Science.gov

Sample records for contemporary timber architecture

  1. Learning Outcomes in Affective Domain within Contemporary Architectural Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savic, Marko; Kashef, Mohamad

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary architectural education has shifted from the traditional focus on providing students with specific knowledge and skill sets or "inputs" to outcome based, student-centred educational approach. Within the outcome based model, students' performance is assessed against measureable objectives that relate acquired knowledge…

  2. Strontium isotopes reveal distant sources of architectural timber in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    English, N.B.; Betancourt, J.L.; Dean, J.S.; Quade, Jay

    2001-01-01

    Between A.D. 900 and 1150, more than 200,000 conifer trees were used to build the prehistoric great houses of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, in what is now a treeless landscape. More than one-fifth of these timbers were spruce (Picea) or fir (Abies) that were hand-carried from isolated mountaintops 75-100 km away. Because strontium from local dust, water, and underlying bedrock is incorporated by trees, specific logging sites can be identified by comparing 87Sr/86Sr ratios in construction beams from different ruins and building periods to ratios in living trees from the surrounding mountains. 87Sr/86Sr ratios show that the beams came from both the Chuska and San Mateo (Mount Taylor) mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, which are equally close. Incorporation of logs from two sources in the same room, great house, and year suggest stockpiling and intercommunity collaboration at Chaco Canyon. The use of trees from both the Chuska and San Mateo mountains, but not from the San Pedro Mountains, as early as A.D. 974 suggests that selection of timber sources was driven more by regional socioeconomic ties than by a simple model of resource depletion with distance and time.

  3. Optimization of Forward Wave Modeling on Contemporary HPC Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, Jens; Micikevicius, Paulius; Williams, Samuel

    2012-07-20

    Reverse Time Migration (RTM) is one of the main approaches in the seismic processing industry for imaging the subsurface structure of the Earth. While RTM provides qualitative advantages over its predecessors, it has a high computational cost warranting implementation on HPC architectures. We focus on three progressively more complex kernels extracted from RTM: for isotropic (ISO), vertical transverse isotropic (VTI) and tilted transverse isotropic (TTI) media. In this work, we examine performance optimization of forward wave modeling, which describes the computational kernels used in RTM, on emerging multi- and manycore processors and introduce a novel common subexpression elimination optimization for TTI kernels. We compare attained performance and energy efficiency in both the single-node and distributed memory environments in order to satisfy industry’s demands for fidelity, performance, and energy efficiency. Moreover, we discuss the interplay between architecture (chip and system) and optimizations (both on-node computation) highlighting the importance of NUMA-aware approaches to MPI communication. Ultimately, our results show we can improve CPU energy efficiency by more than 10× on Magny Cours nodes while acceleration via multiple GPUs can surpass the energy-efficient Intel Sandy Bridge by as much as 3.6×.

  4. PCM-enhanced lime plasters for vernacular and contemporary architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodoridou, Magdalini; Kyriakou, Loucas; Ioannou, Ioannis

    2016-04-01

    have significantly lower (by 55%) thermal conductivity and increased (by almost 20%) specific heat capacity at 90 days after laboratory production. At the same time, even though porosity values are higher for the PCM-enhanced renders, compared to the reference mixtures, their capillary absorption coefficient is significantly reduced (up to 60%). This is of great importance in the case of renders and may well be an indication for better expected durability in the long-term. Regarding the mechanical properties of the laboratory composites, PCM addition seems to have a negative effect on the hydraulic plasters. In contrast, when PCM is added to the hydrated lime-based plaster, no change is observed for the flexural strength, while the compressive strength is notably improved (up to 36%). The apparently improved properties of the PCM-enhanced plasters render them particularly appropriate for application in southern European climatic conditions. Due to their compatibility with traditional substrate materials (e.g. natural stone), the aforementioned composites may be used not only in new contemporary structures, but also for the renovation and retrofitting of existing buildings. The lime-based nature of their matrix and their physico-mechanical properties further extend their applicability to listed and monumental buildings.

  5. Learning Methods for Efficient Adoption of Contemporary Technologies in Architectural Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdavinejad, Mohammadjavad; Dehghani, Sohaib; Shahsavari, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between technology and history is one of the most significant issues in achieving an efficient and progressive architecture in any era. This is a concept which stems from lesson of traditional architecture of Iran. Architecture as a part of art, has permanently been transforming just like a living organism. In fact, it has been…

  6. The Strontium Fingerprint and Footprint: Using 87Sr/86Sr to Find the Sources and Range of Architectural Timber Acquisition of Great House Construction at Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, N. B.; Reynolds, A. C.; Quade, J.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2006-12-01

    We describe the spatial and temporal patterns of timber acquisition by great house builders in Chaco Canyon, New Mexico. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios from annually-dated, architectural logs in 10^{th} to 12^{th} century structures are compared to the 87Sr/86Sr of modern tree stands from the surrounding mountains. Although not a stable isotope system, the long half-life of the 87Sr parent (87Rb, t1/2 = 48.8 Ga) yields a stable isotope system on the timescales used to determine the geographic origin of ecosystem resources. The small mass difference among strontium's isotopes eliminates measurable biologic or kinetic fractionation at earth surface conditions. Strontium tracer studies, however, do require distinct end-member ratios to be feasible. Strontium isotopes, alone or in combination with other isotopes, provide a simple way to study and trace the geographic origin of ecosystem resources. Over the 150 km-wide Chaco Basin, 87Sr/86Sr ratios of modern trees range from 0.7055 to 0.7192. 87Sr/86Sr ratios from this and other studies show that during great house construction Chaco Canyon was provisioned with plant materials that came from more than 75 km away in all directions. This includes (1) corn (Zea mays) grown on the eastern flanks of the Chuska Mountains and floodplain of the San Juan River to the west and north, (2) spruce (Picea sp.) and fir (Abies sp.) architectural beams from the high crests of the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains to the west and south, and (3) ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from the low slopes of the La Platas and San Juan Mountains to the north, the San Pedro Mountains to the east, the Chuska and San Mateo Mountains and nearby mesas. There are no systematic patterns in spruce/fir or ponderosa provenance by great house (Pueblo Bonito, Chetro Ketl, Pueblo del Arroyo) or by time, suggesting the use of stockpiles from a few preferred sources from the beginning of large scale construction in or around Chaco Canyon. This is contrary to the view that

  7. Understanding Portability of a High-Level Programming Model on Contemporary Heterogeneous Architectures

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sabne, Amit J.; Sakdhnagool, Putt; Lee, Seyong; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-13

    Accelerator-based heterogeneous computing is gaining momentum in the high-performance computing arena. However, the increased complexity of heterogeneous architectures demands more generic, high-level programming models. OpenACC is one such attempt to tackle this problem. Although the abstraction provided by OpenACC offers productivity, it raises questions concerning both functional and performance portability. In this article, the authors propose HeteroIR, a high-level, architecture-independent intermediate representation, to map high-level programming models, such as OpenACC, to heterogeneous architectures. They present a compiler approach that translates OpenACC programs into HeteroIR and accelerator kernels to obtain OpenACC functional portability. They then evaluate the performance portability obtained bymore » OpenACC with their approach on 12 OpenACC programs on Nvidia CUDA, AMD GCN, and Intel Xeon Phi architectures. They study the effects of various compiler optimizations and OpenACC program settings on these architectures to provide insights into the achieved performance portability.« less

  8. Understanding Portability of a High-Level Programming Model on Contemporary Heterogeneous Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Sabne, Amit J.; Sakdhnagool, Putt; Lee, Seyong; Vetter, Jeffrey S.

    2015-07-13

    Accelerator-based heterogeneous computing is gaining momentum in the high-performance computing arena. However, the increased complexity of heterogeneous architectures demands more generic, high-level programming models. OpenACC is one such attempt to tackle this problem. Although the abstraction provided by OpenACC offers productivity, it raises questions concerning both functional and performance portability. In this article, the authors propose HeteroIR, a high-level, architecture-independent intermediate representation, to map high-level programming models, such as OpenACC, to heterogeneous architectures. They present a compiler approach that translates OpenACC programs into HeteroIR and accelerator kernels to obtain OpenACC functional portability. They then evaluate the performance portability obtained by OpenACC with their approach on 12 OpenACC programs on Nvidia CUDA, AMD GCN, and Intel Xeon Phi architectures. They study the effects of various compiler optimizations and OpenACC program settings on these architectures to provide insights into the achieved performance portability.

  9. Utopia, University and Architecture: A Journey that Changed the Design of Contemporary Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvo-Sotelo, Pablo Campos

    2006-01-01

    In 1927, a group of advisors to King Alfonso XIII of Spain, led by the architect Modesto Lopez-Otero, set out for the United States and Canada. Previously, they had visited a number of European cities where they examined the medieval architectural form of some famous universities. Inspired by a Utopian vision, the journey to the New World studied…

  10. Historic timber skeleton structures and the local seismic culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostenaru, M.

    2009-04-01

    looked for an alternative explanation for the origins of this construction type. Two expressions of the type were closer analysed: the "gaiola pombalina" from Portugal and the Fachwerk from Germany, in both its forms: the northern and the southern German type. The "gaiola pombalina" building type will be presented in this contribution, together with options for contemporary restoration, given that the author had the opportunity to visit such a building site. The Fachwerk buildings are integrally out of timber skeleton in both their interior and exterior walls. Infill is done with adobe on basketry, masonry or wood planks. The southern subtype was the object of a detailed analysis of the author which resulted in a report for the World Housing Encyclopedia (www.world-housing.net, report #108/Switzerland), but it is the northern subtype which is interesting for the argumentative discourse in this presentation. These two subtypes are one placed in a seismic risk region, while the other is not. Common to the "gaiola pombalina" and the Northern subtype of Fachwerk is the inspiration from ship-like structures, as some authors (Cardoso et. al. 2004 and Lachner 1887) noted. In their most pure form, the Northern German subtype, Fachwerk buildings present a ship like structure in the way the consoles on which the upper floors are built are done. Also the "gaiola pombalina" was generated in areas with knowledge of building of ships. However, this is not true for some other locations where this type is spread, like for dhaji dewari in Nepal. So the explanation might have to be looked for in other aspects of local architecture, like the availability of timber resources. The half timbered type in all its regional varieties may be a result of using efficiently timber resources. It is the theory of the author that the use of timber in half timbered way is to be attributed to more than to the local seismic culture. It may be that the urban use, promulgated in codes like in Portugal and

  11. Pleistocene Aridification Cycles Shaped the Contemporary Genetic Architecture of Southern African Baboons

    PubMed Central

    Sithaldeen, Riashna; Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers; Bishop, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    Plio-Pleistocene environmental change influenced the evolutionary history of many animal lineages in Africa, highlighting key roles for both climate and tectonics in the evolution of Africa’s faunal diversity. Here, we explore diversification in the southern African chacma baboon Papio ursinus sensu lato and reveal a dominant role for increasingly arid landscapes during past glacial cycles in shaping contemporary genetic structure. Recent work on baboons (Papio spp.) supports complex lineage structuring with a dominant pulse of diversification occurring 1-2Ma, and yet the link to palaeoenvironmental change remains largely untested. Phylogeographic reconstruction based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data supports a scenario where chacma baboon populations were likely restricted to refugia during periods of regional cooling and drying through the Late Pleistocene. The two lineages of chacma baboon, ursinus and griseipes, are strongly geographically structured, and demographic reconstruction together with spatial analysis of genetic variation point to possible climate-driven isolating events where baboons may have retreated to more optimum conditions during cooler, drier periods. Our analysis highlights a period of continuous population growth beginning in the Middle to Late Pleistocene in both the ursinus and the PG2 griseipes lineages. All three clades identified in the study then enter a state of declining population size (Nef) through to the Holocene; this is particularly marked in the last 20,000 years, most likely coincident with the Last Glacial Maximum. The pattern recovered here conforms to expectations based on the dynamic regional climate trends in southern Africa through the Pleistocene and provides further support for complex patterns of diversification in the region’s biodiversity. PMID:25970269

  12. Pleistocene aridification cycles shaped the contemporary genetic architecture of Southern African baboons.

    PubMed

    Sithaldeen, Riashna; Ackermann, Rebecca Rogers; Bishop, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    Plio-Pleistocene environmental change influenced the evolutionary history of many animal lineages in Africa, highlighting key roles for both climate and tectonics in the evolution of Africa's faunal diversity. Here, we explore diversification in the southern African chacma baboon Papio ursinus sensu lato and reveal a dominant role for increasingly arid landscapes during past glacial cycles in shaping contemporary genetic structure. Recent work on baboons (Papio spp.) supports complex lineage structuring with a dominant pulse of diversification occurring 1-2Ma, and yet the link to palaeoenvironmental change remains largely untested. Phylogeographic reconstruction based on mitochondrial DNA sequence data supports a scenario where chacma baboon populations were likely restricted to refugia during periods of regional cooling and drying through the Late Pleistocene. The two lineages of chacma baboon, ursinus and griseipes, are strongly geographically structured, and demographic reconstruction together with spatial analysis of genetic variation point to possible climate-driven isolating events where baboons may have retreated to more optimum conditions during cooler, drier periods. Our analysis highlights a period of continuous population growth beginning in the Middle to Late Pleistocene in both the ursinus and the PG2 griseipes lineages. All three clades identified in the study then enter a state of declining population size (Nef) through to the Holocene; this is particularly marked in the last 20,000 years, most likely coincident with the Last Glacial Maximum. The pattern recovered here conforms to expectations based on the dynamic regional climate trends in southern Africa through the Pleistocene and provides further support for complex patterns of diversification in the region's biodiversity.

  13. Communication Characteristics of Large-Scale Scientific Applications for Contemporary Cluster Architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, J S; Mueller, F

    2002-02-13

    This paper examines the explicit communication characteristics of several sophisticated scientific applications; which, by themselves, constitute a representative suite of publicly available benchmarks for large cluster architectures. By focusing on the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and by using hardware counters on the microprocessor, we observe each application's inherent behavioral characteristics: point-to-point and collective communication, and floating-point operations. Furthermore, we explore the sensitivities of these characteristics to both problem size and number of processors. Our analysis reveals several striking similarities across, our diverse set of applications including the use of collective operations, especially those collectives with very small data payloads. We also highlight a trend of novel applications parting with regimented, static communication patterns in favor of dynamically evolving patterns, as evidenced by our experiments on applications that use implicit linear solvers and adaptive mesh refinement. Overall, our study contributes a better understanding of the requirements of current and emerging paradigms of scientific computing in terms of their computation and communication demands.

  14. Teacher Techniques: Exploring Timber Cruising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    A timber cruise is an estimate of the timber in a stand to see what kinds of trees are growing, how many are marketable, and whether good forest management practices are followed. The objectives of timber cruising are to secure information to recommend good management practices to the land owner and to determine the commercial value of the trees.…

  15. A Key for the Identification of Eighteen Common Timbers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Dichotomous key for 18 woods in common domestic and architectural use in Britain is provided. It is based upon structures visible with the naked eye and a hand-lens. Descriptions of the necessary anatomy and terminology are given. Timbers include yew, pine, spruce, oak, sweet chestnut, elm, ash, teak, cherry, walnut, mahogany, box, beech,…

  16. 59. Timbers from the lock are shown in one of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. Timbers from the lock are shown in one of two large, unused, waste water settling tanks (near the city of New Haven, at some distance from the lock site). All members have been laid up with contemporary separating ties between them to ensure complete wetting during storage. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  17. Spatially Characterizing Effective Timber Supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, J. K.; Sailor, J.

    1982-01-01

    The structure of a computer-oriented cartographic model for assessing roundwood supply for generation of base load electricity is discussed. The model provides an analytical procedure for coupling spatial information of harvesting economics and owner willingness to sell stumpages. Supply is characterized in terms of standing timber; of accessibility considering various harvesting and hauling factors; and of availability as affected by ownership and residential patterns. Factors governing accessibility to timber include effective harvesting distance to haulic roads as modified by barriers and slopes. Haul distance is expressed in units that take into account the relative ease of travel along various road types to a central processing facility. Areas of accessible timber are grouped into spatial units, termed 'timbersheds', of common access to particular haul road segments that belong to unique 'transport zones'. Timber availability considerations include size of ownership parcels, housing density and excluded areas. The analysis techniques are demonstrated for a cartographic data base in western Massachusetts.

  18. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  19. Public timber supply, market adjustments, and local economies: economic assumptions of the Northwest Forest Plan.

    PubMed

    Power, Thomas Michael

    2006-04-01

    The Northwest Forest Plan in the Pacific Northwest sought to stabilize local economies, including local employment and income, by stabilizing the flow of wood fiber from public forests. This is also a common forest management objective in other regions and countries. Because this economic strategy ignores basic market adjustments, it is likely to fail and to unnecessarily damage forest ecosystems. Application of basic economic principles on how markets operate significantly changes the apparent efficacy of efforts to manage local economies by managing timber supply. The emphasis on timber supply tends to ignore the dominant role that the demand for wood fiber and wood products, rather than wood-fiber supply, plays in determining levels of harvest and production. Contemporary economics indicates that markets tend to operate to offset reductions in wood-fiber supply. This significantly moderates the economic cost of reducing commercial timber harvest in the pursuit of environmental objectives. In addition, contemporary economic analysis indicates that the economic links between natural forests and local communities are much broader than simply the flow of commercially valuable logs to manufacturing facilities. At least in the United States, the flow of environmental services from natural forests has increasingly become an amenity that has drawn people and economic activity to forested areas. Attractive site-specific qualities, including those supported by natural forests, can potentially support local economic development even in the face of reduced timber harvests. These market-related adjustments partially explain the Northwest Forest Plan's overestimation of the expected regional impacts associated with reduced federal timber supply and the ineffectiveness of the plan's efforts to protect communities by stabilizing federal timber supply PMID:16903095

  20. Contemporary Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Gilbert, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue of "InSEA News" focuses on contemporary technology and art education. The articles are: "International Travel and Contemporary Technology" (Gilbert Clark); "Recollections and Visions for Electronic Computing in Art Education" (Guy Hubbard); "Using Technologies in Art Education: A Review of Current Issues" (Li-Fen Lu); "Reflections…

  1. Federal Management of Indian Timber lands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nafziger, Rich

    1976-01-01

    The relationship between American Indian timber lands and the Federal Government is discussed in terms of: (1) the economic importance of Indian timber; (2) the trust responsibility of the Federal Government; (3) the management responsibilities of the Federal Government as legislated by Congress; (4) the adequacy of Federal management of Indian…

  2. Community Stability and Timber-Dependent Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machlis, Gary E.; Force, Jo Ellen

    1988-01-01

    Critically evaluates the literature on timber-dependent communities. Examines methodological and theoretical concerns with concepts of community and resource-based economies. Suggests timber dependency may represent a special case of resource dependency and that study of forest-based communities can contribute to sociological knowledge of rural…

  3. Tree-mendous Timber Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Funded and administered by NASA, the Affiliated Research Center (ARC) program transfers geospatial technologies from the Space Agency and participating universities to commercial companies, non-profit and trade organizations, and tribal governments. The origins of the ARC program date back to 1988, when NASA's Stennis Space Center initiated the Visiting Investigator Program to bring industry closer to spatial information technologies. The success of this trial program led to an expansion into the ARC program, whose goal is to enhance competitiveness of U.S. industries through more efficient use of remote sensing and related technologies. NASA's ARC program served as the foundation for the development of International Hardwood Resources, which then grew into Falcon Informatics with the acquisition of a technology from a European software company and a change of business models. Doylestown, Pennsylvania-based Falcon Informatics is now a world-leading information services company that combines in-depth timber industry experience with state-of-the-art software to serve the needs of national governments, international paper companies, and timber-investment management organizations.

  4. Mexican Influence on Contemporary Art and Architecture of the United States: A Model Lesson for Cross Cultural Understanding at the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finer, Neal

    In this model lesson, secondary students test the hypothesis that Mexican achievements have widely influenced art and architecture in the United States as a result of the cultural flow and exchange between the two nations. The lesson is designed to be presented in two to three class periods. To determine the validity of the hypothesis, students…

  5. Microwave disinfestation of bulk timber.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Pedro Jose; Zona, Angela Tatiana; Sanchís, Raul; Balbastre, Juan Vicente; Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz, Eva Maria; Gordillo, Javier; de los Reyes, Elías

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a complete microwave system for bulk timber disinfestation is developed and tested. A commercial FEM simulator has been used to design the applicator, looking for structures providing uniform field distributions, which is a factor of capital relevance for a successful treatment. Special attention has also been given to the reduction of electromagnetic energy leakage. A dual polarized cylindrical applicator with a corrugated flange has been designed. The applicator has also been numerically tested emulating some real-life operating conditions. A prototype has been built using two low-cost magnetrons of 900 W and high power coaxial cables and it has been tested inside a shielded semianechoic chamber. The tests have been carried out in three stages: validation of the applicator design, determination of the lethal dosage as a function of the insect position and the maximum wood temperature allowed and statement of safe operation procedures. PMID:18351001

  6. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.32 Timber sale operating plan....

  7. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Noncompetitive sale of timber... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.85 Noncompetitive sale of timber. (a)...

  8. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.32 Timber sale operating plan....

  9. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction credit. Appraisal may also establish stumpage value as...

  10. 36 CFR 219.29 - Limitation on timber harvest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitation on timber harvest... Limitation on timber harvest. (a) Estimate of the limitation of timber harvest. The responsible official must estimate the amount of timber that can be sold annually in perpetuity on a sustained-yield basis...

  11. 43 CFR 5511.2-4 - Timber on withdrawn lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber on withdrawn lands. 5511.2-4... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.2-4 Timber on withdrawn lands. Sections 5511.2-1 to 5511.2-5 are inapplicable to timber...

  12. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Noncompetitive sale of timber... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.85 Noncompetitive sale of timber. (a) Forest officers may sell, within their authorization,...

  13. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Noncompetitive sale of timber... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Advertisement and Bids § 223.85 Noncompetitive sale of timber. (a)...

  14. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.32 Timber sale operating plan. Sale contracts with a term of 2 years or more shall...

  15. 36 CFR 219.29 - Limitation on timber harvest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitation on timber harvest... Limitation on timber harvest. (a) Estimate of the limitation of timber harvest. The responsible official must estimate the amount of timber that can be sold annually in perpetuity on a sustained-yield basis...

  16. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction...

  17. Nanoparticle-based concretes for the restoration of historical and contemporary buildings: a new way for CO2 reduction in architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greco, Enrico; Ciliberto, Enrico; Verdura, Pietro Damiano; Lo Giudice, Elio; Navarra, Giuseppe

    2016-05-01

    The production of the cement is a highly energy-intensive process and contributes to the release of pollutants into the atmosphere due to both the chemical reactions occurring in the kiln and, in most cases, the burning of fossil fuels for power production. So, the reduction of the cement content in a concrete would be indirectly useful to decrease the pollutant emissions in the atmosphere. The results of our investigation indicate that the replacement levels of cement by the 4 % of nanoparticles show a positive increasing of many physical and chemical properties allowing a relevant saving of cement content inside a concrete mixture. The compressive strengths, tensile splitting, propagations of ultrasonic pulses and water permeability tests were investigated on different models and realistic structures by the ISO EN rules. The influence of the nanoparticles on physical and mechanical properties was measured at different ripening times. Both silica and iron oxides make cement pastes harder and accelerated hydration processes of the cements. A remarkable decreasing in water permeability was also observed showing that nanoconcretes can be used as innovative restoration systems for cement-based historical and contemporary artefacts in order to avoid carbonation processes. Moreover, a smaller quantity of cement binder inside the mortar causes relevant positive effects on the reduction of carbon dioxide emission in the atmosphere.

  18. The biological restoration of central nervous system architecture and function: part 1-foundations and historical landmarks in contemporary stem cell biology.

    PubMed

    Farin, Azadeh; Liu, Charles Y; Elder, James B; Langmoen, Iver A; Apuzzo, Michael L J

    2009-01-01

    Since their discovery, stem cells have fascinated scientists with their ultimate potential: the ability to cure disease, repair altered physiology, and reverse neurological deficit. Stem cell science unquestionably promises to eliminate many of the tragic limitations contemporary medicine must acknowledge, and cloning may provide young cells for an aging population. Although it is widely believed that stem cells will transform the way medicine is practiced, therapeutic interventions using stem cell technology are still in their infancy. The 3 most common stem cell sources studied today are umbilical cord blood, bone marrow, and human embryos. Although cord blood is currently used to treat dozens of disorders and bone marrow stem cells have been used clinically since the 1960s, human embryonic stem cells have yet to be successfully applied to any disease. Undeniably, stem cell therapy has the potential to be one of the most powerful therapeutic options available. In this introductory article of a 5-part series on stem cells, we narrate the evolution of modern stem cell science, delineating major landmarks that will prove responsible for taking stem cell technology from the laboratory into revolutionary clinical applications: from the first milestone of identifying the mouse hematopoietic stem cell to the latest feats of producing pluripotent stem cells without embryos at all. In Part 2, we present the evidence demonstrating the certainty of adult mammalian neurogenesis; in Parts 3 and 4, we describe neurosurgical applications of stem cell technology; and in Part 5, we discuss the philosophical and ethical issues surrounding stem cell therapy, as well as future areas of exploration. PMID:19145154

  19. 26. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ROW OF TIMBER SUPPORT TOWERS BUILT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. INTERIOR VIEW SHOWING ROW OF TIMBER SUPPORT TOWERS BUILT AS TEMPORARY TRUSS REINFORCEMENT (NOTE STEEL STRUCTURES ATOP TIMBER BRACING) - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... merchantable dead timber will be marked for cutting in accordance with the land management plan, Master Plan, or forestry supplement thereto, and cutting will be limited to the timber so marked. The disposal... measures considered necessary to protect timber and young growth not marked for cutting will be...

  1. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... timber will be marked for cutting in accordance with the land management plan, Master Plan, or forestry supplement thereto, and cutting will be limited to the timber so marked. The disposal plan will contain... necessary to protect timber and young growth not marked for cutting will be specified. (f) Where...

  2. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... timber will be marked for cutting in accordance with the land management plan, Master Plan, or forestry supplement thereto, and cutting will be limited to the timber so marked. The disposal plan will contain... necessary to protect timber and young growth not marked for cutting will be specified. (f) Where...

  3. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS... forest products may be authorized on any National Forest System lands, except for: (1) Timber reserved by... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Where timber may be cut....

  4. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS... forest products may be authorized on any National Forest System lands, except for: (1) Timber reserved by... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Where timber may be cut....

  5. 36 CFR 292.46 - Timber harvesting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber harvesting activities... activities. (a) Other Lands. The standards and guidelines of this section apply to timber harvesting activities in the Other Lands category of the HCNRA. (1) Timber may be harvested only to protect and...

  6. 36 CFR 292.46 - Timber harvesting activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber harvesting activities... activities. (a) Other Lands. The standards and guidelines of this section apply to timber harvesting activities in the Other Lands category of the HCNRA. (1) Timber may be harvested only to protect and...

  7. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  8. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  9. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements, in road construction contracts resulting from a timber sale turnback....

  10. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223.14 Section 223.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.14 Where timber may be cut....

  11. 7. VIEW OF TRICOMPOSITE ROOF STRUCTURE. TOP CHORDS ARE TIMBER. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF TRICOMPOSITE ROOF STRUCTURE. TOP CHORDS ARE TIMBER. TENSION RODS (THIN METAL RODS EXTENDING DIAGONALLY FROM THE HORIZONTAL TIMBER BRACE) ARE WROUGHT IRON. SOLID CRUCIFORM SHAPED COMPRESSION MEMBERS EXTENDING DOWNWARD FROM THE TIMBER TOP CHORD ARE MADE OF CAST IRON - North Central Railroad, Baltimore Freight House, Guilford & Centre Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  12. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log or timber product means any product classifiable in Chapter 44 of the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of...

  13. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.504 Disposal plan for timber. The DE take appropriate action to assure that...

  14. 77 FR 64096 - Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Advertised Timber for Sale AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... of the currently approved information collection 0596-0066 Advertised Timber for Sale. DATES... INFORMATION: Title: Advertised Timber for Sale. OMB Number: 0596-0066. Expiration Date of Approval: April...

  15. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals; general—(1) Unauthorized cutting of timber-mineral and non-mineral lands. (i) The cutting or removing of the...

  16. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.14 Where timber may be cut. (a) The cutting of trees, portions of trees or...

  17. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24... Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of a... allowed for harvesting the estimated volume of timber purchased, shall be five years....

  18. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163... REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a) Unless..., contracts for the sale of timber from allotted, trust or restricted Indian forest land shall provide for...

