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Sample records for content tec derived

  1. Total electron content (TEC) variability at Los Alamos, New Mexico: A comparative study: FORTE-derived TEC analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhen; Roussel-Dupré, Robert

    2005-12-01

    Data collected from Fast On-Orbit Recording of Transient Events (FORTE) satellite-received Los Alamos Portable Pulser (LAPP) signals during 1997-2002 are used to derive the total electron content (TEC) at Los Alamos, New Mexico. The LAPP-derived TECs at Los Alamos are analyzed for diurnal, seasonal, interannual, and 27-day solar cycle variations. Several aspects in deriving TEC are analyzed, including slant to vertical TEC conversion, quartic effects on transionosperic signals, and geomagnetic storm effects on the TEC variance superimposed on the averaged TEC values.

  2. Comparison of Ionospheric TEC Derived from GPS and IRI 2012 Model during Geomagnetic Storms at Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlia, Dessi; Wu, Falin

    2016-07-01

    This paper investigates the variations of vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) at Manado, Indonesia (geographic coordinates : lat 1.34 ° S and long 124.82 ° E) for period 2013. The GPS measured TEC is compared with the TEC derived from the IRI (International Reference Ionosphere) 2012 model. Vertical TEC measurements obtained from dual frequency GPS receiver that is GISTM (GPS Ionospheric Scintillations and TEC monitor). Variation of TEC validate to IRI 2012 model at Manado station has been compared with the model for three different topside of electron density namely NeQuick, IRI-01-Corr and IRI2001.There is a need to investigation on diurnal, seasonal variations, solar activity dependence of TEC and including effects of space weather related events to TEC and modeling of TEC. In this paper, diurnal and seasonal variations of VTEC and the effect of VTEC due to space weather events like Geomagnetic storms are analyzed. The result show that the TEC prediction using IRI-2001 model overestimated the GPS TEC measurements, while IRI-NeQuick and IRI-01-corr show a tendency to underestimates the observed TEC during the day time particularly in low latitude region in the maximum solar activity period (2013). The variations of VTEC during 17th March, 2013, 29th June, 2013 storms are analyzed. During 17th March,2013 storm enhancement in VTEC with Kp value 6 and Disturbance storm index (DST) -132 nT. During 29th June, 2013 storm VTEC depletion with value 7 and DST -98 nT. Significant deviations in VTEC during the main phase of the storms are observed. It is found that the response of ionospheric TEC consist of effects of both enhancement and depletions in ionospheric structures (positive and negative storm). Keywords: TEC ionosphere, GPS, GISTM, IRI 2012 model, solar activity, geomagnetic storm

  3. Derivation of GPS TEC and receiver bias for Langkawi station in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, W. L.; Chen, W. S.; Abdullah, M.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the polynomial-type TEC model to derive total electron content (TEC) and receiver bias for Langkawi (LGKW) station in Malaysia at geographic latitude of 6.32° and longitude of 99.85°. The model uses a polynomial function of coordinates of the ionospheric piercing point to describe the TEC distribution in space. In the model, six polynomial coefficients and a receiver bias are unknown which can be solved by the least squares method. A reasonable agreement is achieved for the derivation of TEC and receiver bias for IENG station in Italy, as compared with that derived by the IGS analysis center, CODE. We process one year of LGKW data in 2010 and show the monthly receiver bias and the seasonal TEC variation. The monthly receiver bias varies between -48 and -24 TECu (1016 electrons/m2), with the mean value at -37 TECu. Large variations happen in the monthly receiver biases due to the low data coverage of high satellite elevation angle (60° < α ≤ 90°). Post-processing TEC approach is implemented which can resolve the wavy pattern of the monthly TEC baseline resulted from the large variation of the receiver bias. The seasonal TEC variation at LGKW exhibits a semi-annual variation, where the peak occurs during equinoctial months, and the trough during summer and winter months.

  4. Ionospheric earthquake effects detection based on Total Electron Content (TEC) GPS Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunardi, Bambang; Muslim, Buldan; Eka Sakya, Andi; Rohadi, Supriyanto; Sulastri; Murjaya, Jaya

    2018-03-01

    Advances in science and technology showed that ground-based GPS receiver was able to detect ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) disturbances caused by various natural phenomena such as earthquakes. One study of Tohoku (Japan) earthquake, March 11, 2011, magnitude M 9.0 showed TEC fluctuations observed from GPS observation network spread around the disaster area. This paper discussed the ionospheric earthquake effects detection using TEC GPS data. The case studies taken were Kebumen earthquake, January 25, 2014, magnitude M 6.2, Sumba earthquake, February 12, 2016, M 6.2 and Halmahera earthquake, February 17, 2016, M 6.1. TEC-GIM (Global Ionosphere Map) correlation methods for 31 days were used to monitor TEC anomaly in ionosphere. To ensure the geomagnetic disturbances due to solar activity, we also compare with Dst index in the same time window. The results showed anomalous ratio of correlation coefficient deviation to its standard deviation upon occurrences of Kebumen and Sumba earthquake, but not detected a similar anomaly for the Halmahera earthquake. It was needed a continous monitoring of TEC GPS data to detect the earthquake effects in ionosphere. This study giving hope in strengthening the earthquake effect early warning system using TEC GPS data. The method development of continuous TEC GPS observation derived from GPS observation network that already exists in Indonesia is needed to support earthquake effects early warning systems.

  5. High-resolution station-based diurnal ionospheric total electron content (TEC) from dual-frequency GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ćepni, Murat S.; Potts, Laramie V.; Miima, John B.

    2013-09-01

    electron content (TEC) estimates derived from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal delays provide a rich source of information about the Earth's ionosphere. Networks of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers data can be used to represent the ionosphere by a Global Ionospheric Map (GIM). Data input for GIMs is dual-frequency GNSS-only or a mixture of GNSS and altimetry observations. Parameterization of GNSS-only GIMs approaches the ionosphere as a single-layer model (SLM) to determine GPS TEC models over a region. Limitations in GNSS-only GIM TEC are due largely to the nonhomogenous global distribution of GPS tracking stations with large data gaps over the oceans. The utility of slant GPS ionospheric-induced path delays for high temporal resolution from a single-station data rate offers better representation of TEC over a small region. A station-based vertical TEC (TECV) approach modifies the traditional single-layer model (SLM) GPS TEC method by introducing a zenith angle weighting (ZAW) filter to capture signal delays from mostly near-zenith satellite passes. Comparison with GIMs shows the station-dependent TEC (SD-TEC) model exhibits robust performance under variable space weather conditions. The SD-TEC model was applied to investigate ionospheric TEC variability during the geomagnetic storm event of 9 March 2012 at midlatitude station NJJJ located in New Jersey, USA. The high temporal resolution TEC results suggest TEC production and loss rate differences before, during, and after the storm.

  6. GNSS Derived Ionospheric TEC Observed Through Different TEC Calibration Techniques in the Brazilian Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker-Guedes, F.; Carmo, C. S.; Camargo, P. O.; Monico, J. F. G.; Nicoli Candido, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is becoming a reliable tool for use in air navigation systems. Its use as the main technology for determination of airplanes positioning has various economic and logistic benefits but it depends strongly on the ionospheric layer influences. The Brazilian sector ionosphere, mainly over the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), presents remarkable errors in the GNSS signal as compared to North America and Europe. In order to study the total electron content latitudinal variation of the Brazilian ionosphere we used a pair of GNSS receivers on the ground, one located in the equatorial region (Sao Luis) and other in the southern crest of the EIA (Cachoeira Paulista), to collect the GNSS observables and calculate the vertical TEC using different methods that has proven to work well to describe the ionospheric behavior in the North America and in Europe. We compared this results with a modified Nagoya TEC calculation method used by the EMBRACE (Estudo e Monitoramento BRAsileiro do Clima Espacial - Brazilian Study and Monitoring of Space Weather) program. This work intends to follow the performance of different TEC tuning methods to evaluate the spurious effects of the ionospheric EIA gradients in the TEC determination under typical conditions of the low-latitudes ionosphere in the Brazilian sector. The calculated TEC under different solar cycle conditions, geomagnetic activity, and seasonal variations show deviations in the performance of each method and stress the importance of well adjust the GNSS observations to local conditions in order to optimize the TEC evaluation. This study contributes to a better understanding of local GNSS signal errors in the global intent of offering conditions to improve the accuracy, integrity, availability, and continuity requirements for the use of GNSS for air navigation in South America.

  7. Long-term trends in the total electron content (TEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laštovička, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The long-term trends in the total electron content (TEC) have very little been studied. Lean et al. (2011; J. Geophys. Res., 116, A00H04, doi:10.1029/2010JA016378) studied trends in TEC globally based on JPL maps for 1995-2010. However, their trends appear to be too positive, which is not plausible taking into account the trends in other ionospheric parameters. Therefore they prefer the less positive trends calculated under the assumption of the same level of solar activity in solar cycle minima 22/23 and 23/24. However, as it is now clear, this is not a correct assumption. Lastovicka (2013; J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 118, 3831-3835, doi:10.1002/jgra.50261) selected a region around Florence, Italy, as a region with available historical TEC data based on Faraday rotation measurements and remarkably larger than average trends in TEC by Lean et al. (2011). Historical data from Florence provide no trend in TEC. However, foF2 from Juliusruh provide slight negative trends for 1976-1996 but no trends for 1995-2010. Thus the question of reality of trends by Lean et al. (2011) remained open. Here we use TEC from GIM and JPL data for two European regions with high Lean's trends, regions around Florence and around Prague, using 10-14 LT medians, 1998-2015, yearly average values. A classical approach is applied. First a model of solar activity dependence of TEC is constructed separately for each region from all data. Then model data are subtracted from experimental data and analysis is made with residuals. This analysis shows that early data (1998-2001) are by several TECU lower than they should be according to solar activity, the year 2002 is intermediate and in 2003-2015 the data fit well a weak or rather no trend of TEC. The change in TEC data does not seem to be jump-like, it lasted at least a year, if not longer. Thus the positive TEC trends reported by Lean et al. (2011) appear to be affected by data problem; real trends are evidently less positive if any.

  8. Estimation of total electron content (TEC) using spaceborne GPS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Key-Rok; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    2008-09-01

    TerraSAR-X (TSX), a high-resolution interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) mission from DLR (German Aerospace Center, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft-und Raumfahrt), was successfully launched into orbit on June 15, 2007. It includes a dual-frequency GPS receiver called IGOR (Integrated GPS Occultation Receiver), which is a heritage NASA/JPL BlackJack receiver. The software for the TSX IGOR receiver was specially-modified software developed at UT/CSR. This software was upgraded to provide enhanced occultation capabilities. This paper describes total electron content (TEC) estimation using simulation data and onboard GPS data of TerraSAR-X. The simulated GPS data were collected using the IGOR Engineering Model (EM) in the laboratory and the onboard GPS data were collected from the IGOR Flight Model (FM) on TSX. To estimate vertical total electron content (vTEC) for the simulation data, inter-frequency biases (IFB) were estimated using the "carrier to code leveling process." For the onboard GPS data, IFBs of GPS satellites were retrieved from the navigation message and applied to the measurements.

  9. Comparison of GPS-derived TEC with IRI-2012 and IRI-2007 TEC predictions at Surat, a location around the EIA crest in the Indian sector, during the ascending phase of solar cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, N. C.; Karia, S. P.; Pathak, K. N.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a comparison of GPS-derived TEC with IRI-2012 and IRI-2007 TEC Predictions at Surat (21.16°N Geographic latitude, 72.78°E Geographic longitude, 12.90°N Geomagnetic latitude) a location around the Equatorial Ionisation Anomaly (EIA) crest in the Indian sector, during the Ascending Phase of Solar Cycle 24, for a period of three years (January 2010-December 2012). In this comparison, plasmaspheric electron content (PEC) contribution to the GPS-TEC has been removed. It is observed that percentage PEC contribution to the GPS-TEC varies from about ∼15% (at the noon local time) to about ∼30% (at the morning local time). From the monthly comparison of GPS-TEC with IRI-TEC, it is observed that, TEC predicted by both the models overestimates in June-2012 and underestimates TEC in November-2011, December-2011 and March-2011. For all other months IRI estimates the TEC well. From the seasonal comparison, it is observed that the peak time appears ∼1-h later than the actual peak time in Winter 2010, Summer 2011, and Equinox 2010 and 2012 (the result suggest that it may be due to discrepancies/disagreement of both the versions of the IRI model in estimating the peak density as well as the thickness and shape parameters of the electron density profiles). For the Summer season, the IRI-TEC estimates the TEC well for all the years. Further, the seasonal variation of the GPS-TEC for all the three years matches well with IRI-2012 model compared to IRI-2007 model. Also, the mean annual TEC is predicted well by both the versions of the IRI model.

  10. GNSS derived TEC data ingestion into IRI 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migoya-Orué, Yenca; Nava, Bruno; Radicella, Sandro; Alazo-Cuartas, Katy

    2015-04-01

    Experimental vertical total electron content (VTEC) data given by Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) has been ingested into the IRI version 2012, aiming to obtain grids of effective input parameter values that allow to minimize the difference between the experimental and modeled vertical TEC. Making use of the experience gained with the technique of model adaptation applied to NeQuick (Nava et al., 2005), it has been found possible to compute IRI world grids of effective ionosphere index parameters (IG). The IG grids thus obtained can be interpolated in space and time to calculate with IRI the 3D electron density at any location and also the TEC along any ground-to-satellite ray-path for a given epoch. In this study, the ingestion technique is presented and a posteriori validation, along with an assessment of the capability of the 'ingested' IRI to reproduce the ionosphere day-to-day foF2 variability during disturbed and quiet periods. The foF2 values retrieved are compared with data from about 20 worldwide ionosondes for selected periods of high (year 2000) and moderate to low solar activity (year 2006). It was found that the use of the ingestion scheme enhances the performance of the model when compared with its standard use based on solar activity drivers (R12 and F10.7), especially for high solar activity. As an example, the mean and standard deviation of the differences between experimental and reconstructed F2-peak values for April of year 2000 is 0.09 and 1.28 MHz for ingested IRI, compared to -0.81 and 1.27 MHz (IRI with R12 input) and -0.02 and 1.46 MHz (IRI with F10.7 input).

  11. Comparison of GPS derived TEC with the TEC predicted by IRI 2012 model in the southern Equatorial Ionization Anomaly crest within the Eastern Africa region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulungu, Emmanuel D.; Uiso, Christian B. S.; Sibanda, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    We have compared the TEC obtained from the IRI-2012 model with the GPS derived TEC data recorded within southern crest of the EIA in the Eastern Africa region using the monthly means of the 5 international quiet days for equinoxes and solstices months for the period of 2012 - 2013. GPS-derived TEC data have been obtained from the Africa array and IGS network of ground based dual-frequency GPS receivers from four stations (Kigali (1.95°S, 30.09°E; Geom. Lat. 11.63°S), Malindi (2.99°S, 40.19°E; Geom. Lat. 12.42°S), Mbarara (0.60°S, 30.74°E; Geom. Lat. 10.22°S) and Nairobi (1.22°S, 36.89°E; Geom. Lat. 10.69°S)) located within the EIA crest in this region. All the three options for topside Ne of IRI-2012 model and ABT-2009 for bottomside thickness have been used to compute the IRI TEC. Also URSI coefficients were considered in this study. These results are compared with the TEC estimated from GPS measurements. Correlation Coefficients between the two sets of data, the Root-Mean Square Errors (RMSE) of the IRI-TEC from the GPS-TEC, and the percentage RMSE of the IRI-TEC from the GPS-TEC have been computed. Our general results show that IRI-2012 model with all three options overestimates the GPS-TEC for all seasons and at all stations, and IRI-2001 overestimates GPS-TEC more compared with other options. IRI-Neq and IRI-01-corr are closely matching in most of the time. The observation also shows that, GPS TEC are underestimated by TEC from IRI model during noon hours, especially during equinoctial months. Further, GPS-TEC values and IRI-TEC values using all the three topside Ne options show very good correlation (above 0.8). On the other hand, the TEC using IRI-Neq and IRI-01- corr had smaller deviations from the GPS-TEC compared to the IRI-2001.

  12. An Analysis on the TEC Variability and Ionospheric Scintillation at Los Alamos, New Mexico Derived from FORTE-Received LAPP Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Roussel-Dupre, R.

    2003-12-01

    The total electron content (TEC) of ionosphere and its electron density irregularities (scintillation) have effects of degradation and disruption on radio signals passed between ground stations and orbiting man-made satellites. With the rapid increase in operational reliance on UHF/VHF satellite communication, it is desirable to obtain understandings of ionosphere TEC variability and scintillation characteristics to improve our ability of predicting satellite communication outages. In this work, data collected from FORTE satellite received LAPP (Los Alamos Portable Pulser) signals during 1998-2002 are used to derive TEC and ionospheric scintillation index at Los Alamos, New Mexico. To characterize in-situ TEC variability at Los Alamos, the FORTE-LAPP derived TECs are analyzed against diurnal, seasonal, solar activity, magnetic storm, and stratospheric warming. The results are also compared with the TEC estimates from the Los Alamos ionospheric transfer function (ITF) implemented with the global ionospheric models (IRI, PIM), and GPS -derived TEC maps. The FORTE-LAPP signals are also analyzed against two important measures of the effect of scintillation on broadband signals, the mean time delay and the time delay jitter. The results are used to examine coherence frequency bandwidth and compared with the predictions from a global scintillation model (WBMOD). The FORTE-LAPP analyzed and WBMOD predicted scintillation characteristics are used to investigate temporal and seasonal behavior of scintillation at Los Alamos.

  13. Linear time series modeling of GPS-derived TEC observations over the Indo-Thailand region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suraj, Puram Sai; Kumar Dabbakuti, J. R. K.; Chowdhary, V. Rajesh; Tripathi, Nitin K.; Ratnam, D. Venkata

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes a linear time series model to represent the climatology of the ionosphere and to investigate the characteristics of hourly averaged total electron content (TEC). The GPS-TEC observation data at the Bengaluru international global navigation satellite system (GNSS) service (IGS) station (geographic 13.02°N , 77.57°E ; geomagnetic latitude 4.4°N ) have been utilized for processing the TEC data during an extended period (2009-2016) in the 24{th} solar cycle. Solar flux F10.7p index, geomagnetic Ap index, and periodic oscillation factors have been considered to construct a linear TEC model. It is evident from the results that solar activity effect on TEC is high. It reaches the maximum value (˜ 40 TECU) during the high solar activity (HSA) year (2014) and minimum value (˜ 15 TECU) during the low solar activity (LSA) year (2009). The larger magnitudes of semiannual variations are observed during the HSA periods. The geomagnetic effect on TEC is relatively low, with the highest being ˜ 4 TECU (March 2015). The magnitude of periodic variations can be seen more significantly during HSA periods (2013-2015) and less during LSA periods (2009-2011). The correlation coefficient of 0.89 between the observations and model-based estimations has been found. The RMSE between the observed TEC and model TEC values is 4.0 TECU (linear model) and 4.21 TECU (IRI2016 Model). Further, the linear TEC model has been validated at different latitudes over the northern low-latitude region. The solar component (F10.7p index) value decreases with an increase in latitude. The magnitudes of the periodic component become less significant with the increase in latitude. The influence of geomagnetic component becomes less significant at Lucknow GNSS station (26.76°N, 80.88°E) when compared to other GNSS stations. The hourly averaged TEC values have been considered and ionospheric features are well recovered with linear TEC model.

  14. Determination of Ionospheric Total Electron Content Derived from Gnss Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inyurt, S.; Mekik, C.; Yildirim, O.

    2014-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has been used in numerous fields especially related to satellite- based radio navigation system for a long time. Ionosphere, one of the upper atmosphere layers ranges from 60 km to 1500 km, is a dispersive medium and it includes a number of free electrons and ions. The ionization is mainly subject to the sun and its activity. Ionospheric activity depends also on seasonal, diurnal variations and geographical location. Total Electron Content (TEC), which is also called Slant Total Electron Content (STEC), is a parameter that changes according to ionospheric conditions and has highly variable structure. Furthermore, Vertical TEC (VTEC) can be explained as TEC value in the direction of zenith. Thanks to VTEC, TEC values can be modelled. TEC is measured in units of TECU and 1TECU= 1016 electrons/m2. Ionospheric modelling has a great importance for improving the accuracies of positioning and understanding the ionosphere. Thus, various models have been developed to detect TEC value in the last years. Single Layer Model (SLM) which provides determining TEC value and GPS positioning in the ionosphere accurately is one of the most commonly used models. SLM assumes that all free electrons are concentrated in a shell of infinitesimal thickness. In this paper SLM model was used to derive TEC values by means of Bernese 5.0 program developed by the University of Bern, Sweden. In this study, we have used regional ionosphere model to derive TEC value. First of all, GPS data have been collected from 10 stations in Turkey and 13 IGS stations for 7 days from 06.03.2010 to 12.03.2010. Then, Regional Ionosphere Model (RIM) is created with the reference of the GPS data. At the end of the process, the result files are stored as IONEX format. TEC results for those days are obtained with two hours interval. TEC variation related to the research area ranges from nearly 6 TECU to approximately 20 TECU. The obtained results show that TEC values start

  15. An empirical model of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) near the crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajra, Rajkumar; Chakraborty, Shyamal Kumar; Tsurutani, Bruce T.; DasGupta, Ashish; Echer, Ezequiel; Brum, Christiano G. M.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Sobral, José Humberto Andrade

    2016-07-01

    We present a geomagnetic quiet time (Dst > -50 nT) empirical model of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) for the northern equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest over Calcutta, India. The model is based on the 1980-1990 TEC measurements from the geostationary Engineering Test Satellite-2 (ETS-2) at the Haringhata (University of Calcutta, India: 22.58° N, 88.38° E geographic; 12.09° N, 160.46° E geomagnetic) ionospheric field station using the technique of Faraday rotation of plane polarized VHF (136.11 MHz) signals. The ground station is situated virtually underneath the northern EIA crest. The monthly mean TEC increases linearly with F10.7 solar ionizing flux, with a significantly high correlation coefficient (r = 0.89-0.99) between the two. For the same solar flux level, the TEC values are found to be significantly different between the descending and ascending phases of the solar cycle. This ionospheric hysteresis effect depends on the local time as well as on the solar flux level. On an annual scale, TEC exhibits semiannual variations with maximum TEC values occurring during the two equinoxes and minimum at summer solstice. The semiannual variation is strongest during local noon with a summer-to-equinox variability of ~50-100 TEC units. The diurnal pattern of TEC is characterized by a pre-sunrise (0400-0500 LT) minimum and near-noon (1300-1400 LT) maximum. Equatorial electrodynamics is dominated by the equatorial electrojet which in turn controls the daytime TEC variation and its maximum. We combine these long-term analyses to develop an empirical model of monthly mean TEC. The model is validated using both ETS-2 measurements and recent GNSS measurements. It is found that the present model efficiently estimates the TEC values within a 1-σ range from the observed mean values.

  16. Global features of ionospheric slab thickness derived from JPL TEC and COSMIC observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Liu, Libo

    2016-04-01

    The ionospheric equivalent slab thickness (EST) is the ratio of total electron content (TEC) to F2-layer peak electron density (NmF2), describing the thickness of the ionospheric profile. In this study, we retrieve EST from Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) TEC data and NmF2 retrieved from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) ionospheric radio occultation data. The diurnal, seasonal and solar activity variations of global EST are analyzed as the excellent spatial coverage of JPL TEC and COSMIC data. During solstices, daytime EST in the summer hemisphere is larger than that in the winter hemisphere, except in some high-latitude regions; and the reverse is true for the nighttime EST. The peaks of EST often appear at 0400 local time. The pre-sunrise enhancement in EST appears in all seasons, while the post-sunset enhancement in EST is not readily observed in equinox. The dependence of EST on solar activity is very complicated. Furthermore, an interesting phenomenon is found that EST is enhanced from 0° to 120° E in longitude and 30° to 75° S in latitude during nighttime, just to the east of Weddell Sea Anomaly, during equinox and southern hemisphere summer.

  17. Evaluation of long term solar activity effects on GPS derived TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoori, Azad A.; Khan, Parvaiz A.; Ahmad, Rafi; Atulkar, Roshni; M, Aslam A.; Bhardwaj, Shivangi; Malvi, Bhupendra; Purohit, P. K.; Gwal, A. K.

    2016-10-01

    The solar activity hence the solar radiance follows a long term periodic variability with eleven years periodicity, known as solar cycle. This drives the long term variability of the ionosphere. In the present problem we investigate the long term behaviour of the ionosphere with the eleven year cyclic solar activity. Under the present study we characterize the ionospheric variability by Total Electron Content (TEC) using measurements made by Global Positioning System (GPS) and solar cycle variability by various solar activity indices. We make use of five solar activity indices viz. sunspot number (Rz), solar radio Flux (F10.7 cm), EUV Flux (26-34 nm), flare index and CME occurrences. The long term variability of these solar activity indices were then compared and correlated with the variability of ionospheric TEC, at a mid latitude station, Usuda (36.13N, 138.36E), of Japan, during the solar cycle 23 and ascending phase of cycle 24. From our study, we found that long term changes in the ionospheric TEC vary synchronously with corresponding changes in the solar activity indices. The correlation analysis shows that all the solar activity indices exhibit a very strong correlation with TEC (R =0.76 -0.99). Moreover the correlation between the two is stronger in the descending phase of the solar cycle. The correlation is found to be remarkably strongest during the deep minimum of the solar cycle 24 i.e. between 2007- 2009. Also we noticed a hysteresis effect exists with solar radio flux (F10.7 cm) and solar EUV flux (26-34 nm). This effect is absent with other parameters.

  18. A global picture of ionospheric slab thickness derived from GIM TEC and COSMIC radio occultation observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, He; Liu, Libo; Chen, Yiding; Le, Huijun; Wan, Weixing

    2016-01-01

    The ionospheric equivalent slab thickness (EST), defined as the ratio of total electron content (TEC) to F2 layer peak electron density (NmF2), describes the thickness of the ionospheric profile. In this study, we retrieve EST from TEC data obtained from Global Ionospheric Map (GIM) and NmF2 retrieved from Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC) ionospheric radio occultation data. The diurnal, seasonal, and solar activity variations of global EST are analyzed as the excellent spatial coverage of GIM and COSMIC data. During solstices, daytime EST in the summer hemisphere is larger than that in the winter hemisphere, except in some high-latitude regions, and the reverse is true for the nighttime EST. The peaks of EST often appear at 0400 local time. The presunrise enhancement in EST appears in all seasons, while the postsunset enhancement in EST is not readily observed in equinox. Both enhancements are attributed to the more remarkable electron density decay of NmF2 compared to that of TEC. The dependence of EST on solar activity is related to the inconsistent solar activity dependences of electron density at different altitudes. Furthermore, it is interesting that EST is enhanced from 0° to 120°E in longitude and 30° to 75°S in latitude during nighttime, just to the east of Weddell Sea Anomaly, during equinox and the Southern Hemisphere summer. This phenomenon is supposed to be related to the effects of geomagnetic declination-related plasma vertical drifts.

  19. US-TEC: A new data assimilation product from the Space Environment Center characterizing the ionospheric total electron content using real-time GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller-Rowell, Tim; Araujo-Pradere, Eduardo; Minter, Cliff; Codrescu, Mihail; Spencer, Paul; Robertson, Doug; Jacobson, Abram R.

    2006-12-01

    The potential of data assimilation for operational numerical weather forecasting has been appreciated for many years. For space weather it is a new path that we are just beginning to explore. With the emergence of satellite constellations and the networks of ground-based observations, sufficient data sources are now available to make the application of data assimilation techniques a viable option. The first space weather product at Space Environment Center (SEC) utilizing data assimilation techniques, US-TEC, was launched as a test operational product in November 2004. US-TEC characterizes the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) over the continental United States (CONUS) every 15 min with about a 15-min latency. US-TEC is based on a Kalman filter data assimilation scheme driven by a ground-based network of real-time GPS stations. The product includes a map of the vertical TEC, an estimate of the uncertainty in the map, and the departure of the TEC from a 10-day average at that particular universal time. In addition, data files are provided for vertical TEC and the line-of-sight electron content to all GPS satellites in view over the CONUS at that time. The information can be used to improve single-frequency GPS positioning by providing more accurate corrections for the ionospheric signal delay, or it can be used to initialize rapid integer ambiguity resolution schemes for dual-frequency GPS systems. Validation of US-TEC indicates an accuracy of the line-of-sight electron content of between 2 and 3 TEC units (1 TECU = 1016 el m-2), equivalent to less than 50 cm signal delay at L1 frequencies, which promises value for GPS users. This is the first step along a path that will likely lead to major improvement in space weather forecasting, paralleling the advances achieved in meteorological weather forecasting.

  20. Solar activity indices as a proxy for the variation of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) over Bahir Dar, Ethiopia during the year 2010-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassa, Tsegaye; Tilahun, Samson; Damtie, Baylie

    2017-09-01

    This paper was aimed at investigating the solar variations of vTEC as a function of solar activity parameters, EUV and F10.7 radio flux. The daily values of ionospheric vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) were observed using a dual frequency GPS receiver deployed at Bahir Dar (11.6°N and 37.36°E), Ethiopia. Measurements were taken during the period of 2010-2014 for successive five years and analysis was done on only quiet day observations. A quadratic fit was used as a model to describe the daily variation of vTEC in relation to solar parameters. Linear and non-linear coefficients of the vTEC variations were calculated in order to capture the trend of the variation. The variation of vTEC have showed good agreement with the trend of solar parameters in almost all of the days we consider during the period of our observations. We have explicitly observed days with insignificant TECU deviation (eg. modeling with respect to EUV, DOY = 49 in 2010 and modeling with respect to F10.7, DOY = 125 in 2012 and the like) and days with maximum deviation (about 50 TECU). A maximum deviation were observed, on average, during months of equinox whereas minimum during solstice months. This implies that there is a need to consider more parameters, including EUV and F10.7, that can affect the variation of vTEC during equinox seasons. Relatively, small deviations was observed in modeling vTEC as a function of EUV compared to that of the variation due to F10.7 cm flux. This may also tell us that EUV can be more suitable in modeling the solar variation of vTEC especially for longterm trends. Even though, the linear trend of solar variations of vTEC was frequently observed, significant saturation and amplification trends of the solar variations of vTEC were also observed to some extent across the months of the years we have analyzed. This mixed trend of the solar variation of vTEC implies the need for thorough investigation on the effect of solar parameters on TEC. However, based on

  1. Short term variations of total electron content (TEC) fitting to a regional GPS network over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, A. O.; Alsubaie, M. A.; Ayhan, M. E.

    2011-09-01

    The ionosphere is a dispersive medium for radio waves with the refractive index which is a function of frequency and total electron content (TEC). TEC has a strong diurnal variation in addition to monthly, seasonal and solar cycle variations and small and large scale irregularities. Dual frequency GPS observations can be utilized to obtain TEC and investigate its spatial and temporal variations. We here studied short term TEC variations over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A regional GPS network is formed consisting of 16 sites in and around KSA. GPS observations, acquired between 1st and 11th February 2009, were processed on a daily basis by using the Bernese v5.0 software and IGS final products. The geometry-free zero difference smoothed code observables were used to obtain two hour interval snapshots of TEC and their RMS errors at 0.5 × 0.5 degree grid nodes and regional ionosphere models in a spherical harmonics expansion to degree and order six. The equatorial ionized anomaly (EIA) is recovered in the south of 20°N from 08:00 to 12:00 UT. We found that day-by-day TEC variation is more stable than the night time variation.

  2. Comparison with IRI-PLUS and IRI-2012-TEC values of GPS-TEC values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atıcı, Ramazan; Saǧır, Selçuk

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a comparison with IRI-PLUS and IRI-2012 Total Electron Content (TEC) values of Total Electron Content (TEC) values obtained from Ankara station (39,7 N; 32,76 E) of Global Position System (GPS) of Turkey on equinox and solstice days of 2009 year. For all days, it is observed that GPS-TEC values are greater than IRI-2012-TEC values, while IRI-PLUS-TEC values are very close to GPS-TEC values. When GPS-TEC values for both equinoxes are compared, it is seen that TEC values on September equinox are greater than one on March equinox. However, it is observed that GPS-TEC values on June solstice are greater than one on December solstice. Also, the relationship between GPS-TEC values and geomagnetic indexes is investigated.

  3. Comparative analysis of GPS-derived TEC estimates and foF2 observations during storm conditions towards the expansion of ionospheric forecasting capabilities over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsagouri, Ioanna; Belehaki, Anna; Elias, Panagiotis

    2017-04-01

    This paper builts the discussion on the comparative analysis of the variations in the peak electron density at F2 layer and the TEC parameter during a significant number of geomagnetic storm events that occurred in the present solar cycle 24. The ionospheric disturbances are determined through the comparison of actual observations of the foF2 critical frequency and GPS-TEC estimates obtained over European locations with the corresponding median estimates, and they are analysed in conjunction to the solar wind conditions at L1 point that are monitored by the ACE spacecraft. The quantification of the storm impact on the TEC parameter in terms of possible limitations introduced by different TEC derivation methods is carefully addressed.The results reveal similarities and differences in the response of the two parameters with respect to the solar wind drivers of the storms, as well as the local time and the latitude of the observation point. The aforementioned dependences drive the storm-time forecasts of the SWIF model (Solar Wind driven autorgressive model for Ionospheric short-term Forecast), which is operationally implemented in the DIAS system (http://dias.space.noa.gr) and extensively tested in performance at several occassions. In its present version, the model provides alerts and warnings for upcoming ionospheric disturbances, as well as single site and regional forecasts of the foF2 characteristic over Europe up to 24 hours ahead based on the assesment of the solar wind conditions at ACE location. In that respect, the results obtained above support the upgrade of the SWIF's modeling technique in forecasting the storm-time TEC variation within an operational environment several hours in advance. Preliminary results on the evaluation of the model's efficiency in TEC prediction are also discussed, giving special attention in the assesment of the capabilities through the TEC-derivation uncertanties for future discussions.

  4. (Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies. IV. Physical properties derived from spectral energy distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, O.; Delvecchio, I.; Smolčić, V.; Novak, M.; Aravena, M.; Karim, A.; Murphy, E. J.; Schinnerer, E.; Capak, P.; Ilbert, O.; Intema, H. T.; Laigle, C.; McCracken, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Context. Submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the early Universe are potential antecedents of the most massive galaxies we see in the present-day Universe. An important step towards quantifying this galactic evolutionary connection is to investigate the fundamental physical properties of SMGs, such as their stellar mass content (M⋆) and star formation rate (SFR). Aims: We attempt to characterise the physical nature of a 1.1 mm selected, flux-limited, and interferometrically followed up sample of SMGs in the COSMOS field. Methods: We used the latest release of the MAGPHYS code to fit the multiwavelength (UV to radio) spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 16 of the target SMGs, which lie at redshifts z ≃ 1.6-5.3. We also constructed the pure radio SEDs of our SMGs using three different radio bands (325 MHz, 1.4 GHz, and 3 GHz). Moreover, since two SMGs in our sample, AzTEC 1 and AzTEC 3, benefit from previous 12C16O line observations, we studied their properties in more detail. Results: The median and 16th-84th percentile ranges of M⋆, infrared (8-1000 μm) luminosity (LIR), SFR, dust temperature (Tdust), and dust mass (Mdust) were derived to be log (M⋆/M⊙) = 10.96+ 0.34-0.19, log (LIR/L⊙) = 12.93+ 0.09-0.19, SFR = 856+ 191-310M⊙ yr-1, Tdust = 40.6+ 7.5-8.1 K, and log (Mdust/M⊙) = 9.17+ 0.03-0.33, respectively. We found that 63% of our target SMGs lie above the galaxy main sequence by more than a factor of 3 and, hence, are starbursts. The 3 GHz radio sizes we have previously measured for the target SMGs were compared with the present M⋆ estimates, and we found that the z> 3 SMGs are fairly consistent with the mass-size relationship of z 2 compact, quiescent galaxies (cQGs). The median radio spectral index is found to be α = -0.77+ 0.28-0.42. The median IR-radio correlation parameter is found to be q = 2.27+ 0.27-0.13, which is lower than was measured locally (median q = 2.64). The gas-to-dust mass ratio for AzTEC 1 is derived to be δgdr = 90+ 23

  5. A single-station empirical model for TEC over the Antarctic Peninsula using GPS-TEC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jiandi; Wang, Zhengtao; Jiang, Weiping; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Bingbing

    2017-02-01

    Compared with regional or global total electron content (TEC) empirical models, single-station TEC empirical models may exhibit higher accuracy in describing TEC spatial and temporal variations for a single station. In this paper, a new single-station empirical total electron content (TEC) model, called SSM-month, for the O'Higgins Station in the Antarctic Peninsula is proposed by using Global Positioning System (GPS)-TEC data from 01 January 2004 to 30 June 2015. The diurnal variation of TEC in the O'Higgins Station may have changing features in different months, sometimes even in opposite forms, because of ionospheric phenomena, such as the Mid-latitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly (MSNA). To avoid the influence of different diurnal variations, the concept of monthly modeling is proposed in this study. The SSM-month model, which is established by month (including 12 submodels that correspond to the 12 months), can effectively describe the diurnal variation of TEC in different months. Each submodel of the SSM-month model exhibits good agreement with GPS-TEC input data. Overall, the SSM-month model fits the input data with a bias of 0.03 TECU (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2) and a standard deviation of 2.78 TECU. This model, which benefits from the modeling method, can effectively describe the MSNA phenomenon without implementing any modeling correction. TEC data derived from Center for Orbit Determination in Europe global ionosphere maps (CODE GIMs), International Reference Ionosphere 2012 (IRI2012), and NeQuick are compared with the SSM-month model in the years of 2001 and 2015-2016. Result shows that the SSM-month model exhibits good consistency with CODE GIMs, which is better than that of IRI2012 and NeQuick, in the O'Higgins Station on the test days.

  6. The Response of Mid-Latitude Ionospheric TEC to Geomagnetic Storms and Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Z.; Roussel-Dupre, R.

    2004-12-01

    The effects of geomagnetic storms and solar flares on the ionosphere are manifested as large magnitude sudden fluctuations in the Total Electron Content (TEC). In this study, the broadband VHF signal (30-100MHz) data from the Los Alamos Portable Pulser (LAPP) received by the FORTE (Fast Onboard Recording of Transient Events) satellite during the period of 1997-2002 are used to investigate the mean TEC variation response to geomagnetic storm. A total of 14 geomagnetic storms are selected where FORTE-LAPP data are available to derive average TECs during extended storm-time and non-storm time for a given storm. The variations in the ionospheric TECs at Los Alamos, New Mexico are investigated for the 14 selected geomagnetic storms. In most cases (12 out of 14), we see overall enhancements in TEC as a result of geomagnetic storm impact at Los Alamos. The relative enhancements in TEC at Los Alamos due to a geomagnetic storm can reach as high as 3-fold of the normal TEC values. The overall absolute enhancements in TEC at Los Alamos are up to about 30 TECU. The magnitude of TEC enhancements is diversified over all storm categories without a clean-cut relationship between the storm intensity and the TEC enhancement. The mean TEC variation response to geomagnetic storm can be complicated when several consecutive storms occurred in a row and a net TEC reduction may be seen. Data of continuous GPS TEC measurements are collected at a 1-minute time resolution during July 2004 when 5 X-class solar flares occurred from two Allen Osborne Associates ICS-4000Z GPS receivers mounted at the Physics Building at Los Alamos National Laboratory. In detecting effects of solar flares on the ionospheric TEC, we apply appropriate filtering to remove the linear trend of TEC and a coherent processing of TEC variations simultaneously for all the visible GPS satellites in a given time interval. The responses of ionospheric TEC at minute time scale to these powerful impulsive solar flares are

  7. Regional TEC model under quiet geomagnetic conditions and low-to-moderate solar activity based on CODE GIMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jiandi; Jiang, Weiping; Wang, Zhengtao; Zhao, Zhenzhen; Nie, Linjuan

    2017-08-01

    Global empirical total electron content (TEC) models based on TEC maps effectively describe the average behavior of the ionosphere. However, the accuracy of these global models for a certain region may not be ideal. Due to the number and distribution of the International GNSS Service (IGS) stations, the accuracy of TEC maps is geographically different. The modeling database derived from the global TEC maps with different accuracy is likely one of the main reasons that limits the accuracy of the new models. Moreover, many anomalies in the ionosphere are geographic or geomagnetic dependent, and as such the accuracy of global models can deteriorate if these anomalies are not fully incorporated into the modeling approach. For regional models built in small areas, these influences on modeling are immensely weakened. Thus, the regional TEC models may better reflect the temporal and spatial variations of TEC. In our previous work (Feng et al., 2016), a regional TEC model TECM-NEC is proposed for northeast China. However, this model is only directed against the typical region of Mid-latitude Summer Nighttime Anomaly (MSNA) occurrence, which is meaningless in other regions without MSNA. Following the technique of TECM-NEC model, this study proposes another regional empirical TEC model for other regions in mid-latitudes. Taking a small area BeiJing-TianJin-Tangshan (JJT) region (37.5°-42.5° N, 115°-120° E) in China as an example, a regional empirical TEC model (TECM-JJT) is proposed using the TEC grid data from January 1, 1999 to June 30, 2015 provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) under quiet geomagnetic conditions. The TECM-JJT model fits the input CODE TEC data with a bias of 0.11TECU and a root mean square error of 3.26TECU. Result shows that the regional model TECM-JJT is consistent with CODE TEC data and GPS-TEC data.

  8. Long-Term Prediction of the Arctic Ionospheric TEC Based on Time-Varying Periodograms

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingbin; Chen, Ruizhi; Wang, Zemin; An, Jiachun; Hyyppä, Juha

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the polar ionospheric total electron content (TEC) and its future variations is of scientific and engineering relevance. In this study, a new method is developed to predict Arctic mean TEC on the scale of a solar cycle using previous data covering 14 years. The Arctic TEC is derived from global positioning system measurements using the spherical cap harmonic analysis mapping method. The study indicates that the variability of the Arctic TEC results in highly time-varying periodograms, which are utilized for prediction in the proposed method. The TEC time series is divided into two components of periodic oscillations and the average TEC. The newly developed method of TEC prediction is based on an extrapolation method that requires no input of physical observations of the time interval of prediction, and it is performed in both temporally backward and forward directions by summing the extrapolation of the two components. The backward prediction indicates that the Arctic TEC variability includes a 9 years period for the study duration, in addition to the well-established periods. The long-term prediction has an uncertainty of 4.8–5.6 TECU for different period sets. PMID:25369066

  9. Space Weather Activities of IONOLAB Group: TEC Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, F.; Yilmaz, A.; Arikan, O.; Sayin, I.; Gurun, M.; Akdogan, K. E.; Yildirim, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    Being a key player in Space Weather, ionospheric variability affects the performance of both communication and navigation systems. To improve the performance of these systems, ionosphere has to be monitored. Total Electron Content (TEC), line integral of the electron density along a ray path, is an important parameter to investigate the ionospheric variability. A cost-effective way of obtaining TEC is by using dual-frequency GPS receivers. Since these measurements are sparse in space, accurate and robust interpolation techniques are needed to interpolate (or map) the TEC distribution for a given region in space. However, the TEC data derived from GPS measurements contain measurement noise, model and computational errors. Thus, it is necessary to analyze the interpolation performance of the techniques on synthetic data sets that can represent various ionospheric states. By this way, interpolation performance of the techniques can be compared over many parameters that can be controlled to represent the desired ionospheric states. In this study, Multiquadrics, Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), Cubic Splines, Ordinary and Universal Kriging, Random Field Priors (RFP), Multi-Layer Perceptron Neural Network (MLP-NN), and Radial Basis Function Neural Network (RBF-NN) are employed as the spatial interpolation algorithms. These mapping techniques are initially tried on synthetic TEC surfaces for parameter and coefficient optimization and determination of error bounds. Interpolation performance of these methods are compared on synthetic TEC surfaces over the parameters of sampling pattern, number of samples, the variability of the surface and the trend type in the TEC surfaces. By examining the performance of the interpolation methods, it is observed that both Kriging, RFP and NN have important advantages and possible disadvantages depending on the given constraints. It is also observed that the determining parameter in the error performance is the trend in the Ionosphere

  10. GIM-TEC adaptive ionospheric weather assessment and forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Arikan, F.; Hernandez-Pajares, M.; Stanislawska, I.

    2013-09-01

    The Ionospheric Weather Assessment and Forecast (IWAF) system is a computer software package designed to assess and predict the world-wide representation of 3-D electron density profiles from the Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content (GIM-TEC). The unique system products include daily-hourly numerical global maps of the F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) and the peak height (hmF2) generated with the International Reference Ionosphere extended to the plasmasphere, IRI-Plas, upgraded by importing the daily-hourly GIM-TEC as a new model driving parameter. Since GIM-TEC maps are provided with 1- or 2-days latency, the global maps forecast for 1 day and 2 days ahead are derived using an harmonic analysis applied to the temporal changes of TEC, foF2 and hmF2 at 5112 grid points of a map encapsulated in IONEX format (-87.5°:2.5°:87.5°N in latitude, -180°:5°:180°E in longitude). The system provides online the ionospheric disturbance warnings in the global W-index map establishing categories of the ionospheric weather from the quiet state (W=±1) to intense storm (W=±4) according to the thresholds set for instant TEC perturbations regarding quiet reference median for the preceding 7 days. The accuracy of IWAF system predictions of TEC, foF2 and hmF2 maps is superior to the standard persistence model with prediction equal to the most recent ‘true’ map. The paper presents outcomes of the new service expressed by the global ionospheric foF2, hmF2 and W-index maps demonstrating the process of origin and propagation of positive and negative ionosphere disturbances in space and time and their forecast under different scenarios.

  11. Temporal-Spatial Variation of Global GPS-Derived Total Electron Content, 1999–2013

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinyun; Li, Wang; Liu, Xin; Kong, Qiaoli; Zhao, Chunmei; Guo, Bin

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the temporal-spatial distribution and evolutions of global Total Electron Content (TEC), we estimate the global TEC data from 1999 to 2013 by processing the GPS data collected by the International Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Service (IGS) stations, and robustly constructed the TEC time series at each of the global 5°×2.5° grids. We found that the spatial distribution of the global TEC has a pattern where the number of TECs diminishes gradually from a low-latitude region to high-latitude region, and anomalies appear in the equatorial crest and Greenland. Temporal variations show that the peak TEC appears in equinoctial months, and this corresponds to the semiannual variation of TEC. Furthermore, the winter anomaly is also observed in the equatorial area of the northern hemisphere and high latitudes of the southern hemisphere. Morlet wavelet analysis is used to determine periods of TEC variations and results indicate that the 1-day, 26.5-day, semi-annual and annual cycles are the major significant periods. The fitting results of a quadratic polynomial show that the effect of solar activity on TEC is stronger in low latitudes than in mid-high latitudes, and stronger in the southern hemisphere than in the northern hemisphere. But the effect in low latitudes in the northern hemisphere is stronger than that in low latitudes in the southern hemisphere. The effect of solar activity on TECs was analyzed with the cross wavelet analysis and the wavelet coherence transformation, and we found that there appears to be a strong coherence in the period of about 27 days. So the sunspot as one index of solar activity seriously affects the TEC variations with the sun’s rotation. We fit the TEC data with the least squares spectral analysis to study the periodic variations of TEC. The changing trend of TEC is generally -0.08 TECu per year from 1999 to 2013. So TECs decrease over most areas year by year, but TECs over the Arctic around Greenland

  12. Near-Real Time Monitoring of TEC Over Japan at NICT (RWC Tokyo OF ISES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, W.; Jin, H.

    2010-05-01

    The world wide use of global navigation satellite systems such as GPS offers unique opportunities for a permanent monitoring of the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere. We have developed a system of the rapid derivation of TEC from GEONET (a dense GPS receiver network in Japan). In addition to a previous plot of TEC temporal variation over Japan, we have recently developed a near-real-time two-dimensional TEC map and have used it for the daily operation of Space Weather Forecast Center at NICT (Regional Warning Center Tokyo of International Space Environment Service). The TEC map can be used to continuously monitor the ionospheric disturbances over Japan, including spatial and temporal development of ionospheric storms, large-amplitude traveling ionospheric disturbances, and plasma bubbles intruding over Japan, with high time resolution. The development of the real-time monitoring system of TEC enables us to monitor large ionospheric disturbances, ranging from global- to small-scale disturbances, expected in the next solar maximum. The plot and maps are open to the public and are available on http://wdc.nict.go.jp/IONO/index_E.html.

  13. Characteristics of Total Electron Content (TEC) observed from a chain of stations near the northern crest of the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) along 88.5°E meridian in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, K. S.; Das, A.; Ray, S.; Paul, A.

    2016-01-01

    The equatorial ionosphere presents some of the highest TEC values in the world coupled with observations of periodic structures. Total Electron Content (TEC) and scintillation data were analyzed from a chain of stations Calcutta (22.58°N, 88.38°E geographic; 32°N magnetic dip), Baharampore (24.09°N, 88.25°E geographic; 35°N magnetic dip) and Farakka (24.79°N, 87.89°E geographic; 36.04°N magnetic dip) situated almost same meridian (88.5°E) during September 2011 and March-April 2012 for elevation greater than 20° so that the ionosphere can be tracked from the 15.50°N south of Calcutta to 31.80°N north of Farakka. Periodic variation of TEC was noticed before TEC bite out, predominantly within a particular latitudinal swath (19°N ‒26°N) along 88.5°E meridian. No periodic structures were observed over the magnetic equator during the observation period on ionosonde records from the magnetic equator station Trivandrum and COSMIC, GRACE and C/NOFS electron density measurements. The present paper reports, perhaps for the first time from the Indian longitude sector, confinement of such periodic structures in TEC primarily within a latitude swath of 19.00-26.00 °N almost along the same longitude of 88.5 °E.

  14. Where does the plasmasphere begin? Revisit to topside ionospheric profiles in comparison with plasmaspheric TEC from Jason-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Han-Byul; Kim, Yong Ha; Kim, Eunsol; Hong, Junseok; Kwak, Young-Sil

    2016-10-01

    Topside ionospheric profiles have been measured by Alouette 1 and ISIS 1/2 in the periods of 1962-1972 and 1972-1979, respectively. The profiles cover from the orbital altitude of 1000 km to the F2 peak and show large variations over local time, latitude, and seasons. We here analyze these variations in comparison with plasmaspheric total electron contents (pTECs) that were measured by Jason-1 satellite from the altitude of 1336 km to 20,200 km (GPS orbit). The scale heights of the profiles are generally smaller in the daytime than nighttime but show large day-to-day variations, implying that the ionospheric profiles at 1000 km are changing dynamically, rather than being in diffusive equilibrium. We also derived transition heights between O+ and H+, which show a clear minimum at dawn for low-latitude profiles due to decreasing O+ density at night. To compare with pTEC, we compute topside ionospheric total electron content (tiTEC) by integrating over 800-1336 km using the slope of the profiles. The tiTEC varies in a clear diurnal pattern from 0.3 to 1 and 3 total electron content unit (TECU, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2) for low and high solar activity, respectively, whereas Jason-1 pTEC values are distributed over 2-6 TECU and 4-8 TECU for low and high solar activity, respectively, with no apparent diurnal modulation. Latitudinal variations of tiTEC show distinctive hemispheric asymmetry while that of Jason-1 pTEC is closely symmetric about the magnetic equator. The local time and latitudinal variations of tiTEC basically resemble those of the ionosphere but are characteristically different from those of Jason-1 pTEC. Based on the difference between tiTEC and pTEC variations, we propose that the region above 1300 km should be considered as the plasmasphere. Lower altitudes for the base of "plasmaspheric TEC," as used in some studies, would cause contamination of ionospheric influence.

  15. A simplified traveling ionospheric disturbance (TID) specification model based on TID Detector Built In Texas (TIDDBIT) and GPS total electron content (TEC) measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duly, T. M.; Crowley, G.; Azeem, I.

    2015-12-01

    There is currently a great deal of interest in Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances (TIDs) from both an observational and modeling perspective, especially as they apply to operational systems that rely on nowcasting the ionospheric state. ASTRA has developed a new observational system to measure TID characteristics called TIDDBIT (TID Detector Built in Texas). TIDDBIT is a fully digital HF Doppler sounder that uses CW signals across a spaced array. TIDDBIT systems have been deployed in Texas, Virginia, Florida, Hawaii, and Peru. TIDDBIT measures the entire wave packet, including the horizontal and vertical phase propagation speeds as a function of TID period from the acoustic (1-min) to the gravity wave (10-90 min) part of the spectrum. It is desirable to be able to use these data to specify the TID structure not only at the measurement height, but to extend it in 3D to greater and lower heights, and beyond the immediate vicinity of the TIDDBIT system. We present a simplified model to specify TIDs based on the ion continuity equation for plasma density (Hooke 1970). Linearity of the neutral wind perturbations is assumed, and the different spectral components of the measured TID perturbations are added linearly. We use TID observations from the TIDDBIT sounder in Virginia and Peru as input into the model, and develop a 4D regional specification (spanning ~500 x 500 km in the horizontal direction and 90-1000 km altitude range) of both the perturbed electron density and the perturbed neutral wind from the corresponding atmospheric gravity wave (AGW). The model is also applied to TID measurements derived by GPS TEC measurements from the continental United States during the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Earthquake to study the theoretical launch angle of AGWs from the west coast of the United States.

  16. Regional ionospheric TEC data assimilation and now-casting service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aa, E.; Liu, S.; Wengeng, H.

    2017-12-01

    Ionospheric data assimilation is a now-casting technique to incorporate irregular ionospheric measurements into certain background model, which is an effective and efficient way to overcome the limitation of the unbalanced data distribution and to improve the accuracy of the model, so that the model and the data can be optimally combined with each other to produce a more reliable and reasonable system specification. In this study, a regional total electron content (TEC) now-casting system over China and adjacent areas (70E-140E and 15N-55N) is developed on the basis of data assimilation technique. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) is used here as background model, and the GNSS data are derived from both the Space Environment Monitoring Network of Chinese Academy of Sciences (SEMnet) and International GNSS Service (IGS) data. A Three-dimensional variation algorithm (3DVAR) combined with Gauss-Markov Kalman filter technique is used to implement the data assimilation. The regional gridded TEC maps and the position errors of single-frequency GPS receivers can be generated and publicized online (http://sepc.ac.cn/TEC_chn.php) in quasi-real time, which is updated for every 15 min. It is one of the ionospheric now-casting systems in China based on data assimilation algorithm, which can be used not only for real-time monitoring of ionosphere environment over China and adjacent areas, but also in providing accurate and effective specification of regional ionospheric TEC and error correction for satellite navigation, radar imaging, shortwave communication, and other relevant applications.

  17. Investigating the performance of neural network backpropagation algorithms for TEC estimations using South African GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habarulema, J. B.; McKinnell, L.-A.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, results obtained by investigating the application of different neural network backpropagation training algorithms are presented. This was done to assess the performance accuracy of each training algorithm in total electron content (TEC) estimations using identical datasets in models development and verification processes. Investigated training algorithms are standard backpropagation (SBP), backpropagation with weight delay (BPWD), backpropagation with momentum (BPM) term, backpropagation with chunkwise weight update (BPC) and backpropagation for batch (BPB) training. These five algorithms are inbuilt functions within the Stuttgart Neural Network Simulator (SNNS) and the main objective was to find out the training algorithm that generates the minimum error between the TEC derived from Global Positioning System (GPS) observations and the modelled TEC data. Another investigated algorithm is the MatLab based Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation (L-MBP), which achieves convergence after the least number of iterations during training. In this paper, neural network (NN) models were developed using hourly TEC data (for 8 years: 2000-2007) derived from GPS observations over a receiver station located at Sutherland (SUTH) (32.38° S, 20.81° E), South Africa. Verification of the NN models for all algorithms considered was performed on both "seen" and "unseen" data. Hourly TEC values over SUTH for 2003 formed the "seen" dataset. The "unseen" dataset consisted of hourly TEC data for 2002 and 2008 over Cape Town (CPTN) (33.95° S, 18.47° E) and SUTH, respectively. The models' verification showed that all algorithms investigated provide comparable results statistically, but differ significantly in terms of time required to achieve convergence during input-output data training/learning. This paper therefore provides a guide to neural network users for choosing appropriate algorithms based on the availability of computation capabilities used for research.

