic equivalents calculated from egg residue concentrations and TCDD-EQs, which indicated nonadditive interactions among the compounds. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents and nest failure were positively correlated with TCDD concentration. Fledging and reproductive rates were similar to those determined for healthy heron populations, however, indicating that any adverse effects were occurring at the individual level and not at the colony level. Their results support the use of great blue herons as a biomonitor for contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Their relatively low sensitivity to organochlorine contaminants and high trophic position allows contaminant accumulation and biomagnification without immediate adverse effects that are often seen in other, more sensitive species.

  10. Watershed scale fungal community characterization along a pH gradient in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Jasrotia, Puja; Green, Stefan; Canion, Andy; Overholt, Will; Prakash, Om; Wafula, Dennis; Hubbard, Daniela; Watson, David B; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Brooks, Scott C; Kostka,

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize fungal communities in a subsurface environment co-contaminated with uranium and nitrate at the watershed scale, and to determine the potential contribution of fungi to contaminant transformation (nitrate attenuation). The abundance, distribution and diversity of fungi in subsurface groundwater samples were determined using quantitative and semi-quantitative molecular techniques, including quantitative PCR of eukaryotic SSU rRNA genes and pyrosequencing of fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. Potential bacterial and fungal denitrification was assessed in sediment-groundwater slurries amended with antimicrobial compounds and in fungal pure cultures isolated from subsurface. Our results demonstrate that subsurface fungal communities are dominated by members of the phylum Ascomycota, and a pronounced shift in fungal community composition occurs across the groundwater pH gradient at the field site, with lower diversity observed under acidic (pH < 4.5) conditions. Fungal isolates recovered from subsurface sediments were shown to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide, including cultures of the genus Coniochaeta that were detected in abundance in pyrosequence libraries of site groundwater samples. Denitrifying fungal isolates recovered from the site were classified, and found to be distributed broadly within the phylum Ascomycota, and within a single genus within the Basidiomycota. Potential denitrification rate assays with sediment-groundwater slurries showed the potential for subsurface fungi to reduce nitrate to nitrous oxide under in situ acidic pH conditions.

  11. Sources and chronology of nitrate contamination in spring waters, Suwannee River basin, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Brian G.; Hornsby, H.D.; Bohlke, J.F.; Mokray, M.F.

    1999-01-01

    A multi-tracer approach, which consisted of analyzing water samples for n aturally occurring chemical and isotopic indicators, was used to better understand sources and chronology of nitrate contamination in spring wate rs discharging to the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers in northern Florida. Dur ing 1997 and 1998, as part of a cooperative study between the Suwannee River Water Management District and the U.S. Geological Survey, water samples were collected and analyzed from 24 springs and two wells for major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and selected environmental isotopes [18O/16O, D/H, 13C/12C, 15N/14N]. To better understand when nitrate entered the ground-water system, water samples were analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs; CCl3F, CCl2F2, and C2Cl3F3) and tritium (3H); in this way, the apparent ages and residence times of spring waters and water from shallow zones in the Upper Floridan aquifer were determined. In addition to information obtained from the use of isotopic and other chemical tracers, information on changes in land-use activities in the basin during 1954-97 were used to estimate nitrogen inputs from nonpoint sources for five counties in the basin. Changes in nitrate concentrations in spring waters with time were compared with estimated nitrogen inputs for Lafayette and Suwannee Counties. Agricultural activities [cropland farming, animal farming operations (beef and dairy cows, poultry, and swine)] along with atmospheric deposition have contributed large quantities of nitrogen to ground water in the Suwannee River Basin in northern Florida. Changes in agricultural land use during the past 40 years in Alachua, Columbia, Gilchrist, Lafayette, and Suwannee Counties have contributed variable amounts of nitrogen to the ground-water system. During 1955-97, total estimated nitrogen from all nonpoint sources (fertilizers, animal wastes, atmospheric deposition, and septic tanks) increased continuously in Gilchrist and Lafayette Counties. In

  12. Organochlorine contaminants and Tree Swallows along the Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L.; Melancon, M.J.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    Green Bay, Wisconsin is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) however, whether these contaminants affect reproduction in insectivorous birds is unknown. Tree Swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, are secondary cavity nesters that will nest in boxes and tolerate handling. Because Tree Swallows are aquatic insectivores, residues in their tissues are primarily indicative of contaminants in sediments. We studied swallows at two contaminated and two reference colonies in 1993, 1994, and 1995 in the Green Bay area. Swallows at the two contaminated sites had significantly higher PCB levels in eggs when compared to two reference sites. Eggs from clutches that contained dead embryos had higher PCB concentrations than eggs from clutches where all eggs hatched; there were no contaminant effects overall on reproduction, however. Twelve-day-old nestlings at the two contaminated sites accumulated significantly more PCBs than did nestlings at the reference sites demonstrating that PCB contamination came from the local area. The PCB congener profile in 12-day-old nestlings mirrored the congener profile in their food.