  19. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24... Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of a... allowed for harvesting the estimated volume of timber purchased, shall be five years....

  20. 32 CFR 644.504 - Disposal plan for timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Disposal plan for timber. 644.504 Section 644.504... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.504 Disposal plan for timber. The DE take appropriate action to assure that construction...

  1. 75 FR 63419 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Timber Sales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 115 RIN 3245-AG14 Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Timber Sales AGENCY: Small Business... Surety Bond Guarantee Program rules to guarantee performance bonds for timber sale contracts awarded by... harvesting of timber on National Forest System lands in exchange for the payment of an agreed upon sum...

  2. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.1 Authority to sell timber. Trees, portions of trees, and other forest...

  3. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163... REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a) Unless..., contracts for the sale of timber from allotted, trust or restricted Indian forest land shall provide for...

  4. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  5. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... other than minimum stumpage rates and required deposits for slash disposal and road maintenance. As used... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction...

  6. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... other than minimum stumpage rates and required deposits for slash disposal and road maintenance. As used... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction...

  7. 36 CFR 223.62 - Timber purchaser road construction credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... other than minimum stumpage rates and required deposits for slash disposal and road maintenance. As used... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber purchaser road... PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.62 Timber purchaser road construction...

  8. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  9. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  10. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  11. 25 CFR 213.35 - Mines to be timbered properly.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mines to be timbered properly. 213.35 Section 213.35... LANDS OF MEMBERS OF FIVE CIVILIZED TRIBES, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING Operations § 213.35 Mines to be timbered properly. In mining operations the lessee shall keep the mine well and sufficiently timbered at all...

  12. 36 CFR 223.162 - Limitations on timber harvested from all other states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on timber..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Export and Substitution Restrictions § 223.162 Limitations on timber harvested from all other states. Unprocessed timber from...

  13. 43 CFR 5442.2 - Resale of timber from uncompleted contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Resale of timber from uncompleted contract... § 5442.2 Resale of timber from uncompleted contract. (a) This section applies to the sale of timber only when 50 percent or more of the timber included in the sale is timber remaining from an...

  14. Assessment of timber piles in Clallam County, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Arun K.; Tyler, Ross; Arnette, Clyde G.; Anthony, Ronald W.

    1998-03-01

    Timber bridges are very common in state and rural highway systems. According to the National Bridge Inventory (NBI), there are 41,743 timber bridges in the United States and another 42,102 bridges with timber decks as a part of the superstructure. As these bridges age, there is a critical need for reliable inspection and assessment methods for evaluating timber members. Under an FHWA mandate, these bridges also need to be evaluated for scour susceptibility. Knowledge of the length of timber piles supporting the bridge is a vital component in calculating scour resistance of a bridge. However, records of timber pile lengths are often nonexistent or incomplete due to the construction practices for timber piles. This paper presents nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques used for assessing timber piles on 10 bridges in Clallam County, Washington. Stress wave velocity and resistance drilling techniques were used to determine the presence of and quantify the extent of decay in the piles. A longitudinal stress wave technique was used for determining the length of timber piles. Determination of piles with decay aided in establishing maintenance and repair needs on the bridge substructures. Pile length estimates enabled Clallam County Road Department to determine the scour-susceptibility of these bridges.

  15. The economics of global timber markets. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sohngen, Brent; Mendelsohn, Robert; Sedjo, Roger

    1997-09-02

    This paper develops a global timber market model which captures how timber supply reacts to future predicted increases in the demand for timber. Higher future demand is expected to increase prices, reflecting greater land scarcity. Investments in growing timber are also expected to increase, expanding output and tempering the price response. A greater reliance on plantations in productive regions is predicted to allow large areas of natural forest in low valued regions to remain largely intact. The quantitative results are sensitive to the rate demand increases, the cost of plantations, and access costs of natural forests.

  16. 77 FR 65169 - Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public Interest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Forest Service Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public... needed. The Government benefits if defaulted timber sale contracts, mill closures, and bankruptcies can be avoided by granting extensions. Having numerous, economically viable, timber sale...

  17. Urinary arsenic levels in timber treatment operators.

    PubMed

    Gollop, B R; Glass, W I

    1979-01-10

    An investigation was carried out into arsenic levels in urine of timber treatment operators at six treatment plants in the Waikato-Rotorua area. The mean arsenic level for treatment operators was 222 migrograms/l compared with the normal range of 5-40 micrograms/l. In order to reduce the present significant exposure to treatment chemicals such as arsenic and chromium, it is recommended that the wood preservation industry take engineering measures to reduce the present air emissions and adopt strict work practices in hygiene and protective clothing in similar manner to those handling mercury and lead. PMID:285363

  18. 31 CFR 593.309 - Round log or timber product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Round log or timber product. 593.309 Section 593.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 593.309 Round log or timber product. The term round log...

  19. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS... on National Forest System lands may be sold for the purpose of achieving the policies set forth in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority to sell timber....

  20. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS... on National Forest System lands may be sold for the purpose of achieving the policies set forth in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to sell timber....

  1. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS... on National Forest System lands may be sold for the purpose of achieving the policies set forth in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authority to sell timber....

  2. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  3. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  4. 43 CFR 9269.3-5 - Timber management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber management. 9269.3-5 Section 9269.3-5 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Timber management. (a) Sales of forest products; general. (b) Non-sale disposals;...

  5. 36 CFR 223.14 - Where timber may be cut.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... forest products may be authorized on any National Forest System lands, except for: (1) Timber reserved by... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Where timber may be cut. 223.14 Section 223.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Noncompetitive sale of timber. 223.85 Section 223.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  7. 36 CFR 223.85 - Noncompetitive sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Noncompetitive sale of timber. 223.85 Section 223.85 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  8. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan. 223.32 Section 223.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  9. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan. 223.32 Section 223.32 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST...

  10. 43 CFR 1815.1 - Timber sale contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Timber sale contracts. 1815.1 Section 1815.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....1 Timber sale contracts....

  11. 43 CFR 1815.1 - Timber sale contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Timber sale contracts. 1815.1 Section 1815.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....1 Timber sale contracts....

  12. 43 CFR 1815.1 - Timber sale contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Timber sale contracts. 1815.1 Section 1815.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....1 Timber sale contracts....

  13. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 436.579 Opted timber sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted...

  14. 43 CFR 1815.1 - Timber sale contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber sale contracts. 1815.1 Section 1815.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT....1 Timber sale contracts....

  15. 43 CFR 9239.1 - Timber and other vegetative resources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Timber and other vegetative resources. 9239.1 Section 9239.1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF....1 Timber and other vegetative resources....

  16. The Timber Wolf: Hands-On Activities for Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Donald G.; Oh, Bobbie S.

    The focus of this manual is the timber wolf and its experience in the United States. The activities are designed to enable students to gain a factual understanding of the timber wolf, question any misinformation they have learned regarding wolves, and learn to appreciate the wolf as a creature of nature rather than fear it as a creature of fairy…

  17. 36 CFR 223.1 - Authority to sell timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authority to sell timber. 223.1 Section 223.1 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.1 Authority to sell...

  18. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Timber and other forest... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.6 Timber and other forest products. Link to an amendment published...

  19. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber and other forest... PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.6 Timber and other forest products. Link to an amendment published...

  20. 48 CFR 436.579 - Opted timber sale road requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opted timber sale road... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 436.579 Opted timber sale road requirements. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 452.236-79, Opted...

  1. 76 FR 9962 - Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Timber Sales

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... comments on this change to the SBG Program in the Federal Register. See 75 FR 63419. SBA received comments... ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 115 RIN 3245-AG14 Surety Bond Guarantee Program; Timber Sales AGENCY: U.S. Small... for timber sale contracts awarded by the Federal Government or other public and private...

  2. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  3. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a)...

  4. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a)...

  5. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  6. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  7. 25 CFR 163.23 - Advance payment for timber products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Advance payment for timber products. 163.23 Section 163.23 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.23 Advance payment for timber products. (a) Unless...

  8. 60. Same view, showing technicians hosing down the timbers. Shortly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. Same view, showing technicians hosing down the timbers. Shortly after this photograph was made, the timbers were completely submerged in water, held down by heavy concrete castings. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  9. Timber Production and Its Environmental Impacts. AIO Red Paper #21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provost, Julia K.

    The supply of the nation's forests is very great, and of this supply, approximately 1 1/2 percent comes from American Indian forests. Timber resources are three-fold: the slash (unusable limbs, tops, and stumps), as well as the unmarketable trees, provide wood for fuel; the sale of timber provides tribal revenue from a renewable source; and the…

  10. Design Methods for Load-bearing Elements from Crosslaminated Timber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilguts, A.; Serdjuks, D.; Goremikins, V.

    2015-11-01

    Cross-laminated timber is an environmentally friendly material, which possesses a decreased level of anisotropy in comparison with the solid and glued timber. Cross-laminated timber could be used for load-bearing walls and slabs of multi-storey timber buildings as well as decking structures of pedestrian and road bridges. Design methods of cross-laminated timber elements subjected to bending and compression with bending were considered. The presented methods were experimentally validated and verified by FEM. Two cross-laminated timber slabs were tested at the action of static load. Pine wood was chosen as a board's material. Freely supported beam with the span equal to 1.9 m, which was loaded by the uniformly distributed load, was a design scheme of the considered plates. The width of the plates was equal to 1 m. The considered cross-laminated timber plates were analysed by FEM method. The comparison of stresses acting in the edge fibres of the plate and the maximum vertical displacements shows that both considered methods can be used for engineering calculations. The difference between the results obtained experimentally and analytically is within the limits from 2 to 31%. The difference in results obtained by effective strength and stiffness and transformed sections methods was not significant.

  11. Short-term response of (Dicamptodon tenebrosus) larvae to timber management in southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leuthold, Niels; Adams, Michael J.; Hayes, John P.

    2012-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, previous studies have found a negative effect of timber management on the abundance of stream amphibians, but results have been variable and region specific. These studies have generally used survey methods that did not account for differences in capture probability and focused on stands that were harvested under older management practices. We examined the influences of contemporary forest practices on larval Dicamptodon tenebrosus as part of the Hinkle Creek paired watershed study. We used a mark–recapture analysis to estimate D. tenebrosus density at 100 1-m sites spread throughout the basin and used extended linear models that accounted for correlation resulting from the repeated surveys at sites across years. Density was associated with substrate, but we found no evidence of an effect of harvest. While holding other factors constant, the model-averaged estimates indicated; 1) each 10% increase in small cobble or larger substrate increased median density of D. tenebrosus 1.05 times, 2) each 100-ha increase in the upstream area drained decreased median density of D. tenebrosus 0.96 times, and 3) increasing the fish density in the 40 m around a site by 0.01 increased median salamander density 1.01 times. Although this study took place in a single basin, it suggests that timber management in similar third-order basins of the southwestern Oregon Cascade foothills is unlikely to have short-term effects of D. tenebrosus larvae.

  12. Short-term response of Dicamptodon tenebrosus larvae to timber management in southwestern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leuthold, N.; Adams, M.J.; Hayes, J.P.

    2012-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, previous studies have found a negative effect of timber management on the abundance of stream amphibians, but results have been variable and region specific. These studies have generally used survey methods that did not account for differences in capture probability and focused on stands that were harvested under older management practices. We examined the influences of contemporary forest practices on larval Dicamptodon tenebrosus as part of the Hinkle Creek paired watershed study. We used a mark-recapture analysis to estimate D. tenebrosus density at 100 1-m sites spread throughout the basin and used extended linear models that accounted for correlation resulting from the repeated surveys at sites across years. Density was associated with substrate, but we found no evidence of an effect of harvest. While holding other factors constant, the model-averaged estimates indicated; 1) each 10% increase in small cobble or larger substrate increased median density of D. tenebrosus 1.05 times, 2) each 100-ha increase in the upstream area drained decreased median density of D. tenebrosus 0.96 times, and 3) increasing the fish density in the 40 m around a site by 0.01 increased median salamander density 1.01 times. Although this study took place in a single basin, it suggests that timber management in similar third-order basins of the southwestern Oregon Cascade foothills is unlikely to have short-term effects of D. tenebrosus larvae. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society. Copyright ?? The Wildlife Society, 2011.

  13. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  14. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  15. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  16. 36 CFR 223.188 - Prohibitions against exporting unprocessed Federal timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exporting unprocessed Federal timber. 223.188 Section 223.188 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER The Forest Resources... Federal timber. No person who acquires unprocessed timber originating from Federal lands west of the...

  17. 46 CFR 42.03-17 - Special load line marks for vessels carrying timber deck cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special load line marks for vessels carrying timber deck... carrying timber deck cargo. (a) Certain vessels having load line marks not related to carriage of timber deck cargo may be assigned timber load lines if they are in compliance with the applicable...

  18. 36 CFR 219.28 - Determination of land suitable for timber harvest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... suitable for timber harvest. 219.28 Section 219.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... Considerations § 219.28 Determination of land suitable for timber harvest. (a) Lands where timber may not be harvested. The plan must identify lands within the plan area where timber may not be harvested. These...

  19. 36 CFR 219.28 - Determination of land suitable for timber harvest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... suitable for timber harvest. 219.28 Section 219.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... Considerations § 219.28 Determination of land suitable for timber harvest. (a) Lands where timber may not be harvested. The plan must identify lands within the plan area where timber may not be harvested. These...

  20. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. (a) Management plans for national forest timber resources shall be...

  1. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  2. 46 CFR 42.03-17 - Special load line marks for vessels carrying timber deck cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special load line marks for vessels carrying timber deck... carrying timber deck cargo. (a) Certain vessels having load line marks not related to carriage of timber deck cargo may be assigned timber load lines if they are in compliance with the applicable...

  3. 48 CFR 452.236-79 - Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Opted Timber Sale Road... Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements. As prescribed in 436.579, insert the following clause: Opted Timber Sale Road Requirements (NOV 1996) This contract is for the construction of timber sale road(s) which...

  4. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. (a) Management plans for national forest timber resources shall be...

  5. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND....201 Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. Unprocessed timber from National...

  6. 2. STONE ARCH BRIDGE. TIMBERS ON THE UPSTREAM FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. STONE ARCH BRIDGE. TIMBERS ON THE UPSTREAM FACE OF THE PIER PROTECTED THE STONEWORK FROM DAMAGE FROM ICE FLOWS, BARGES, ETC. - Lockport Historic District, Stone Arch Bridge, Spanning Des Plaines River at Ninth Street, Lockport, Will County, IL

  7. 18. VIEW SOUTH OF TIMBER COLUMNS ON FIRST FLOOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW SOUTH OF TIMBER COLUMNS ON FIRST FLOOR OF BUILDING 21 SHOWING TYPICAL MILL CONSTRUCTION; COLUMNS REST ON CAST IRON BASE PLATES - Scovill Brass Works, 59 Mill Street, Waterbury, New Haven County, CT

  8. View southwest, wharf A and timber breakwater, showing sawn off ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southwest, wharf A and timber breakwater, showing sawn off section and steel lift tower - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  9. 6. FRONT PORCH AND GABLE SHOWING PINE TREE SILHOUETTE, TIMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. FRONT PORCH AND GABLE SHOWING PINE TREE SILHOUETTE, TIMBER SUPPORTS, AND STONE PORCH FLOOR, TO NORTHWEST - U.S. Forest Service Chelan Ranger Station, Main Office, 428 West Woodin Avenue, Chelan, Chelan County, WA

  10. View northwest, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, charred piers, recent galvanized fastenings - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  11. View south, wharf B, timber framing, showing paired piers and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south, wharf B, timber framing, showing paired piers and bracing sloping to water - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  12. View south, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View south, wharf B, timber framing, detail of cross bracing, recent galvanized straps, bolts and washers - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  13. 38. Tap room fireplace, showing massive open timber trusses, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Tap room fireplace, showing massive open timber trusses, view looking to southeast. (fixtures and mantle removed 1999). - Fort Ord, Soldiers' Club, California State Highway 1 near Eighth Street, Seaside, Monterey County, CA

  14. 3. STEELBACKED TIMBER GUARDRAIL AND CONCRETE CRIBBING WALL. Great ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. STEEL-BACKED TIMBER GUARDRAIL AND CONCRETE CRIBBING WALL. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Little River Road, Between Sugarlands Visitor Center & Townsend Wye, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  15. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSTRUCTURE, SHOWING TIMBER TRUSS END POSTS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSTRUCTURE, SHOWING TIMBER TRUSS END POSTS AND TOP CHORD, TENSION RODS, AND TRUSS FOOTINGS, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

  16. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF LOADING DOCK CANOPY, SHOWING TWIN TIMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF LOADING DOCK CANOPY, SHOWING TWIN TIMBER SUPPORT MEMBERS AND SUSPENDER BAR MOUNTING HARDWARE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  17. 10. Substructure of bridge, showing timber bents, piles, crossbracing, caps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Substructure of bridge, showing timber bents, piles, cross-bracing, caps and stringers under deck. View to northeast. - Outlet Creek Bridge, Sullivan Lake Ranger Administrative Site, Metaline Falls, Pend Oreille County, WA

  18. 6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF SPILLWAY TIMBERS AND WATER CONTROL BOX, SHOWING WATER CONTROL BOX WITH LOWERED LAKE LEVEL - Three Bears Lake & Dams, Water Control Box, North of Marias Pass, East Glacier Park, Glacier County, MT

  19. 11. TIMBER COLUMN AND CAST IRON COLUMN CAP IN FIFTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. TIMBER COLUMN AND CAST IRON COLUMN CAP IN FIFTH FLOOR WAREHOUSE SPACE. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Becker-Hazelton Company Warehouse, 280 Iowa Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  20. NDE of FRP Wrapped Timber Bridge Components Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halabe, U. B.; Steele, W. E.; GangaRao, H. V. S.; Klinkhachorn, P.

    2003-03-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the use of infrared thermography technique for detection of subsurface debonds in fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) wrapped timber railroad bridge components. Simulated subsurface debonds were constructed in the laboratory in timber piles wrapped with FRP composite fabric. The debonds varied in size, thickness and severity. These debonds were placed between the 1/8″ thick FRP wrap and the timber surface. The thermal images from the delaminated specimens were compared with the thermal images from undamaged specimens to study the effect of subsurface debonds. In addition, several field tests were conducted using the infrared imaging system on three timber railroad bridges located in Moorefield, West Virginia that were rehabilitated with FRP composite fabric wraps. The field test data was used to detect any possible debond at the composite-timber interface and study the effect of environmental parameters on the infrared images. This study showed that the infrared thermography technique can be effectively used to detect subsurface debonds in timber components wrapped with FRP composite fabric. The study also shows the effect of different parameters (environmental conditions, heat source, etc.) on the infrared images.

  1. Reinforcement of timber beams with carbon fibers reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gugutsidze, G.; Draškovič, F.

    2010-06-01

    Wood is a polymeric material with many valuable features and which also lacks some negative features. In order to keep up with high construction rates and the minimization of negative effects, wood has become one of the most valuable materials in modern engineering. But the use of timber material economically is also an actual problem in order to protect the environment and improve natural surroundings. A panel of scientists is interested in solving these problems and in creating rational structures, where timber can be used efficiently. These constructions are as follows: glue-laminated (gluelam), composed and reinforced wooden constructions. Composed and reinforced wooden constructions are examined less, but according to researches already carried out, it is clear that significant work can be accomplished in creating rational, highly effective and economic timber constructions. The paper deals with research on the formation of composed fiber-reinforced beams (CFRP) made of timber and provide evidence of their effectiveness. The aim of the paper is to investigate cross-bending of CFRP-reinforced gluelaminated timber beams. According to the results we were able to determine the additional effectiveness of reinforcement with CFRP (which depends on the CFRP material's quality, quantity and module of elasticity) on the mechanical features of timber and a whole beam.

  2. Currents in Contemporary Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohn, Ruby

    Several of the important themes of post-World War II English, French, and German drama are analyzed in this book. The first chapter briefly examines the major contemporary playwrights in each national literature. Subsequent chapters discuss contemporary drama as an expression of Artaud's "theatre of cruelty," its relationship to the changing…

  3. Integrating Technology with Architectural Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmasry, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at the Center of High Performance Learning Technologies (CHPLE), Virginia Tech, conducted a study investigating issues related to integration of learning technologies with architectural systems in contemporary learning environments. The study is qualitative in nature, and focuses on integration patterns of learning technologies with…

  4. Capital Architecture: Situating symbolism parallel to architectural methods and technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daoud, Bassam

    Capital Architecture is a symbol of a nation's global presence and the cultural and social focal point of its inhabitants. Since the advent of High-Modernism in Western cities, and subsequently decolonised capitals, civic architecture no longer seems to be strictly grounded in the philosophy that national buildings shape the legacy of government and the way a nation is regarded through its built environment. Amidst an exceedingly globalized architectural practice and with the growing concern of key heritage foundations over the shortcomings of international modernism in representing its immediate socio-cultural context, the contextualization of public architecture within its sociological, cultural and economic framework in capital cities became the key denominator of this thesis. Civic architecture in capital cities is essential to confront the challenges of symbolizing a nation and demonstrating the legitimacy of the government'. In today's dominantly secular Western societies, governmental architecture, especially where the seat of political power lies, is the ultimate form of architectural expression in conveying a sense of identity and underlining a nation's status. Departing with these convictions, this thesis investigates the embodied symbolic power, the representative capacity, and the inherent permanence in contemporary architecture, and in its modes of production. Through a vast study on Modern architectural ideals and heritage -- in parallel to methodologies -- the thesis stimulates the future of large scale governmental building practices and aims to identify and index the key constituents that may respond to the lack representation in civic architecture in capital cities.

  5. 36 CFR 910.31 - High architectural quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false High architectural quality... architectural quality. Development must maintain a uniformly high standard of architecture, representative of the best contemporary design and planning concepts. Great care and sensitivity must be shown in...

  6. Contemporary American Physics Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Alan J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the works by six contemporary American novelists that illustrate the current state of "physics fiction." The discussed examples of physics fiction ranged from the fluent and frequent inclusion of the casual, to the elaborate systems of physics metaphors. (GA)

  7. Operational use of Landsat data for timber inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Curtis V.; Bowlin, Harry L.

    1987-01-01

    Landsat TM data, digital elevation model (DEM) data, and field observations were used to generate a timber type/structure and land-cover strata map of the Sequoia National Forest in California, U.S. and to create a classification data set. The spectral classes were identified as 32 information classes of land cover or timber type and structure. DEM data were used for the determination of major timber specie types by topographic regions of natural occurrence. The results suggest that, for inventories over large areas, traditional per-pixel classifiers are not appropriate for TM-resolution data sets over spatially complex regions such as forest lands; either resolution must be degraded, or more context-dependent classifiers, such as the ECHO classifier described by Landgrebe (1979), must be used.

  8. 75 FR 18495 - XTO Energy Inc., Cross Timbers Energy Services, Inc., Complainants v. Midcontinent Express...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission XTO Energy Inc., Cross Timbers Energy Services, Inc., Complainants v.... and Cross Timbers Energy Services, Inc. (Complainants) filed a formal complaint against...

  9. 13 CFR 121.507 - What are the size standards and other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? 121... Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? (a) To be small for purposes of the sale of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber) a concern must: (1) Be primarily engaged in...

  10. 13 CFR 121.507 - What are the size standards and other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... other requirements for the purchase of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? 121... Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber)? (a) To be small for purposes of the sale of Government-owned timber (other than Special Salvage Timber) a concern must: (1) Be primarily engaged in...

  11. 36 CFR 223.188 - Prohibitions against exporting unprocessed Federal timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... exporting unprocessed Federal timber. 223.188 Section 223.188 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST... Program § 223.188 Prohibitions against exporting unprocessed Federal timber. No person who...

  12. 30 CFR 56.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of a...

  13. 75 FR 2157 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits; Timber Harvest in Williamsburg County, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits; Timber Harvest in...) groups incidental to timber harvesting in Williamsburg County, South Carolina (project). The applicant's... for impacts to the species, timber harvesting activities will not be conducted until all RCWs...

  14. 36 CFR 223.2 - Disposal of timber for administrative use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Disposal of timber for... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.2 Disposal of timber for administrative use. Trees, portions of trees,...

  15. 46 CFR 42.11-15 - Application for timber load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for timber load lines. 42.11-15 Section 42... Application for timber load lines. (a) The owner, master, or agent of a vessel having load lines assigned under this subchapter may apply to the assigning and issuing authority for timber load lines when...

  16. 36 CFR 223.6 - Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cutting and removal of timber... OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.6 Cutting and removal of timber in free-use...

  17. 32 CFR 644.508 - Agreement with Small Business Administration (SBA) on sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) on sale of timber. 644.508 Section 644.508 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber...) on sale of timber. The Department of Defense has entered into an agreement with the SBA for...

  18. 77 FR 11532 - Algonquin Power Company; Abenaki Timber Corporation; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Algonquin Power Company; Abenaki Timber Corporation; Notice of Transfer of... been transferred to Abenaki Timber Corporation. The project is located on the South Milton River in... or Less and Denying Competing Application for Preliminary Permit. 2. Abenaki Timber...

  19. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. Similar material may be cut outside of a...

  20. 30 CFR 57.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of...

  1. 32 CFR 644.508 - Agreement with Small Business Administration (SBA) on sale of timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (SBA) on sale of timber. 644.508 Section 644.508 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber...) on sale of timber. The Department of Defense has entered into an agreement with the SBA for...

  2. 43 CFR 5511.3-1 - Free use of timber under other statutes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Free use of timber under other statutes...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.3-1 Free use of timber under other statutes. Free use will be allowed under...

  3. 75 FR 10455 - Information Collection; Timber Purchaser Cost and Sales Data

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Information Collection; Timber Purchaser Cost and Sales Data AGENCY... organizations on the extension of a currently approved information collection, Timber Purchaser Cost and Sales... CONTACT: Richard Fitzgerald, Timber Staff, Forest Management at 202-205-1753. Individuals who use TDD...

  4. 36 CFR 223.48 - Restrictions on export and substitution of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... section constitute information collection requirements as defined in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements... substitution of unprocessed timber. 223.48 Section 223.48 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts...

  5. 36 CFR 223.162 - Limitations on timber harvested from all other states.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Limitations on timber..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Export and Substitution Restrictions § 223.162 Limitations on...

  6. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.510 Information for SBA on timber sales. Representatives of SBA will visit District...

  7. 36 CFR 223.6 - Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cutting and removal of timber... OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.6 Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas. Supervisors may designate portions or all of a...

  8. 36 CFR 223.194 - Procedures for reporting the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. 223.194 Section 223.194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER... unprocessed private timber. (a) Notice of domestic processing requirement. Each person who...

  9. 50 CFR 28.32 - Penalty provisions concerning fires and timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... timber. 28.32 Section 28.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... fires and timber. (a) Any person violating sections 1855-1856 of the Criminal Code (18 U.S.C. 1855-1856... the Criminal Code (18 U.S.C. 1852-1853) as they pertain to timber on national wildlife refuge lands...

  10. 50 CFR 28.32 - Penalty provisions concerning fires and timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... timber. 28.32 Section 28.32 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... fires and timber. (a) Any person violating sections 1855-1856 of the Criminal Code (18 U.S.C. 1855-1856... the Criminal Code (18 U.S.C. 1852-1853) as they pertain to timber on national wildlife refuge lands...

  11. 3 CFR - Establishment of the Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in Timber Products from Peru and Assignment of Function under Section 501 of the United States-Peru... Memorandum of May 1, 2009 Establishment of the Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru... Interagency Committee on Trade in Timber Products from Peru (Committee) is hereby established to oversee...

  12. 36 CFR 13.485 - Subsistence use of timber and plant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subsistence use of timber and... timber and plant material. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the non-commercial cutting of standing timber by local rural residents for appropriate subsistence uses, such as firewood...

  13. 25 CFR 214.17 - Use of timber from restricted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Use of timber from restricted lands. 214.17 Section 214... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.17 Use of timber from restricted lands. Lessees will not be permitted to use any timber from any Osage lands not relieved of restrictions...

  14. 30 CFR 56.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of a...

  15. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.510 Information for SBA on timber sales. Representatives of SBA will visit District...

  16. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788... timber.” Employees engaged in “cruising * * * timber” include all those members of a field crew whose purpose is to estimate and report on the volume of marketable timber. Employees engaged in...

  17. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS General Provisions § 223.7 Permission for free use of timber outside...

  18. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788... timber.” Employees engaged in “cruising * * * timber” include all those members of a field crew whose purpose is to estimate and report on the volume of marketable timber. Employees engaged in...