  18. Comparison of GPS TEC variations with Holt-Winter method and IRI-2012 over Langkawi, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elmunim, N. A.; Abdullah, M.; Hasbi, A. M.; Bahari, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    The Total Electron Content (TEC) is the ionospheric parameter that has the main effect on radio wave propagation. Therefore, it is crucial to evaluate the performance of the TEC models for the further improvement of the ionospheric modelling in equatorial regions. This work presents an analysis of the TEC, derived from the GPS Ionospheric Scintillation and TEC Monitor (GISTM) receiver at the Langkawi station, Malaysia, located at the geographic coordinates of 6.19°N, 99.51°E and the geomagnetic coordinates of 3.39°S, 172.42°E. The diurnal, monthly and seasonal variations in 2014 of the observed GPS-TEC were compared with the statistical Holt-Winter method and a recent version of the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2012), using three different topside options of an electron density, which are the IRI-2001, IRI01-corr and NeQuick. The maximum peaks of the GPS-TEC were observed in the post-noon time and the minimum was observed during the early morning time. In addition, in monthly variations the Holt-Winter and the IRI-2012 topside options showed an underestimation that was in agreement with the GPS-TEC, except for the IRI-2001 model which showed an overestimation in June, July and August. Regarding the seasonal variation of the GPS-TEC, the lowest values were observed during summer and it reached its maximum value during the equinox season. The IRI-2001 showed the highest value of percentage deviation compared to the IRI01-corr, NeQuick and Holt-Winter method. Therefore, the accuracy of the models was found to be approximately 95% in the Holt-Winter method, 75% in the IRI01-corr, 73% in the NeQuick and 66% in the IRI-2001 model. Hence, it can be inferred that the Holt-Winter method showed a higher performance and better estimates of the TEC compared to the IRI01-corr and NeQuick, while the IRI-2001 showed a poor predictive performance in the equatorial region over Malaysia.

  19. Analysis of ionospheric TEC from GNSS observables over the Turkish region and predictability of IRI and SPIM models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Kutubuddin; Corumluoglu, Ozsen; Panda, Sampad Kumar

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigates the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) variations in the lower mid-latitude Turkish region from the Turkish Permanent GNSS Network (TPGN) and International GNSS Services (IGS) observations during the period from January 2015 to December 2015. The corresponding TEC predicted by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI 2012) and Standard Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model (SPIM), and interpolated from Global Ionosphere Maps (GIMs) are evaluated to realize their reliability over the region. We studied the diurnal and monthly behavior of TEC and the relative TEC deviations along with the upper and lower quartiles to represent its spatio-temporal variability. The diurnal variation of GNSS-derived TEC indicates its maximum peak value around 10.00 UT which decreases gradually to attain minimum value after midnight. The monthly maximum value of TEC is observed in March followed by May and August, and the lowest value is seen during September. Studies show that the monthly relative deviation of TEC variability lies in the range of -1 to 4 units for all stations with the maximum difference between positive and negative variability remaining around 5. The studies also cover seasonal variation, grand-mean of ionospheric TEC and TEC intensity from the TPGN. The seasonal ionospheric VTEC pattern over all stations depicts slight increment in VTEC distribution during March equinox compared to September equinox. The December solstice perceived relatively higher VTEC than June solstice. The overall of VTEC values enhanced at all stations towards end of the year 2015 compare to mid of year due the high solar activity. The maximum grand-mean of VTEC is registered in March equinox while the lowest value is seen in September irrespective of all stations. The measured grand-mean intensity variations of VTEC values are in ascending phase during March, May, August and November months, but in descending phase during February, April, June and September

  20. Earthquake Related Variation of Total Electron Content in Ionosphere over Chinese Mainland Derived from Observations of a Nationwide GNSS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Weijun

    2016-07-01

    Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC) is a key national scientific infrastructure project carried out during 1997-2012 with 2 phases. The network is composed of 260 continuously observed GNSS stations (CORS) and 2081 campaign mode GNSS stations, with the main purpose to monitor the crustal movement, perceptible water vapor (PWV), total electron content (TEC), and many other tectonic and environmental elements around mainland China, by mainly using the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) technology. Here, based on the GNSS data of 260 CORS of COMNOC for about 5 years, we investigated the characteristics of TEC in ionosphere over Chinese Mainland and discussed if there was any abnormal change of TEC before and after a big earthquake. our preliminary results show that it is hard to see any convincing precursor of TEC before a big earthquake. However, the huge energy released by a big earthquake can obviously disturb the TEC over meizoseismal area.

  1. Assessment of Modeling Capability for Reproducing Storm Impacts on TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, J. S.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Rastaetter, L.; Bilitza, D.; Codrescu, M.; Coster, A. J.; Emery, B. A.; Foerster, M.; Foster, B.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Huba, J. D.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Mannucci, A. J.; Namgaladze, A. A.; Pi, X.; Prokhorov, B. E.; Ridley, A. J.; Scherliess, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.; Zhu, L.

    2014-12-01

    During geomagnetic storm, the energy transfer from solar wind to magnetosphere-ionosphere system adversely affects the communication and navigation systems. Quantifying storm impacts on TEC (Total Electron Content) and assessment of modeling capability of reproducing storm impacts on TEC are of importance to specifying and forecasting space weather. In order to quantify storm impacts on TEC, we considered several parameters: TEC changes compared to quiet time (the day before storm), TEC difference between 24-hour intervals, and maximum increase/decrease during the storm. We investigated the spatial and temporal variations of the parameters during the 2006 AGU storm event (14-15 Dec. 2006) using ground-based GPS TEC measurements in the selected 5 degree eight longitude sectors. The latitudinal variations were also studied in two longitude sectors among the eight sectors where data coverage is relatively better. We obtained modeled TEC from various ionosphere/thermosphere (IT) models. The parameters from the models were compared with each other and with the observed values. We quantified performance of the models in reproducing the TEC variations during the storm using skill scores. This study has been supported by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Model outputs and observational data used for the study will be permanently posted at the CCMC website (http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) for the space science communities to use.

  2. Study of TEC and foF2 with the Help of GPS and Ionosonde Data over Maitri, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatarkar, Prakash; Gwal, Ashok Kumar

    Prakash Khatarkar, Purusottam Bhaware, Azad Ahmad Mansoori, Varsha Kachneria, Shweta Thakur, and A. K. Gwal Abstract The behavior of ionosphere can be diagnosed by a number of techniques. The common techniques used are the space based Global Positioning System and the ground based Ionosonde. We have compared the variability of ionospheric parameters by using two different techniques GPS and Ionosonde, during December 2009 to November 2010 at the Indian base station Maitri (11.45E, 70.45S). The comparison between the measurements of two techniques was realized through the Total Electron Content (TEC) parameters derived by using different methods. The comparison was made diurnally, seasonally, polar day and polar night variations and the annually. From our analysis we found that a strong correlation exists between the GPS derived TEC and Ionosonde derived foF2 during the day period while during the night time the correlation is insignificant. At the same time we found that a strong correlation exists between the Ionosonde and GPS derived TEC. The pattern of variation of ionospheric parameters derived from two techniques is strikingly similar indicating that the high degree of synchronization between them. This has a practical applicability by allowing calculating the error in one technique by comparing with other. Keywords: Ionosphere, Ionosonde, GPS, foF2, TEC.

  3. Global empirical model of TEC response to geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhtarov, P.; Andonov, B.; Pancheva, D.

    2013-10-01

    global total electron content (TEC) model response to geomagnetic activity described by the Kp index is built by using the Center for Orbit Determination of Europe (CODE) TEC data for a full 13 years, January 1999 to December 2011. The model describes the most probable spatial distribution and temporal variability of the geomagnetically forced TEC anomalies assuming that these anomalies at a given modified dip latitude depend mainly on the Kp index, local time (LT), and longitude. The geomagnetic anomalies are expressed by the relative deviation of TEC from its 15 day median and are denoted as rTEC. The rTEC response to the geomagnetic activity is presented by a sum of two responses with different time delay constants and different signs of the cross-correlation function. It has been found that the mean dependence of rTEC on Kp index can be expressed by a cubic function. The LT dependence of rTEC is described by Fourier time series which includes the contribution of four diurnal components with periods 24, 12, 8, and 6 h. The rTEC dependence on longitude is presented by Fourier series which includes the contribution of zonal waves with zonal wave numbers up to 6. In order to demonstrate how the model is able to reproduce the rTEC response to geomagnetic activity, three geomagnetic storms at different seasons and solar activity conditions are presented. The model residuals clearly reveal two types of the model deviation from the data: some underestimation of the largest TEC response to the geomagnetic activity and randomly distributed errors which are the data noise or anomalies generated by other sources. The presented TEC model fits to the CODE TEC input data with small negative bias of -0.204, root mean squares error RMSE = 4.592, and standard deviation error STDE = 4.588. The model offers TEC maps which depend on geographic coordinates (5° × 5° in latitude and longitude) and universal time (UT) at given geomagnetic activity and day of the year. It could be

  4. Observations of the Weddell Sea Anomaly in the ground-based and space-borne TEC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, Irina; Cherniak, Iurii; Shagimuratov, Irk

    2017-08-01

    The Weddell Sea Anomaly (WSA) is a summer ionospheric anomaly, which is characterized by a greater nighttime ionospheric density than that in daytime in the region near the Weddell Sea. We investigate the WSA signatures in the ground-based TEC (vertical total electron content) by using GPS and GLONASS measurements of the dense regional GNSS networks in South America. We constructed the high-resolution regional TEC maps for December 2014-January 2015. The WSA effects of the TEC exceed the noontime values are registered starting from 17 LT, it reaches its maximum at 01-05 LT and starts to disappear after 09 LT. Maximal TEC enhancements were as large as a factor of 2.5-3.5 and were registered at 03-04 LT. This effect was mainly localized in the geographical region of 55°S-75°S latitude and 80°W-30°W longitude, close to the Antarctic Peninsula. Further, we examined the WSA occurrence in the topside ionosphere by using GPS measurements from a zenith-looking GPS antenna on board three Swarm satellites to determine topside TEC (above ∼500 km altitude) at the topside ionosphere-plasmasphere system. Global maps of the topside TEC indicated that the zone with significant WSA effect in the topside TEC (TEC increase ∼2-4 times the noontime level) had a large spatial extent over southern Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. It was observed around 150°W-20°W and between 40°S and 70°S during 23 LT - 06 LT. For the first time, the WSA signatures were shown in the topside TEC data derived from the GPS measurements onboard the Swarm constellation. Independently, two other instruments - FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC radio occultation electron density profiles and in situ measurements by the Langmuir Probe instrument onboard Swarm satellites - were able to confirm: (1) the same location of the WSA zone as revealed in Swarm TEC; (2) the most-pronounced WSA effect, as a maximal electron density exceed over the noontime values, corresponds to altitudes above 400-500 km.

  5. Dynamics of total electron content distribution during strong geomagnetic storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, E. I.; Afraimovich, E. L.; Kosogorov, E. A.

    We worked out a new method of mapping of total electron content TEC equal lines displacement velocity The method is based on the technique of global absolute vertical TEC value mapping Global Ionospheric Maps technique GIM GIM with 2-hours time resolution are available from Internet underline ftp cddisa gsfc nasa gov in standard IONEX-files format We determine the displacement velocity absolute value as well as its wave vector orientation from increments of TEC x y derivatives and TEC time derivative for each standard GIM cell 5 in longitude to 2 5 in latitude Thus we observe global traveling of TEC equal lines but we also can estimate the velocity of these line traveling Using the new method we observed anomalous rapid accumulation of the ionosphere plasma at some confined area due to the depletion of the ionization at the other spacious territories During the main phase of the geomagnetic storm on 29-30 October 2003 very large TEC enhancements appeared in the southwest of North America TEC value in that area reached up to 200 TECU 1 TECU 10 16 m -2 It was found that maximal velocity of TEC equal lines motion exceeded 1500 m s and the mean value of the velocity was about 400 m s Azimuth of wave vectors of TEC equal lines were orientated toward the center of region with anomaly high values of TEC the southwest of North America It should be noted that maximal TEC values during geomagnetically quiet conditions is about 60-80 TECU the value of TEC equal lines

  6. Latitudinal and Seasonal Investigations of Storm-Time TEC Variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adimula, I. A.; Oladipo, O. A.; Adebiyi, S. J.

    2016-07-01

    The ionosphere responds markedly and unpredictably to varying magnetospheric energy inputs caused by solar disturbances on the geospace. Knowledge of the impact of the space weather events on the ionosphere is important to assess the environmental effect on the operations of ground- and space-based technologies. Thus, global positioning system (GPS) measurements from the international GNSS service (IGS) database were used to investigate the ionospheric response to 56 geomagnetic storm events at six different latitudes comprising the northern and southern hemispheres in the Afro-European sector. Statistical distributions of total electron content (TEC) response show that during the main phase of the storms, enhancement of TEC is more pronounced in most of the seasons, regardless of the latitude and hemisphere. However, a strong seasonal dependence appears in the TEC response during the recovery phase. Depletion of TEC is majorly observed at the high latitude stations, and its appearance at lower latitudes is seasonally dependent. In summer hemisphere, the depletion of TEC is more pronounced in nearly all the latitudinal bands. In winter hemisphere, enhancement as well as depletion of TEC is observed over the high latitude, while enhancement is majorly observed over the mid and low latitudes. In equinoxes, the storm-time TEC distribution shows a fairly consistent characteristic with the summer distribution, particularly in the northern hemisphere.

  7. Probability Distribution Extraction from TEC Estimates based on Kernel Density Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, Uygar; Toker, Cenk; Çenet, Duygu

    2016-07-01

    Statistical analysis of the ionosphere, specifically the Total Electron Content (TEC), may reveal important information about its temporal and spatial characteristics. One of the core metrics that express the statistical properties of a stochastic process is its Probability Density Function (pdf). Furthermore, statistical parameters such as mean, variance and kurtosis, which can be derived from the pdf, may provide information about the spatial uniformity or clustering of the electron content. For example, the variance differentiates between a quiet ionosphere and a disturbed one, whereas kurtosis differentiates between a geomagnetic storm and an earthquake. Therefore, valuable information about the state of the ionosphere (and the natural phenomena that cause the disturbance) can be obtained by looking at the statistical parameters. In the literature, there are publications which try to fit the histogram of TEC estimates to some well-known pdf.s such as Gaussian, Exponential, etc. However, constraining a histogram to fit to a function with a fixed shape will increase estimation error, and all the information extracted from such pdf will continue to contain this error. In such techniques, it is highly likely to observe some artificial characteristics in the estimated pdf which is not present in the original data. In the present study, we use the Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) technique to estimate the pdf of the TEC. KDE is a non-parametric approach which does not impose a specific form on the TEC. As a result, better pdf estimates that almost perfectly fit to the observed TEC values can be obtained as compared to the techniques mentioned above. KDE is particularly good at representing the tail probabilities, and outliers. We also calculate the mean, variance and kurtosis of the measured TEC values. The technique is applied to the ionosphere over Turkey where the TEC values are estimated from the GNSS measurement from the TNPGN-Active (Turkish National Permanent

  8. Determinations of ionosphere and plasmasphere electron content for an African chain of GPS stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzella, Andrew J., Jr.; Bosco Habarulema, John; Yizengaw, Endawoke

    2017-05-01

    The confluence of recent instrumentation deployments in Africa with developments for the determination of plasmasphere electron content using Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers has provided new opportunities for investigations in that region. This investigation, using a selected chain of GPS stations, extends the method (SCORPION) previously applied to a chain of GPS stations in North America in order to separate the ionosphere and plasmasphere contributions to the total electron content (TEC) during a day (24 July) in 2011. The results span latitudes from the southern tip of Africa, across the Equator, to the southern Arabian Peninsula, providing a continuous latitudinal profile for both the ionosphere and plasmasphere during this day.The peak diurnal vertical ionosphere electron content (IEC) increases from about 14 TEC units (1 TEC unit = 1016 electrons m-2) at the southernmost station to about 32 TEC units near the geographic equator, then decreases to about 28 TEC units at the Arabian Peninsula. The peak diurnal slant plasmasphere electron content (PEC) varies between about 4 and 7 TEC units among the stations, with a local latitudinal profile that is significantly influenced by the viewing geometry at the station location, relative to the magnetic field configuration. In contrast, the peak vertical PEC varies between about 1 and 6 TEC units among the stations, with a more uniform latitudinal variation.Comparisons to other GPS data analyses are also presented for TEC, indicating the influence of the PEC on the determination of latitudinal TEC variations and also on the absolute TEC levels, by inducing an overestimate of the receiver bias. The derived TEC latitudinal profiles, in comparison to global map profiles, tend to differ from the map results only about as much as the map results differ among themselves. A combination of ionosonde IEC and alternative GPS TEC measurements, which in principle permits a PEC determination through their difference, was

  9. Ionospheric TEC Weather Map Over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.; Wrasse, C. M.; Denardini, C. M.; Pádua, M. B.; de Paula, E. R.; Costa, S. M. A.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Monico, J. F. Galera; Ivo, A.; Sant'Anna, N.

    2016-11-01

    Ionospheric weather maps using the total electron content (TEC) monitored by ground-based Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers over South American continent, TECMAP, have been operationally produced by Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais's Space Weather Study and Monitoring Program (Estudo e Monitoramento Brasileiro de Clima Especial) since 2013. In order to cover the whole continent, four GNSS receiver networks, (Rede Brasileiro de Monitoramento Contínuo) RBMC/Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics, Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network, International GNSS Service, and Red Argentina de Monitoreo Satelital Continuo, in total 140 sites, have been used. TECMAPs with a time resolution of 10 min are produced in 12 h time delay. Spatial resolution of the map is rather low, varying between 50 and 500 km depending on the density of the observation points. Large day-to-day variabilities of the equatorial ionization anomaly have been observed. Spatial gradient of TEC from the anomaly trough (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2 (TECU) <10) to the crest region (TECU > 80) causes a large ionospheric range delay in the GNSS positioning system. Ionospheric plasma bubbles, their seeding and development, could be monitored. This plasma density (spatial and temporal) variability causes not only the GNSS-based positioning error but also radio wave scintillations. Monitoring of these phenomena by TEC mapping becomes an important issue for space weather concern for high-technology positioning system and telecommunication.

  10. Preliminary study of TEC application in cooling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, A. C.; Amin, N. A. M.; Saidon, M. S.; Majid, M. S. A.; Rahman, M. T. A.; Kazim, M. N. F. M.

    2017-10-01

    Integration of thermoelectric cooling (TEC) within a space cooling system in the lecturer room is studied. The studied area (air conditioned surrounding) is encapsulated with wall, floor, roof, and glass window. TEC module is placed on the glass window. The prototype of the studied compartment is designed using cabin container. The type and number of TEC module are studied and the effects on the cooling performance are analyzed as it is assumed to be tested within an air conditioned lecturer room. The experimental and mathematical modeling of the cooling system developed. It is expected that the mathematical modeling derived from this study will be used to estimate the use of the number of TEC module to be integrated with air conditioner unit where possible.

  11. Performance evaluation of GNSS-TEC estimation techniques at the grid point in middle and low latitudes during different geomagnetic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, O. E.; Otero Villamide, X.; Paparini, C.; Radicella, S. M.; Nava, B.; Rodríguez-Bouza, M.

    2017-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have become a powerful tool use in surveying and mapping, air and maritime navigation, ionospheric/space weather research and other applications. However, in some cases, its maximum efficiency could not be attained due to some uncorrelated errors associated with the system measurements, which is caused mainly by the dispersive nature of the ionosphere. Ionosphere has been represented using the total number of electrons along the signal path at a particular height known as Total Electron Content (TEC). However, there are many methods to estimate TEC but the outputs are not uniform, which could be due to the peculiarity in characterizing the biases inside the observables (measurements), and sometimes could be associated to the influence of mapping function. The errors in TEC estimation could lead to wrong conclusion and this could be more critical in case of safety-of-life application. This work investigated the performance of Ciraolo's and Gopi's GNSS-TEC calibration techniques, during 5 geomagnetic quiet and disturbed conditions in the month of October 2013, at the grid points located in low and middle latitudes. The data used are obtained from the GNSS ground-based receivers located at Borriana in Spain (40°N, 0°E; mid latitude) and Accra in Ghana (5.50°N, -0.20°E; low latitude). The results of the calibrated TEC are compared with the TEC obtained from European Geostationary Navigation Overlay System Processing Set (EGNOS PS) TEC algorithm, which is considered as a reference data. The TEC derived from Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) through International GNSS service (IGS) was also examined at the same grid points. The results obtained in this work showed that Ciraolo's calibration technique (a calibration technique based on carrier-phase measurements only) estimates TEC better at middle latitude in comparison to Gopi's technique (a calibration technique based on code and carrier-phase measurements). At the same time

  12. Quantitative Evaluation of Ionosphere Models for Reproducing Regional TEC During Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, J. S.; Kuznetsova, M.; Rastaetter, L.; Bilitza, D.; Codrescu, M.; Coster, A. J.; Emery, B.; Foster, B.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Huba, J.; Mitchell, C. N.; Ridley, A. J.; Fedrizzi, M.; Scherliess, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.; Zhu, L.

    2015-12-01

    TEC (Total Electron Content) is one of the key parameters in description of the ionospheric variability that has influence on the accuracy of navigation and communication systems. To assess current TEC modeling capability of ionospheric models during geomagnetic storms and to establish a baseline against which future improvement can be compared, we quantified the ionospheric models' performance by comparing modeled vertical TEC values with ground-based GPS TEC measurements and Multi-Instrument Data Analysis System (MIDAS) TEC. The comparison focused on North America and Europe sectors during selected two storm events: 2006 AGU storm (14-15 Dec. 2006) and 2013 March storm (17-19 Mar. 2013). The ionospheric models used for this study range from empirical to physics-based, and physics-based data assimilation models. We investigated spatial and temporal variations of TEC during the storms. In addition, we considered several parameters to quantify storm impacts on TEC: TEC changes compared to quiet time, rate of TEC change, and maximum increase/decrease during the storms. In this presentation, we focus on preliminary results of the comparison of the models performance in reproducing the storm-time TEC variations using the parameters and skill scores. This study has been supported by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Model outputs and observational data used for the study will be permanently posted at the CCMC website (http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) for the space science communities to use.

  13. Transformation of Chlorinated Benzenes and Toluenes by Ralstonia sp. Strain PS12 tecA (Tetrachlorobenzene Dioxygenase) and tecB (Chlorobenzene Dihydrodiol Dehydrogenase) Gene Products

    PubMed Central

    Pollmann, Katrin; Beil, Stefan; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2001-01-01

    The tecB gene, located downstream of tecA and encoding tetrachlorobenzene dioxygenase, in Ralstonia sp. strain PS12 was cloned into Escherichia coli DH5α together with the tecA gene. The identity of the tecB gene product as a chlorobenzene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase was verified by transformation into the respective catechols of chlorobenzene, the three isomeric dichlorobenzenes, as well as 1,2,3- and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzenes, all of which are transformed by TecA into the respective dihydrodihydroxy derivatives. Di- and trichlorotoluenes were either subject to TecA-mediated dioxygenation (the major or sole reaction observed for the 1,2,4-substituted 2,4-, 2,5-, and 3,4-dichlorotoluenes), resulting in the formation of the dihydrodihydroxy derivatives, or to monooxygenation of the methyl substituent (the major or sole reaction observed for 2,3-, 2,6-, and 3,5-dichloro- and 2,4,5-trichlorotoluenes), resulting in formation of the respective benzyl alcohols. All of the chlorotoluenes subject to dioxygenation by TecA were transformed, without intermediate accumulation of dihydrodihydroxy derivatives, into the respective catechols by TecAB, indicating that dehydrogenation is no bottleneck for chlorobenzene or chlorotoluene degradation. However, only those chlorotoluenes subject to a predominant dioxygenation were growth substrates for PS12, confirming that monooxygenation is an unproductive pathway in PS12. PMID:11526005

  14. Space Weather Activities of IONOLAB Group: IONOLAB-TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, F.; Sezen, U.; Arikan, O.; Ugurlu, O.; Nayir, H.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather (SW) is the concept of changing environmental conditions in outer space and affect Earth and its technological systems. SW is a consequence of the solar activities and the coupling of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere due to the Earth's magnetic field. The monitoring and prediction of SW has utmost importance for HF communication, Satellite communication, navigation and guidance systems, Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite systems, Space Craft exit and entry into the atmosphere. Ionosphere is the plasma layer of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation and it is a key player of SW. Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. IONOLAB is a group of researchers of various disciplines, getting together to handle challenges of the Earth's ionosphere. The team has researchers from Hacettepe University and Bilkent University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and General Command of Mapping of Turkish Army. One of the most important contributions of IONOLAB group is the automated web-based computation service for Total Electron Content (TEC). TEC corresponds to the line integral of electron density distribution on a given path. TEC can also be expressed as the amount of free electrons within 1 m2 cross-sectional area of the cylinder on the ray path. Global Position System (GPS) provides a cost-effective medium for monitoring of ionosphere using the signals recorded by stationary GPS receivers in estimating TEC. IONOLAB group has developed IONOLAB-TEC for reliable and robust estimates for all latitudes and both calm and disturbed days by using RINEX, IONEX and satellite ephemeris data provided from the IGS centers. IONOLAB-TEC consists of a regularized signal estimation algorithm which combines signals from all GPS satellites for a given instant and a given receiver, for a desired time period or for 24 hours

  15. Observing Traveling Ionospheric Disturbances Caused by Tsunamis Using GPS TEC Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan, David A.; Komjathy, Attila; Hickey, Michael; Foster, James; Mannucci, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following two recent seismic events: the American Samoa earthquake of September 29, 2009, and the Chile earthquake of February 27, 2010. Fluctuations in TEC correlated in time, space, and wave properties with these tsunamis were observed in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with wavelengths and periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by tsunamis. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the tsunamis in certain locations, but not in others. Where variations are observed, the typical amplitude tends to be on the order of 1% of the background TEC value. Variations with amplitudes 0.1 - 0.2 TECU are observable with periods and timing affiliated with the tsunami. These observations are compared to estimates of expected tsunami-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement in some locations, though there are cases when the model predicts an observable tsunami-driven signature and none is observed. These TEC variations are not always seen when a tsunami is present, but in these two events the regions where a strong ocean tsunami was observed did coincide with clear TEC observations, while a lack of clear TEC observations coincided with smaller tsunami amplitudes. There exists the potential to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of tsunami speed and amplitude that may be useful for early warning systems.

  16. Detection of Seismic Precursors Using Distance Metrics Between GPS-TEC and IRI-Plas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necat Deviren, M.; Gulyaeva, Tamara; Sezen, Umut; Arikan, Feza; Arikan, Orhan

    Ionosphere is an important layer of atmosphere that varies under solar, geomagnetic, gravitational and seismic activities. Total Electron Content (TEC) is one of the main observables of ionosphere. International Reference Ionosphere Extended to Plasmasphere (IRI-Plas) is accepted by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) as the standard climatic model. IRI-Plas provides TEC up to GPS satellite height. TEC can be estimated using Global Positioning System (GPS) Networks. In this study, TEC is computed using both IRI-Plas and Turkish National Permanent GPS Network as IONOLAB-TEC. In order to detect seismic precursors, three different distance metrics, namely Symmetric Kullback-Liebler Distance (SKLD), Cross-Correlation Coefficient (CC), and L2-Norm (L2N), are implemented between IONOLAB-TEC and IRI-Plas-TEC values. SKLD is also computed between IONOLAB-TEC Maps and IRI-Plas-TEC Maps over Turkey. Between May 2009 and September 2012, it is observed that SKLD metric indicates a disturbance within the period prior to 10 days of earthquake day. The disturbance in SKLD increases for the range of stations in the neighborhood of the epicenter. For strong earthquakes all of the three distance metrics indicate a disturbance before the earthquake, yet SKLD behaves as a more sensitive precursor for earthquakes larger than magnitude 4. This study is supported by the joint grant of TUBITAK 112E568 and RFBR 13-02-91370-CT_a.

  17. Ultrasound Algorithm Derivation for Soil Moisture Content Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belisle, W.R.; Metzl, R.; Choi, J.; Aggarwal, M. D.; Coleman, T.

    1997-01-01

    Soil moisture content can be estimated by evaluating the velocity at which sound waves travel through a known volume of solid material. This research involved the development of three soil algorithms relating the moisture content to the velocity at which sound waves moved through dry and moist media. Pressure and shear wave propagation equations were used in conjunction with soil property descriptions to derive algorithms appropriate for describing the effects of moisture content variation on the velocity of sound waves in soils with and without complete soil pore water volumes, An elementary algorithm was used to estimate soil moisture contents ranging from 0.08 g/g to 0.5 g/g from sound wave velocities ranging from 526 m/s to 664 m/s. Secondary algorithms were also used to estimate soil moisture content from sound wave velocities through soils with pores that were filled predominantly with air or water.

  18. South Carolina TEC Student Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, C. A., Ed.; Kiser, J. A., Ed.

    This student code has statewide application to South Carolina Technical Colleges and Technical Education Centers (TEC). Provisions are divided into eight articles: (1) General Provisions, including the purpose of a student code, the precept of internal solution of problems, and definitions; (2) Student Rights, including Bill of Rights protections;…

  19. Simultaneous total electron content and all-sky camera measurements of an auroral arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintner, P. M.; Kil, H.; Deehr, C.; Schuck, P.

    2002-07-01

    We present an example of Global Positioning System (GPS) derived total electron content (TEC) and all-sky camera (ASC) images that show increases of TEC by ~10 × 1016 electrons m-2 (10 TEC units) occurring simultaneously with auroral light in ASC images. The TEC example appears to be an E region density enhancement produced by two discrete auroral arcs occurring in the late morning auroral oval at 1000 LT. This suggests that GPS signal TEC measurements can be used to detect individual auroral arcs and that individual discrete auroral arcs are responsible for some high-latitude phase scintillations. The specific auroral feature detected was a poleward moving auroral form believed to occur in the polar cap where the ionosphere is convecting antisunward. The magnitude of the rate of change of TEC (dTEC/dt) is comparable to that previously reported. However, the timescales associated with the event, the order of 1 min, suggest that the data sampling technique commonly used by chain GPS TEC receivers (averaging and time decimation) will undersample E region TEC perturbations produced by active auroral displays. The localized nature of this example implies that L1 ranging errors of at least 1.6 m will be introduced by auroral arcs into systems relying on differential GPS for navigation or augmentation. Although the TEC and auroral arcs presented herein occurred in the late morning auroral oval, we expect that the effects of discrete auroral arcs on GPS TEC and subsequent ranging errors should occur at all local times. Furthermore, GPS receivers can be used to detect individual discrete arcs.

  20. Epizootic rabbit enteropathy inoculum (TEC4): antibiograms and antibiotic fractionation.

    PubMed

    Huybens, Nathalie; Houeix, Julien; Licois, Dominique; Mainil, Jacques; Marlier, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Epizootic rabbit enteropathy (ERE) emerged and spread in Europe within the last 13 years causing major economical loss. The aims of the study was to evaluate antibiograms of TEC4, an inoculum composed of an extract of intestinal content of affected rabbits, and to test the potential of different antibiotic-based TEC4 fractions to reproduce the disease. Twenty nine different antibiotic discs were incubated for determining bacteria resistance. In a complementary study, nine tubes of liquid medium were inoculated with TEC4, incubated and added individually with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, bacitracin, ceftiofur, doxycycline, novobiocin, streptomycyin, tylosin, vancomycin and 0.9% saline solution as control. The content of each tube was washed by centrifugation and suspended in saline. The three most effective antibiotics are florfenicol, amoxycillin/clavulanic acid and tylosin. A high concentration of Clostridium sordelli and Bacillus firmus were isolated in all fractions. Species never cultured from TEC4 were identified as Fusobacterium necrogenes (in vancomycin fraction), Cellulomonas sp (in novobiocin fraction) and Bacteroides distasonis (in doxycycline fraction). The ERE was reproduced when bacitracin, doxycycline and 0.9% fractions were inoculated. Rabbits showed ERE clinical signs with the specific drop in daily weight gain.

  1. Deriving video content type from HEVC bitstream semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos; Goma, Sergio R.

    2014-05-01

    As network service providers seek to improve customer satisfaction and retention levels, they are increasingly moving from traditional quality of service (QoS) driven delivery models to customer-centred quality of experience (QoE) delivery models. QoS models only consider metrics derived from the network however, QoE models also consider metrics derived from within the video sequence itself. Various spatial and temporal characteristics of a video sequence have been proposed, both individually and in combination, to derive methods of classifying video content either on a continuous scale or as a set of discrete classes. QoE models can be divided into three broad categories, full reference, reduced reference and no-reference models. Due to the need to have the original video available at the client for comparison, full reference metrics are of limited practical value in adaptive real-time video applications. Reduced reference metrics often require metadata to be transmitted with the bitstream, while no-reference metrics typically operate in the decompressed domain at the client side and require significant processing to extract spatial and temporal features. This paper proposes a heuristic, no-reference approach to video content classification which is specific to HEVC encoded bitstreams. The HEVC encoder already makes use of spatial characteristics to determine partitioning of coding units and temporal characteristics to determine the splitting of prediction units. We derive a function which approximates the spatio-temporal characteristics of the video sequence by using the weighted averages of the depth at which the coding unit quadtree is split and the prediction mode decision made by the encoder to estimate spatial and temporal characteristics respectively. Since the video content type of a sequence is determined by using high level information parsed from the video stream, spatio-temporal characteristics are identified without the need for full decoding and can

  2. Variations of total electron content in the equatorial anomaly region in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhary, V. Rajesh; Tripathi, N. K.; Arunpold, Sanit; Raju, Durairaju Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the first results of total electron content (TEC), derived by analyzing dual frequency Novatel GSV4004 GPS receiver's data which were installed by the SCINDA project, located at the Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok (AITB, 14.079N, 100.612E) and Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (CHGM, 18.480N, 98.570E) with magnetic latitude of 4.13°N and 8.61°N respectively in Thailand, for the year 2011. These two stations are separated by 657 km in the equatorial anomaly region. The highest TEC values occurred from 1500 to 1900 LT throughout the study period. The diurnal, monthly and seasonal GPS-TEC have been plotted and analyzed. The diurnal peaks in GPS-TEC is observed to be maximum during equinoctial months (March, April, September and October) and minimum in solstice months (January, February, June, July and December). These high TEC values have been attributed to the solar extreme ultra-violet ionization coupled with the upward vertical E × B drift. A comparison of both station's TEC has been carried out and found that CHGM station experiences higher values of TEC than AITB station, due to formation of ionization crest over the CHGM station. Also, TEC values have shown increasing trend due to approaching solar maximum. These results from both stations were also compared with the TEC derived from the International Reference Ionosphere's (IRI) recently released, IRI-2012 model. Results have shown positive correlation with IRI-2012 model. Although, IRI-model does not show any response to geomagnetic activity, the IRI model normally remains smooth and underestimates TEC during a storm.

  3. Characterization of Ionospheric Dynamics Over The East African Dip Equatorial Region Using GPS-Derived Total Electron Content.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olwendo, J. O.

    2016-12-01

    Through a linear combination of GPS satellite range and phase measurement observed on two carrier frequencies by terrestrial based GPS receivers, the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) along oblique GPS signal path can be quantified. Using Adjusted Spherical Harmonic (ASHA) expansion, regional TEC maps over the East Africa sector has been achieved. The observed TEC has been used to evaluate the performance of IRI2007 and NeQuick 2 models over the region. Ionospheric irregularities have been measured and the plasma drift velocity and the East-West extent of the irregularities have also been analyzed by using a Very High Frequency (VHF) receiver system that is closely spaced. The hourly TEC images developed have shown that the Southern Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) crest over the East African sector lies within the Kenyan region, and the occurrence of scintillation is dependent on how well the anomaly crest forms. Scintillation occurrences are intense at and around the edges of EIA crest due to the presence of high ambient electron densities and sharp TEC depletions. Simultaneous recording of amplitude scintillations at VHF and L-band frequencies reveal two distinct types of scintillation namely; the Plasma Bubble Induced (PBI) and the Bottom Side Sinusoidal (BSS). The PBI scintillations are characterized by high intensity during the post-sunset hours of the equinoctial months and appear at both VHF and L-band frequencies. The BSS type are associated with VHF scintillation and are characterized by long duration patches and often exhibit Fresnel oscillation on the roll portion of the power spectrum, which suggest a weak scattering from thin screen irregularities. The occurrence of post-midnight L-band scintillation events which are not linked to pre-midnight scintillation observations raises fundamental question on the mechanism and source of electric fields driving the plasma depletion under conditions of very low background electron density.

  4. Statistical Analysis of TEC Anomalies Prior to M6.0+ Earthquakes During 2003-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fuying; Su, Fanfan; Lin, Jian

    2018-04-01

    There are many studies on the anomalous variations of the ionospheric TEC prior to large earthquakes. However, whether or not the morphological characteristics of the TEC anomalies in the daytime and at night are different is rarely studied. In the present paper, based on the total electron content (TEC) data from the global ionosphere map (GIM), we carry out a statistical survey on the spatial-temporal distribution of TEC anomalies before 1339 global M6.0+ earthquakes during 2003-2014. After excluding the interference of geomagnetic disturbance, the temporal and spatial distributions of ionospheric TEC anomalies prior to the earthquakes in the daytime and at night are investigated and compared. Except that the nighttime occurrence rates of the pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies (PEIAs) are higher than those in the daytime, our analysis has not found any statistically significant difference in the spatial-temporal distribution of PEIAs in the daytime and at night. Moreover, the occurrence rates of pre-earthquake ionospheric TEC both positive anomalies and negative anomalies at night tend to increase slightly with the earthquake magnitude. Thus, we suggest that monitoring the ionospheric TEC changes at night might be a clue to reveal the relation between ionospheric disturbances and seismic activities.

  5. V-TECS Guide for Medical Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This V-TECS (Vocational-Technical Consortium of States) Guide is an extension or continuation of the V-TECS catalog for the occupation of medical assistant. The guide is designed to help South Carolina teachers to promote the art of learning while teaching subject matter. The guide addresses the three domains of learning: psychomotor, cognitive,…

  6. LISN: Measurement of TEC values, and TID characteristics over South and Central America (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valladares, C. E.

    2013-12-01

    The Low-latitude Ionospheric Sensor Network (LISN) is a distributed observatory designed to provide the climatology and weather of the low latitude ionosphere over the South American continent. Presently, the LISN observatory consists of 47 GPS receivers able to transmit TEC and scintillation values to a central server in a real-time basis. Historical TEC values from these receivers and from about 300 other GPSs that operated in South and Central America between 2008 and 2012 were used to derive regional maps of TEC and TIDs. A prominent feature of the TEC maps is the intense day-to-day variability that is observed during all seasons and under quiet and active magnetic conditions. To assess the TEC dependencies a non-linear least-square fit was conducted to simultaneously extract the solar flux, magnetic and seasonal variability for each square cell of the TEC maps and for each 30-min local time sector. It was found that TEC values and the anomaly intensity increase as a function of the solar flux. The latitudinal separation increases with magnetic activity, and TEC values in Central America become the largest when Kp is equal to 5o or more. TIDs are seen quite frequently over the Caribbean region and in the northern part of South America. To calculate the TIDs travel velocities, their propagation direction, and the scale-size of the disturbances a multi-site multi-dimension cross-correlation method was applied to the TEC database. Phase velocities of order 150 m/s and scale sizes between 100 and 400 km were typically observed. This paper will present the morphology and statistics of TIDs as a function of latitude, longitude, local time and season. It is also introduced the results of an investigation to correlate the appearance, phase velocity and angle of propagation of TIDs and tropospheric phenomena observed with the TRMM satellite.

  7. A Year-Long Comparison of GPS TEC and Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlongo, N. J.; Ridley, A. J.; Cnossen, I.; Wu, C.

    2018-02-01

    The prevalence of GPS total electron content (TEC) observations has provided an opportunity for extensive global ionosphere-thermosphere model validation efforts. This study presents a year-long data-model comparison using the Global Ionosphere-Thermosphere Model (GITM) and the Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM). For the entire year of 2010, each model was run and compared to GPS TEC observations. The results were binned according to season, latitude, local time, and magnetic local time. GITM was found to overestimate the TEC everywhere, except on the midlatitude nightside, due to high O/N2 ratios. TIE-GCM produced much less TEC and had lower O/N2 ratios and neutral wind speeds. Seasonal and regional biases in the models are discussed along with ideas for model improvements and further validation efforts.

  8. Thermionic Energy Conversion (TEC) topping thermoelectrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1981-01-01

    Performance expectations for thermionic and thermoelectric energy conversion systems are reviewed. It is noted that internal radiation effects diminish thermoelectric figures of merit significantly at 1000 K and substantially at 2000 K; the effective thermal conductivity contribution of intrathermoelectric radiative dissipation increases with the third power of temperature. It is argued that a consideration of thermoelectric power generation with high temperature heat sources should include utilization of thermionic energy conversion (TEC) topping thermoelectrics. However TEC alone or TEC topping more efficient conversion systems like steam or gas turbines, combined cycles, or Stirling engines would be more desirable generally.

  9. Use of Total Electron Content data to analyze ionosphere electron density gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, B.; Radicella, S. M.; Leitinger, R.; Coisson, P.

    In presence of electron density gradients the thin shell approximation for the ionosphere used together with a simple mapping function to convert slant Total Electron Content TEC to vertical TEC could lead to TEC conversion errors Therefore these mapping function errors can be used to identify the effects of the electron density gradients in the ionosphere In the present work high precision GPS derived slant TEC data have been used to investigate the effects of the electron density gradients in the middle and low latitude ionosphere under geomagnetic quiet and disturbed conditions In particular the data corresponding to the geographic area of the American sector for the days 5-7 April 2000 have been used to perform a complete analysis of mapping function errors based on the coinciding pierce point technique The results clearly illustrate the electron density gradient effects according to the locations considered and to the actual levels of disturbance of the ionosphere

  10. Seismo-Ionospheric Precursor in the GIM TEC of the 24 August 2014 M6 Napa Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. Y.; Liu, T. J. Y.; Liu, J. Y.

    2015-12-01

    This study examines seismo-ionospheric precursors (SIPs) in the global ionosphere map (GIM) of the total electron content (TEC) associated with the 24 August 2014 M6 South Napa earthquake and statistical evidence of SIPs of the GPS TEC in western USA during 2000-2014. The temporal SIP in the GIM TEC around the epicenter significantly decreasing (negative anomaly) on 22 August. To discriminate the global effect, such as solar flares, magnetic storms, etc., and the local effect, such as earthquakes, 5183 lattices on the GIM are employed to conduct a global search of the SIP distribution. Anomalies of both GIM TEC and associated gradients specifically and continuously appearing over the epicenter suggest that the SIP relate to the 2014 South Napa earthquake. A simulation is further carried out to produce the SIP in GIM TEC before the earthquake. Results indicate that the eastward electric field generated over the epicenter area during the earthquake preparation period to be essential.

  11. A Comparative Study of the Ionospheric TEC Measurements Using Global Ionospheric Maps of GPS, TOPEX Radar and the Bent Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C.; Wilson, B.; Mannucci, A.; Lindqwister, U.; Yuan, D.

    1997-01-01

    Global ionospheric mapping (GIM) is a new, emerging technique for determining global ionospheric TEC (total electron content) based on measurements from a worldwide network of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers.

  12. Review of variations in Mw < 7 earthquake motions on position and TEC (Mw = 6.5 Aegean Sea earthquake sample)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, Omer; Inyurt, Samed; Mekik, Cetin

    2016-02-01

    Turkey is a country located in the middle latitude zone, where tectonic activity is intensive. Recently, an earthquake of magnitude 6.5 Mw occurred offshore in the Aegean Sea on 24 May 2014 at 09:25 UTC, which lasted about 40 s. The earthquake was also felt in Greece, Romania, and Bulgaria in addition to Turkey. In recent years, ionospheric anomaly detection studies have been carried out because of seismicity with total electron content (TEC) computed from the global navigation satellite system's (GNSS) signal delays and several interesting findings have been published. In this study, both TEC and positional variations have been examined separately following a moderate size earthquake in the Aegean Sea. The correlation of the aforementioned ionospheric variation with the positional variation has also been investigated. For this purpose, a total of 15 stations was used, including four continuously operating reference stations in Turkey (CORS-TR) and stations in the seismic zone (AYVL, CANA, IPSA, and YENC), as well as international GNSS service (IGS) and European reference frame permanent network (EPN) stations. The ionospheric and positional variations of the AYVL, CANA, IPSA, and YENC stations were examined using Bernese v5.0 software. When the precise point positioning TEC (PPP-TEC) values were examined, it was observed that the TEC values were approximately 4 TECU (total electron content unit) above the upper-limit TEC value at four stations located in Turkey, 3 days before the earthquake at 08:00 and 10:00 UTC. At the same stations, on the day before the earthquake at 06:00, 08:00, and 10:00 UTC, the TEC values were approximately 5 TECU below the lower-limit TEC value. The global ionosphere model TEC (GIM-TEC) values published by the Centre for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) were also examined. Three days before the earthquake, at all stations, it was observed that the TEC values in the time period between 08:00 and 10:00 UTC were approximately 2 TECU

  13. TEC Longitude Difference Using GIMS and the IRI Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, Maria Paula; Meza, Amalia Margarita; Mendoza, Gastón

    2016-07-01

    The main geomagnetic field declination has a global distribution with positive and negative values showing maximum east-west differences over North America and Oceania and minimum differences over America and Asia. Several authors study one or more of these regions using TEC data derived from GNSS observations to describe variations in TEC. They reported a pronounced longitudinal variation respect to zero magnetic declination. One of the important factors that cause the longitude difference at mid-latitude is a combined effect of the longitude variations of magnetic declination and the variations of the zonal thermospheric winds with local time. We propose to study this effect using Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs) and the respective TEC values generated from the International Reference Ionospheric (IRI) model, during a solar cycle, applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Our works is focused over different local times and regions at mid-latitude. PCA involves a mathematical procedure that transforms a number of correlated variables into a number of uncorrelated variables using the data itself. The spatial structure of the ionosphere variability and its temporal evolution, together are called modes, and there are ordered according to their percentage of the variability of data from highest to lowest. In this analysis the first mode has more than the 90 % of the variability, representing the nominal behavior of the ionosphere, and the second and third modes are the more important for our analysis, because they show the strong longitudinal variation in the different regions using either GIMs or the IRI model.

  14. Inverting Coseismic TEC Disturbances for Neutral Atmosphere Pressure Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, R. F.; Mikesell, D.; Rolland, L.

    2017-12-01

    Research from the past 20 years has shown that we can detect coseismic disturbances in the total electron content (TEC) using global navigation space systems (GNSS). In the near field, TEC disturbances are created by the direct wave from rupture on the surface. This pressure wave travels through the neutral atmosphere to the ionosphere within about 10 minutes. This provides the opportunity to almost immediately characterize the source of the acoustic disturbance on the surface using methods from seismology. In populated areas, this could provide valuable information to first responders. To retrieve the surface motion amplitude information we must account for changes in the waveform caused by the geomagnetic field, motion of the satellites and the geometry of the satellites and receivers. One method is to use a transfer function to invert for the neutral atmosphere pressure wave. Gómez et al (2015) first employed an analytical model to invert for acoustic waves produced by Rayleigh waves propagating along the Earth's surface. Here, we examine the same model in the near field using the TEC disturbances from the direct wave produced by rupture at the surface. We compare results from the forward model against a numerical model that has been shown to be in good agreement with observations from the 2011 Van (Turkey) earthquake. We show the forward model predictions using both methods for the Van earthquake. We then analyze results for hypothetical events at different latitudes and discuss the reliability of the analytical model in each scenario. Gómez, D., R. Jr. Smalley, C. A. Langston, T. J. Wilson, M. Bevis, I. W. D. Dalziel, E. C. Kendrick, S. A. Konfal, M. J. Willis, D. A. Piñón, et al. (2015), Virtual array beamforming of GPS TEC observations of coseismic ionospheric disturbances near the Geomagnetic South Pole triggered by teleseismic megathrusts, J. Geophys. Res. Space Physics, 120, 9087-9101, doi:10.1002/2015JA021725.

  15. TEC variability near northern EIA crest and comparison with IRI model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Malini

    2011-10-01

    Monthly median values of hourly total electron content (TEC) is obtained with GPS at a station near northern anomaly crest, Rajkot (geog. 22.29°N, 70.74°E; geomag. 14.21°N, 144.9°E) to study the variability of low latitude ionospheric behavior during low solar activity period (April 2005 to March 2006). The TEC exhibit characteristic features like day-to-day variability, semiannual anomaly and noon bite out. The observed TEC is compared with latest International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) - 2007 model using options of topside electron density, NeQuick, IRI01-corr and IRI-2001 by using both URSI and CCIR coefficients. A good agreement of observed and predicted TEC is found during the daytime with underestimation at other times. The predicted TEC by NeQuick and IRI01-corr is closer to the observed TEC during the daytime whereas during nighttime and morning hours, IRI-2001 shows lesser discrepancy in all seasons by both URSI and CCIR coefficients.

  16. Investigation of TEC Variations over Mid-Latitude during Quit and Disturbed Days of March 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atıcı, Ramazan; Saǧır, Selçuk; Güzel, Esat

    2016-07-01

    The variations during 09-14-March-2015 quit days and 15-20 March 2015 disturbed days of Total Electron Content (TEC) values (provided by IONOLAB group) obtained by analysis the data from Ankara Global Position System (GPS) station of Turkey located at mid-latitude, IRI -2012 model the and IRI-PLUS model are investigated. Also, the variations of the geomagnetic, interplanetary and solar wind parameters are examined. As a result of investigations, TEC values from all three models are not change too much at quit days. Unlike, at the disturbed days, although IRI-2012 and IRI-PLUS TEC values are not change too much, a noticeable change in GPS-TEC values is occurred. GPS-TEC values are rapidly increased on 17-March 2015 to be severe magnetic storm (Dst = -124 nT). Then, on following days it was observed to significantly decrease. Thus, it is said that GPS-TEC values are more sensitive than IRI-2012 and IRI-PLUS models to variations occurred on disturbed days.

  17. Empirical model of TEC response to geomagnetic and solar forcing over Balkan Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhtarov, P.; Andonov, B.; Pancheva, D.

    2018-01-01

    An empirical total electron content (TEC) model response to external forcing over Balkan Peninsula (35°N-50°N; 15°E-30°E) is built by using the Center for Orbit Determination of Europe (CODE) TEC data for full 17 years, January 1999 - December 2015. The external forcing includes geomagnetic activity described by the Kp-index and solar activity described by the solar radio flux F10.7. The model describes the most probable spatial distribution and temporal variability of the externally forced TEC anomalies assuming that they depend mainly on latitude, Kp-index, F10.7 and LT. The anomalies are expressed by the relative deviation of the TEC from its 15-day mean, rTEC, as the mean value is calculated from the 15 preceding days. The approach for building this regional model is similar to that of the global TEC model reported by Mukhtarov et al. (2013a) however it includes two important improvements related to short-term variability of the solar activity and amended geomagnetic forcing by using a "modified" Kp index. The quality assessment of the new constructing model procedure in terms of modeling error calculated for the period of 1999-2015 indicates significant improvement in accordance with the global TEC model (Mukhtarov et al., 2013a). The short-term prediction capabilities of the model based on the error calculations for 2016 are improved as well. In order to demonstrate how the model is able to reproduce the rTEC response to external forcing three geomagnetic storms, accompanied also with short-term solar activity variations, which occur at different seasons and solar activity conditions are presented.

  18. Ionospheric storms—A challenge for empirical forecast of the total electron content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borries, C.; Berdermann, J.; Jakowski, N.; Wilken, V.

    2015-04-01

    Since the last decades, the functioning of society depends more and more on well-functioning communication and navigation systems. As the availability and reliability of most of these satellite-based systems can be severely impacted by ionospheric storms, the accurate forecast of these events becomes a required task for mitigating social and economic risks. Here we aim to make initial steps toward an empirical model for ionospheric perturbations related to space weather events that are observable in the total electron content (TEC). The perturbation TEC forecast model will be a fast and robust approach, improving TEC forecasts based on climatological models during storm conditions. The derivation of such a model is a challenging task, because although a general dependence of the storm features (enhancement or depletion of electron density) on the storm onset time, local time, season and geomagnetic latitude is well known, there is a large deviation from the mean behavior. For a better understanding of storm conditions, this paper presents analyses of ionospheric storms observed in the TEC, broken down into diverse classes of storms. It provides a detailed characterization of the typical ionospheric storm behavior over Europe from high to midlatitudes, beyond case studies. Generally, the typical clear strong TEC enhancement starting in high latitudes and propagating equatorward is found to be strongest for storms starting in the morning hours independent of the season. In midlatitudes, it is strongest during noon. In addition, a clear difference between summer and winter storms is reported. While only winter storms develop high-latitude TEC enhancements, only summer storms typically exhibit TEC depletions during the storm recovery phase. During winter storms TEC enhancements can also occur the day following the storm onset, in contrast to summer storms. Strong correlation of TEC perturbation amplitudes to the Bz component of the interplanetary magnetic field and to

  19. Comparison of GPS-TEC variation during quiet and disturbed period using the Holt-Winter method and IRI-2012 model over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed Ismail, Nouf Abd Emunim; Abdullah, Mardina; Hasbi, Alina Marie

    2016-07-01

    Total Electron Content (TEC) is the main parameter in the ionosphere that has significant effects on radio wave; it changes the speed and direction of the signal propagation, causing the delay of the Global Positioning System (GPS) signals. Therefore, it is crucial to validate the performance of the ionospheric model to reveal the variety of ionospheric behaviour during quiet and disturbed period. This research presents the performance evaluation of the statistical Holt-Winter method and IRI-2012 model using three topside electron density options: IRI-2001, IRI01-corr and NeQuick with the observed GPS-TEC during quiet and disturbed period. The GPS-TEC data were derived from the dual frequency GPS receiver at JUPEM (Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia), from the UUMK station (north Peninsular Malaysia) at geographic coordinates of 6.46°N-100.50°E and geomagnetic coordinates of 3.32°S-172.99°E and TGPG station (south Peninsular Malaysia) at geographic coordinates of 1.36°N-104.10°E and geomagnetic coordinates of 8.43°S -176.53°E, during March of 2013. The maximum value of the GPS-TEC was at the post noon time at 17:00 LT and the minimum was in the early morning from 6:00-7:00 LT. During the quiet period, the maximum GPS-TEC at the UUMK station was 52 TECU while at the TGPG station, it was 60 TECU. During the disturbed period, when intense geomagnetic storm occurred on 17 March 2013, the maximum GPS-TEC recorded was 58 TECU and 65 TECU in UUMK and TGPG station, respectively. The diurnal hourly variation during the quiet period indicated that IRI-2001, IRI01-corr, and NeQuick had overestimation agreement during the day hours except for the time between 11:00-19:00 LT when IRI01-corr and NeQuick showed underestimation, while during 13:00-20:00 LT, IRI-2001 showed slight underestimation whereas the Holt-Winter method showed good agreement with GPS-TEC. During the disturbed period, IRI-2001 showed overestimation agreement for all hours, while the IRI01-corr

  20. Comparison of plasmaspheric electron content over sea and land using Jason-2 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, Tamara; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina

    2016-07-01

    The Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content, GIM-TEC, may suffer from model assumptions, in particular, over the oceans where relatively few measurements are available due to a scarcity of ground-based GPS receivers network only on seashores and islands which involve more assumptions or interpolations imposed on GIM mapping techniques. The GPS-derived TEC represents the total electron content integrated through the ionosphere, iTEC, and the plasmasphere, pTEC. The sea/land differences in the F2 layer peak electron density, NmF2, and the peak height, hmF2, gathered with topside sounding data exhibit tilted ionosphere along the seashores with denser electron population at greater peak heights over the sea. Derivation of a sea/land proportion of total electron content from the new source of the satellite-based measurements would allow improve the mapping GIM-TEC products and their assimilation by the ionosphere-plasmasphere IRI-Plas model. In this context the data of Jason-2 mission provided through the NOAA CLASS Website (http://www.nsof.class.noaa.gov/saa/products/catSearch) present a unique database of pTEC measured through the plasmasphere over the Jason-2 orbit (1335 km) to GPS orbit (20,200 km) which become possible from GPS receivers placed onboard of Jason-2 with a zenith looking antenna that can be used not only for precise orbit determination (POD), but can also provide new data on the plasma density distribution in the plasmasphere. Special interest represents possibility of the potential increase of the data volume in two times due to the successful launch of the Jason-3 mission on 17 January 2016. The present study is focused on a comparison of plasmasphere electron content, pTEC, over the sea and land with a unique data base of the plasmasphere electron content, pTEC, using measurements onboard Jason-2 satellite during the solar minimum (2009) and solar maximum (2014). Slant TEC values were scaled to estimate vertical pTEC using a geometric

  1. CEDAR-GEM Challenge for Systematic Assessment of Ionosphere/Thermosphere Models in Predicting TEC During the 2006 December Storm Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, J. S.; Rastätter, L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Bilitza, D.; Codrescu, M.; Coster, A. J.; Emery, B. A.; Fedrizzi, M.; Förster, M.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Gardner, L. C.; Goncharenko, L.; Huba, J.; McDonald, S. E.; Mannucci, A. J.; Namgaladze, A. A.; Pi, X.; Prokhorov, B. E.; Ridley, A. J.; Scherliess, L.; Schunk, R. W.; Sojka, J. J.; Zhu, L.