  13. Organochlorine contaminants and Tree Swallows along the Fox River and Green Bay, Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, Christine M.; Custer, T.W.; Allen, P.D.; Stromborg, K.L.; Melancon, M.J.; Adams, N.J.; Slotow, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    Green Bay, Wisconsin is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) however, whether these contaminants affect reproduction in insectivorous birds is unknown. Tree Swallows, Tachycineta bicolor, are secondary cavity nesters that will nest in boxes and tolerate handling. Because Tree Swallows are aquatic insectivores, residues in their tissues are primarily indicative of contaminants in sediments. We studied swallows at two contaminated and two reference colonies in 1993, 1994, and 1995 in the Green Bay area. Swallows at the two contaminated sites had significantly higher PCB levels in eggs when compared to two reference sites. Eggs from clutches that contained dead embryos had higher PCB concentrations than eggs from clutches where all eggs hatched; there were no contaminant effects overall on reproduction, however. Twelve-day-old nestlings at the two contaminated sites accumulated significantly more PCBs than did nestlings at the reference sites demonstrating that PCB contamination came from the local area. The PCB congener profile in 12-day-old nestlings mirrored the congener profile in their food.

  14. Herbicide transport in rivers: Importance of hydrology and geochemistry in nonpoint-source contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squillace, P.J.; Thurman, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    Alachlor, atrazine, cyanazine, metolachlor, and metribuzin were measured at six sites during 1984 and 1985 in large subbasins within the Cedar River, IA. A computer model separated the Cedar River discharge hydrograph into groundwater and overland-flow components. The concentration of herbicides in the river when groundwater was the major flow component was less than 1.0 μg/L and averaged 0.2 μg/L. The maximum concentrations of herbicides occurred when overland flow was the major component of river discharge, exceeding 50 pg/L for total herbicides. About 6% of the annual river load of atrazine was transported with the groundwater component, while 94% was transported with overland flow. From 1.5 to 5% of the atrazine applied during the year was transported from the basin. Atrazine concentrations in the river in- creased according to the discharge divided by the drainage area. This correlation indicates that rivers with large normalized 2-year peak flows have the potential to transport large concentrations of herbicides. A diagrammatic model of nonpoint-source transport of herbicides was developed that suggests that sorbed transport from fields occurs during episodes of overland flow with rapid dissolution of herbicides downstream. 

  15. Contaminants of emerging concern in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin, Washington, 2008-11

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Moran, Patrick W.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Sevigny, Jennifer M.; Pope, Judy M.

    2014-01-01

    A series of discrete water-quality samples were collected in the lower Stillaguamish River Basin near the city of Arlington, Washington, through a partnership with the Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians. These samples included surface waters of the Stillaguamish River, adjacent tributary streams, and paired inflow and outflow sampling at three wastewater treatment plants in the lower river basin. Chemical analysis of these samples focused on chemicals of emerging concern, including wastewater compounds, human-health pharmaceuticals, steroidal hormones, and halogenated organic compounds on solids and sediment. This report presents the methods used and data results from the chemical analysis of these samples

  16. Modeling the influence of rainfall gradients on discharge, bedrock erodibility, and river profile evolution, with application to the Big Island, Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianwei; Gasparini, Nicole M.; Johnson, Joel P. L.; Murphy, Brendan P.

    2014-06-01

    Motivated by convex-concave bedrock river profiles developed across a climate gradient on the wetside of the Kohala Peninsula of the Big Island of Hawai'i, we numerically model how rainfall gradients may influence longitudinal fluvial incision patterns. First, we model transient profile adjustment with two tectonic boundary conditions: subsidence and uplift. In this generalized analysis, we assume that rainfall gradients only influence incision by modifying the relation between upstream drainage area and local discharge. Using a detachment-limited model, downstream increases in rainfall lead to profile convexities during transient adjustment in both tectonic settings, and this is the opposite of the predicted increase in profile concavity that would develop in a steady state uplifting profile. A transport-limited erosion model develops only concave channel profiles without clear signatures of the rainfall pattern. Second, we model the development of convex-concave transient profiles and incision patterns on Kohala using a detachment-limited model. If rainfall gradients only influence incision through the local discharge, reasonable rainfall gradients can only develop channel convexities that are much smaller than those observed. Instead, we hypothesize that local bedrock erodibility increases with the degree of rainfall-dependent chemical weathering. When local erodibility is assumed to scale with local rainfall rate, the model can produce convex-concave profiles similar to those observed in Kohala. Our results suggest that changes in local bedrock erodibility due to local climate-dependent weathering may be an important mechanism by which climate influences landscape form and rates of evolution. This hypothesis requires further testing in this study area and beyond.

  17. Determination of arsenic species in edible periwinkles (Littorina littorea) by HPLC-ICPMS and XAS along a contamination gradient.

    PubMed

    Whaley-Martin, K J; Koch, I; Reimer, K J

    2013-07-01

    Arsenic is naturally found in the tissues of marine animals, usually as the non-toxic arsenical arsenobetaine, but exposure to elevated arsenic concentrations in the environment may alter the arsenic species distribution within tissues of the organism. This study examined the arsenic species in the tissues of the marine periwinkle (Littorina littorea) along an arsenic concentration gradient in the sediment. The arsenicals in L. littorea were examined using the complementary analytical methods high performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICPMS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Total arsenic concentrations in the periwinkle tissues ranged from 56 to 840 mg·kg(-1) dry weight (equivalent to 13 to 190 mg·kg(-1) wet weight). Inorganic arsenicals were found to be positively correlated with total arsenic concentrations (R(2)=0.993) and reached 600 mg·kg(-1) dry weight, the highest reported to date in marine organisms. These high inorg