  19. 46 CFR 42.11-15 - Application for timber load lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for timber load lines. 42.11-15 Section 42... Application for timber load lines. (a) The owner, master, or agent of a vessel having load lines assigned under this subchapter may apply to the assigning and issuing authority for timber load lines when...

  20. 36 CFR 13.485 - Subsistence use of timber and plant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subsistence use of timber and... timber and plant material. (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, the non-commercial cutting of standing timber by local rural residents for appropriate subsistence uses, such as firewood...

  1. 36 CFR 223.194 - Procedures for reporting the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. 223.194 Section 223.194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER The... the acquisition and disposition of unprocessed private timber. (a) Notice of domestic...

  2. 25 CFR 214.17 - Use of timber from restricted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of timber from restricted lands. 214.17 Section 214... RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.17 Use of timber from restricted lands. Lessees will not be permitted to use any timber from any Osage lands not relieved of restrictions...

  3. 43 CFR 2812.5-1 - Payment required for O. and C. timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Payment required for O. and C. timber... LOGGING ROADS Over O. and C. and Coos Bay Revested Lands § 2812.5-1 Payment required for O. and C. timber... all timber to be cut, removed, or destroyed, on O. and C. lands in the construction or operation...

  4. 43 CFR 3821.4 - Restriction on use of timber; application for such use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction on use of timber; application... SPECIAL MINING LAWS O and C Lands § 3821.4 Restriction on use of timber; application for such use. The... acquire title, possessory or otherwise, to the timber, now or hereafter growing upon such claim....

  5. 30 CFR 57.19080 - Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials... NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19080 Hoisting tools, timbers, and other materials. When tools, timbers, or other materials are being lowered or raised in a shaft by means of...

  6. 78 FR 73818 - Information Collection; Timber Sale Contract Operations and Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... Forest Service Information Collection; Timber Sale Contract Operations and Administration AGENCY: Forest... on the revision of a currently approved Information Collection 0596-0225, Timber Sale Contract...: Timber Sale Contract Operations and Administration. OMB Number: 0596-0225. Expiration Date of...

  7. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER The Forest Resources Conservation and Shortage Relief Act of 1990 Program § 223.201 Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested...

  8. 43 CFR 5511.2-2 - Free use of timber for Government purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Free use of timber for Government purposes...) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FOREST MANAGEMENT (5000) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.2-2 Free use of timber for Government purposes. Persons contracting...

  9. 76 FR 36961 - Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural Utilities Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... specifications for wood poles, stubs and anchor logs, wood crossarms (solid and laminated), transmission timbers..., ``Specification for Wood Crossarms (Solid and Laminated), Transmission Timbers and Pole Keys''; and 1728H-702..., Manufacturing Quality Control Systems Manual For Structural Glued Laminated Timber, copyright...

  10. 50 CFR 36.15 - Subsistence uses of timber and plant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Refuges as follows: (1) For live standing timber greater than six inches diameter at breast height (41/2... refuge was established; (2) For live standing timber between three and six inches diameter at breast... timber less than three inches diameter at breast height, cutting is allowed unless restricted by...

  11. Detail of wharf A timber framing, showing piers and pier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of wharf A timber framing, showing piers and pier caps or plates stepping down for a sloped launching deck, now built-up for a flat deck, interior of sheet steel bulkhead is visible at wharf edge - U.S. Coast Guard Sandy Hook Station, Western Docking Structure, West of intersection of Canfield Road & Hartshorne Drive, Highlands, Monmouth County, NJ

  12. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... taxpayer making the return, as the result of the growth of the timber, of changes in standards of... for depletion) shall be revised. The depletion unit shall be changed when such revision has been made... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of...

  13. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... taxpayer making the return, as the result of the growth of the timber, of changes in standards of... for depletion) shall be revised. The depletion unit shall be changed when such revision has been made... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of...

  14. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... taxpayer making the return, as the result of the growth of the timber, of changes in standards of... for depletion) shall be revised. The depletion unit shall be changed when such revision has been made... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of...

  15. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... taxpayer making the return, as the result of the growth of the timber, of changes in standards of... for depletion) shall be revised. The depletion unit shall be changed when such revision has been made... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of...

  16. 26 CFR 1.611-3 - Rules applicable to timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... taxpayer making the return, as the result of the growth of the timber, of changes in standards of... for depletion) shall be revised. The depletion unit shall be changed when such revision has been made... until a change in facts requires another revision. (f) Determination of fair market value of...

  17. 31. Interior of fabrication buildingnote pipe truss and timber framing. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Interior of fabrication building-note pipe truss and timber framing. Railway to move vessels in and out of structure. Flying bridge roof of barbour-built vessel Stardust (#1) to right. - Barbour Boat Works, Tryon Palace Drive, New Bern, Craven County, NC

  18. 6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers and Automobile Engine Connected to Pulley Wheel, Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  19. 9. Historic view, Pier 11. View to southwest, showing timber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic view, Pier 11. View to southwest, showing timber degaussing pier, 1951. Photographic copy of photo. Boston National Historical Park Archives, Charlestown Navy Yard. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 11, Charlestown Waterfront at confluence of Little Mystic Channel & Mystic River at northernmost ent of Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  20. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 36 CFR 261.6 - Timber and other forest products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.), or its implementing regulations at 36 CFR 223.185-223.203... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber and other forest products. 261.6 Section 261.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 36 CFR 223.187 - Determinations of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... generally recognized by the industry as setting a selling standard; and, (ii) A statement by the... setting a selling standard. (3) Lumber, construction timbers, or cants for remanufacture, except western..., in writing, by the Chief Executive Officer pursuant to 36 CFR 223.187(b)(4), to sign the...

  4. 13. UNIDENTIFIED CABLESTAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. UNIDENTIFIED CABLE-STAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE PANELS, SHOWING CABLE PATTERN SIMILAR TO E.E. RUNYON'S SUSPENSION BRIDGE PATENTS. THE BLUFF DALE SUSPENSION BRIDGE'S CABLES MAY HAVE ORIGINALLY FOLLOWED THIS PATTERN. ELEVATION VIEW. - Bluff Dale Suspension Bridge, Spanning Paluxy River at County Route 149, Bluff Dale, Erath County, TX

  5. 12. UNIDENTIFIED CABLESTAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. UNIDENTIFIED CABLE-STAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TWELVE PANELS, SHOWING CABLE PATTERN SIMILAR TO E.E. RUNYON'S SUSPENSION BRIDGE PATENTS. THE BLUFF DALE SUSPENSION BRIDGE'S CABLES MAY HAVE ORIGINALLY FOLLOWED THIS PATTERN. 3/4 VIEW FROM ABOVE. - Bluff Dale Suspension Bridge, Spanning Paluxy River at County Route 149, Bluff Dale, Erath County, TX

  6. 14. UNIDENTIFIED CABLESTAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. UNIDENTIFIED CABLE-STAYED SUSPENSION BRIDGE WITH TIMBER RAILING OF TEN PANELS AND STONE PIER, SHOWING ELEMENTS SIMILAR TO E.E. RUNYON'S SUSPENSION BRIDGE PATENTS, BUT ALTERNATE CABLE PATTERN. 3/4 VIEW FROM BELOW. - Bluff Dale Suspension Bridge, Spanning Paluxy River at County Route 149, Bluff Dale, Erath County, TX

  7. Timber Lane Tales: Problem-Centered Learning and Technology Integration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Priscilla; Sprague, Debra

    This exploratory study examined a field-based project in which preservice teacher candidates and faculty collaborated to implement a problem-centered, technology integrated curriculum for a multiage (4th, 5th, and 6th grade) intersession at Timber Lane Elementary School. Content included detective skills such as fingerprinting and handwriting…

  8. 15. DETAIL OF ANCHOR BOLT WHICH FORMERLY SECURED A TIMBER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL OF ANCHOR BOLT WHICH FORMERLY SECURED A TIMBER SILL BEAM TO THE GRANITE SILL ALONG THE EASTERLY EDGE OF THE SPILLWAY APRON (NOTE 3" SWISS ARMY KNIFE TO RIGHT OF BOLT FOR SCALE); VIEW TO WEST. - Blackstone Canal Millbury Segment, Beginning northwest of State Route 146 & McCracken Road, running along west side of Route 146, Millbury, Worcester County, MA

  9. 7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View showing placement of timber deck placement on chord and built up construction of top chord and continuous construction through top panel points, eye bar construction on bottom chord - Bridge No. 2.4, Spanning Boiling Fork Creek at Railroad Milepost JC-2.4, Decherd, Franklin County, TN

  10. 12. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSTRUCTURE, SHOWING TIMBER TRUSS END POSTS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW OF UNDERSTRUCTURE, SHOWING TIMBER TRUSS END POSTS, TOP CHORD, GUSSET PLATES, TENSION RODS, TRANSVERSE BEAM, AND FLOOR BEAM, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Middle Fork Stanislaus River Bridge, Spans Middle Fork Stanislaus River at State Highway 108, Dardanelle, Tuolumne County, CA

  11. Tapping Timbers: A Barn Rises from the Hands of Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Melissa

    2001-01-01

    Gould Farm, the oldest therapeutic community in the United States, uses the rural farming lifestyle and a multigenerational community to serve adults with psychiatric disabilities. The Timber Framers Guild helped raise a barn there as one of its community service projects. The barn will be used to enhance the farm's food processing and vocational…

  12. 4. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE 1920 TIMBER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE 1920 TIMBER AND CONCRETE FLOORING SYSTEM, POCKETS FOR VERTICAL POSTS AND BRIDGING, STEEL BRACES ADDED BY THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE CIRCA 1962. - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Conococheague Creek Aqueduct, Milepost 99.80, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  13. 3. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE 1920 TIMBER AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SOUTH SHOWING AQUEDUCT PRISM. NOTE 1920 TIMBER AND CONCRETE FLOORING SYSTEM, CUT STONE FACE OF PARAPET WALL, AND WROUGHT IRON BOLTS USED TO SECURE THE RUBBING RAIL. - Chesapeake & Ohio Canal, Conococheague Creek Aqueduct, Milepost 99.80, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  14. 25. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS, ORE BIN, AND STAIRWAY TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL OF STRUCTURAL TIMBERS, ORE BIN, AND STAIRWAY TO TOP FLOOR OF MILL, LOOKING SOUTH FROM SECOND FLOOR OF MILL. PORTION OF ORE BIN ON RIGHT, STAIRS ON LEFT. - Skidoo Mine, Park Route 38 (Skidoo Road), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. Blocks as a Tool for Learning: Historical and Contemporary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Examines the central historical and contemporary role of blocks and construction toys in early childhood education. Describes how commercially produced blocks were conceptualized as a surface for displaying symbols, as pure form, or as a way to transmit a cultural heritage of architectural styles. Discusses how blocks were used in early…

  16. Architecture & Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Mary; Delahunt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Most art teachers would agree that architecture is an important form of visual art, but they do not always include it in their curriculums. In this article, the authors share core ideas from "Architecture and Environment," a teaching resource that they developed out of a long-term interest in teaching architecture and their fascination with the…

  17. Project Integration Architecture: Application Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2005-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications is enabled.

  18. 36 CFR 223.65 - Appraisal of timber for land exchange; right-of-way, or other authorized use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal of timber for land... FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing § 223.65 Appraisal of timber for land exchange; right-of-way, or...

  19. 43 CFR 5511.1-3 - Use of timber on lands covered by grazing leases, by lessees, and others.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of timber on lands covered by grazing...) FREE USE OF TIMBER Free Use Regulations § 5511.1-3 Use of timber on lands covered by grazing leases, by lessees, and others. (a) Before taking timber under a lease issued under section 15 of the Taylor...

  20. Contemporary Native American Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestas, John R., Ed.

    A compilation of 58 representative speeches from the American Indian Community, this book is divided into 2 parts; Part I deals with issues of contemporary concern and Part II illustrates speech types and styles. All speeches are classified by issue as follows: sovereignty (2 speeches, 1 on the rise and fall of Indian sovereignty); trust…

  1. Symposium on Contemporary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, David A.; Graff, Gerald; Nelson, Cary

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss contemporary challenges. David Berry offers advice on teaching the humanities at a community college; Gerald Graff examines how the traditional organization of universities undermines student learning; and Cary Nelson considers the effects on the humanities of the increasing reliance on contingent faculty.

  2. Contemporary American Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Bill; And Others

    This nine-week unit from a junior high American government curriculum covers the following topics: (1) What are the current issues in our physical and social environment?; (2) How do we investigate and evaluate issues?; and (3) What contemporary issues in my physical or social environment do I want to investigate? Students are required to do…

  3. Critiques of Contemporary Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Karlyn Kohrs

    The purpose of this book is to define characteristics of rhetorical discourse, explain man's capacity to influence and be influenced, and describe the purposes and processes of rhetorical criticism. Representative speech texts, with critiques, are included on the following contemporary topics: withdrawal from Vietnam (Richard M. Nixon);…

  4. Green Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Ho

    Today, the environment has become a main subject in lots of science disciplines and the industrial development due to the global warming. This paper presents the analysis of the tendency of Green Architecture in France on the threes axes: Regulations and Approach for the Sustainable Architecture (Certificate and Standard), Renewable Materials (Green Materials) and Strategies (Equipments) of Sustainable Technology. The definition of 'Green Architecture' will be cited in the introduction and the question of the interdisciplinary for the technological development in 'Green Architecture' will be raised up in the conclusion.

  5. Timber Management of NASA's John C. Stennis Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carr, Hugh; Johnson, Gary; Smoot, James; Cohan, Tyrus; O'Connor, Tina

    2001-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center occupies over 48560 hectares or just over 120000 acres in southwestern Mississippi and southeastern Louisiana near border of the two states. This area includes the Stennis Fee Area, which is the Center itself and the Acoustic Buffer Zone (ABZ) surrounding the Center. The ABZ is owned by several government, public and private entities and managed accordingly. The Fee Area and ABZ include wetlands, pine woodlands and areas of mixed floral species. The included maps detail the delineation of land in and around the Stennis Space Center. Areas owned by the federal government are divided into three stands to facilitate timber management. The stands are classified by species, density and average size to determine several timber in management issues including the schedule for controlled burns, economic viability of stands, and the creation of low impact recreational areas such as scenic trails or bike paths.

  6. Labeling wood: How timber certification may reduce deforestation

    SciTech Connect

    Sugal, C.

    1996-09-01

    A series of landmark developments, including satellite photography revealing massive burning of the Amazon and scientific findings confirming a link between deforestation and climate change, has greatly heightened public awareness about the loss of tropical forests in the past decade. As a result, the international tropical timber trade has become a target of public campaigns to curb deforestation, the argument being that consumers can {open_quotes}save{close_quotes} the rainforest if they refuse to buy tropical timber products. However, there are other sides to this, and certification is not the complete answer. For example, logging constitutes only a small portion of deforestation in the tropics, most of which is done for agricultural purposes. Fuel wood resources are not included, and other areas of the world are being deforested, so emphasis only on tropical areas creates concerns. This article considers the concerns of certification in depth.

  7. Seismic Strengthening of Carpentry Joints in Traditional Timber Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Parisi, Maria A.; Cordie, Cinzia; Piazza, Maurizio

    2008-07-08

    The static and dynamic behavior of timber structures largely depends on their connections. In traditional timber construction, elements are usually connected with carpentry joints based on contact pressure and friction, often with only minor reinforcement generically intended to avoid disassembling. In current practice, interventions for the upgrading of carpentry joints are mainly based on empirical knowledge according to tradition. Often they produce a general strengthening of the connection, but are not specific for the case of seismic action. Strengthening on heuristic bases may be only partially effective or possibly disproportioned. The behavior of the carpentry joints most used in roof structures is examined. The birdsmouth joint, connecting rafters to the tie beam, has been studied first, characterizing its behavior numerically and experimentally in monotonic and cyclic conditions. Other forms of the rafter-to-tie connection, the double notch joint and the case of parallel rafters, are discussed. Some general criteria for the seismic strengthening of these joints are presented.

  8. Contemporary drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Giannini, A J; Price, W A; Giannini, M C

    1986-03-01

    The physician needs to know the signs, symptoms and recommended treatments of drug overdoses. Overdose of hallucinogens usually does not require drug therapy. Overdose of amphetamines ("uppers") may be complicated by the presence of PCP, a dissociative substance. It is important for the physician to be familiar with the street terminology for contemporary drugs of abuse and to be aware of how users obtain these drugs.

  9. Project Integration Architecture: Architectural Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, William Henry

    2001-01-01

    The Project Integration Architecture (PIA) implements a flexible, object-oriented, wrapping architecture which encapsulates all of the information associated with engineering applications. The architecture allows the progress of a project to be tracked and documented in its entirety. By being a single, self-revealing architecture, the ability to develop single tools, for example a single graphical user interface, to span all applications is enabled. Additionally, by bringing all of the information sources and sinks of a project into a single architectural space, the ability to transport information between those applications becomes possible, Object-encapsulation further allows information to become in a sense self-aware, knowing things such as its own dimensionality and providing functionality appropriate to its kind.

  10. 77 FR 29537 - Standards and Specifications for Timber Products Acceptable for Use by Rural Utilities Service...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... specifications for wood poles, stubs and anchor logs, wood crossarms (solid and laminated), transmission timbers... these specifications to conform with revisions to the American Wood Preservers' Association...

  11. Charcot in contemporary literature.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G

    2006-03-01

    Charcot and his medical observations remain an enduring topic of scientific study in neurology, but he is also the topic of modern literary works. This essay examines the depiction of Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) as a character in late-twentieth-century literature as an index of the contemporary nonmedical literary public's interest in neurology and Charcot. It focuses on three contemporary works that involve Charcot as a central figure with comparison between primary source documents and the rendered context, character development, and plot lines of these literary works. The two French novels [Slumbers of Indiscretion and Dr. Charcot of the Salpêtrière] and one American play [Augustine (Big Hysteria)] approach Charcot and neurology with differing levels of historical accuracy. All create a figure of authority, each with a different coloration of the balance between power and its abuse. Two focus almost exclusively on his work with hysteria and inaccurately amplify Charcot's concern with symbolic sexual conflict as the origin of hysteria and fictionalize more extensive interactions with Freud than historical documents support. The three works demonstrate that Charcot retains an enduring fascination with an enigmatic personality, a controversial career, and a pivotal role in the development of studies involving the brain and behavior. Neurologists should not look to these works as replacements for more seriously composed historical studies, but as enrichments anchored in the imaginative possibilities of Charcot and his fin de siècle era.

  12. Experimental Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Describes the design of the Centre for Architectural Structures and Technology at the University of Manitoba, including the educational context and design goals. Includes building plans and photographs. (EV)

  13. Effects of timber harvests and silvicultural edges on terrestrial salamanders.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Jami E; Williams, Rod N

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (<20 m). Small harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years

  14. Effects of Timber Harvests and Silvicultural Edges on Terrestrial Salamanders

    PubMed Central

    MacNeil, Jami E.; Williams, Rod N.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (<20 m). Small harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years

  15. Effects of timber harvests and silvicultural edges on terrestrial salamanders.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, Jami E; Williams, Rod N

    2014-01-01

    Balancing timber production and conservation in forest management requires an understanding of how timber harvests affect wildlife species. Terrestrial salamanders are useful indicators of mature forest ecosystem health due to their importance to ecosystem processes and sensitivity to environmental change. However, the effects of timber harvests on salamanders, though often researched, are still not well understood. To further this understanding, we used artificial cover objects to monitor the relative abundance of terrestrial salamanders for two seasons (fall and spring) pre-harvest and five seasons post-harvest in six forest management treatments, and for three seasons post-harvest across the edge gradients of six recent clearcuts. In total, we recorded 19,048 encounters representing nine species of salamanders. We observed declines in mean encounters of eastern red-backed salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) and northern slimy salamanders (P. glutinosus) from pre- to post-harvest in group selection cuts and in clearcuts. However, we found no evidence of salamander declines at shelterwoods and forested sites adjacent to harvests. Edge effects induced by recent clearcuts influenced salamanders for approximately 20 m into the forest, but edge influence varied by slope orientation. Temperature, soil moisture, and canopy cover were all correlated with salamander counts. Our results suggest silvicultural techniques that remove the forest canopy negatively affect salamander relative abundance on the local scale during the years immediately following harvest, and that the depth of edge influence of clearcuts on terrestrial salamanders is relatively shallow (<20 m). Small harvests (<4 ha) and techniques that leave the forest canopy intact may be compatible with maintaining terrestrial salamander populations across a forested landscape. Our results demonstrate the importance of examining species-specific responses and monitoring salamanders across multiple seasons and years

  16. Long-term behaviour of timber structures in torrent control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rickli, Christian; Graf, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Timber is widely used for protection measures in torrent control. However, life span of woody constructions such as timber check dams is limited due to fungal decay. However, only sparse scientific information is available on the long-term behaviour of timber structures and the colonisation with decay fungi. Related to this, in practice a controversial discussion has been going on if either Norway Spruce (Picea abies) or Silver Fir (Abies alba) is more enduring and if bark removal increases resistance against fungal decay. In order to going into this matter a series of 15 timber check dams built in 1996 has been monitored. The constructions were alternatively realised with Norway Spruce and Silver Fir, half of them each with remaining and removed bark, respectively. The scientific investigations included the documentation of colonisation with rot fungi and the identification of decayed zones with a simple practical approach as well as based on drilling resistance. Colonisation by decay fungi started three years after construction (e.g. Gloeophyllum sepiarium), detecting two years later first parts with reduced wood resistance. Sixteen years after construction decay was found on all check dams but two. Wood quality was markedly better in watered sections compared to the occasionally dry lateral abutment sections. Taking the whole check dams into consideration, slightly more decay was detected in Norway Spruce compared to logs in Silver Fir and both the practical approach and the drilling resistance measurement yielded in more defects on logs without bark. However, due to limited number of replications and fungal data, it was not possible to statistically verify these results. Statistical analysis was restricted to the drilling resistance data and fruit-bodies of decay fungi of the uppermost log of each check dam. Based on this limited analysis significant differences in the effect on the drilling resistance were found for watered sections and lateral abutments

  17. 4. Threefourths view of span 2 and 1. Showing timber ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Three-fourths view of span 2 and 1. Showing timber deck resting on the floor stringers. Also note differences in stringer floor beam construction. In span 1, the stringers are connected to the side of the floor beams. Spans 2 and 3 the stringer bear on top of the floor beam. Also note non-continuous eye bar construction through the panel points on the bottom chord. - Bridge No. 33.3, Spanning Elk River at Milepost JC-33.3, Fayetteville, Lincoln County, TN

  18. Contemporary facial reanimation.

    PubMed

    Bhama, Prabhat K; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-04-01

    The facial nerve is the most commonly paralyzed nerve in the human body. Facial paralysis affects aesthetic appearance, and it has a profound effect on function and quality of life. Management of patients with facial paralysis requires a multidisciplinary approach, including otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons, ophthalmologists, and physical therapists. Regardless of etiology, patients with facial paralysis should be evaluated systematically, with initial efforts focused upon establishing proper diagnosis. Management should proceed with attention to facial zones, including the brow and periocular region, the midface and oral commissure, the lower lip and chin, and the neck. To effectively compare contemporary facial reanimation strategies, it is essential to employ objective intake assessment methods, and standard reassessment schemas during the entire management period.

  19. Contemporary Treatment of APL

    PubMed Central

    Cull, Elizabeth H.; Altman, Jessica K.

    2014-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by coagulopathy, leukopenic presentation and sensitivity to anthracyclines, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO). For the last 25 years, APL has been treated with a combination of ATRA and chemotherapy for induction followed by consolidation and maintenance therapy. This general treatment approach has resulted in cure rates of 80–90%. ATO, originally approved in relapsed APL, has been incorporated into contemporary upfront treatment regimens with excellent response rates. Recent studies show that most patients with APL can be cured with ATRA and ATO alone, eliminating cytotoxic chemotherapy and resulting in superior outcomes compared to standard treatment. We will herein review historical treatment of APL, treatment considerations in specific patient populations, and therapeutic updates. PMID:24643310

  20. Timber harvest change in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon, 1995 to 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Using available aerial photos from approximately a 15-year period, changes in timber harvest were mapped in the Little North Santiam River Basin, Oregon. Timber harvest plots as seen on digital orthophotos from 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2009 were digitized and attributed based on harvest type or purpose: clearcut, thinning, or development.

  1. 25 CFR 214.17 - Use of timber from restricted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Use of timber from restricted lands. 214.17 Section 214.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.17 Use of timber from restricted...

  2. 25 CFR 214.17 - Use of timber from restricted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Use of timber from restricted lands. 214.17 Section 214.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.17 Use of timber from restricted...

  3. 25 CFR 214.17 - Use of timber from restricted lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Use of timber from restricted lands. 214.17 Section 214.17 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS § 214.17 Use of timber from restricted...

  4. Timber resource of the superior national forest. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsley, N.P.; Ramquist, J.

    1993-01-01

    Contents: forest area; timber volume; timber growth and removals; appendix; (accuracy of the survey, survey procedures, comparing minnesota's fifth inventory with the fourth inventory, log grade, metric equivalents of units used in the report, tree species groups in minnesota, definition of terms, and tables).

  5. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  6. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  7. 36 CFR 223.7 - Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permission for free use of timber outside free-use areas. 223.7 Section 223.7 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  8. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510 Section 644.510 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  9. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510 Section 644.510 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  10. 32 CFR 644.510 - Information for SBA on timber sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Information for SBA on timber sales. 644.510 Section 644.510 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand...

  11. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  12. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  13. 36 CFR 221.3 - Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of national forest timber according to management plans. 221.3 Section 221.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TIMBER MANAGEMENT PLANNING § 221.3 Disposal of national forest...

  14. 36 CFR 223.195 - Procedures for identifying and marking unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Procedures for identifying and marking unprocessed timber. 223.195 Section 223.195 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL...

  15. DEVELOPING A PRODUCTION POSSIBILITY SET OF WILDLIFE SPECIES PERSISTENCE AND TIMBER HARVEST VALUE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An integrated model combing a wildlife population simulation model, and timber harvest and growth models was developed to explore the tradeoffs between the likelihood of persistence of a hypothetical wildlife species and timber harvest volumes on a landscape in the Central Oregon...

  16. 36 CFR 223.2 - Disposal of timber for administrative use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposal of timber for administrative use. 223.2 Section 223.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER General Provisions § 223.2 Disposal of...

  17. 36 CFR 223.193 - Procedures for reporting acquisition and disposition of unprocessed Federal timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations at 13 CFR part 121; and (ix) A certificate stating that the certifier has read and understands the... acquisition and disposition of unprocessed Federal timber. 223.193 Section 223.193 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER...

  18. A Survey of Timber Impacted Schools and Communities in Southeast Alaska.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South East Regional Resource Center, Juneau, AK.

    This survey examines the impact of reduced timber harvests and mill closures by the U.S. Forest Service on timber-dependent schools and communities in the Tongass National Forest in southeast Alaska. One purpose was to recommend educational programs and services that are necessary to remediate these impacts on children. Between 1990 and 1995,…

  19. 36 CFR 223.48 - Restrictions on export and substitution of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... collection requirements as defined in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of... substitution of unprocessed timber. 223.48 Section 223.48 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  20. 75 FR 7623 - Information Collection; Timber Export Reporting and Substitution Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... August 20, 2009, the BLM published a 60-day notice (74 FR 42090) requesting comments on the proposed... Bureau of Land Management Information Collection; Timber Export Reporting and Substitution Determination... applications which pertain to timber export reporting and substitution determination requirements. DATES:...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION..., App. E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926—Alternatives to Timber Shoring EC30OC91.043 EC30OC91.044...

  2. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION..., App. E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926—Alternatives to Timber Shoring EC30OC91.043 EC30OC91.044...

  3. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  4. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  5. 36 CFR 223.6 - Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas. 223.6 Section 223.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  6. 36 CFR 223.6 - Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas. 223.6 Section 223.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  7. 36 CFR 223.201 - Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Limitations on unprocessed timber harvested in Alaska. 223.201 Section 223.201 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  8. 36 CFR 223.6 - Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cutting and removal of timber in free-use areas. 223.6 Section 223.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS,...