    2017-10-01

    In order to assess current modeling capability of reproducing storm impacts on total electron content (TEC), we considered quantities such as TEC, TEC changes compared to quiet time values, and the maximum value of the TEC and TEC changes during a storm. We compared the quantities obtained from ionospheric models against ground-based GPS TEC measurements during the 2006 AGU storm event (14-15 December 2006) in the selected eight longitude sectors. We used 15 simulations obtained from eight ionospheric models, including empirical, physics-based, coupled ionosphere-thermosphere, and data assimilation models. To quantitatively evaluate performance of the models in TEC prediction during the storm, we calculated skill scores such as RMS error, Normalized RMS error (NRMSE), ratio of the modeled to observed maximum increase (Yield), and the difference between the modeled peak time and observed peak time. Furthermore, to investigate latitudinal dependence of the performance of the models, the skill scores were calculated for five latitude regions. Our study shows that RMSE of TEC and TEC changes of the model simulations range from about 3 TECU (total electron content unit, 1 TECU = 1016 el m-2) (in high latitudes) to about 13 TECU (in low latitudes), which is larger than latitudinal average GPS TEC error of about 2 TECU. Most model simulations predict TEC better than TEC changes in terms of NRMSE and the difference in peak time, while the opposite holds true in terms of Yield. Model performance strongly depends on the quantities considered, the type of metrics used, and the latitude considered.

  2. Comparison of GPS-TEC measurements with NeQuick2 and IRI model predictions in the low latitude East African region during varying solar activity period (1998 and 2008-2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengistu, E.; Damtie, B.; Moldwin, M. B.; Nigussie, M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper examines the performances of NeQuick2, the latest available IRI-2016, IRI-2012 and IRI-2007 models in describing the monthly and seasonal mean total electron content (TEC) over the East African region. This is to gain insight into the success of the various model types and versions at characterizing the ionosphere within the equatorial ionization anomaly. TEC derived from five Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers installed at Addis Ababa (ADD, 5.33°N, 111.99°E Geog.), Asab (ASAB, 8.67°N, 116.44°E Geog.), Ambo (ABOO, 5.43°N, 111.05°E Geog.), Nairobi (RCMN, -4.48°N, 108.46°E Geog.) and Nazret (NAZR, 4.78°N, 112.43°E Geog.), are compared with the corresponding values computed using those models during varying solar activity period (1998 and 2008-2015). We found that different models describe the equatorial and anomaly region ionosphere best depending on solar cycle, season and geomagnetic activity levels. Our results show that IRI-2016 is the best model (compared to others in terms of discrepancy range) in estimating the monthly mean GPS-TEC at NAZR, ADD and RCMN stations except at ADD during 2008 and 2012. It is also found that IRI-2012 is the best model in estimating the monthly mean TEC at ABOO station in 2014. IRI show better agreement with observations during June solstice for all the years studied at ADD except in 2012 where NeQuick2 better performs. At NAZR, NeQuick2 better performs in estimating seasonal mean GPS-TEC during 2011, while IRI models are best during 2008-2009. Both NeQuick2 and IRI models underestimate measured TEC for all the seasons at ADD in 2010 but overestimate at NAZR in 2009 and RCMN in 2008. The periodic variations of experimental and modeled TEC have been compared with solar and geomagnetic indices at ABOO and ASAB in 2014 and results indicate that the F10.7 and sunspot number as indices of solar activity seriously affects the TEC variations with periods of 16-32 days followed by the geomagnetic activity on

  3. TEC data ingestion into IRI and NeQuick over the antarctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, Bruno; Pezzopane, Michael; Radicella, Sandro M.; Scotto, Carlo; Pietrella, Marco; Migoya Orue, Yenca; Alazo Cuartas, Katy; Kashcheyev, Anton

    2016-07-01

    In the present work a comparative analysis to evaluate the IRI and NeQuick 2 models capabilities in reproducing the ionospheric behaviour over the Antarctic Region has been performed. A technique to adapt the two models to GNSS-derived vertical Total Electron Content (TEC) has been therefore implemented to retrieve the 3-D ionosphere electron density at specific locations where ionosonde data were available. In particular, the electron density profiles used in this study have been provided in the framework of the AUSPICIO (AUtomatic Scaling of Polar Ionograms and Cooperative Ionospheric Observations) project applying the Adaptive Ionospheric Profiler (AIP) to ionograms recorded at eight selected mid, high-latitude and polar ionosondes. The relevant GNSS-derived vertical TEC values have been obtained from the Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) produced by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE). The effectiveness of the IRI and NeQuick 2 in reconstructing the ionosphere electron density at the given locations and epochs has been primarily assessed in terms of statistical comparison between experimental and model-retrieved peak parameters values (foF2 and hmF2). The analysis results indicate that in general the models are equivalent in their ability to reproduce the critical frequency of the F2 layer and they also tend to overestimate the height of the peak electron density, especially during high solar activity periods. Nevertheless this tendency is more noticeable in NeQuick 2 than in IRI. For completeness, the statistics indicating the models bottomside reconstruction capabilities, computed as height integrated electron density profile mismodeling, will also be discussed.

  4. Detection of Natural Hazards Generated TEC Perturbations and Related New Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komjathy, A.; Yang, Y.; Langley, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Natural hazards, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis, have been significant threats to humans throughout recorded history. The Global Positioning System satellites have become primary sensors to measure signatures associated with such natural hazards. These signatures typically include GPS-derived seismic deformation measurements, co-seismic vertical displacements, and real-time GPS-derived ocean buoy positioning estimates. Another way to use GPS observables is to compute the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) to measure and monitor post-seismic ionospheric disturbances caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. Research at the University of New Brunswick (UNB) laid the foundations to model the three-dimensional ionosphere at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory by ingesting ground- and space-based GPS measurements into the state-of-the-art Global Assimilative Ionosphere Modeling (GAIM) software. As an outcome of the UNB and NASA research, new and innovative GPS applications have been invented including the use of ionospheric measurements to detect tiny fluctuations in the GPS signals between the spacecraft and GPS receivers caused by natural hazards occurring on or near the Earth's surface. This continuing research is expected to provide early warning for tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and meteor impacts, for example, using GPS and other global navigation satellite systems. We will demonstrate new and upcoming applications including recent natural hazards and artificial explosions that generated TEC perturbations to perform state-of-the-art imaging and modeling of earthquakes, tsunamis and meteor impacts. By studying the propagation properties of ionospheric perturbations generated by natural hazards along with applying sophisticated first-principles physics-based modeling, we are on track to develop new technologies that can potentially save human lives and minimize property damage.

  5. Recent Progress in Understanding Natural-Hazards-Generated TEC Perturbations: Measurements and Modeling Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komjathy, A.; Yang, Y. M.; Meng, X.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Mannucci, A. J.; Langley, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Natural hazards, including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis, have been significant threats to humans throughout recorded history. The Global Positioning System satellites have become primary sensors to measure signatures associated with such natural hazards. These signatures typically include GPS-derived seismic deformation measurements, co-seismic vertical displacements, and real-time GPS-derived ocean buoy positioning estimates. Another way to use GPS observables is to compute the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) to measure and monitor post-seismic ionospheric disturbances caused by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and tsunamis. Research at the University of New Brunswick (UNB) laid the foundations to model the three-dimensional ionosphere at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory by ingesting ground- and space-based GPS measurements into the state-of-the-art Global Assimilative Ionosphere Modeling (GAIM) software. As an outcome of the UNB and NASA research, new and innovative GPS applications have been invented including the use of ionospheric measurements to detect tiny fluctuations in the GPS signals between the spacecraft and GPS receivers caused by natural hazards occurring on or near the Earth's surface.We will show examples for early detection of natural hazards generated ionospheric signatures using ground-based and space-borne GPS receivers. We will also discuss recent results from the U.S. Real-time Earthquake Analysis for Disaster Mitigation Network (READI) exercises utilizing our algorithms. By studying the propagation properties of ionospheric perturbations generated by natural hazards along with applying sophisticated first-principles physics-based modeling, we are on track to develop new technologies that can potentially save human lives and minimize property damage. It is also expected that ionospheric monitoring of TEC perturbations might become an integral part of existing natural hazards warning systems.

  6. Research on global plasmaspheric electron content by using LEO occultation and GPS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Peng; Yao, Yibin

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of global plasmaspheric electron content (pTEC) using COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate) occultation and GPS (Global Positioning System) data. The ionospheric electron content (iTEC) within 100-1000 km was obtained by fitting the COSMIC occultation electron density profiles, and the pTEC was obtained by subtracting the iTEC from CODE (Center for Orbit Determination in Europe) GIM (global ionosphere maps) TEC provided by University of Bern. This paper also investigates the characteristics of pTEC variations with local time, latitude and season. The results show that in 2011, the worldwide average of pTEC was 4.02 TECu, which is consistent with the findings of other studies. The pTEC shows significant diurnal variation characteristics, that is, pTEC is higher during daytime than during nighttime, but the percentage contribution of pTEC to GPS TEC is higher during nighttime than during daytime. The pTEC varies with the seasons, pTEC hemispheres symmetrically during spring and autumn, while pTEC in the summer hemisphere is higher than that in the winter hemisphere. Moreover, the percentage contribution of pTEC to GPS TEC (total electron content) is higher in winter hemisphere than in summer hemisphere.

  7. Imperfect coupling between northern and southern ionospheres: asymmetry in TEC anomalies before earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhuang, Hau-Kun; Ho, Yi-Ying; Lee, Lou-Chuang

    2016-04-01

    The northern ionosphere is coupled to the conjugate southern ionosphere through the highly conducting geomagenetic field lines. The coupling is very strong or "perfect" if the geomagnetic field lines are equipotential (the parallel electric field E||=0) and hence the perpendicular electric field (E⊥) at the conjugate sites of both ionospheres are equal. The coupling is "imperfect" if some of the geomagnetic field lines are non-equipotential (E||≠0). The field-aligned electric field E|| can be associated with electron inertia, pressure gradient and collisions appearing in the form of double layer, kinetic Alfvén waves and finite field-aligned conductivity σ||. We use the Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) data to examine the conjugate effect of total electron content (TEC) for six significant earthquakes. The anomalous (ΔTEC)source in the source ionosphere and (ΔTEC)conjugate in the conjugate ionosphere are obtained for 85 events before the six earthquakes. The ΔTEC ratio β = (ΔTEC)conjugate / (ΔTEC)source is calculated for each anomaly. For a "perfect" coupling, β=1. There are 85 anomalous events before the six significant earthquakes, with 62 events occurring in the daytime (07-18 LT) and 23 events in the nighttime (19-06 LT). The average value of daytime (07-18 LT) TEC variations in the source ionosphere is |ΔTEC|source =20.13 TECu, while the average value in the nighttime (19-06 LT) ionosphere is |ΔTEC|source=14.43 TECu. The value of ΔTEC ratio β ranges from 0.05 (very weak coupling) to 0.98 (nearly perfect coupling) with an average of 0.52. There are 14 strong coupling cases with β ≥0.8, which take place from 11 LT to 19 LT. The daytime (07-18 LT) β average value is 0.57 and the nighttime (19-06 LT) β average is 0.37. The south-north ionosphere coupling is stronger (weaker) in the daytime (nighttime).

  8. Observation of TEC perturbation associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance and possible seeding mechanism of atmospheric gravity wave at a Brazilian sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonah, O. F.; Kherani, E. A.; De Paula, E. R.

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we document daytime total electron content (TEC) disturbances associated with medium-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (MSTIDs), on few chosen geomagnetically quiet days over Southern Hemisphere of Brazilian longitude sector. These disturbances are derived from TEC data obtained using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver networks. From the keograms and cross-correlation maps, the TEC disturbances are identified as the MSTIDs that are propagating equatorward-eastward, having most of their average wavelengths longer in latitude than in longitude direction. These are the important outcomes of the present study which suggest that the daytime MSTIDs over Southern Hemisphere are similar to their counterparts in the Northern Hemisphere. Another important outcome is that the occurrence characteristics of these MSTIDs and that of atmospheric gravity wave (AGW) activities in the thermosphere are found to be similar on day-to-day basis. This suggests a possible connection between them, confirming the widely accepted AGW forcing mechanism for the generation of these daytime MSTIDs. The source of this AGW is investigated using the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite system (GOES) and Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate satellite data. Finally, we provided evidences that AGWs are generated by convection activities from the tropospheric region.

  9. Extraction of the geomagnetic activity effect from TEC data: A comparison between the spectral whitening method and 28 day running median

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhou; Wang, Jing-Song; Deng, Yue; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2017-03-01

    The spectral whitening method (SWM) has been previously proved to be very effective at identifying ionospheric disturbances on foF2 (the critical frequency of ionospheric F2 layer). To continuously investigate the strength of the new method, in this paper SWM has been used to extract the effect of geomagnetic activity on total electron content (TEC) and has been compared with the traditional 28 day running median centered (RMC) method. First, ionospheric variations during quiet and disturbed conditions are analyzed by both SWM and RMC. The results from RMC, compared with those from SWM, overestimate the disturbance occurrence by about 5-20% during the geomagnetic storms and up to 35% during the quiet time. The possible reason is that the results can be contaminated by the residuals of periodic components in the RMC identified disturbances. Meanwhile, the power spectral analysis of the disturbance field shows that the annual and diurnal variations are still significant in RMC results but very weak in SWM results, which indicates that SWM has some advantage to clean up the background variation. Finally, the analysis of the spatial correlation of the disturbance field with F10.7 and Ap illustrates that the effects of solar and geomagnetic activities from SWM are significantly reduced and enhanced, respectively. It suggests that the SWM is more effective in extracting the effect of geomagnetic activity from TEC than RMC. The relative deviation of TEC derived by SWM is more sensitive to geomagnetic activity than solar activity.

  10. Operation and Maintenance Manual, TECS 18.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    width modulated variable output voltage and frequency using a three-phase transistor bridge circuit . Reduced power line electromagnetic interference...Description 3-1 Section II. Circuit Fundamentals 3-1 Section III. System Description 3-2 CHAPTER 4. Protection and Maintenance 4-1 Section I. Internal...Number I-la TECS 18 Electronic Module Location-Evaporator Side 1-3 1-lb TECS 18 Electronic Module Location-Condenser Side 1-4 1-2 Remote Control Panel 1-5

  11. Early Science with the Large Millimeter Telescope: CO and [C II] Emission in the z = 4.3 AzTEC J095942.9+022938 (COSMOS AzTEC-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Min S.; Aretxaga, I.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hughes, D. H.; Montaña, A.; Narayanan, G.; Rosa-González, D.; Sánchez-Argüelles, D.; Schloerb, F. P.; Snell, R. L.; Vega, O.; Wilson, G. W.; Zeballos, M.; Chavez, M.; Cybulski, R.; Díaz-Santos, T.; De La Luz, V.; Erickson, N.; Ferrusca, D.; Gim, H. B.; Heyer, M. H.; Iono, D.; Pope, A.; Rogstad, S. M.; Scott, K. S.; Souccar, K.; Terlevich, E.; Terlevich, R.; Wilner, D.; Zavala, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring redshifted CO line emission is an unambiguous method for obtaining an accurate redshift and total cold gas content of optically faint, dusty starburst systems. Here, we report the first successful spectroscopic redshift determination of AzTEC J095942.9+022938 (`COSMOS AzTEC-1'), the brightest 1.1 mm continuum source found in the AzTEC/James Clerk Maxwell Telescope survey (Scott et al.), through a clear detection of the redshifted CO (4-3) and CO (5-4) lines using the Redshift Search Receiver on the Large Millimeter Telescope. The CO redshift of z = 4.3420 ± 0.0004 is confirmed by the detection of the redshifted 158 μm [C II] line using the Submillimeter Array. The new redshift and Herschel photometry yield LFIR = (1.1 ± 0.1) × 1013 L⊙ and SFR ≈ 1300 M⊙ yr-1. Its molecular gas mass derived using the ultraluminous infrared galaxy conversion factor is 1.4 ± 0.2 × 1011M⊙ while the total interstellar medium mass derived from the 1.1 mm dust continuum is 3.7 ± 0.7 × 1011M⊙ assuming Td = 35 K. Our dynamical mass analysis suggests that the compact gas disc (r ≈ 1.1 kpc, inferred from dust continuum and spectral energy distribution analysis) has to be nearly face-on, providing a natural explanation for the uncommonly bright, compact stellar light seen by the HST. The [C II] line luminosity L_[C II]= 7.8± 1.1 × 10^9 L_{⊙} is remarkably high, but it is only 0.04 per cent of the total IR luminosity. AzTEC COSMOS-1 and other high redshift sources with a spatially resolved size extend the tight trend seen between [C II]/FIR ratio and ΣFIR among IR-bright galaxies reported by Díaz-Santos et al. by more than an order of magnitude, supporting the explanation that the higher intensity of the IR radiation field is responsible for the `[C II] deficiency' seen among luminous starburst galaxies.

  12. Statistical analysis of ionospheric TEC anomalies before global M w ≥ 7.0 earthquakes using data of CODE GIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjing; Xu, Liang

    2017-07-01

    Based on Center of Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) global ionospheric map (GIM) data, a statistical analysis of local total electron content (TEC) anomalies before 121 low-depth ( D ≤ 100 km) strong ( M w ≥ 7.0) earthquakes has been made using the sliding median differential calculation method combining with a new approach of image processing technique. The results show that significant local TEC anomalies could be observed 0-6 days before 80 earthquakes, about 66.1% out of the total. The positive anomalies occur more often than negative ones. For 26 cases, both positive and negative anomalies are observed before the shock. The pre-earthquake TEC anomalies show local time recurrence for 38 earthquakes, which occur around the same local time on different days. The local time distribution of the pre-earthquake TEC anomalies mainly concentrates between 19 and 06 LT, roughly from the sunset to sunrise. Most of the pre-earthquake TEC anomalies do not locate above the epicenter but shift to the south. The pre-earthquake TEC anomalies could be extracted near the magnetic conjugate point of the epicenter for 40 events, which is 50% out of the total 80 cases with significant local TEC anomalies. In general, the signs of the anomalies around epicenter and its conjugate point are the same, but the abnormal magnitude and lasting time are not.

  13. The 1980 V-TECS Marketing Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattwick, Richard E.; And Others

    The Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) conducted a marketing study that considered the implications of six options for the organization's future. The first option is continuation of the status quo, which is dangerous because existing members may leave the consortium. The second option is the status quo combined with an…

  14. B/TEC Opens Doors for You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business and Technician Education Council, London (England).

    This package contains a paper summarizing the aims and services provided by the Business and Technician Education Council (B/TEC). Established to advance the quality and availability of a wide range of employment-related education to persons in the United Kingdom who are studying at or beyond the equivalent of the American associate-degree level,…

  15. V-TECS Career Cluster Frameworks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States, Decatur, GA.

    This document includes 16 vocational-technical crosswalk wheels relating the 14 Vocational Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) Career Families to the 16 Career Clusters developed by the U.S. Department of Education. The career clusters are based on the common academic, workplace, and technical knowledge and skills that cut across all…

  16. Real-time reconstruction of topside ionosphere scale height from coordinated GPS-TEC and ionosonde observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, Tamara; Poustovalova, Ljubov

    The International Reference Ionosphere model extended to the plasmasphere, IRI-Plas, has been recently updated for assimilation of total electron content, TEC, derived from observations with Global Navigation Satellite System, GNSS. The ionosonde products of the F2 layer peak density (NmF2) and height (hmF2) ensure true electron density maximum at the F2 peak. The daily solar and magnetic indices used by IRI-Plas code are compiled in data files including the 3-hour ap and kp magnetic index from 1958 onward, 12-monthly smoothed sunspot number R12 and Global Electron Content GEC12, daily solar radio flux F10.7 and daily sunspot number Ri. The 3-h ap-index is available in Real Time, RT, mode from GFZ, Potsdam, Germany, daily update of F10.7 is provided by Space Weather Canada service, and daily estimated international sunspot number Ri is provided by Solar Influences Data Analysis Center, SIDC, Belgium. For IRI-Plas-RT operation in regime of the daily update and prediction of the F2 layer peak parameters, the proxy kp and ap forecast for 3 to 24 hours ahead based on data for preceding 12 hours is applied online at http://www.izmiran.ru/services/iweather/. The topside electron density profile of IRI-Plas code is expressed with complementary half-peak density anchor height above hmF2 which corresponds to transition O+/H+ height. The present investigation is focused on reconstruction of topside ionosphere scale height using vertical total electron content (TEC) data derived from the Global Positioning System GPS observations and the ionosonde derived F2 layer peak parameters from 25 observatories ingested into IRI-Plas model. GPS-TEC and ionosonde measurements at solar maximum (September, 2002, and October, 2003) for quiet, positively disturbed, and negatively disturbed days of the month are used to obtain the topside scale height, Htop, representing the range of altitudes from hmF2 to the height where NmF2 decay by e times occurs. Mapping of the F2 layer peak parameters

  17. Wide extragalactic (sub-)millimeter surveys with SCUBA and AzTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D. H.; SHADES Collaboration; AzTEC Collaboration

    2009-05-01

    We summarize the present status of our knowledge of the millimeter galaxy population derived from extensive (sub-) millimeter extragalactic surveys like the SCUBA HAlf Degree Survey (SHADES), and the current status of the next generation of surveys traced with the AzTEC camera, that has, so far, surveyed more than 2 degrees at 1.1wavelengths.

  18. Regional And Seasonal Aspects Of Within-The-Hour Tec Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroglu, Ozan; Arikan, Feza; Koroglu, Meltem

    2015-04-01

    Ionosphere is one of the atmosphere layers which has a plasma structure. Several mechanisms originating from both space and earth itself governs this plasma layer such as solar radiation and geomagnetic effects. Ionosphere plays important role for HF and satellite communication, and space based positioning systems. Therefore, the determination of statistical behavior of ionosphere has utmost importance. The variability of the ionosphere has complex spatio-temporal characteristics, which depends on solar, geomagnetic, gravitational and seismic activities. Total Electron Content (TEC) is one of the major observables for investigating and determining this variability. In this study, spatio-temporal within-the-hour statistical behavior of TEC is determined for Turkey, which is located in mid-latitude, using the TEC estimates from Turkish National Permanent GPS Network (TNPGN)-Active between the years 2009 and 2012. TEC estimates are obtained as IONOLAB-TEC which is developed by IONOLAB group (www.ionolab.org) from Hacettepe University. IONOLAB-TEC for each station in TNPGN-Active is organized in a database and grouped with respect to years, ionospheric seasons, hours and regions 2 degree by 3 degree, in latitude and longitude, respectively. The data sets are used to calculate within-the-hour parametric Probability Density Functions (PDF). For every year, every region and every hour, a representative PDF is determined. It is observed that TEC values have a strong hourly, seasonal and positional dependence on east-west direction, and the growing trend shifts according to sunrise and sunset times. It is observed that the data are distributed predominantly as Lognormal and Weibull. The averages and standard deviations of the chosen distributions follow the trends in 24 hour diurnal and 11 year solar cycle periods. The regional and seasonal behavior of PDFs are investigated using a representative GPS station within each region. Within-the-hour PDF estimates are grouped into

  19. Welding, V-TECS Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles G.; And Others

    This guide provides job-related tasks, performance objectives, performance guides, resources, teaching activities, evaluation standards, and criterion-referenced measures in three units of a welding course. Through the curriculum content of the welding course, the guide helps teachers lead students through the learning process, including the…

  20. Support vector machines for TEC seismo-ionospheric anomalies detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhoondzadeh, M.

    2013-02-01

    Using time series prediction methods, it is possible to pursue the behaviors of earthquake precursors in the future and to announce early warnings when the differences between the predicted value and the observed value exceed the predefined threshold value. Support Vector Machines (SVMs) are widely used due to their many advantages for classification and regression tasks. This study is concerned with investigating the Total Electron Content (TEC) time series by using a SVM to detect seismo-ionospheric anomalous variations induced by the three powerful earthquakes of Tohoku (11 March 2011), Haiti (12 January 2010) and Samoa (29 September 2009). The duration of TEC time series dataset is 49, 46 and 71 days, for Tohoku, Haiti and Samoa earthquakes, respectively, with each at time resolution of 2 h. In the case of Tohoku earthquake, the results show that the difference between the predicted value obtained from the SVM method and the observed value reaches the maximum value (i.e., 129.31 TECU) at earthquake time in a period of high geomagnetic activities. The SVM method detected a considerable number of anomalous occurrences 1 and 2 days prior to the Haiti earthquake and also 1 and 5 days before the Samoa earthquake in a period of low geomagnetic activities. In order to show that the method is acting sensibly with regard to the results extracted during nonevent and event TEC data, i.e., to perform some null-hypothesis tests in which the methods would also be calibrated, the same period of data from the previous year of the Samoa earthquake date has been taken into the account. Further to this, in this study, the detected TEC anomalies using the SVM method were compared to the previous results (Akhoondzadeh and Saradjian, 2011; Akhoondzadeh, 2012) obtained from the mean, median, wavelet and Kalman filter methods. The SVM detected anomalies are similar to those detected using the previous methods. It can be concluded that SVM can be a suitable learning method to detect

  1. Observed TEC Anomalies by GNSS Sites Preceding the Aegean Sea Earthquake of 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulukavak, Mustafa; Yal&ccedul; ınkaya, Mualla

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, Total Electron Content (TEC) data, obtained from Global Navigation Satellites Systems (GNSS) receivers, has been widely used to detect seismo-ionospheric anomalies. In this study, Global Positioning System - Total Electron Content (GPS-TEC) data were used to investigate ionospheric abnormal behaviors prior to the 2014 Aegean Sea earthquake (40.305°N 25.453°E, 24 May 2014, 09:25:03 UT, Mw:6.9). The data obtained from three Continuously Operating Reference Stations in Turkey (CORS-TR) and two International GNSS Service (IGS) sites near the epicenter of the earthquake is used to detect ionospheric anomalies before the earthquake. Solar activity index (F10.7) and geomagnetic activity index (Dst), which are both related to space weather conditions, were used to analyze these pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies. An examination of these indices indicated high solar activity between May 8 and 15, 2014. The first significant increase (positive anomalies) in Vertical Total Electron Content (VTEC) was detected on May 14, 2014 or 10 days before the earthquake. This positive anomaly can be attributed to the high solar activity. The indices do not imply high solar or geomagnetic activity after May 15, 2014. Abnormal ionospheric TEC changes (negative anomaly) were observed at all stations one day before the earthquake. These changes were lower than the lower bound by approximately 10-20 TEC unit (TECU), and may be considered as the ionospheric precursor of the 2014 Aegean Sea earthquake

  2. Variation of TEC and related parameters over the Indian EIA region from ground and space based GPS observations during the low solar activity period of May 2007-April 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakravarty, S. C.; Nagaraja, Kamsali; Jakowski, N.

    2017-03-01

    The annual variations of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC), F-region peak ionisation (NmF2) and the ionospheric slab thickness (τ) over the Indian region during the low solar activity period of May 2007-April 2008 have been studied. For this purpose the ground based TEC data obtained from GAGAN measurements and the space based data from GPS radio occultation technique using CHAMP have been utilised. The results of these independent measurements are combined to derive additional parameters such as the equivalent slab thickness of the total and the bottom-side ionospheric regions (τT and τB). The one year hourly average values of all these parameters over the ionospheric anomaly latitude region (10-26°N) are presented here along with the statistical error estimates. It is expected that these results are potentially suited to be used as base level values during geomagnetically quiet and undisturbed solar conditions.

  3. Temporal evolution of the EIA along 95°E as obtained from GNSS TEC measurements and SAMI3 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakoti, Geetashree; Kalita, Bitap Raj; Hazarika, Rumajyoti; Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Sharma, Sanjay; Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra

    2018-06-01

    The total electron content (TEC) derived from GNSS measurements at a trans-hemispheric meridional chain of ground stations around 95°E longitude are used to study the quiet time inter-hemispheric structure and dynamics of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) during the period March 2015 to February 2016. The stations are Dibrugarh (27.5°N, 95°E, 43° dip), Kohima (25.6°N, 94.1°E, 39° dip), Aizawl (23.7°N, 92.8°E, 36° dip), Port Blair (11.63°N, 92.71°E, 9° dip) and Cocos Islands (12.2°S, 96.8°E, 43° dip). The observation shows that the northern crest of the EIA lies in the south of 23°N (Aizawl) in all seasons but recedes further south towards the equator during December solstice. The largest poleward expansion of the northern (southern) EIA is observed in the March equinox (December solstice). The equinoctial and hemispherical asymmetry of TEC is noted. The winter anomaly is observed in the northern hemisphere but not in the southern hemisphere. The highest midday TEC over any station is observed in the March equinox. The TEC in southern summer (December solstice) is significantly higher than that in the northern summer (June solstice). The observed northern EIA contracts equatorward in the postsunset period of solstice but the southern EIA persists late into the midnight in the December solstice. The asymmetry may be attributed to the different geographic location of the magnetically conjugate stations. The SAMI3 simulations broadly capture the EIA structure and the inter-hemispheric asymmetry during solstices. The difference between observations and the SAMI3 is higher in March equinox and December solstice. The higher E × B vertical drift in the 90-100°E sector and the large geographic-geomagnetic offset in observing stations may have contributed to the observed differences.

  4. Investigation of the TEC Changes in the vicinity of the Earthquake Preparation Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulukavak, Mustafa; Yalcinkaya, Mualla

    2016-04-01

    Recently, investigation of the anomalies in the ionosphere before the earthquake has taken too much attention. The Total Electron Content (TEC) data has been used to monitor the changes in the ionosphere. Hence, researchers use the TEC changes before the strong earthquakes to monitor the anomalies in the ionosphere. In this study, the GPS-TEC variations, obtained from the GNSS stations in the vicinity of the earthquake preparation zone, was investigated. Nidra earthquake (M6.5), which was occurred on the north-west of Greece on November 17th, 2015 (38.755°N, 20.552°E), was selected for this study. First, the equation proposed by Dobrovolsky et al. (1979) was used to calculate the radius of the earthquake preparation zone. International GNSS Service (IGS) stations in the region were classified with respect to the radius of the earthquake preparation zone. The observation data of each station was obtained from the Crustal Dynamics Data and Information System (CDDIS) archive to estimate GPS-TEC variations between 16 October 2015 and 16 December 2015. Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) products, obtained from the IGS, was used to check the robustness of the GPS-TEC variations. Possible anomalies were analyzed for each GNSS station by using the 15-day moving median method. In order to analyze these pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies, we investigated three indices (Kp, F10.7 and Dst) related to the space weather conditions between 16 October 2015 and 16 December 2015. Solar and geomagnetic indices were obtained from The Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), The Canadian Space Weather Forecast Centre (CSWFC), and the Data Analysis Center for Geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University (WDC). This study aims at investigating the possible effects of the earthquake on the TEC variations.

  5. Imaging the topside ionosphere and plasmasphere with ionospheric tomography using COSMIC GPS TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto Jayawardena, Talini S.; Chartier, Alex T.; Spencer, Paul; Mitchell, Cathryn N.

    2016-01-01

    GPS-based ionospheric tomography is a well-known technique for imaging the total electron content (TEC) between GPS satellites and receivers. However, as an integral measurement of electron concentration, TEC typically encompasses both the ionosphere and plasmasphere, masking signatures from the topside ionosphere-plasmasphere due to the dominant ionosphere. Imaging these regions requires a technique that isolates TEC in the topside ionosphere-plasmasphere. Multi-Instrument Data Analysis System (MIDAS) employs tomography to image the electron distribution in the ionosphere. Its implementation for regions beyond is yet to be seen due to the different dynamics present above the ionosphere. This paper discusses the extension of MIDAS to image these altitudes using GPS phase-based TEC measurements and follows the work by Spencer and Mitchell (2011). Plasma is constrained to dipole field lines described by Euler potentials, resulting in a distribution symmetrical about the geomagnetic equator. A simulation of an empirical plasmaspheric model by Gallagher et al. (1988) is used to verify the technique by comparing reconstructions of the simulation with the empirical model. The Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) is used as GPS receiver locations. The verification is followed by a validation of the modified MIDAS algorithm, where the regions' TEC is reconstructed from COSMIC GPS phase measurements and qualitatively compared with previous studies using Jason-1 and COSMIC data. Results show that MIDAS can successfully image features/trends of the topside ionosphere-plasmasphere observed in other studies, with deviations in absolute TEC attributed to differences in data set properties and the resolution of the images.

  6. Detection of Geomagnetic Pulsations of the Earth Using GPS-TEC Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroglu, Ozan; Arikan, Feza; Köroǧlu, Meltem; Sabri Ozkazanc, Yakup

    2016-07-01

    The magnetosphere of the Earth is made up of both magnetic fields and plasma. In this layer, plasma waves propagate as Ultra Low Frequency (ULF) waves having mHz scale frequencies. ULF waves are produced due to complicated solar-geomagnetic interactions. In the literature, these ULF waves are defined as pulsations. The geomagnetic pulsations are classified into main two groups as continuous pulsations (Pc) and irregular pulsations (Pi). These pulsations can be determined by ionospheric parameters due to the complex lithosphere-ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling processes. Total Electron Content (TEC) is one of the most important parameters for investigating the variability of ionosphere. Global Positioning System (GPS) provides a cost-effective means for estimating TEC from GPS satellite orbital height of 20,000 km to the ground based receivers. Therefore, the time series of GPS-TEC inherently contains the above mentioned ULF waves. In this study, time series analysis of GPS-TEC is carried out by applying periodogram method to the mid-latitude annual TEC data. After the analysis of GPS-TEC data obtained for GPS stations located in Central Europe and Turkey for 2011, it is observed that some of the fundamental frequencies that are indicators of Pc waves, diurnal and semi-diurnal periodicity and earth-free oscillations can be identified. These results will be used in determination of low frequency trend structure of magnetosphere and ionosphere. Further investigation of remaining relatively low magnitude frequencies, all Pi and Pc can be identified by using time and frequency domain techniques such as wavelet analysis. This study is supported by the joint TUBITAK 115E915 and joint TUBITAK114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.

  7. Purine derivate content and amino acid profile in larval stages of three edible insects.

    PubMed

    Bednářová, Martina; Borkovcová, Marie; Komprda, Tomáš

    2014-01-15

    Considering their high content of protein, insects are a valuable alternative protein source. However, no evaluation of their purine content has so far been done. High content of purine derivates may lead to the exclusion of such food from the diet of people with specific diseases. The aim of this study was to analyse the content of selected purine derivates and amino acid profile in the three insect species most often used for entomophagy in Europe and compare them with the purine content in egg white and chicken breast. The content of individual purine derivates and their total content were significantly dependent on insect species. The purine content in all three species was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than in egg white, but some values were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in chicken breast. The total protein content was 548.9 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM) in mealworm (Tenebrio molitor), 551.6 g kg(-1) DM in superworm (Zophobas atratus) and 564.9 g kg(-1) DM in cricket (Gryllus assimilis). Larvae of mealworm and superworm are protein-rich and purine-low meat alternatives. In contrast, cricket nymphs are protein-rich and purine-rich and cannot be recommended for people with hyperuricemia or gout. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Review of variations in Mw < 7 earthquake motions on position and tec (Mw = 6.5 aegean sea earthquake sample)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildirim, O.; Inyurt, S.; Mekik, C.

    2015-10-01

    Turkey is a country located in Middle Latitude zone and in which tectonic activity is intensive. Lastly, an earthquake of magnitude 6.5Mw occurred at Aegean Sea offshore on date 24 May 2014 at 12:25 UTC and it lasted approximately 40 s. The said earthquake was felt also in Greece, Romania and Bulgaria in addition to Turkey. In recent years seismic origin ionospheric anomaly detection studies have been done with TEC (Total Electron Contents) generated from GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) signals and the findings obtained have been revealed. In this study, TEC and positional variations have been examined seperately regarding the earthquake which occurred in the Aegean Sea. Then The correlation of the said ionospheric variation with the positional variation has been investigated. For this purpose, total fifteen stations have been used among which the data of four numbers of CORS-TR stations in the seismic zone (AYVL, CANA, IPSA, YENC) and IGS and EUREF stations are used. The ionospheric and positional variations of AYVL, CANA, IPSA and YENC stations have been examined by Bernese 5.0v software. When the (PPP-TEC) values produced as result of the analysis are examined, it has been understood that in the four stations located in Turkey, three days before the earthquake at 08:00 and 10:00 UTC, the TEC values were approximately 4 TECU above the upper limit TEC value. Still in the same stations, one day before the earthquake at 06:00, 08:00 and 10:00 UTC, it is being shown that the TEC values were approximately 5 TECU below the lower limit TEC value. On the other hand, the GIM-TEC values published by the CODE center have been examined. Still in all stations, it has been observed that three days before the earthquake the TEC values in the time portions of 08:00 and 10:00 UTC were approximately 2 TECU above, one day before the earthquake at 06:00, 08:00 and 10:00 UTC, the TEC values were approximately 4 TECU below the lower limit TEC value. Again, by using the same

  9. Comparison of Plateletpheresis on the Fenwal Amicus and Fresenius Com.Tec Cell Separators.

    PubMed

    Altuntas, Fevzi; Sari, Ismail; Kocyigit, Ismail; Kaynar, Leylagul; Hacioglu, Sibel; Ozturk, Ahmet; Oztekin, Mehmet; Solmaz, Musa; Eser, Bulent; Cetin, Mustafa; Unal, Ali

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY: BACKGROUND: A variety of apheresis devices are now available on the market for plateletapheresis. We compared two apheresis instruments (Fenwal Amicus and Fresenius COM.TEC) with regard to processing time, platelet (PLT) yield and efficiency, and white blood cell (WBC) content. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Donors undergoing plateletpheresis were randomly separated into two groups (either the Amicus or the COM.TEC cell separator). RESULTS: In the pre-apheresis setting, 32 plateletpheresis procedures performed with each instrument revealed no significant differences in donors' sex, age, weight, height and total blood volume between the two groups. However, the pre-apheresis PLT count was higher with the COM.TEC than with the Amicus (198 × 10(3)/μl vs. 223 × 10(3)/μl; p = 0.035). The blood volume processed to reach a target PLT yield of ≥3.3 × 10(11) was higher in the COM.TEC compared to the Amicus (3,481 vs. 2,850 ml; p < 0.001). The median separation time was also significantly longer in the COM.TEC than in the Amicus (61 vs. 44 min; p < 0.001). 91 and 88% of the PLT products collected with the Amicus and the COM.TEC, respectively, had a PLT count of >3.3 × 10(11) (p = 0.325). All products obtained with both instruments had WBC counts lower than 5 ↔ 10(6), as required. There was no statistical difference with regard to collection efficiency between the devices (55 ± 15 vs. 57 ± 15%; p = 0.477). However, the collection rate was significantly higher with the Amicus compared to the COM.TEC instrument (0.077 ± 0.012 × 10(11) vs. 0.057 ± 0.008 × 10(11) PLT/min; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Both instruments collected platelets efficiently. Additionally, consistent leukoreduction was obtained with both instruments; however, compared with the COM.TEC instrument, the Amicus reached the PLT target yield more quickly.

  10. Firefly Algorithm in detection of TEC seismo-ionospheric anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhoondzadeh, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Anomaly detection in time series of different earthquake precursors is an essential introduction to create an early warning system with an allowable uncertainty. Since these time series are more often non linear, complex and massive, therefore the applied predictor method should be able to detect the discord patterns from a large data in a short time. This study acknowledges Firefly Algorithm (FA) as a simple and robust predictor to detect the TEC (Total Electron Content) seismo-ionospheric anomalies around the time of the some powerful earthquakes including Chile (27 February 2010), Varzeghan (11 August 2012) and Saravan (16 April 2013). Outstanding anomalies were observed 7 and 5 days before the Chile and Varzeghan earthquakes, respectively and also 3 and 8 days prior to the Saravan earthquake.

  11. The mapping of ionospheric TEC for central Russian and European regions on the base of GPS and GLONASS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagimuratov, Irk; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina; Ephishov, Ivan; Krankowski, Andrzej; Radievsky, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The total electron content (TEC) is a key parameter not only for space radio communication but also for addressing the fundamental problems of the ionosphere physics and near Earth space. Currently, the main sources of information on the TEC in the global scale are GNSS signals measurements. The spatial-temporal behavior of the ionosphere can be most effectively analyzed using TEC maps. To date, global IGS global ionospheric maps with a resolution of 2.5 degree in latitude and 5 in longitude and a time resolution of 2 h are most widely used. To study the detailed structure of the ionospheric gradients and rapid process as well as for precise positioning task it is necessary to use more precise regional TEC maps. The Regional TEC maps are currently constructed by different research groups for different regions: USA, Europe, Japan etc. The West Department of IZMIRAN research group is a one in Russia who works on the task of regional ionosphere mapping since 2000. It was developed the methodology for obtaining information on the spatial TEC distribution, TEC maps of the ionosphere on the basis of the algorithm for multi-station processing of GNSS observations. Using a set of algorithms and programs, regional TEC maps with a spatial resolution of 1° and a time resolution up to 15 min can be produced. Here is developed the approach to establish the regular online internet service for regional ionosphere mapping of the Western Russia and Eastern Europe. Nowadays the development of GLONASS navigation system is completely finished and it consists of a constellation of more than 24 satellites. It is good perspective for investigations of the ionosphere structure and dynamics on the base of the simultaneous observations of GPS and GLONASS systems. The GLONASS satellites have the inclination about 64 degrees as against GPS satellites with 56. So the GLONASS provides opportunity to study the high latitude ionosphere. The different scale electron density irregularities

  12. The NASA thermionic-conversion (TEC-ART) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    The current emphasis is on out-of-core thermionic conversion (TEC). The additional degrees of freedom offer new potentialities, but high-temperature material effects determine the level and lifetime of TEC performance: New electrodes not only raise power outputs but also maintain them regardless of emitter-vapor deposition on collectors. In addition, effective electrodes serve compatibly with hot-shell alloys. Space TEC withstands external and internal high-temperature vaporization problems, and terrestrial TEC tolerates hot corrosive atmospheres outside and near-vacuum inside. Finally, reduction of losses between converter electrodes is essential even though rather demanding geometries appear to be required for some modes of enhanced operation.

  13. Equatorial late-afternoon periodic TEC fluctuations observed by multiple GPS receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsugawa, T.; Maruyama, T.; Saito, S.; Ishii, M.

    2009-12-01

    We report, for the first time, equatorial periodic total electron content (TEC) fluctuations observed in the late afternoon by multiple GPS receivers. As a part of Southeast Asia low-latitude ionospheric network (SEALION), GPS receivers at Chiang Mai and Chumphon, Thailand, have been operated since 2005. We found that periodic TEC fluctuations (PTF) with the periods of 15-30 minutes are often observed at these two sites in the spring (Apr-May) late afternoon. Further investigations using multiple GPS receivers in Southeast Asia revealed that the PTFs propagate at 150-200 m/s away from the equator and their amplitudes depend on the satellite azimuth angle. Statistical study of the PTF activity at different latitudes and longitudes clarified that the PTFs are not observed at mid-latitudes, and their seasonal variations are different at different longitudes and at geomagnetically conjugate regions. These observational results indicate that the PTFs are caused by the atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) which are generated in the equatorial lower atmosphere and propagate away from the equator. Simultaneous GPS-TEC and ionosonde observations at Chumphon revealed that the day-to-day variations of PTF activities are well correlated with those of the rate of TEC change index (ROTI) and the occurrence of equatorial spread F (ESF) after the sunset, indicating the PTFs may be related with the onset of the ESF and plasma bubbles.

  14. Anomalous variation in GPS based TEC measurements prior to the 30 September 2009 Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karia, Sheetal; Pathak, Kamlesh

    This paper investigates the features of pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies in the total elec-tron content (TEC) data obtained on the basis of regular GPS observations from the GPS receiver at SVNIT Surat (21.16 N, 72.78 E Geog) located at the northern crest of equatorial anomaly region. The data has been analysed for 5 different earthquakes that occurred during 2009 in India and its neighbouring regions. Our observation shows that for the cases of the earthquake, in which the preparation area lies between the crests of the equatorial anomaly close to the geomagnetic equator the enhancement in TEC was followed by a depletion in TEC on the day of earthquake, which may be connected to the equatorial anomaly shape distortions. For the analysis of the ionospheric effects of one of such case-the 30 September 2009 Sumatra earthquake, Global Ionospheric Maps of TEC were used. The possible influence of the earth-quake preparation processes on the main low-latitude ionosphere peculiarity—the equatorial anomaly—is discussed.

  15. Estimation of the Total Electron Content of the Martian Ionosphere using Radar Sounder Surface Echoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safaeinili, Ali; Kofman, Wlodek; Mouginot, Jeremie; Gim, Yonggyu; Herique, Alain; Ivanov, Anton B.; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Picardi, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    The Martian ionosphere's local total electron content (TEC) and the neutral atmosphere scale height can be derived from radar echoes reflected from the surface of the planet. We report the global distribution of the TEC by analyzing more than 750,000 echoes of the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS). This is the first direct measurement of the TEC of the Martian ionosphere. The technique used in this paper is a novel 'transmission-mode' sounding of the ionosphere of Mars in contrast to the Active Ionospheric Sounding experiment (AIS) on MARSIS, which generally operates in the reflection mode. This technique yields a global map of the TEC for the Martian ionosphere. The radar transmits a wideband chirp signal that travels through the ionosphere before and after being reflected from the surface. The received waves are attenuated, delayed and dispersed, depending on the electron density in the column directly below the spacecraft. In the process of correcting the radar signal, we are able to estimate the TEC and its global distribution with an unprecedented resolution of about 0.1 deg in latitude (5 km footprint). The mapping of the relative geographical variations in the estimated nightside TEC data reveals an intricate web of high electron density regions that correspond to regions where crustal magnetic field lines are connected to the solar wind. Our data demonstrates that these regions are generally but not exclusively associated with areas that have magnetic field lines perpendicular to the surface of Mars. As a result, the global TEC map provides a high-resolution view of where the Martian crustal magnetic field is connected to the solar wind. We also provide an estimate of the neutral atmospheric scale height near the ionospheric peak and observe temporal fluctuations in peak electron density related to solar activity.

  16. Synthesis and decreasing Aβ content evaluation of arctigenin-4-yl carbamate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xingyu; Li, Cong; Lei, Min; Zhu, Zhiyuan; Yan, Jianming; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong

    2016-07-01

    A series of arctigenin-4-yl carbamate derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for potency in reducing β-amyloid (Aβ) content in HEK293-APPswe cells. Most of the arctigenin-4-yl aralkyl or aryl carbamate derivatives showed improved potency in reducing Aβ content. Among the synthesized compounds, arctigenin-4-yl (3-chlorophenyl)carbamate (20) exhibited the strongest potency with 78.7% Aβ content reduction at 20μM. Furthermore, the effect of arctigenin-4-yl (4-chlorophenyl)carbamate (19) and arctigenin-4-yl (3-chlorophenyl)carbamate (20) on lowing Aβ content was better than arctigenin under the concentrations of 1, 10 and 20μM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A comparison of TEC fluctuations and scintillations at Ascension Island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, S.; Groves, K. M.; Quinn, J. M.; Doherty, P.

    1999-11-01

    With increasing reliance on space-based platforms for global navigation and communication, concerns about the impact of ionospheric scintillation on these systems have become a high priority. Recently, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) performed amplitude scintillation measurements of L1 (1.575 MHz) signals from GPS satellites at Ascension Island (14.45° W, 7.95° S; magnetic latitude 16° S) during February-April, 1998, to compare amplitude scintillations with fluctuations of the total electron content (TEC). Ascension Island is located in the South Atlantic under the southern crest of the equatorial anomaly of F2 ionization where scintillations will be much enhanced during the upcoming solar maximum period. Ascension Island is included in the global network of the International GPS Service (IGS) and the GPS receivers in this network report the carrier to noise (C/N) ratio, the dual frequency carrier phase and pseudorange data at 30-s intervals. Such data with a sampling interval of 30 s were analyzed to determine TEC, the rate of change of TEC (ROT) and also ROTI, defined as the standard deviation of ROT. The spatial scale of ROTI, sampled at 30 s interval, will correspond to 6 km when the vector sum of the ionospheric projection of the satellite velocity and the irregularity drift orthogonal to the propagation path is of the order of 100 m/s. On the other hand, the scale-length of the amplitude scintillation index corresponds to the Fresnel dimension which is about 400 m for the GPS L1 frequency and an ionospheric height of 400 km. It is shown that, in view of the co-existence of large and small scale irregularities in equatorial irregularity structures, during the early evening hours, and small magnitude of irregularity drifts, ROTI measurements can be used to predict the presence of scintillation causing irregularities. The quantitative relationship between ROTI and S4, however, varies considerably due to variations of the ionospheric projection of the

  18. Using Global Total Electron Content to Understand Interminimum Changes in Solar EUV Irradiance and Thermospheric Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, S. E.; Emmert, J. T.; Krall, J.; Mannucci, A. J.; Vergados, P.

    2017-12-01

    To understand how and why the distribution of geospace plasma in the ionosphere/plasmasphere is evolving over multi-decadal time scales in response to solar, heliospheric and atmospheric forcing, it is critically important to have long-term, stable datasets. In this study, we use a newly constructed dataset of GPS-based total electron content (TEC) developed by JPL. The JPL Global Ionosphere Mapping (GIM) algorithm was used to generate a 35-station dataset spanning two solar minimum periods (1993-2014). We also use altimeter-derived TEC measurements from TOPEX-Poseidon and Jason-1 to construct a continuous dataset for the 1995-2014 time period. Both longterm datasets are compared to each other to study interminimum changes in the global TEC (during 1995-1995 and 2008-2009). We use the SAMI3 physics-based model of the ionosphere to compare the simulations of 1995-2014 with the JPL TEC and TOPEX/Jason-1 datasets. To drive SAMI3, we use the Naval Research Laboratory Solar Spectral Irradiance (NRLSSI) model to specify the EUV irradiances, and NRLMSIS to specify the thermosphere. We adjust the EUV irradiances and thermospheric constituents to match the TEC datasets and draw conclusions regarding sources of the differences between the two solar minimum periods.

  19. Reconstruction of missed critical frequency of F2-layer over Mexico using TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeeva, M. A.; Maltseva, O. A.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Romero Hernandez, E.; De la Luz, V.; Rodriguez-Martinez, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The study of the Earth's ionosphere's state is one of the key issues within the Space Weather monitoring task. It is hard to overestimate the importance of diagnostics of its current state and forecasts of Space Weather conditions. There are different methods of short-time predictions for the ionosphere state change. The real-time monitoring of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) provides the opportunity to choose an appropriate technique for the particular observation point on the Earth. From September 2015 the continuous monitoring of TEC variations over the territory of Mexico is performed by the Mexican Space Weather Service (SCiESMEX). Regular patterns of the diurnal and seasonal TEC variations were revealed in base of past statistics and real-time observations which can be used to test the prediction method. Some specific features of the ionosphere behaviour are discussed. However, with all the merits of TEC as an ionospheric parameter, for the full picture of the processes in the ionosphere and for practical applications it is needed to identify the behaviour of other principal ionospheric parameters provided by ionosondes. Currently, SCiESMEX works on the project of the ionosonde installation in Mexico. This study was focused on the reconstruction of the critical frequency of F2-layer of the ionosphere (foF2) when this data is missing. For this purpose measurements of TEC and the median value of the equivalent slab thickness of the ionosphere were used. First, the foF2 values reconstruction was made for the case of the ionosonde data being absent during some hours or days. Second, the possibility of foF2 reconstruction was estimated for the Mexican region having no ionosonde using local TEC data and foF2 data obtained in the regions close to Mexico. Calculations were performed for quiet and disturbed periods. The results of reconstruction were compared to the foF2 obtained from the International Reference Model and to median foF2 values. Comparison

  20. StarTEC: A Technology Project in Education Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Helen; Benavides, Otto; Duffy, Sharon; Georgi, David; Guay, Diane; Redmond, Pamela; Richmond, James

    StarTEC (Staff, Teacher, and Restructured Technology Education Consortium) was a 3-year technology catalyst program funded by the U.S. Department of Education, and continued for a third year to complete its activities. The goal of StarTEC was to ensure that all teachers prepared by partners in the Consortium would meet the new California standard…

  1. TEC Variations Over Korean Peninsula During Magnetic Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, E.-Y.; Choi, B.-K.; Kim, K.-H.; Lee, D.-H.; Cho, J.-H.; Chung, J.-K.; Park, J.-U.

    2008-03-01

    By analyzing the observations from a number of ground- and space-based instruments, including ionosonde, magnetometers, and ACE interplanetary data, we examine the response of the ionospheric TEC over Korea during 2003 magnetic storms. We found that the variation of vertical TEC is correlated with the southward turning of the interplanetary magnetic field B_z. It is suggested that the electric fields produced by the dynamo process in the high-latitude region and the prompt penetration in the low-latitude region are responsible for TEC increases. During the June 16 event, dayside TEC values increase more than 15%. And the ionospheric F2-layer peak height (hmF2) was ˜300km higher and the vertical E×B drift (estimated from ground-based magnetometer equatorial electrojet delta H) showed downward drift, which may be due to the ionospheric disturbance dynamo electric field produced by the large amount of energy dissipation into high-latitude regions. In contr! ast, during November 20 event, the nightside TEC increases may be due to the prompt penetration westward electric field. The ionospheric F2-layer peak height was below 200km and the vertical E×B drift showed downward drift. Also, a strong correlation is observed between enhanced vertical TEC and enhanced interplanetary electric field. It is shown that, even though TEC increases are caused by the different processes, the electric field disturbances in the ionosphere play an important role in the variation of TEC over Korea.

  2. Application of Modified Particle Swarm Optimization Method for Parameter Extraction of 2-D TEC Mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toker, C.; Gokdag, Y. E.; Arikan, F.; Arikan, O.