  9. Use of flooded timber by waterfowl at the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowardin, L.M.

    1969-01-01

    Waterfowl use of bottomland hardwood timber stands which were flooded and killed was studied at the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge, Seneca Falls, New York, from 1962 to 1964. Comparisons of use were made among six habitat types containing dead timber, stumps, and no timber, and with and without emergent vegetation. An index to waterfowl use was derived by direct counts and by counts made with automatic cameras which photographed randomly selected plots in each habitat type. Movement between types was studied by observation of both marked and unmarked birds. The camera index of use showed that cut timber with emergent vegetation received the greatest overall use. Use was positively correlated with the proximity of the plot to emergent vegetation and nearest vegetative type boundary. A stand flooded for 7 years was used primarily by black ducks (Anas rubripes) and mallards (A. platyrhynchos). Use of stands flooded for 20 years was dominated by American widgeon (Mareca americana). Waterfowl spent more time resting than feeding in timbered areas, and more time feeding than resting in marsh areas. Young-of-the-year did not move between pools after they had reached an age of IIc (Gollop and Marshall 1954). Use by broods was greatest in areas near emergent vegetation. Flying birds used timbered areas during the daytime and non-timbered areas at night during fall. Flooded dead timber appeared to be attractive to waterfowl because it furnished abundant loafing sites.

  10. 50 CFR 36.15 - Subsistence uses of timber and plant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Refuges as follows: (1) For live standing timber greater than six inches diameter at breast height (41/2... refuge was established; (2) For live standing timber between three and six inches diameter at breast... unless restricted by the Refuge Manager, except that no more than 20 trees may be cut annually by...

  11. 50 CFR 36.15 - Subsistence uses of timber and plant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Refuges as follows: (1) For live standing timber greater than six inches diameter at breast height (41/2... refuge was established; (2) For live standing timber between three and six inches diameter at breast... unless restricted by the Refuge Manager, except that no more than 20 trees may be cut annually by...

  12. 50 CFR 36.15 - Subsistence uses of timber and plant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Refuges as follows: (1) For live standing timber greater than six inches diameter at breast height (41/2... refuge was established; (2) For live standing timber between three and six inches diameter at breast... unless restricted by the Refuge Manager, except that no more than 20 trees may be cut annually by...

  13. 50 CFR 36.15 - Subsistence uses of timber and plant material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Refuges as follows: (1) For live standing timber greater than six inches diameter at breast height (41/2... refuge was established; (2) For live standing timber between three and six inches diameter at breast... unless restricted by the Refuge Manager, except that no more than 20 trees may be cut annually by...

  14. Effects of Timber Harvest on River Food Webs: Physical, Chemical and Biological Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wootton, J. Timothy

    2012-01-01

    I compared physical, chemical and biological characteristics of nine rivers running through three timber harvest regimes to investigate the effects of land use on river ecosystems, to determine whether these corresponded to changes linked with downstream location, and to compare the response of different types of indicator variables. Physical variables changed with downstream location, but varied little with timber harvest. Most chemical variables increased strongly with timber harvest, but not with downstream location. Most biological variables did not vary systematically with either timber harvst or downstream location. Dissolved organic carbon did not vary with timber harvest or downstream location, but correlated positively with salmonid abundance. Nutrient manipulations revealed no general pattern of nutrient limitation with timber harvest or downstream location. The results suggest that chemical variables most reliably indicate timber harvest impact in these systems. The biological variables most relevant to human stakeholders were surprisingly insensitive to timber harvest, however, apparently because of decoupling from nutrient responses and unexpectedly weak responses by physical variables. PMID:22957030

  15. Teaching Communication and Contemporary Dissent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zacharias, Donald W.

    The rise of persuasive agitation within the past decade has led to the development of courses in contemporary dissent and a reexamination of persuasive practices in society. This study examines the issues raised by these courses and proposes a detailed approach to the teaching of communication and contemporary dissent. Special recommendations are…

  16. Cost estimation of timber bridges using neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Creese, R.C.; Li. L.

    1995-05-01

    Neural network models, or more simply {open_quotes}neural nets,{close_quotes} have great potential application in speech and image recognition. They also have great potential for cost estimating. Neural networks are particularly effective for complex estimation where the relationship between the output and the input cannot be expressed by simple mathematic relationships. A neural network method was applied to the cost estimation of timber bridges to illustrate the technique. The results of the neural network method were evaluated by the coefficient of determination, The R square value for the key input variables. A comparison of the neural network results and the standard linear regression results was performed upon the timber bridge data. A step-by-step validation is presented to make it easy to understand the application of neural networks to this estimation process. The input is propagated from the input through each layer until an output is generated. The output is compared with the desired output and the error is distributed for each node in the outer layer. The error is transmitted backward (thus the phase {open_quotes}back propagation{close_quotes}) from the output layer to the intermediate layers and then to the input layer. Based upon the errors, the weights are adjusted and the procedure is repeated. The number of training cycles is 15,000 to 50,000 for simple networks, but this usually takes only a few minutes on a personal computer. 7 refs., 4 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Cross-laminated timber made of Hungarian raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marko, G.; Bejo, L.; Takats, P.

    2016-04-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT), generally made out of softwood, enjoys increasing popularity throughout Europe. This material offers a versatile, eco-friendly technology to create strong, lightweight and energy-efficient buildings. Unfortunately, the sites and climatic conditions in Hungary are not suitable for growing high-quality coniferous trees. Transporting raw materials from other countries (sometimes thousands of kilometres away) negates the environmental advantages of wood-based construction. Local options are definitely preferable from an ecological aspect. Poplar wood (populus spp.) is of great economic importance in Hungary. There are several relatively high density, high strength varieties growing in large quantities in Hungary, that may be used as alternatives to softwood, with comparable properties. There is an increasing interest in using poplar as a construction material, especially in regions were there is a shortage of traditional construction timber. This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation to create CLT using poplar lumber. Laboratory-scale CLT specimens were created in a hot press, and tested for their loadbearing capacity. The MOR values of poplar CLT are comparable to, albeit somewhat lowerthan those of softwood CLT. Further investigations are required to establish the economic viability and technological conditions for the commercial production of poplar CLT.

  18. Development of a Specific Finite Element for Timber Joint Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descamps, Thierry; Van Parys, Laurent; Datoussaïd, Sélim

    2011-01-01

    Widely used for light frame structures or for heavy laminated wood structures, dowel-type fasteners are the most commonly used kind of connectors in timber construction. The purpose of this work is to develop a tool for the semi-rigid analysis and design of such joints. Firstly, interests and approaches described in literature for the semi-rigid modeling of timber plane frames are summarized. Secondly, for a better understanding of the problem, the main characteristics of wood used as a structural material are presented. Finally, a method for an efficient study of joints built with dowel-type fasteners is proposed and developed. This method consists of the introduction of a specific finite element called "Finite Semi-Rigid Element (FSRE)" between the ends of the jointed members. This joint element consists of two nodes, each with three degrees of freedom. These nodes will be tied with common beamelements during the FE analysis. The stiffness of the FSRE is computed from the geometry of the joints and embedding stiffness of all fasteners, along and perpendicular to the grain. The embedding characteristics of fasteners are defined with help of their experimental load-slip curves (fitted with Foschi's models) leading finally to the resolution of a FE non-linear problem.

  19. Photographic technology development project: Timber typing in the Tahoe Basin using high altitude panoramic photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures were developed and tested for using KA-80A optical bar camera panoramic photography for timber typing forest land and classifying nonforest land. The study area was the south half of the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit. Final products from this study include four timber type map overlays on 1:24,000 orthophoto maps. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study: (1) established conventional timber typing procedures can be used on panoramic photography if the necessary equipment is available, (2) The classification and consistency results warrant further study in using panoramic photography for timber typing; and (3) timber type mapping can be done as fast or faster with panoramic photography than with resource photography while maintaining comparable accuracy.

  20. IAIMS Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Hripcsak, George

    1997-01-01

    Abstract An information system architecture defines the components of a system and the interfaces among the components. A good architecture is essential for creating an Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) that works as an integrated whole yet is flexible enough to accommodate many users and roles, multiple applications, changing vendors, evolving user needs, and advancing technology. Modularity and layering promote flexibility by reducing the complexity of a system and by restricting the ways in which components may interact. Enterprise-wide mediation promotes integration by providing message routing, support for standards, dictionary-based code translation, a centralized conceptual data schema, business rule implementation, and consistent access to databases. Several IAIMS sites have adopted a client-server architecture, and some have adopted a three-tiered approach, separating user interface functions, application logic, and repositories. PMID:9067884

  1. 31 CFR 593.510 - Transactions related to the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia authorized. 593.510 Section 593.510... importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia authorized. Except as otherwise... into the United States of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia are authorized....

  2. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...

  3. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...

  4. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...

  5. 31 CFR 593.510 - Transactions related to the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia authorized. 593.510 Section 593.510... importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia authorized. Except as otherwise... into the United States of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia are authorized....

  6. 26 CFR 1.631-2 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of timber under cutting contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Gain or loss upon the disposal of timber under... loss upon the disposal of timber under cutting contract. (a) In general. (1) If an owner disposes of timber held for more than 1 year (6 months for taxable years beginning before 1977; 9 months for...

  7. 36 CFR 223.118 - Appeal process for small business timber sale set-aside program share recomputation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shares. As such, these rules contain information requirements as defined in 5 CFR Part 1320. These... business timber sale set-aside program share recomputation decisions. 223.118 Section 223.118 Parks... FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale...

  8. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Disposal § 228.63 Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. In carrying out programs such as timber sales that involve construction and maintenance of various physical...

  9. 36 CFR 223.118 - Appeal process for small business timber sale set-aside program share recomputation decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shares. As such, these rules contain information requirements as defined in 5 CFR Part 1320. These... business timber sale set-aside program share recomputation decisions. 223.118 Section 223.118 Parks... FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Administration § 223.118 Appeal process for...

  10. 75 FR 20979 - Six Rivers National Forest, Mad River Ranger District, Ruth, CA, Beaverslide Timber Sale and Fuel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Forest Service Six Rivers National Forest, Mad River Ranger District, Ruth, CA, Beaverslide Timber Sale... supplemental environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: The Forest Service is proposing the Beaverslide Timber Sale and Fuel Treatment Project to provide timber products to local economies and to reduce...

  11. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...

  12. 36 CFR 228.63 - Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... timber sale or other Forest Service contract. 228.63 Section 228.63 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... Disposal § 228.63 Removal under terms of a timber sale or other Forest Service contract. In carrying out programs such as timber sales that involve construction and maintenance of various physical...

  13. 13 CFR 121.506 - What definitions are important for sales or leases of Government-owned timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sales or leases of Government-owned timber? 121.506 Section 121.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... for sales or leases of Government-owned timber? (a) Forest product industry means logging, wood... raw materials. (b) Logging of timber means felling and bucking, yarding, and/or loading. It does...

  14. 36 CFR 223.65 - Appraisal of timber for land exchange; right-of-way, or other authorized use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisal of timber for land... FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing §...

  15. 26 CFR 1.631-2 - Gain or loss upon the disposal of timber under cutting contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Gain or loss upon the disposal of timber under... loss upon the disposal of timber under cutting contract. (a) In general. (1) If an owner disposes of timber held for more than 1 year (6 months for taxable years beginning before 1977; 9 months for...

  16. 76 FR 26239 - Umatilla National Forest, Walla Walla Ranger District, Oregon, Cobbler II Timber Sale and Fuels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Forest Service Umatilla National Forest, Walla Walla Ranger District, Oregon, Cobbler II Timber Sale and... Timber Sale and Fuels Reduction Project. SUMMARY: On January 27, 2011, Umatilla National Forest Supervisor Kevin Martin withdrew his October 8, 2010 Record of Decision (ROD) for the Cobbler II Timber...

  17. 13 CFR 121.506 - What definitions are important for sales or leases of Government-owned timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sales or leases of Government-owned timber? 121.506 Section 121.506 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL... for sales or leases of Government-owned timber? (a) Forest product industry means logging, wood... raw materials. (b) Logging of timber means felling and bucking, yarding, and/or loading. It does...

  18. 32 CFR 644.551 - Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equal opportunity-sales of timber, embedded sand... § 644.551 Equal opportunity—sales of timber, embedded sand, gravel, stone, and surplus structures...) Sale of standing timber. (b) Sale of embedded sand, gravel, and stone in their natural state. (c)...

  19. 43 CFR 5400.0-7 - Public hearings to determine surplus quantities and species of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... quantities and species of unprocessed timber. 5400.0-7 Section 5400.0-7 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... hearings to determine surplus quantities and species of unprocessed timber. (a) Public hearings will be... and species of unprocessed timber surplus to the needs of domestic users and processors. Such...

  20. 7 CFR 1728.201 - Bulletin 1728H-701, Specification for Wood Crossarms (Solid and Laminated), Transmission Timbers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Solid and Laminated), Transmission Timbers and Pole Keys. 1728.201 Section 1728.201 Agriculture..., Specification for Wood Crossarms (Solid and Laminated), Transmission Timbers and Pole Keys. (a) General..., Specification for Quality Control and Inspection of Timber Products. Section 1728.201 of this part, ANSI...

  1. 7 CFR 1728.201 - Bulletin 1728H-701, Specification for Wood Crossarms (Solid and Laminated), Transmission Timbers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Solid and Laminated), Transmission Timbers and Pole Keys. 1728.201 Section 1728.201 Agriculture..., Specification for Wood Crossarms (Solid and Laminated), Transmission Timbers and Pole Keys. (a) General..., Specification for Quality Control and Inspection of Timber Products. Section 1728.201 of this part, ANSI...

  2. 7 CFR 1728.201 - Bulletin 1728H-701, Specification for Wood Crossarms (Solid and Laminated), Transmission Timbers...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Solid and Laminated), Transmission Timbers and Pole Keys. 1728.201 Section 1728.201 Agriculture..., Specification for Wood Crossarms (Solid and Laminated), Transmission Timbers and Pole Keys. (a) General..., Specification for Quality Control and Inspection of Timber Products. Section 1728.201 of this part, ANSI...

  3. Class Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosbie, Michael J.

    This compendium contains more than 40 schools that show new directions in design and the changing demands on this building type. It discusses the design challenges in new schools and how each one of the projects meets the demands of an architecture for learning. An introduction by architect Raymond Bordwell explains many of the trends in new…

  4. Architectural Tops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The development of the skyscraper is an American story that combines architectural history, economic power, and technological achievement. Each city in the United States can be identified by the profile of its buildings. The design of the tops of skyscrapers was the inspiration for the students in the author's high-school ceramic class to develop…

  5. Architectural Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Ronald; Yancey, Bruce

    Designed to be used as a supplement to a two-book course in basic drafting, these instructional materials consisting of 14 units cover the process of drawing all working drawings necessary for residential buildings. The following topics are covered in the individual units: introduction to architectural drafting, lettering and tools, site…

  6. Architectural Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Harold E.; Hurni, Andre

    1978-01-01

    Suggests building models as a way to reinforce and enhance related subjects such as architectural drafting, structural carpentry, etc., and discusses time, materials, scales, tools or equipment needed, how to achieve realistic special effects, and the types of projects that can be built (model of complete building, a panoramic model, and model…

  7. Ribosomal Antibiotics: Contemporary Challenges.

    PubMed

    Auerbach-Nevo, Tamar; Baram, David; Bashan, Anat; Belousoff, Matthew; Breiner, Elinor; Davidovich, Chen; Cimicata, Giuseppe; Eyal, Zohar; Halfon, Yehuda; Krupkin, Miri; Matzov, Donna; Metz, Markus; Rufayda, Mruwat; Peretz, Moshe; Pick, Ophir; Pyetan, Erez; Rozenberg, Haim; Shalev-Benami, Moran; Wekselman, Itai; Zarivach, Raz; Zimmerman, Ella; Assis, Nofar; Bloch, Joel; Israeli, Hadar; Kalaora, Rinat; Lim, Lisha; Sade-Falk, Ofir; Shapira, Tal; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Tang, Hua; Yonath, Ada

    2016-06-29

    Most ribosomal antibiotics obstruct distinct ribosomal functions. In selected cases, in addition to paralyzing vital ribosomal tasks, some ribosomal antibiotics are involved in cellular regulation. Owing to the global rapid increase in the appearance of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacterial strains, and to the extremely slow progress in developing new antibiotics worldwide, it seems that, in addition to the traditional attempts at improving current antibiotics and the intensive screening for additional natural compounds, this field should undergo substantial conceptual revision. Here, we highlight several contemporary issues, including challenging the common preference of broad-range antibiotics; the marginal attention to alterations in the microbiome population resulting from antibiotics usage, and the insufficient awareness of ecological and environmental aspects of antibiotics usage. We also highlight recent advances in the identification of species-specific structural motifs that may be exploited for the design and the creation of novel, environmental friendly, degradable, antibiotic types, with a better distinction between pathogens and useful bacterial species in the microbiome. Thus, these studies are leading towards the design of "pathogen-specific antibiotics," in contrast to the current preference of broad range antibiotics, partially because it requires significant efforts in speeding up the discovery of the unique species motifs as well as the clinical pathogen identification.

  8. Contemporary sea level rise.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, Anny; Llovel, William

    2010-01-01

    Measuring sea level change and understanding its causes has considerably improved in the recent years, essentially because new in situ and remote sensing observations have become available. Here we report on most recent results on contemporary sea level rise. We first present sea level observations from tide gauges over the twentieth century and from satellite altimetry since the early 1990s. We next discuss the most recent progress made in quantifying the processes causing sea level change on timescales ranging from years to decades, i.e., thermal expansion of the oceans, land ice mass loss, and land water-storage change. We show that for the 1993-2007 time span, the sum of climate-related contributions (2.85 +/- 0.35 mm year(-1)) is only slightly less than altimetry-based sea level rise (3.3 +/- 0.4 mm year(-1)): approximately 30% of the observed rate of rise is due to ocean thermal expansion and approximately 55% results from land ice melt. Recent acceleration in glacier melting and ice mass loss from the ice sheets increases the latter contribution up to 80% for the past five years. We also review the main causes of regional variability in sea level trends: The dominant contribution results from nonuniform changes in ocean thermal expansion.

  9. Ribosomal Antibiotics: Contemporary Challenges.

    PubMed

    Auerbach-Nevo, Tamar; Baram, David; Bashan, Anat; Belousoff, Matthew; Breiner, Elinor; Davidovich, Chen; Cimicata, Giuseppe; Eyal, Zohar; Halfon, Yehuda; Krupkin, Miri; Matzov, Donna; Metz, Markus; Rufayda, Mruwat; Peretz, Moshe; Pick, Ophir; Pyetan, Erez; Rozenberg, Haim; Shalev-Benami, Moran; Wekselman, Itai; Zarivach, Raz; Zimmerman, Ella; Assis, Nofar; Bloch, Joel; Israeli, Hadar; Kalaora, Rinat; Lim, Lisha; Sade-Falk, Ofir; Shapira, Tal; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Tang, Hua; Yonath, Ada

    2016-01-01

    Most ribosomal antibiotics obstruct distinct ribosomal functions. In selected cases, in addition to paralyzing vital ribosomal tasks, some ribosomal antibiotics are involved in cellular regulation. Owing to the global rapid increase in the appearance of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacterial strains, and to the extremely slow progress in developing new antibiotics worldwide, it seems that, in addition to the traditional attempts at improving current antibiotics and the intensive screening for additional natural compounds, this field should undergo substantial conceptual revision. Here, we highlight several contemporary issues, including challenging the common preference of broad-range antibiotics; the marginal attention to alterations in the microbiome population resulting from antibiotics usage, and the insufficient awareness of ecological and environmental aspects of antibiotics usage. We also highlight recent advances in the identification of species-specific structural motifs that may be exploited for the design and the creation of novel, environmental friendly, degradable, antibiotic types, with a better distinction between pathogens and useful bacterial species in the microbiome. Thus, these studies are leading towards the design of "pathogen-specific antibiotics," in contrast to the current preference of broad range antibiotics, partially because it requires significant efforts in speeding up the discovery of the unique species motifs as well as the clinical pathogen identification. PMID:27367739

  10. Ribosomal Antibiotics: Contemporary Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach-Nevo, Tamar; Baram, David; Bashan, Anat; Belousoff, Matthew; Breiner, Elinor; Davidovich, Chen; Cimicata, Giuseppe; Eyal, Zohar; Halfon, Yehuda; Krupkin, Miri; Matzov, Donna; Metz, Markus; Rufayda, Mruwat; Peretz, Moshe; Pick, Ophir; Pyetan, Erez; Rozenberg, Haim; Shalev-Benami, Moran; Wekselman, Itai; Zarivach, Raz; Zimmerman, Ella; Assis, Nofar; Bloch, Joel; Israeli, Hadar; Kalaora, Rinat; Lim, Lisha; Sade-Falk, Ofir; Shapira, Tal; Taha-Salaime, Leena; Tang, Hua; Yonath, Ada

    2016-01-01

    Most ribosomal antibiotics obstruct distinct ribosomal functions. In selected cases, in addition to paralyzing vital ribosomal tasks, some ribosomal antibiotics are involved in cellular regulation. Owing to the global rapid increase in the appearance of multi-drug resistance in pathogenic bacterial strains, and to the extremely slow progress in developing new antibiotics worldwide, it seems that, in addition to the traditional attempts at improving current antibiotics and the intensive screening for additional natural compounds, this field should undergo substantial conceptual revision. Here, we highlight several contemporary issues, including challenging the common preference of broad-range antibiotics; the marginal attention to alterations in the microbiome population resulting from antibiotics usage, and the insufficient awareness of ecological and environmental aspects of antibiotics usage. We also highlight recent advances in the identification of species-specific structural motifs that may be exploited for the design and the creation of novel, environmental friendly, degradable, antibiotic types, with a better distinction between pathogens and useful bacterial species in the microbiome. Thus, these studies are leading towards the design of “pathogen-specific antibiotics,” in contrast to the current preference of broad range antibiotics, partially because it requires significant efforts in speeding up the discovery of the unique species motifs as well as the clinical pathogen identification. PMID:27367739

  11. Forestry timber typing. Tanana demonstration project, Alaska ASVT. [Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrissey, L. A.; Ambrosia, V. G.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using LANDSAT digital data in conjunction with topographic data to delineate commercial forests by stand size and crown closure in the Tanana River basin of Alaska was tested. A modified clustering approach using two LANDSAT dates to generate an initial forest type classification was then refined with topographic data. To further demonstrate the ability of remotely sensed data in a fire protection planning framework, the timber type data were subsequently integrated with terrain information to generate a fire hazard map of the study area. This map provides valuable assistance in initial attack planning, determining equipment accessibility, and fire growth modeling. The resulting data sets were incorporated into the Alaska Department of Natural Resources geographic information system for subsequent utilization.

  12. Eleventh-century shift in timber procurement areas for the great houses of Chaco Canyon.

    PubMed

    Guiterman, Christopher H; Swetnam, Thomas W; Dean, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-01

    An enduring mystery from the great houses of Chaco Canyon is the origin of more than 240,000 construction timbers. We evaluate probable timber procurement areas for seven great houses by applying tree-ring width-based sourcing to a set of 170 timbers. To our knowledge, this is the first use of tree rings to assess timber origins in the southwestern United States. We found that the Chuska and Zuni Mountains (>75 km distant) were the most likely sources, accounting for 70% of timbers. Most notably, procurement areas changed through time. Before 1020 Common Era (CE) nearly all timbers originated from the Zunis (a previously unrecognized source), but by 1060 CE the Chuskas eclipsed the Zuni area in total wood imports. This shift occurred at the onset of Chaco florescence in the 11th century, a time with substantial expansion of existing great houses and the addition of seven new great houses in the Chaco Core area. It also coincides with the proliferation of Chuskan stone tools and pottery in the archaeological record of Chaco Canyon, further underscoring the link between land use and occupation in the Chuska area and the peak of great house construction. Our findings, based on the most temporally specific and replicated evidence of Chacoan resource procurement obtained to date, corroborate the long-standing but recently challenged interpretation that large numbers of timbers were harvested and transported from distant mountain ranges to build the great houses at Chaco Canyon.

  13. Eleventh-century shift in timber procurement areas for the great houses of Chaco Canyon

    PubMed Central

    Guiterman, Christopher H.; Dean, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    An enduring mystery from the great houses of Chaco Canyon is the origin of more than 240,000 construction timbers. We evaluate probable timber procurement areas for seven great houses by applying tree-ring width-based sourcing to a set of 170 timbers. To our knowledge, this is the first use of tree rings to assess timber origins in the southwestern United States. We found that the Chuska and Zuni Mountains (>75 km distant) were the most likely sources, accounting for 70% of timbers. Most notably, procurement areas changed through time. Before 1020 Common Era (CE) nearly all timbers originated from the Zunis (a previously unrecognized source), but by 1060 CE the Chuskas eclipsed the Zuni area in total wood imports. This shift occurred at the onset of Chaco florescence in the 11th century, a time with substantial expansion of existing great houses and the addition of seven new great houses in the Chaco Core area. It also coincides with the proliferation of Chuskan stone tools and pottery in the archaeological record of Chaco Canyon, further underscoring the link between land use and occupation in the Chuska area and the peak of great house construction. Our findings, based on the most temporally specific and replicated evidence of Chacoan resource procurement obtained to date, corroborate the long-standing but recently challenged interpretation that large numbers of timbers were harvested and transported from distant mountain ranges to build the great houses at Chaco Canyon. PMID:26644552

  14. Eleventh-century shift in timber procurement areas for the great houses of Chaco Canyon.

    PubMed

    Guiterman, Christopher H; Swetnam, Thomas W; Dean, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-01

    An enduring mystery from the great houses of Chaco Canyon is the origin of more than 240,000 construction timbers. We evaluate probable timber procurement areas for seven great houses by applying tree-ring width-based sourcing to a set of 170 timbers. To our knowledge, this is the first use of tree rings to assess timber origins in the southwestern United States. We found that the Chuska and Zuni Mountains (>75 km distant) were the most likely sources, accounting for 70% of timbers. Most notably, procurement areas changed through time. Before 1020 Common Era (CE) nearly all timbers originated from the Zunis (a previously unrecognized source), but by 1060 CE the Chuskas eclipsed the Zuni area in total wood imports. This shift occurred at the onset of Chaco florescence in the 11th century, a time with substantial expansion of existing great houses and the addition of seven new great houses in the Chaco Core area. It also coincides with the proliferation of Chuskan stone tools and pottery in the archaeological record of Chaco Canyon, further underscoring the link between land use and occupation in the Chuska area and the peak of great house construction. Our findings, based on the most temporally specific and replicated evidence of Chacoan resource procurement obtained to date, corroborate the long-standing but recently challenged interpretation that large numbers of timbers were harvested and transported from distant mountain ranges to build the great houses at Chaco Canyon. PMID:26644552

  15. Contemporary Aspects of Atomic Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, R. G. A.

    1972-01-01

    The approach generally used in writing undergraduate textbooks on Atomic and Nuclear Physics presents this branch as historical in nature. Describes the concepts of astrophysics, plasma physics and spectroscopy as contemporary and intriguing for modern scientists. (PS)

  16. Module Architecture for in Situ Space Laboratories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyzes internal outfitting architectures for space exploration laboratory modules. ISS laboratory architecture is examined as a baseline for comparison; applicable insights are derived. Laboratory functional programs are defined for seven planet-surface knowledge domains. Necessary and value-added departures from the ISS architecture standard are defined, and three sectional interior architecture options are assessed for practicality and potential performance. Contemporary guidelines for terrestrial analytical laboratory design are found to be applicable to the in-space functional program. Densepacked racks of system equipment, and high module volume packing ratios, should not be assumed as the default solution for exploration laboratories whose primary activities include un-scriptable investigations and experimentation on the system equipment itself.

  17. 36 CFR 219.11 - Timber requirements based on the NFMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... values, and for salvage, sanitation, or public health or safety. Examples of using timber harvest to... risk, or restoring meadow or savanna ecosystems where trees have invaded. (d) Limitations on...

  18. 36 CFR 219.11 - Timber requirements based on the NFMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... values, and for salvage, sanitation, or public health or safety. Examples of using timber harvest to... risk, or restoring meadow or savanna ecosystems where trees have invaded. (d) Limitations on...

  19. 36 CFR 219.11 - Timber requirements based on the NFMA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... values, and for salvage, sanitation, or public health or safety. Examples of using timber harvest to... risk, or restoring meadow or savanna ecosystems where trees have invaded. (d) Limitations on...

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium mangenotii TR, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Richard W; Cochran, Philip A; Dowd, Scot E; Andersen, Kylie; Anderson, Nichole; Brennan, Rachel; Brook, Nicole; Callaway, Tracie; Diamante, Kimberly; Duberstine, Annie; Fitch, Karla; Freiheit, Heidi; Godlewski, Chantel; Gorman, Kelly; Haubrich, Mark; Hernandez, Mercedes; Hirtreiter, Amber; Ivanoski, Beth; Jaminet, Xochitl; Kirkpatrick, Travis; Kratowicz, Jennifer; Latus, Casey; Leable, Tiegen; Lingafelt, Nicole; Lowe, Deanna; Lowrance, Holly; Malsack, Latiffa; Mazurkiewicz, Julie; Merlos, Persida; Messley, Jamie; Montemurro, Dawn; Nakitare, Samora; Nelson, Christine; Nye, Amber; Pazera, Valerie; Pierangeli, Gina; Rellora, Ashley; Reyes, Angelica; Roberts, Jennifer; Robins, Shadara; Robinson, Jeshannah; Schultz, Alissa; Seifert, Sara; Sigler, Elona; Spangler, Julie; Swift, Ebony; Tencate, Rebecca; Thurber, Jessica; Vallee, Kristin; Wamboldt, Jennifer; Whitten, Shannon; Woods, De'andrea; Wright, Amanda; Yankunas, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium mangenotii strain TR, which was isolated from the fecal material of a timber rattlesnake. This bacterium is nonpathogenic but contains 68 genes involved in virulence, disease, and defense. PMID:24407632

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Clostridium mangenotii TR, Isolated from the Fecal Material of a Timber Rattlesnake

    PubMed Central

    Cochran, Philip A.; Dowd, Scot E.; Andersen, Kylie; Anderson, Nichole; Brennan, Rachel; Brook, Nicole; Callaway, Tracie; Diamante, Kimberly; Duberstine, Annie; Fitch, Karla; Freiheit, Heidi; Godlewski, Chantel; Gorman, Kelly; Haubrich, Mark; Hernandez, Mercedes; Hirtreiter, Amber; Ivanoski, Beth; Jaminet, Xochitl; Kirkpatrick, Travis; Kratowicz, Jennifer; Latus, Casey; Leable, Tiegen; Lingafelt, Nicole; Lowe, DeAnna; Lowrance, Holly; Malsack, Latiffa; Mazurkiewicz, Julie; Merlos, Persida; Messley, Jamie; Montemurro, Dawn; Nakitare, Samora; Nelson, Christine; Nye, Amber; Pazera, Valerie; Pierangeli, Gina; Rellora, Ashley; Reyes, Angelica; Roberts, Jennifer; Robins, Shadara; Robinson, Jeshannah; Schultz, Alissa; Seifert, Sara; Sigler, Elona; Spangler, Julie; Swift, Ebony; TenCate, Rebecca; Thurber, Jessica; Vallee, Kristin; Wamboldt, Jennifer; Whitten, Shannon; Woods, De’andrea; Wright, Amanda; Yankunas, Darin

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium mangenotii strain TR, which was isolated from the fecal material of a timber rattlesnake. This bacterium is nonpathogenic but contains 68 genes involved in virulence, disease, and defense. PMID:24407632

  2. 36 CFR 223.48 - Restrictions on export and substitution of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... collection requirements as defined in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.48...

  3. 36 CFR 223.48 - Restrictions on export and substitution of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... collection requirements as defined in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.48...

  4. 36 CFR 223.48 - Restrictions on export and substitution of unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... collection requirements as defined in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of... FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.48...

  5. View of the remains of timber/carpentry shop (Feature 4), looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the remains of timber/carpentry shop (Feature 4), looking east - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  6. 43 CFR 5511.1-1 - Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... topography, soil, and forest. No timber not matured may be cut, and each tree taken must be utilized for some... section shall be disposed of as best adapted to the protection of the remaining growth and in such...

  7. 43 CFR 5511.1-1 - Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... topography, soil, and forest. No timber not matured may be cut, and each tree taken must be utilized for some... section shall be disposed of as best adapted to the protection of the remaining growth and in such...

  8. 43 CFR 5511.1-1 - Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... topography, soil, and forest. No timber not matured may be cut, and each tree taken must be utilized for some... section shall be disposed of as best adapted to the protection of the remaining growth and in such...

  9. 43 CFR 5511.1-1 - Free use of timber on mineral and nonmineral public lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... topography, soil, and forest. No timber not matured may be cut, and each tree taken must be utilized for some... section shall be disposed of as best adapted to the protection of the remaining growth and in such...

  10. Early Neolithic water wells reveal the world's oldest wood architecture.

    PubMed

    Tegel, Willy; Elburg, Rengert; Hakelberg, Dietrich; Stäuble, Harald; Büntgen, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    The European Neolithization ~6000-4000 BC represents a pivotal change in human history when farming spread and the mobile style of life of the hunter-foragers was superseded by the agrarian culture. Permanent settlement structures and agricultural production systems required fundamental innovations in technology, subsistence, and resource utilization. Motivation, course, and timing of this transformation, however, remain debatable. Here we present annually resolved and absolutely dated dendroarchaeological information from four wooden water wells of the early Neolithic period that were excavated in Eastern Germany. A total of 151 oak timbers preserved in a waterlogged environment were dated between 5469 and 5098 BC and reveal unexpectedly refined carpentry skills. The recently discovered water wells enable for the first time a detailed insight into the earliest wood architecture and display the technological capabilities of humans ~7000 years ago. The timbered well constructions made of old oak trees feature an unopened tree-ring archive from which annually resolved and absolutely dated environmental data can be culled. Our results question the principle of continuous evolutionary development in prehistoric technology, and contradict the common belief that metal was necessary for complex timber constructions. Early Neolithic craftsmanship now suggests that the first farmers were also the first carpenters. PMID:23284685

  11. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926—Alternatives to Timber Shoring EC30OC91.043 EC30OC91.044...

  12. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926—Alternatives to Timber Shoring EC30OC91.043 EC30OC91.044...

  13. 29 CFR Appendix E to Subpart P of... - Alternatives to Timber Shoring

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alternatives to Timber Shoring E Appendix E to Subpart P of..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Excavations Pt. 1926, Subpt. P, App. E Appendix E to Subpart P of Part 1926—Alternatives to Timber Shoring EC30OC91.043 EC30OC91.044...

  14. Dynamic timber cell recognition using two-dimensional image measurement machine.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng

    2011-08-01

    Image motion blur and defocus blur often occur when there is a relative motion between the imaging camera and the detected object. In this paper, we propose a robust timber cell recognition scheme using the low quality color timber cell images with the above-mentioned image blurs. First, a novel two-dimensional image measurement machine is devised, to obtain the object images sequentially by using a color camera. Second, the image-moment-based blur invariant features are calculated. Third, timber cell recognition is performed by using the computed Euclidean distance based on the moment invariants. We have experimentally proved that the effective use of image blur information improves the recognition accuracy of camera-captured timber cells. Moreover, the allowed maximum translation speed of the moving gallery is also discussed theoretically and experimentally. This scheme can identify the timber species by means of the cell recognition so as to judge the physical property and economic value of different timber species correctly. PMID:21895247

  15. Dynamic timber cell recognition using two-dimensional image measurement machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Peng

    2011-08-01

    Image motion blur and defocus blur often occur when there is a relative motion between the imaging camera and the detected object. In this paper, we propose a robust timber cell recognition scheme using the low quality color timber cell images with the above-mentioned image blurs. First, a novel two-dimensional image measurement machine is devised, to obtain the object images sequentially by using a color camera. Second, the image-moment-based blur invariant features are calculated. Third, timber cell recognition is performed by using the computed Euclidean distance based on the moment invariants. We have experimentally proved that the effective use of image blur information improves the recognition accuracy of camera-captured timber cells. Moreover, the allowed maximum translation speed of the moving gallery is also discussed theoretically and experimentally. This scheme can identify the timber species by means of the cell recognition so as to judge the physical property and economic value of different timber species correctly.

  16. Mushrooms, trees, and money: value estimates of commercial mushrooms and timber in the pacific northwest.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Susan J; Pilz, David; Weber, Nancy S; Brown, Ed; Rockwell, Victoria A

    2002-07-01

    Wild edible mushrooms are harvested in the forests of the Pacific Northwest, where both trees and mushrooms grow in the same landscape. Although there has been some discussion about the value of trees and mushrooms individually, little information exists about the joint production of, and value for, these two forest products. Through four case studies, the information needed to determine production and value for three wild mushroom species in different forests of the Pacific Northwest is described, and present values for several different forest management scenarios are presented. The values for timber and for mushrooms are site- and species-specific. On the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, timber is highly valued and chanterelles are a low-value product by weight; timber has a soil expectation value (SEV) 12 to 200 times higher than chanterelles. In south-central Oregon, timber and American matsutake mushrooms have the potential to have about the same SEV. In eastern Oregon, timber is worth 20 to 110 times as much as the morels that grow in the forest. Production economics is concerned with choices about how much and what to produce with what resources. The choices are influenced by changes in technical and economic circumstances. Through our description and analysis of the necessary definitions and assumptions to assess value in joint production of timber and wild mushrooms, we found that values are sensitive to assumptions about changes in forest management, yields for mushrooms and trees, and costs. PMID:12053246

  17. The Social Dynamics of Art Research: Contemporary Photography in Belfast Post the Good Friday Agreement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    This article reflects critically on "The Social Dynamics of Art Research: Contemporary Photography in Belfast", an engaged research project conducted with photographers, community activists, academics and visual artists in Belfast. Through a critical examination of the project's theoretical architecture and methodological framework…

  18. Space and Architecture's Current Line of Research? A Lunar Architecture Workshop With An Architectural Agenda.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, D.; van Dijk, A.

    The "2002 ESA Lunar Architecture Workshop" (June 3-16) ESTEC, Noordwijk, NL and V2_Lab, Rotterdam, NL) is the first-of-its-kind workshop for exploring the design of extra-terrestrial (infra) structures for human exploration of the Moon and Earth-like planets introducing 'architecture's current line of research', and adopting an architec- tural criteria. The workshop intends to inspire, engage and challenge 30-40 European masters students from the fields of aerospace engineering, civil engineering, archi- tecture, and art to design, validate and build models of (infra) structures for Lunar exploration. The workshop also aims to open up new physical and conceptual terrain for an architectural agenda within the field of space exploration. A sound introduc- tion to the issues, conditions, resources, technologies, and architectural strategies will initiate the workshop participants into the context of lunar architecture scenarios. In my paper and presentation about the development of the ideology behind this work- shop, I will comment on the following questions: * Can the contemporary architectural agenda offer solutions that affect the scope of space exploration? It certainly has had an impression on urbanization and colonization of previously sparsely populated parts of Earth. * Does the current line of research in architecture offer any useful strategies for com- bining scientific interests, commercial opportunity, and public space? What can be learned from 'state of the art' architecture that blends commercial and public pro- grammes within one location? * Should commercial 'colonisation' projects in space be required to provide public space in a location where all humans present are likely to be there in a commercial context? Is the wave in Koolhaas' new Prada flagship store just a gesture to public space, or does this new concept in architecture and shopping evolve the public space? * What can we learn about designing (infra-) structures on the Moon or any other

  19. Lab architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2008-04-01

    There are few more dramatic illustrations of the vicissitudes of laboratory architecturethan the contrast between Building 20 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and its replacement, the Ray and Maria Stata Center. Building 20 was built hurriedly in 1943 as temporary housing for MIT's famous Rad Lab, the site of wartime radar research, and it remained a productive laboratory space for over half a century. A decade ago it was demolished to make way for the Stata Center, an architecturally striking building designed by Frank Gehry to house MIT's computer science and artificial intelligence labs (above). But in 2004 - just two years after the Stata Center officially opened - the building was criticized for being unsuitable for research and became the subject of still ongoing lawsuits alleging design and construction failures.

  20. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Vanessa A; Peres, Carlos A

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land-use patterns, managing

  1. Temporal Decay in Timber Species Composition and Value in Amazonian Logging Concessions

    PubMed Central

    Peres, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Throughout human history, slow-renewal biological resource populations have been predictably overexploited, often to the point of economic extinction. We assess whether and how this has occurred with timber resources in the Brazilian Amazon. The asynchronous advance of industrial-scale logging frontiers has left regional-scale forest landscapes with varying histories of logging. Initial harvests in unlogged forests can be highly selective, targeting slow-growing, high-grade, shade-tolerant hardwood species, while later harvests tend to focus on fast-growing, light-wooded, long-lived pioneer trees. Brazil accounts for 85% of all native neotropical forest roundlog production, and the State of Pará for almost half of all timber production in Brazilian Amazonia, the largest old-growth tropical timber reserve controlled by any country. Yet the degree to which timber harvests beyond the first-cut can be financially profitable or demographically sustainable remains poorly understood. Here, we use data on legally planned logging of ~17.3 million cubic meters of timber across 314 species extracted from 824 authorized harvest areas in private and community-owned forests, 446 of which reported volumetric composition data by timber species. We document patterns of timber extraction by volume, species composition, and monetary value along aging eastern Amazonian logging frontiers, which are then explained on the basis of historical and environmental variables. Generalized linear models indicate that relatively recent logging operations farthest from heavy-traffic roads are the most selective, concentrating gross revenues on few high-value species. We find no evidence that the post-logging timber species composition and total value of forest stands recovers beyond the first-cut, suggesting that the commercially most valuable timber species become predictably rare or economically extinct in old logging frontiers. In avoiding even more destructive land-use patterns, managing

  2. Making Connections with Contemporary Echoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bernie

    1995-01-01

    Describes an interdisciplinary high school course that used contemporary films to illustrate overarching themes in the U.S. experience. Themes included individualism/social responsibility, isolation/internationalism, and liberal/conservative. Emphasis was on conceptual rather than historic relationships (e.g. "Norma Rae" illustrated concepts…

  3. Contemporary Argentine Cinema during Neoliberalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    In this article I analyze contemporary Argentine cinematic production assessing the impact of Law 24,377 that was implemented in 1995 and that provided much-needed funds for national productions. By looking at film production and consumption, the emergence of young filmmakers and the performance of both commercial films and those belonging to the…

  4. Adolescent Egocentrism: A Contemporary View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Paul D.; Maynard, Amanda M.; Uzelac, Sarah M.

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether adolescent egocentrism is displayed during adolescence in the same patterns as when the constructs were first defined in 1967. We empirically revisited the constructs of personal fable and imaginary audience in contemporary adolescents, hypothesizing a decrease in egocentrism with increasing age. Adolescents…

  5. Contemporary Art and Multicultural Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Susan; Kocur, Zoya

    1994-01-01

    Argues that much of what is used currently to teach about multiculturalism in art consists of art made "long ago" or "far away." Presents four contemporary art works incorporating elements of mass media, popular culture, and diverse artistic traditions. Includes four full-page color photographs of the art works. (CFR)

  6. Young People and Contemporary Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illeris, Helene

    2005-01-01

    In this article empirical examples are used to connect theories about young people, contemporary art forms and learning. The first part of the article introduces the new forms of consciousness which, according to the youth researchers Birgitte Simonsen and Thomas Ziehe, characterize young people of today. In the second part, the qualities of…

  7. Mentoring: Contemporary Principles and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bey, Theresa M., Ed.; Holmes, C. Thomas, Ed.

    In the spirit of educational reform efforts, an initiative exists to restructure the education of teachers through collaborative action, using mentoring to build alliances. This monograph, based on contemporary principles and issues of mentoring, presents ways to conceptualize the professional preparation and development of teachers. Following a…

  8. Contemporary Cambodian: The Social Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kheang, Lim Hack; And Others

    "Contemporary Cambodian" consists of seven parts: the "Grammatical Sketch," the "Introduction," four intermediate modules, and a Cambodian-English glossary containing all the words in the series. After completing the "Introduction," a student can study the intermediate modules in any order, since each serves as a partial review of the others. This…

  9. 29 CFR 570.54 - Forest fire fighting and forest fire prevention occupations, timber tract occupations, forestry...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... timber production, wood technology, forestry economics and marketing, and forest protection. The term... green lumber. Power-driven woodworking machines shall mean all fixed or portable machines or...

  10. Magnet School Desegregation Plans: Elements of the Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David A.

    Contemporary desegregation planning has been dominated by the use of magnet schools and the controlled choice process. This paper includes an examination of the organizing principles of magnet schools. Following the description of the architecture of the magnet schools themselves is a review of the organizing principles involved in the controlled…

  11. Color in present culture of European architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindler, Verena M.

    2002-06-01

    The influential architect Le Corbusier (1887 - 1965) was also involved in the adventure of contemporary painting, and color occupied half of his day, during twenty years, as he revealed in a study entitled 'Architectural Polychromy' written in the early thirties and recently published in 1997. In the present, contemporary architects in Central Europe are dealing with color in quite a different and exceptional way: most of them engage the artist to collaborate with them in their architectural projects. If painting is concerned with the interaction of color in the two-dimensional plane, architecture is deeply dependent on light and space, and deals entirely with the three- dimensional environment and its human perception. In the 1990s, the way architects and artists employed color in architecture was so striking that color offered a key to larger discussions and opened up an interesting aspect of architectural practice. It must be remembered that recent housing projects, such as the housing estate Pilotengasse in Vienna, Gigon & Guyer's Broelberg in Kilchberg (with Harald F. Muller), next to Zurich, and their Sport Center in Davos (with Adrian Schiess), Jean Nouvel's Cultural and Congress Center in Lucerne, or Sauerbruch & Hutton's Photonic Center and their GSW office building in Berlin have all been contributing to free color from its unconscious and dormant role. These works all impart qualities to color in architecture that were hitherto reserved to other materials and fields: they define the aspects of the interaction of visual and physical space, of materialization of volumes, and of the expression of wealth and luxury.

  12. Vulnerability of Mid-Atlantic forested watersheds to timber harvest disturbance.

    PubMed

    Schaberg, Rex H; Abt, Robert C

    2004-06-01

    Forested watersheds of the Mid-Atlantic Region are an important economic resource. They are also critical for maintaining water quality, sustaining important ecological services, and providing habitat to many animal and plant species of conservation concern. These forests are vulnerable to disturbance and fragmentation from changing patterns of land use in the Mid-Atlantic Region, and from harvests of commercially mature and relatively inexpensive timber. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA-FS) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) compiles data on forest condition by state and county. We have transformed these FIA data to a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 6-digithdrologic unit code (HUC 6) watershed base, and projected trends in timber growth, inventory, and harvest to 2025 using a timber economics forecasting model (SRTS). We consider forest sustainability from the perspective of timber production, and from the perspective of landscape stability important to conservation values. Simulation data is combined with FIA planted pine acreage data to form a more complete picture of forest extent, composition, and silvicultural practice. Early recognition of prevailing economic trends which encourage the fragmentation of mature forests due to increasing timber harvests may provide managers and policy makers with a planning tool to mitigate undesirable impacts. PMID:15141449

  13. Forest law compliance and enforcement: the case of on-farm timber extraction in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Christian P

    2011-03-01

    The paper investigates law compliance in case of on-farm timber extraction in Ghana. It empirically investigates compliance with rules that (i) require timber operators to obtain prior and informed consent from the farmers, (ii) require timber operators to pay appropriate and timely compensation for crop damage caused by timber extraction and (iii) ban chainsaw lumbering. The study documents a low level of compliance in all three domains. Subsequently, the paper discusses the underlying causes for the observed low compliance. The low compliance level is attributed to a legislation, and enforcement, that provides huge financial incentives for non-compliance for both farmers and timber operators, and in the latter case both with and without legal permits. At the same time the regulation is perceived to violate their moral values. The paper underlines the interests of the political elite as decisive in shaping the current regulation and the way it is implemented on the ground. It asserts that eliciting compliance requires consideration of both the instrumental and normative perspectives; else it becomes illusive. The study thus challenges the typical response of governments in developing countries, who, supported by donor agencies, attempt to elicit compliance through enhanced law enforcement efforts. The results presented on the Ghana case suggest that such an approach is unlikely to elicit compliance.

  14. Preliminary analysis of gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain Area, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, M.F.; Webring, M.W.; Bhattacharyya, B.K.

    1981-12-31

    Recent (1977 to 1978) gravity and aeromagnetic surveys of the Timber Mountain region, southern Nevada, have revealed new details of subsurface structure and lithology. The data strongly suggest that deformation caused by volcanic events has been accommodated along straight-line faults combining in such a fashion as to given a curvilinear appearance to regional structure. The magnetic data suggest that rock units in the central graben and along the southeast margin of Timber Mountain may have been altered, perhaps thermally, from their original state. The gravity data indicate that the south part of the Timber Mountain is underlain by relatively dense rock possibly intrusive rock, like that which crops out along its southeast side. The gravity data also suggest that the Silent Canyon caldera may extend considerably south of its presently indicated southern limit and may underlie much of the area of Timber Mountain. The moat areas appear to be more rectangular or triangular than annular in shape. The southern part of Timber Mountain caldera is separated from the Yucca Mountain area to the south by a triangular horst. The structural relations of the rock units making up the horst are complex. Several linear terrain features in the southern part of the caldera area are closely aligned with geophysical features, implying that the terrain features are fault-controlled.

  15. The architecture of madness and the good of paternalism.

    PubMed

    Sine, David M

    2008-09-01

    From the era of the asylum to the present day, the architectural design of inpatient facilities has long been considered a contributing factor in the treatment of patients with mental and substance use disorders. The author examines the ethical basis for decisions about the design of psychiatric hospitals--architectural paternalism. The ethic of paternalism in the design of asylums and in contemporary thinking about psychiatric hospital design is described. The author argues that limitation of patients' autonomy and rights by the purpose-built architectural environment is legitimate and ethical.

  16. A Numerical Analysis of the Resistance and Stiffness of the Timber and Concrete Composite Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumigała, Ewa; Szumigała, Maciej; Polus, Łukasz

    2015-03-01

    The article presents the results of a numerical analysis of the load capacity and stiffness of the composite timber and concrete beam. Timber and concrete structures are relatively new, they have not been thoroughly tested and they are rarely used because of technological constraints. One of the obstacles to using them is difficulty with finding a method which would allow successful cooperation between concrete and timber, which has been proposed by the authors of the present article. The modern idea of sustainable construction design requires the use of new more environmentally-friendly solutions. Wood as an ecological material is easily accessible, less energy-consuming, and under certain conditions more corrosion-resistant than steel. The analysis presented in the article showed that cooperation between a wooden beam and a concrete slab on profiled steel sheeting is possible. The analysed composite beam has a greater load capacity and stiffness than the wooden beam.

  17. Gross-merchantable timber volume estimation using an airborne lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maclean, G. A.; Krabill, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary study to determine the utility of an airborne laser as a tool for use by forest managers to estimate gross-merchantable timber volume was conducted near the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center, Wallops Flight Facility utilizing the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system. Measured timber volume was regressed against the cross-sectional area of an AOL-generated profile of forest at the same location. The AOL profile area was found to be a very significant variable in the estimation of gross-merchantable timber volume. Significant improvements were obtained when the data were stratified by species. The overall R-squared value obtained was 0.921 with the regression significant at the one percent level.

  18. Evaluation for mulching use of Japanese cedar wooden chips made from scrapped housing timber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Hiroki; Baba, Mitsuhisa; Suzuki, Yoshiko; Sugiura, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    Wooden timber from scrapped housing is not sufficiently recycled. Since timber made from Japanese cedar has been used in Towada, Aomori Prefecture for housing construction, we investigated the mulching method of Japanese cedar wooden chips made from scrapped housing timber. The main recycled chip diameter was comprised of two classes: 4.76 to 10 mm and 10 to 19 mm. They contained negligible amounts of heavy metals. By using 10 cm thick mulching chips, the growth of weeds was controlled due to a shading effect. It also contributed to making soil temperature and moisture stable, which are preferable for tree plantations at parks, orchards, and roadsides. Therefore, we concluded that Japanese cedar wooden chips are available for mulching when they were applied with a 10 cm mulching chips.

  19. Facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia after a timber rattlesnake envenomation.

    PubMed

    Madey, Jason J; Price, Amanda B; Dobson, Joseph V; Stickler, David E; McSwain, S David

    2013-11-01

    The timber rattlesnake, also known as Crotalus horridus, is well known to cause significant injury from toxins stored within its venom. During envenomation, toxic systemic effects immediately begin to cause damage to many organ systems including cardiovascular, hematologic, musculoskeletal, respiratory, and neurologic. One defining characteristic of the timber rattlesnake is a specific neurotoxin called crotoxin, or the "canebrake toxin," which is a potent β-neurotoxin affecting presynaptic nerves that can cause paralysis by inhibiting appropriate neuromuscular transmission. We present an unusual case of an 8-year-old boy bitten twice on his calf by a timber rattlesnake, who presented with a life-threatening envenomation and suffered multisystem organ failure as well as a prominent presynaptic neurotoxicity resulting in facial diplegia, pharyngeal paralysis, and ophthalmoplegia.

  20. Timber resource statistics for the Sacramento resource area of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Scacramento Resource Area of California, which includes Butte, Colusa, El Dorado, Glenn, Lake, Napa, Nevada, Placer, Plumas, Sacramento, Sierra, Sutter, Tehama, Yolo, and Yuba Counties. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of the Eldorado, Lassen, Mendocino, Plumas, Shasta-Trinity, Tahoe, and Toiyabe National Forests and the Lake Tahoe Basin Management Unit. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  1. Managing Commercial Tree Species for Timber Production and Carbon Sequestration: Management Guidelines and Financial Returns

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Kronrad

    2006-09-19

    A carbon credit market is developing in the United States. Information is needed by buyers and sellers of carbon credits so that the market functions equitably and efficiently. Analyses have been conducted to determine the optimal forest management regime to employ for each of the major commercial tree species so that profitability of timber production only or the combination of timber production and carbon sequestration is maximized. Because the potential of a forest ecosystem to sequester carbon depends on the tree species, site quality and management regimes utilized, analyses have determined how to optimize carbon sequestration by determining how to optimally manage each species, given a range of site qualities, discount rates, prices of carbon credits and other economic variables. The effects of a carbon credit market on the method and profitability of forest management, the cost of sequestering carbon, the amount of carbon that can be sequestered, and the amount of timber products produced has been determined.

  2. Architecture as Design Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1989-01-01

    Explores the use of analogies in architectural design, the importance of Gestalt theory and aesthetic cannons in understanding and being sensitive to architecture. Emphasizes the variation between public and professional appreciation of architecture. Notes that an understanding of architectural process enables students to improve the aesthetic…

  3. Forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities of Jharkhand.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Quli, S M S; Rai, R; Ali, Angrej; Gangoo, S A

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated extraction and consumption pattern of fuel wood, fodder and timber and forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities in Bundu block of Ranchi district in Jharkhand (India). The study is based on personal interviews of the selected respondents through structured interview schedule, personal observations and participatory rural appraisal tools i.e. key informant interviews and focus group discussions carried out in the sample villages, using multi-stage random sampling technique. The study revealed that the total extraction of fuel wood from different sources in villages was 2978.40 tons annum(-1), at the rate of 0.68 tons per capita annum(-1), which was mostly consumed in cooking followed by cottage industries, heating, community functions and others. The average fodder requirement per household was around 47.77 kg day(-1) with a total requirement of 14227.34 tons annum(-1). The average timber requirement per household was computed to be 0.346 m3 annum(-1) accounting for a total timber demand of 282.49 m3 annum(-1), which is mostly utilized in housing, followed by agricultural implements, rural furniture, carts and carriages, fencing, cattle shed/ store house and others. Forest biomass is the major source of fuel wood, fodder and timber for the primitive societies of the area contributing 1533.28 tons annum(-1) (51.48%) of the total fuel wood requirement, 6971.55 tons annum(-1) (49.00%) of the total fodder requirement and 136.36 m3 annum(-1) (48.27%) of the total timber requirement. The forest biomass is exposed to enormous pressure for securing the needs by the aboriginal people, posing great threat to biodiversity and environment of the region. Therefore, forest biomass conservation through intervention of alternative avenues is imperative to keep pace with the current development and future challenges in the area.