    2012-04-01

    Ionosphere is a very important part of Space Weather. Modeling and monitoring of ionospheric variability is a major part of satellite communication, navigation and positioning systems. Total Electron Content (TEC), which is defined as the line integral of the electron density along a ray path, is one of the parameters to investigate the ionospheric variability. Dual-frequency GPS receivers, with their world wide availability and efficiency in TEC estimation, have become a major source of global and regional TEC modeling. When Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) of International GPS Service (IGS) centers (http://iono.jpl.nasa.gov/gim.html) are investigated, it can be observed that regional ionosphere along the midlatitude regions can be modeled as a constant, linear or a quadratic surface. Globally, especially around the magnetic equator, the TEC surfaces resemble twisted and dispersed single centered or double centered Gaussian functions. Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) proved itself as a fast converging and an effective optimization tool in various diverse fields. Yet, in order to apply this optimization technique into TEC modeling, the method has to be modified for higher efficiency and accuracy in extraction of geophysical parameters such as model parameters of TEC surfaces. In this study, a modified PSO (mPSO) method is applied to regional and global synthetic TEC surfaces. The synthetic surfaces that represent the trend and small scale variability of various ionospheric states are necessary to compare the performance of mPSO over number of iterations, accuracy in parameter estimation and overall surface reconstruction. The Cramer-Rao bounds for each surface type and model are also investigated and performance of mPSO are tested with respect to these bounds. For global models, the sample points that are used in optimization are obtained using IGS receiver network. For regional TEC models, regional networks such as Turkish National Permanent GPS Network (TNPGN

  3. Short-term estimation of GNSS TEC using a neural network model in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Arthur Amaral; Borges, Renato Alves; Paparini, Claudia; Ciraolo, Luigi; Radicella, Sandro M.

    2017-10-01

    This work presents a novel Neural Network (NN) model to estimate Total Electron Content (TEC) from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) measurements in three distinct sectors in Brazil. The purpose of this work is to start the investigations on the development of a regional model that can be used to determine the vertical TEC over Brazil, aiming future applications on a near real-time frame estimations and short-term forecasting. The NN is used to estimate the GNSS TEC values at void locations, where no dual-frequency GNSS receiver that may be used as a source of data to GNSS TEC estimation is available. This approach is particularly useful for GNSS single-frequency users that rely on corrections of ionospheric range errors by TEC models. GNSS data from the first GLONASS network for research and development (GLONASS R&D network) installed in Latin America, and from the Brazilian Network for Continuous Monitoring of the GNSS (RMBC) were used on TEC calibration. The input parameters of the NN model are based on features known to influence TEC values, such as geographic location of the GNSS receiver, magnetic activity, seasonal and diurnal variations, and solar activity. Data from two ten-days periods (from DoY 154 to 163 and from 282 to 291) are used to train the network. Three distinct analyses have been carried out in order to assess time-varying and spatial performance of the model. At the spatial performance analysis, for each region, a set of stations is chosen to provide training data to the NN, and after the training procedure, the NN is used to estimate vTEC behavior for the test station which data were not presented to the NN in training process. An analysis is done by comparing, for each testing station, the estimated NN vTEC delivered by the NN and reference calibrated vTEC. Also, as a second analysis, the network ability to forecast one day after the time interval (DoY 292) based on information of the second period of investigation is also assessed

  4. An Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System for the detection of thermal and TEC anomalies around the time of the Varzeghan, Iran, (Mw = 6.4) earthquake of 11 August 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhoondzadeh, M.

    2013-09-01

    Anomaly detection is extremely important for forecasting the date, location and magnitude of an impending earthquake. In this paper, an Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) has been proposed to detect the thermal and Total Electron Content (TEC) anomalies around the time of the Varzeghan, Iran, (Mw = 6.4) earthquake jolted in 11 August 2012 NW Iran. ANFIS is the famous hybrid neuro-fuzzy network for modeling the non-linear complex systems. In this study, also the detected thermal and TEC anomalies using the proposed method are compared to the results dealing with the observed anomalies by applying the classical and intelligent methods including Interquartile, Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) methods. The duration of the dataset which is comprised from Aqua-MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) night-time snapshot images and also Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM), is 62 days. It can be shown that, if the difference between the predicted value using the ANFIS method and the observed value, exceeds the pre-defined threshold value, then the observed precursor value in the absence of non seismic effective parameters could be regarded as precursory anomaly. For two precursors of LST and TEC, the ANFIS method shows very good agreement with the other implemented classical and intelligent methods and this indicates that ANFIS is capable of detecting earthquake anomalies. The applied methods detected anomalous occurrences 1 and 2 days before the earthquake. This paper indicates that the detection of the thermal and TEC anomalies derive their credibility from the overall efficiencies and potentialities of the five integrated methods.

  5. Long time series analysis of ionospheric TEC disturbance over seismically region in southwest China during low solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Xiangxiang; Yu, Tao; Shan, Xinjian; Liu, Zhan; Wang, Zhenjie

    2016-04-01

    Recently, there are growing interests in studying the seismo-ionospheric disturbance prior to earthquakes, mainly including the anomalies in the electric field, magnetic field and plasma parameters. However, there are still some controversies over this topic, mainly because of strong day-to-day variability of the ionosphere itself. It is hard to determine whether the different forms of ionospheric disturbances are associated with earthquakes or not. Using data of Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONC) and IGS (International GNSS Service), we attempt to give a statistical investigation about the total electron content (TEC) perturbation before 30 Mw6.0+ earthquakes during January 2000 to December 2010 in China. To determine the abnormal TEC signals, a quartile-based process is performed. At each time point we calculated the median M using the TEC values at the same local time for the preceding 15 days. In addition, we calculated the maps of differential TEC from global ionosphere maps (GIM) in the above period. It is shown that TEC anomalies were detected before 20 earthquakes, nearly 67%. The anomalies represent positive before most events and occurred mostly within 2-6 days before the shocks, significantly during the afternoon period, 1200-2000LT. Part of perturbations appeared more than one time. Moreover, the affected area of TEC is not coincide with the vertical projection of the epicenter but shifts equatorward and is controlled by equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) crest. On the other hand, we analyzed variations of TEC over southwest China during a period of low solar and geomagnetic activity in April-October 2008, based on the data of CMONC. During that time, six large earthquakes with magnitude M≧6.0 occurred around the southwest region of China. The method to detect abnormal TEC signals is same with above statistical study. Known that the decisive role in the ionosphere state is performed by space weather effects, we compared the TEC

  6. Desert soil clay content estimation using reflectance spectroscopy preprocessed by fractional derivative

    PubMed Central

    Tiyip, Tashpolat; Ding, Jianli; Zhang, Dong; Liu, Wei; Wang, Fei; Tashpolat, Nigara

    2017-01-01

    Effective pretreatment of spectral reflectance is vital to model accuracy in soil parameter estimation. However, the classic integer derivative has some disadvantages, including spectral information loss and the introduction of high-frequency noise. In this paper, the fractional order derivative algorithm was applied to the pretreatment and partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to assess the clay content of desert soils. Overall, 103 soil samples were collected from the Ebinur Lake basin in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of China, and used as data sets for calibration and validation. Following laboratory measurements of spectral reflectance and clay content, the raw spectral reflectance and absorbance data were treated using the fractional derivative order from the 0.0 to the 2.0 order (order interval: 0.2). The ratio of performance to deviation (RPD), determinant coefficients of calibration (Rc2), root mean square errors of calibration (RMSEC), determinant coefficients of prediction (Rp2), and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) were applied to assess the performance of predicting models. The results showed that models built on the fractional derivative order performed better than when using the classic integer derivative. Comparison of the predictive effects of 22 models for estimating clay content, calibrated by PLSR, showed that those models based on the fractional derivative 1.8 order of spectral reflectance (Rc2 = 0.907, RMSEC = 0.425%, Rp2 = 0.916, RMSEP = 0.364%, and RPD = 2.484 ≥ 2.000) and absorbance (Rc2 = 0.888, RMSEC = 0.446%, Rp2 = 0.918, RMSEP = 0.383% and RPD = 2.511 ≥ 2.000) were most effective. Furthermore, they performed well in quantitative estimations of the clay content of soils in the study area. PMID:28934274

  7. A regional ionospheric TEC mapping technique over China and adjacent areas on the basis of data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aa, Ercha; Huang, Wengeng; Yu, Shimei; Liu, Siqing; Shi, Liqin; Gong, Jiancun; Chen, Yanhong; Shen, Hua

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a regional total electron content (TEC) mapping technique over China and adjacent areas (70°E-140°E and 15°N-55°N) is developed on the basis of a Kalman filter data assimilation scheme driven by Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data from the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China and International GNSS Service. The regional TEC maps can be generated accordingly with the spatial and temporal resolution being 1°×1° and 5 min, respectively. The accuracy and quality of the TEC mapping technique have been validated through the comparison with GNSS observations, the International Reference Ionosphere model values, the global ionosphere maps from Center for Orbit Determination of Europe, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Automated Processing of GPS TEC data from Madrigal database. The verification results indicate that great systematic improvements can be obtained when data are assimilated into the background model, which demonstrates the effectiveness of this technique in providing accurate regional specification of the ionospheric TEC over China and adjacent areas.

  8. Medium Calcium Concentration Determines Keratin Intermediate Filament Density and Distribution in Immortalized Cultured Thymic Epithelial Cells (TECs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sands, Sandra S.; Meek, William D.; Hayashi, Jun; Ketchum, Robert J.

    2005-08-01

    Isolation and culture of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) using conventional primary tissue culture techniques under conditions employing supplemented low calcium medium yielded an immortalized cell line derived from the LDA rat (Lewis [Rt1l] cross DA [Rt1a]) that could be manipulated in vitro. Thymi were harvested from 4 5-day-old neonates, enzymically digested using collagenase (1 mg/ml, 37°C, 1 h) and cultured in low calcium WAJC404A medium containing cholera toxin (20 ng/ml), dexamethasone (10 nM), epidermal growth factor (10 ng/ml), insulin (10 [mu]g/ml), transferrin (10 [mu]g/ml), 2% calf serum, 2.5% Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM), and 1% antibiotic/antimycotic. TECs cultured in low calcium displayed round to spindle-shaped morphology, distinct intercellular spaces (even at confluence), and dense reticular-like keratin patterns. In high calcium (0.188 mM), TECs formed cobblestone-like confluent monolayers that were resistant to trypsinization (0.05%) and displayed keratin intermediate filaments concentrated at desmosomal junctions between contiguous cells. Changes in cultured TEC morphology were quantified by an analysis of desmosome/membrane relationships in high and low calcium media. Desmosomes were significantly increased in the high calcium medium. These studies may have value when considering the growth conditions of cultured primary cell lines like TECs.

  9. Submillimeter Galaxy Surveys with AzTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Grant W.; Ade, P. A.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J.; Battersby, C.; Bock, J. J.; Glenn, J.; Golwala, S. R.; Haig, D.; Hughes, D. H.; Kang, Y.; Kim, S.; Lowenthal, J.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Perera, T.; Scott, K.; Roberts, C.; Yoon, I.; Yun, M. S.

    2006-06-01

    We describe a recent large scale survey of the Submillimeter Galaxy (SMG) population by AzTEC, a 144 element bolometer camera, on the 15m diameter James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. From November 2005 to February 2006, over 400 hours of telescope time were spent imaging over 1 square degree of sky with an area weighted target sensitivity of 0.7 mJy rms. Several fields with large multi-wavelength data sets were mapped including the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey field, the Lockmann Hole, GOODS-N, and a subset of the COSMOS field. In addition we mapped fields spanning a wide range of environments including several regions with known mass over-density. Together this represents the largest/deepest survey of the SMG population. Herein we report on the technical details of the surveys, describe the reduction pipeline, and show preliminary results from a subsection of the survey fields.

  10. Validation of measured poleward TEC gradient using multi-station GPS with Artificial Neural Network based TEC model in low latitude region for developing predictive capability of ionospheric scintillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, D.; Paul, A.

    2017-12-01

    The equatorial ionosphere shows sharp diurnal and latitudinal Total Electron Content (TEC) variations over a major part of the day. Equatorial ionosphere also exhibits intense post-sunset ionospheric irregularities. Accurate prediction of TEC in these low latitudes is not possible from standard ionospheric models. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based Vertical TEC (VTEC) model has been designed using TEC data in low latitude Indian longitude sector for accurate prediction of VTEC. GPS TEC data from the stations Calcutta (22.58°N, 88.38°E geographic, magnetic dip 32°), Baharampore (24.09°N, 88.25°E geographic, magnetic dip 35°) and Siliguri (26.72°N, 88.39°E geographic; magnetic dip 40°) are used as training dataset for the duration of January 2007-September 2011. Poleward VTEC gradients from northern EIA crest to region beyond EIA crest have been calculated from measured VTEC and compared with that obtained from ANN based VTEC model. TEC data from Calcutta and Siliguri are used to compute VTEC gradients during April 2013 and August-September 2013. It has been observed that poleward VTEC gradient computed from ANN based TEC model has shown good correlation with measured values during vernal and autumnal equinoxes of high solar activity periods of 2013. Possible correlation between measured poleward TEC gradients and post-sunset scintillations (S4 ≥ 0.4) from northern crest of EIA has been observed in this paper. From the observation, a suitable threshold poleward VTEC gradient has been proposed for possible occurrence of post-sunset scintillations at northern crest of EIA along 88°E longitude. Poleward VTEC gradients obtained from ANN based VTEC model are used to forecast possible ionospheric scintillation after post-sunset period using the threshold value. It has been observed that these predicted VTEC gradients obtained from ANN based VTEC model can forecast post-sunset L-band scintillation with an accuracy of 67% to 82% in this dynamic low latitude

  11. Effect of geomagnetic storms of different solar origin on the ionospheric TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansoori, Azad A.; Khan, Parvaiz A.; Purohit, P. K.

    2018-05-01

    We have studied the behaviour of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) at a mid latitude station Usuda (36.130N, 138.360E), Japan during intense geomagnetic storms which were observed during 23 solar cycle (1998-2006). For the present study we have selected 47 intense geomagnetic storms (Dst≤-100nT), for the given period, which were then categorised into four categories depending upon their solar and interplanetary sources like Magnetic Cloud (MC), Co-rotating Interaction Region (CIR), Sheath driven Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (SH+ICME) and Sheath driven Magnetic cloud (SH+MC). From our study we found that the geomagnetic storms significantly affect the ionosphere having any of the solar origin. However the geomagnetic storms which are either caused by SH+MC or SH+ICME produced maximum effect in TEC.

  12. Local TEC modelling and forecasting using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebabal, A.; Radicella, S. M.; Nigussie, M.; Damtie, B.; Nava, B.; Yizengaw, E.

    2018-07-01

    Modelling the Earth's ionospheric characteristics is the focal task for the ionospheric community to mitigate its effect on the radio communication, and satellite navigation. However, several aspects of modelling are still challenging, for example, the storm time characteristics. This paper presents modelling efforts of TEC taking into account solar and geomagnetic activity, time of the day and day of the year using neural networks (NNs) modelling technique. The NNs have been designed with GPS-TEC measured data from low and mid-latitude GPS stations. The training was conducted using the data obtained for the period from 2011 to 2014. The model prediction accuracy was evaluated using data of year 2015. The model results show that diurnal and seasonal trend of the GPS-TEC is well reproduced by the model for the two stations. The seasonal characteristics of GPS-TEC is compared with NN and NeQuick 2 models prediction when the latter one is driven by the monthly average value of solar flux. It is found that NN model performs better than the corresponding NeQuick 2 model for low latitude region. For the mid-latitude both NN and NeQuick 2 models reproduce the average characteristics of TEC variability quite successfully. An attempt of one day ahead forecast of TEC at the two locations has been made by introducing as drivers previous day solar flux and geomagnetic index values. The results show that a reasonable day ahead forecast of local TEC can be achieved.

  13. Potentialities of TEC topping: A simplified view of parametric effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, J. F.

    1980-01-01

    An examination of the benefits of thermionic-energy-conversion (TEC)-topped power plants and methods of increasing conversion efficiency are discussed. Reductions in the cost of TEC modules yield direct decreases in the cost of electricity (COE) from TEC-topped central station power plants. Simplified COE, overall-efficiency charts presented illustrate this trend. Additional capital-cost diminution results from designing more compact furnaces with considerably increased heat transfer rates allowable and desirable for high temperature TEC and heat pipes. Such improvements can evolve of the protection from hot corrosion and slag as well as the thermal expansion compatibilities offered by silicon-carbide clads on TEC-heating surfaces. Greater efficiencies and far fewer modules are possible with high-temperature, high-power-density TEC: This decreases capital and fuel costs much more and substantially increases electric power outputs for fixed fuel inputs. In addition to more electricity, less pollution, and lower costs, TEC topping used directly in coal-combustion products contributes balance-of-payment gains.

  14. Local TEC Modelling and Forecasting using Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tebabal, A.; Radicella, S. M.; Nigussie, M.; Damtie, B.; Nava, B.; Yizengaw, E.

    2017-12-01

    Abstract Modelling the Earth's ionospheric characteristics is the focal task for the ionospheric community to mitigate its effect on the radio communication, satellite navigation and technologies. However, several aspects of modelling are still challenging, for example, the storm time characteristics. This paper presents modelling efforts of TEC taking into account solar and geomagnetic activity, time of the day and day of the year using neural networks (NNs) modelling technique. The NNs have been designed with GPS-TEC measured data from low and mid-latitude GPS stations. The training was conducted using the data obtained for the period from 2011 to 2014. The model prediction accuracy was evaluated using data of year 2015. The model results show that diurnal and seasonal trend of the GPS-TEC is well reproduced by the model for the two stations. The seasonal characteristics of GPS-TEC is compared with NN and NeQuick 2 models prediction when the latter one is driven by the monthly average value of solar flux. It is found that NN model performs better than the corresponding NeQuick 2 model for low latitude region. For the mid-latitude both NN and NeQuick 2 models reproduce the average characteristics of TEC variability quite successfully. An attempt of one day ahead forecast of TEC at the two locations has been made by introducing as driver previous day solar flux and geomagnetic index values. The results show that a reasonable day ahead forecast of local TEC can be achieved.

  15. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm Deep Surveys: Number Counts and Clustering of Millimeter-bright Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, B.

    2011-11-01

    We present results of a 1.1 mm deep survey of the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S) with AzTEC mounted on the Atacama Submillimetre Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We obtained a map of 0.25 deg2 area with an rms noise level of 0.32-0.71 mJy. This is one of the deepest and widest maps thus far at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. We uncovered 198 sources with a significance of 3.5-15.6σ, providing the largest catalog of 1.1 mm sources in a contiguous region. Most of the sources are not detected in the far-infrared bands of the AKARI satellite, suggesting that they are mostly at z ≥ 1.5 given the detection limits. We construct differential and cumulative number counts of the ADF-S, the Subaru/XMM Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and the SSA 22 field surveyed by AzTEC/ASTE, which provide currently the tightest constraints on the faint end. The integration of the differential number counts of the ADF-S find that the contribution of 1.1 mm sources with ≥1 mJy to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.1 mm is 12-16%, suggesting that the large fraction of the CIB originates from faint sources of which number counts are not yet constrained. We estimate the cosmic star-formation rate density contributed by 1.1 mm sources with ≥1 mJy using the differential number counts and find that it is lower by about a factor of 5-10 compared to those derived from UV/optically-selected galaxies at z ~ 2-3. Clustering analyses of AzTEC sources in the ADF-S and the SXDF find that bright (>3 mJy) AzTEC sources are more strongly clustered than faint (< 3 mJy) AzTEC sources and the average mass of dark halos hosting bright AzTEC sources was calculated to be 1013-1014M⊙. Comparison of correlation length of AzTEC sources with other populations and with a bias evolution model suggests that dark halos hosting bright AzTEC sources evolve into systems of clusters at present universe and the AzTEC sources residing the dark halos evolve into massive elliptical galaxies located in the center of

  16. GPS TEC near the crest of the EIA at 95°E during the ascending half of solar cycle 24 and comparison with IRI simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Hazarika, Rumajyoti

    2013-10-01

    Total electron content (TEC) data obtained from GPS dual frequency measurements during the ascending half of the solar cycle 24 from 2009 to 2012 over Dibrugarh (27.5°N, 94.9°E; 17.6°N MLAT) have been used to study the diurnal, seasonal, annual and solar cycle variation of TEC. The measurements reported here are for the first time from the location situated at the poleward edge of the northern equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) and within the peak region of the longitudinal wave number 4 (WN4) structure in EIA crest TEC. TEC exhibits a minimum around 0600 LT and diurnal maximum around 1300-1600 LT. In the low and moderate solar activity years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011, average daytime (1000-1600 LT) TEC in summer was higher (25.4 and 36.6 TECU) compared to that in winter (21.5 and 26.1 TECU). However, at the peak of the solar cycle in 2011-2012, reversal in the level of ionization between winter and summer takes place and winter TEC becomes higher (50.6 TECU) than that in summer (45.0 TECU). Further, TEC in spring (34.1, 49.9 and 63.3 TECU respectively in 2009-10, 2010-11 and 2011-12) is higher than that in autumn (24.2, 32.3 and 51.9 TECU respectively) thus showing equinoctial asymmetry in all the years of observation. The winter anomaly in high solar activity years and equinoctial asymmetry all throughout may be largely attributed to changes in the thermospheric O/N2 density ratio. A winter to summer delay of ˜1 h in the time of occurrence of the diurnal maximum has also been observed. Daytime maximum TEC bears a nonlinear relationship with F10.7 cm solar flux. TEC increases linearly with F10.7 cm solar flux initially up to about 140 sfu (1 sfu = 10-22 W m-2 Hz-1) after which it tends to saturate. On the contrary, TEC increases linearly with solar EUV flux (photons cm-2 s-1, 0.5-50 nm) during the same period. TEC predicted by the IRI 2012 are lower than the measured TEC for nearly 90% of the time.

  17. Tsunami Wave Height Estimation from GPS-Derived Ionospheric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakoto, Virgile; Lognonné, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Coïsson, P.

    2018-05-01

    Large underwater earthquakes (Mw>7) can transmit part of their energy to the surrounding ocean through large seafloor motions, generating tsunamis that propagate over long distances. The forcing effect of tsunami waves on the atmosphere generates internal gravity waves that, when they reach the upper atmosphere, produce ionospheric perturbations. These perturbations are frequently observed in the total electron content (TEC) measured by multifrequency Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as GPS, GLONASS, and, in the future, Galileo. This paper describes the first inversion of the variation in sea level derived from GPS TEC data. We used a least squares inversion through a normal-mode summation modeling. This technique was applied to three tsunamis in far field associated to the 2012 Haida Gwaii, 2006 Kuril Islands, and 2011 Tohoku events and for Tohoku also in close field. With the exception of the Tohoku far-field case, for which the tsunami reconstruction by the TEC inversion is less efficient due to the ionospheric noise background associated to geomagnetic storm, which occurred on the earthquake day, we show that the peak-to-peak amplitude of the sea level variation inverted by this method can be compared to the tsunami wave height measured by a DART buoy with an error of less than 20%. This demonstrates that the inversion of TEC data with a tsunami normal-mode summation approach is able to estimate quite accurately the amplitude and waveform of the first tsunami arrival.

  18. Short Term Single Station GNSS TEC Prediction Using Radial Basis Function Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muslim, Buldan; Husin, Asnawi; Efendy, Joni

    2018-04-01

    TEC prediction models for 24 hours ahead have been developed from JOG2 GPS TEC data during 2016. Eleven month of TEC data were used as a training model of the radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and 1 month of last data (December 2016) is used for the RBFNN model testing. The RBFNN inputs are the previous 24 hour TEC data and the minimum of Dst index during the previous 24 hours. Outputs of the model are 24 ahead TEC prediction. Comparison of model prediction show that the RBFNN model is able to predict the next 24 hours TEC is more accurate than the TEC GIM model.

  19. Seasonal and solar cycle effects on TEC at 95°E in the ascending half (2009-2014) of the subdued solar cycle 24: Consistent underestimation by IRI 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakoti, Geetashree; Bhuyan, Pradip Kumar; Hazarika, Rumajyoti

    2017-07-01

    season or year of observation. The discrepancy between model and measured TEC is high in spring and in the evening hours. The consistent underestimation of the TEC at this longitude by the IRI may be attributed to the inadequate ingestion of F region data from this longitude sector into the model and exclusion of the plasmaspheric content.

  20. Comparison of the Fenwal Amicus and Fresenius Com.Tec cell separators for autologous peripheral blood progenitor cell collection.

    PubMed

    Altuntas, Fevzi; Kocyigit, Ismail; Ozturk, Ahmet; Kaynar, Leylagul; Sari, Ismail; Oztekin, Mehmet; Solmaz, Musa; Eser, Bulent; Cetin, Mustafa; Unal, Ali

    2007-04-01

    Peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) are commonly used as a stem cell source for autologous transplantation. This study was undertaken to evaluate blood cell separators with respect to separation results and content of the harvest. Forty autologous PBPC collections in patients with hematological malignancies were performed with either the Amicus or the COM.TEC cell separators. The median product volume was lower with the Amicus compared to the COM.TEC (125 mL vs. 300 mL; p < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the median number of CD34+ cell/kg in product between the Amicus and the COM.TEC (3.0 x 10(6) vs. 4.1 x 10(6); p = 0.129). There was a statistically higher mean volume of ACD used in collections on the Amicus compared to the COM.TEC (1040 +/- 241 mL vs. 868 +/- 176 mL; p = 0.019). There was a statistical difference in platelet (PLT) contamination of the products between the Amicus and the COM.TEC (0.3 x 10(11) vs. 1.1 x 10(11); p < 0.001). The median % decrease in PB PLT count was statistically higher in the COM.TEC compared to the Amicus instruments (18.5% vs. 9.5%; p = 0.028). In conclusion, both instruments collected PBPCs efficiently. However, Amicus has the advantage of lower PLT contamination in the product, and less decrease in PB platelet count with lower product volume in autologous setting.

  1. TEC protein tyrosine kinase is involved in the Erk signaling pathway induced by HGF

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Feifei; Jiang, Yinan; Zheng, Qiping

    Research highlights: {yields} TEC is rapidly tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated by HGF-stimulation in vivo or after partial hepatectomy in mice. {yields} TEC enhances the activity of Elk and serum response element (SRE) in HGF signaling pathway in hepatocyte. {yields} TEC promotes hepatocyte proliferation through the Erk-MAPK pathway. -- Abstract: Background/aims: TEC, a member of the TEC family of non-receptor type protein tyrosine kinases, has recently been suggested to play a role in hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration. This study aims to investigate the putative mechanisms of TEC kinase regulation of hepatocyte differentiation, i.e. to explore which signaling pathway TEC is involvedmore » in, and how TEC is activated in hepatocyte after hepatectomy and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) stimulation. Methods: We performed immunoprecipitation (IP) and immunoblotting (IB) to examine TEC tyrosine phosphorylation after partial hepatectomy in mice and HGF stimulation in WB F-344 hepatic cells. The TEC kinase activity was determined by in vitro kinase assay. Reporter gene assay, antisense oligonucleotide and TEC dominant negative mutant (TEC{sup KM}) were used to examine the possible signaling pathways in which TEC is involved. The cell proliferation rate was evaluated by {sup 3}H-TdR incorporation. Results: TEC phosphorylation and kinase activity were increased in 1 h after hepatectomy or HGF treatment. TEC enhanced the activity of Elk and serum response element (SRE). Inhibition of MEK1 suppressed TEC phosphorylation. Blocking TEC activity dramatically decreased the activation of Erk. Reduced TEC kinase activity also suppressed the proliferation of WB F-344 cells. These results suggest TEC is involved in the Ras-MAPK pathway and acts between MEK1 and Erk. Conclusions: TEC promotes hepatocyte proliferation and regeneration and is involved in HGF-induced Erk signaling pathway.« less

  2. CFD Extraction Tool for TecPlot From DPLR Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, David

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a TecPlot macro of a computer program in the TecPlot programming language that processes data from DPLR solutions in TecPlot format. DPLR (Data-Parallel Line Relaxation) is a NASA computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, and TecPlot is a commercial CFD post-processing tool. The Tec- Plot data is in SI units (same as DPLR output). The invention converts the SI units into British units. The macro modifies the TecPlot data with unit conversions, and adds some extra calculations. After unit conversions, the macro cuts a slice, and adds vectors on the current plot for output format. The macro can also process surface solutions. Existing solutions use manual conversion and superposition. The conversion is complicated because it must be applied to a range of inter-related scalars and vectors to describe a 2D or 3D flow field. It processes the CFD solution to create superposition/comparison of scalars and vectors. The existing manual solution is cumbersome, open to errors, slow, and cannot be inserted into an automated process. This invention is quick and easy to use, and can be inserted into an automated data-processing algorithm.

  3. Response of data-driven artificial neural network-based TEC models to neutral wind for different locations, seasons, and solar activity levels from the Indian longitude sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, D.; Haldar, S.; Ray, S.; Paul, A.

    2017-07-01

    The perturbations imposed on transionospheric signals by the ionosphere are a major concern for navigation. The dynamic nature of the ionosphere in the low-latitude equatorial region and the Indian longitude sector has some specific characteristics such as sharp temporal and latitudinal variation of total electron content (TEC). TEC in the Indian longitude sector also undergoes seasonal variations. The large magnitude and sharp variation of TEC cause large and variable range errors for satellite-based navigation system such as Global Positioning System (GPS) throughout the day. For accurate navigation using satellite-based augmentation systems, proper prediction of TEC under certain geophysical conditions is necessary in the equatorial region. It has been reported in the literature that prediction accuracy of TEC has been improved using measured data-driven artificial neural network (ANN)-based vertical TEC (VTEC) models, compared to standard ionospheric models. A set of observations carried out in the Indian longitude sector have been reported in this paper in order to find the amount of improvement in performance accuracy of an ANN-based VTEC model after incorporation of neutral wind as model input. The variations of this improvement in prediction accuracy with respect to latitude, longitude, season, and solar activity have also been reported in this paper.

  4. The synthesis of ternary acetylides with tellurium: Li 2 TeC 2 and Na 2 TeC 2

    SciTech Connect

    Németh, Károly; Unni, Aditya K.; Kalnmals, Christopher

    The synthesis of ternary acetylides Li 2TeC 2 and Na 2TeC 2 is presented as the first example of ternary acetylides with metalloid elements instead of transition metals. The synthesis was carried out by the direct reaction of the corresponding bialkali acetylides with tellurium powder in liquid ammonia. Alternatively, the synthesis of Na 2TeC 2 was also carried out by the direct reaction of tellurium powder and two equivalents of NaC 2H in liquid ammonia leading to Na 2TeC 2 and acetylene gas through an equilibrium containing the assumed NaTeC 2H molecules besides the reactants and the products. The resultingmore » disordered crystalline materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. Implications of these new syntheses on the synthesis of other ternary acetylides with metalloid elements and transition metals are also discussed.« less

  5. AzTEC 1.1 mm OBSERVATIONS OF THE MBM12 MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M. J.; Kim, S.; Youn, S.

    2012-02-10

    We present 1.1 mm observations of the dust continuum emission from the MBM12 high-latitude molecular cloud observed with the Astronomical Thermal Emission Camera (AzTEC) mounted on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We surveyed 6.34 deg{sup 2} centered on MBM12, making this the largest area that has ever been surveyed in this region with submillimeter and millimeter telescopes. Eight secure individual sources were detected with a signal-to-noise ratio of over 4.4. These eight AzTEC sources can be considered to be real astronomical objects compared to the other candidates based on calculations of the false detection rate. Themore » distribution of the detected 1.1 mm sources or compact 1.1 mm peaks is spatially anti-correlated with that of the 100 {mu}m emission and the {sup 12}CO emission. We detected the 1.1 mm dust continuum emitting sources associated with two classical T Tauri stars, LkH{alpha}262 and LkH{alpha}264. Observations of spectral energy distributions (SEDs) indicate that LkH{alpha}262 is likely to be Class II (pre-main-sequence star), but there are also indications that it could be a late Class I (protostar). A flared disk and a bipolar cavity in the models of Class I sources lead to more complicated SEDs. From the present AzTEC observations of the MBM12 region, it appears that other sources detected with AzTEC are likely to be extragalactic and located behind MBM12. Some of these have radio counterparts and their star formation rates are derived from a fit of the SEDs to the photometric evolution of galaxies in which the effects of a dusty interstellar medium have been included.« less

  6. Deriving leaf chlorophyll content of green-leafy vegetables from hyperspectral reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Lihong; Yang, Linzhang

    Different nitrogen (N) treatments of four common green-leafy vegetable varieties with different leaf color: lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa L.) with yellow green leaves, pakchoi ( Brassica chinensis L.) var. aijiaohuang in Chinese (AJH) with middle green leaves, spinach ( Spinacia oleracea L.) with green leaves and pakchoi ( B. chinensis L.) var. shanghaiqing in Chinese (SHQ) with dark green leaves, were carried out to achieve a wide range of chlorophyll content. The relationship of vegetable leaf hyperspectral response to its chlorophyll content was examined in this study. Almost all reported successful leaf chlorophyll indices in the literature were evaluated for their ability to predict the chlorophyll content in vegetable leaves. Some new indices based on the first derivative curve were also developed, and compared with the chlorophyll indices published. The results showed that most of the indices showed a strong relation with leaf chlorophyll content. In general, modified indices with the blue or near red edge wavelength performed better than their simple counterpart without modification, ratio indices performed a little better than normalized indices when chlorophyll expressed on area basis and reversed when chlorophyll expressed on fresh weight basis. A normalized derivative difference ratio (BND: (D722-D700)/(D722+D700) calibrated by Maire et al. [Maire, G., Francois, C., Dufrene, E., 2004. Towards universal broad leaf chlorophyll indices using PROSPECT simulated database and hyperspectral reflectance measurements. Remote Sensing of Environment 89 (1), 1-28]) gave the best results among all published indices in this study (RMSE=22.1 mg m -2), then the mSR-like indices with the RMSE between 22.6 and 23.0 mg m -2. The new indices EBAR (ratio of the area of red and blue, ∑ dRE/∑ dB), EBFN (normalized difference of the amplitude of red and blue, (dRE-dB)/(dRE+dB)) and EBAN (normalized difference of the area of red and blue, (∑ dRE-∑ dB)/(∑ d

  7. Salt Composition Derived from Veazey Composition by Thermodynamic Modeling and Predicted Composition of Drum Contents

    SciTech Connect

    Weisbrod, Kirk Ryan; Veirs, Douglas Kirk; Funk, David John

    This report describes the derivation of the salt composition from the Veazey salt stream analysis. It also provides an estimate of the proportions of the kitty litter, nitrate salt and neutralizer that was contained in drum 68660. While the actinide content of waste streams was judiciously followed in the 1980s in TA-55, no record of the salt composition could be found. Consequently, a salt waste stream produced from 1992 to 1994 and reported by Gerry Veazey provided the basis for this study. While chemical analysis of the waste stream was highly variable, an average analysis provided input to the Streammore » Analyzer software to calculate a composition for a concentrated solid nitrate salt and liquid waste stream. The calculation predicted the gas / condensed phase compositions as well as solid salt / saturated liquid compositions. The derived composition provides an estimate of the nitrate feedstream to WIPP for which kinetic measurements can be made. The ratio of salt to Swheat in drum 68660 contents was estimated through an overall mass balance on the parent and sibling drums. The RTR video provided independent confirmation concerning the volume of the mixture. The solid salt layer contains the majority of the salt at a ratio with Swheat that potentially could become exothermic.« less

  8. An Ionospheric Response to the 2013 Moore EF5 Tornad, Detected By High-Resolution GPS-TEC Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, M.; Nishioka, M.; Tsugawa, T.; Ishii, M.

    2014-12-01

    We observed clear concentric waves and short-period oscillations in the ionosphere after the EF5 tornado hit Moore, Oklahoma, USA, on 20 May 2013 using a dense wide-coverage ionospheric total electron content (TEC) observation in North America. These concentric waves were non-dispersive waves with a horizontal wavelength of ~120 km and a period of ~13 minutes. They were observed for more than seven hours throughout North America. TEC oscillations with a period of ~4 minutes were also observed in the south of Moore for more than eight hours. Comparison between the TEC observation and the infrared cloud image from the GOES satellite indicates that the concentric waves were caused by supercells rather than the tornados themselves. Backward ray-tracing analysis suggests that the leaking of atmospheric waves in a thermal duct excited AGWs in the ionosphere. The short-period TEC oscillation could be explained by the acoustic resonance triggered by strong long-lasting supercells. This observational result provides the first clear evidence of a severe meteorological event causing atmospheric waves propagating upward in the upper atmosphere and reaching the ionosphere.

  9. Invesion of tsunami height using GPS TEC data. The case of the 2012 Haida Gwaii tsunami and Earthquake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakoto, V.; Lognonne, P. H.; Rolland, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Large earthquakes (i.eM>6) and tsunamis associated are responsible for ionospheric perturbations. These perturbations can be observed in the total electron content (TEC) measured from multi- frequency Global Navigation Satellite systems (GNSS) data (e.g GPS). We will focus on the studies of the Haïda Gwaii earthquake and tsunami case. It happened the 28 october 2012 along the Queen Charlotte fault of the Canada Western Coast. First, we compare GPS data of perturbation TEC to our model. We model the TEC perturbation in several steps. (1) First, we compute tsunami normal modes modes in atmosphere in using PREM model with 4.7km of oceanic layer. (2) We sum all the tsunami modes to obtain the neutral displacement. (3) We couple the ionosphere with the neutral atmosphere. (4) We integrate the perturbed electron density along each satellite station line of sight. At last, we present first results of TEC inversion in order to retrieve the waveform of the tsunami. This inversion has been done on synthetics data assuming Queen Charlotte Earthquake and Tsunami can be considered as a point source in far field.

  10. Validation of the technique for absolute total electron content and differential code biases estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylnikova, Anna; Yasyukevich, Yury; Yasyukevich, Anna

    2017-04-01

    We have developed a technique for vertical total electron content (TEC) and differential code biases (DCBs) estimation using data from a single GPS/GLONASS station. The algorithm is based on TEC expansion into Taylor series in space and time (TayAbsTEC). We perform the validation of the technique using Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) computed by Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). We compared differences between absolute vertical TEC (VTEC) from GIM and VTEC evaluated by TayAbsTEC for 2009 year (solar activity minimum - sunspot number about 0), and for 2014 year (solar activity maximum - sunspot number 110). Since there is difference between VTEC from CODE and VTEC from JPL, we compare TayAbsTEC VTEC with both of them. We found that TayAbsTEC VTEC is closer to CODE VTEC than to JPL VTEC. The difference between TayAbsTEC VTEC and GIM VTEC is more noticeable for solar activity maximum (2014) than for solar activity minimum (2009) for both CODE and JPL. The distribution of VTEC differences is close to Gaussian distribution, so we conclude that results of TayAbsTEC are in the agreement with GIM VTEC. We also compared DCBs evaluated by TayAbsTEC and DCBs from GIM, computed by CODE. The TayAbsTEC DCBs are in good agreement with CODE DCBs for GPS satellites, but differ noticeable for GLONASS. We used DCBs to correct slant TEC to find out which DCBs give better results. Slant TEC correction with CODE DCBs produces negative and nonphysical TEC values. Slant TEC correction with TayAbsTEC DCBs doesn't produce such artifacts. The technique we developed is used for VTEC and DCBs calculation given only local GPS/GLONASS networks data. The evaluated VTEC data are in GIM framework which is handy when various data analyses are made.

  11. Characterization and content of flavonol derivatives of Allium ursinum L. plant.

    PubMed

    Oszmiański, J; Kolniak-Ostek, J; Wojdyło, A

    2013-01-09

    The phenolic compounds were extracted from green and yellow leaves, stalks, and seeds of garlic ( Allium ursinum L.). The extracts were analyzed by liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-ESI-MS/MS). In total, 21 compounds were detected. The flavonol derivatives were identified on the basis of their ultraviolet (UV) spectra and fragmentation patterns in collision-induced dissociation experiments. On the basis of accurate MS and MS/MS data, six compounds were newly identified in bear's garlic, mainly the kaempferol derivatives. As far as the investigated parts of garlic are concerned, the kaempferol derivatives were found to be predominant in yellow leaves [2362.96 mg/100 g of dry matter (dm)], followed by green leaves (1856.31 mg/100 g of dm). Seeds contained the minimal phenolic compounds, less than stalks. The yellow leaves of A. ursinum possessed a much larger content of compounds acylated with p-coumaric acid than green leaves (1299.97 versus 855.67 mg/100 g of dm, respectively). The stalks and seeds contained much more non-acetylated than acetylated flavonoid glycosides with p-coumaric acid compounds (162.4 versus 62.82 mg/100 g of dm and 105.49 versus 24.18 mg/100 g of dm, respectively).

  12. Total electron content anomalies associated with global VEI4 + volcanic eruptions during 2002-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wang; Guo, Jinyun; Yue, Jianping; Shen, Yi; Yang, Yang

    2016-10-01

    In previous studies, little attention has been paid to the total electron content (TEC) anomalies preceding the volcanic eruption. We analyze the coupling relationship between volcanic eruption and TEC anomalies, and discuss the spatial distribution of TEC anomalies associated with volcanic geographical location. We utilize the global ionosphere map (GIM) data from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) to analyze TEC variations before the global volcanic eruptions indicated by VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index) 4 + from 2002 to 2015 with the sliding interquartile range method. The results indicate the occurrence rate of TEC anomalies before great volcanic eruptions is related with the volcanic type and geographical position. The occurrence rate of TEC anomalies before stratovolcano and caldera eruptions is higher than that before shield and pyroclastic shield eruptions, and the occurrence rate of TEC anomalies has a descending trend from low latitudes to high latitudes. The TEC anomalies before the volcanic eruptions in low-mid latitudes are within the volcanic affected areas, but do not coincide with the volcanic foci. The corresponding TEC anomalies could be observed in the conjugated region, and all the TEC anomalies in the volcanic affected areas are usually close to bounds of equatorial anomaly zones. However, the TEC anomalies preceding these eruptions in high latitudes usually surround the volcano, and no TEC anomalies appear in the conjugated region. These conclusions have potential applications to the prediction of great volcanic eruptions in the future.

  13. PCA and vTEC climatology at midnight over mid-latitude regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natali, M. P.; Meza, A.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of the thermospheric vertical neutral wind on vertical total electron content (vTEC) variations including longitudinal anomaly, remaining winter anomaly, mid-latitude summer night anomaly, and semiannual anomaly is studied at mid-latitude regions around zero magnetic declination at midnight during high solar activity. By using the principal component analysis (PCA) numerical technique, this work studies the spatial and temporal variations of the ionosphere at midnight over mid-latitude regions during 2000-2002. PCA is applied to a time series of global vTEC maps produced by the International Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Service. Four regions were studied in particular, each located at mid-latitude and approximately centered at zero magnetic declination, with two in the northern hemisphere and two in southern hemisphere, and all are located near and far from geomagnetic poles in each case. This technique provides an effective method to analyze the main ionospheric variabilities at mid-latitudes. PCA is also applied to the vTEC computed using the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model, to analyze the capability of this model to represent ionospheric variabilities at mid-latitude. Also, the Horizontal Wind Model 2007 (HWM07) is used to improve our climatology interpretation, by analyzing the relationship between vTEC and thermospheric wind, both quantitatively and qualitatively. At midnight, the behavior of mean vTEC values strongly responds to vertical wind variation, experiencing a decrease of about 10-15% with the action of the positive vertical component of the field-aligned neutral wind lasting for 2 h in all regions except for Oceania. Notable results include: a significant increase toward higher latitudes during summer in the South America and Asia regions, associated with the mid-latitude summer night anomaly, and an increase toward higher latitudes in winter in the North America and Oceania regions, highlighting the

  14. Mapping the total electron content over Malaysia using Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahari, S.; Abdullah, M.; Bouya, Z.; Musa, T. A.

    2017-12-01

    The ionosphere over Malaysia is unique because of her location which is in close proximity to the geomagnetic equator and is in the equatorial regions. In this region, the magnetic field is horizontally oriented from south to north and field aligned direction is in the meridional plane (ExB) which becomes the source of equatorial ionospheric anomaly occurrence such as plasma bubble, fountain effects and others. Until today, there is no model that has been developed over Malaysia to study the ionosphere. Due to that, the main objective of this paper is to develop a new technique for mapping the total electron content (TEC) from GPS measurements. Data by myRTKnet network of GPS receiver over Malaysia were used in this study. A new methodology, based on modified spherical cap harmonic analysis (SCHA), was developed to estimate diurnal vertical TEC over the region using GPS observations. The SCHA model is based on longitudinal expansion in Fourier series and fractional Legendre co-latitudinal functions over a spherical cap-like region. The TEC map with spatial resolution of 0.15 ° x 0.15 ° in latitude and longitude with the time resolution of 30 seconds are derived. TEC maps from the SCHA model were compared with the global ionospheric map and other regional models. Result shows that during low solar activity, SCHA model had a better mapping with the accuracy of less than 1 TECU compared to other regional models.

  15. Use of total electron content data to analyze ionosphere electron density gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, B.; Radicella, S. M.; Leitinger, R.; Coïsson, P.

    In the presence of electron density gradients the thin shell approximation for the ionosphere, used together with a simple mapping function to convert slant total electron content (TEC) to vertical TEC, could lead to TEC conversion errors. These "mapping function errors" can therefore be used to detect the electron density gradients in the ionosphere. In the present work GPS derived slant TEC data have been used to investigate the effects of the electron density gradients in the middle and low latitude ionosphere under geomagnetic quiet and disturbed conditions. In particular the data corresponding to the geographic area of the American Sector for the days 5-7 April 2000 have been used to perform a complete analysis of mapping function errors based on the "coinciding pierce point technique". The results clearly illustrate the electron density gradient effects according to the locations considered and to the actual levels of disturbance of the ionosphere. In addition, the possibility to assess an ionospheric shell height able to minimize the mapping function errors has been verified.

  16. IL-3R-alpha blockade inhibits tumor endothelial cell-derived extracellular vesicle (EV)-mediated vessel formation by targeting the β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Giusy; Gili, Maddalena; Grange, Cristina; Cavallari, Claudia; Dentelli, Patrizia; Togliatto, Gabriele; Taverna, Daniela; Camussi, Giovanni; Brizzi, Maria Felice

    2018-03-01

    The proangiogenic cytokine Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is released by inflammatory cells in breast and ovarian cancer tissue microenvironments and also acts as an autocrine factor for human breast and kidney tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs). We have previously shown that IL-3-treated endothelial cells (ECs) release extracellular vesicles (EVs), which serve as a paracrine mechanism for neighboring ECs, by transferring active molecules. The impact of an anti-IL-3R-alpha blocking antibody on the proangiogenic effect of EVs released from TECs (anti-IL-3R-EVs) has therefore been investigated in this study. We have found that anti-IL-3R-EV treatment prevented neovessel formation and, more importantly, also induced the regression of in vivo TEC-derived neovessels. Two miRs that target the canonical wingless (Wnt)/β-catenin pathway, at different levels, were found to be differentially regulated when comparing the miR-cargo of naive TEC-derived EVs (EVs) and anti-IL-3R-EVs. miR-214-3p, which directly targets β-catenin, was found to be upregulated, whereas miR-24-3p, which targets adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), was found to be downregulated. In fact, upon their transfer into the cell, low β-catenin content and high levels of the two members of the "β-catenin destruction complex" were detected. Moreover, c-myc downregulation was found in TECs treated with anti-IL-3R-EVs, pre-miR-214-3p-EVs and antago-miR-24-3p-EVs, which is consistent with network analyses of miR-214-3p and miR-24-3p gene targeting. Finally, in vivo studies have demonstrated the impaired growth of vessels in pre-miR-214-3p-EV- and antago-miR-24-3p-EV-treated animals. These effects became much more evident when combo treatment was applied. The results of the present study identify the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway as a relevant mechanism of TEC-derived EV proangiogenic action. Furthermore, we herein provide evidence that IL-3R blockade may yield some

  17. Characteristics of equatorial plasma bubbles observed by TEC map based on ground-based GNSS receivers over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barros, Diego; Takahashi, Hisao; Wrasse, Cristiano M.; Figueiredo, Cosme Alexandre O. B.

    2018-01-01

    A ground-based network of GNSS receivers has been used to monitor equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs) by mapping the total electron content (TEC map). The large coverage of the TEC map allowed us to monitor several EPBs simultaneously and get characteristics of the dynamics, extension and longitudinal distributions of the EPBs from the onset time until their disappearance. These characteristics were obtained by using TEC map analysis and the keogram technique. TEC map databases analyzed were for the period between November 2012 and January 2016. The zonal drift velocities of the EPBs showed a clear latitudinal gradient varying from 123 m s-1 at the Equator to 65 m s-1 for 35° S latitude. Consequently, observed EPBs are inclined against the geomagnetic field lines. Both zonal drift velocity and the inclination of the EPBs were compared to the thermospheric neutral wind, which showed good agreement. Moreover, the large two-dimensional coverage of TEC maps allowed us to study periodic EPBs with a wide longitudinal distance. The averaged values observed for the inter-bubble distances also presented a clear latitudinal gradient varying from 920 km at the Equator to 640 km at 30° S. The latitudinal gradient in the inter-bubble distances seems to be related to the difference in the zonal drift velocity of the EPB from the Equator to middle latitudes and to the difference in the westward movement of the terminator. On several occasions, the distances reached more than 2000 km. Inter-bubble distances greater than 1000 km have not been reported in the literature.

  18. Variation of GPS-TEC in a low latitude Indian region during the year 2012 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Nilesh C.; Karia, Sheetal P.; Pathak, Kamlesh N.

    2018-05-01

    The paper is based on the ionospheric variations in terms of vertical total electron content (VTEC) for the period from January 2012 to December 2013 based on the analysis of dual frequency signals from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites recorded at ground stations Surat (21.16°N, 72.78°E Geog.), situated under the northern crest of the equatorial ionization anomaly region (EIA) and other three International GNSS Service (IGS) stations Bangalore (13.02°N, 77.57°E Geog.), Hyderabad (17.25°N, 78.30°E Geog.), and Lucknow (26.91°N, 80.95°E Geog.) in India. We describe the diurnal and seasonal characteristics. It was observed that GPS-TEC reaches its maximum value between 12:00 and 16:00 IST. Further, Seasonal variations of GPS-TEC is categorized into four seasons, i.e., March equinox (February, March, and April), June solstice (May, June, and July), September equinox (August, September, and October) and December solstice (November, December and January). The forenoon rate of production in Lucknow (beyond EIA crest) is faster than Bangalore, Hyderabad and Surat station. It is found that September equinox shows GPS-TEC slightly higher than the March equinox, followed by June solstice and the lowest GPS-TEC are in winter solstice at four stations. The equinoctial asymmetry clearly observed in the current study. Also GPS-TEC shows a semiannual variation.

  19. The isoflavone content of two new alfalfa-derived products for instant beverage preparation.

    PubMed

    Soto-Zarazúa, M Guadalupe; Rodrigues, Francisca; Pimentel, Filipa B; Bah, M M; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P

    2016-01-01

    The frequent use of plant-based products to promote health leads to the search for scientific information related to efficacy and safety of those products for human consumption. Two alfalfa-derived products (ADP), freeze-dried juice (FDJ) and dehydrated powder (DP), from alfalfa harvested in Mexico, are being developed as new possible nutraceuticals. To the best of our knowledge, any study reports the real composition of such products used to prepare instant beverages in what concerns isoflavone contents. Seven isoflavones (glycitein, formononetin, biochanin A, daidzein, genistein, daidzin and genistin) were assessed by HPLC-DAD analysis as well as its variation in five different batches of these products. Different solvents were tested in order to choose the best one to extract isoflavones. The results showed the presence of daidzein, genistein, genistin and daidzin in most samples while glycitein, formononetin and biochanin A were not detected. Significant differences between isoflavone contents were found with different solvent systems. Water was the best option to extract daidzein (0.40-1.08 mg per unit and 1.30-4.90 mg per unit for DP and FDJ, respectively) whereas the water-methanol-formic acid mixture was efficient to extract genistein (0.19-0.43 mg per unit and 0.15-0.72 mg per unit for DP and FDJ, respectively). In all cases, the total isoflavone content was higher in freeze-dried juices than in dehydrated powders. Genistein and daidzein were the more abundant isoflavones quantified. Further physiological and nutritional studies are needed to complete the validation of effectiveness and safety of these products.

  20. Equatorial ionization anomaly development as studied by GPS TEC and foF2 over Brazil: A comparison of observations with model results from SUPIM and IRI-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, P. A. B.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Batista, I. S.; Bailey, G. J.; Santos, A. M.; Takahashi, H.

    2013-11-01

    The equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) development is studied using the total electron content (TEC) observed by the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites, the F2-layer critical frequency (foF2) as measured by digisondes operated in the Brazilian sector, and by model simulation using the SUPIM (Sheffield University Plasmasphere Ionosphere Model). We have used two indices based on foF2 and TEC to represent the strength of the EIA Southern Anomaly Crest (SAC), which are denoted, respectively, by SAC(foF2) and SAC(TEC). Significant differences in the local time variations of the EIA intensity, as represented by these two indices, are investigated. The observed SAC indices are compared with their values modeled by the SUPIM and also by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)-2012. The SUPIM simulations that use the standard E×B plasma drift and neutral air wind models are found to provide acceptable representations of the observed foF2 and TEC, and hence the indices SAC(foF2) and SAC(TEC) during daytime, whereas the IRI-2012 model is not, except during the post-midnight/sunrise hours. It is found that the differences in the local time variations between the SAC(foF2) and SAC(TEC) can be reduced by limiting the TEC integrations in height up to an altitude of 630 km in the SUPIM calculations. It is also found that when the EIA intensity is calculated for an intermediate dip latitude (12°S) the difference between the local time variation patterns of the two corresponding indices in the experimental data and in the SUPIM results is reduced. For the IRI-2012 values, the subequatorial station modification does not appear to have any effect.

  1. 4-D Cloud Water Content Fields Derived from Operational Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William L., Jr.; Minnis, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    cloud base altitude, radar reflectivity, and lightning data are used to help build and remove clouds in the models assimilation system. Despite this advance and the many recent advances made in our understanding of cloud physical processes and radiative effects, many problems remain in adequately representing clouds in models. While the assimilation of cloud top information derived from operational satellite data has merit, other information is available that has not yet been exploited. For example, the vertically integrated cloud water content (CWC) or cloud water path (CWP) and cloud geometric thickness (delta Z) are standard products being derived routinely from operational satellite data. These and other cloud products have been validated under a variety of conditions. Since the uncertainties have generally been found to be less than those found in model analyses and forecasts, the satellite products should be suitable for data assimilation, provided an appropriate strategy can be developed that links the satellite-derived cloud parameters with cloud parameters specified in the model. In this paper, we briefly outline such a strategy and describe a methodology to retrieve cloud water content profiles from operational satellite data. Initial results and future plans are presented. It is expected that the direct assimilation of this new product will provide the most accurate depiction of the vertical distribution of cloud water ever produced at the high spatial and temporal resolution needed for short term weather analyses and forecasts.