  4. Beyond reaping the first harvest: management objectives for timber production in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Zarin, Daniel J; Schulze, Mark D; Vidal, Edson; Lentini, Marco

    2007-08-01

    Millions of hectares of future timber concessions are slated to be implemented within large public forests under the forest law passed in 2006 by the Brazilian Congress. Additional millions of hectares of large, privately owned forests and smaller areas of community forests are certified as well managed by the Forest Stewardship Council, based on certification standards that will be reviewed in 2007. Forest size and ownership are two key factors that influence management objectives and the capacity of forest managers to achieve them. Current best ecological practices for timber production from Brazil's native Amazon forests are limited to reduced-impact logging (RIL) systems that minimize the environmental impacts of harvest operations and that obey legal restrictions regarding minimum diameters, rare species, retention of seed trees, maximum logging intensity, preservation of riparian buffers, fire protection, and wildlife conservation. Compared with conventional, predatory harvesting that constitutes >90% of the region's timber production, RIL dramatically reduces logging damage and helps maintain forest cover and the presence of rare tree species, but current RIL guidelines do not assure that the volume of timber removed can be sustained in future harvests. We believe it is counterproductive to expect smallholders to subscribe to additional harvest limitations beyond RIL, that larger private forested landholdings managed for timber production should be sustainable with respect to the total volume of timber harvested per unit area per cutting cycle, and that large public forests should sustain volume production of individual harvested species. These additional requirements would improve the ecological sustainability of forest management and help create a stable forest-based sector of the region's economy, but would involve costs associated with lengthened cutting cycles, reduced harvest intensities, and/or postharvest silviculture to promote adequate growth and

  5. Balancing Conservation and Economic Sustainability: The Future of the Amazon Timber Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merry, Frank; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Nepstad, Daniel; Amacher, Gregory; Rodrigues, Hermann

    2009-09-01

    Logging has been a much maligned feature of frontier development in the Amazon. Most discussions ignore the fact that logging can be part of a renewable, environmentally benign, and broadly equitable economic activity in these remote places. We estimate there to be some 4.5 ± 1.35 billion m3 of commercial timber volume in the Brazilian Amazon today, of which 1.2 billion m3 is currently profitable to harvest, with a total potential stumpage value of 15.4 billion. A successful forest sector in the Brazilian Amazon will integrate timber harvesting on private lands and on unprotected and unsettled government lands with timber concessions on public lands. If a legal, productive, timber industry can be established outside of protected areas, it will deliver environmental benefits in synergy with those provided by the region’s network of protected areas, the latter of which we estimate to have an opportunity cost from lost timber revenues of 2.3 billion over 30 years. Indeed, on all land accessible to harvesting, the timber industry could produce an average of more than 16 million m3 per year over a 30-year harvest cycle—entirely outside of current protected areas—providing 4.8 billion in returns to landowners and generating 1.8 billion in sawnwood sales tax revenue. This level of harvest could be profitably complemented with an additional 10% from logging concessions on National Forests. This advance, however, should be realized only through widespread adoption of reduced impact logging techniques.

  6. Forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities of Jharkhand.

    PubMed

    Islam, M A; Quli, S M S; Rai, R; Ali, Angrej; Gangoo, S A

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated extraction and consumption pattern of fuel wood, fodder and timber and forest biomass flow for fuel wood, fodder and timber security among tribal communities in Bundu block of Ranchi district in Jharkhand (India). The study is based on personal interviews of the selected respondents through structured interview schedule, personal observations and participatory rural appraisal tools i.e. key informant interviews and focus group discussions carried out in the sample villages, using multi-stage random sampling technique. The study revealed that the total extraction of fuel wood from different sources in villages was 2978.40 tons annum(-1), at the rate of 0.68 tons per capita annum(-1), which was mostly consumed in cooking followed by cottage industries, heating, community functions and others. The average fodder requirement per household was around 47.77 kg day(-1) with a total requirement of 14227.34 tons annum(-1). The average timber requirement per household was computed to be 0.346 m3 annum(-1) accounting for a total timber demand of 282.49 m3 annum(-1), which is mostly utilized in housing, followed by agricultural implements, rural furniture, carts and carriages, fencing, cattle shed/ store house and others. Forest biomass is the major source of fuel wood, fodder and timber for the primitive societies of the area contributing 1533.28 tons annum(-1) (51.48%) of the total fuel wood requirement, 6971.55 tons annum(-1) (49.00%) of the total fodder requirement and 136.36 m3 annum(-1) (48.27%) of the total timber requirement. The forest biomass is exposed to enormous pressure for securing the needs by the aboriginal people, posing great threat to biodiversity and environment of the region. Therefore, forest biomass conservation through intervention of alternative avenues is imperative to keep pace with the current development and future challenges in the area. PMID:26536796

  7. 31 CFR 593.205 - Prohibition on the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... round log or timber product originating in Liberia. 593.205 Section 593.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... on the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia. Except as otherwise... section, the importation into the United States, directly or indirectly, of any round log or...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. (a... disposal of iron ore mined in the United States, even if held primarily for sale to customers, if...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. (a... disposal of iron ore mined in the United States, even if held primarily for sale to customers, if...

  10. 76 FR 60493 - Settlement Agreements for Recovery of Past Response Costs; Granite Timber Post and Pole Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... AGENCY Settlement Agreements for Recovery of Past Response Costs; Granite Timber Post and Pole Site, Philipsburg, Granite County, MT AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice and Request for... Mark Metesh (Settling Party), regarding the Granite Timber Site (Site), located 5 miles south...

  11. 36 CFR 223.203 - Indirect substitution exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... approved share of unprocessed Federal timber, in accordance with 36 CFR 223.203, the prohibition contained... in 5 CFR part 1320. These requirements have been approved by the Office of Management and Budget and... exception for National Forest System timber from within Washington State. 223.203 Section 223.203...

  12. 31 CFR 593.205 - Prohibition on the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... round log or timber product originating in Liberia. 593.205 Section 593.205 Money and Finance: Treasury... on the importation of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia. Except as otherwise... section, the importation into the United States, directly or indirectly, of any round log or...

  13. 77 FR 27013 - Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District; Tongass National Forest; Alaska; Saddle Lakes Timber Sale...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... Timber Sale Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Intent to... timber in the Saddle Lakes ] area of Revillagigedo Island, Ketchikan-Misty Fiords Ranger District, Tongass National Forest. The proposed action would harvest almost 33 million board feet (MMBF) of...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. (a... disposal of iron ore mined in the United States, even if held primarily for sale to customers, if...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. (a... disposal of iron ore mined in the United States, even if held primarily for sale to customers, if...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1084 - Gain or loss from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. 404.1084 Section 404.1084 Employees... from disposition of property; capital assets; timber, coal, and iron ore; involuntary conversion. (a... disposal of iron ore mined in the United States, even if held primarily for sale to customers, if...

  17. Contemporary cybernetics and its facets of cognitive informatics and computational intelligence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yingxu; Kinsner, Witold; Zhang, Du

    2009-08-01

    This paper explores the architecture, theoretical foundations, and paradigms of contemporary cybernetics from perspectives of cognitive informatics (CI) and computational intelligence. The modern domain and the hierarchical behavioral model of cybernetics are elaborated at the imperative, autonomic, and cognitive layers. The CI facet of cybernetics is presented, which explains how the brain may be mimicked in cybernetics via CI and neural informatics. The computational intelligence facet is described with a generic intelligence model of cybernetics. The compatibility between natural and cybernetic intelligence is analyzed. A coherent framework of contemporary cybernetics is presented toward the development of transdisciplinary theories and applications in cybernetics, CI, and computational intelligence.

  18. Stratification of forest vegetation for timber inventory using Landsat and collateral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodcock, C. E.; Strahler, A. H.; Logan, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    An automated forest stratification procedure based on Landsat and digital terrain data is reviewed. The system uses Landsat multispectral brightness values, a spatial texture channel, and digital terrain data information to divide Klamath National Forest vegetation into timber volume-homogeneous strata. The stratification process involves analyst-supervised class pooling editing, and the modeling of the regional type in a spatial manner using the digital terrain data. It is noted that for a given size and density class, the timber volume will change when the regional type changes, reflecting differences in growth potential.

  19. Efficient utilization of red maple lumber in glued-laminated timber beams. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Janowiak, J.J.; Manbeck, H.B.; Hernandez, R.; Moody, R.C.; Blankenhorn, P.R.

    1995-09-01

    The feasibility of utilizing cant-sawn hardwood lumber, which would not usually be desired for furniture manufacture, was studied for the manufacture of structural glue-laminated (glulam) timber. Two red maple beam combinations were evaluated. Test results of 42 red maple glulam beams showed that it was feasible to develop structural glulam timber from cant-swan lumber. The glulam combinations made from E-rated lumber exceeded the target design bending stress of 2,400 lb/in 2 and met the target modulus of elasticity (MOE) of 1.8 x 106 lb/in 2.

  20. Estimation Of Shaking Table Test Of Timber Frame And Analytical Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakagawa, Manabu; Isoda, Hiroshi; Okano, Akitaka

    This study presents comparison of the results calculated from time history analysis and shaking table test of wood houses. Wood houses consist of timber frame with moment resisting joint, post and beam construction with shear walls and their composite structure. As the result, maximum displacement by numerical model corresponds to the result of shaking table test. Based on the confirmation of the capability of numerical model, some analytical parametric study were conducted. Main result obtained from the studies is that timber frame with moment resisting joint should be evaluated and be structural designed using horizontal load-carrying capacity in addition to allowable stress design.

  1. 31 CFR 593.412 - Release of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia from a bonded warehouse or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of any round log or timber... Interpretations § 593.412 Release of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia from a bonded... from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone of any round log or timber product originating in...

  2. Outcomes and Impacts from the First Two Years of the Timber Retraining Benefits (TRB) Program. Research Report No. 95-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seppanen, Loretta

    From 1991-93, 2,147 dislocated workers from timber-impacted counties of Washington state received Timber Retraining Benefits (TRB), with 81% using the aid to attend a state community or technical college. To determine the impact of the TRB program on the dislocated workers and their timber communities, the Washington State Board for Community and…

  3. 31 CFR 593.412 - Release of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia from a bonded warehouse or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release of any round log or timber... Interpretations § 593.412 Release of any round log or timber product originating in Liberia from a bonded... from a bonded warehouse or foreign trade zone of any round log or timber product originating in...

  4. A climate for contemporary evolution.

    PubMed

    Skelly, David

    2010-01-01

    A new study of divergence in freshwater fish provides strong evidence of rapid, temperature-mediated adaptation. This study is particularly important in the ongoing debate over the extent and significance of evolutionary response to climate change because divergence has occurred in relatively few generations in spite of ongoing gene flow and in the aftermath of a significant genetic bottleneck, factors that have previously been considered obstacles to evolution. Climate change may thus be more likely to foster contemporary evolutionary responses than has been anticipated, and I argue here for the importance of investigating their possible occurrence. PMID:21070684

  5. Controversies in Contemporary Facial Reanimation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Leslie; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Facial palsy is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial implications. Although the complexity of facial expression and intricate synergy of facial mimetic muscles are difficult to restore, the goal of management is to reestablish facial symmetry and movement. Facial reanimation surgery requires an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of facial palsy while considering patient age, comorbidities, motivation, and goals. Contemporary reconstructive options include a spectrum of static and dynamic procedures. Controversies in the evaluation of patients with facial palsy, timing of intervention, and management decisions for dynamic smile reanimation are discussed. PMID:27400842

  6. A contemporary assessment of change in humid tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Asner, Gregory P; Rudel, Thomas K; Aide, T Mitchell; Defries, Ruth; Emerson, Ruth

    2009-12-01

    In recent decades the rate and geographic extent of land-use and land-cover change has increased throughout the world's humid tropical forests. The pan-tropical geography of forest change is a challenge to assess, and improved estimates of the human footprint in the tropics are critical to understanding potential changes in biodiversity. We combined recently published and new satellite observations, along with images from Google Earth and a literature review, to estimate the contemporary global extent of deforestation, selective logging, and secondary regrowth in humid tropical forests. Roughly 1.4% of the biome was deforested between 2000 and 2005. As of 2005, about half of the humid tropical forest biome contained 50% or less tree cover. Although not directly comparable to deforestation, geographic estimates of selective logging indicate that at least 20% of the humid tropical forest biome was undergoing some level of timber harvesting between 2000 and 2005. Forest recovery estimates are even less certain, but a compilation of available reports suggests that at least 1.2% of the humid tropical forest biome was in some stage of long-term secondary regrowth in 2000. Nearly 70% of the regrowth reports indicate forest regeneration in hilly, upland, and mountainous environments considered marginal for large-scale agriculture and ranching. Our estimates of the human footprint are conservative because they do not resolve very small-scale deforestation, low-intensity logging, and unreported secondary regrowth, nor do they incorporate other impacts on tropical forest ecosystems, such as fire and hunting. Our results highlight the enormous geographic extent of forest change throughout the humid tropics and the considerable limitations of the science and technology available for such a synthesis. PMID:20078639

  7. People, power and timber: the politics of community-based forest management.

    PubMed

    Pulhin, Juan M; Dressler, Wolfram H

    2009-10-01

    The potential of devolved conservation to empower people, reduce poverty and protect forest resources has yet to be realized in much of the developing world. This is particularly evident in the Philippines where the central state paradoxically recentralizes political power through devolution at the policy, program and project level in forest management. We investigate how centralized state power emanates through devolved networks to affect the success of local timber utilization involving community-based forest management (CBFM) on Mindanao Island, the southern Philippines. By examining broader shifts from centralized to devolved forest management, results suggest that centralized political power continues to control and adversely affect local uses of timber through CBFM. We discuss how in the process of state authorities recentralizing devolved rights and responsibility over timber management, community-based logging operations were threatened but sustained by members relying on community-based structures and their own capabilities. The conclusion asserts that broader state processes of devolving power over timber management remains constrained by political motives and interests and so largely fails to fulfill the objectives of community-based forest management. PMID:19717220

  8. 36 CFR 223.2 - Disposal of timber for administrative use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL... other forest products in any amount on National Forest System lands may be disposed of for... maximum cut fixed in accordance with established policies for management of the National Forests....

  9. 75 FR 25197 - Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Shasta Trinity National Forest, South Fork Management Unit, California Salt Timber Harvest and Fuels Hazard Reduction Project AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare...

  10. 36 CFR 294.24 - Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas. 294.24 Section 294.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... personal or administrative use, as provided for in 36 CFR part 223; or (2) Where incidental to...

  11. 36 CFR 294.24 - Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas. 294.24 Section 294.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... personal or administrative use, as provided for in 36 CFR part 223; or (2) Where incidental to...

  12. 36 CFR 294.24 - Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Timber cutting, sale, or removal in Idaho Roadless Areas. 294.24 Section 294.24 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE... personal or administrative use, as provided for in 36 CFR part 223; or (2) Where incidental to...

  13. 36 CFR 223.195 - Procedures for identifying and marking unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... originating from the ____ timber sale, Forest Service contract number ____ pursuant to 36 CFR 223.195. I... branded on both ends in full compliance with 36 CFR 223.195. I make this certification with full knowledge... 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.) (Act) and its implementing regulations at 36 CFR part 223. I...

  14. 36 CFR 223.2 - Disposal of timber for administrative use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... maximum cut fixed in accordance with established policies for management of the National Forests. Such... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Disposal of timber for administrative use. 223.2 Section 223.2 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  15. On the question of the necessity of implementation of automatic control systems in timber industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khasanov, E. R.; Zelenkov, P. V.; Petrosyan, M. O.; Murygin, A. V.; Laptenor, V. D.

    2016-04-01

    The paper considers the necessity of implementation of automatic control systems on the level of forest farms management and timber industry. Main areas of activity, which currently subjected to automation, are revealed. Objectives, which solved by implementation of APCS, are identified.

  16. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart P of... - Timber Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 13 feet deep and five feet wide. From Table C-1.1, for acceptable arrangements of timber can be used. Arrangement #B1 Space 4×4 crossbraces at six feet horizontally and four feet vertically. Wales are not required. Space 3×8 uprights at six feet horizontally. This arrangement is commonly called “skip...

  17. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart P of... - Timber Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 13 feet deep and five feet wide. From Table C-1.1, for acceptable arrangements of timber can be used. Arrangement #B1 Space 4×4 crossbraces at six feet horizontally and four feet vertically. Wales are not required. Space 3×8 uprights at six feet horizontally. This arrangement is commonly called “skip...

  18. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart P of... - Timber Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 13 feet deep and five feet wide. From Table C-1.1, for acceptable arrangements of timber can be used. Arrangement #B1 Space 4×4 crossbraces at six feet horizontally and four feet vertically. Wales are not required. Space 3×8 uprights at six feet horizontally. This arrangement is commonly called “skip...

  19. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart P of... - Timber Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 13 feet deep and five feet wide. From Table C-1.1, for acceptable arrangements of timber can be used. Arrangement #B1 Space 4×4 crossbraces at six feet horizontally and four feet vertically. Wales are not required. Space 3×8 uprights at six feet horizontally. This arrangement is commonly called “skip...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix C to Subpart P of... - Timber Shoring for Trenches

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 13 feet deep and five feet wide. From Table C-1.1, for acceptable arrangements of timber can be used. Arrangement #B1 Space 4×4 crossbraces at six feet horizontally and four feet vertically. Wales are not required. Space 3×8 uprights at six feet horizontally. This arrangement is commonly called “skip...

  1. Seasonal variation in hematology and blood plasma chemistry values of the timber rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus).

    PubMed

    LaGrange, Seth M; Kimble, Steven J A; MacGowan, Brian J; Williams, Rod N

    2014-10-01

    Hematology, biochemical analyses, and body condition indices are useful tools for describing animal health, especially when making management decisions for species of conservation concern. We report hematologic, biochemical, and body condition index data for 13 free-ranging timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) sampled repeatedly over an active season in Indiana, USA.

  2. 36 CFR 223.193 - Procedures for reporting acquisition and disposition of unprocessed Federal timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Regulations at 13 CFR part 121; and (ix) A certificate stating that the certifier has read and understands the... acquisition and disposition of unprocessed Federal timber. 223.193 Section 223.193 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM...

  3. 77 FR 28871 - Algonquin Power Company; Abenaki Timber Corporation; Notice of Transfer of Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Algonquin Power Company; Abenaki Timber Corporation; Notice of Transfer of Exemption 1. Pursuant to section 4.106 of the Commission's regulations,\\1\\ Rebecca McCauley, exemptee...

  4. 36 CFR 223.195 - Procedures for identifying and marking unprocessed timber.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... originating from the ____ timber sale, Forest Service contract number ____ pursuant to 36 CFR 223.195. I... branded on both ends in full compliance with 36 CFR 223.195. I make this certification with full knowledge... 1990 (16 U.S.C. 620, et seq.) (Act) and its implementing regulations at 36 CFR part 223. I...

  5. 76 FR 13974 - Information Collection; Small Business Timber Sale Set-Aside Program; Appeal Procedures on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Forest Service adopted the Small Business Timber Sale Set-Aside Program on July 26, 1990 (55 FR 30485... notice to affected purchasers offering an opportunity to comment on the recomputation of shares (61 FR...-Aside Program: Appeal Procedures on Recomputation of Shares (36 CFR 223.118; 64 FR 411, January 5,...

  6. Timber, Minerals, and Social Change: An Exploratory Test of Two Resource-Dependent Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machlis, Gary E.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Tests relationship between local resource production and social systems in two natural resource industry communities: one timber-dependent, the other mining-dependent. Data collected for 13 resource-production indicators and 15 social-change indicators. Confirms hypothesis that social change is associated with the production level of local…

  7. Non-Timber Forest Products' Marketing in Nigeria. A Case Study of Osun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiyeloja, Adedapo Ayo; Ajewole, Opeyemi Isaac

    2006-01-01

    Research on markets and marketing of some non-timber forest products (NTFPs) was carried out in selected locations of Osun State. The NTFPs considered are chewing sticks such as "Massularia acuminata" and bush meat like "Thryonomys swinderianus", representing both the flora and fauna aspects of NTFPs, respectively. Five Local Government Areas were…

  8. Creating Indian Entrepreneurs: Menominees, Neopit Mills, and Timber Exploitation, 1890-1915.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosmer, Brian C.

    1991-01-01

    While other reservations were being forcibly allotted among tribal members, the Menominees retained their land in common, gained control of exploitation of reservation timber resources, and profited from the operations of their own lumber mill. A new theory of the impact of market economies on Indian peoples is needed. (SV)

  9. Hydrological response to timber harvest in northern Idaho: Implications for channel scour and persistence of salmonids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tonina, D.; Luce, C.H.; Rieman, B.; Buffington, J.M.; Goodwin, P.; Clayton, S.R.; Ali, S. Md; Barry, J.J.; Berenbrock, C.

    2008-01-01

    The potential for forest harvest to increase snowmelt rates in maritime snow climates is well recognized. However, questions still exist about the magnitude of peak flow increases in basins larger than 10 km2 and the geomorphic and biological consequences of these changes. In this study, we used observations from two nearly adjacent small basins (13 and 30 km2) in the Coeur d'Alene River basin, one with recent, relatively extensive, timber harvest, and the other with little disturbance in the last 50 years to explore changes in peak flows due to timber harvest and their potential effects on fish. Peak discharge was computed for a specitic rain-on-snow event using a series of physical models that linked predicted values of snowmelt input to a runoff-routing model. Predictions indicate that timber harvest caused a 25% increase in the peak flow of the modelled event and increased the frequency of events of this magnitude from a 9-year recurrence interval to a 3-6-year event. These changes in hydrologic regime, with larger discharges at shorter recurrence intervals, are predicted to increase the depth and frequency of streambed scour, causing up to 15% added mortality of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) embryos. Mortality from increased scour, although not catastrophic, may have contributed to the extirpation of this species from the Coeur d'Alene basin, given the widespread timber harvest that occurred in this region. Copyright ?? 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  11. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  12. 29 CFR 788.8 - “Cruising, surveying, or felling timber.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âCruising, surveying, or felling timber.â 788.8 Section 788.8 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS FORESTRY OR...

  13. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in timber? 23.73 Section 23.73 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  14. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in timber? 23.73 Section 23.73 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  15. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in timber? 23.73 Section 23.73 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  16. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in timber? 23.73 Section 23.73 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  17. 50 CFR 23.73 - How can I trade internationally in timber?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How can I trade internationally in timber? 23.73 Section 23.73 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF...

  18. Long-term monitoring and field testing of an innovative multistory timber building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenzetter, Piotr; Morris, Hugh; Worth, Margaret; Kohli, Varun; Uma, S. R.

    2011-04-01

    An innovative three-story timber building, using self-centering, post-tensioned timber shear walls as the main horizontal load resisting system and lightweight composite timber-concrete floors, has recently been completed in Nelson, New Zealand. It is expected to be the trailblazer for similar but taller structures to be more widely adopted. Performance based standards require an advanced understanding of building responses and in order to meet the need for in-situ performance data the building has been subjected to forced vibration testing and instrumented for continuous monitoring using a total of about 90 data channels to capture its dynamic and long-term responses. The first part of the paper presents a brief discussion of the existing research on the seismic performance of timber frame buildings and footfall induced floor vibrations. An outline of the building structural system, focusing on the novel design solutions, is then discussed. This is followed by the description of the monitoring system. The paper emphasizes the need for optimal placement of a limited number of sensors and demonstrates how this was achieved for monitoring floor vibrations with the help of the effective independence-driving point residue (EfI-DPR) technique. A novel approach to the EfI-DPR method proposed here uses a combinatorial search algorithm that increases the chances of obtaining the globally optimal solution. Finally, the results from the forced vibration tests conducted on the whole building at different construction stages are reviewed.

  19. Results of Training for Timber Retraining Benefits Recipients. Research Report No. 99-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia. Education Div.

    This report reviews the accomplishments of the Timber Retraining Benefits (TRB) program of Washington's 32 two-year colleges. These colleges served 1,651 TRB workers in 1997-98, and 7,000 workers since the program inception in 1991. The report, based on data from college enrollment records and unemployment insurance system data, provides detailed…

  20. New computer architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Tiberghien, J.

    1984-01-01

    This book presents papers on supercomputers. Topics considered include decentralized computer architecture, new programming languages, data flow computers, reduction computers, parallel prefix calculations, structural and behavioral descriptions of digital systems, instruction sets, software generation, personal computing, and computer architecture education.

  1. High performance parallel architectures

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E. )

    1989-09-01

    In this paper the author describes current high performance parallel computer architectures. A taxonomy is presented to show computer architecture from the user programmer's point-of-view. The effects of the taxonomy upon the programming model are described. Some current architectures are described with respect to the taxonomy. Finally, some predictions about future systems are presented. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  2. Timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and southern resource areas of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-05-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the San Joaquin and Southern Resource Areas of California. Data were collected as part of a statewide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of some areas. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  3. Contemporary issues in hydrogels research

    SciTech Connect

    Peppas, N.A.

    1993-12-31

    The last ten years has seen an explosion in hydrogels research, the result of improved understanding of the structure and behavior of these water-swollen, crosslinked polymers. After the early developments of Flory And Katchalsky in the 1940s, the great Czechoslovakian researchers of the 1960s and Andrade, Hoffman, Ratner and Merrill of the early 1970s, hydrogels have again attracted significant research interest, especially through the imaginative research of Tanaka in the 1980s and others. Eight general areas of contemporary research in hydrogels are identified: (i) kinetic analysis of the copolymerization/crosslinking reactions used in hydrogel preparation; (ii) gelation and percolation theories; (iii) novel methods for tailor-made copolymers with desirable functional groups, or biodegradable chains; (iv) biomimetic hydrogels; (V) hydrogels of controlled porous structure; (vi) ultrapure hydrogels devoid of crosslinking agents, emulsifiers, etc.; (vii) critical phenomena in hydrogels; and (viii) behavior of anionic, cationic and amphiphilic hydrogels.

  4. Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian, Ed.; Reese, Elaine, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    "Contemporary Debates in Childhood Education and Development" is a unique resource and reference work that brings together leading international researchers and thinkers, with divergent points of view, to discuss contemporary problems and questions in childhood education and developmental psychology. Through an innovative format whereby leading…

  5. School Counselors: A Review of Contemporary Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Steve F.

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to review the topic of school counselors and the contemporary issues surrounding this profession. An introduction to the profession and overview of its history provides a comprehensive basis on which to understand today's school counseling profession. An examination of contemporary themes of school counseling will include job…

  6. Contemporary Issues in Science. Implementation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staten Island Continuum of Education, NY.

    Contemporary Issues in Science Program (CIIS) is designed to provide teachers and students with the necessary tools and strategies for bringing contemporary scientific issues into the classroom. Provided in this document are discussions of the three major elements in the program, support elements, and major activities. Major elements include the…

  7. The Nature of Contemporary History. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaddis, John Lewis

    This document addresses the importance of teaching contemporary history. The failure to teach contemporary history leaves students ill equipped to deal with the present and the future, and also ensures that they will have little interest in the history of other times. Because memory is the central organizing principle in peoples minds, the…

  8. The Tera Multithreaded Architecture and Unstructured Meshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bokhari, Shahid H.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.

    1998-01-01

    The Tera Multithreaded Architecture (MTA) is a new parallel supercomputer currently being installed at San Diego Supercomputing Center (SDSC). This machine has an architecture quite different from contemporary parallel machines. The computational processor is a custom design and the machine uses hardware to support very fine grained multithreading. The main memory is shared, hardware randomized and flat. These features make the machine highly suited to the execution of unstructured mesh problems, which are difficult to parallelize on other architectures. We report the results of a study carried out during July-August 1998 to evaluate the execution of EUL3D, a code that solves the Euler equations on an unstructured mesh, on the 2 processor Tera MTA at SDSC. Our investigation shows that parallelization of an unstructured code is extremely easy on the Tera. We were able to get an existing parallel code (designed for a shared memory machine), running on the Tera by changing only the compiler directives. Furthermore, a serial version of this code was compiled to run in parallel on the Tera by judicious use of directives to invoke the "full/empty" tag bits of the machine to obtain synchronization. This version achieves 212 and 406 Mflop/s on one and two processors respectively, and requires no attention to partitioning or placement of data issues that would be of paramount importance in other parallel architectures.

  9. In situ assessment of structural timber elements of a historic building by infrared thermography and ultrasonic velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandemir-Yucel, A.; Tavukcuoglu, A.; Caner-Saltik, E. N.

    2007-01-01

    The infrared thermography (IRT) and the ultrasonic velocity measurements (UVM) promise to be particularly important to assess the state of deterioration and the adequacy of the boundary and microclimatic conditions for timber elements. These non-destructive methods supported by laboratory analyses of timber samples were conducted on a 13th century monument, Aslanhane Mosque in Ankara, Turkey. The combined interpretation of the results was done to assess the condition of structural timber elements in terms of their state of preservation, the dampness problems and the recent incompatible repairs affecting them. Results indicated that moist areas in the structure were associated with roof drainage problems and the repairs undertaken with cement-based mortars and plasters and oil-based paints. Juxtaposition of the IRT and UVM together with laboratory analyses was found to be useful to assess the soundness of timber, enhanced the accuracy and effectiveness of the survey and facilitated to build up the urgent and long-term conservation programs.

  10. The economic viability of smallholder timber production under expanding açaí palm production in the Amazon Estuary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fortini, Lucas; Douglas R. Carter,

    2015-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the economic potentials and limitations of tropical timber production and management at smallholder scales, with the most relevant research focusing on community forestry efforts. As a rare tropical example of long-lasting small-scale timber production, in this study we explore the economics of smallholder vertically integrated timber use to better understand the activity in the context of its primary land use alternative in the Amazon Estuary, açaí palm fruit production. We use data from landowner and firm surveys, participatory monitoring of firms, and detailed forest and sawmill operation monitoring to devise financial returns models of smallholder timber micro firms and açaí palm fruit production. We then compare the economics of the two activities to better understand how differences may shape decisions at the small holder scale that impact current land use shifts in the region.

  11. The value of volume and growth measurements in timber sales management of the National Forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper summarizes work performed in the estimation of gross social value of timber volume and growth rate information used in making regional harvest decisions in the National Forest System. A model was developed to permit parametric analysis. The problem is formulated as one of finding optimal inventory holding patterns. Public timber management differs from other inventory holding problems in that the inventory, itself, generates value over time in providing recreational, aesthetic and environmental goods. 'Nontimber' demand estimates are inferred from past Forest Service harvest and sales levels. The solution requires a description of the harvest rates which maintain the optimum inventory level. Gross benefits of the Landsat systems are estimated by comparison with Forest Service information gathering models. Gross annual benefits are estimated to be $5.9 million for the MSS system and $7.2 million for the TM system.

  12. Spatial Estimation of Timber Production and Carbon in Harvested Wood Products Using Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, P. Y.; Baiocchi, G.; Huang, C.

    2014-12-01

    Accurate estimation of the annual production of different kinds of timbers at different locations has many science and policy implications. For example, timber type information is needed for accurate estimation of the amount and life cycle of carbon stored in the harvested wood product (HWP) pool, and possible transport of carbon in wood products through trade. Several attempts have been made to estimate the carbon storage in the HWP, regardless which approach to use, information of the annual timber production are required. A statistic model has been developed to estimate the annual roundwood production at the county level. The inputs of the model includes forest disturbance area calculated using the VCT algorithm derived from the Landsat time series stack, a forest type map, and timber product output (TPO) data collected from wood processing mills by the USFS. The model is applied to North Carolina, a state with a large forestry sector and where harvesting and logging are a primary forest disturbance type. Ten-fold cross validation were done to the preliminary estimation for each type of HWP. The root mean square errors range between 13.6 and 31.5 for hardwood types; and between 1.3 and 55.6 for softwood types. The model is empirical as it depends on the local information on forest disturbance, forest types, and the amount of the roundwood output. However, the approach of the model can be used to apply to other areas with the local information provided. The result can be served as a starting point in spatial estimation of carbon storage in HWP.

  13. Geochemical and petrographic data for intrusions peripheral to the Big Timber Stock, Crazy Mountains, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    du Bray, Edward A.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2015-01-01

    The Paleocene Fort Union Formation hosts a compositionally diverse array of Eocene plugs, dikes, and sills arrayed around the Eocene Big Timber stock in the Crazy Mountains of south-central Montana. The geochemistry and petrography of the sills have not previously been characterized or interpreted. The purpose of this report is (1) to present available geochemical and petrographic data for several dozen samples of these rocks and (2) to provide a basic interpretive synthesis of these data.

  14. Hawaiian native forest conserves water relative to timber plantation: species and stand traits influence water use.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Aurora; Sack, Lawren; Duarte, Ka'eo; James, Shelley

    2009-09-01

    Tropical forests are becoming increasingly alien-dominated through the establishment of timber plantations and secondary forests. Despite widespread recognition that afforestation results in increased evapotranspiration and lower catchment yields, little is known of the impacts of timber plantations on water balance relative to native forest. Native forest trees have been claimed to use water conservatively and enhance groundwater recharge relative to faster-growing alien species, and this argument should motivate native forest preservation and restoration. However, data have been available primarily for leaf-level gas exchange rather than for whole-plant and stand levels. We measured sap flow of dominant tree and tree fern species over eight weeks in native Metrosideros polymorpha forest and adjacent alien timber plantations on the island of Hawai'i and estimated total stand transpiration. Metrosideros polymorpha had the lowest values of sap flux density and whole-tree water use (200 kg m(-2) sapwood d(-1), or 8 kg/d for trees of 35 cm mean diameter at breast height, D), substantially less than timber species Eucalyptus saligna or Fraxinus uhdei (33 and 34 kg/d for trees of 73 and 30 cm mean D, respectively). At the stand level, E. saligna and F. uhdei trees had three- and ninefold higher water use, respectively, than native M. polymorpha trees. Understory Cibotium tree ferns were most abundant in M. polymorpha-dominated forest where they accounted for 70% of water use. Overall, F. uhdei plantation had the highest water use at 1.8 mm/d, more than twice that of either E. saligna plantation or M. polymorpha forest. Forest water use was influenced by species composition, stem density, tree size, sapwood allocation, and understory contributions. Transpiration varied strongly among forest types even within the same wet tropical climate, and in this case, native forest had strikingly conservative water use. Comparisons of vegetation cover in water use should provide

  15. Responses of aquatic and streamside amphibians to timber harvest: a review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bury, R. Bruce; Corn, Paul Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Stream-dwelling amphibians, which can be the dominant vertebrates of small streams in forests of the Pacific Northwest, are prototypic riparian or­ ganisms. Larvae of several species are totally aquatic, while adults use the terrestrial streamside (riparian) habitat to varying degrees. Impacts of timber harvest vary among species, physical habitats, and regions of the Pacific Northwest. Populations of giant salamanders (Dicamptodon) increased fol­ lowing clear-cutting in the Oregon Cascades, while in the Oregon Coast Range, the long-term effects of logging were negative and severe for all species. Timber harvest is less disruptive in high-gradient streams and in streams where there is uncut timber remaining upstream. Buffer strips ad­ jacent to headwater and small streams can provide shade and reduce sedimentation from logging activities. Critical needs exist to define the ecological requirements of amphibians in headwaters, assess the effects of logging on amphibians in different regions and under varying climatic regimes, and determine what sizes of buffer strips or uncut patches are most effective and cost-efficient for protecting stream amphibians.

  16. Ergonomic factors and production target evaluation in eucalyptus timber harvesting operations in mountainous terrains.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Minette, Luciano José; Sanches, André Luis Petean; da Silva, Emília Pio; Rodrigues, Valéria Antônia Justino; de Oliveira, Luciana Aparecida

    2012-01-01

    There are several forest operations involved in Eucalyptus timber harvesting. This study was carried out during brush-cutting; tree felling, bucking, delimbing, piling and manual extraction operations, with the following objectives: a) analyzing, ergonomically, two systems of brush-cutting: one manual and the other semi-mechanized, using two different machines; b) ergonomically evaluating three different brands of pruner machines used in delimbing felled trees. c) determining the feasible target of productivity as a function of ergonomic factors relevant to establish the time of resting pauses for workers in manual and semi-mechanized timber harvesting systems in mountainous terrain. Brush-cutting, either manual or semimechanized, is an activity carried out prior to timber harvesting. It is usually a hard work, with low productivity when compared with mechanized systems. Pruner machines have been used by forest companies, due to the great possibilities to improve productivity, quality and the health of workers. Ergonomics is a discipline that promotes the adequacy of work to the physical and mental characteristics of human beings, seeking to design production systems and products considering relevant aspects, including social, organizational and environmental factors. Companies should consider the ergonomic factor in the determination of daily worker production targets. PMID:22317486

  17. Timber harvest transforms ecological roles of salmon in southeast Alaska rain forest streams.

    PubMed

    Tiegs, Scott D; Chaloner, Dominic T; Levi, Peter; Rüegg, Janine; Tank, Jennifer L; Lamberti, Gary A

    2008-01-01

    Although species commonly modify habitats and thereby influence ecosystem structure and function, the factors governing the ecological importance of these modifications are not well understood. Pacific salmon have repeatedly been shown to positively influence the abundance of benthic biota by annually transferring large quantities of nutrients from marine systems to the nutrient-poor freshwaters in which they spawn. Conversely, other studies have demonstrated that salmon can negatively influence the abundance of freshwater biota, an effect attributed to bioturbation during upstream migration and nest construction. The factors determining which of these contrasting ecological effects predominates are unknown, including how human activities, such as land use, influence ecological responses to salmon. We sampled a key basal food resource, sediment biofilm, in seven southeast Alaskan streams impacted to varying degrees by timber harvest. Biofilm abundance (measured as chlorophyll a and ash-free dry mass) was positively related to timber-harvest intensity prior to salmon arrival. However, during the salmon run, an inverse relationship emerged of more abundant biofilm in less-harvested watersheds. Among-stream variability in biofilm response to salmon was largely explained by sediment particle size, which was larger in less-harvested watersheds. Collectively, these results suggest that, by altering stream sediment size, timber harvest transformed the dominant effect of salmon from nutrient enrichment to physical disturbance, thus modifying nutrient linkages between marine and freshwater ecosystems.

  18. Stiffness analysis of glued connection of the timber-concrete structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daňková, Jana; Mec, Pavel; Majstríková, Tereza

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of experimental and mathematical analysis of stiffness characteristics of a composite timber-concrete structure. The composite timberconcrete structure presented herein is non-typical compared to similar types of building structures. The interaction between the timber and concrete part of the composite cross-section is not based on metal connecting elements, but it is ensured by a glued-in perforated mesh made of plywood. The paper presents results of experimental and mathematical analysis for material alternatives of the solution of the glued joint. The slip modulus values were determined experimentally. Data obtained from the experiment evaluated by means of regression analysis. Test results were also used as input data for the compilation of a 3D model of a composite structure by means of the 3D finite element model. On the basis of result evaluation, it can be stated that the stress-deformation behaviour at shear loading of this specific timber-concrete composite structure can be affected by the type of glue used. Parameters of the 3D model of both alternative of the structure represent well the behaviour of the composite structure and the model can be used for predicting design parameters of a building structure.

  19. Grid Architecture 2

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    The report describes work done on Grid Architecture under the auspices of the Department of Electricity Office of Electricity Delivery and Reliability in 2015. As described in the first Grid Architecture report, the primary purpose of this work is to provide stakeholder insight about grid issues so as to enable superior decision making on their part. Doing this requires the creation of various work products, including oft-times complex diagrams, analyses, and explanations. This report provides architectural insights into several important grid topics and also describes work done to advance the science of Grid Architecture as well.

  20. Contemporary neuroscience in the media.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Waldman, Sarah; Rosenberg, Jarett; Illes, Judy

    2010-08-01

    Technological innovations in neuroscience have opened new windows to the understanding of brain function and the neuronal underpinnings of brain activity in neuropsychiatric disorders and social behavior. Public interest and support for neuroscience research through initiatives like the Decade of the Brain project and increasingly diverse brain-related initiatives have created new interfaces between neuroscience and society. Against this backdrop of dynamic innovation, we set out to examine how different features of neuroscience are depicted in print media. We used the 'guided news' function of the LexisNexis Academic database with keyword searches to find news articles published between 1995 and 2004 in major U.S. and U.K. English-language news sources. We performed searches on headlines, lead paragraphs, and body terms to maximize search yields. All articles were coded for overall tone of coverage, details on reported studies, presence of ethical, legal, and social discussion as well as the emerging interpretations of neuroscience - in the form of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy. We found that print media coverage of the use of neurotechnology for diagnosis or therapy in neuropsychiatric disorders was generally optimistic. We also found that, even within articles that were identified as research reports, many did not provide details about research studies. We also gained additional insights into the previously identified phenomena of neuro-essentialism, neuro-realism, and neuro-policy showing some profound impacts of neuroscience on personal identity and policy-making. Our results highlight the implications of transfer of neuroscience knowledge to society given the substantial and authoritative weight ascribed to neuroscience knowledge in defining who we are. We also discuss the impact of these findings on neuroscience and on the respective contributions of the social sciences and the biological sciences in contemporary psychiatry and mental

  1. Contemporary Treatment Paradigms in Keratoconus.

    PubMed

    McGhee, Charles N J; Kim, Bia Z; Wilson, Peter J

    2015-10-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed an explosion in our knowledge of keratoconus, accompanied by a radical transformation of management options. A 2-hit hypothesis proposes an underlying genetic predisposition coupled with external environmental factors, including eye rubbing and atopy. The variable prevalence and natural history have been better defined including significant cone progression in middle age. Therefore, current management must include early diagnosis, regular monitoring, and treatment of environmental cofactors. Spectacles and contact lenses remain fundamental to the optical management of keratoconus. Intrastromal corneal ring segments have been increasingly used, providing improvement in the corneal shape, corrected visual acuity, and contact lens wear. However, like contact lenses, intrastromal corneal ring segments do not treat the underlying disease process. Therefore, current approaches must also consider treatments to minimize keratoconus progression. Fortunately, there is increasing evidence that corneal collagen crosslinking will halt or slow progression in most cases. Until relatively recently, penetrating keratoplasty was the preferred intervention for advanced keratoconus, with long-term success in the region of 90%; however, the greatest risk of failure remains endothelial allograft rejection. Deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty has emerged in the new millennium as a preferred approach to conserve the host endothelium and avoid rejection. Nonetheless, the overall superiority of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty compared with penetrating keratoplasty, in terms of optical and survival benefits, is still debated. This perspective provides an overview of our current knowledge of keratoconus and current management options. A step-ladder approach to managing keratoconus is outlined to provide the practitioner with a contemporary management paradigm.

  2. Contemporary Criticism and the Return of Zeno.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Wendell V.

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that contemporary critical literary theories such as hermaneutics, reader-response, speech-act, structuralism, and deconstructionism share with pre-Platonic Eleatic thought a distrust of cause-and-effect reasoning and an emphasis on paradox. (MM)

  3. Turning Contemporary Reading Research into Instructional Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frager, Alan; Hahn, Amos

    1988-01-01

    Highlights contemporary reading research as well as some implied instructional practices in four areas, including direct teacher explanation, reading-writing connection, top-level text structure, and main idea identification. (ARH)

  4. Modeling the complex impacts of timber harvests to find optimal management regimes for Amazon tidal floodplain forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fortini, Lucas; Cropper, Wendell P.; Zarin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region’s ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  5. Modeling the Complex Impacts of Timber Harvests to Find Optimal Management Regimes for Amazon Tidal Floodplain Forests

    PubMed Central

    Fortini, Lucas B.; Cropper, Wendell P.; Zarin, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region’s ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  6. Modeling the Complex Impacts of Timber Harvests to Find Optimal Management Regimes for Amazon Tidal Floodplain Forests.

    PubMed

    Fortini, Lucas B; Cropper, Wendell P; Zarin, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    At the Amazon estuary, the oldest logging frontier in the Amazon, no studies have comprehensively explored the potential long-term population and yield consequences of multiple timber harvests over time. Matrix population modeling is one way to simulate long-term impacts of tree harvests, but this approach has often ignored common impacts of tree harvests including incidental damage, changes in post-harvest demography, shifts in the distribution of merchantable trees, and shifts in stand composition. We designed a matrix-based forest management model that incorporates these harvest-related impacts so resulting simulations reflect forest stand dynamics under repeated timber harvests as well as the realities of local smallholder timber management systems. Using a wide range of values for management criteria (e.g., length of cutting cycle, minimum cut diameter), we projected the long-term population dynamics and yields of hundreds of timber management regimes in the Amazon estuary, where small-scale, unmechanized logging is an important economic activity. These results were then compared to find optimal stand-level and species-specific sustainable timber management (STM) regimes using a set of timber yield and population growth indicators. Prospects for STM in Amazonian tidal floodplain forests are better than for many other tropical forests. However, generally high stock recovery rates between harvests are due to the comparatively high projected mean annualized yields from fast-growing species that effectively counterbalance the projected yield declines from other species. For Amazonian tidal floodplain forests, national management guidelines provide neither the highest yields nor the highest sustained population growth for species under management. Our research shows that management guidelines specific to a region's ecological settings can be further refined to consider differences in species demographic responses to repeated harvests. In principle, such fine

  7. FTS2000 network architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klenart, John

    1991-01-01

    The network architecture of FTS2000 is graphically depicted. A map of network A topology is provided, with interservice nodes. Next, the four basic element of the architecture is laid out. Then, the FTS2000 time line is reproduced. A list of equipment supporting FTS2000 dedicated transmissions is given. Finally, access alternatives are shown.

  8. Generic POCC architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This document describes a generic POCC (Payload Operations Control Center) architecture based upon current POCC software practice, and several refinements to the architecture based upon object-oriented design principles and expected developments in teleoperations. The current-technology generic architecture is an abstraction based upon close analysis of the ERBS, COBE, and GRO POCC's. A series of three refinements is presented: these may be viewed as an approach to a phased transition to the recommended architecture. The third refinement constitutes the recommended architecture, which, together with associated rationales, will form the basis of the rapid synthesis environment to be developed in the remainder of this task. The document is organized into two parts. The first part describes the current generic architecture using several graphical as well as tabular representations or 'views.' The second part presents an analysis of the generic architecture in terms of object-oriented principles. On the basis of this discussion, refinements to the generic architecture are presented, again using a combination of graphical and tabular representations.

  9. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  10. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  11. Robotic Intelligence Kernel: Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-16

    The INL Robotic Intelligence Kernel Architecture (RIK-A) is a multi-level architecture that supports a dynamic autonomy structure. The RIK-A is used to coalesce hardware for sensing and action as well as software components for perception, communication, behavior and world modeling into a framework that can be used to create behaviors for humans to interact with the robot.

  12. Software Architecture Evolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Many software systems eventually undergo changes to their basic architectural structure. Such changes may be prompted by new feature requests, new quality attribute requirements, changing technology, or other reasons. Whatever the causes, architecture evolution is commonplace in real-world software projects. Today's software architects, however,…

  13. Workflow automation architecture standard

    SciTech Connect

    Moshofsky, R.P.; Rohen, W.T.

    1994-11-14

    This document presents an architectural standard for application of workflow automation technology. The standard includes a functional architecture, process for developing an automated workflow system for a work group, functional and collateral specifications for workflow automation, and results of a proof of concept prototype.

  14. Applying neuroscience to architecture.

    PubMed

    Eberhard, John P

    2009-06-25

    Architectural practice and neuroscience research use our brains and minds in much the same way. However, the link between neuroscience knowledge and architectural design--with rare exceptions--has yet to be made. The concept of linking these two fields is a challenge worth considering.

  15. The Technology of Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses how career and technical education is helping students draw up plans for success in architectural technology. According to the College of DuPage (COD) in Glen Ellyn, Illinois, one of the two-year schools offering training in architectural technology, graduates have a number of opportunities available to them. They may work…

  16. Timber production assessment of a plantation forest: An integrated framework with field-based inventory, multi-source remote sensing data and forest management history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Tian; Zhu, Jiaojun; Deng, Songqiu; Zheng, Xiao; Zhang, Jinxin; Shang, Guiduo; Huang, Liyan

    2016-10-01

    Timber production is the purpose for managing plantation forests, and its spatial and quantitative information is critical for advising management strategies. Previous studies have focused on growing stock volume (GSV), which represents the current potential of timber production, yet few studies have investigated historical process-harvested timber. This resulted in a gap in a synthetical ecosystem service assessment of timber production. In this paper, we established a Management Process-based Timber production (MPT) framework to integrate the current GSV and the harvested timber derived from historical logging regimes, trying to synthetically assess timber production for a historical period. In the MPT framework, age-class and current GSV determine the times of historical thinning and the corresponding harvested timber, by using a "space-for-time" substitution. The total timber production can be estimated by the historical harvested timber in each thinning and the current GSV. To test this MPT framework, an empirical study on a larch plantation (LP) with area of 43,946 ha was conducted in North China for a period from 1962 to 2010. Field-based inventory data was integrated with ALOS PALSAR (Advanced Land-Observing Satellite Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) and Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager) data for estimating the age-class and current GSV of LP. The random forest model with PALSAR backscatter intensity channels and OLI bands as input predictive variables yielded an accuracy of 67.9% with a Kappa coefficient of 0.59 for age-class classification. The regression model using PALSAR data produced a root mean square error (RMSE) of 36.5 m3 ha-1. The total timber production of LP was estimated to be 7.27 × 106 m3, with 4.87 × 106 m3 in current GSV and 2.40 × 106 m3 in harvested timber through historical thinning. The historical process-harvested timber accounts to 33.0% of the total timber production, which component has been neglected in the

  17. The Simulation Intranet Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, V.P.; Linebarger, J.M.; Miller, D.J.; Vandewart, R.L.

    1998-12-02

    The Simdarion Infranet (S1) is a term which is being used to dcscribc one element of a multidisciplinary distributed and distance computing initiative known as DisCom2 at Sandia National Laboratory (http ct al. 1998). The Simulation Intranet is an architecture for satisfying Sandia's long term goal of providing an end- to-end set of scrviccs for high fidelity full physics simu- lations in a high performance, distributed, and distance computing environment. The Intranet Architecture group was formed to apply current distributed object technologies to this problcm. For the hardware architec- tures and software models involved with the current simulation process, a CORBA-based architecture is best suited to meet Sandia's needs. This paper presents the initial desi-a and implementation of this Intranct based on a three-tier Network Computing Architecture(NCA). The major parts of the architecture include: the Web Cli- ent, the Business Objects, and Data Persistence.

  18. Can architecture be barbaric?

    PubMed

    Hürol, Yonca

    2009-06-01

    The title of this article is adapted from Theodor W. Adorno's famous dictum: 'To write poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric.' After the catastrophic earthquake in Kocaeli, Turkey on the 17th of August 1999, in which more than 40,000 people died or were lost, Necdet Teymur, who was then the dean of the Faculty of Architecture of the Middle East Technical University, referred to Adorno in one of his 'earthquake poems' and asked: 'Is architecture possible after 17th of August?' The main objective of this article is to interpret Teymur's question in respect of its connection to Adorno's philosophy with a view to make a contribution to the politics and ethics of architecture in Turkey. Teymur's question helps in providing a new interpretation of a critical approach to architecture and architectural technology through Adorno's philosophy. The paper also presents a discussion of Adorno's dictum, which serves for a better understanding of its universality/particularity.

  19. Identification case of evidence in timber tracing of Pinus radiate, using high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis.

    PubMed

    Solano, Jaime; Anabalón, Leonardo; Encina, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    Fast, accurate detection of plant species and their hybrids using molecular tools will facilitate assessment and monitoring of timber tracing evidence. In this study the origin of unknown pine samples is determined for a case of timber theft in the region of Araucania southern Chile. We evaluate the utility of the trnL marker region for species identification applied to pine wood based on High Resolution Melting. This efficient tracing methods can be incorporated into forestry applications such as certification of origin. The object of this work was genotype identification using high-resolution melting (HRM) and trnL approaches for Pinus radiata (Don) in timber tracing evidence. Our results indicate that trnL is a very sensitive marker for delimiting species and HRM analysis was used successfully for genotyping Pinus samples for timber tracing purposes. Genotyping samples by HRM analysis with the trnL1 approach allowed us to differentiate two wood samples from the Pinaceae family: Pinus radiata (Don) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco. The same approach with Pinus trnL wood was not able to discriminate between samples of Pinus radiata, indicating that the samples were genetically indistinguishable, possibly because they have the same genotype at this locus. Timber tracing with HRM analysis is expected to contribute to future forest certification schemes, control of illegal trading, and molecular traceability of Pinus spp.

  20. Accuracy in estimation of timber assortments and stem distribution - A comparison of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kankare, Ville; Vauhkonen, Jari; Tanhuanpää, Topi; Holopainen, Markus; Vastaranta, Mikko; Joensuu, Marianna; Krooks, Anssi; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu; Alho, Petteri; Viitala, Risto

    2014-11-01

    Detailed information about timber assortments and diameter distributions is required in forest management. Forest owners can make better decisions concerning the timing of timber sales and forest companies can utilize more detailed information to optimize their wood supply chain from forest to factory. The objective here was to compare the accuracies of high-density laser scanning techniques for the estimation of tree-level diameter distribution and timber assortments. We also introduce a method that utilizes a combination of airborne and terrestrial laser scanning in timber assortment estimation. The study was conducted in Evo, Finland. Harvester measurements were used as a reference for 144 trees within a single clear-cut stand. The results showed that accurate tree-level timber assortments and diameter distributions can be obtained, using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or a combination of TLS and airborne laser scanning (ALS). Saw log volumes were estimated with higher accuracy than pulpwood volumes. The saw log volumes were estimated with relative root-mean-squared errors of 17.5% and 16.8% with TLS and a combination of TLS and ALS, respectively. The respective accuracies for pulpwood were 60.1% and 59.3%. The differences in the bucking method used also caused some large errors. In addition, tree quality factors highly affected the bucking accuracy, especially with pulpwood volume.

  1. Environmentally Friendly Solution to Ground Hazards in Design of Bridges in Earthquake Prone Areas Using Timber Piles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Bridges are major elements of infrastructure in all societies. Their safety and continued serviceability guaranties the transportation and emergency access in urban and rural areas. However, these important structures are subject to earthquake induced damages in structure and foundations. The basic approach to the proper support of foundations are a) distribution of imposed loads to foundation in a way they can resist those loads without excessive settlement and failure; b) modification of foundation ground with various available methods; and c) combination of "a" and "b". The engineers has to face the task of designing the foundations meeting all safely and serviceability criteria but sometimes when there are numerous environmental and financial constrains, the use of some traditional methods become inevitable. This paper explains the application of timber piles to improve ground resistance to liquefaction and to secure the abutments of short to medium length bridges in an earthquake/liquefaction prone area in Bohol Island, Philippines. The limitations of using the common ground improvement methods (i.e., injection, dynamic compaction) because of either environmental or financial concerns along with the abundance of timber in the area made the engineers to use a network of timber piles behind the backwalls of the bridge abutments. The suggested timber pile network is simulated by numerical methods and its safety is examined. The results show that the compaction caused by driving of the piles and bearing capacity provided by timbers reduce the settlement and lateral movements due to service and earthquake induced loads.