  2. Statistical characteristics of seismo-ionospheric GPS TEC disturbances prior to global Mw ≥ 5.0 earthquakes (1998-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Munawar; Jin, Shuanggen

    2015-12-01

    Pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies are still challenging and unclear to obtain and understand, particularly for different earthquake magnitudes and focal depths as well as types of fault. In this paper, the seismo-ionospheric disturbances (SID) related to global earthquakes with 1492 Mw ≥ 5.0 from 1998 to 2014 are investigated using the total electron content (TEC) of GPS global ionosphere maps (GIM). Statistical analysis of 10-day TEC data before global Mw ≥ 5.0 earthquakes shows significant enhancement 5 days before an earthquake of Mw ≥ 6.0 at a 95% confidence level. Earthquakes with a focal depth of less than 60 km and Mw ≥ 6.0 are presumably the root of deviation in the ionospheric TEC because earthquake breeding zones have gigantic quantities of energy at shallower focal depths. Increased anomalous TEC is recorded in cumulative percentages beyond Mw = 5.5. Sharpness in cumulative percentages is evident in seismo-ionospheric disturbance prior to Mw ≥ 6.0 earthquakes. Seismo-ionospheric disturbances related to strike slip and thrust earthquakes are noticeable for magnitude Mw6.0-7.0 earthquakes. The relative values reveal high ratios (up to 2) and low ratios (up to -0.5) within 5 days prior to global earthquakes for positive and negative anomalies. The anomalous patterns in TEC related to earthquakes are possibly due to the coupling of high amounts of energy from earthquake breeding zones of higher magnitude and shallower focal depth.

  3. Statistical seismo-ionospheric precursors of M7.0+ earthquakes in Circum-Pacific seismic belt by GPS TEC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wang; Yue, Jianping; Guo, Jinyun; Yang, Yang; Zou, Bin; Shen, Yi; Zhang, Kefei

    2018-03-01

    The Circum-Pacific seismic belt is the region heavily affected by earthquakes in the world. The relationship between earthquake (e.g., the geographic location, occurrence time, magnitude, and focal depth) and ionospheric anomalies in the belt was investigated using 100 M7.0+ earthquakes during 2006-2015. The ground-based GPS measurements and global ionosphere map (GIM) data were used for the analyses of the ionospheric variations preceding the earthquakes. The results indicated that the occurrence rate of total electron content (TEC) anomalies was proportional to the magnitude and inversely proportional to the focal depth to a certain degree, and the occurrence frequency of anomalies had a rising trend with the days getting close to the main shock. The occurrence rate of TEC anomalies in the Southern hemisphere was larger than that in the Northern hemisphere. Besides, the spatial characteristics of TEC anomalies showed that the anomalies in low-middle latitudes did not coincide with the epicenter, sometimes the anomalies were also observed in the corresponding conjugated region. However, the TEC anomalies in the high latitude usually appeared around the epicenter and within the seismogenic zone while no TEC anomalies appeared in the conjugated area. These results may have potential applications to the earthquake prediction in the Circum-Pacific seismic belt.

  4. Receiver Operating Characteristic curves of the seismo-ionospheric precursors in GIM TEC associated with magnitude greater than 6.0 earthquakes in China during 1998-2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. H.; Chen, Y. I.; Liu, J. Y. G.; Huang, Y. H.

    2014-12-01

    Statistical evidence of the Seismo-Ionospheric Precursors (SIPs) is reported by statistically investigating the relationship between the Total Electron Content (TEC) in Global Ionosphere Map (GIM) and 56 M≥6.0 earthquakes during 1998-2013 in China. A median-based method and a z test are employed to detect the overall earthquake signatures. It is found that a reduction of positive signatures and an enhancement of negative signatures appear simultaneously on 3-5 days prior to the earthquakes in China. Finally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves are used to measure the power of TEC for predicting M≥6.0 earthquakes in China.

  5. A statistical investigation of z test and ROC curve on seismo-ionospheric anomalies in TEC associated earthquakes in Taiwan during 1999-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, A. L.; Liu, J. Y. G.

    2015-12-01

    A median-based method and a z test are employed to find characteristics of seismo-ionospheric precursor (SIP) of the total electron content (TEC) in global ionosphere map (GIM) associated with 129 M≥5.5 earthquakes in Taiwan during 1999-2014. Results show that both negative and positive anomalies in the GIM TEC with the statistical significance of the z test appear few days before the earthquakes. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is further applied to see whether the SIPs exist in Taiwan.

  6. 78 FR 64207 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TEC Energy Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-388] Application To Export Electric Energy; TEC Energy Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of Application. SUMMARY: TEC Energy Inc. (TEC) has applied for authority to transmit electric energy from the United...

  7. Industrial Maintenance Technology (IM-TEC). Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fusch, Gene E.

    This student manual explains an innovative strategy through which Bellingham Technical College's (Washington) evening Industrial Electrician and Millwright Apprenticeships were aggregated with workforce upgrade course offerings to form the college's first evening degree program in Industrial Maintenance Technology (IM-TEC). Section 1 contains a…

  8. Te/C nanocomposites for Li-Te Secondary Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jeong-Uk; Seong, Gun-Kyu; Park, Cheol-Min

    2015-01-01

    New battery systems having high energy density are actively being researched in order to satisfy the rapidly developing market for longer-lasting mobile electronics and hybrid electric vehicles. Here, we report a new Li-Te secondary battery system with a redox potential of ~1.7 V (vs. Li+/Li) adapted on a Li metal anode and an advanced Te/C nanocomposite cathode. Using a simple concept of transforming TeO2 into nanocrystalline Te by mechanical reduction, we designed an advanced, mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite electrode material with high energy density (initial discharge/charge: 1088/740 mA h cm-3), excellent cyclability (ca. 705 mA h cm-3 over 100 cycles), and fast rate capability (ca. 550 mA h cm-3 at 5C rate). The mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite electrodes were found to be suitable for use as either the cathode in Li-Te secondary batteries or a high-potential anode in rechargeable Li-ion batteries. We firmly believe that the mechanically reduced Te/C nanocomposite constitutes a breakthrough for the realization and mass production of excellent energy storage systems.

  9. V-TECS Guide for Bookkeeping/Accounting/Payroll Clerk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Margaret R.; Benson, Robert T.

    This guide, an extension of the Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) catalog, includes such considerations as background information, decision-making skills, attitudes, and learning methods surrounding the occupations of bookkeeper/accountant/payroll clerk. The guide provides job-relevant task, performance objectives,…

  10. C-TEC: Ohio's First All-Green School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krall, Angie

    2009-01-01

    In Ohio's Licking County, the Career and Technology Education Centers (C-TEC) is a leader in the green movement. This eco-friendly school incorporates environmental sustainability in all aspects of its programming and is the first Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified public building in the state. While eco-friendly…

  11. TEC variations over the Mediterranean before and during the strong earthquake (M = 6.5) of 12th October 2013 in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Vergos, G.; Spatalas, S. D.; Skordilis, M.

    In this paper, the total electron content (TEC) data from eight global positioning system (GPS) stations of the EUREF network, provided by IONOLAB (Turkey), were analyzed using discrete Fourier analysis to investigate the TEC variations over the Mediterranean before and during the strong earthquake of 12th October 2013, which occurred west of Crete, Greece. In accordance with the results of similar analyses in the area, the main conclusions of this study are the following: (a) TEC oscillations in a broad range of frequencies occur randomly over an area of several hundred km from the earthquake and (b) high frequency oscillations (f ⩾ 0.0003 Hz, periods T ⩽ 60 m) may point to the location of the earthquake with questionable accuracy. The fractal characteristics of the frequency distribution may point to the locus of the earthquake with higher accuracy. We conclude that the lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling (LAIC) mechanism through acoustic or gravity waves could explain this phenomenology.

  12. GPS-TEC of the Ionospheric Disturbances as a Tool for Early Tsunami Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunitsyn, Viacheslav E.; Nesterov, Ivan A.; Shalimov, Sergey L.; Krysanov, Boris Yu.; Padokhin, Artem M.; Rekenthaler, Douglas

    2013-04-01

    Recently, the GPS measurements were used for retrieving the information on the various types of ionospheric responses to seismic events (earthquakes, seismic Rayleigh waves, and tsunami) which generate atmospheric waves propagating up to the ionospheric altitudes where the collisions between the neutrals and charge particles give rise to the motion of the ionospheric plasma. These experimental results can well be used in architecture of the future tsunami warning system. The point is an earlier (in comparison with seismological methods) detection of the ionospheric signal that can indicate the moment of tsunami generation. As an example we consider the two-dimensional distributions of the vertical total electron content (TEC) variations in the ionosphere both close to and far from the epicenter of the Japan undersea earthquake of March 11, 2011 using radio tomographic (RT) reconstruction of high-temporal-resolution (2-minute) data from the Japan and the US GPS networks. Near-zone TEC variations shows a diverging ionospheric perturbation with multi-component spectral composition emerging after the main shock. The initial phase of the disturbance can be used as an indicator of the tsunami generation and subsequently for the tsunami early warning. Far-zone TEC variations reveals distinct wave train associated with gravity waves generated by tsunami. According to observations tsunami arrives at Hawaii and further at the coast of Southern California with delay relative to the gravity waves. Therefore the gravity wave pattern can be used in the early tsunami warning. We support this scenario by the results of modeling with the parameters of the ocean surface perturbation corresponding to the considered earthquake. In addition it was observed in the modeling that at long distance from the source the gravity wave can pass ahead of the tsunami. The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants 11-05-01157 and 12-05-33065).

  13. TEC variations over Mediteranean before and during the strong earthquake (M=6.2) of 12th October 2013 in Crete, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, Michael; Arabelos, Dimitrios; Vergos, Georgios; Spatalas, Spyridon

    2014-05-01

    In this paper the Total Electron Content (TEC) data of 9 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations of the EUREF network, which are being provided by IONOLAB (Turkey), were analysed using Discrete Fourier Analysis in order to investigate the TEC variations over Mediteranean before and during the strong earthquake of 12th of October 2013, Which occur in western of Crete, Greece. In accordance to the results of similar analysis on the occasion of earthquakes in the area (Contadakis et al 2008, 2012a,2012b) the main conclusions of this analysis are the following. (a) TEC oscillations in a broad range of frequencies occur randomly over a broad area of several hundred km from the earthquake and (b) high frequency oscillations (f ≥ 0.0003Hz, periods T ≤ 60m) seems to point to the location of the earthquake with a questionable accuracy but the fractal characteristics of the frequencies distribution, points to the locus of the earthquake with a rather higher accuracy. We conclude that the LAIC mechanism through acoustic or gravity wave could explain this phenomenology. Key words: GPS network, ionospheric total electron content, wavelet analysis References Contadakis, M.E., Arabelos, D.N. G. Asteriadis, S.D. Spatalas and Ch. Pikridas, 2008. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 1267-1276 M.E. Contadakis, D.N. Arabelos, Ch. Pikridas and S.D. Spatalas, 2012a,TEC variations over Southern Europe before and during the M6.3 Abruzzo earthquake of 6th April 2009, Annals of Geophysics, Vol.55,1, p.83-93 M.E.Contadakis, D.N.Arabelos, and G.Vergos, 2012b, TEC variations over North-western Balkan peninsula before and during the seismic activity of 24th May 2009, EGU GA, Geoph. Res. Abs., Vol. 14, EGU2012-2319-2

  14. The spatio-temporal characteristics of the wave structure excited by the solar terminator as deduced from TEC measurements at the global GPS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afraimovich, E.

    2009-04-01

    Recent investigations have shown that movement of the solar terminator (ST) causes generation of acoustic-gravity waves (AGW), turbulence and instabilities in the ionosphere plasma. Among all the sources of gravity waves, the moving ST has a special status, since it is a predictable phenomenon, whose characteristics are well known. Considering the ST as a stable and repetitive source of AGW, one can derive information about atmospheric conditions from the response of the medium to this input. The great variety of ST-linked phenomena in the atmosphere gave rise to a number of studies on the analysis of ionosphere parameter variations obtained by different ionosphere sounding methods. However, virtually all experimental data were obtained using indirect methods for analyzing the spectrum of ionosphere parameter variations, which can result from a number of factors. This causes difficulties in the reliable identification of ST-linked AGW, because in general case AGW can be generated by different sources either of natural or of anthropogenic origin. To identify ST-generated wave disturbances it is insufficient to register the time dependence of ionosphere parameters or their spectrum. It is necessary to measure the spatial structure of these disturbances and to compare it with spatial-temporal characteristics of ST. Another important requirement implies the continuous, global character of observations. Using long-term (1998-2007) total electron content (TEC) measurements from the IGS GPS global network and dense networks of GPS sites in USA (CORS) and Japan (GEONET), we have obtained the first evidence for the wave structure excited by the solar terminator (ST). We have found two main types of the observed TEC disturbances: large-scale (LS) 60-min variations with amplitude of about 0.5-1 TECU and medium-scale (MS) 15-min variations with amplitude of about 0.05-0.1 TECU. The first type of disturbances was predicted in theoretical investigations and registered earlier

  15. 3D tomography of midlatitude sporadic-E in Japan from GNSS-TEC data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muafiry, Ihsan Naufal; Heki, Kosuke; Maeda, Jun

    2018-03-01

    We studied ionospheric irregularities caused by midlatitude sporadic-E ( Es) in Japan using ionospheric total electron content (TEC) data from a dense GNSS array, GEONET, with a 3D (three-dimensional) tomography technique. Es is a thin layer of unusually high ionization that appears at altitudes of 100 km. Here, we studied five cases of Es irregularities in 2010 and 2012, also reported in previous studies, over the Kanto and Kyushu Districts. We used slant TEC residuals as the input and estimated the number of electron density anomalies of more than 2000 small blocks with dimensions of 20-30 km covering a horizontal region of 300 × 500 km. We applied a continuity constraint to stabilize the solution and performed several different resolution tests with synthetic data to assess the accuracy of the results. The tomography results showed that positive electron density anomalies occurred at the E region height, and the morphology and dynamics were consistent with those reported by earlier studies.

  16. A new ionospheric storm scale based on TEC and foF2 statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Michi; Tsugawa, Takuya; Jin, Hidekatsu; Ishii, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the I-scale, a new ionospheric storm scale for general users in various regions in the world. With the I-scale, ionospheric storms can be classified at any season, local time, and location. Since the ionospheric condition largely depends on many factors such as solar irradiance, energy input from the magnetosphere, and lower atmospheric activity, it had been difficult to scale ionospheric storms, which are mainly caused by solar and geomagnetic activities. In this study, statistical analysis was carried out for total electron content (TEC) and F2 layer critical frequency (foF2) in Japan for 18 years from 1997 to 2014. Seasonal, local time, and latitudinal dependences of TEC and foF2 variabilities are excluded by normalizing each percentage variation using their statistical standard deviations. The I-scale is defined by setting thresholds to the normalized numbers to seven categories: I0, IP1, IP2, IP3, IN1, IN2, and IN3. I0 represents a quiet state, and IP1 (IN1), IP2 (IN2), and IP3 (IN3) represent moderate, strong, and severe positive (negative) storms, respectively. The proposed I-scale can be used for other locations, such as polar and equatorial regions. It is considered that the proposed I-scale can be a standardized scale to help the users to assess the impact of space weather on their systems.

  17. Session Overview and AzTEC Instrument Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Grant; Ade, P. A.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J.; Bock, J. J.; Hughes, D.; Kang, Y.; Kim, S.; Lowenthal, J.; Mauskopf, P.; Scott, K.; Yun, M.

    2006-12-01

    AzTEC is a new 144 element bolometer receiver destined as a first-generation instrument for the Large Millimeter Telescope. >From November 2005 and through January 2006, AzTEC made science observations at the 15m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT). Approximately 1/2 of the available time was spent mapping the submillimeter galaxy population in blank and biased fields. Overall, over 1 square degree of sky was mapped with uniform coverage in each of five primary fields making this the largest set of surveys of the submillimeter galaxy population ever performed. Hundreds of new submillimeter galaxies have been detected. Here we discuss the instrument, our mapping technique, and a brief summary of the data reduction process. We conclude with a brief summary of the overall impact of these surveys on our understanding of the submillimeter galaxy population.

  18. The TolTEC Camera for the LMT Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, Sean

    2018-01-01

    TolTEC is a new camera being built for the 50-meter Large Millimeter-wave Telescope (LMT) on Sierra Negra in Puebla, Mexico. The instrument will discover and characterize distant galaxies by detecting the thermal emission of dust heated by starlight. The polarimetric capabilities of the camera will measure magnetic fields in star-forming regions in the Milky Way. The optical design of the camera uses mirrors, lenses, and dichroics to simultaneously couple a 4 arcminute diameter field of view onto three single-band focal planes at 150, 220, and 280 GHz. The 7000 polarization-selective detectors are single-band horn-coupled LEKID detectors fabricated at NIST. A rotating half wave plate operates at ambient temperature to modulate the polarized signal. In addition to the galactic and extragalactic surveys already planned, TolTEC installed at the LMT will provide open observing time to the community.

  19. SubTec-7 Gives New Technologies a Flight Test

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    NASA successfully launched the SubTec-7 payload on a Black Brant IX suborbital sounding rocket at 5:45 a.m. EDT, May 16, from the NASA's Wallops Flight Facility. The payload flew to an altitude of about 154 miles before descending by parachute and landing in the Atlantic Ocean. SubTec-7 provided a flight test for more than 20 technologies to improve sounding rocket and spacecraft capabilities. Good data was received during the flight. The payload has been recovered. Credit: NASA/Wallops NASA image use policy. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Like us on Facebook Find us on Instagram

  20. Local time, seasonal, and solar cycle dependency of longitudinal variations of TEC along the crest of EIA over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunda, Surendra; Vyas, B. M.

    2013-10-01

    global wave number 4 structure in the Indian longitudinal region spanning from ~70 to 95°E forming the upward slope of the peak in the total electron content (TEC) are reported along the crest of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA). The continuous and simultaneous measurements from five GPS stations of GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) network are used in this study. The long-term database (2004-2012) is utilized for examining the local time, seasonal, and solar cycle dependency on the longitudinal variations of TEC. Our results confirm the existence of longitudinal variations of TEC in accordance with wave number 4 longitudinal structure including its strength. The results suggest that these variations, in general, start to develop at ~09 LT, achieve maximum strength at 12-15 LT, and decay thereafter, the decay rate depending on the season. They are more pronounced in equinoctial season followed by summer and winter. The longitudinal variations persist beyond midnight in equinox seasons, whereas in winter, they are conspicuously absent. Interestingly, they also exhibit significant solar cycle dependence in the solstices, whereas in the equinoxes, they are independent of solar activity. The comparison of crest-to-trough ratio (CTR) in the eastern (92°E) and western (72°E) extreme longitudes reveals higher CTR on the eastern side than over the western extreme, suggesting the role of nonmigrating tides in modulating the ExB vertical drift and the consequential EIA crest formation.

  1. Inversion of the perturbation GPS-TEC data induced by tsunamis in order to estimate the sea level anomaly.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakoto, Virgile; Lognonné, Philippe; Rolland, Lucie; Coïsson, Pierdavide; Drilleau, Mélanie

    2017-04-01

    Large underwater earthquakes (Mw > 7) can transmit part of their energy to the surrounding ocean through large sea-floor motions, generating tsunamis that propagate over long distances. The forcing effect of tsunami waves on the atmosphere generate internal gravity waves which produce detectable ionospheric perturbations when they reach the upper atmosphere. Theses perturbations are frequently observed in the total electron content (TEC) measured by the multi-frequency Global navigation Satellite systems (GNSS) data (e.g., GPS,GLONASS). In this paper, we performed for the first time an inversion of the sea level anomaly using the GPS TEC data using a least square inversion (LSQ) through a normal modes summation modeling technique. Using the tsunami of the 2012 Haida Gwaii in far field as a test case, we showed that the amplitude peak to peak of the sea level anomaly inverted using this method is below 10 % error. Nevertheless, we cannot invert the second wave arriving 20 minutes later. This second wave is generaly explain by the coastal reflection which the normal modeling does not take into account. Our technique is then applied to two other tsunamis : the 2006 Kuril Islands tsunami in far field, and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami in closer field. This demonstrates that the inversion using a normal mode approach is able to estimate fairly well the amplitude of the first arrivals of the tsunami. In the future, we plan to invert in real the TEC data in order to retrieve the tsunami height.

  2. TEC variations over North-western Balkan Peninsula before and during the seismic activity of 24th May 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, M. E.; Arabelos, D. N.; Vergos, G.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper the Total Electron Content (TEC) data of 8 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations of the EUREF network, 4 close and 4 remote to EQ epicentre stations, which are being provided by IONOLAB (Turkey), were analysed using wavelet analysis and Discrete Fourier Analysis in order to investigate the TEC variations over North-western Balkan Peninsula before and during the seismic activity of 24th of May, 2009. The main conclusions of this analysis are the following. (a) TEC oscillations in a broad range of frequencies occur randomly over a broad area of several hundred km from the earthquake and (b) high frequency oscillations (f ≥ 0.0003Hz, periods T ≤ 60m) seems to point to the location of the earthquake with a questionable accuracy but the fractal characteristics of the frequencies distribution, points to the locus of the earthquake with a rather higher accuracy. We conclude that the LAIC mechanism through acoustic or gravity wave could explain this phenomenology.

  3. Radio Identification of Millimeter-Bright Galaxies Detected in the AzTEC/ASTE Blank Field Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, Bunyo; Kohno, Kotaro; White, Glenn; Matsuura, Shuji; Hanami, Hitoshi; Shirahata, Mai; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Hughes, David; Tamura, Yoichi; Iono, Daisuke; Wilson, Grant; Yun, Min

    2008-10-01

    We propose a deep 1.4-GHz imaging of millimeter-bright sources in the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1-mm blank field survey of AKARI Deep Field-South. The AzTEC/ASTE uncovered 37 sources, which are possibly at z > 2. We have obtained multi-wavelength data in this field, but the large beam size of AzTEC/ASTE (30 arcsec) prevents us from identifying counterparts. The aim of this proposal is to identify radio counterparts with higher-angular resolution. This enables us (i) To identifying optical/IR counterparts. It enables optical spectroscopy to determine precise redshifts, allowing us to derive SFRs, luminosity functions, clustering properties, mass of dark matter halos, etc. (ii) To constrain luminosity evolutions of SMGs by comparing of 1.4-GHz number counts (and luminosity functions) with luminosity evolution models. (iii) To estimate photometric redshifts from 1.4-GHz and 1.1-mm data using the radio-FIR flux correlation. In case of non-detection, we can put deep lower limits (3 sigma limit of z > 3). These information lead to the study of evolutionary history of SMGs, their relationship with other galaxy populations, contribution to the cosmic star formation history and the infrared background.

  4. Application of IRI-Plas in Ionospheric Tomography and HF Communication Studies with Assimilation of GPS-TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, Feza; Gulyaeva, Tamara; Sezen, Umut; Arikan, Orhan; Toker, Cenk; Hakan Tuna, MR.; Erdem, Esra

    2016-07-01

    International Reference Ionosphere is the most acknowledged climatic model of ionosphere that provides electron density profile and hourly, monthly median values of critical layer parameters of the ionosphere for a desired location, date and time between 60 to 2,000 km altitude. IRI is also accepted as the International Standard Ionosphere model. Recently, the IRI model is extended to the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite orbital range of 20,000 km. The new version is called IRI-Plas and it can be obtained from http://ftp.izmiran.ru/pub/izmiran /SPIM/. A user-friendly online version is also provided at www.ionolab.org as a space weather service. Total Electron Content (TEC), which is defined as the line integral of electron density on a given ray path, is an observable parameter that can be estimated from earth based GPS receivers in a cost-effective manner as GPS-TEC. One of the most important advantages of IRI-Plas is the possible input of GPS-TEC to update the background deterministic ionospheric model to the current ionospheric state. This option is highly useful in regional and global tomography studies and HF link assessments. IONOLAB group currently implements IRI-Plas as a background model and updates the ionospheric state using GPS-TEC in IONOLAB-CIT and IONOLAB-RAY algorithms. The improved state of ionosphere allows the most reliable 4-D imaging of electron density profiles and HF and satellite communication link simulations.This study is supported by TUBITAK 115E915 and joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001.

  5. Digital beacon receiver for ionospheric TEC measurement developed with GNU Radio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, M.

    2008-11-01

    A simple digital receiver named GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) was developed for the satellite-ground beacon experiment to measure the ionospheric total electron content (TEC). The open-source software toolkit for the software defined radio, GNU Radio, is utilized to realize the basic function of the receiver and perform fast signal processing. The software is written in Python for a LINUX PC. The open-source hardware called Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), which best matches the GNU Radio, is used as a front-end to acquire the satellite beacon signals of 150 and 400 MHz. The first experiment was successful as results from GRBR showed very good agreement to those from the co-located analog beacon receiver. Detailed design information and software codes are open at the URL http://www.rish.kyoto-u.ac.jp/digitalbeacon/.

  6. Structure, Content, and Bioactivity of Food-Derived Peptides in the Body.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kenji

    2018-03-28

    Orally administered peptides are assumed to be degraded into amino acids in the body. However, our recent studies revealed some food-derived prolyl and pyroglutamyl peptides with 2-3 amino acid residues in the blood of humans and animals, while most of the peptides in the endoproteinase digest of food protein are degraded by exopeptidase. Some food-derived dipeptides in the body display in vitro and in vivo biological activities. These facts indicate that the biological activities of food-derived peptides in the body rather than those in food are crucial to understanding the mechanism of the beneficial effects of orally administered peptides.

  7. Variations of TEC near the Indian Equatorial Ionospheric anomaly (EIA) stations by GPS measurements during descending phase of solar activity (2005 -2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    The dual frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) data recorded at Varanasi (geographic latitude 250, 16 N longitude 820, 59 E) and Kanpur (geographic latitude 260, 30 N longitude 800, 12 E) stations, near the equatorial ionosphere anomaly (EIA) in India, have been analyzed to retrieve total electron content (TEC). The daily peak value of vertical total electron content (VTEC) has been utilized to study the variability of EIA. Present paper studied monthly, seasonal and annual variations as well as solar and geomagnetic effects on EIA. It has been found that EIA yield their maximum values during the equinox months and minimum during summer and winter. The correlations of EIA with solar as well as geomagnetic indices have been also discussed. Key words: Total electron contents (TECs), EIA, GPS.

  8. CoLiTec software - detection of the near-zero apparent motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlamov, Sergii V.; Savanevych, Vadym E.; Briukhovetskyi, Olexandr B.; Pohorelov, Artem V.

    2017-06-01

    In this article we described CoLiTec software for full automated frames processing. CoLiTec software allows processing the Big Data of observation results as well as processing of data that is continuously formed during observation. The scope of solving tasks includes frames brightness equalization, moving objects detection, astrometry, photometry, etc. Along with the high efficiency of Big Data processing CoLiTec software also ensures high accuracy of data measurements. A comparative analysis of the functional characteristics and positional accuracy was performed between CoLiTec and Astrometrica software. The benefits of CoLiTec used with wide field and low quality frames were observed. The efficiency of the CoLiTec software was proved by about 700.000 observations and over 1.500 preliminary discoveries.

  9. Distinct and Overlapping Functions of TEC Kinase and BTK in B Cell Receptor Signaling.

    PubMed

    de Bruijn, Marjolein J W; Rip, Jasper; van der Ploeg, Esmee K; van Greuningen, Lars W; Ta, Van T B; Kil, Laurens P; Langerak, Anton W; Rimmelzwaan, Guus F; Ellmeier, Wilfried; Hendriks, Rudi W; Corneth, Odilia B J

    2017-04-15

    The Tec tyrosine kinase is expressed in many cell types, including hematopoietic cells, and is a member of the Tec kinase family that also includes Btk. Although the role of Btk in B cells has been extensively studied, the role of Tec kinase in B cells remains largely unclear. It was previously shown that Tec kinase has the ability to partly compensate for loss of Btk activity in B cell differentiation, although the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we confirm that Tec kinase is not essential for normal B cell development when Btk is present, but we also found that Tec-deficient mature B cells showed increased activation, proliferation, and survival upon BCR stimulation, even in the presence of Btk. Whereas Tec deficiency did not affect phosphorylation of phospholipase Cγ or Ca 2+ influx, it was associated with significantly increased activation of the intracellular Akt/S6 kinase signaling pathway upon BCR and CD40 stimulation. The increased S6 kinase phosphorylation in Tec-deficient B cells was dependent on Btk kinase activity, as ibrutinib treatment restored pS6 to wild-type levels, although Btk protein and phosphorylation levels were comparable to controls. In Tec-deficient mice in vivo, B cell responses to model Ags and humoral immunity upon influenza infection were enhanced. Moreover, aged mice lacking Tec kinase developed a mild autoimmune phenotype. Taken together, these data indicate that in mature B cells, Tec and Btk may compete for activation of the Akt signaling pathway, whereby the activating capacity of Btk is limited by the presence of Tec kinase. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. High-Content Electrophysiological Analysis of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs).

    PubMed

    Kong, Chi-Wing; Geng, Lin; Li, Ronald A

    2018-01-01

    Considerable interest has been raised to develop human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hPSC-CMs) as a model for drug discovery and cardiotoxicity screening. High-content electrophysiological analysis of currents generated by transmembrane cell surface ion channels has been pursued to complement such emerging applications. Here we describe practical procedures and considerations for accomplishing successful assays of hPSC-CMs using an automated planar patch-clamp system.

  11. Dust Storm Signatures in Global Ionosphere Map of GPS Total Electron Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Fang-Tse; Shih, Ai-Ling; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Kuo, Cheng-Ling; Lin, Tang-Huang; Lien, Wei-Hung

    2016-04-01

    In this paper both MODIS data and GIM (global ionosphere map) TEC (total electron content) as well as numerical simulations are used to study ionospheric dust storm effects in May 2008. The aerosol optical depth (AOD) and the LTT (latitude-time-TEC) along the Sahara longitude simultaneously reach their maximum values on 28 May 2008. The LLT (latitude-longitude-TEC) map specifically and significantly increases over the Sahara region on 28 May 2008. The simulation suggests that the dust storm may change the atmospheric conductivity, which in turn modifies the GIM TEC over the Sahara area.

  12. Performance evaluation of linear time-series ionospheric Total Electron Content model over low latitude Indian GPS stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabbakuti, J. R. K. Kumar; Venkata Ratnam, D.

    2017-10-01

    Precise modeling of the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is a critical aspect of Positioning, Navigation, and Timing (PNT) services intended for the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) applications as well as Earth Observation System (EOS), satellite communication, and space weather forecasting applications. In this paper, linear time series modeling has been carried out on ionospheric TEC at two different locations at Koneru Lakshmaiah University (KLU), Guntur (geographic 16.44° N, 80.62° E; geomagnetic 7.55° N) and Bangalore (geographic 12.97° N, 77.59° E; geomagnetic 4.53° N) at the northern low-latitude region, for the year 2013 in the 24th solar cycle. The impact of the solar and geomagnetic activity on periodic oscillations of TEC has been investigated. Results confirm that the correlation coefficient of the estimated TEC from the linear model TEC and the observed GPS-TEC is around 93%. Solar activity is the key component that influences ionospheric daily averaged TEC while periodic component reveals the seasonal dependency of TEC. Furthermore, it is observed that the influence of geomagnetic activity component on TEC is different at both the latitudes. The accuracy of the model has been assessed by comparing the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) 2012 model TEC and TEC measurements. Moreover, the absence of winter anomaly is remarkable, as determined by the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) between the linear model TEC and GPS-TEC. On the contrary, the IRI2012 model TEC evidently failed to predict the absence of winter anomaly in the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) crest region. The outcome of this work will be useful for improving the ionospheric now-casting models under various geophysical conditions.

  13. Simultaneous ground-satellite observations of daytime traveling ionospheric disturbances over Japan using the GPS-TEC network and the CHAMP satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moral, A. C.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Liu, H.; Nishioka, M.; Tsugawa, T.

    2017-12-01

    We report results of simultaneous ground-satellite measurements of daytime travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs) over Japan by using the GEONET GPS receiver network and the CHAMP satellite. For the two years of 2002 and 2008, we examined GPS measurements of TEC (Total Electron Content) and neutral and electron densities measured by CHAMP satellite. Total of fifteen TID events with clear southward moving structures in the GPS-TEC measurements are found by simultaneous ground-satellite measurements. On 2002, simultaneous events are only observed in January (1 event) and February (4 events). On 2008, ten events are observed around winter months (January (3 events), February (5), March (1), and October (1)). Neutral and electron densities measured by CHAMP show quasi-periodic fluctuations throughout the passages for all events. The CHAMP satellite crossed at least one clear TID phase front for all the events. We fitted a sinusoidal function to both ground and satellite data to obtain the frequencies and phase of the observed variations. We calculated the corresponding phase relationships between TEC variations and neutral and electron densities measured by CHAMP to categorize the events. In the presentations we report correspondence of these TID structures seen in the simultaneous ground-satellite observations by GPS-TEC and CHAMP, and discuss their phase relationship to identify the source of the daytime TIDs and specify how much of the observed variations are showing clear frequencies/or not in the nature at middle latitudes.

  14. Modeling magnetic field and TEC signatures of large-amplitude acoustic and gravity waves generated by natural hazard events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.; Inchin, P.; Komjathy, A.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean and solid earth responses during earthquakes are a significant source of large amplitude acoustic and gravity waves (AGWs) that perturb the overlying ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system. IT disturbances are routinely detected following large earthquakes (M > 7.0) via GPS total electron content (TEC) observations, which often show acoustic wave ( 3-4 min periods) and gravity wave ( 10-15 min) signatures with amplitudes of 0.05-2 TECU. In cases of very large earthquakes (M > 8.0) the persisting acoustic waves are estimated to have 100-200 m/s compressional velocities in the conducting ionospheric E and F-regions and should generate significant dynamo currents and magnetic field signatures. Indeed, some recent reports (e.g. Hao et al, 2013, JGR, 118, 6) show evidence for magnetic fluctuations, which appear to be related to AGWs, following recent large earthquakes. However, very little quantitative information is available on: (1) the detailed spatial and temporal dependence of these magnetic fluctuations, which are usually observed at a small number of irregularly arranged stations, and (2) the relation of these signatures to TEC perturbations in terms of relative amplitudes, frequency, and timing for different events. This work investigates space- and time-dependent behavior of both TEC and magnetic fluctuations following recent large earthquakes, with the aim to improve physical understanding of these perturbations via detailed, high-resolution, two- and three-dimensional modeling case studies with a coupled neutral atmospheric and ionospheric model, MAGIC-GEMINI (Zettergren and Snively, 2015, JGR, 120, 9). We focus on cases inspired by the large Chilean earthquakes from the past decade (viz., the M > 8.0 earthquakes from 2010 and 2015) to constrain the sources for the model, i.e. size, frequency, amplitude, and timing, based on available information from ocean buoy and seismometer data. TEC data are used to validate source amplitudes and to constrain

  15. Properties of carbon composite paper derived from coconut coir as a function of polytetrafluoroethylene content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destyorini, Fredina; Indriyati; Indayaningsih, Nanik; Prihandoko, Bambang; Zulfia Syahrial, Anne

    2018-03-01

    The carbon composite papers were produced by utilizing carbon materials from coconut coir. In the present work, carbon composite papers (CCP) were prepared by mixing carbon materials in the form of powder and fibre with polymer (ethylene vinyl acetate and polyethylene glycol) in xylene at 100°C. Then, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) with different content was used to treat the surface of CCP. The properties of PTFE-coated CCP were analysed by means of contact angle measurement, tensile testing, porosity, density, and electrical conductivity measurements. As expected, all CCP’s surfaces treated with PTFE were found to be hydrophobic with contact angle >120° and relatively constant during 60 minutes measurement. Furthermore, water contact angle, density, and mechanical properties of CCP generally increase with increasing PTFE content. However, the porosity and electrical conductivity of CCP decrease slightly as the PTFE content increased from 0 wt% to 30 wt%. Based on the observation and analysis, the optimum PTFE content on CCP was 20 %, in which the mechanical properties and hydrophobicity behaviour were improved significantly, but it was only caused a very small drop in porosity and electrical conductivity

  16. Anamolous ionospheric TEC variations prior to the Indonesian earthquake (M 7.1) of November 15, 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcay, Salih

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates preearthquake ionospheric variations with the use of TEC of Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs) and regional maps based on Precise Point Positioning (PPP) during the 7.1-M Indonesian earthquake that occurred on November 15, 2014. TEC maps corresponding to 10 days before to 4 days after the event were examined. In addition, a time series of TEC values according to the PPP maps were also evaluated. In addition to GIMs, it was possible to detect TEC variations with PPP maps. The results showed that ionospheric TEC decreased strikingly 4 days prior to the earthquake. This TEC variation was highly likely related to seismic activity.

  17. Ionospheric TEC from the Turkish Permanent GNSS Network (TPGN) and comparison with ARMA and IRI models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Kutubuddin; Panda, Sampad Kumar; Althuwaynee, Omar F.; Corumluoglu, Ozsen

    2017-09-01

    The present study investigates the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) variations in the lower mid-latitude Turkish region from the Turkish Permanent GNSS Network (TPGN) and International GNSS Services (IGS) observations during the year 2016. The corresponding vertical TEC (VTEC) predicted by Auto Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) and International Reference Ionosphere 2016 (IRI-2016) models are evaluated to realize their effectiveness over the region. The spatial, diurnal and seasonal behavior of VTEC and the relative VTEC variations are modeled with Ordinary Least Square Estimator (OLSE). The spatial behavior of modeled result during March equinox and June solstice indicates an inverse relationship of VTEC with the longitude across the region. On the other hand, the VTEC variation during September equinox and December solstice including March equinox and June solstice are decreasing with increase in latitude. The GNSS observed and modeled diurnal variation of the VTEC show that the VTEC slowly increases with dawn, attains a broader duration of peak around 09.00 to 12.00 UT, and thereafter decreases gradually reaching minimum around 21.00 UT. The seasonal variation of VTEC shows an annual mode, maxima in equinox and minima in solstice. The average value of VTEC during the June solstice is with slightly higher value than the March equinox though variations during the latter season is more. Moreover, the study shows minimum average value during December solstice compared to June solstice at all stations. The comparative analysis demonstrates the prediction errors by OLSE, ARMA and IRI remaining between 0.23 to 1.17%, 2.40 to 4.03% and 24.82 to 25.79% respectively. Also, the observed VTEC seasonal variation has good agreement with OLSE and ARMA models whereas IRI-VTEC often underestimated the observed value at each location. Hence, the deviations of IRI estimated VTEC compared to ARMA and OLSE models claim further improvements in IRI model over the Turkish region

  18. Longitudinal dependence of the seasonal variations of the topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric electron content: observations and model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Man-Lian; Liu, Libo; Ning, Baiqi; Wan, Weixing

    2016-07-01

    Radio signals transmitted from GPS satellite going through the ionization zone above the Earth will be refracted by the ionized components in the ionosphere and the plasmasphere, which would produce additional transfer delay and generate extra errors in satellite navigation and positioning, etc. These errors have strong relation with the total electron content (TEC) along the signal's travelling path. Therefore TEC is one of the most important parameters required by many users for different modern usage purposes. The topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric electron content makes a large contribution to TEC. In the present study, data for the year 2008 of the topside ionospheric and plasmaspheric electron content (PEC) between the height of 800-20200km above the Earth derived from the upward-looking TEC measurements of the precise orbit determination antenna on board the COSMIC low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites to the GPS signals are used to study the longitudinal dependence of the seasonal variations of PEC. A comparison study of the observed PEC with the IZMIRAN_Plas model results is also made. Our study showed that PEC shows different seasonal variations at different longitudinal sectors: for the 240°E-60°E longitudinal sector, PEC shows a strong annual variation with lowest value in the June solstice and highest value in the December solstice months; In contrast, very weak seasonal variations are observed for PEC at 60°E-240°E longitudinal sector; Comparison study showed that this longitudinal dependence feature of the observed PEC's seasonal variation is not well captured by the IZMIRAN_Plas model result. Acknowledgments This research was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC No. 41274163)

  19. SH2 dependent autophosphorylation within the Tec family kinase Itk

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Raji E.; Severin, Andrew; Min, Lie; Fulton, D. Bruce; Andreotti, Amy H.

    2009-01-01

    The Tec family kinase, Itk, undergoes an in cis autophosphorylation on Y180 within its SH3 domain. Autophosphorylation of the Itk SH3 domain by the Itk kinase domain is strictly dependent on the presence of the intervening SH2 domain. A direct docking interaction between the Itk kinase and SH2 domains brings the Itk SH3 domain into the active site where Y180 is then phosphorylated. We now identify the residues on the surface of the Itk SH2 domain responsible for substrate docking and show that this SH2 surface mediates autophosphorylation in the full length Itk molecule. The canonical phospholigand binding site on the SH2 domain is not involved in substrate docking, instead the docking site consists of side chains from three loop regions (AB, EF and BG) and part of the βD strand. These results are extended into Btk, a Tec family kinase linked to the B cell deficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Our results suggest that some XLA causing mutations might impair Btk phosphorylation. PMID:19523959

  20. Regional TEC dynamic modeling based on Slepian functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifi, Mohammad Ali; Farzaneh, Saeed

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the three-dimensional state of the ionosphere has been estimated by integrating the spherical Slepian harmonic function and Kalman filter. The spherical Slepian harmonic functions have been used to establish the observation equations because of their properties in local modeling. Spherical harmonics are poor choices to represent or analyze geophysical processes without perfect global coverage but the Slepian functions afford spatial and spectral selectivity. The Kalman filter has been utilized to perform the parameter estimation due to its suitable properties in processing the GPS measurements in the real-time mode. The proposed model has been applied to the real data obtained from the ground-based GPS observations across some portion of the IGS network in Europe. Results have been compared with the estimated TECs by the CODE, ESA, IGS centers and IRI-2012 model. The results indicated that the proposed model which takes advantage of the Slepian basis and Kalman filter is efficient and allows for the generation of the near-real-time regional TEC map.

  1. SH2-dependent autophosphorylation within the Tec family kinase Itk.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Raji E; Severin, Andrew; Min, Lie; Fulton, D Bruce; Andreotti, Amy H

    2009-08-07

    The Tec family kinase, Itk (interleukin-2 tyrosine kinase), undergoes an in cis autophosphorylation on Y180 within its Src homology 3 (SH3) domain. Autophosphorylation of the Itk SH3 domain by the Itk kinase domain is strictly dependent on the presence of the intervening Src homology 2 (SH2) domain. A direct docking interaction between the Itk kinase and SH2 domains brings the Itk SH3 domain into the active site where Y180 is then phosphorylated. We now identify the residues on the surface of the Itk SH2 domain responsible for substrate docking and show that this SH2 surface mediates autophosphorylation in the full-length Itk molecule. The canonical phospholigand binding site on the SH2 domain is not involved in substrate docking, instead the docking site consists of side chains from three loop regions (AB, EF and BG) and part of the betaD strand. These results are extended into Btk (Bruton's tyrosine kinase), a Tec family kinase linked to the B-cell deficiency X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Our results suggest that some XLA-causing mutations might impair Btk phosphorylation.

  2. Development of a methodology for deriving Plasmaspheric Total Electron Content from In-Situ electron density measurements in highly eccentric equatorial orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadhique, Aliyuthuman; Buckley, Andrew; Gough, Paul; Sussex Space Science Centre Team

    2017-10-01

    The contribution of the Upper Plasmasphere (defined as the altitudes above semi-synchronous orbit height to the Plasmapause height) to the TEC has been and continues to be un-quantified. The PEACE instrument in the Chinese - ESA Double Star TC1 satellite, the mission's orbit's high eccentricity, low perigee, high apogee and the resulting smaller incident angle while in the above altitude range provide the ideal geometric opportunity to build a methodology and to utilize its empirical in-situ electron density measurements to determine the Upper Plasmaspheric TEC component. Furthermore, the variation of the Inclination Angle of TC1 makes it a suitable equatorial mission confined to the Near-Equatorial region, ie 200 - 250 on either sides of the magnetic equator. As the most pronounced absolute TEC values and variations are within this region, it offers an excellent opportunity to build a Upper Plasmaspheric TEC database. This research generates such, first-ever database along its orbital path, using a methodology of approximation equating arcs of the orbits to straight-line TEC Bars, utilizing complex mathematics, also enabling the determination of the whole Plasmaspheric TEC from any eccentric orbital probe. Presented the paper in 15th International Workshop on Technical and Scientific Aspects of MST radar (MST15/iMST2)'' and ``18th EISCAT Symposium (EISCAT18)'' in Tokyo, Japan and The Royal Astronomical Society National Astronomy Meeting 2017.

  3. Spatial and temporal analysis of the total electron content over China during 2011-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianchang; Zhao, Biqiang; Xiong, Bo; Wan, Weixing

    2016-06-01

    In the present work we investigate variations of ionospheric total electron content (TEC) with empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis, the four-year TEC data are derived from ∼250 GPS observations of the crustal movement observation network of China (CMONOC) over East Asian area (30-55°N, 70-140°E) during the period from 2011, January to 2014, December. The first two EOF components together account for ∼93.78% of total variance of the original TEC data set, and it is found that the first EOF component represents a spatial variability of semi-annual variation and the second EOF component exhibits pronounced east-west longitudinal difference with respect to zero valued geomagnetic declination line. In addition, climatology of the vertical plasma drift velocity vdz induced by HWM zonal wind field (∼300 km) are studied in the paper. Results shows vdz displays significant east-west longitudinal difference at 10:00 LT and 20:00 LT, and its daytime temporal variation is consistent with the second EOF principal component, which suggests that the east-west longitudinal variability is partly caused by the thermospheric zonal wind and geomagnetic declination. It is expected that with this dense GPS network, local ionospheric variability can be described more accurately and a more realistic ionospheric model can be constructed and used for the satellite navigation and radio propagation.

  4. Response of lightning energy and total electron content with sprites over Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparta, W.; Yusop, N.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the response of the lightning energy with the total electron content (TEC) derived from GPS over Antarctic Peninsula during St Patrick’s geomagnetic storm. During this event, sprite as one of the mesospheric transient luminous events (TLEs) associated with positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning discharges can be generated. In this work, GPS and lightning data for the period from 14 to 20 March 2015 is analyzed. Geomagnetic activity and electric field data are also processed to relate the geomagnetic storm and lightning. Results show that during St Patrick’s geomagnetic storm, the lighting energy was produced up to ∼257 kJ. The ionospheric TEC was obtained 60 TECU, 38 TECU and 78 TECU between 18:00 and 21:00 UT for OHI3, PALV and ROTH stations, respectively. The peak of lightning energy was observed 14 hours after peaked of TEC. Sprite possibly generated through the electrical coupling process between the top cloud, middle and upper atmosphere with the DC electric field found to be ∼10 mVm-1 which leading to the sprite generation after the return strokes on 18 March 2015.

  5. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) Analysis of Storm-Time GPS Total Electron Content Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, E. G.; Coster, A. J.; Zhang, S.; McGranaghan, R. M.; Shepherd, S. G.; Baker, J. B.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Large perturbations in ionospheric density are known to occur during geomagnetic storms triggered by dynamic structures in the solar wind. These ionospheric storm effects have long attracted interest due to their impact on the propagation characteristics of radio wave communications. Over the last two decades, maps of vertically-integrated total electron content (TEC) based on data collected by worldwide networks of Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers have dramatically improved our ability to monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of prominent storm-time features such as polar cap patches and storm enhanced density (SED) plumes. In this study, we use an empirical orthogonal function (EOF) decomposition technique to identify the primary modes of spatial and temporal variability in the storm-time GPS TEC response at midlatitudes over North America during more than 100 moderate geomagnetic storms from 2001-2013. We next examine the resulting time-varying principal components and their correlation with various geophysical indices and parameters in order to derive an analytical representation. Finally, we use a truncated reconstruction of the EOF basis functions and parameterization of the principal components to produce an empirical representation of the geomagnetic storm-time response of GPS TEC for all magnetic local times local times and seasons at midlatitudes in the North American sector.

  6. Performance evaluation of GIM-TEC assimilation of the IRI-Plas model at two equatorial stations in the American sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adebiyi, S. J.; Adebesin, B. O.; Ikubanni, S. O.; Joshua, B. W.

    2017-05-01

    Empirical models of the ionosphere, such as the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model, play a vital role in evaluating the environmental effect on the operation of space-based communication and navigation technologies. The IRI extended to Plasmasphere (IRI-Plas) model can be adjusted with external data to update its electron density profile while still maintaining the overall integrity of the model representations. In this paper, the performance of the total electron content (TEC) assimilation option of the IRI-Plas at two equatorial stations, Jicamarca, Peru (geographic: 12°S, 77°W, dip angle 0.8°) and Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil (Geographic: 22.7°S, 45°W, dip angle -26°), is examined during quiet and disturbed conditions. TEC, F2 layer critical frequency (foF2), and peak height (hmF2) predicted when the model is operated without external input were used as a baseline in our model evaluation. Results indicate that TEC predicted by the assimilation option generally produced smaller estimation errors compared to the "no extra input" option during quiet and disturbed conditions. Generally, the error is smaller at the equatorial trough than near the crest for both quiet and disturbed days. With assimilation option, there is a substantial improvement of storm time estimations when compared with quiet time predictions. The improvement is, however, independent on storm's severity. Furthermore, the modeled foF2 and hmF2 are generally poor with TEC assimilation, particularly the hmF2 prediction, at the two locations during both quiet and disturbed conditions. Consequently, IRI-Plas model assimilated with TEC value only may not be sufficient where more realistic instantaneous values of peak parameters are required.

  7. Thermal and TEC anomalies detection using an intelligent hybrid system around the time of the Saravan, Iran, (Mw = 7.7) earthquake of 16 April 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhoondzadeh, M.

    2014-02-01

    A powerful earthquake of Mw = 7.7 struck the Saravan region (28.107° N, 62.053° E) in Iran on 16 April 2013. Up to now nomination of an automated anomaly detection method in a non linear time series of earthquake precursor has been an attractive and challenging task. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) have revealed strong potentials in accurate time series prediction. This paper presents the first study of an integration of ANN and PSO method in the research of earthquake precursors to detect the unusual variations of the thermal and total electron content (TEC) seismo-ionospheric anomalies induced by the strong earthquake of Saravan. In this study, to overcome the stagnation in local minimum during the ANN training, PSO as an optimization method is used instead of traditional algorithms for training the ANN method. The proposed hybrid method detected a considerable number of anomalies 4 and 8 days preceding the earthquake. Since, in this case study, ionospheric TEC anomalies induced by seismic activity is confused with background fluctuations due to solar activity, a multi-resolution time series processing technique based on wavelet transform has been applied on TEC signal variations. In view of the fact that the accordance in the final results deduced from some robust methods is a convincing indication for the efficiency of the method, therefore the detected thermal and TEC anomalies using the ANN + PSO method were compared to the results with regard to the observed anomalies by implementing the mean, median, Wavelet, Kalman filter, Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) methods. The results indicate that the ANN + PSO method is quite promising and deserves serious attention as a new tool for thermal and TEC seismo anomalies detection.

  8. The proangiogenic phenotype of tumor-derived endothelial cells is reverted by the overexpression of platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase.

    PubMed

    Doublier, Sophie; Ceretto, Monica; Lupia, Enrico; Bravo, Stefania; Bussolati, Benedetta; Camussi, Giovanni

    2007-10-01

    We previously reported that human tumor-derived endothelial cells (TEC) have an angiogenic phenotype related to the autocrine production of several angiogenic factors. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether an enhanced synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF) might contribute to the proangiogenic characteristics of TEC and whether its inactivation might inhibit angiogenesis. To address the potential role of PAF in the proangiogenic characteristics of TEC, we engineered TEC to stably overexpress human plasma PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), the major PAF-inactivating enzyme, and we evaluated in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis. TECs were able to synthesize a significantly enhanced amount of PAF compared with normal human microvascular endothelial cells when stimulated with thrombin, vascular endothelial growth factor, or soluble CD154. Transfection of TEC with PAF-AH (TEC-PAF-AH) significantly inhibited apoptosis resistance and spontaneous motility of TEC. In addition, PAF and vascular endothelial growth factor stimulation enhanced the motility and adhesion of TEC but not of TEC-PAF-AH. In vitro, TEC-PAF-AH lost the characteristic ability of TEC to form vessel-like structures when plated on Matrigel. Finally, when cells were injected s.c. within Matrigel in severe combined immunodeficiency mice or coimplanted with a renal carcinoma cell line, the overexpression of PAF-AH induced a significant reduction of functional vessel formation. These results suggest that inactivation of PAF, produced by TEC, by the overexpression of plasma PAF-AH affects survival, migration, and the angiogenic response of TEC both in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Curriculum Change. An Evaluation of TEC Programme Development in Colleges. The Main Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Christopher; And Others

    An evaluation was made of the adoption of curriculum changes mandated by the Technician Education Council (TEC) by 78 colleges in England. The study concentrated on the processes of adaptation that occurred in the colleges in order to cope with the degree of change required by TEC. Data were collected via questionnaires, interviews, case studies,…

  10. NMobTec-EnvEdu: M-Learning System for Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavus, Nadire

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduced the implementation of a New Mobile Technologies and Environmental Education System (NMobTec-EnvEdu) designed for m-learning environments. The NMobTec-EnvEdu system has been developed to provide environmental education in a collaborative framework to undergraduate students through the Internet using mobile phones. The study…

  11. Development of TEC fluctuations in northern and southern hemispheres on the base of GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagimuratov, Irk; Krankowski, Andrzej; Sieradzki, Rafal; Ephishov, I. I.

    GPS technique is widely used to study the global structure and dynamics of the ionosphere. In this paper GPS observations carried out at Arctic and Antarctic stations belonging to the IGS network were used to study TEC fluctuations in the high-latitude ionosphere during the ionospheric storms. Dual-frequency GPS phase measurements along individual satellite passes served as raw data. It was shown that ionospheric irregularities of a different scale were devel-oped in the auroral and polar ionosphere. It is a common phenomenon caused phase fluctuations of GPS signals. In November 2009, West Department of IZMIRAN in Kaliningrad (Russia) and University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn (Poland) established computer server for automatic monitoring of these irregularities. The rate of TEC index (ROTI) expressed in TECU/min was used as a measure of TEC fluctuations. During its operation TEC variations related to ionospheric structures of a spatial scale more than 200-300 km were detected. Large-scale ionospheric structures cause an increase in horizontal gradients and difficulties with the carrier phase ambiguity resolution in GPS positioning. In turn, the phase fluctuations can cause cycle-slip effects. At the polar stations, ionospheric structures with TEC enhanced by a factor of 3-5 relative to the background were detected, whereas TEC increased to 5-8 TECU in about 10-15 min. These structures were observed during a storm, as well as during a moderate geomagnetic activity. It can be probably attributed to the polar cap patches. In this study are presented the extended and more detailed analyses of TEC fluctuations in both the northern and southern hemispheres and compare the winter and summer events (November and July 2004 storms). A special attention is given to the features related to TEC fluctuations occur-rence in both hemispheres for conjugated GPS stations. The temporal development of both storms was rather similar. During storms the intensity of irregularities

  12. Production and characterization refuse derived fuel (RDF) from high organic and moisture contents of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dianda, P.; Mahidin; Munawar, E.

    2018-03-01

    Many cities in developing countries is facing a serious problems to dealing with huge municipal solid waste (MSW) generated. The main approach to manage MSW is causes environmental impact associated with the leachate and landfill gas emissions. On the other hand, the energy available also limited by rapid growth of population and economic development due to shortage of the natural resource. In this study, the potential utilized of MSW to produce refuse derived fuel (RDF) was investigate. The RDF was produced with various organic waste content. Then, the RDF was subjected to laboratory analysis to determine its characteristic including the calorific value. The results shows the moisture content was increased by increasing organic waste content, while the calorific value was found 17-36 MJ/kg. The highest calorific value was about 36 MJ/kg obtained at RDF with 40% organic waste content. This results indicated that the RDF can be use to substitute coal in main burning process and calcinations of cement industry.

  13. Comparison of COSMIC RO Data with European Digisondes and GPS TEC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, Irina; Krypiak-Gregorczyk, Anna; Shagimuratov, Irk; Krankowski, Andrzej; Lagovsky, Anatoly

    variation of NmF2 for the considered seasons depending on day-time and night-time conditions. Also it was analyzed the total elec-tron content values calculated for the nearest ground-based GPS stations located in European region. To compare GPS TEC with RO and ionosondes' data these profiles were integrated. In general bottom parts of COSMIC and ionosondes' data are in a rather good agreement while the topside can be varied greatly that is the evidence of difference in the topside parts of these profiles. GPS TEC values are greater than COSMIC and ionosondes' data as TEC contains IEC and PEC. This procedure can be useful to estimate the impact of PEC into TEC. Results of the given comparisons can be important to validate the reliability of the COSMIC iono-spheric observations using the RO technique. We acknowledge the Taiwan's National Space Organization (NSPO) and the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) for providing the COSMIC Data. We are grateful to European Digital Upper Atmosphere Server (DIAS) for providing the ionosondes' products and to International GNSS Service (IGS) for GPS Data.

  14. Study of Ionospheric TEC from GPS observations and comparisons with IRI and SPIM model predictions in the low latitude anomaly Indian subcontinental region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, S. K.; Gedam, S. S.; Rajaram, G.

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigates variation of the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) in the low latitude Indian sub-continental region from the GPS observations and its comparison with the global ionosphere maps (GIMs), standard international reference ionosphere (IRI 2012), and the standard plasmasphere-ionosphere model (SPIM) for the period from November 2011 to October 2012 that corresponds to the progressive phase towards the midst of the solar cycle-24. Observations during quiet period show diurnal maximum of TEC occurring around 14:00-16:00 IST, with relatively broader and longer duration of local maximum at Bangalore and behave reversely towards Delhi. The secondary maximum of TEC was markedly noticeable at Bangalore during the months of March and September, and only in the month of September at Hyderabad and Mumbai. However, the relatively higher TEC during December month than the June is ascribed to the winter anomaly which is more prevalent during the high solar activity periods. The prevailing instability in latitudes of anomaly crest during January 2012 is possibly due to the seasonal variation of lunar tidal effects, modulating the EEJ strength at the equator. The studies covered the period of a strong geomagnetic storm during 6-11 March 2012 (SYM-H: -149 nT) which resulted in positive deviation of GPS-TEC at Bangalore (↑ 20%), Hyderabad (↑ 22%), and Lucknow (↑ 94%) compared to the mean quiet days level. The relatively large deviation of TEC at Lucknow could be attributed to the poleward shifting of the anomaly crest, manifested by enhanced fountain effect at the equator. Studies confirm excellent agreement (80-85%) of GPS-TEC with IGS-GIM at Bangalore and Hyderabad with the exception of the night-time hours (Deviations >50%). However relatively larger deviation of GPS-TEC from GIM-TEC at Delhi could be due to the unavailability of IGS stations in the proximity of the position. Predictions of the SPIM model (extension of IRI up to GPS

  15. Real time validation of GPS TEC precursor mask for Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulinets, Sergey; Davidenko, Dmitry

    2013-04-01

    It was established by earlier studies of pre-earthquake ionospheric variations that for every specific site these variations manifest definite stability in their temporal behavior within the time interval few days before the seismic shock. This self-similarity (characteristic to phenomena registered for processes observed close to critical point of the system) permits us to consider these variations as a good candidate to short-term precursor. Physical mechanism of GPS TEC variations before earthquakes is developed within the framework of Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (LAIC) model. Taking into account the different tectonic structure and different source mechanisms of earthquakes in different regions of the globe, every site has its individual behavior in pre-earthquake activity what creates individual "imprint" on the ionosphere behavior at every given point. Just this so called "mask" of the ionosphere variability before earthquake in the given point creates opportunity to detect anomalous behavior of electron concentration in ionosphere basing not only on statistical processing procedure but applying the pattern recognition technique what facilitates the automatic recognition of short-term ionospheric precursors of earthquakes. Such kind of precursor mask was created using the GPS TEC variation around the time of 9 earthquakes with magnitude from M6.0 till M6.9 which took place in Greece within the time interval 2006-2011. The major anomaly revealed in the relative deviation of the vertical TEC was the positive anomaly appearing at ~04PM UT one day before the seismic shock and lasting nearly 12 hours till ~04AM UT. To validate this approach it was decided to check the mask in real-time monitoring of earthquakes in Greece starting from the 1 of December 2012 for the earthquakes with magnitude more than 4.5. During this period (till 9 of January 2013) 4 cases of seismic shocks were registered, including the largest one M5.7 on 8 of January. For all of

  16. Mapping Grain Iron and Zinc Content Quantitative Trait Loci in an Iniadi-Derived Immortal Population of Pearl Millet

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sushil; Hash, Charles Tom; Nepolean, Thirunavukkarasu; Mahendrakar, Mahesh D.; Satyavathi, Chellapilla Tara; Singh, Govind; Rathore, Abhishek; Gupta, Rajeev; Srivastava, Rakesh K.

    2018-01-01

    Pearl millet is a climate-resilient nutritious crop requiring low inputs and is capable of giving economic returns in marginal agro-ecologies. In this study, we report large-effect iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content quantitative trait loci (QTLs) using diversity array technology (DArT) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers to generate a genetic linkage map using 317 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the (ICMS 8511-S1-17-2-1-1-B-P03 × AIMP 92901-S1-183-2-2-B-08) cross. The base map [seven linkage groups (LGs)] of 196 loci was 964.2 cM in length (Haldane). AIMP 92901-S1-183-2-2-B-08 is an Iniadi line with high grain Fe and Zn, tracing its origin to the Togolese Republic, West Africa. The content of grain Fe in the RIL population ranged between 20 and 131 ppm (parts per million), and that of Zn from 18 to 110 ppm. QTL analysis revealed a large number of QTLs for high grain iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content. A total of 19 QTLs for Fe and Zn were detected, of which 11 were for Fe and eight were for Zn. The portion of the observed phenotypic variance explained by different QTLs for grain Fe and Zn content varied from 9.0 to 31.9% (cumulative 74%) and from 9.4 to 30.4% (cumulative 65%), respectively. Three large-effect QTLs for both minerals were co-mapped in this population, one on LG1 and two on LG7. The favorable QTL alleles of both mineral micronutrients were contributed by the male parent (AIMP 92901-deriv-08). Three putative epistasis interactions were observed for Fe content, while a single digenic interaction was found for Zn content. The reported QTLs may be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs, in genomic selection (GS) breeding pipelines for seed and restorer parents, and in population improvement programs for pearl millet. PMID:29751669

  17. Mapping Grain Iron and Zinc Content Quantitative Trait Loci in an Iniadi-Derived Immortal Population of Pearl Millet.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Hash, Charles Tom; Nepolean, Thirunavukkarasu; Mahendrakar, Mahesh D; Satyavathi, Chellapilla Tara; Singh, Govind; Rathore, Abhishek; Yadav, Rattan S; Gupta, Rajeev; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2018-05-11

    Pearl millet is a climate-resilient nutritious crop requiring low inputs and is capable of giving economic returns in marginal agro-ecologies. In this study, we report large-effect iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content quantitative trait loci ( QTLs) using diversity array technology (DArT) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers to generate a genetic linkage map using 317 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the (ICMS 8511-S1-17-2-1-1-B-P03 × AIMP 92901-S1-183-2-2-B-08) cross. The base map [seven linkage groups (LGs)] of 196 loci was 964.2 cM in length (Haldane). AIMP 92901-S1-183-2-2-B-08 is an Iniadi line with high grain Fe and Zn, tracing its origin to the Togolese Republic, West Africa. The content of grain Fe in the RIL population ranged between 20 and 131 ppm (parts per million), and that of Zn from 18 to 110 ppm. QTL analysis revealed a large number of QTLs for high grain iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) content. A total of 19 QTLs for Fe and Zn were detected, of which 11 were for Fe and eight were for Zn. The portion of the observed phenotypic variance explained by different QTLs for grain Fe and Zn content varied from 9.0 to 31.9% (cumulative 74%) and from 9.4 to 30.4% (cumulative 65%), respectively. Three large-effect QTLs for both minerals were co-mapped in this population, one on LG1 and two on LG7. The favorable QTL alleles of both mineral micronutrients were contributed by the male parent (AIMP 92901-deriv-08). Three putative epistasis interactions were observed for Fe content, while a single digenic interaction was found for Zn content. The reported QTLs may be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs, in genomic selection (GS) breeding pipelines for seed and restorer parents, and in population improvement programs for pearl millet.

  18. Analysis of annual fluctuations in the content of phenol, chlorophenols and their derivatives in chlorinated drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Michałowicz, Jaromir; Stufka-Olczyk, Jadwiga; Milczarek, Anna; Michniewicz, Małgorzata

    2011-08-01

    Chlorophenols are widely represented, toxic, and persistent environmental pollutants. In this work, we analyzed annual fluctuations in the content of phenol, guaiacol, chlorophenols, chlorocatechols, and chlorinated methoxyphenols in drinking water collected in Warsaw and Tomaszów Mazowiecki (Poland). Moreover, the effect of dissolved organic matter content on the occurrence of phenolic compounds in drinking water was studied. The compounds were adsorbed on octadecyl C18 solid-phase discs, separated by the use of gas chromatography, and analyzed using mass spectrometry. The content of organic matter was evaluated by the analysis of UV absorption at 254 nm by water samples. In Warsaw, raw water (derived from infiltration intakes situated in the Vistula River) and treated water (subjected to coagulation, filtration, and disinfection with chlorine dioxide) were collected in order to analyze phenols. In Tomaszów Mazowiecki, raw water (taken directly form the river) and treated water (subjected to coagulation, sand filtration, ozonation, and disinfection with gaseous chlorine) were taken to determine phenolic substances. The obtained results showed the occurrence of phenol, guaiacol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), tetrachlorophenol (TeCP), and pentachlorophenol in drinking water of both cities. Occasionally, in the waters studied, the appearance of chloroguaiacols, 3-chlorosyringol, and some chlorocatechols were noted. It was also observed that the content of dissolved organic matter in river waters may have contributed to the formation of some phenols, e.g., phenol, guaiacol, 2,4,6-TCP, and TeCP in drinking water. Finally, it was found that there were no annual (seasonal) fluctuations in phenolic compounds contents in drinking waters examined.

  19. Secular variation and fluctuation of GPS Total Electron Content over Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Rui; Jin, Shuanggen

    2013-01-01

    The total electron content (TEC) is an important parameters in the Earth's ionosphere, related to various space weather and solar activities. However, understanding of the complex ionospheric environments is still a challenge due to the lack of direct observations, particularly in the polar areas, e.g., Antarctica. Now the Global Positioning System (GPS) can be used to retrieve total electron content (TEC) from dual-frequency observations. The continuous GPS observations in Antarctica provide a good opportunity to investigate ionospheric climatology. In this paper, the long-term variations and fluctuations of TEC over Antarctica are investigated from CODE global ionospheric maps (GIM) with a resolution of 2.5°×5° every two hours since 1998. The analysis shows significant seasonal and secular variations in the GPS TEC. Furthermore, the effects of TEC fluctuations are discussed.

  20. A single cell high content assay detects mitochondrial dysfunction in iPSC-derived neurons with mutations in SNCA.

    PubMed

    Little, Daniel; Luft, Christin; Mosaku, Olukunbi; Lorvellec, Maëlle; Yao, Zhi; Paillusson, Sébastien; Kriston-Vizi, Janos; Gandhi, Sonia; Abramov, Andrey Y; Ketteler, Robin; Devine, Michael J; Gissen, Paul

    2018-06-13

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a unique cell model for studying neurological diseases. We have established a high-content assay that can simultaneously measure mitochondrial function, morphology and cell viability in iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons. iPSCs from PD patients with mutations in SNCA and unaffected controls were differentiated into dopaminergic neurons, seeded in 384-well plates and stained with the mitochondrial membrane potential dependent dye TMRM, alongside Hoechst-33342 and Calcein-AM. Images were acquired using an automated confocal screening microscope and single cells were analysed using automated image analysis software. PD neurons displayed reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and altered mitochondrial morphology compared to control neurons. This assay demonstrates that high content screening techniques can be applied to the analysis of mitochondria in iPSC-derived neurons. This technique could form part of a drug discovery platform to test potential new therapeutics for PD and other neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Fresenius AS.TEC204 blood cell separator.

    PubMed

    Sugai, Mikiya

    2003-02-01

    Fresenius AS.TEC204 is a third-generation blood cell separator that incorporates the continuous centrifugal separation method and automatic control of the cell separation process. Continuous centrifugation separates cell components according to their specific gravity, and different cell components are either harvested or eliminated as needed. The interface between the red blood cell and plasma is optically detected, and the Interface Control (IFC) cooperates with different pumps, monitors and detectors to harvest required components automatically. The system is composed of three major sections; the Front Panel Unit; the Pump Unit, and the Centrifuge Unit. This unit can be used for a wide variety of clinical applications including collection of platelets, peripheral blood stem cells, bone marrow stem cells, granulocytes, mononuclear cells, and exchange of plasma or red cells, and for plasma treatment.

  2. Inactivation of genes TEC1 and EFG1 in Candida albicans influences extracellular matrix composition and biofilm morphology.

    PubMed

    Panariello, Beatriz Helena Dias; Klein, Marlise I; Pavarina, Ana Claudia; Duarte, Simone

    2017-01-01

    Background : Infections caused by Candida spp. have been associated with formation of a biofilm, i.e. a complex microstructure of cells adhering to a surface and embedded within an extracellular matrix (ECM). Methods : The ECMs of a wild-type (WT, SN425) and two Candida albicans mutant strains, Δ/Δ tec1 (CJN2330) and Δ/Δ efg1 (CJN2302), were evaluated. Colony-forming units (cfu), total biomass (mg), water-soluble polysaccharides (WSPs), alkali-soluble polysaccharides (ASPs), proteins (insoluble part of biofilms and matrix proteins), and extracellular DNA (eDNA) were quantified. Variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy and confocal scanning laser microscopy were performed. The biovolume (μm 3 /μm 2 ) and maximum thickness (μm) of the biofilms were quantified using COMSTAT2. Results : ASP content was highest in WT (mean ± SD: 74.5 ± 22.0 µg), followed by Δ/Δ tec1 (44.0 ± 24.1 µg) and Δ/Δ efg1 (14.7 ± 5.0 µg). The protein correlated with ASPs ( r  = 0.666) and with matrix proteins ( r  = 0.670) in the WT strain. The population in Δ/Δ efg1 correlated with the protein ( r  = 0.734) and its biofilms exhibited the lowest biomass and biovolume, and maximum thickness. In Δ/Δ tec1, ASP correlated with eDNA ( r  = 0.678). Conclusion : ASP production may be linked to C. albicans cell filamentous morphology.

  3. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 3 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfurmore » middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based

  4. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfurmore » middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based

  5. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Bergin

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfurmore » middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based

  6. The Effect of Temperature and Concentration of Foaming Agent to the β-Carotene Content in Product Derived from Carrots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fardiyah, Qonitah; Rumhayati, Barlah; Husnul Khotimah, Yuniesti

    2018-01-01

    Carrot (Daucus carota L) is vegetable that contain body essetial vitamins, especially β-carotene. In this research, the essense of fresh carrots are taken and processed to carrot powder using foam mat drying method. This research aims to study the effect of temperature and concentration of foaming agent to the β-carotene content in product derived from carrots. The temperature variation that used in this research are 40°C, 50°C, 60°C and 70°C, while he variation of foaming agent (tween 80) are 0,01% (v/v); 0,1%(v/v); 0,2%(v/v) and 0,3%(v/v). The results shows that the maximum drying temperature is 50°C with β-carotene content 10.55 mg/kg and the maximum concentration of foaming agent (tween 80) is 0.2% (v/v) with β-carotene content 10.36 mg/kg.

  7. An assessment of the information content of likelihood ratios derived from complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Clare D; Rudin, Norah; Inman, Keith; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-05-01

    With the increasing sensitivity of DNA typing methodologies, as well as increasing awareness by law enforcement of the perceived capabilities of DNA typing, complex mixtures consisting of DNA from two or more contributors are increasingly being encountered. However, insufficient research has been conducted to characterize the ability to distinguish a true contributor (TC) from a known non-contributor (KNC) in these complex samples, and under what specific conditions. In order to investigate this question, sets of six 15-locus Caucasian genotype profiles were simulated and used to create mixtures containing 2-5 contributors. Likelihood ratios were computed for various situations, including varying numbers of contributors and unknowns in the evidence profile, as well as comparisons of the evidence profile to TCs and KNCs. This work was intended to illustrate the best-case scenario, in which all alleles from the TC were detected in the simulated evidence samples. Therefore the possibility of drop-out was not modeled in this study. The computer program DNAMIX was then used to compute LRs comparing the evidence profile to TCs and KNCs. This resulted in 140,000 LRs for each of the two scenarios. These complex mixture simulations show that, even when all alleles are detected (i.e. no drop-out), TCs can generate LRs less than 1 across a 15-locus profile. However, this outcome was rare, 7 of 140,000 replicates (0.005%), and associated only with mixtures comprising 5 contributors in which the numerator hypothesis includes one or more unknown contributors. For KNCs, LRs were found to be greater than 1 in a small number of replicates (75 of 140,000 replicates, or 0.05%). These replicates were limited to 4 and 5 person mixtures with 1 or more unknowns in the numerator. Only 5 of these 75 replicates (0.004%) yielded an LR greater than 1,000. Thus, overall, these results imply that the weight of evidence that can be derived from complex mixtures containing up to 5 contributors

  8. Comparison of total water vapour content in the Arctic derived from GNSS, AIRS, MODIS and SCIAMACHY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alraddawi, Dunya; Sarkissian, Alain; Keckhut, Philippe; Bock, Olivier; Noël, Stefan; Bekki, Slimane; Irbah, Abdenour; Meftah, Mustapha; Claud, Chantal

    2018-05-01

    Atmospheric water vapour plays a key role in the Arctic radiation budget, hydrological cycle and hence climate, but its measurement with high accuracy remains an important challenge. Total column water vapour (TCWV) datasets derived from ground-based GNSS measurements are used to assess the quality of different existing satellite TCWV datasets, namely from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY). The comparisons between GNSS and satellite data are carried out for three reference Arctic observation sites (Sodankylä, Ny-Ålesund and Thule) where long homogeneous GNSS time series of more than a decade (2001-2014) are available. We select hourly GNSS data that are coincident with overpasses of the different satellites over the three sites and then average them into monthly means that are compared with monthly mean satellite products for different seasons. The agreement between GNSS and satellite time series is generally within 5 % at all sites for most conditions. The weakest correlations are found during summer. Among all the satellite data, AIRS shows the best agreement with GNSS time series, though AIRS TCWV is often slightly too high in drier atmospheres (i.e. high-latitude stations during autumn and winter). SCIAMACHY TCWV data are generally drier than GNSS measurements at all the stations during the summer. This study suggests that these biases are associated with cloud cover, especially at Ny-Ålesund and Thule. The dry biases of MODIS and SCIAMACHY observations are most pronounced at Sodankylä during the snow season (from October to March). Regarding SCIAMACHY, this bias is possibly linked to the fact that the SCIAMACHY TCWV retrieval does not take accurately into account the variations in surface albedo, notably in the presence of snow with a nearby canopy as in Sodankylä. The MODIS bias at Sodankylä is found

  9. Analysis of geostationary satellite-derived cloud parameters associated with environments with high ice water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Laat, Adrianus; Defer, Eric; Delanoë, Julien; Dezitter, Fabien; Gounou, Amanda; Grandin, Alice; Guignard, Anthony; Fokke Meirink, Jan; Moisselin, Jean-Marc; Parol, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    We present an evaluation of the ability of passive broadband geostationary satellite measurements to detect high ice water content (IWC > 1 g m-3) as part of the European High Altitude Ice Crystals (HAIC) project for detection of upper-atmospheric high IWC, which can be a hazard for aviation. We developed a high IWC mask based on measurements of cloud properties using the Cloud Physical Properties (CPP) algorithm applied to the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). Evaluation of the high IWC mask with satellite measurements of active remote sensors of cloud properties (CLOUDSAT/CALIPSO combined in the DARDAR (raDAR-liDAR) product) reveals that the high IWC mask is capable of detecting high IWC values > 1 g m-3 in the DARDAR profiles with a probability of detection of 60-80 %. The best CPP predictors of high IWC were the condensed water path, cloud optical thickness, cloud phase, and cloud top height. The evaluation of the high IWC mask against DARDAR provided indications that the MSG-CPP high IWC mask is more sensitive to cloud ice or cloud water in the upper part of the cloud, which is relevant for aviation purposes. Biases in the CPP results were also identified, in particular a solar zenith angle (SZA) dependence that reduces the performance of the high IWC mask for SZAs > 60°. Verification statistics show that for the detection of high IWC a trade-off has to be made between better detection of high IWC scenes and more false detections, i.e., scenes identified by the high IWC mask that do not contain IWC > 1 g m-3. However, the large majority of these detections still contain IWC values between 0.1 and 1 g m-3. Comparison of the high IWC mask against results from the Rapidly Developing Thunderstorm (RDT) algorithm applied to the same geostationary SEVIRI data showed that there are similarities and differences with the high IWC mask: the RDT algorithm is very capable of detecting young

  10. Clouds and troughs of total electron content detected with the ionospheric weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaeva, Tamara

    2016-07-01

    The ionospheric weather W index has been developed with the different thresholds of change in the F2 layer peak electron density NmF2 (proportional to foF2 critical frequency) or total electron content TEC relative their quiet reference for quantifying the ionosphere variability. The thresholds of DTEC=log(TEC/TECq) are selected for the positive and negative logarithm of TEC ratio to the quiet reference median, TECq, at any given location on the Earth. The global W-index maps are produced from Global Ionospheric Maps of Total Electron Content, GIM-TEC, and provided online at http://www.izmiran.ru/services/iweather/ and http://www.iololab.org/. Based on W-index maps, Catalogues of the ionospheric storms and sub-storms are produced available for the users. The second generation of the ionospheric weather indices, designated V index, is recently introduced and applied for the retrospective study of GIM-TEC variability during 1999-2015. Using sliding-window statistical analysis, moving daily-hourly TEC median TECq for 15 preceding days with estimated variance bounds are obtained at cells of GIM-TEC. The ionosphere variability index, V, is expressed in terms of ΔTEC deviation from the median normalized by the standard deviation STD. V index segmentation is introduced from Vn=-4 in step of 1 to Vp=4 specifying TEC storm if an instant TEC is outside of TECq+-1STD. The global maps of V index allow distinguish the clouds of enhanced TEC (positive storm signatures) and troughs of TEC depletion (negative storm signatures) as compared to the background quiet reference TECq map. It is found that the large-scale TEC clouds and troughs are observed in space all over the world constituting up to 20-50 percent of cells of GIM-TEC. The time variation of these plasma patches is partly following to geomagnetic SSC storm onset. As concerns the interplanetary and the solar wind, SW, sources of the ionospheric storms the TEC storms are observed both with IMF and SW precursors and

  11. Ionospheric disturbances detected by high-resolution GPS-TEC observations after an earthquake and a tornado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsugawa, Takuya; Otsuka, Yuichi; Saito, Akinori; Ishii, Mamoru; Nishioka, Michi

    Ionospheric disturbances following the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and the 2013 Moore tornado were observed by high-resolution GPS total electron content (TEC) observations using dense GPS receiver networks. After the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, concentric waves with short propagation distance propagated in the radial direction in the propagation velocity of 3,457, 783, 423 m/s for the first, second, third peak, respectively. Following these waves, concentric waves with long propagation distance appeared to propagate at the velocity of 138-288 m/s. In the vicinity of the epicenter, sudden TEC depletions and short-period oscillations with a period of approximately 4 minutes were also observed. The center of these ionospheric variations, termed the "ionospheric epicenter", corresponded to the tsunami source. Comparing to the results of a numerical simulation using non-hydrostatic compressible atmosphere-ionosphere model, the first peak of circular wave would be caused by the acoustic waves generated from the propagating Rayleigh wave. The second and third waves would be caused by atmospheric gravity waves excited in the lower ionosphere due to the acoustic wave propagations from the tsunami source. The fourth and following waves are considered to be caused by the atmospheric gravity waves induced by the wavefronts of traveling tsunami. After the EF5 tornado hit Moore, Oklahoma, USA, on 20 May 2013, clear concentric waves and short-period oscillations were observed. These concentric waves were non-dispersive waves with a horizontal wavelength of approximately 120 km and a period of approximately 13 minutes. They were observed for more than seven hours throughout North America. TEC oscillations with a period of approximately 4 minutes were also observed in the south of Moore for more than eight hours. Comparison between the GPS-TEC observations and the infrared cloud images from the GOES satellite indicates that the concentric waves and the short-period oscillations would be

  12. High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Global GPS TEC Observations of the 2015 St. Patrick Day Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, J.

    2015-12-01

    High spatiotemperal resolution global GPS TEC measurements of the 2015 St. Patrick's day storm are presented. The high resolution data is useful, as it clearly shows the high latitude convection patterns, the equatorward progression of the auroral region, the tongue of ionization, as well as the increased electron density in the equatorial anomaly region. The measurements are compared with high power large aperture radar and passive radar measurements of coherent and incoherent scatter at Millstone Hill. Regions of fast convection identified in the GPS TEC data are found to coincide with coherent scatter in both radar data. Convection velocities determined from GPS TEC are compared with those obtained from incoherent scatter radar measurements.

  13. The study of variability of TEC over mid-latitude American regions during the ascending phase of solar cycle 24 (2009-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmare Tariku, Yekoye

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with the pattern of the variability of the Global Positioning System vertical total electron content (GPS VTEC) and the modeled vertical total electron content (IRI 2012 TEC) over American mid-latitude regions during the rising phase of solar cycle 24 (2009-2011). This has been conducted employing ground-based dual frequency GPS receiver installed at Mississippi County Airport (geographic lat. 36.85°N and long. 270.64°E). In this work, the monthly and seasonal variations in the measured VTEC have been analyzed and compared with the VTEC inferred from IRI-2012 model. It has been shown that the monthly and seasonal mean VTEC values get decreased mostly between 05:00 and 10:00 UT and reach their minimal nearly at around 10:00 UT for both the experimental and the model. The VTEC values then get increased and reach the peak values at around 20:00 UT and decrease again. Moreover, it is depicted that the model better estimates both the monthly and seasonal mean hourly VTEC values mostly between 15:00 and 20:00 UT. The modeled monthly and seasonal VTEC values are smaller than the corresponding measured values as the solar activity decreases when all options for the topside electron density are used. However, as the Sun goes from a very low to a high solar activity, the overestimation performance of the VTEC values derived from the model increases. The overall results show that it is generally better to use the model with IRI-2000 option for the topside electron density in estimating the monthly and seasonal VTEC variations, especially when the activity of the Sun decreases.

  14. Efficient Usage of Dense GNSS Networks in Central Europe for the Visualization and Investigation of Ionospheric TEC Variations.

    PubMed

    Nykiel, Grzegorz; Zanimonskiy, Yevgen M; Yampolski, Yuri M; Figurski, Mariusz

    2017-10-10

    The technique of the orthogonal projection of ionosphere electronic content variations for mapping total electron content (TEC) allows us to visualize ionospheric irregularities. For the reconstruction of global ionospheric characteristics, numerous global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers located in different regions of the Earth are used as sensors. We used dense GNSS networks in central Europe to detect and investigate a special type of plasma inhomogeneities, called travelling ionospheric disturbances (TID). Such use of GNSS sensors allows us to reconstruct the main TID parameters, such as spatial dimensions, velocities, and directions of their movement. The paper gives examples of the restoration of dynamic characteristics of ionospheric irregularities for quiet and disturbed geophysical conditions. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of ionospheric disturbances stimulated by the magnetic storms of two St. Patrick's Days (17 March 2013 and 2015). Additional opportunities for the remote sensing of the ionosphere with the use of dense regional networks of GNSS receiving sensors have been noted too.

  15. (Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/AzTEC submillimetre galaxies. I. Multiwavelength identifications and redshift distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, O.; Smolčić, V.; Novak, M.; Aravena, M.; Karim, A.; Masters, D.; Riechers, D. A.; Bussmann, R. S.; McCracken, H. J.; Ilbert, O.; Bertoldi, F.; Capak, P.; Feruglio, C.; Halliday, C.; Kartaltepe, J. S.; Navarrete, F.; Salvato, M.; Sanders, D.; Schinnerer, E.; Sheth, K.

    2015-05-01

    We used the Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI) to map a sample of 15 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the COSMOS field at the wavelength of 1.3 mm. The target SMGs were originally discovered in the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT)/AzTEC 1.1 mm continuum survey at S/N1.1 mm = 4-4.5. This paper presents, for the first time, interferometric millimetre-wavelength observations of these sources. The angular resolution of our observations, 1''&dotbelow;8, allowed us to accurately determine the positions of the target SMGs. Using a detection threshold of S/N1.3 mm> 4.5 regardless of multiwavelength counterpart association, and 4 TEC19. Three of our detected SMGs (AzTEC21, 27, and 28; which corresponds to 20%) are marginally resolved at our angular resolution, and these sources are found to have elongated or clumpy morphologies and/or multiple components. Using optical to near-infrared photometric redshifts, available spectroscopic redshifts, and redshifts estimated from the radio-to-submm spectral index we infer a median redshift of tilde{z}= 3.20 ± 0.25 for our sample. To study the overall multiplicity and redshift distribution of flux-limited samples of SMGs we combined these sources with the 15 brightest JCMT/AzTEC SMGs detected at 1.1 mm, AzTEC1-15, and studied previously. This constitutes a complete, flux- and S/N-limited 1.1-mm selected sample. We find that the median redshift for the 15 brightest JCMT/AzTEC SMGs (tilde{z}= 3.05 ± 0.44) is consistent with that for AzTEC16-30. This conforms to recent observational findings that SMGs do not exhibit any significant trend between the redshift and (sub)mm flux density. For the combined AzTEC1-30 sample we derive a median redshift of tilde{z}= 3.17 ± 0.27, consistent with previous results based on mm

  16. Curriculum Change Part 2a. Programme Development in Colleges. Part 2a: The Work Activities of Teachers on TEC Certificate Programmes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, S.; And Others

    A study examined the day-to-day work activities of teachers of Technician Education Council (TEC) certificate programs in Great Britain. During the study, a detailed questionnaire dealing with the tasks performed by TEC teachers, the amount of time spent on TEC teachers on individual activities, and the impact of the TEC programs on teacher…

  17. Content of antioxidative caffeoylquinic acid derivatives in field-grown Ligularia fischeri (Ledeb.) Turcz and responses to sunlight.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Min; Jeon, Je-Seung; Kang, Suk Woo; Jung, Yu-Jin; Ly, Lin Na; Um, Byung-Hun

    2012-06-06

    Ligularia fischeri (Ledeb.) Turcz, a commercial leafy vegetable, contains caffeoylquinic acid derivatives (CQAs) as major phenolic constituents. The HPLC chromatograms of leaf extracts collected from different areas in Korea showed a significant variation in CQA amount, and two tri-O-caffeoylquinic acids (triCQAs) were purified and structurally identified by NMR and MS from this plant. Radical scavenging activities among CQAs were found to be increased in proportion to the number of caffeoyl groups. Since this plant prefers damp and shady growth conditions, the effects of sunlight were investigated by growing plantlets in sunlight and shade for four weeks. Greater leaf thickness and higher phenolic contents were found for leaves grown in sunlight than in shade. Four major CQAs-5-mono-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-monoCQA), and 3,4-, 3,5-, and 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (diCQA)-were induced by solar irradiation, whereas the content of these compounds decreased steadily in shade leaves. The leaves of L. fischeri clearly showed adaptation responses to sunlight, and these characteristics can be exploited for cultivation of this plant for potential use as a nutraceutical and functional food.

  18. High content screening of defined chemical libraries using normal and glioma-derived neural stem cell lines.

    PubMed

    Danovi, Davide; Folarin, Amos A; Baranowski, Bart; Pollard, Steven M

    2012-01-01

    Small molecules with potent biological effects on the fate of normal and cancer-derived stem cells represent both useful research tools and new drug leads for regenerative medicine and oncology. Long-term expansion of mouse and human neural stem cells is possible using adherent monolayer culture. These cultures represent a useful cellular resource to carry out image-based high content screening of small chemical libraries. Improvements in automated microscopy, desktop computational power, and freely available image processing tools, now means that such chemical screens are realistic to undertake in individual academic laboratories. Here we outline a cost effective and versatile time lapse imaging strategy suitable for chemical screening. Protocols are described for the handling and screening of human fetal Neural Stem (NS) cell lines and their malignant counterparts, Glioblastoma-derived neural stem cells (GNS). We focus on identification of cytostatic and cytotoxic "hits" and discuss future possibilities and challenges for extending this approach to assay lineage commitment and differentiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MODIS-derived atmospheric water vapor (AWV) content and its correlation to land use and land cover in Northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kaishan; Wu, Junjie; Li, Lin; Wang, Zongming; Lu, Dongmei; Du, Jia; Zhang, Bai

    2010-08-01

    Atmospheric water vapor (AWV) content is closely related to precipitation that in turn has effects on the productivity of agricultural, forestry and range land. MODIS images have been used for AWV retrieval, and the method uses either two (0.841-0.876 μm and 0.915-0.965 μm) or three (0.841-0.876, 0.915-0.965 and 1.230-0-1.250 μm) MODIS channel ratios. We applied both methods to the MODIS data over Northeast China acquired from June to August, 2008 to retrieve AWV content, and the results were validated on ground observed data from 10 radio sonde stations characterized by various land cover. The bulk results indicate that the two-channel ratio outperformed the three-channel ratio based on the coefficient of determination R2 = 0.81 vs. 0.78. The validation results for individual land cover types also support this observation with R2 = 0.92 vs. 0.84 for woodland, 0.82 vs. 0.79 for cropland, 0.90 vs. 0.86 for grassland and 0.673 vs. 0.669 for urban areas. The spatial distribution of AWV derived using the two-channel ratio method was correlated to land-use classification data, and a high correlation was evident when other conditions were similar. With the exception of dry cropland, the amount of average water vapor content over different land use types demonstrates a consistent order: water-body > paddy-field > woodland > grassland > barren for the analyzed multi-temporal MODIS data. This order partially matches the evapotranspiration pattern of underlying surface, and future work is required for analyzing the association of the landscape pattern with AWV in the region.

  20. Spatial analyses on seismo-ionospheric precursors observed by GIM TEC and DEMETER during the 2008 M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jann-Yenq; Chen, Yuh-Ing; Huang, Ching-Chi; Parrot, Michel; Pulinets, Sergey; Ouzounov, Dimitar

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines seismo-ionospheric precursors (SIPs) in the total electron content (TEC) of the global ionosphere map (GIM) and observations in the French satellite DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) during the 12 May 2008 M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake. The temporal and spatial analyses on the GIM TEC are used to search SIPs of the Wenchuan earthquake. Meanwhile, both daytime and nighttime electron density (Ne), electron temperature (Te), ion density (Ni) and ion temperature (Ti) probed by DEMETER are investigated. A statistical analysis of the box-and-whisker method is utilized to see if the four DEMETER data sets 1-6 days before and after the earthquake are significantly different. The analysis is employed to investigate the epicenter and three reference areas along the same magnetic latitude discriminating the SIPs from global effects. Results show that the nighttime Ne and Ni (daytime Ti) over the epicenter significantly decrease (increase) 1-6 days before the earthquake. The intersections of the global distribution of the significant differences (or anomalous changes) in the nighttime Ne, the nighttime Ni, and the daytime Ti 1-6 days before and after the earthquake specifically appear over the epicenter. The spatial analyses confirm that SIPs of GIM TEC and DEMETER observations appearing 2-6 days before are related to the 2008 M8.0 Wenchuan earthquake.

  1. Seismo-ionospheric anomalies in ionospheric TEC and plasma density before the 17 July 2006 M7.7 south of Java earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Dan; Cao, Jinbin; Battiston, Roberto; Li, Liuyuan; Ma, Yuduan; Liu, Wenlong; Zhima, Zeren; Wang, Lanwei; Wray Dunlop, Malcolm

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we report significant evidence for preseismic ionospheric anomalies in total electron content (TEC) of the global ionosphere map (GIM) and plasma density appearing on day 2 before the 17 July 2006 M7.7 south of Java earthquake. After distinguishing other anomalies related to the geomagnetic activities, we found a temporal precursor around the epicenter on day 2 before the earthquake (15 July 2006), which agrees well with the spatial variations in latitude-longitude-time (LLT) maps. Meanwhile, the sequences of latitude-time-TEC (LTT) plots reveal that the TECs on epicenter side anomalously decrease and lead to an anomalous asymmetric structure with respect to the magnetic equator in the daytime from day 2 before the earthquake. This anomalous asymmetric structure disappears after the earthquake. To further confirm these anomalies, we studied the plasma data from DEMETER satellite in the earthquake preparation zone (2046.4 km in radius) during the period from day 45 before to day 10 after the earthquake, and also found that the densities of both electron and total ion in the daytime significantly increase on day 2 before the earthquake. Very interestingly, O+ density increases significantly and H+ density decreases, while He+ remains relatively stable. These results indicate that there exists a distinct preseismic signal (preseismic ionospheric anomaly) over the epicenter.

  2. Genetic algorithm for TEC seismo-ionospheric anomalies detection around the time of the Solomon (Mw = 8.0) earthquake of 06 February 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhoondzadeh, M.

    2013-08-01

    On 6 February 2013, at 12:12:27 local time (01:12:27 UTC) a seismic event registering Mw 8.0 struck the Solomon Islands, located at the boundaries of the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates. Time series prediction is an important and widely interesting topic in the research of earthquake precursors. This paper describes a new computational intelligence approach to detect the unusual variations of the total electron content (TEC) seismo-ionospheric anomalies induced by the powerful Solomon earthquake using genetic algorithm (GA). The GA detected a considerable number of anomalous occurrences on earthquake day and also 7 and 8 days prior to the earthquake in a period of high geomagnetic activities. In this study, also the detected TEC anomalies using the proposed method are compared to the results dealing with the observed TEC anomalies by applying the mean, median, wavelet, Kalman filter, ARIMA, neural network and support vector machine methods. The accordance in the final results of all eight methods is a convincing indication for the efficiency of the GA method. It indicates that GA can be an appropriate non-parametric tool for anomaly detection in a non linear time series showing the seismo-ionospheric precursors variations.

  3. First results from the ionospheric tomography experiment using beacon TEC data obtained by means of a network along a longitude of 136°E over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, Smitha V.; Yamamoto, Mamoru

    2010-03-01

    A chain of newly designed GNU (GNU is not UNIX) Radio Beacon Receivers (GRBR) has recently been established over Japan, primarily for tomographic imaging of the ionosphere over this region. Receivers installed at Shionomisaki (33.45°N, 135.8°E), Shigaraki (34.8°N, 136.1°E), and Fukui (36°N, 136°E) continuously track low earth orbiting satellites (LEOS), mainly OSCAR, Cosmos, and FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC, to obtain simultaneous total electron content (TEC) data from these three locations, which are then used for the tomographic reconstruction of ionospheric electron densities. This is the first GRBR network established for TEC observations, and the first beacon-based tomographic imaging in Japanese longitudes. The first tomographic images revealed the temporal evolution with all of the major features in the ionospheric electron density distribution over Japan. A comparison of the tomographically reconstructed electron densities with the ƒ o F 2 data from Kokubunji (35°N, 139°E) revealed that there was good agreement between the datasets. These first results show the potential of GRBR and its network for making continuous, unattended ionospheric TEC measurements and for tomographic imaging of the ionosphere.

  4. A Real-Time Earthquake Precursor Detection Technique Using TEC from a GPS Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alp Akyol, Ali; Arikan, Feza; Arikan, Orhan

    2016-07-01

    Anomalies have been observed in the ionospheric electron density distribution prior to strong earthquakes. However, most of the reported results are obtained by earthquake analysis. Therefore, their implementation in practice is highly problematic. Recently, a novel earthquake precursor detection technique based on spatio-temporal analysis of Total Electron Content (TEC) data obtained from Turkish National Permanent GPS Network (TNPGN) is developed by IONOLAB group (www.ionolab.org). In the present study, the developed detection technique is implemented in a causal setup over the available data set in test phase that enables the real time implementation. The performance of the developed earthquake prediction technique is evaluated by using 10 fold cross validation over the data obtained in 2011. Among the 23 earthquakes that have magnitudes higher than 5, the developed technique can detect precursors of 14 earthquakes while producing 8 false alarms. This study is supported by TUBITAK 115E915 and Joint TUBITAK 114E092 and AS CR 14/001 projects.

  5. Joint Analysis of the Full AzTEC Sub-Millimeter Galaxy Data Set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Grant; Ade, P.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J.; Bock, J.; Hughes, D.; Kang, Y.; Kim, S.; Lowenthal, J.; Mauskopf, P.; Perera, T.; Scott, K.; Yun, M.

    2006-12-01

    Using the new AzTEC millimeter-wave camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) in winter 2005/06, we conducted several surveys of the submm galaxy (SMG) population. The AzTEC 1.1 millimeter surveys include both blank-fields (no significant bias or foreground contamination) and regions of known over-densities, and are both large (100-1000 sq. arcmin.) and sensitive ( 1 mJy rms). The unique power of the AzTEC data set lies not only in the size and depth of the individual fields, but in the combined surveyed area that totals over 1 square degree. Hundreds of new sub-millimeter sources have been detected. A joint analysis of all AzTEC surveys will provide important new constraints on many characteristics of the SMG population, including number counts, clustering, and variance. In particular, the large area of the full AzTEC data set provides the first significant measurement of the brightest and most rare of the SMG population. Herein we present the initial combined results and explore the future potential of a complete joint analysis of the full AzTEC SMG data set.

  6. A dual-stage sodium thermal electrochemical converter (Na-TEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limia, Alexander; Ha, Jong Min; Kottke, Peter; Gunawan, Andrey; Fedorov, Andrei G.; Lee, Seung Woo; Yee, Shannon K.

    2017-12-01

    The sodium thermal electrochemical converter (Na-TEC) is a heat engine that generates electricity through the isothermal expansion of sodium ions. The Na-TEC is a closed system that can theoretically achieve conversion efficiencies above 45% when operating between thermal reservoirs at 1150 K and 550 K. However, thermal designs have confined previous single-stage devices to thermal efficiencies below 20%. To mitigate some of these limitations, we consider dividing the isothermal expansion into two stages; one at the evaporator temperature (1150 K) and another at an intermediate temperature (650 K-1050 K). This dual-stage Na-TEC takes advantage of regeneration and reheating, and could be amenable to better thermal management. Herein, we demonstrate how the dual-stage device can improve the efficiency by up to 8% points over the best performing single-stage device. We also establish an application regime map for the single- and dual-stage Na-TEC in terms of the power density and the total thermal parasitic loss. Generally, a single-stage Na-TEC should be used for applications requiring high power densities, whereas a dual-stage Na-TEC should be used for applications requiring high efficiency.

  7. Short-Term TEC Perturbations Associated With Planetary Waves Occurrence in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagimuratov, I. I.; Karpov, I.; Krankowski, A.

    2008-12-01

    Analysis of TEC response to storm showed short-term perturbations which were observed after initial phase of geomagnetic storms. The perturbations demonstrated very well expressed latitudinal structure and were recognized on diurnal variations as surges of TEC enhancement of TEC. Ordinary such storm-time positive effect was associated with TAD. Duration of the perturbations was about 2-4 hours and their amplitude increased toward low latitudes. Such TEC perturbations have the longitudinal dependence. It is important that time location of surges have week dependence on latitude. The observed structure appeared to arrive from high latitudes, but at middle latitudes it was represented as a standing wave. It is assumed that such TEC perturbations can be produced due to superposition of the eastward and westward propagating planetary Poincare waves. The periods of these waves are usually several hours. Poincare waves can be excited at the atmosphere in storm time. At middle latitudes their superposition is as standing wave that forms observing TEC perturbations. In the report, the possibilities of application Poincare waves to the ionosphere dynamics studies are discussed and an explanation of the observed ionospheric effects is given.

  8. Increase in the Stratospheric NO2 Content Derived from Results of Ground-Based Observations after the October 2003 Solar Proton Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageyeva, V. Yu.; Gruzdev, A. N.; Elokhov, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports on the first experimental evidence of the impact of a solar proton event on the stratospheric NO2 content derived from ground-based spectrometric measurements at middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere. In October 2003, a solar proton event caused an increase in the NO2 content in the upper stratosphere by 0.6 × 1015 cm-2, which accounted for about one-third of the increase in the column NO2 content. Solar proton events may be an essential factor for variability of the column NO2 content in the atmosphere of the high and middle latitudes.

  9. A Statistical Study of Total Electron Content Changes in the Ionosphere Prior to Earthquake Occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. N.; Huard, J.; Masci, F.

    2015-12-01

    There are many published reports of anomalous changes in the ionosphere prior to large earthquakes. However, whether or not these ionospheric changes are reliable precursors that could be useful for earthquake prediction is controversial within the scientific community. To test a possible statistical relationship between the ionosphere and earthquakes, we compare changes in the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere with occurrences of M≥6.0 earthquakes globally for a multiyear period. We use TEC data from a global ionosphere map (GIM) and an earthquake list declustered for aftershocks. For each earthquake, we look for anomalous changes in TEC within ±30 days of the earthquake time and within 2.5° latitude and 5.0° longitude of the earthquake location (the spatial resolution of GIM). Our preliminary analysis, using global TEC and earthquake data for 2002-2010, has not found any statistically significant changes in TEC prior to earthquakes. Thus, we have found no evidence that would suggest that TEC changes are useful for earthquake prediction. Our results are discussed in the context of prior statistical and case studies. Namely, our results agree with Dautermann et al. (2007) who found no relationship between TEC changes and earthquakes in the San Andreas fault region. Whereas, our results disagree with Le et al. (2011) who found an increased rate in TEC anomalies within a few days before global earthquakes M≥6.0.

  10. Total Electron Content Retrieved From L-Band Radiometers and Potential Improvements to the IGS Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldo, Yan; Hong, Liang; El-Nimri, Salem; Le Vine, David M.

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, several L-band microwave instruments have been launched into Earth's orbit to measure soil moisture and ocean salinity (e.g., Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity [SMOS], Aquarius, and Soil Moisture Active/Passive [SMAP]). As the microwave signal travels through the ionosphere, the polarization vector rotates (Faraday rotation) and it is possible to estimate the total electron content (TEC) along the path by measuring this change. A comparison is presented of the TEC retrieved from Aquarius and SMAP over the ocean with the values provided by the IGS (International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (GNSS)). The TEC retrieved from Aquarius and SMAP measurements show good agreement with each other and, on a global scale, are in agreement with the TEC provided by the IGS. However, there are cases in which the TEC from the two satellite sensors are in good agreement with each other but differ significantly from the IGS TEC. The comparison suggests that the L-band instruments are a reliable source of TEC over the ocean and could be a valuable supplementary source of TEC values that could be assimilated in the IGS models, especially over the ocean, where GNSS ground stations are sparse.

  11. Vertical and Lateral Electron Content in the Martian Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetzold, M. P.; Peter, K.; Bird, M. K.; Häusler, B.; Tellmann, S.

    2016-12-01

    The radio-science experiment MaRS (Mars Express Radio Science) on the Mars Express spacecraft sounds the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere of Mars since 2004. Approximately 800 vertical profiles of the ionospheric electron density have been acquired until today. The vertical electron content (TEC) is easily computed from the vertical electron density profile by integrating along the altitude. The TEC is typically a fraction of a TEC unit (1E16 m^-2) and depends on the solar zenith angle. The magnitude of the TEC is however fully dominated by the electron density contained in the main layer M2. The contributions by the M1 layer below M2 or the topside is marginal. MaRS is using two radio frequencies for the sounding of the ionosphere. The directly observed differential Doppler from the two received frequencies is a measure of the lateral electron content that means along the ray path and perpendicular to the vertical electron density profile. Combining both the vertical electron density profile, the vertical TEC and the directly observed lateral TEC describes the lateral electron density distribution in the ionosphere.

  12. A Fast Algorithm for Automatic Detection of Ionospheric Disturbances Using GPS Slant Total Electron Content Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efendi, Emre; Arikan, Feza; Yarici, Aysenur

    2016-07-01

    Solar, geomagnetic, gravitational and seismic activities cause disturbances in the ionospheric region of upper atmosphere for space based communication, navigation and positioning systems. These disturbances can be categorized with respect to their amplitude, duration and frequency. Typically in the literature, ionospheric disturbances are investigated with gradient based methods on Total Electron Content (TEC) data estimated from ground based dual frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers. In this study, a detection algorithm is developed to determine the variability in Slant TEC (STEC) data. The developed method, namely Differential Rate of TEC (DRoT), is based on Rate of Tec (RoT) method that is widely used in the literature. RoT is usually applied to Vertical TEC (VTEC) and it can be defined as normalized derivative of VTEC. Unfortunately, the resultant data obtained from the application of RoT on VTEC suffer from inaccuracies due to mapping function and the resultant values are very noisy which make it difficult to automatically detect the disturbance due to variability in the ionosphere. The developed DRoT method can be defined as the normalized metric norm (L2) between the RoT and its baseband trend structure. In this study, the error performance of DRoT is determined using synthetic data with variable bounds on the parameter set of amplitude, frequency and period of disturbance. It is observed that DRoT method can detect disturbances in three categories. For DRoT values less than 50%, there is no significant disturbance in STEC data. For DRoT values between 50 to 70 %, a medium scale disturbance can be observed. For DROT values over 70 %, severe disturbances such Large Scale Travelling Ionospheric Disturbances (TID) or plasma bubbles can be observed. When DRoT is applied to the GPS-STECdata for stations in high latitude, equatorial and mid-latitude regions, it is observed that disturbances with amplitudes larger than 10% of the difference between

  13. Organogenesis from internode-derived nodules of Humulus lupulus var. Nugget (Cannabinaceae): histological studies and changes in the starch content.

    PubMed

    Fortes, A M; Pais, M S

    2000-07-01

    The sequence of histological and histochemical events occurring during organogenesis from Humulus lupulus var. Nugget internode-derived nodules was studied. Sections were made and studies were carried out from the start of culture treatment until the development of shoot buds. Cell division was observed in both cambial and cortical regions during the first week of culture establishment. Cell division in cortical cells led to the formation of an incipient callus tissue. From the calluses prenodular structures of cambial origin appeared and gave rise to nodules from which shoot buds formed. Nodules kept separating into "daughter nodules" from which arose an increasing number of shoot buds. Iodide staining showed a strong starch accumulation in callus tissue and in prenodular structures. During shoot-bud primordia formation starch content decreased in nodules. Some starch was also noted in control explants (cultured on basal medium), however at a lower level than that observed in explants cultured on media with growth regulators. Shoot-bud regeneration was not observed in control explants.

  14. Seismo-ionospheric Precursors of the Total Electron Content Associated with Global Large Earthquakes Examined by Using Ground-based and Space-based Radio Occultation GNSS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, J. Y. G.

    2017-12-01

    To verify seismo-ionospheric precursors (SIPs), statistical analyses are implemented on the relationship between the total electron content (TEC) in the global ionosphere map (GIM) derived from measurements of ground-based GNSS (global navigation satellite system) receivers and worldwide M≥7.0 earthquakes during 2000-2016. A median-based method is employed to determine the characteristic of TEC anomalies related to the earthquakes. It is found that the polarity of both negative (decrease) and positive (increase) in the GIM TEC, which varies location-by location, can be observed few days before the earthquakes. In general, PEIAs with the negative polarity associated with the earthquakes are more frequently detected. Meanwhile, FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) or F3/C in was launched into a circular low-Earth orbit on 15 April 2006. Six F3/C microsatellites with 72-degree inclination angle and 30-degree separation in longitude orbit at 800 km altitude, and conduct the ionospheric radio occultation (RO) observations by receiving signals from GNSS satellites and globally observing about 2500 vertical electron density profiles per day. Both ground-based and space-based RO GNSS observations are used to three dimensionally study SIPs related to the 11 March 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake.

  15. Comparison of plateletpheresis on the Fenwal Amicus, Fresenius COM.TEC, and Trima Accel Cell separators.

    PubMed

    Keklik, Muzaffer; Eser, Bulent; Kaynar, Leylagul; Sivgin, Serdar; Keklik, Ertugrul; Solmaz, Musa; Ozturk, Ahmet; Buyukoglan, Ruksan; Yay, Mehmet; Cetin, Mustafa; Unal, Ali

    2015-06-01

    Blood component donations by apheresis have become more common in modern blood transfusion practices. We compared three apheresis instruments (Fenwal Amicus, Fresenius COM.TEC, and Trima Accel) with regard to platelet (PLT) yield, collection efficiency (CE), and collection rate (CR). The single-needle or double-needle plateletpheresis procedures of the three instruments were compared in a retrospective, randomized study in 270 donors. The blood volume processed was higher in the COM.TEC compared with the Amicus and Trima. Also there was a significantly higher median volume of ACD used in collections on the COM.TEC compared with the Amicus and Trima. The PLT yield was significantly lower with the COM.TEC compared with the Amicus and Trima. Additionally, the CE was significantly lower with the COM.TEC compared with the Amicus and Trima. There was no significant difference in median separation time and CR between the three groups. When procedures were compared regarding CE by using Amicus device, it was significantly higher in single-needle than double-needle plateletpheresis. When double-needle Amicus system was compared with double-needle COM.TEC system, CE and PLT yield were significantly higher with Amicus system. When single-needle Amicus system was compared with single-needle Trima system, CE and PLT yield were significantly higher with Trima system. All instruments collected PLTs efficiently. However, the CE was lower with the COM.TEC compared with the Amicus and Trima. Also, we found Amicus single-needle system collected PLTs more efficiently compared with the double-needle system. CE and PLT yields were significantly higher with the single-needle Trima instrument compared with the single-needle Amicus device. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. STAR AND DUST FORMATION ACTIVITIES IN AzTEC-3, A STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 5.3

    SciTech Connect

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Arendt, Richard G.

    2011-09-01

    Analyses of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. An important observational constraint neglected in the analysis is the mass of dust giving rise to the IR emission. In this paper we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3. Adopting an upper limit to the mass of stars and a bolometric luminosity for this object, we construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to producemore » the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. We use the PEGASE population synthesis code and a chemical evolution model to follow the evolution of the galaxy's SED and its stellar and dust masses as a function of galactic age for seven different stellar initial mass functions (IMFs). We find that the model with a Top Heavy IMF provided the most plausible scenario consistent with the observational constraints. In this scenario the dust formed over a period of {approx}200 Myr, with an SFR of {approx}500 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. These values for the age and SFR in AzTEC-3 are significantly higher and lower, respectively, from those derived without the dust mass constraint. However, this scenario is not unique, and others cannot be completely ruled out because of the prevailing uncertainties in the age of the galaxy, its bolometric luminosity, and its stellar and dust masses. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multiwavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.« less

  17. Star and Dust Formation Activities in AzTEC-3, a Starburst Galaxy at z = 5.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwek, Eli; Staguhn, Johannes G.; Arendt, Richard G.; Capak, Peter L.; Kovacs, Attila; Benford, Dominic J.; Fixsen, Dale; Karim, Alexander; Leclercq, Samuel; Maher, Stephen F.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Schinnerer, Eva; Sharp, Elmer H.