  2. Modular Curriculum: English/Social Studies, Contemporary Literature/Contemporary Problems. 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikkleson, Ruth

    The publication consists of an independent study course on contemporary problems and contemporary literature for secondary and college students. The major objective is to help students think creatively about current problems of the American Indians, Blacks, women, and ecology and to sharpen the student's ability to interpret works of literature.…

  3. Impacts of timber harvesting on historic sediment accumulation rates in the Coos Bay estuary, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathabane, N.; Roering, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The expansion and development of human infrastructure along the coastline of the Pacific Northwest has profound consequences for the habitability and general ecological health of coastal ecosystems. Coos County, one of the most economically critical regions of the Oregon Coast, experienced vigorous timber harvest activity in the aftermath of WWII that declined in the last several decades. This period of extractive land use may have drastically altered the sediment supply in the major catchments of the Coos and Millicoma Rivers and lead to variations in sediment flux into the Coos Bay estuary. Accurate sediment flux histories are critical data for deciphering the relative importance of climate and land use factors such as logging and road construction on sediment production. Reduction of root reinforcement following timber harvest increases the likelihood of shallow landsliding and debris flows. In addition, forest roads increase sediment production due to overland flow and entrainment of fine sediments on hydrologically connected roads. Although these processes have been documented in small watersheds, their compounded effect on estuaries and coastal settings has not been well documented. We use Pb-210 activities derived from sediment cores taken at various locations in the Coos Bay estuary to establish temporal variations in sediment accumulation rates (SARs). Our cores will also be analyzed to assess dissolved oxygen and other proxies for ecosystem functioning. By correlating these SARs with quantitative metrics for timber extraction rate such as board feet per year and qualitative evaluations from historical photos, we propose to document the cumulative effect of historic forest practices. The temporal resolution provided by this technique should allow us to link changes in estuarine sedimentation to changes in land use as well as climatic triggers such as storms. The conclusions of this study will add valuable information regarding the ultimate impact of

  4. Mobility of copper, chromium and arsenic from treated timber into grapevines.

    PubMed

    Ko, Byong-Gu; Vogeler, Iris; Bolan, Nanthi S; Clothier, Brent; Green, Steve; Kennedy, John

    2007-12-15

    The use of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated timber posts as support structures in New Zealand vineyards has raised concerns regarding the release of heavy metal(loid)s from the treated timber into the environment. A laboratory experiment was set up to evaluate if post sealing by painting reduces the release rate of CCA metal(loid)s from timber posts. Three posts were painted (Gripset 38, Multi Purpose Bitumen Rubber) on the bottom part, submerged in freshwater, and the concentrations of copper (Cu), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) in the water were monitored over a period of 8 months. Three additional, unpainted posts were also used. The CCA contents in the water showed a clear difference between the painted and the unpainted posts, and painting the bottom of the posts reduced the release rate by 50-75%. To monitor the possible mobility of CCA from treated posts into grapevines further, an experiment with four-year-old grapevines planted into sixteen lysimeters was set up in a greenhouse. To half the lysimeters Cu, Cr and As were added to the soil surface at rates of 16, 20, and 12.5 mg/month from 15 November 2005 to 5 May 2006. The other lysimeters acted as a control. Soil solutions were collected at 50, 150 and 300 mm depths using suction cups after seven application of the CCA solution. The results showed that all the elements moved to a depth of 50 mm. Grape fruit, leaves and rachis were analysed for CCA metal(loid)s, but did not show any differences between the CCA-treated and control lysimeters. This indicated either that these metals were not taken up by grapevines or that their translocation from roots to the upper part of the vine was negligible. Further monitoring of CCA metal(loid)s in various parts of the grapevines, including roots, needs to be undertaken. PMID:17889258

  5. Carbon storage, timber production, and biodiversity: comparing ecosystem services with multi-criteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Schwenk, W Scott; Donovan, Therese M; Keeton, William S; Nunery, Jared S

    2012-07-01

    Increasingly, land managers seek ways to manage forests for multiple ecosystem services and functions, yet considerable challenges exist in comparing disparate services and balancing trade-offs among them. We applied multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and forest simulation models to simultaneously consider three objectives: (1) storing carbon, (2) producing timber and wood products, and (3) sustaining biodiversity. We used the Forest Vegetation Simulator (FVS) applied to 42 northern hardwood sites to simulate forest development over 100 years and to estimate carbon storage and timber production. We estimated biodiversity implications with occupancy models for 51 terrestrial bird species that were linked to FVS outputs. We simulated four alternative management prescriptions that spanned a range of harvesting intensities and forest structure retention. We found that silvicultural approaches emphasizing less frequent harvesting and greater structural retention could be expected to achieve the greatest net carbon storage but also produce less timber. More intensive prescriptions would enhance biodiversity because positive responses of early successional species exceeded negative responses of late successional species within the heavily forested study area. The combinations of weights assigned to objectives had a large influence on which prescriptions were scored as optimal. Overall, we found that a diversity of silvicultural approaches is likely to be preferable to any single approach, emphasizing the need for landscape-scale management to provide a full range of ecosystem goods and services. Our analytical framework that combined MCDA with forest simulation modeling was a powerful tool in understanding trade-offs among management objectives and how they can be simultaneously accommodated. PMID:22908717

  6. Linking state-and-transition simulation and timber supply models for forest biomass production scenarios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Costanza, Jennifer; Abt, Robert C.; McKerrow, Alexa; Collazo, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    We linked state-and-transition simulation models (STSMs) with an economics-based timber supply model to examine landscape dynamics in North Carolina through 2050 for three scenarios of forest biomass production. Forest biomass could be an important source of renewable energy in the future, but there is currently much uncertainty about how biomass production would impact landscapes. In the southeastern US, if forests become important sources of biomass for bioenergy, we expect increased land-use change and forest management. STSMs are ideal for simulating these landscape changes, but the amounts of change will depend on drivers such as timber prices and demand for forest land, which are best captured with forest economic models. We first developed state-and-transition model pathways in the ST-Sim software platform for 49 vegetation and land-use types that incorporated each expected type of landscape change. Next, for the three biomass production scenarios, the SubRegional Timber Supply Model (SRTS) was used to determine the annual areas of thinning and harvest in five broad forest types, as well as annual areas converted among those forest types, agricultural, and urban lands. The SRTS output was used to define area targets for STSMs in ST-Sim under two scenarios of biomass production and one baseline, business-as-usual scenario. We show that ST-Sim output matched SRTS targets in most cases. Landscape dynamics results indicate that, compared with the baseline scenario, forest biomass production leads to more forest and, specifically, more intensively managed forest on the landscape by 2050. Thus, the STSMs, informed by forest economics models, provide important information about potential landscape effects of bioenergy production.

  7. Effects of riparian timber harvesting on instream habitat and fish assemblages in northern Minnesota streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chizinski, Christopher J.; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Blinn, Charles R.; Newman, Raymond M.; Atuke, Dickson M.; Fredricks, Keith; Hemstad, Nathaniel A.; Merten, Eric; Schlesser, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few evaluations of aquatic macroinvertebrate and fish communities have been published in peer-reviewed literature detailing the effect of varying residual basal area (RBA) after timber harvesting in riparian buffers. Our analysis investigated the effects of partial harvesting within riparian buffers on aquatic macroinvertebrate and fish communities in small streams from two experiments in northern Minnesota northern hardwood-aspen forests. Each experiment evaluated partial harvesting within riparian buffers. In both experiments, benthic macroinvertebrates and fish were collected 1 year prior to harvest and in each of 3 years after harvest. We observed interannual variation for the macroinvertebrate abundance, diversity and taxon richness in the single-basin study and abundance and diversity in the multiple-basin study, but few effects related to harvest treatments in either study. However, interannual variation was not evident in the fish communities and we detected no significant changes in the stream fish communities associated with partially harvested riparian buffers in either study. This would suggest that timber harvesting in riparian management zones along reaches ≤200 m in length on both sides of the stream that retains RBA ≥ 12.4 ± 1.3 m2 ha−1 or on a single side of the stream that retains RBA ≥ 8.7 ± 1.6 m2 ha−1 may be adequate to protect macroinvertebrate and fish communities in our Minnesota study systems given these specific timber harvesting techniques.

  8. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, R.S.; Drost, M.K..; McDonald, C.E.

    1997-03-18

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation. 14 figs.

  9. Microcomponent sheet architecture

    DOEpatents

    Wegeng, Robert S.; Drost, M. Kevin; McDonald, Carolyn E.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is a microcomponent sheet architecture wherein macroscale unit processes are performed by microscale components. The sheet architecture may be a single laminate with a plurality of separate microcomponent sections or the sheet architecture may be a plurality of laminates with one or more microcomponent sections on each laminate. Each microcomponent or plurality of like microcomponents perform at least one unit operation. A first laminate having a plurality of like first microcomponents is combined with at least a second laminate having a plurality of like second microcomponents thereby combining at least two unit operations to achieve a system operation.

  10. Architecture for Verifiable Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinholtz, William; Dvorak, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Verifiable MDS Architecture (VMA) is a software architecture that facilitates the construction of highly verifiable flight software for NASA s Mission Data System (MDS), especially for smaller missions subject to cost constraints. More specifically, the purpose served by VMA is to facilitate aggressive verification and validation of flight software while imposing a minimum of constraints on overall functionality. VMA exploits the state-based architecture of the MDS and partitions verification issues into elements susceptible to independent verification and validation, in such a manner that scaling issues are minimized, so that relatively large software systems can be aggressively verified in a cost-effective manner.

  11. Managing the forest for more than the trees: effects of experimental timber harvest on forest Lepidoptera.

    PubMed

    Summerville, Keith S

    2011-04-01

    Studies of the effects of timber harvest on forest insect communities have rarely considered how disturbance from a range of harvest levels interacts with temporal variation in species diversity to affect community resistance to change. Here I report the results of a landscape-scale, before-and-after, treatment-control experiment designed to test how communities of forest Lepidoptera experience (1) changes in species richness and composition and (2) shifts in species dominance one year after logging. I sampled Lepidoptera from 20 forest stands allocated to three harvest treatments (control, even-aged shelterwood or clearcuts, and uneven-aged group selection cuts) within three watersheds at Morgan-Monroe State Forest, Indiana, USA. Moths were sampled from all forest stands one year prior to harvest in 2007 and immediately post-harvest in 2009. Species composition was most significantly affected by temporal variation between years, although uneven-aged management also caused significant changes in lepidopteran community structure. Furthermore, species richness of Lepidoptera was higher in 2007 compared to 2009 across all watersheds and forest stands. The decrease in species richness between years, however, was much larger in even-aged and uneven-aged management units compared to the control. Furthermore, matrix stands within the even-aged management unit demonstrated the highest resistance to species loss within any management unit. Species dominance was highly resistant to effects of timber harvest, with pre- and post-harvest values for Simpson diversity nearly invariant. Counter to prediction, however, the suite of dominant taxa differed dramatically among the three management units post-harvest. My results suggest that temporal variation may have strong interactions with timber harvest, precipitating loss of nearly 50% species richness from managed stands regardless of harvest level. Even-aged management, however, appeared to leave the smallest "footprint" on moth

  12. Spatial inventory integrating raster databases and point sample data. [Geographic Information System for timber inventory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strahler, A. H.; Woodcock, C. E.; Logan, T. L.

    1983-01-01

    A timber inventory of the Eldorado National Forest, located in east-central California, provides an example of the use of a Geographic Information System (GIS) to stratify large areas of land for sampling and the collection of statistical data. The raster-based GIS format of the VICAR/IBIS software system allows simple and rapid tabulation of areas, and facilitates the selection of random locations for ground sampling. Algorithms that simplify the complex spatial pattern of raster-based information, and convert raster format data to strings of coordinate vectors, provide a link to conventional vector-based geographic information systems.

  13. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola dermatitis in eight free-ranging timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) from Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    McBride, Michael P; Wojick, Kimberlee B; Georoff, Timothy A; Kimbro, Jason; Garner, Michael M; Wang, Xiaoling; Childress, April L; Wellehan, James F X

    2015-03-01

    Eight free-ranging timber rattlesnakes (Crotalus horridus) from two geographically isolated Massachusetts populations were observed with skin lesions located primarily on the head but occasionally also on the lateral and ventral surfaces of the body. The snakes underwent health assessments that included physical examination, clinical pathology, full body radiographs, and full thickness biopsies of skin lesions. Each snake had fungal elements present histologically in tissue sections from skin lesions. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola was identified from skin lesions using polymerase chain reaction in all eight snakes.

  14. An improved TIGER2 implementation for NAMD suitable for the Blue Gene architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Aaron H.; Walsh, Tiffany R.

    2015-07-01

    Here we present an improved implementation of the TIGER2 Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics (REMD) method, using the replica exchange Application Programming Interface (API) found in contemporary versions of the NAMD Molecular Dynamics Package. The implementation takes the form of a TCL script which is used in conjunction with the standard configuration file. This implementation is validated against a previous TIGER2 implementation, as well as data reported for the original TIGER2 simulations. Our implementation is compatible with a range of architectures; crucially it enables the use of this wrapper with the BlueGene/Q architecture, in addition to the x86 architecture.

  15. Chemical data and variation diagrams of igneous rocks from the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley Caldera Complex, southern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinlivan, W.D.; Byers, F.M.

    1977-01-01

    Silica variation diagrams presented here are based on 162 chemical analyses of tuffs, lavas, and intrusives, representative of volcanic centers of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex and cogenetic rocks of the Silent Canyon ca1dera. Most of the volcanic units sampled are shown on the U.S. Geological Survey geologic map of the Timber Mountain caldera area (I-891) and are described in U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 919. Early effusives of the complex, although slightly altered, are probably chemically, and petrographically, more like the calc-alkalic Fraction Tuff (Miocene) of the northern Nellis Air Force Base Bombing and Gunnery Range to the north, whereas effusives of later Miocene age, such as the Paintbrush and Timber Mountain Tuffs, are alkali-calcic.

  16. Robot Electronics Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, Michael; Magnone, Lee; Aghazarian, Hrand; Baumgartner, Eric; Kennedy, Brett

    2008-01-01

    An electronics architecture has been developed to enable the rapid construction and testing of prototypes of robotic systems. This architecture is designed to be a research vehicle of great stability, reliability, and versatility. A system according to this architecture can easily be reconfigured (including expanded or contracted) to satisfy a variety of needs with respect to input, output, processing of data, sensing, actuation, and power. The architecture affords a variety of expandable input/output options that enable ready integration of instruments, actuators, sensors, and other devices as independent modular units. The separation of different electrical functions onto independent circuit boards facilitates the development of corresponding simple and modular software interfaces. As a result, both hardware and software can be made to expand or contract in modular fashion while expending a minimum of time and effort.

  17. Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorband, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Architecture Adaptive Computing Environment (aCe) is a software system that includes a language, compiler, and run-time library for parallel computing. aCe was developed to enable programmers to write programs, more easily than was previously possible, for a variety of parallel computing architectures. Heretofore, it has been perceived to be difficult to write parallel programs for parallel computers and more difficult to port the programs to different parallel computing architectures. In contrast, aCe is supportable on all high-performance computing architectures. Currently, it is supported on LINUX clusters. aCe uses parallel programming constructs that facilitate writing of parallel programs. Such constructs were used in single-instruction/multiple-data (SIMD) programming languages of the 1980s, including Parallel Pascal, Parallel Forth, C*, *LISP, and MasPar MPL. In aCe, these constructs are extended and implemented for both SIMD and multiple- instruction/multiple-data (MIMD) architectures. Two new constructs incorporated in aCe are those of (1) scalar and virtual variables and (2) pre-computed paths. The scalar-and-virtual-variables construct increases flexibility in optimizing memory utilization in various architectures. The pre-computed-paths construct enables the compiler to pre-compute part of a communication operation once, rather than computing it every time the communication operation is performed.

  18. [Dispersion of the nematodes belonging to the Bursaphelenchus xylophilus species group with saw timber in Russian Federation].

    PubMed

    Akhmatovich, N A; Ryss, A Iu

    2009-01-01

    Four new records of Bursaphelenchus mucronatus in saw-timbers from the Asian part of Russia (Irkutsk Oblast and Krasnoyarsk Krai, larch, pine and spruce wood) intercepted in St. Petersburg, are described, measured and illustrated. The diagnosis of B. mucronatus is amended and its relationships within species group xylophilus, and especially its differences from a quarantine pests B. xylophilus, are given. The record of the B. mucronatus transition from Asiatic into European part of Russia suggests possible transcontinental way of the xylophilus group penetration with saw-timber. Pest risk analysis of B. xylophilus for the European part of Russia is discussed in scope of the global warming.

  19. Wood digestion in Pselactus spadix Herbst--a weevil attacking marine timber structures.

    PubMed

    Oevering, Pascal; Pitman, Andrew J; Pandey, Krishna K

    2003-04-01

    Pselactus spadix tunnels timber structures in the marine environment. Recent studies reported a cosmopolitan distribution for this weevil, which is frequently found in harbour and port areas. P. spadix feeds on timber (hardwood and softwood) in immature and adult life stages, but its digestion of wood components had not been investigated. Using dry weight analyses of tunnel walls and frass produced, P. spadix adults consumed Scots pine with soft rot decay at a rate of 1.59 +/- 0.37 mg d-1 and the digestibility of this substrate was 57.96 +/- 5.89 (i.e. for 100 mg consumed SR-pine, 58 mg was digested). Using gravimetric analysis to quantify structural wood components in tunnel walls and frass, P. spadix adults were found to digest cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose with digestibility coefficients of 82.2, 41.2 and 14.5 respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyses of tunnel walls and frass of adults and larvae from soft rotted pine also indicated digestion of all structural components, with larvae digesting cellulose and lignin more efficiently than adults. When FTIR was employed to analyse adult tunnel walls and frass from undecayed pine, cellulose and hemicellulose were digested, but no evidence of lignin digestion was found. This study shows that adults digest lignin when soft rot is present and suggests a symbiotic function of wood degrading microorganisms. PMID:14618727

  20. "Engendering" environmental projects: the case of eco-timber production in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Scheyvens, R

    1998-11-01

    This article discusses the case of timber production in the Solomon Islands and links between environmental protection and gender. Many environmental projects are undertaken without regard for gender roles and relations. The Solomon Western Islands Fair Trade (SWIFT) initiative included women in only a peripheral way. This article justifies the involvement of women in environmental projects and then evaluates the operations of SWIFT. A role for women in local environmental projects should be recognized because of women's roles, knowledge, and interests. Use of natural resources is gender-based. In the Solomon Islands, women are identified as having the greater interest in the long-term sustainability of the environment and greater reliance on natural resources to fulfill their roles, but forestry is men's work. The price of tropical woods has tempted Micronesian governments to exploit forests to enhance their foreign exchange earnings. Environmental degradation from logging is particularly severe in the Solomon Islands. The population fulfills many basic needs from forests. Forests can provide cash earnings. The author conducted an evaluation of effectiveness of SWIFT in 1996. The SWIFT project allows rural people to earn cash from sustainable timber extraction without signing with logging companies. Women are affected by SWIFT due to their husbands' appropriation of their earnings, their peripheral role, and lack of representation in senior positions and use of women's forestry expertise. The article offers a model for genderizing eco-projects. Men need to be encouraged to work more as partners with women. PMID:12321992

  1. Relative abundance of mesopredators and size of oak patches in the cross-timbers ecoregion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Disney, M.R.; Hellgren, E.C.; Davis, C.A.; Leslie, David M.; Engle, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Mesopredators (e.g., raccoon Procyon lotor, Virginia opossum Didelphis virginiana, striped skunk Mephitis mephitis) have received considerable attention because of links to population declines in birds via increased nest predation, especially in landscapes fragmented by anthropogenic forces. Relationships of abundance of mesopredators to size of habitat patches have received less attention than relationships to other metrics of fragmentation, particularly edge characteristics. We tested the hypothesis that relative abundance of mesopredators (e.g., raccoons and Virginia opossums) was related negatively to size of forest patch. We delineated 15 patches of oak (Quercus) forest ranging from 0.2 to 55.3 ha within a grassland-woodland mosaic in the cross-timbers ecoregion of Oklahoma. Scent stations and live traps within these patches were used to index relative abundance of mesopredators in summers 2003 and 2004. Both indices of relative abundance were related weakly and negatively to area of forest patch. However, rate of capture and visitation to scent station were not correlated consistently throughout the study. Our results suggested that the two methods to index abundance provided separate information on functional and numerical responses to size of patch. Our evidence that mesopredators within the cross timbers were more likely to be in smaller patches of oak forest may have implications to success of avian nesting in these patches.

  2. Runoff and peak flow responses to timber harvest and forest age in southern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iroumé, Andrés; Mayen, Octavio; Huber, Anton

    2006-01-01

    Runoff and peak flows in three experimental catchments with different forest conditions were analysed in a rainy temperate climate in southern Chile.The hydrological effects of clearcutting a Pinus radiata plantation covering 79.4% of the La Reina catchment were studied by analysing runoff and peak flows in the pre- and post-harvesting periods. Mean annual runoff increased 110% after timber harvesting. Clearcutting generated a 32% mean increase in peak flows.Peak flow and runoff were examined in two adjacent catchments with different forest conditions. The older plantation in Los Ulmos 1 increasingly consumed more water than the younger plantation established at Los Ulmos 2, whereas differences in peak flows between these two catchments were not significant.Runoff and peak flows comparisons not only reflected changes in forest cover, but also the effect of rainfall characteristics during the study periods and the basins' morphologies. Comparisons between pre- and post-harvesting peak discharges must be undertaken with caution, because a previous analysis at La Reina using a partial set of data overestimated changes in peak flows after timber harvesting.

  3. Microbial methane formation from hard coal and timber in an abandoned coal mine

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, M.; Beckmann, S.; Engelen, B.; Thielemann, T.; Cramer, B.; Schippers, A.; Cypionka, H.

    2008-07-01

    About 7% of the global annual methane emissions originate from coal mining. Also, mine gas has come into focus of the power industry and is being used increasingly for heat and power production. In many coal deposits worldwide, stable carbon and hydrogen isotopic signatures of methane indicate a mixed thermogenic and biogenic origin. In this study, we have measured in an abandoned coal mine methane fluxes and isotopic signatures of methane and carbon dioxide, and collected samples for microbiological and phylogenetic investigations. Mine timber and hard coal showed an in-situ production of methane with isotopic signatures similar to those of the methane in the mine atmosphere. Enrichment cultures amended with mine timber or hard coal as sole carbon sources formed methane over a period of nine months. Predominantly, acetoclastic methanogenesis was stimulated in enrichments containing acetate or hydrogen/carbon dioxide. Molecular techniques revealed that the archaeal community in enrichment cultures and unamended samples was dominated by members of the Methanosarcinales. The combined geochemical and microbiological investigations identify microbial methanogenesis as a recent source of methane in abandoned coal mines.

  4. "Engendering" environmental projects: the case of eco-timber production in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Scheyvens, R

    1998-11-01

    This article discusses the case of timber production in the Solomon Islands and links between environmental protection and gender. Many environmental projects are undertaken without regard for gender roles and relations. The Solomon Western Islands Fair Trade (SWIFT) initiative included women in only a peripheral way. This article justifies the involvement of women in environmental projects and then evaluates the operations of SWIFT. A role for women in local environmental projects should be recognized because of women's roles, knowledge, and interests. Use of natural resources is gender-based. In the Solomon Islands, women are identified as having the greater interest in the long-term sustainability of the environment and greater reliance on natural resources to fulfill their roles, but forestry is men's work. The price of tropical woods has tempted Micronesian governments to exploit forests to enhance their foreign exchange earnings. Environmental degradation from logging is particularly severe in the Solomon Islands. The population fulfills many basic needs from forests. Forests can provide cash earnings. The author conducted an evaluation of effectiveness of SWIFT in 1996. The SWIFT project allows rural people to earn cash from sustainable timber extraction without signing with logging companies. Women are affected by SWIFT due to their husbands' appropriation of their earnings, their peripheral role, and lack of representation in senior positions and use of women's forestry expertise. The article offers a model for genderizing eco-projects. Men need to be encouraged to work more as partners with women.

  5. Security in the Cache and Forward Architecture for the Next Generation Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjichristofi, G. C.; Hadjicostis, C. N.; Raychaudhuri, D.

    The future Internet architecture will be comprised predominately of wireless devices. It is evident at this stage that the TCP/IP protocol that was developed decades ago will not properly support the required network functionalities since contemporary communication profiles tend to be data-driven rather than host-based. To address this paradigm shift in data propagation, a next generation architecture has been proposed, the Cache and Forward (CNF) architecture. This research investigates security aspects of this new Internet architecture. More specifically, we discuss content privacy, secure routing, key management and trust management. We identify security weaknesses of this architecture that need to be addressed and we derive security requirements that should guide future research directions. Aspects of the research can be adopted as a step-stone as we build the future Internet.

  6. Neural Architectures for Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, James K.

    1991-01-01

    The cerebellar model articulated controller (CMAC) neural architectures are shown to be viable for the purposes of real-time learning and control. Software tools for the exploration of CMAC performance are developed for three hardware platforms, the MacIntosh, the IBM PC, and the SUN workstation. All algorithm development was done using the C programming language. These software tools were then used to implement an adaptive critic neuro-control design that learns in real-time how to back up a trailer truck. The truck backer-upper experiment is a standard performance measure in the neural network literature, but previously the training of the controllers was done off-line. With the CMAC neural architectures, it was possible to train the neuro-controllers on-line in real-time on a MS-DOS PC 386. CMAC neural architectures are also used in conjunction with a hierarchical planning approach to find collision-free paths over 2-D analog valued obstacle fields. The method constructs a coarse resolution version of the original problem and then finds the corresponding coarse optimal path using multipass dynamic programming. CMAC artificial neural architectures are used to estimate the analog transition costs that dynamic programming requires. The CMAC architectures are trained in real-time for each obstacle field presented. The coarse optimal path is then used as a baseline for the construction of a fine scale optimal path through the original obstacle array. These results are a very good indication of the potential power of the neural architectures in control design. In order to reach as wide an audience as possible, we have run a seminar on neuro-control that has met once per week since 20 May 1991. This seminar has thoroughly discussed the CMAC architecture, relevant portions of classical control, back propagation through time, and adaptive critic designs.

  7. Education in Contemporary Japan: Inequality and Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okano, Kaori; Tsuchiya, Motonori

    This book offers a balanced introduction to and examination of contemporary Japanese education that considers criticisms of Japanese schooling practices made by the participants themselves. While the post World War 2 system of schooling has provided valuable ingredients for economic success, the book argues that these have been accompanied by…

  8. Successful Aging: Early Influences and Contemporary Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruchno, Rachel A.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Positing that successful aging has independent, yet related, dimensions that are both objective and subjective, we examine how early influences and contemporary characteristics define 4 groups of people. Design and Methods: Data were gathered from 5,688 persons aged 50-74 years living in New Jersey who participated in telephone…

  9. A Contemporary Approach to American Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benham, William J.

    The exigencies of contemporary native American education require a thorough review. Issues considered in establishing a viable conceptual framework are Indian control of education, role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and Office of Indian Education, application of federal programs and appropriations, characteristics of the new generation of…

  10. Teaching Medical Student Psychiatry Through Contemporary Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, William H.

    1977-01-01

    An audio technique uses contemporary music recordings to illustrate various personality disorders, including: schizoid, paranoid, compulsive, antisocial, and hysterical. The works of Bob Dylan, Paul Simon, Harry Chapin, the Beatles, Janis Ian, James Taylor, Tammy Wynette, and others are cited. (LBH)

  11. Preparing Teachers for the Contemporary Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okoli, Nkechi J.; Ogbondah, Livinus; Ekpefa-Abdullahi, Janet Y.

    2015-01-01

    This paper focused on preparing teachers for the contemporary Nigeria. Teaching is a versatile field that requires at all times the correct identification of indices of developments in the society. This responsibility makes it imperative that teachers be an embodiment of a constant search for updated knowledge in various fields of Endeavour. The…

  12. Katherine Anne Porter on Her Contemporaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bridges, Phyllis

    Personal experiences with and critical judgments of leading artists and intellectuals of the twentieth century are recorded in Katherine Anne Porter's essays, letters and conversations which provide snapshots of her attitudes and encounters. Porter's commentaries about such contemporaries as Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, Saul Bellow,…

  13. Childhood in America: A Contemporary Portrait.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Stewart; McAllister, Joseph

    Past and contemporary themes characterizing the structure and quality of children's lives are traced in this discussion. Specifically examined are various changes in family life patterns, new educational involvements in children's lives, and the emerging role of extra-familial and extra-educational sources of influence upon children's development.…

  14. On Contemporary Literature: Critiques, Reviews and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dorothy, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    The articles in this focused issue draw attention to works of contemporary literature with classroom potential. Four articles suggest new approaches for the reading and teaching of such established writers as Robert Frost; Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.; Eudora Welty; and Saul Bellow. Two other articles examine the bestsellers "Ordinary People" and "The Color…

  15. A Portfolio of Outstanding Contemporary American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Theodore E. B.

    The portfolio contains 24 portraits with biographical sketches of outstanding contemporary American Indians. Representing several tribes, occupations, and points of view, the subjects are: Henry Adams, Louis W. Ballard, Robert L. Bennett, George Blue Spruce, Jarrett Blythe, Louis R. Bruce, Leon Cook, Ada Deer, Vine Deloria, Jr., James Gladstone,…

  16. Contemporary Greek Presentations of Ancient Greek Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos

    Confronted with the problems imposed by the stage presentation and interpretation of ancient Greek theatre to contemporary audiences, scholars have developed four major approaches to the presentation of Greek drama over the past 70 years. The first approach, referred to as modificationist or realist, claims that communicating ancient Greek drama…

  17. Teachers and Teaching: A Contemporary Muslim Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogra, Imran

    2010-01-01

    This article appreciates Muhammad as an educator based on the primary sources of Islam with a view to establish teaching as a "sunnah" (practice) of Muhammad in particular and of other messengers in general. In so doing it advocates a reconceptualization for prospective and contemporary Muslim teachers. Consequently such a stance then becomes a…

  18. Contemporary Theories of Perceptual-Motor Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Monte; Pyfer, Jean L.

    Contemporary theories of perceptual-motor development and dysfunction are analyzed in detail in this review of the literature. Studies focused on observation of delays, deviations, cause, theories of development, and programs of remediation. It is suggested that it may be presumptuous for theorists to delineate three, four, or ten characteristics…

  19. Teaching Conversations, Contemporary Art, and Figure Drawing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    An important problem for high school art teachers is deciding what belongs in the art curriculum. What works of art, media, or ideas will inspire their students to more fully develop their own artistic potential and critically engage with contemporary art and culture? What artifacts of art, visual culture, or material culture should be included…

  20. The Ideology of Logic in Contemporary Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Rex

    2006-01-01

    This paper comments on the article "Psychology and Phenomenology: A Clarification" by H. H. Kendler. In this article, Kendler sought to resolve the methodological issue that divides much of contemporary psychology--namely, the difference between natural science and human science in their respective views of psychological life. Whereas Kendler…