    2011-09-01

    Analyses of high-redshift ultraluminous infrared (IR) galaxies traditionally use the observed optical to submillimeter spectral energy distribution (SED) and estimates of the dynamical mass as observational constraints to derive the star formation rate (SFR), the stellar mass, and age of these objects. An important observational constraint neglected in the analysis is the mass of dust giving rise to the IR emission. In this paper we add this constraint to the analysis of AzTEC-3. Adopting an upper limit to the mass of stars and a bolometric luminosity for this object, we construct different stellar and chemical evolutionary scenarios, constrained to produce the inferred dust mass and observed luminosity before the associated stellar mass exceeds the observational limit. We use the PÉGASE population synthesis code and a chemical evolution model to follow the evolution of the galaxy's SED and its stellar and dust masses as a function of galactic age for seven different stellar initial mass functions (IMFs). We find that the model with a Top Heavy IMF provided the most plausible scenario consistent with the observational constraints. In this scenario the dust formed over a period of ~200 Myr, with an SFR of ~500 M sun yr-1. These values for the age and SFR in AzTEC-3 are significantly higher and lower, respectively, from those derived without the dust mass constraint. However, this scenario is not unique, and others cannot be completely ruled out because of the prevailing uncertainties in the age of the galaxy, its bolometric luminosity, and its stellar and dust masses. A robust result of our models is that all scenarios require most of the radiating dust mass to have been accreted in molecular clouds. Our new procedure highlights the importance of a multiwavelength approach, and of the use of dust evolution models in constraining the age and the star formation activity and history in galaxies.

  18. Application of Geostationary GNSS and SBAS Satellites for Studying Ionospheric TEC Disturbances of Geomagnetic and Meteorological Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padokhin, A. M.; Kurbatov, G. A.; Yasyukevich, Y.; Yasyukevich, A.

    2017-12-01

    With the development of GNSS and SBAS constellations, the coherent multi-frequency L band transmissions are now available from a number of geostationary satellites. These signals can be used for ionospheric TEC estimations in the same way as widely used GPS/GLONASS signals. In this work, we compare noise patterns in TEC estimations based on different geostationary satellites data: augmentation systems (Indian GAGAN, European EGNOS and American WAAS), and Chinese COMPASS/Beidou navigation system. We show that noise level in geostationary COMPASS/Beidou TEC estimations is times smaller than noise in SBAS TEC estimation and corresponds to those of GPS/GLONASS at the same elevation angles. We discuss the capabilities of geostationary TEC data for studying ionospheric variability driven by space weather and meteorological sources at different time scales. Analyzing data from IGS/MGEX receivers we present geostationary TEC response on X-class Solar flares of current cycle, moderate and strong geomagnetic storms, including G4 St. Patrick's day Storm 2015 and recent G3 storm of the end of May 2017. We also discuss geostationary TEC disturbances in near equatorial ionosphere caused by two SSW events (minor and major final warming of 2015-2016 winter season) as well as geostationary TEC response on typhoons activity near Taiwan in autumn 2016. Our results show large potential of geostationary TEC estimations with GNSS and SBAS signals for continuous ionospheric monitoring.

  19. Post-marketing assessment of content and efficacy of preservatives in artemisinin-derived antimalarial dry suspensions for paediatric use.

    PubMed

    Atemnkeng, Magnus A; De Cock, Katelijne; Plaizier-Vercammen, Jacqueline

    2007-01-26

    Artemisinin-derivative formulations are now widely used to treat falciparum malaria. However, the dry powder suspensions developed for children are few and/or are of poor quality. In addition to the active compound, the presence of a suitable preservative in these medicines is essential. In this study, an evaluation of the preservative content and efficacy in some dry suspensions available on the Kenyan market was performed. UV spectrophotometry was used to identify the preservatives in each sample while HPLC-UV was used for quantification. After reconstitution of the powders in water, the dissolution of the preservatives was followed for 7 days. Antimicrobial efficacy of the preservatives was assessed by conducting a preservative efficacy test (PET) following the European pharmacopoeia standards. Four different preservatives were identified namely methylparahydroxybenzoate (MP), propylparahydroxybenzoate (PP), benzoic acid and sorbic acid. MP and PP were identified in Artesiane (artemether 300 mg/100 ml), Alaxin (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) andGvither (artemether 300 mg/100 ml) respectively. Sorbic acid was presentin Artenam (artemether 180 mg/60 ml) while benzoic acid was identified in Santecxin (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) and Artexin (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) respectively. Cotecxin (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) did not contain any of the above preservatives. After reconstitution in water, preservativesin 50%(3/6) of the products did not completely dissolve and the PET results revealed that only Artenam and Gvither met the requirements for antimicrobial efficacy. The other products did not conform. These results show that paediatric antimalarial dry powder formulations on the market may contain ineffective or incorrect amounts of preservatives. This is a potential risk to the patient. Studies conducted on the dry powder suspensions should include the analysis of both the active ingredient and the preservative, including the efficacy of the

  20. Post-marketing assessment of content and efficacy of preservatives in artemisinin-derived antimalarial dry suspensions for paediatric use

    PubMed Central

    Atemnkeng, Magnus A; De Cock, Katelijne; Plaizier-Vercammen, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Background Artemisinin-derivative formulations are now widely used to treat falciparum malaria. However, the dry powder suspensions developed for children are few and/or are of poor quality. In addition to the active compound, the presence of a suitable preservative in these medicines is essential. In this study, an evaluation of the preservative content and efficacy in some dry suspensions available on the Kenyan market was performed. Method UV spectrophotometry was used to identify the preservatives in each sample while HPLC-UV was used for quantification. After reconstitution of the powders in water, the dissolution of the preservatives was followed for 7 days. Antimicrobial efficacy of the preservatives was assessed by conducting a preservative efficacy test (PET) following the European pharmacopoeia standards. Results Four different preservatives were identified namely methylparahydroxybenzoate (MP), propylparahydroxybenzoate (PP), benzoic acid and sorbic acid. MP and PP were identified in Artesiane® (artemether 300 mg/100 ml), Alaxin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) andGvither ® (artemether 300 mg/100 ml) respectively. Sorbic acid was presentin Artenam® (artemether 180 mg/60 ml) while benzoic acid was identified in Santecxin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) andArtexin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) respectively. Cotecxin® (dihydroartemisinin 160 mg/80 ml) did not contain any of the above preservatives. After reconstitution in water, preservativesin 50%(3/6) of the products did not completely dissolve and the PET results revealed that only Artenam® and Gvither® met the requirements for antimicrobial efficacy. The other products did not conform. Conclusion These results show that paediatric antimalarial dry powder formulations on the market may contain ineffective or incorrect amounts of preservatives. This is a potential risk to the patient. Studies conducted on the dry powder suspensions should include the analysis of both the active

  1. Thermodynamic Analysis of TEG-TEC Device Including Influence of Thomson Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yuanli; Chen, Lingen; Meng, Fankai; Sun, Fengrui

    2018-01-01

    A thermodynamic model of a thermoelectric cooler driven by thermoelectric generator (TEG-TEC) device is established considering Thomson effect. The performance is analyzed and optimized using numerical calculation based on non-equilibrium thermodynamic theory. The influence characteristics of Thomson effect on the optimal performance and variable selection are investigated by comparing the condition with and without Thomson effect. The results show that Thomson effect degrades the performance of TEG-TEC device, it decreases the cooling capacity by 27 %, decreases the coefficient of performance (COP) by 19 %, decreases the maximum cooling temperature difference by 11 % when the ratio of thermoelectric elements number is 0.6, the cold junction temperature of thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is 285 K and the hot junction temperature of thermoelectric generator (TEG) is 450 K. Thomson effect degrades the optimal performance of TEG-TEC device, it decreases the maximum cooling capacity by 28 % and decreases the maximum COP by 28 % under the same junction temperatures. Thomson effect narrows the optimal variable range and optimal working range. In the design of the devices, limited-number thermoelectric elements should be more allocated appropriately to TEG when consider Thomson effect. The results may provide some guidelines for the design of TEG-TEC devices.

  2. Comparison of Two IRI plasmasphere Extensions with GPS-TEC Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gulyaeva, T. L.; Gallagher, Dennis L.

    2006-01-01

    Comparisons of two model results with Global Positioning System GPS-TEC measurements have been carried out for different latitudinal, solar activity, magnetic activity, diurnal and seasonal conditions. The models evaluated are the Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM-2000) and the IRI extension with Russian plasmasphere model (IRI*).Data of 23 observatories providing GPS-TEC and ionosonde data have been used. It is shown that IRI* plasmasphere electron density is greater than GCPM results by an order of magnitude at 6370 km altitude (one Earth's radius) with this excess growing to 2-3 orders of magnitude towards the GPS satellite altitude of 20000 km. Another source of model and GPS-TEC differences is a way of selection of the F2 layer peak parameters driving the models either with ITU-R (former CCIR) maps or ionosonde observations. Plasmasphere amendment to IRI improves accuracy of TEC model predictions because the plasmasphere contribution to the total TEC varies from 10% by daytime under quiet magnetic conditions to more than 50% by night under stormy conditions.

  3. Quantifications of Geomagnetic Storm Impact on TEC and NmF2 during 2013 Mar. event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, J. S.; Tsagouri, I.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the ionospheric response to 2013 Mar. geomagnetic storm event using GPS TEC, ISR and ionosonde observations in North American sector. In order to quantify variations of TEC and NmF2 (or foF2) due to the storm, we remove the background quiet-time values (e.g., TEC of one day prior to the storm, NmF2 median and average of five quietest days for 30 days prior to the storm). In addition, in order to assess modeling capability of reproducing storm impacts on TEC and NmF2, we compare the observations with various model simulations, which are obtained from empirical, physics-based, and data assimilation models. Further, we investigate how uncertainty in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) impacts on TEC and NmF2 during the geomagnetic storm event. For this uncertainty study, we use a physics-based coupled ionosphere-thermosphere model, CTIPe, and solar wind parameters obtained from ensemble of WSA-ENLIL+Cone model simulations. This study has been supported by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. Model outputs and observational data used for the study will be permanently posted at the CCMC website (http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov) for the space science communities to use.

  4. Plasma density irregularities and Total Electron Content gradients over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharenkova, I.; Kotulak, K.; Cherniak, I.; Krankowski, A.; Froń, A.

    2017-12-01

    Perturbations of the ionospheric plasma density are crucial from the scientific and application points of view, as they can severe affect radio signals used in the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and low frequency radio astronomy. For several decades the ionospheric irregularities have been extensively studied by different techniques, including ground-based GNSS observations. Spatial distribution of ionospheric disturbances can be specified by horizontal gradients of the ionospheric density (total electron content, TEC). Another, widely used tool in irregularities monitoring is the rate of TEC index (ROTI). Recently, the Northern Hemisphere ROTI product has been implemented to the International GNSS Service (IGS) and available for community. In this study, we present climatology of the spatial TEC gradients occurred over European region at high to middle latitudes. We developed the TEC gradient maps based on the high-resolution (0.5 degree in latitude and longitude) regional TEC maps covering Europe. The obtained climatological characteristics of the spatial TEC gradients are superimposed and analyzed with the global and regional ROTI product in order to reveal development of highly intense plasma irregularities occurred at high and middle latitudes. During geomagnetic storm the complex of physical processes at auroal zone leads to development of intnse ionospheric irregularities and travelling ionospheric disturbances (TIDs). We presents results of the geomagnetic storm analysis including the 2013 and 2015 St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storms.

  5. Prediction of post-sunset ESF based on the strength and asymmetry of EIA from ground based TEC measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, S. V.; Ravindran, S.; Devasia, C. V.; Pant, T. K.; Sreelatha, P.; Sridharan, R.

    The Coherent Radio Beacon Experiment (CRABEX) is aimed at investigating the equatorial ionospheric processes like the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) and Equatorial Spread F (ESF) and their inter relationships. As a part of CRABEX program, a network of six stations covering the region from Trivandrum (8.5°N) to Nainital (29.3°N) is set up along the 77-78° E meridian. These ground receivers basically measure the slant Total Electron Content (TEC) along the line of sight from the Low Earth Orbiting satellites (NIMS). These simultaneous TEC measurements are inverted to obtain the tomographic image of the latitudinal distribution of electron densities in the meridional plane. In this paper, the tomographic images of the equatorial ionosphere along the 77-78°E meridian are presented. The crest intensities in the southern and northern hemispheres also show significant differences with seasons, showing the variability in the EIA asymmetry. The evening images give an indication of the prevailing electrodynamical conditions on different days, preceding the occurrence/non-occurrence of ESF. Apart from this, the single station TEC measurements from the Trivandrum station itself is used to estimate the EIA strength and asymmetry. Since this station is situated at the trough of the EIA, right over the dip equator, the latitudinal gradients on both northern (N) and southern (S) sides can be used to compute the EIA strength and asymmetry. These two parameters, obtained well ahead of the onset time of ESF, are shown to have a definite role on the subsequent ESF activity. Hence, both these factors are combined to define a new `forecast parameter' for the generation of ESF. It has been shown that this parameter can uniquely define the state of the `background ionosphere' conducive for the generation of ESF irregularities as early as 1600 IST. A critical value for the `forecast parameter' has been identified such that when the estimated value for `forecast parameter' exceeds

  6. AzTEC half square degree survey of the SHADES fields - I. Maps, catalogues and source counts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austermann, J. E.; Dunlop, J. S.; Perera, T. A.; Scott, K. S.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D. H.; Almaini, O.; Chapin, E. L.; Chapman, S. C.; Cirasuolo, M.; Clements, D. L.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Eales, S. A.; Egami, E.; Farrah, D.; Ferrusca, D.; Flynn, S.; Haig, D.; Halpern, M.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R. J.; van Kampen, E.; Kang, Y.; Kim, S.; Lacey, C.; Lowenthal, J. D.; Mauskopf, P. D.; McLure, R. J.; Mortier, A. M. J.; Negrello, M.; Oliver, S.; Peacock, J. A.; Pope, A.; Rawlings, S.; Rieke, G.; Roseboom, I.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Scott, D.; Serjeant, S.; Smail, I.; Swinbank, A. M.; Stevens, J. A.; Velazquez, M.; Wagg, J.; Yun, M. S.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first results from the largest deep extragalactic mm-wavelength survey undertaken to date. These results are derived from maps covering over 0.7deg2, made at λ = 1.1mm, using the AzTEC continuum camera mounted on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. The maps were made in the two fields originally targeted at λ = 850μm with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) in the SCUBA Half-Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES) project, namely the Lockman Hole East (mapped to a depth of 0.9-1.3 mJy rms) and the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Field (mapped to a depth of 1.0-1.7 mJy rms). The wealth of existing and forthcoming deep multifrequency data in these two fields will allow the bright mm source population revealed by these new wide-area 1.1mm images to be explored in detail in subsequent papers. Here, we present the maps themselves, a catalogue of 114 high-significance submillimetre galaxy detections, and a thorough statistical analysis leading to the most robust determination to date of the 1.1mm source number counts. These new maps, covering an area nearly three times greater than the SCUBA SHADES maps, currently provide the largest sample of cosmological volumes of the high-redshift Universe in the mm or sub-mm. Through careful comparison, we find that both the Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) and the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North fields, also imaged with AzTEC, contain an excess of mm sources over the new 1.1mm source-count baseline established here. In particular, our new AzTEC/SHADES results indicate that very luminous high-redshift dust enshrouded starbursts (S1.1mm > 3mJy) are 25-50 per cent less common than would have been inferred from these smaller surveys, thus highlighting the potential roles of cosmic variance and clustering in such measurements. We compare number count predictions from recent models of the evolving mm/sub-mm source population to these sub-mm bright galaxy surveys, which provide important

  7. Receiver DCB estimation and GPS vTEC study at a low latitude station in the South Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, Ramendra; Kumar, Sushil; Jayachandran, P. T.

    2016-11-01

    The statistical estimation of receiver differential code bias (DCB) of the GSV4004B receiver at a low latitude station, Suva (lat. 18.15°S, long. 178.45°E, Geomag. Lat. 21.07°S), Fiji, and the subsequent behaviour of vTEC, are presented. By means of least squares linear regression fitting technique, the receiver DCB was determined using the GPS vTEC data recorded during the year 2010, CODE TEC and IRI-2012 model for 2010. To substantiate the results, minimization of the standard deviation (SD) method was also used for GPS vTEC data. The overall monthly DCB was estimated to be in the range of 62.6 TECU. The vTEC after removing the resultant monthly DCB was consistent with other low latitude observations. The GPS vTEC 2010 data after eliminating the resultant DCB were lower in comparison to Faraday rotation vTEC measurements at Suva during 1984 primarily due to higher solar activity during 1984 as compared to 2010. Seasonally, vTEC was maximum during summer and minimum during winter. The winter showed least vTEC variability whereas equinox showed the largest daytime variability. The geomagnetic disturbances effect showed that both vTEC and its variability were higher on magnetically disturbed days as compared to quiet days with maximum variability in the daytime. Two geomagnetic storms of moderate strengths with main phases in the local daytime showed long duration (∼52 h) increase in vTEC by 33-67% which can be accounted by changes in E×B drifts due to prompt penetration of storm-time auroral electric field in the daytime and disturbance dynamo electric field in the nighttime to low latitudes.

  8. DKK1 mediated inhibition of Wnt signaling in postnatal mice leads to loss of TEC progenitors and thymic degeneration.

    PubMed

    Osada, Masako; Jardine, Logan; Misir, Ruth; Andl, Thomas; Millar, Sarah E; Pezzano, Mark

    2010-02-08

    Thymic epithelial cell (TEC) microenvironments are essential for the recruitment of T cell precursors from the bone marrow, as well as the subsequent expansion and selection of thymocytes resulting in a mature self-tolerant T cell repertoire. The molecular mechanisms, which control both the initial development and subsequent maintenance of these critical microenvironments, are poorly defined. Wnt signaling has been shown to be important to the development of several epithelial tissues and organs. Regulation of Wnt signaling has also been shown to impact both early thymocyte and thymic epithelial development. However, early blocks in thymic organogenesis or death of the mice have prevented analysis of a role of canonical Wnt signaling in the maintenance of TECs in the postnatal thymus. Here we demonstrate that tetracycline-regulated expression of the canonical Wnt inhibitor DKK1 in TECs localized in both the cortex and medulla of adult mice, results in rapid thymic degeneration characterized by a loss of DeltaNP63(+) Foxn1(+) and Aire(+) TECs, loss of K5K8DP TECs thought to represent or contain an immature TEC progenitor, decreased TEC proliferation and the development of cystic structures, similar to an aged thymus. Removal of DKK1 from DKK1-involuted mice results in full recovery, suggesting that canonical Wnt signaling is required for the differentiation or proliferation of TEC populations needed for maintenance of properly organized adult thymic epithelial microenvironments. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that canonical Wnt signaling within TECs is required for the maintenance of epithelial microenvironments in the postnatal thymus, possibly through effects on TEC progenitor/stem cell populations. Downstream targets of Wnt signaling, which are responsible for maintenance of these TEC progenitors may provide useful targets for therapies aimed at counteracting age associated thymic involution or the premature thymic degeneration associated

  9. Long Duration Enhancement And Depletion Observed In The Topside Ionospheric Electron Content During The March 2015 Strong Storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, J.; Wang, W.; Yue, X.; Burns, A. G.; Dou, X.; Lei, J.

    2015-12-01

    Up-looking total electron content (TEC) measurements from multiple low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites have been utilized to study the topside ionospheric response to the 17 March 2015 great storm. The combined up-looking TEC observations from these LEO satellites are valuable in addressing the local time and altitudinal dependences of the topside ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms from a global perspective, especially over the southern hemisphere and oceans. In the evening sector, the up-looking TEC showed an obvious long-duration of positive storm effect during the main phase and a long duration of negative storm effect during the recovery phase of this storm. The increases of the topside TEC during the main phase were symmetric with respect to the magnetic equator, which was probably associated with penetration electric fields. Additionally, the up-looking TEC from different orbital altitudes suggested that the negative storm effect at higher altitudes was stronger in the evening sector. In the morning sector, the up-looking TEC also showed increases at low and middle latitudes during the storm main phase. Obvious TEC enhancement can be also seen over the Pacific Ocean in the topside ionosphere during the storm recovery phase. These results imply that the topside ionospheric responses significantly depend on local time. Thus, the LEO-based up-looking TEC provides an important database to study the possible physical mechanisms of the topside ionospheric response to storms.

  10. Analyze and Study Ionospheric Scintillation and Total Electron Content Variability (Ionospheric Studies and TEC Variations).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    gradient of iii/a ion. SniAtt polari/ji oil fields As mentioned earlier, our object is to use the same valuse if L"~ as (Es Bi, H2 termnal I ire sut...spectral cut- arranged in order of decreasing wet longitude of ionospheric inter- %ection points of the various ray path% as shown in Figure I. oil in the...1977). Review of equatorial have suggested that density enhancements may scintillation phenomena in the light of recent developments spread oil over a

  11. Plasma bubble monitoring by TEC map and 630 nm airglow image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, H.; Wrasse, C. M.; Otsuka, Y.; Ivo, A.; Gomes, V.; Paulino, I.; Medeiros, A. F.; Denardini, C. M.; Sant'Anna, N.; Shiokawa, K.

    2015-08-01

    Equatorial ionosphere plasma bubbles over the South American continent were successfully observed by mapping the total electron content (TECMAP) using data provided by ground-based GNSS receiver networks. The TECMAP could cover almost all of the continent within ~4000 km distance in longitude and latitude, monitoring TEC variability continuously with a time resolution of 10 min. Simultaneous observations of OI 630 nm all-sky image at Cachoeira Paulista (22.7°S, 45.0°W) and Cariri (7.4°S, 36.5°W) were used to compare the bubble structures. The spatial resolution of the TECMAP varied from 50 km to 1000 km, depending on the density of the observation sites. On the other hand, optical imaging has a spatial resolution better than 15 km, depicting the fine structure of the bubbles but covering a limited area (~1600 km diameter). TECMAP has an advantage in its spatial coverage and the continuous monitoring (day and night) form. The initial phase of plasma depletion in the post-sunset equatorial ionization anomaly (PS-EIA) trough region, followed by development of plasma bubbles in the crest region, could be monitored in a progressive way over the magnetic equator. In December 2013 to January 2014, periodically spaced bubble structures were frequently observed. The longitudinal spacing between the bubbles was around 600-800 km depending on the day. The periodic form of plasma bubbles may suggest a seeding process related to the solar terminator passage in the ionosphere.

  12. Study protocol: The Technology-Enhanced Coaching (TEC) program to improve diabetes outcomes – A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Heisler, Michele; Mase, Rebecca; Brown, Brianne; Wilson, Shayla; Reeves, Pamela J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Racial and ethnic minority adults with diabetes living in under-resourced communities face multiple barriers to sustaining self-management behaviors necessary to improve diabetes outcomes. Peer support and decision support tools each have been associated with improved diabetes outcomes. Methods 289 primarily African American adults with poor glycemic control will be recruited from the Detroit Veteran’s Administration Hospital and randomized to Technology-Enhanced Coaching (TEC) or Peer Coaching alone. Participants in both arms will be assigned a peer coach trained in autonomy-supportive approaches. Coaches are diabetes patients with prior poor glycemic control who now have good control. All participants meet face-to-face initially with their coach to review diabetes education materials and develop an action plan. Educational materials in the TEC arm are delivered via a web-based, educational tool tailored with each participant’s personalized health data (iDecide). Over the next six months, Coaches call their assigned participants once a week to provide support for weekly action steps. Data are also collected on an Observational Control group with no contact with study staff. Changes in A1c, blood pressure, other patient-centered outcomes and mediators and moderators of intervention effects will be assessed. Discussion Tailored e-Health tools with educational content may enhance the effectiveness of peer coaching programs to better prepare patients to set self-management goals, identify action plans, and discuss treatment options with their health care providers. The study will provide insights for scalable self-management support programs for diabetes and chronic illnesses that require high levels of sustained patient self-management. PMID:28132876

  13. Simultaneous response of NmF2 and GPS-TEC to storm events at Ilorin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshua, B. W.; Adeniyi, J. O.; Oladipo, O. A.; Doherty, P. H.; Adimula, I. A.; Olawepo, A. O.; Adebiyi, S. J.

    2018-06-01

    A comparative study of both TEC and NmF2 variations during quiet and disturbed conditions has been investigated using simultaneous measurements from dual frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and a DPS-4 Digisonde co-located at Ilorin (Geog. Lat. 8.50°N, Long. 4.50°E, dip. - 7.9°). The results of the quiet time variations of the two parameters show some similarities as well as differences in their structures. The values of both parameters generally increase during the sunrise period attaining a peak around the noon and then decaying towards the night time. The onset time of the sunrise growth is observed to be earlier in TEC than in NmF2. The rate of decay of TEC was observed to be faster than that of the NmF2 in most cases. Also, the noon 'bite-outs', leading to the formation of pre-noon and post-noon peaks, are prominent in the NmF2 structure and was hardly noticed in TEC. Results of the variations of both TEC and NmF2 during the 5 April, 10 May and 3 August 2010 geomagnetic storm events showed a simultaneous deviations of both parameters from the quiet time behavior. The magnitude of the deviations is however most pronounced in NmF2 structure than in TEC. We also found that the enhancement observed in the two parameters during the storm events generally corresponds to decrease in hmF2.

  14. Early Experience with Technology-Based Eye Care Services (TECS): A Novel Ophthalmologic Telemedicine Initiative.

    PubMed

    Maa, April Y; Wojciechowski, Barbara; Hunt, Kelly J; Dismuke, Clara; Shyu, Jason; Janjua, Rabeea; Lu, Xiaoqin; Medert, Charles M; Lynch, Mary G

    2017-04-01

    The aging population is at risk of common eye diseases, and routine eye examinations are recommended to prevent visual impairment. Unfortunately, patients are less likely to seek care as they age, which may be the result of significant travel and time burdens associated with going to an eye clinic in person. A new method of eye-care delivery that mitigates distance barriers and improves access was developed to improve screening for potentially blinding conditions. We present the quality data from the early experience (first 13 months) of Technology-Based Eye Care Services (TECS), a novel ophthalmologic telemedicine program. With TECS, a trained ophthalmology technician is stationed in a primary care clinic away from the main hospital. The ophthalmology technician follows a detailed protocol that collects information about the patient's eyes. The information then is interpreted remotely. Patients with possible abnormal findings are scheduled for a face-to-face examination in the eye clinic. Any patient with no known ocular disease who desires a routine eye screening examination is eligible. Technology-Based Eye Care Services was established in 5 primary care clinics in Georgia surrounding the Atlanta Veterans Affairs hospital. Four program operation metrics (patient satisfaction, eyeglass remakes, disease detection, and visit length) and 2 access-to-care metrics (appointment wait time and no-show rate) were tracked. Care was rendered to 2690 patients over the first 13 months of TECS. The program has been met with high patient satisfaction (4.95 of 5). Eyeglass remake rate was 0.59%. Abnormal findings were noted in 36.8% of patients and there was >90% agreement between the TECS reading and the face-to-face findings of the physician. TECS saved both patient (25% less) and physician time (50% less), and access to care substantially improved with 99% of patients seen within 14 days of contacting the eye clinic, with a TECS no-show rate of 5.2%. The early experience with

  15. Comparison of outliers and novelty detection to identify ionospheric TEC irregularities during geomagnetic storm and substorm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattisahusiwa, Asis; Houw Liong, The; Purqon, Acep

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we compare two learning mechanisms: outliers and novelty detection in order to detect ionospheric TEC disturbance by November 2004 geomagnetic storm and January 2005 substorm. The mechanisms are applied by using v-SVR learning algorithm which is a regression version of SVM. Our results show that both mechanisms are quiet accurate in learning TEC data. However, novelty detection is more accurate than outliers detection in extracting anomalies related to geomagnetic events. The detected anomalies by outliers detection are mostly related to trend of data, while novelty detection are associated to geomagnetic events. Novelty detection also shows evidence of LSTID during geomagnetic events.

  16. Preliminary Investigation of Longitudinal Differences in TEC and Scintillation at Transition Latitudes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-04-04

    AIR. j NO ABSOLUTE TEC. C: NEW SATELITE WINDOWS INSERTED. j - IAPEDRIVE PROBLEM. D: SOME DATA ON CHART NOT RECORDED ON TAPE. H = NPIB INTERFASE...PROBLEM. E: SOME DATA BROKEN UP. V 2 FLOPPY DISK/DRIVE PROBLEM. F: TAPE CHANGE. W - WRONG SATELITE WINDOWS. TOTAL HOURS OF ACTIVITY LEVEL 1:300 P - POWER...0 1 0 31 1 COMMENT’S: ADDITIONAL COMMENT’S. A: TAPE STOP * L1/L2 SCINTILLATION. B: GPS SYSTEM OFF THE AIR. O= N ABSOLUTE TEC. C: NEW SATELITE WINDOWS

  17. Ionospheric total electron content measurements from Turkey during the solar eclipse of 29 April 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Artac, E.; Tulunay, Y.K.

    1977-12-31

    Total ionospheric electron content (TEC) has been determined from the measurements of the Faraday rotation of a plane polarized wave that have been returned from the geostationary satellite ATS 6 transmitting at a frequency of 140 MHz. The results of the computations have been presented in the form of diurnal curves in order to investigate the effect of the solar eclipse of 29 April 1976 on the TEC over Ankara longitudes.

  18. Global statistics of liquid water content and effective number concentration of water clouds over ocean derived from combined CALIPSO and MODIS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Y.; Vaughan, M.; McClain, C.; Behrenfeld, M.; Maring, H.; Anderson, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Flittner, D.; Huang, J.; Wielicki, B.; Minnis, P.; Weimer, C.; Trepte, C.; Kuehn, R.

    2007-06-01

    This study presents an empirical relation that links the volume extinction coefficients of water clouds, the layer integrated depolarization ratios measured by lidar, and the effective radii of water clouds derived from collocated passive sensor observations. Based on Monte Carlo simulations of CALIPSO lidar observations, this method combines the cloud effective radius reported by MODIS with the lidar depolarization ratios measured by CALIPSO to estimate both the liquid water content and the effective number concentration of water clouds. The method is applied to collocated CALIPSO and MODIS measurements obtained during July and October of 2006, and January 2007. Global statistics of the cloud liquid water content and effective number concentration are presented.

  19. Ionospheric turbulence from TEC variations and VLF/LF transmitter signal observations before and during the destructive seismic activity of August and October 2016 in Central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, Michael E.; Arabelos, Demetrios N.; Vergos, George; Spatala, Spyrous; Skeberis, Christos; Xenos, Tomas D.; Biagi, Pierfrancesco; Scordilis, Emmanuel M.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the ionospheric turbulence from TEC variations and VLF/LF transmitter signal observations before and during the disastrous seismic activity of August and October 2016 in Central Italy . The Total Electron Content (TEC) data of 8 Global Positioning System (GPS) stations of the EUREF network, which are being provided by IONOLAB (Turkey), were analysed using Discrete Fourier Analysis in order to investigate the TEC variations (Contadakis et al. 2009, Contadakis et al. 2012, Contadakis et al. 2015). The data acquired for VLF/LF signal observations are from the receiver of Thessaloniki(40.59N, 22,78E), Greece (Skeberis et al. 2015) which monitor the VLF/LF transmitters of the International Network for Frontier Research on Earthquake Precursors (INFREP). A method of normalization according to the distance between the receiver and the transmitter is applied on the above data and then they are processed by the Hilbert Huang Transform (HHT) to produce the corresponding spectra for visual analysis. The results of this investigation indicate that the High- Frequency limit fo, of the ionospheric turbulence content, increases as the site and the moment of the earthquake occurrence is approaching, pointing to the earthquake locus. In accordence ,the analyzed data from the receiver of INFREP network in Thessaloniki, Greece show that the signals from the two VLF European transmitters, Tavolara ( Italy) and Le Blanc (France), for wich the transmission path crosses the epicentral zones, indicate enhanced high frequency variations, the last ten days before the moment of the earthquake occurrence. We conclude that the LAIC mechanism through acoustic or gravity wave could explain this phenomenology. Reference Contadakis, M.E., Arabelos, D.N., Asteriadis, G., Spatalas, S.D., Pikridas, C. TEC variations over the Mediterranean during the seismic activity period of the last quarter of 2005 in the area of Greece, Nat. Hazards and Earth Syst. Sci., 8, 1267

  20. V-TECS Criterion-Referenced Test Item Bank for Radiologic Technology Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This Vocational-Technical Education Consortium of States (V-TECS) criterion-referenced test item bank provides 696 multiple-choice items and 33 matching items for radiologic technology occupations. These job titles are included: radiologic technologist, chief; radiologic technologist; nuclear medicine technologist; radiation therapy technologist;…

  1. 76 FR 73683 - Whirlpool Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Career Solutions TEC Staffing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ..., Inc., Fort Smith, AR; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment... Career Solutions TEC Staffing, Fort Smith, Arkansas. The workers are engaged in the production of...., Prodriver, and Arkansas Warehouse, Inc. were employed on-site at the Fort Smith, Arkansas location of...

  2. 76 FR 72978 - Whirlpool Corporation Including On-Site Leased Workers From Career Solutions TEC Staffing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ..., TEK Systems, Penske Logistics, Eurest, and Canteen, Fort Smith, AR; Amended Certification Regarding... Corporation, including on-site leased workers from Career Solutions TEC Staffing, Fort Smith, Arkansas. The... Corporation, TEK Systems, Penske Logistics, Eurest, and Canteen were employed on-site at the Fort Smith...

  3. Measuring Ionospheric Irregularities Globally by the Rate of TEC Index and GNSS Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pi, Xiaoqing

    2012-01-01

    Outline of presentation: Why do we use the rate of TEC index (ROTI) instead of the standard s4 and sigma-phi indices? What are the differences between S4, sigma-phi and ROTI? Examples of ROTI measurements and Development status and plan.

  4. Tec-kinase-mediated phosphorylation of fibroblast growth factor 2 is essential for unconventional secretion.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Antje D; Laussmann, Mareike; Wegehingel, Sabine; Kaderali, Lars; Erfle, Holger; Reichert, Jürgen; Lechner, Johannes; Beer, Hans-Dietmar; Pepperkok, Rainer; Nickel, Walter

    2010-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is a potent mitogen that is exported from cells by an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/Golgi-independent mechanism. Unconventional secretion of FGF2 occurs by direct translocation across plasma membranes, a process that depends on the phosphoinositide phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) at the inner leaflet as well as heparan sulfate proteoglycans at the outer leaflet of plasma membranes; however, additional core and regulatory components of the FGF2 export machinery have remained elusive. Here, using a highly effective RNAi screening approach, we discovered Tec kinase as a novel factor involved in unconventional secretion of FGF2. Tec kinase does not affect FGF2 secretion by an indirect mechanism, but rather forms a heterodimeric complex with FGF2 resulting in phosphorylation of FGF2 at tyrosine 82, a post-translational modification shown to be essential for FGF2 membrane translocation to cell surfaces. Our findings suggest a crucial role for Tec kinase in regulating FGF2 secretion under various physiological conditions and, therefore, provide a new perspective for the development of a novel class of antiangiogenic drugs targeting the formation of the FGF2/Tec complex.

  5. Simultaneous Global Positioning System observations of equatorial scintillations and total electron content fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Theodore L.; Kintner, Paul M.

    1999-10-01

    One aspect of the Global Positioning System (GPS) is the potential to conduct geophysical research, and worldwide networks of GPS receivers have been established to exploit this potential. Several research groups have begun using this global GPS data to study ionospheric total electron content (TEC) variations, also referred to as GPS phase fluctuations, as surrogates for ionospheric scintillations. This paper investigates the relationship between GPS amplitude scintillations and TEC variations for the same line of sight using observations from Ancón, Peru. These observations were taken under equatorial spread F conditions for three nights in April 1997. As expected, only when the spectrum of TEC fluctuations includes significant power at the Fresnel scale do scintillations appear. We also find that when the TEC fluctuation spectrum includes the Fresnel scale, the S4 scintillation index is roughly proportional to measures of TEC fluctuation for the weak scintillations observed. The proportionality constant varies from night to night, however, casting doubt on the ability to predict GPS S4 successfully from TEC fluctuation data alone. We also present a simple theoretical phase screen model and show that if a relationship between TEC fluctuation measures and S4 exists, that relationship depends on the power spectrum of phase variations at the screen. Unfortunately, the available TEC data, at 30 s per sample (with some aliasing apparently permitted), offer limited spectral information. A preliminary comparison of 1 s/sample data with the same data decimated to a 30 s/sample interval suggests, however, that the level of successful S4 prediction, based on TEC fluctuation measures alone, is comparable at either sample rate.

  6. Variabilities of Low-Latitude Migrating and Nonmigrating Tides in GPS-TEC and TIMED-SABER Temperature During the Sudden Stratospheric Warming Event of 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, S.

    2017-10-01

    The Global Positioning System deduced total electron content (TEC) data at 15°N (geomagnetic), which is the crest region of equatorial ionization anomaly, are used to study tidal variabilities during the 2013 sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event. The results from space-time spectral analysis reveal that the amplitudes of migrating diurnal (DW1) and semidiurnal (SW2) tides are larger than those of nonmigrating tides. After the SSW onset, the amplitudes of DW1, SW2, SW1, and DS0 increase. Moreover, they show 16 day variations similar to the periodicity of the high-latitude stratospheric planetary wave (PW), suggesting that the nonmigrating tides (SW1 and DS0) are possibly generated due to nonlinear interaction of migrating tides with PW. Similar spectral analysis on temperature at 10°N obtained from the Sounding of Atmosphere by Broadband Emission Radiometry (SABER) shows that the SW2 enhances at stratospheric heights and the SW2 is more dominant at 80-90 km, but its amplitude decreases around 100 km. The amplitudes of nonmigrating tides become comparable to those of SW2 around 100 km, and their contribution becomes increasingly important at higher heights. This suggests that the nonlinear interaction between migrating tides and PW occurs at low-latitude upper mesospheric heights, as SW2 exhibits 16 day periodicity in SABER temperature at 100 km as observed in TEC. Besides, it is observed that the eastward propagating tides are less dominant than westward propagating tides in both TEC and SABER temperatures.

  7. Detection of the mid-latitude Sporadic-E signal using GNSS/TEC and ALOS2 InSAR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Maeda, J.; Furuya, M.; Heki, K.

    2016-12-01

    Sporadic E (Es) is known to generate unusual propagation of VHF waves over long distances, which is caused by a layer of ionization that irregularly appears within the E region of the ionosphere. However, the generation mechanism of Es remains unclear, because the conventional ionosonde observation of Es has limited spatial resolution. Maeda et al. (2016) succeeded in capturing mid-latitude Es signal over Japan two-dimensionally as an image, using InSAR, and demonstrated the detailed spatial structure of Es. As InSAR is clearly useful for capturing Es, we aim to detect mid-latitude Es over Japan by InSAR, following Maeda et al. (2016). First, we chose the dates whose critical frequencies of Es (foEs) were more than 15MHz at ionosonde in Kokubunji, Wakkanai and Yamagawa in the morning and noon in 2016 from May to June; Es is known to be frequent in the local daytime of summer season. Secondly, we chose the ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 data sets whose observation area, dates and time matches the data above as closely as possible. Thirdly, we generated Global Navigation Satellite System - Total Electron Content (GNSS-TEC) map whose areas, dates and time become the same as the above and if Es appeared in GNSS-TEC map, we generate interferogram. We could detect interesting phase changes in the pair of February 17, 2016 (Master) and May 25, 2016 (Slave) along a track from Tottori to Okayama. The location of the phase shift is close to the Es on the GNSS-TEC image. Therefore, we can consider the phase shift as the edge of Es. This is the second successful detection of Es signals, using InSAR. Also, we are going to separate the Es signal from other non-dispersive signals, using split-band InSAR technique.

  8. Low and Mid-Latitude Ionospheric Irregularities Studies Using TEC and Radio Scintillation Data from the CITRIS Radio Beacon Receiver in Low-Earth-Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siefring, C. L.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Huba, J.; Krall, J.; Roddy, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Unique data on ionospheric plasma irregularities from the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) CITRIS (Scintillation and TEC Receiver in Space) instrument will be presented. CITRIS is a multi-band receiver that recorded TEC (Total Electron Content) and radio scintillations from Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) on STPSat1. The 555+/5 km altitude 35° inclination orbit covers low and mid-latitudes. The measurements require propagation from a transmitter to a receiver through the F-region plasma. CITRIS used both 1) satellite beacons in LEO, such as the NRL CERTO (Coherent Electromagnetic Radio TOmography) beacons and 2) the global network of ground-based DORIS (Doppler Orbitography and Radiopositioning Integrated by Satellite) beacons. The TEC measurements allow for tracking of ionospheric disturbances and irregularities while the measurements of scintillations can simultaneously characterize their effects. CITRIS was operated in a complementary fashion with the C/NOFS (Communication/Navigations Outages Forecasting System) satellite during most of its first year of operations. C/NOFS carries a three-frequency 150/400/1067 MHz CERTO beacon and is dedicated to the study of Spread-F. In the case of Spread-F, ionospheric irregularities start with large scale size density gradients (100s of km) and cascade through complex processes to short scale sizes (10s of meters). It is typically the 100m-1km scale features that harm communication and navigation systems through scintillations. A multi-sensor approach is needed to completely understand this complex system, such as, the combination of CITRIS remote radio sensing and C/NOFS in-situ data. Several types of irregularities have been studied including Spread-F and the newly discovered dawn-side depletions. Comparisons with the physics based SAMI3 model are being performed to help our understanding of the morphology of the irregularities.

  9. AzTEC millimetre survey of the COSMOS field - I. Data reduction and source catalogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, K. S.; Austermann, J. E.; Perera, T. A.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Bock, J. J.; Hughes, D. H.; Kang, Y.; Kim, S.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Sanders, D. B.; Scoville, N.; Yun, M. S.

    2008-04-01

    We present a 1.1 mm wavelength imaging survey covering 0.3 deg2 in the COSMOS field. These data, obtained with the AzTEC continuum camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, were centred on a prominent large-scale structure overdensity which includes a rich X-ray cluster at z ~ 0.73. A total of 50 mm-galaxy candidates, with a significance ranging from 3.5 to 8.5σ, are extracted from the central 0.15 deg2 area which has a uniform sensitivity of ~1.3 mJybeam-1. 16 sources are detected with S/N >= 4.5, where the expected false-detection rate is zero, of which a surprisingly large number (9) have intrinsic (deboosted) fluxes >=5 mJy at 1.1 mm. Assuming the emission is dominated by radiation from dust, heated by a massive population of young, optically obscured stars, then these bright AzTEC sources have far-infrared luminosities >6 × 1012Lsolar and star formation rates >1100Msolaryr-1. Two of these nine bright AzTEC sources are found towards the extreme peripheral region of the X-ray cluster, whilst the remainder are distributed across the larger scale overdensity. We describe the AzTEC data reduction pipeline, the source-extraction algorithm, and the characterization of the source catalogue, including the completeness, flux deboosting correction, false-detection rate and the source positional uncertainty, through an extensive set of Monte Carlo simulations. We conclude with a preliminary comparison, via a stacked analysis, of the overlapping MIPS 24-μm data and radio data with this AzTEC map of the COSMOS field.

  10. An AzTEC 1.1mm survey of the GOODS-N field - II. Multiwavelength identifications and redshift distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapin, Edward L.; Pope, Alexandra; Scott, Douglas; Aretxaga, Itziar; Austermann, Jason E.; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Coppin, Kristen; Halpern, Mark; Hughes, David H.; Lowenthal, James D.; Morrison, Glenn E.; Perera, Thushara A.; Scott, Kimberly S.; Wilson, Grant W.; Yun, Min S.

    2009-10-01

    We present results from a multiwavelength study of 29 sources (false detection probabilities <5 per cent) from a survey of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North (GOODS-N) field at 1.1mm using the Astronomical Thermal Emission Camera (AzTEC). Comparing with existing 850μm Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) studies in the field, we examine differences in the source populations selected at the two wavelengths. The AzTEC observations uniformly cover the entire survey field to a 1σ depth of ~1mJy. Searching deep 1.4GHz Very Large Array (VLA) and Spitzer 3-24μm catalogues, we identify robust counterparts for 21 1.1mm sources, and tentative associations for the remaining objects. The redshift distribution of AzTEC sources is inferred from available spectroscopic and photometric redshifts. We find a median redshift of z = 2.7, somewhat higher than z = 2.0 for 850μm selected sources in the same field, and our lowest redshift identification lies at a spectroscopic redshift z = 1.1460. We measure the 850μm to 1.1mm colour of our sources and do not find evidence for `850μm dropouts', which can be explained by the low signal-to-noise ratio of the observations. We also combine these observed colours with spectroscopic redshifts to derive the range of dust temperatures T, and dust emissivity indices β for the sample, concluding that existing estimates T ~ 30K and β ~ 1.75 are consistent with these new data.

  11. Seismo-ionospheric Precursors in the GPS Total Electron Content of the 16 October 1999 Mw7.1 Hector Mine Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, H.; Su, Y.; Liu, J. G.; Chen, S.; Chen, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, temporal and spatial analyses are employed to detect seismo-ionospheric precursors (SIPs) in the ionospheric total electron content (TEC) during 16 October 1999 Mw7.1 Hector Mine earthquake. To discriminate anomalies caused by global effects, such as solar radiations, magnetic storms, etc., and local effects, such as earthquake, we cross-examine the GPS TECs and their gradients in the eastward and northward directions at epicenter/centers of the Hector Mine area and the other two reference areas at similar magnetic latitudes in Europe and Japan. Temporal variations of the northward TEC gradient suggest SIPs most likely appearing day 6-5 before the earthquake. A global search by using the TEC of GIM (global ionosphere map) shows that the TEC increase and decrease anomalies continuously and specifically appear around the epicenter day 5 before the earthquake.

  12. Ionospheric total electron content seismo-perturbation after Japan's March 11, 2011, M=9.0 Tohoku earthquake under a geomagnetic storm; a nonlinear principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jyh-Woei

    2012-10-01

    Nonlinear principal component analysis (NLPCA) is implemented to analyze the spatial pattern of total electron content (TEC) anomalies 3 hours after Japan's Tohoku earthquake that occurred at 05:46:23 on 11 March, 2011 (UTC) ( M w =9). A geomagnetic storm was in progress at the time of the earthquake. NLPCA and TEC data processing were conducted on the global ionospheric map (GIM) for the time between 08:30 to 09:30 UTC, about 3 hours after this devastating earthquake and ensuing tsunami. Analysis results show stark earthquake-associated TEC anomalies that are widespread, and appear to have been induced by two acoustic gravity waves due to strong shaking (vertical acoustic wave) and the generation of the tsunami (horizontal Rayleigh mode gravity wave). The TEC anomalies roughly fit the initial mainshock and movement of the tsunami. Observation of the earthquake-associated TEC anomalies does not appear to be affected by a contemporaneous geomagnetic storm.

  13. Efficient Usage of Dense GNSS Networks in Central Europe for the Visualization and Investigation of Ionospheric TEC Variations

    PubMed Central

    Zanimonskiy, Yevgen M.; Yampolski, Yuri M.; Figurski, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    The technique of the orthogonal projection of ionosphere electronic content variations for mapping total electron content (TEC) allows us to visualize ionospheric irregularities. For the reconstruction of global ionospheric characteristics, numerous global navigation satellite system (GNSS) receivers located in different regions of the Earth are used as sensors. We used dense GNSS networks in central Europe to detect and investigate a special type of plasma inhomogeneities, called travelling ionospheric disturbances (TID). Such use of GNSS sensors allows us to reconstruct the main TID parameters, such as spatial dimensions, velocities, and directions of their movement. The paper gives examples of the restoration of dynamic characteristics of ionospheric irregularities for quiet and disturbed geophysical conditions. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of ionospheric disturbances stimulated by the magnetic storms of two St. Patrick’s Days (17 March 2013 and 2015). Additional opportunities for the remote sensing of the ionosphere with the use of dense regional networks of GNSS receiving sensors have been noted too. PMID:28994718

  14. Comparison of phenolic acids and flavonoids contents in various cultivars and parts of common lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) derived from Poland.

    PubMed

    Adaszyńska-Skwirzyńska, M; Dzięcioł, M

    2017-11-01

    The aim of study was to compare the content of phenolic acids and flavonoids in two cultivars of Lavandula angustifolia: 'Blue River' and 'Ellagance Purple', including flowers and leafy stalks. Total phenolics and total flavonoids contents were determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The contents of total phenolics in leafy stalks (3.71-4.06 mg g -1 d.m.) were higher than in flowers (1.13-1.14 mg g -1 d.m.). Similarly, higher total contents of flavonoids were determined in leafy stalks (3.41-3.51 mg g -1 d.m.), as compared with flowers (0.86-0.91 mg g -1 d.m.). Phenolic acids and flavonoids were identified and quantified using HPLC and UPLC methods. Three phenolic acids were determined: rosmarinic, ferulic and caffeic acid. Lavender extracts contained also flavonoids from group of apigenin, luteolin and quercetin. Higher amounts of luteolin diglucuronide and luteolin glucuronide were found in leafy stalks in comparison to flowers. Obtained results indicate that leafy stalks of lavender can be also valuable source of antioxidant compounds.

  15. Morphology of the winter anomaly in NmF2 and Total Electron Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasyukevich, Yury; Ratovsky, Konstantin; Yasyukevich, Anna; Klimenko, Maksim; Klimenko, Vladimir; Chirik, Nikolay

    2017-04-01

    We analyzed the winter anomaly manifestation in the F2 peak electron density (NmF2) and Total Electron Content (TEC) based on the observation data and model calculation results. For the analysis we used 1998-2015 TEC Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) and NmF2 ground-based ionosonde observation data from and COSMIC, CHAMP and GRACE radio occultation data. We used Global Self-consistent Model of the Thermosphere, Ionosphere, and Protonosphere (GSM TIP) and International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-2012). Based on the observation data and model calculation results we constructed the maps of the winter anomaly intensity in TEC and NmF2 for the different solar and geomagnetic activity levels. The winter anomaly intensity was found to be higher in NmF2 than in TEC according to both observation and modeling. In this report we show the similarity and difference in winter anomaly as revealed in experimental data and model results.

  16. Behaviour of Electron Content in the Ionospheric D-Region During Solar X-Ray Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todorović Drakul, M.; Čadež, V. M.; Bajčetić, J.; Popović, L. Č.; Blagojević, D.; Nina, A.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most important parameters in ionospheric plasma research, also having a wide practical application in wireless satellite telecommunications, is the total electron content (TEC) representing the columnal electron number density. The F-region with high electron density provides the biggest contribution to TEC while the relatively weakly ionized plasma of the D-region (60 km - 90 km above Earth's surface) is often considered as a negligible cause of satellite signal disturbances. However, sudden intensive ionization processes, like those induced by solar X-ray flares, can cause relative increases of electron density that are significantly larger in the D-region than in regions at higher altitudes. Therefore, one cannot exclude a priori the D-region from investigations of ionospheric influences on propagation of electromagnetic signals emitted by satellites. We discuss here this problem which has not been sufficiently treated in literature so far. The obtained results are based on data collected from the D-region monitoring by very low frequency radio waves and on vertical TEC calculations from the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal analyses, and they show noticeable variations in the D-region's electron content (TEC_{D) during activity of a solar X-ray flare (it rises by a factor of 136 in the considered case) when TEC_{D} contribution to TEC can reach several percent and which cannot be neglected in practical applications like global positioning procedures by satellites.

  17. Comparison of local adipose tissue content and SRS-derived NIRS muscle oxygenation measurements in 90 individuals.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Chris E; Penfold, Stacey-Marie; Elwell, Clare E; Angus, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Adipose content in the region over the vastus lateralis muscle was measured in a young (21.1 +/- 3.1 years old, mean +/- SD) population of males (n = 62) and females (n = 28). Three techniques were used: skinfold thickness, ultrasound and near infrared spectroscopy. All techniques closely correlated with each other and all showed a significantly larger adipose content in females and a limited overlap with the range of values in males. Spatially resolved near infrared spectroscopy (SRS-NIRS) was then used to measure the tissue oxygenation index (TOI) at the same site. A source-detector separation of 4 cm was used to allow for significant light penetration into muscle tissue. TOI at rest was significantly higher in the female (65.3 +/- 7.0, mean +/- SD) than the male (61.9 +/- 5.1, mean +/- SD) group. There was a strong positive correlation between adipose content and TOI in male subjects. However, no correlation was seen in the female group. The possible optical and physiological explanations for these results are discussed.

  18. Deep 1.1 mm-wavelength imaging of the GOODS-S field by AzTEC/ASTE - II. Redshift distribution and nature of the submillimetre galaxy population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Min S.; Scott, K. S.; Guo, Yicheng; Aretxaga, I.; Giavalisco, M.; Austermann, J. E.; Capak, P.; Chen, Yuxi; Ezawa, H.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D. H.; Iono, D.; Johnson, S.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Lowenthal, J.; Miller, N.; Morrison, G.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T. A.; Salvato, M.; Silverman, J.; Tamura, Y.; Williams, C. C.; Wilson, G. W.

    2012-02-01

    We report the results of the counterpart identification and a detailed analysis of the physical properties of the 48 sources discovered in our deep 1.1-mm wavelength imaging survey of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) field using the AzTEC instrument on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment. One or more robust or tentative counterpart candidate is found for 27 and 14 AzTEC sources, respectively, by employing deep radio continuum, Spitzer/Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer and Infrared Array Camera, and Large APEX Bolometer Camera 870 μm data. Five of the sources (10 per cent) have two robust counterparts each, supporting the idea that these galaxies are strongly clustered and/or heavily confused. Photometric redshifts and star formation rates (SFRs) are derived by analysing ultraviolet(UV)-to-optical and infrared(IR)-to-radio spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The median redshift of zmed˜ 2.6 is similar to other earlier estimates, but we show that 80 per cent of the AzTEC-GOODS sources are at z≥ 2, with a significant high-redshift tail (20 per cent at z≥ 3.3). Rest-frame UV and optical properties of AzTEC sources are extremely diverse, spanning 10 mag in the i- and K-band photometry (a factor of 104 in flux density) with median values of i= 25.3 and K= 22.6 and a broad range of red colour (i-K= 0-6) with an average value of i-K≈ 3. These AzTEC sources are some of the most luminous galaxies in the rest-frame optical bands at z≥ 2, with inferred stellar masses M*= (1-30) × 1010 M⊙ and UV-derived SFRs of SFRUV≳ 101-3 M⊙ yr-1. The IR-derived SFR, 200-2000 M⊙ yr-1, is independent of z or M*. The resulting specific star formation rates, SSFR ≈ 1-100 Gyr-1, are 10-100 times higher than similar mass galaxies at z= 0, and they extend the previously observed rapid rise in the SSFR with redshift to z= 2-5. These galaxies have a SFR high enough to have built up their entire stellar mass within their Hubble time

  19. Comparing GNSS Total Electron Content of Sonmiani, Pakistan with NeQuick-2 & IRI-2012 during July 2014 - June 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayyaz Ameen, Muhammad; Ghafoor, Memoona; Weimin, Zhen

    2016-07-01

    Total Electron Content (TEC) data acquired by an in-house fabricated GNSS receiver (by China Research Institute of Radiowave Propagation, CRIRP) working with NovaTel antenna installed at Sonmiani (geograph. 24.95°N, 67.14°E) is being reported for the first time. The period under study is one year (July 2014 to June 2015) which is based upon the hourly instantaneous TEC values of 120 days (10 international quietest days, IQD per month). The data confirms the annual variation of TEC at the station which lies at the northern crest of equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region. GNSS TEC values in general are then compared with NeQuick-2 and IRI-2012. Model comparison shows that NeQuick-2 predicts the TEC with greater confidence whereas IRI-2012 shows larger discrepancies with respect to the data. Seasonal variation shows the highest TEC values during equinox months. December solstice values of TEC are higher than the June solstice values, this confirms that the seasonal anomaly is dominating in the region during the course of study.

  20. Towards Estimating Water Stress through Leaf and Canopy Water Content Derived from Optical and Thermal Hyperspectral Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, Amie; Timmermans, Joris; van der Tol, Christiaan; Verhoef, Wout

    2015-04-01

    A competition for available (drinkable) water has arisen. This competition originated due to increasing global population and the respective needs of this population. The water demand for human consumption and irrigation of food producing crops and biofuel related vegetation, has led to early indication of drought as a key issue in many studies. However, while drought monitoring systems might provide some reasonable predictions, at the time of visible symptoms of plant stress, a plant may already be critically affected. Consequently, pre-symptomatic non-destructive monitoring of plants is needed. In many studies of plant stress, this is performed by examining internal plant physiology through existing remote sensing techniques, with varying applications. However, a uniform remote sensing method for identifying early plant stress under drought conditions is still developing. In some instances, observations of vegetation water content are used to assess the impact of soil water deficit on the health of a plant or canopy. When considering water content as an indicator of water stress in a plant, this comments not only on the condition of the plant itself, but also provides indicators of photosynthetic activity and the susceptibility to drought. Several indices of canopy health currently exists (NDVI, DVI, SAVI, etc.) using optical and near infrared reflectance bands. However, these are considered inadequate for vegetation health investigations because such semi-empirical models result in less accuracy for canopy measurements. In response, a large amount of research has been conducted to estimate canopy health directly from considering the full spectral behaviour. In these studies , the canopy reflectance has been coupled to leaf parameters, by using coupling leaf radiative transfer models (RTM), such as PROSPECT, to a canopy RTM such as SAIL. The major shortcomings of these researches is that they have been conducted primarily for optical remote sensing. Recently

  1. Improved estimation of Mars ionosphere total electron content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartacci, M.; Sánchez-Cano, B.; Orosei, R.; Noschese, R.; Cicchetti, A.; Witasse, O.; Cantini, F.; Rossi, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    We describe an improved method to estimate the Total Electron Content (TEC) of the Mars ionosphere from the echoes recorded by the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS) (Picardi et al., 2005; Orosei et al., 2015) onboard Mars Express in its subsurface sounding mode. In particular, we demonstrate that this method solves the issue of the former algorithm described at (Cartacci et al., 2013), which produced an overestimation of TEC estimates on the day side. The MARSIS signal is affected by a phase distortion introduced by the Mars ionosphere that produces a variation of the signal shape and a delay in its travel time. The new TEC estimation is achieved correlating the parameters obtained through the correction of the aforementioned effects. In detail, the knowledge of the quadratic term of the phase distortion estimated by the Contrast Method (Cartacci et al., 2013), together with the linear term (i.e. the extra time delay), estimated through a radar signal simulator, allows to develop a new algorithm particularly well suited to estimate the TEC for solar zenith angles (SZA) lower than 95° The new algorithm for the dayside has been validated with independent data from MARSIS in its Active Ionospheric Sounding (AIS) operational mode, with comparisons with other previous algorithms based on MARSIS subsurface data, with modeling and with modeling ionospheric distortion TEC reconstruction.

  2. A practical approach for deriving all-weather soil moisture content using combined satellite and meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Pei; Li, Zhao-Liang; Duan, Si-Bo; Gao, Mao-Fang; Huo, Hong-Yuan

    2017-09-01

    Soil moisture has long been recognized as one of the essential variables in the water cycle and energy budget between Earth's surface and atmosphere. The present study develops a practical approach for deriving all-weather soil moisture using combined satellite images and gridded meteorological products. In this approach, soil moisture over the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) clear-sky pixels are estimated from the Vegetation Index/Temperature (VIT) trapezoid scheme in which theoretical dry and wet edges were determined pixel to pixel by China Meteorological Administration Land Data Assimilation System (CLDAS) meteorological products, including air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and specific humidity. For cloudy pixels, soil moisture values are derived by the calculation of surface and aerodynamic resistances from wind speed. The approach is capable of filling the soil moisture gaps over remaining cloudy pixels by traditional optical/thermal infrared methods, allowing for a spatially complete soil moisture map over large areas. Evaluation over agricultural fields indicates that the proposed approach can produce an overall generally reasonable distribution of all-weather soil moisture. An acceptable accuracy between the estimated all-weather soil moisture and in-situ measurements at different depths could be found with an Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) varying from 0.067 m3/m3 to 0.079 m3/m3 and a slight bias ranging from 0.004 m3/m3 to -0.011 m3/m3. The proposed approach reveals significant potential to derive all-weather soil moisture using currently available satellite images and meteorological products at a regional or global scale in future developments.

  3. Modeling of Heat and Mass Transfer in a TEC-Driven Lyophilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, Zeng-Guang; Hegde, Uday; Litwiller, Eric; Flynn, Michael; Fisher, John

    2006-01-01

    Dewatering of wet waste during space exploration missions is important for crew safety as it stabilizes the waste. It may also be used to recover water and serve as a preconditioning step for waste compaction. A thermoelectric cooler (TEC)-driven lyophilizer is under development at NASA Ames Research Center for this purpose. It has three major components: (i) an evaporator section where water vapor sublimes from the frozen waste, (ii) a condenser section where this water vapor deposits as ice, and (iii) a TEC section which serves as a heat pump to transfer heat from the condenser to the evaporator. This paper analyses the heat and mass transfer processes in the lyophilizer in an effort to understand the ice formation behavior in the condenser. The analysis is supported by experimental observations of ice formation patterns in two different condenser units.

  4. Improving Science Teacher Preparation through the APS PhysTEC and NSF Noyce Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Tasha; Tyler, Micheal; van Duzor, Andrea; Sabella, Mel

    2013-03-01

    Central to the recruitment of students into science teaching at a school like CSU, is a focus on the professional nature of teaching. The purpose of this focus is twofold: it serves to change student perceptions about teaching and it prepares students to become teachers who value continued professional development and value the science education research literature. The Noyce and PhysTEC programs at CSU place the professional nature of teaching front and center by involving students in education research projects, paid internships, attendance at conferences, and participation in a new Teacher Immersion Institute and a Science Education Journal Reading Class. This poster will focus on specific components of our teacher preparation program that were developed through these two programs. In addition we will describe how these new components provide students with diverse experiences in the teaching of science to students in the urban school district. Supported by the NSF Noyce Program (0833251) and the APS PhysTEC Program.

  5. Relationship between T2* magnetic resonance imaging-derived liver and heart iron content and serum ferritin levels in transfusion-dependent thalassemic children

    PubMed Central

    Suthar, Kiran; Goyal, Vishnu Kumar; Sharma, Pramod; Deopa, Bindu; Rathore, Pradeep Singh; Bishnoi, Rama Krishan

    2018-01-01

    CONTEXT: T2* magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is being increasingly used for the assessment of organ iron content in thalassemics, but cost is a major prohibitive factor for repeated measurements. If serum ferritin correlates well with the T2* MRI liver and heart, it will be economical and more simple tool to assess organ iron deposition. AIMS: The aim of this study was to find out the relationship between serum ferritin level and T2* MRI-derived liver and heart iron content in transfusion-dependent thalassemic children SETTINGS: Thalassemia day-care center of a teaching hospital DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Seventy-three transfusion-dependent beta thalassemic children belonging to 2–18 years of age were subjected to T2* MRI of heart and liver to assess their iron content. Values obtained here were related to serum ferritin. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Keeping the correlation between serum ferritin and T2* MRI as primary outcome, spearman's correlation coefficient was calculated. RESULTS: We found poor (negative) correlation between serum ferritin level and T2* MRI liver (r = -0.448, P = 0.000) but no correlation between serum ferritin and T2*MRI heart (r = -0.221, P = 0.060). Conclusions: Serum ferritin cannot reliably predict the liver and heart iron content in Indian children with β thalassemia. PMID:29563679

  6. Developing antibodies from cholinesterase derived from prokaryotic expression and testing their feasibility for detecting immunogen content in Daphnia magna *

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-cui; Yuan, Bing-qiang; Li, Shao-nan

    2016-01-01

    To yield cholinesterase (ChE) from prokaryotic expression, the ChE gene that belongs to Daphnia magna was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using forward primer 5'-CCCYGGNGCSAT GATGTG-3' and reverse primer 5'-GYAAGTTRGCCCAATATCT-3'. To express the gene, one sequence of the amplified DNA, which was able to encode a putative protein containing two conserved carboxylesterase domains, was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector PET-29a(+). The recombinant vector was transformed into Escherichia coil BL21 (DE3). Protein expression was induced by isopropy-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed ChE was used as an immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. The obtained antibodies were tested for their specificity towards crude enzymes from species such as Alona milleri, Macrobrachium nipponense, Bombyx mori, Chironomus kiiensis, Apis mellifera, Eisenia foetida, Brachydanio rerio, and Xenopus laevis. Results indicated that the antibodies had specificity suitable for detecting ChE in Daphnia magna. A type of indirect and non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IN-ELISA) was used to test the immunoreactive content of ChE (ChE-IR) in Daphina magna. The detection limit of the IN-ELISA was found to be 14.5 ng/ml at an antiserum dilution of 1:22 000. Results from tests on Daphnia magna exposed to sublethal concentrations of triazophos indicated a maximal induction of 57.2% in terms of ChE-IR on the second day after the animals were exposed to a concentration of 2.10 μg/L triazophos. Testing on animals acclimatized to a temperature of 16 °C indicated that ChE-IR was induced by 16.9% compared with the ChE-IR content detected at 21 °C, and the rate of induction was 25.6% at 10 °C. The IN-ELISA was also used to test the stability of ChE-IR in collected samples. Repeated freezing and thawing had no influence on the outcome of the test. All these results suggest that the polyclonal antibodies developed against the recombinant ChE are as

  7. Developing antibodies from cholinesterase derived from prokaryotic expression and testing their feasibility for detecting immunogen content in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-cui; Yuan, Bing-qiang; Li, Shao-nan

    2016-02-01

    To yield cholinesterase (ChE) from prokaryotic expression, the ChE gene that belongs to Daphnia magna was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using forward primer 5'-CCCYGGNGCSAT GATGTG-3' and reverse primer 5'-GYAAGTTRGCCCAATATCT-3'. To express the gene, one sequence of the amplified DNA, which was able to encode a putative protein containing two conserved carboxylesterase domains, was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector PET-29a(+). The recombinant vector was transformed into Escherichia coil BL21 (DE3). Protein expression was induced by isopropy-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed ChE was used as an immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. The obtained antibodies were tested for their specificity towards crude enzymes from species such as Alona milleri, Macrobrachium nipponense, Bombyx mori, Chironomus kiiensis, Apis mellifera, Eisenia foetida, Brachydanio rerio, and Xenopus laevis. Results indicated that the antibodies had specificity suitable for detecting ChE in Daphnia magna. A type of indirect and non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IN-ELISA) was used to test the immunoreactive content of ChE (ChE-IR) in Daphina magna. The detection limit of the IN-ELISA was found to be 14.5 ng/ml at an antiserum dilution of 1:22 000. Results from tests on Daphnia magna exposed to sublethal concentrations of triazophos indicated a maximal induction of 57.2% in terms of ChE-IR on the second day after the animals were exposed to a concentration of 2.10 μg/L triazophos. Testing on animals acclimatized to a temperature of 16 °C indicated that ChE-IR was induced by 16.9% compared with the ChE-IR content detected at 21 °C, and the rate of induction was 25.6% at 10 °C. The IN-ELISA was also used to test the stability of ChE-IR in collected samples. Repeated freezing and thawing had no influence on the outcome of the test. All these results suggest that the polyclonal antibodies developed against the recombinant ChE are as

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: AzTEC/ASTE source catalogue (Aretxaga+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aretxaga, I.; Wilson, G. W.; Aguilar, E.; Alberts, S.; Scott, K. S.; Scoville, N.; Yun, M. S.; Austermann, J.; Downes, T. P.; Ezawa, H.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D. H.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T. A.; Tamura, Y.; Zeballos, M.

    2013-02-01

    We imaged a 2800 arcmin2 field centred at right ascension RA(J2000.0)=10:00:30.00 and declination DE(J2000.0)=2:14.00 with AzTEC mounted on the 10-m ASTE, located at 4800m in the Atacama Desert of Chile. The survey was carried out from 2008 October 20 to November 30. (1 data file).

  9. Millimeter-Wave Polarimeters Using Kinetic Inductance Detectors for TolTEC and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austermann, J. E.; Beall, J. A.; Bryan, S. A.; Dober, B.; Gao, J.; Hilton, G.; Hubmayr, J.; Mauskopf, P.; McKenney, C. M.; Simon, S. M.; Ullom, J. N.; Vissers, M. R.; Wilson, G. W.

    2018-05-01

    Microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) provide a compelling path forward to the large-format polarimeter, imaging, and spectrometer arrays needed for next-generation experiments in millimeter-wave cosmology and astronomy. We describe the development of feedhorn-coupled MKID detectors for the TolTEC millimeter-wave imaging polarimeter being constructed for the 50-m Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT). Observations with TolTEC are planned to begin in early 2019. TolTEC will comprise ˜ 7000 polarization-sensitive MKIDs and will represent the first MKID arrays fabricated and deployed on monolithic 150 mm diameter silicon wafers—a critical step toward future large-scale experiments with over 10^5 detectors. TolTEC will operate in observational bands at 1.1, 1.4, and 2.0 mm and will use dichroic filters to define a physically independent focal plane for each passband, thus allowing the polarimeters to use simple, direct-absorption inductive structures that are impedance matched to incident radiation. This work is part of a larger program at NIST-Boulder to develop MKID-based detector technologies for use over a wide range of photon energies spanning millimeter-waves to X-rays. We present the detailed pixel layout and describe the methods, tools, and flexible design parameters that allow this solution to be optimized for use anywhere in the millimeter and sub-millimeter bands. We also present measurements of prototype devices operating in the 1.1 mm band and compare the observed optical performance to that predicted from models and simulations.

  10. Combining low-cost GPS receivers with upGPR to derive continuously liquid water content, snow height and snow water equivalent in Alpine snow covers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Franziska; Schmid, Lino; Prasch, Monika; Heilig, Achim; Eisen, Olaf; Schweizer, Jürg; Mauser, Wolfram

    2015-04-01

    The temporal evolution of Alpine snowpacks is important for assessing water supply, hydropower generation, flood predictions and avalanche forecasts. Especially in high mountain regions with an extremely varying topography, it is until now often difficult to derive continuous and non-destructive information on snow parameters. Since autumn 2012, we are running a new low-cost GPS (Global Positioning System) snow measurement experiment at the high alpine study site Weissfluhjoch (2450 m a.s.l.) in Switzerland. The globally and freely broadcasted GPS L1-band (1.57542 GHz) was continuously recorded with GPS antennas, which are installed at the ground surface underneath the snowpack. GPS raw data, containing carrier-to-noise power density ratio (C/N0) as well as elevation and azimuth angle information for each time step of 1 s, was stored and analyzed for all 32 GPS satellites. Since the dielectric permittivity of an overlying wet snowpack influences microwave radiation, the bulk volumetric liquid water content as well as daily melt-freeze cycles can be derived non-destructively from GPS signal strength losses and external snow height information. This liquid water content information is qualitatively in good accordance with meteorological and snow-hydrological data and quantitatively highly agrees with continuous data derived from an upward-looking ground-penetrating radar (upGPR) working in a similar frequency range. As a promising novelty, we combined the GPS signal strength data with upGPR travel-time information of active impulse radar rays to the snow surface and back from underneath the snow cover. This combination allows determining liquid water content, snow height and snow water equivalent from beneath the snow cover without using any other external information. The snow parameters derived by combining upGPR and GPS data are in good agreement with conventional sensors as e.g. laser distance gauges or snow pillows. As the GPS sensors are cheap, they can easily

  11. Seasonal features of quasi-biennial variations of NO2 stratospheric content derived from ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageyeva, V. Yu.; Gruzdev, A. N.

    2017-01-01

    Seasonal and latitudinal distributions of amplitudes of quasi-biennial variations in total NO2 content (NO2 TC), total ozone content (TOC), and stratospheric temperature are obtained. NO2 TC data from ground-based spectrometric measurements within the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), TOC data from satellite measurements, and stratospheric temperature data from ERA-Interim reanalysis are used for the analysis. The differences in the NO2 TC diurnal cycles are identified between the westerly and easterly phases of the quasi-biennial oscillations (QBO) of equatorial stratospheric wind. The QBO effects in the NO2 TC, TOC, and stratospheric temperature in the Northern (NH) and Southern (SH) hemispheres are most significant in the winter-spring periods, with essential differences between the NH and SH. The NO2 TC in the Antarctic is less for the westerly phase of the QBO than that for the easterly phase, and the NO2 TC quasi-biennial variations in the SH mid-latitudes are opposite of the variations in the Antarctic. In the NH, the winter values of the NO2 TC are generally less during the westerly QBO phase than during the easterly phase, whereas in spring, on the contrary, the values for the westerly QBO phase exceed those for the easterly phase. Along with NO2, the features of the quasi-biennial variations of TOC and stratospheric temperature are discussed. Possible mechanisms of the quasi-biennial variations of the analyzed parameters are considered for the different latitudinal zones.

  12. The stellar content of 30 doradus derived from spatially integrated ultraviolet spectra: A test of spectral synthesis models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vacca, William D.; Robert, Carmelle; Leitherer, Claus; Conti, Peter S.

    1995-01-01

    Using the IUE satellite, we have obtained spatially integrated ultraviolet spectra of three areas within the giant H II region 30 Dor in the Large Magellanic Cloud. The spectra correspond to spatial reginswith sizes of 20 sec x 20 sec, 1 min x 1 min, and 3 min x 3 min, all of which are approximately centered on R136. We have performed a spectral synthesis analysis of the spectra of the two larger regions and compared the results with the known stellar content in these regions. The spectral synthesis models are sensitive to the ultraviolet continuum level, the P Cygni profile of the C Iv wavelength 1550 line, the absorption strength of the Si IV wavelength 1400 line, and the emission strength of the He II wavelength 1640 line. The intrinsic continuum levels and the profiles of these stellar wind lines provide constraints on the age and duration of the starburst episode within a region, as well as on the upper curoff mass of the initial mass function. From our analysis we find that the present-day value of the upper cutoff mass in the 1 min x 1 min and 3 min x 3 min regions has a lower limit of approximately 50 solar mass, a result which is in good agreement with several other recent determinations. The age of the starburst episode must be less than approximately 3 Myr, also in agreement with other estimates. Comparison of the observed total numbers of O and W-R stars with those predicted from the various models favors an instantaneous burst of star formation in the regions. However, the differences between the two burst scenarios we investigated (instantaneous and continuous) are small at such a young age, and distinguishing between the two is difficult. We are now confident that these spectral synthesis models can be used to determine the stellar content of more distant star-forming regions.

  13. Typical agricultural diffuse herbicide sorption with agricultural waste-derived biochars amended soil of high organic matter content.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wei; Zhao, Xuchen; Tysklind, Mats; Hao, Fanghua

    2016-04-01

    Biochar application has been identified as the effective soil amendment and the materials to control the diffuse herbicide pollution. The atrazine was selected as the typical diffuse herbicide pollutant as the dominant proportion in applications. The biochar treated from four types of crops biomass were added to soil with high organic matter content. The basic sorption characteristics of biocahrs from corn cob (CC), corn stalk (CS), soybean straw (SS), rice straw (RS) and corn stalk paralyzed with 5% of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ACS) were analyzed, along with the comparison of the sorption difference of the raw soil and soil amended with biochars at four levels of ratio (0.5%, 1.0%, 3.0% and 5.0%). It was found that the linear distribution isotherm of raw soil was much effective due to the high organic matter background concentration. The addition of five types of biochars under two kinds of initial atrazine concentration (1 mg/L and 20 mg/L) demonstrated the sorption variances. Results showed the soil amended with RS and CS biochar had the biggest removal rate in four regular biochars and the removal rate of the ACS was the biggest. The sorption coefficient and the normalized sorption coefficient from Freundlich modeling presented the isothermal sorption characteristics of atrazine with soil of high organic matter content. The normalized sorption coefficient increased with the equilibrium concentration decreased in the biochar amended soil, which indicated the sorption performance will be better due to the low atrazine concentration in practice. Results showed that biochar amendment is the effective way to prevent leakage of diffuse herbicide loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Variability of ionospheric TEC during solar and geomagnetic minima (2008 and 2009): external high speed stream drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Mannucci, A. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Runge, T.

    2013-02-01

    We study solar wind-ionosphere coupling through the late declining phase/solar minimum and geomagnetic minimum phases during the last solar cycle (SC23) - 2008 and 2009. This interval was characterized by sequences of high-speed solar wind streams (HSSs). The concomitant geomagnetic response was moderate geomagnetic storms and high-intensity, long-duration continuous auroral activity (HILDCAA) events. The JPL Global Ionospheric Map (GIM) software and the GPS total electron content (TEC) database were used to calculate the vertical TEC (VTEC) and estimate daily averaged values in separate latitude and local time ranges. Our results show distinct low- and mid-latitude VTEC responses to HSSs during this interval, with the low-latitude daytime daily averaged values increasing by up to 33 TECU (annual average of ~20 TECU) near local noon (12:00 to 14:00 LT) in 2008. In 2009 during the minimum geomagnetic activity (MGA) interval, the response to HSSs was a maximum of ~30 TECU increases with a slightly lower average value than in 2008. There was a weak nighttime ionospheric response to the HSSs. A well-studied solar cycle declining phase interval, 10-22 October 2003, was analyzed for comparative purposes, with daytime low-latitude VTEC peak values of up to ~58 TECU (event average of ~55 TECU). The ionospheric VTEC changes during 2008-2009 were similar but ~60% less intense on average. There is an evidence of correlations of filtered daily averaged VTEC data with Ap index and solar wind speed. We use the infrared NO and CO2 emission data obtained with SABER on TIMED as a proxy for the radiation balance of the thermosphere. It is shown that infrared emissions increase during HSS events possibly due to increased energy input into the auroral region associated with HILDCAAs. The 2008-2009 HSS intervals were ~85% less intense than the 2003 early declining phase event, with annual averages of daily infrared NO emission power of ~ 3.3 × 1010 W and 2.7 × 1010 W in 2008 and 2009

  15. Anomalous Variation in GPS TEC, Land and Ocean Parameters Prior to 3 Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Kunvar; Karia, Sheetal P.; Pathak, Kamlesh N.

    2016-02-01

    The present study reports the analysis of GPS TEC prior to 3 earthquakes ( M > 6.0). The earthquakes are: (1) Loyalty Island (22°36'S, 170°54'E) on 19 January 2009 ( M = 6.6), (2) Samoa Island (15°29'S, 172°5'W) on 30 August 2009 ( M = 6.6), and (3) Tohoku (38°19'N, 142°22'E) on 11 March 2011 ( M = 9.0). In an effort to search for a precursory signature we analysed the land and ocean parameters prior to the earthquakes, namely SLHF (Land) and SST (Ocean). The GPS TEC data indicate an anomalous behaviour from 1-13 days prior to earthquakes. The main purpose of this study was to explore and demonstrate the possibility of any changes in TEC, SST, and SLHF before, during and after the earthquakes which occurred near or beneath an ocean. This study may lead to better understanding of response of land, ocean, and ionosphere parameters prior to seismic activities.

  16. Empirical forecast of quiet time ionospheric Total Electron Content maps over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badeke, Ronny; Borries, Claudia; Hoque, Mainul M.; Minkwitz, David

    2018-06-01

    An accurate forecast of the atmospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) is helpful to investigate space weather influences on the ionosphere and technical applications like satellite-receiver radio links. The purpose of this work is to compare four empirical methods for a 24-h forecast of vertical TEC maps over Europe under geomagnetically quiet conditions. TEC map data are obtained from the Space Weather Application Center Ionosphere (SWACI) and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC). The time-series methods Standard Persistence Model (SPM), a 27 day median model (MediMod) and a Fourier Series Expansion are compared to maps for the entire year of 2015. As a representative of the climatological coefficient models the forecast performance of the Global Neustrelitz TEC model (NTCM-GL) is also investigated. Time periods of magnetic storms, which are identified with the Dst index, are excluded from the validation. By calculating the TEC values with the most recent maps, the time-series methods perform slightly better than the coefficient model NTCM-GL. The benefit of NTCM-GL is its independence on observational TEC data. Amongst the time-series methods mentioned, MediMod delivers the best overall performance regarding accuracy and data gap handling. Quiet-time SWACI maps can be forecasted accurately and in real-time by the MediMod time-series approach.

  17. Unbiased total electron content (UTEC), their fluctuations, and correlation with seismic activity over Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornely, Pierre-Richard; Hughes, John

    2018-02-01

    Earthquakes are among the most dangerous events that occur on earth and many scientists have been investigating the underlying processes that take place before earthquakes occur. These investigations are fueling efforts towards developing both single and multiple parameter earthquake forecasting methods based on earthquake precursors. One potential earthquake precursor parameter that has received significant attention within the last few years is the ionospheric total electron content (TEC). Despite its growing popularity as an earthquake precursor, TEC has been under great scrutiny because of the underlying biases associated with the process of acquiring and processing TEC data. Future work in the field will need to demonstrate our ability to acquire TEC data with the least amount of biases possible thereby preserving the integrity of the data. This paper describes a process for removing biases using raw TEC data from the standard Rinex files obtained from any global positioning satellites system. The process is based on developing an unbiased TEC (UTEC) data and model that can be more adaptable to serving as a precursor signal for earthquake forecasting. The model was used during the days and hours leading to the earthquake off the coast of Tohoku, Japan on March 11, 2011 with interesting results. The model takes advantage of the large amount of data available from the GPS Earth Observation Network of Japan to display near real-time UTEC data as the earthquake approaches and for a period of time after the earthquake occurred.

  18. Comparison of plateletpheresis on the Fresenius AS.TEC 204 and Haemonetics MCS 3p.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Sudha

    2007-02-01

    This is an attempt at comparing two cell separators for plateletpheresis, namely the Fresenius AS.TEC 204 and Haemonetics MCS 3p, at a tertiary care center in India. Donors who weighed between 55-75 kg, who had a hematocrit of 41-43%, and platelet counts of 250x10(3)-400x10(3)/microl were selected for the study. The comparability of the donors who donated on the two cell separators were analysed by t-test independent samples and no significant differences were found (P>0.05). The features compared were time taken for the procedure, volume processed on the separators, adverse reactions of the donors, quality control of the product, separation efficiency of the separators, platelet loss in the donors after the procedure, and the predictor versus the actual yield of platelets given by the cell separator. The volume processed to get a target yield of >3x10(11) was equal to 2.8-3.2 l and equal in both the cell separators. Symptoms of citrate toxicity were seen in 4 and 2.5% of donors who donated on the MCS 3p and the AS.TEC 204, respectively, and 3 and 1% of donors, respectively, had vasovagal reactions. All the platelet products collected had a platelet count of >3x10(11); 90% of the platelet products collected on the AS.TEC 204 attained the predicted yield that was set on the cell separator where as 75% of the platelet products collected on the MCS 3p attained the target yield. Quality control of the platelets collected on both the cell separators complied with the standards except that 3% of the platelets collected on the MCS 3p had a visible red cell contamination. The separation efficiency of the MCS 3p was higher, 50-52% as compared to the 40-45% on the AS.TEC 204. A provision of double venous access, less adverse reactions, negligible RBC contamination with a better predictor yield of platelets makes the AS.TEC 204 a safer and more reliable alternative than the widely used Haemonetics MCS 3p. Copyright (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. SynTec Final Technical Report: Synthetic biology for Tailored Enzyme cocktails

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Janine; Teter, Sarah

    Using a novel enzyme screening method inspired by synthetic biology, Novozymes developed new technology under SynTec which allows for more rapidly tailoring of enzyme cocktails. The methodology can be applied to specific feedstocks, and or coupled to address a specific hydrolytic conversion process context. Using combinatorial high throughput screening of libraries of enzyme domains, we can quickly assess which combination of catalytic modules delivers the best performance for a specific condition. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the screening process, we measured performance of the output catalytic cocktail compared to CTec3/HTec3. SynTec benchmark cocktail - blend of Cellic® CTec3 and HTec3.more » The test substrate was - ammonia fiber expansion pretreated corn stover (AFEX™ PCS).CTec3/HTec3 was assayed at the optimal pH and temperature, and also in the absence of any pH adjustment. The new enzyme cocktail discovered under SynTec was assayed in the absence of any pH adjustment and at the optimal temperature. Conversion is delivered by SynTec enzyme at significant dose reduction relative to CTec3/HTec3 at the controlled pH optimum, and without titrant required to maintain pH, which delivers additional cost savings relative to current state of the art process. In this 2.5 year $4M project, the team delivered an experimental cocktail that significantly outperformed CTec3/HTec3 for a specific substrate, and for specific hydrolysis conditions. As a means of comparing performance improvement delivered per research dollar spent, we note that SynTec delivered a similar performance improvement to the previous award, in a shorter time and with fewer resources than for the previously successful DOE project DECREASE, a 3.5 year, $25M project, though this project focused on a different substrate and used different hydrolysis conditions. The newly implemented technology for rapid sourcing of new cellulases and hemicellulases from nature is an example of Novozymes

  20. Galaxy evolution at high-redshift: Millimeter-wavelength surveys with the AzTEC camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, Kimberly S.

    Galaxies detected by their thermal dust emission at submillimeter (submm) and millimeter (mm) wavelengths comprise a population of massive, intensely star-forming systems in the early Universe. These "submm/mm- galaxies", or SMGs, likely represent an important phase in the assembly and/or evolution of massive galaxies and are thought to be the progenitors of massive elliptical galaxies. While their projected number density as a function of source brightness provides key constraints on models of galaxy evolution, SMG surveys carried out over the past twelve years with the first generation of submm/mm-wavelength cameras have not imaged a large enough area to sufficient depths to provide the statistical power needed to discriminate between competing galaxy evolution scenarios. In this dissertation, we present the results from SMG surveys carried out over the past four years using the new sensitive mm-wavelength camera AzTEC. With the improved mapping speed of the AzTEC camera combined with dedicated telescope time devoted to deep, large-area extragalactic surveys, we have tripled both the area surveyed towards blank- fields (that is, regions with no known galaxy over-densities) at submm/mm wavelengths and the total number of detected SMGs. Here, we describe the properties and performance of the AzTEC instrument while operating on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) and the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We then present the results from two of the blank-field regions imaged with AzTEC: the JCMT/COSMOS field, which we discovered is over- dense in the number of very bright SMGs, and the ASTE survey of the Great Observatories Origins Deep-South field, which represents one of the deepest surveys ever carried out at submm/mm wavelengths. Finally, we combine the results from all of the blank-fields imaged with AzTEC while operating on the JCMT and the ASTE to calculate the most accurate measurements to date of the SMG number counts.

  1. High content screening of patient-derived cell lines highlights the potential of non-standard chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kenny Kwok-Hei; Taylor, Jessica T; Pathmanaban, Omar N; Youshani, Amir Saam; Beyit, Deniz; Dutko-Gwozdz, Joanna; Benson, Roderick; Griffiths, Gareth; Peers, Ian; Cueppens, Peter; Telfer, Brian A; Williams, Kaye J; McBain, Catherine; Kamaly-Asl, Ian D; Bigger, Brian W

    2018-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain malignancy in adults, yet survival outcomes remain poor. First line treatment is well established, however disease invariably recurs and improving prognosis is challenging. With the aim of personalizing therapy at recurrence, we have established a high content screening (HCS) platform to analyze the sensitivity profile of seven patient-derived cancer stem cell lines to 83 FDA-approved chemotherapy drugs, with and without irradiation. Seven cancer stem cell lines were derived from patients with GBM and, along with the established cell line U87-MG, each patient-derived line was cultured in tandem in serum-free conditions as adherent monolayers and three-dimensional neurospheres. Chemotherapeutics were screened at multiple concentrations and cells double-stained to observe their effect on both cell death and proliferation. Sensitivity was classified using high-throughput algorithmic image analysis. Cell line specific drug responses were observed across the seven patient-derived cell lines. Few agents were seen to have radio-sensitizing effects, yet some drug classes showed a marked difference in efficacy between monolayers and neurospheres. In vivo validation of six drugs suggested that cell death readout in a three-dimensional culture scenario is a more physiologically relevant screening model and could be used effectively to assess the chemosensitivity of patient-derived GBM lines. The study puts forward a number of non-standard chemotherapeutics that could be useful in the treatment of recurrent GBM, namely mitoxantrone, bortezomib and actinomycin D, whilst demonstrating the potential of HCS to be used for personalized treatment based on the chemosensitivity profile of patient tumor cells.

  2. Total electron content responses to HILDCAAs and geomagnetic storms over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mara de Siqueira Negreti, Patricia; Rodrigues de Paula, Eurico; Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria

    2017-12-01

    Total electron content (TEC) is extensively used to monitor the ionospheric behavior under geomagnetically quiet and disturbed conditions. This subject is of greatest importance for space weather applications. Under disturbed conditions the two main sources of electric fields, which are responsible for changes in the plasma drifts and for current perturbations, are the short-lived prompt penetration electric fields (PPEFs) and the longer-lasting ionospheric disturbance dynamo (DD) electric fields. Both mechanisms modulate the TEC around the globe and the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) at low latitudes. In this work we computed vertical absolute TEC over the low latitude of South America. The analysis was performed considering HILDCAA (high-intensity, long-duration, continuous auroral electrojet (AE) activity) events and geomagnetic storms. The characteristics of storm-time TEC and HILDCAA-associated TEC will be presented and discussed. For both case studies presented in this work (March and August 2013) the HILDCAA event follows a geomagnetic storm, and then a global scenario of geomagnetic disturbances will be discussed. Solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices, O / N2 ratios retrieved by GUVI instrument onboard the TIMED satellite and TEC observations will be analyzed and discussed. Data from the RBMC/IBGE (Brazil) and IGS GNSS networks were used to calculate TEC over South America. We show that a HILDCAA event may generate larger TEC differences compared to the TEC observed during the main phase of the precedent geomagnetic storm; thus, a HILDCAA event may be more effective for ionospheric response in comparison to moderate geomagnetic storms, considering the seasonal conditions. During the August HILDCAA event, TEC enhancements from ˜ 25 to 80 % (compared to quiet time) were observed. These enhancements are much higher than the quiet-time variability observed in the ionosphere. We show that ionosphere is quite sensitive to solar wind forcing and

  3. Graphene-derived Fe/Co-N-C catalyst in direct methanol fuel cells: Effects of the methanol concentration and ionomer content on cell performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Cheol; Choi, Chang Hyuck

    2017-08-01

    Non-precious metal catalysts (typically Fe(Co)-N-C catalysts) have been widely investigated for use as cost-effective cathode materials in low temperature fuel cells. Despite the high oxygen reduction activity and methanol-tolerance of graphene-based Fe(Co)-N-C catalysts in an acidic medium, their use in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) has not yet been successfully implemented, and only a few studies have investigated this topic. Herein, we synthesized a nano-sized graphene-derived Fe/Co-N-C catalyst by physical ball-milling and a subsequent chemical modification of the graphene oxide. Twelve membrane-electrode-assemblies are fabricated with various cathode compositions to determine the effects of the methanol concentration, ionomer (i.e. Nafion) content, and catalyst loading on the DMFC performance. The results show that a graphene-based catalyst is capable of tolerating a highly-concentrated methanol feed up to 10.0 M. The optimized electrode composition has an ionomer content and catalyst loading of 66.7 wt% and 5.0 mg cm-2, respectively. The highest maximum power density is ca. 32 mW cm-2 with a relatively low PtRu content (2 mgPtRu cm-2). This study overcomes the drawbacks of conventional graphene-based electrodes using a nano-sized graphene-based catalyst and further shows the feasibility of their potential applications in DMFC systems.

  4. Deterministic prediction of post-sunset ESF based on the strength and asymmetry of EIA from ground based TEC measurements: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thampi, Smitha V.; Ravindran, Sudha; Pant, Tarun Kumar; Devasia, C. V.; Sreelatha, P.; Sridharan, R.

    2006-07-01

    This paper provides the first observations of EIA asymmetry by receiving beacon transmissions onboard low earth orbiting satellites from a single station ground-based receiver. The EIA strength and asymmetry are derived from the latitudinal profiles of TEC obtained from a radio beacon receiver at Trivandrum (8.5°N, 77°E, diplat ~0.5°N). These two parameters, obtained well ahead of the onset time of ESF, are shown to have a definite role on the subsequent ESF activity. In the present paper, both these factors are combined to define a new `threshold parameter' for the generation of ESF. It has been shown that this parameter can define the state of the `background ionosphere' conducive for the generation of ESF irregularities much prior to its onset.

  5. Detection of abnormalities in the superficial zone of cartilage repaired using a tissue engineered construct derived from synovial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ando, Wataru; Fujie, Hiromichi; Moriguchi, Yu; Nansai, Ryosuke; Shimomura, Kazunori; Hart, David A; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakamura, Norimasa

    2012-09-28

    The present study investigated the surface structure and mechanical properties of repair cartilage generated from a tissue engineered construct (TEC) derived from synovial mesenchymal stem cells at six months post-implantation compared to those of uninjured cartilage. TEC-mediated repair tissue was cartilaginous with Safranin O staining, and had comparable macro-scale compressive properties with uninjured cartilage. However, morphological assessments revealed that the superficial zone of TEC-mediated tissue was more fibrocartilage-like, in contrast to the middle or deep zones that were more hyaline cartilage-like with Safranin O staining. Histological scoring of the TEC-mediated tissue was significantly lower in the superficial zone than in the middle and deep zones. Scanning electron microscopy showed a thick tangential bundle of collagen fibres at the most superficial layer of uninjured cartilage, while no corresponding structure was detected at the surface of TEC-mediated tissue. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that PRG4 was localised in the superficial area of uninjured cartilage, as well as the TEC-mediated tissue. Friction testing showed that the lubrication properties of the two tissues was similar, however, micro-indentation analysis revealed that the surface stiffness of the TEC-repair tissue was significantly lower than that of uninjured cartilage. Permeability testing indicated that the TEC-mediated tissue exhibited lower water retaining capacity than did uninjured cartilage, specifically at the superficial zone. Thus, TEC-mediated tissue exhibited compromised mechanical properties at the superficial zone, properties which need improvement in the future for maintenance of long term repair cartilage integrity.

  6. Evaluation of Hi-Tec Implant Restoration in Mandibular First Molar Region- A Prospective Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Sreeram, Roopa Rani S; Prasad, L Krishna; Chakravarthi, P Srinivas; Devi, Naga Neelima; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Sreeram, Sanjay Krishna

    2015-08-01

    Missing teeth lead to loss of structural balance, inefficient function, poor aesthetics and psychological effects on human beings, which needs restoration for normal contour, function and aesthetics. Several natural or synthetic substitutes are being used for replacement of missing tooth since centuries. Implants are the latest modality of replacement. So, the study was aimed to assess clinical success rate of Hi-Tec implant; which is economical and new in market. Results of the study will help clinician for appropriate implant selection. The study included 10 patients from 19 to 31 years and needed restoration of missing mandibular first molar. Restoration had done using Hi Tec Single-tooth implants with metal-ceramic single crown prosthesis after three months of osseointegration. The implants were evaluated clinically (bleeding on probing, probing depth, implant mobility- periotest) and radiographically (marginal bone loss and peri-implant radiolucency) for six years. The observers were blinded for the duration of the study to prevent bias. All the patients had uneventful post-surgical healing. No bleeding on probing, Implant mobility, peri-implant radiolucency with minimal marginal bone loss and constant probing depths were observed well within the normal range during follow-up periods. Two stage single-tooth Hi Tec implant restoration can be used as a successful treatment modality for replacing mandibular first molar in an economic way. However, these results were obtained after 6 years of follow up with a smaller sample size, so long term multi center studies with a larger sample size is recommended for the predictability of success rate conclusively.

  7. Candida detection system (CAND-TEC) to differentiate between Candida albicans colonization and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fung, J C; Donta, S T; Tilton, R C

    1986-01-01

    Eighty-three serum specimens from 24 patients infected with Candida albicans were examined for circulating Candida protein antigens with the Candida Detection System (CAND-TEC; Ramco Laboratories, Inc., Houston, Tex.). The medical records of each patient were reviewed for clinical evidence of Candida colonization or disease, predisposing factors for infection, underlying illness, the presence of a contaminated indwelling venous catheter, intravenous amphotericin B therapy, and outcome. Forty-nine serum specimens with antigen titers of 1:2 or less were obtained either from colonized patients or at a time when disseminated disease was not yet clinically suspected. Except for five specimens from two colonized patients, one with a contaminated arterial line, the other specimens with titers of 1:8 or greater (n = 14) were obtained from patients who had been clinically diagnosed and treated for disseminated candidiasis. Serum specimens with titers of 1:4 were often from patients with deep-seated candidal infection but were not uniformly diagnostic; in this situation additional specimens should be tested for Candida antigen titers. Only 1 of 24 serum specimens from patients with no evidence of C. albicans infection had a Candida protein antigen titer of 1:8. With a 1:8 or greater titer as a criterion for dissemination, the sensitivity of the CAND-TEC system was 71%, with a specificity of 98%. If the 1:8 titer for the colonized patient with a contaminated arterial line is not considered a false-positive result, the CAND-TEC sensitivity was 83%. The latex agglutination assay appears to be a useful, rapid, and noninvasive means of laboratory diagnosis of systemic candidiasis. The recovery of C. albicans from at least three body sites may also be a useful predictor of disseminated disease. PMID:3533975

  8. Adjustments of the TaD electron density reconstruction model with GNSS-TEC parameters for operational application purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutiev, Ivan; Marinov, Pencho; Fidanova, Stefka; Belehaki, Anna; Tsagouri, Ioanna

    2012-12-01

    Validation results on the latest version of TaD model (TaDv2) show realistic reconstruction of the electron density profiles (EDPs) with an average error of 3 TECU, similar to the error obtained from GNSS-TEC calculated paremeters. The work presented here has the aim to further improve the accuracy of the TaD topside reconstruction, adjusting the TEC parameter calculated from TaD model with the TEC parameter calculated by GNSS transmitting RINEX files provided by receivers co-located with the Digisondes. The performance of the new version is tested during a storm period demonstrating further improvements in respect to the previous version. Statistical comparison of modeled and observed TEC confirms the validity of the proposed adjustment. A significant benefit of the proposed upgrade is that it facilitates the real-time implementation of TaD. The model needs a reliable measure of the scale height at the peak height, which is supposed to be provided by Digisondes. Oftenly, the automatic scaling software fails to correctly calculate the scale height at the peak, Hm, due to interferences in the receiving signal. Consequently the model estimated topside scale height is wrongly calculated leading to unrealistic results for the modeled EDP. The proposed TEC adjustment forces the model to correctly reproduce the topside scale height, despite the inaccurate values of Hm. This adjustment is very important for the application of TaD in an operational environment.

  9. The Role of ESA TEC-QTE in the ISS Safety Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandi, M.; Rohr, T.; Stienstra, M. H.; Semprimoschnig, C.

    2013-09-01

    On the 17th of July 2000, the Materials and Processes Reciprocal Agreement was signed between NASA and ESA to define the process for selection and certification of materials used in the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Consecutively, on the 20th of June 2003 this agreement was extended to the Automated Transport Vehicle (ATV). It is therefore the responsibility of ESA TEC-QTE, the Materials Space Evaluation and Radiation Effects section, part of the Product Assurance and Safety Department, to ensure that all materials, parts and processes of each of the ISS payloads not only function as required but also do not pose a risk to the safety of the crew members. In this context, TEC-QTE provides qualified expertise to support the ESA Flight Safety Review and assesses safety aspects related to manned projects (materials properties, fluid system compatibility, fungus resistance). This is supported by the Materials Space Evaluation and Radiation Effects section's Materials and Electrical Components laboratory having at its disposition a range of facilities designed to perform environmental effects testing of which off-gassing tests according to ECSS-Q-ST-70-29C (equivalent to NASA STD 6001 test 7) and outgassing tests according to ECSS-Q-ST-70-02C (equivalent to ASTM-E-595). The ESA facility to perform flammability tests according to ECSS-Q-ST-70-21A (equivalent to NASA STD 6001 test1) was moved to Astrium Bremen.TEC-QTE is in charge of reviewing and approving, via RFA or MUA , all materials that do not meet safety requirements as well as COTS or CAM (black boxes) equipment.The safety process ends with the issue of the Materials Certification of the reviewed payload hardware that shows compliance with the relevant materials and processes requirements and standards.In addition to the safety related activities for the ISS, specialised TEC-QTE personnel provide measurements of the air quality inside the ATV and assess whether the toxicity index is within

  10. Effects of Organic and Waste-Derived Fertilizers on Yield, Nitrogen and Glucosinolate Contents, and Sensory Quality of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica).

    PubMed

    Øvsthus, Ingunn; Breland, Tor Arvid; Hagen, Sidsel Fiskaa; Brandt, Kirsten; Wold, Anne-Berit; Bengtsson, Gunnar B; Seljåsen, Randi

    2015-12-23

    Organic vegetable production attempts to pursue multiple goals concerning influence on environment, production resources, and human health. In areas with limited availability of animal manure, there is a need for considering various off-farm nutrient resources for such production. Different organic and waste-derived fertilizer materials were used for broccoli production at two latitudes (58° and 67°) in Norway during two years. The fertilizer materials were applied at two rates of total N (80 and 170 kg ha(-1)) and compared with mineral fertilizer (170 kg ha(-1)) and no fertilizer. Broccoli yield was strongly influenced by fertilizer materials (algae meal < unfertilized control < sheep manure < extruded shrimp shell < anaerobically digested food waste < mineral fertilizer). Yield, but not glucosinolate content, was linearly correlated with estimated potentially plant-available N. However, extruded shrimp shell and mineral NPK fertilizer gave higher glucosinolate contents than sheep manure and no fertilizer. Sensory attributes were less affected by fertilizer material and plant-available N.

  11. Platelet lysate from whole blood-derived pooled platelet concentrates and apheresis-derived platelet concentrates for the isolation and expansion of human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells: production process, content and identification of active components

    PubMed Central

    Fekete, Natalie; Gadelorge, Mélanie; Fürst, Daniel; Maurer, Caroline; Dausend, Julia; Fleury-Cappellesso, Sandrine; Mailänder, Volker; Lotfi, Ramin; Ignatius, Anita; Sensebé, Luc; Bourin, Philippe; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Rojewski, Markus Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background aims The clinical use of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) requires ex vivo expansion in media containing supplements such as fetal bovine serum or, alternatively, human platelet lysate (PL). Methods Platelet concentrates were frozen, quarantine stored, thawed and sterile filtered to obtain PL. PL content and its effect on fibroblast-colony-forming unit (CFU-F) formation, MSC proliferation and large-scale expansion were studied. Results PL contained high levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), soluble CD40L (sCD40L), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), platelet-derived growth factor AA (PDGF-AA), platelet-derived growth factor AB/BB (PDGF-AB/BB), chemokine (C-C) ligand 5 (CCL5; RANTES) transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and chemokine (C-X-C) ligand 1/2/3 (GRO), with low batch-to-batch variability, and most were stable for up to 14 days. Inhibition of PDGF-BB and bFGF decreased MSC proliferation by about 20% and 50%, respectively. The strongest inhibition (about 75%) was observed with a combination of anti-bFGF + anti-PDGF-BB and anti-bFGF + anti-TGF-β1 + anti-PDGF-BB. Interestingly, various combinations of recombinant PDGF-BB, bFGF and TGF-β1 were not sufficient to promote cell proliferation. PL from whole blood-derived pooled platelet concentrates and apheresis platelet concentrates did not differ significantly in their growth-promoting activity on MSC. Conclusions PL enhances MSC proliferation and can be regarded as a safe tool for MSC expansion for clinical purposes. \\in particular, PDGF-BB and bFGF are essential components for the growth-promoting effect of PL, but are not sufficient for MSC proliferation. PMID:22296115

  12. The National Network forTechnology Entrepreneurship and Commercialization (N2TEC): Bringing New Technologies to Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Kathleen

    2003-03-01

    N2TEC, the National Network for Technology Entrepreneurship and Commercialization, is a National Science Foundation "Partnerships for Innovation" initiative designed to raise the level of innovation and technology commercialization in colleges, universities, and communities across the nation. N2TEC is creating a network of people and institutions, and a set of technology tools that will facilitate the pooling of resources and knowledge and enable faculty and students to share those resources and collaborate without regard to geographic boundaries. N2TEC will become the backbone by which educational institutions across the nation can move their technologies into new venture startups. The ultimate goal is to create new wealth and strengthen local, regional and national economies.

  13. Real-time Scintillation Monitoring in Alaska from a Longitudinal Chain of ASTRA's SM-211 GPS TEC and Scintillation Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, G.; Azeem, S. I.; Reynolds, A.; Santana, J.; Hampton, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Amplitude and phase scintillation can cause serious difficulties for GPS receivers. Intense scintillation can cause loss of lock. High latitude studies generally show that phase scintillation can be severe, but the amplitude scintillation tends to be small. The reason for this is not yet understood. Furthermore, the actual causes of the ionospheric irregularities that produce high latitude scintillation are not well understood. While the gradient drift instability is thought to be important in the F-region, there may be other structures present in either the E- or F-regions. The role of particle precipitation is also not well understood. Four of ASTRA's CASES GPS receivers were deployed in Alaska to demonstrate our ability to map scintillation in realtime, to provide space weather services to GPS users, and to initiate a detailed investigation of these effects. These dual-frequency GPS receivers measure total electron content (TEC) and scintillation. The scintillation monitors were deployed in a longitudinal chain at sites in Kaktovic, Fort Yukon, Poker Flat, and Gakona. Scintillation statistics show phase scintillations to be largest at Kaktovic and smallest at Gakona. We present GPS phase scintillation and auroral emission results from the Alaska chain to characterize the correspondence between scintillation and auroral features, and to investigate the role of high latitude auroral features in driving the phase scintillations. We will also present data showing how phase scintillation can cause other GPS receivers to lose lock. The data and results are particularly valuable because they illustrate some of the challenges of using GPS systems for positioning and navigation in an auroral region like Alaska. These challenges for snowplough drivers were recently highlighted, along with the CASES SM-211 space weather monitor, in a special video in which ASTRA and three other small businesses were presented with an entrepreneurial award from William Shatner (http://youtu.be/bIVKEQH_YPk).

  14. Mathematical modelling of ionospheric TEC from Turkish permanent GNSS Network (TPGN) observables during 2009-2017 and predictability of NeQuick and Kriging models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Kutubuddin; Panda, Sampad Kumar; Corumluoglu, Ozsen

    2018-03-01

    The present study examines the ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) variations in the lower mid-latitude Turkish region from the Turkish permanent GNSS network (TPGN) and International GNSS Services (IGS) observations during the years 2009 to 2017. The corresponding vertical TEC (VTEC) predicted by Kriging and NeQuick-2 models are evaluated to realize their efficacy over the country. We studied the diurnal, seasonal and spatial pattern of VTEC variation and tried to estimate by a new mathematical model using the long term of 9 years VTEC data. The diurnal variation of VTEC demonstrates a normal trend with its gradual enhancement from dawn to attain a peak around 09:00-14.00 UT and reaching the minimum level after 22.00 UT. The seasonal behavior of VTEC indicates a strong semi-annual variation of VTEC with maxima in September equinox followed by March equinox and minima in June solstice followed by December solstice. Also, the spatial variation in VTEC depicts a meaningful longitudinal/latitudinal pattern altering with seasons. It decreases longitudinally from the west to the east during March equinox and June solstice increases with latitude. The comparative analysis among the GNSS-VTEC, Kriging, NeQuick and the proposed mathematical model are evaluated with the help one way ANOVA test. The analysis shows that the null hypothesis of the models during storm and quiet days are accepted and suggesting that all models are statistically significantly equivalent from each other. We believe the outcomes from this study would complement towards a relatively better understanding of the lower mid-latitude VTEC variation over the Turkish region and analogous latitudes over the globe.

  15. Ionospheric TEC, thermospheric cooling and Σ[O/N2] compositional changes during the 6-17 March 2012 magnetic storm interval (CAWSES II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Mannucci, A. J.; Mlynczak, M. G.; Hunt, L. A.; Paxton, L. J.

    2014-08-01

    A series of four geomagnetic storms (the minimum SYM-H~-148 nT) occurred during the March 6-17, 2012 in the ascending phase of the solar cycle 24. This interval was selected by CAWSES II for its campaign. The GPS total electron content (TEC) database and JPL's Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) were used to study vertical TEC (VTEC) for different local times and latitude ranges. The largest response to geomagnetic activity is shown in increases of the low-latitude dayside VTEC. Several GPS sites feature post-afternoon VTEC “bite-outs”. During Sudden Impulse (SI+) event on March 8th a peak daytime VTEC restores to about quiet-time values. It is shown that the TIMED/SABER zonal flux of nitric oxide (NO) infrared cooling radiation correlates well with auroral heating. A factor of ~5 cooling increase is noted in some storms. The cooling radiation intensifies in the auroral zone and spreads towards the equator. Effects of the storm appear at lower latitudes ~18.6 h later. The column density ratio Σ[O/N2] is analyzed based on TIMED/GUVI measurements. Both increases (at low latitudes) and decreases (from auroral to middle latitudes) in the ratio occurs during the geomagnetic storms. We suggest that the column density ratio could be enhanced at low to middle latitudes on the dayside partially due to the superfountain effect (atomic oxygen uplift due to ion-neutral drag). It is suggested that decreases in the Σ[O/N2] ratio at high to middle-latitudes may be caused by high thermospheric temperatures. During SI+s, there is an increase in Σ[O/N2] ratio at auroral latitudes.

  16. Effect of Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC) module and the water flow heatsink on Photovoltaic (PV) panel performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amelia, A. R.; Jusoh, MA; Shamira Idris, Ida

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) panel suffers in low conversion efficiency of the output performance affected by the elevated operating temperature of the PV panel. It is important to keep the PV panel to operate at low temperature. To address this issue, this paper proposes the cooling system using thermoelectric cooling (TEC) and water block heatsink for enhancing the PV panel output performance. These both types cooling system were designed located on the back side of the PV panel to cool down the operating temperature of the PV panel. To evaluate the function for the existing cooling systems, the experiment was subsequently performed for PV panel without and with different design of the cooling system in outdoor weather conditions. By comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that by the hybrid cooling system which combining TEC module and the water block heatsink could improve the output performance of the PV panel. By the reduction temperature of the PV panel by 16.04 %, the average output power of the PV panel has been boosted up from 8.59 W to 9.03 W. In short, the output power of the PV panel was enhanced by the reduction of the operating temperature of the PV panel.

  17. Investigation of the Effects of Solar and Geomagnetic Changes on the Total Electron Content: Mid-Latitude Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulukavak, Mustafa; Yalcinkaya, Mualla

    2016-04-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is used as an important tool for ionosphere monitoring and obtaining the Total Electron Content (TEC). GPS satellites, positioned in the Earth's orbit, are used as sensors to investigate the space weather conditions. In this study, solar and geomagnetic activity variations were investigated between the dates 1 March-30 June 2015 for the mid-latitude region. GPS-TEC variations were calculated for each selected International GNSS Service (IGS) station in Europe. GNSS data was obtained from Crustal Dynamics Data and Information System (CDDIS) archive. Solar and geomagnetic activity indices (Kp, F10.7 ve Dst) were obtained from the Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Canadian Space Weather Forecast Centre (CSWFC) and Data Analysis Center for geomagnetism and Space Magnetism Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University (WDC) archives. GPS-TEC variations were determined for the quiet periods of the solar and geomagnetic activities. GPS-TEC changes were then compared with respect to the quiet periods of the solar and geomagnetic activities. Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) IONEX files, obtained from the IGS analysis center, was used to check the robustness of the GPS-TEC variations. The investigations revealed that it is possible to use the GPS-TEC data for monitoring the ionospheric disturbances.

  18. A comparison of mapped and measured total ionospheric electron content using global positioning system and beacon satellite observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanyi, Gabor E.; Roth, Titus

    1988-01-01

    Total ionospheric electron contents (TEC) were measured by global positioning system (GPS) dual-frequency receivers developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The measurements included P-code (precise ranging code) and carrier phase data for six GPS satellites during multiple five-hour observing sessions. A set of these GPS TEC measurements were mapped from the GPS lines of sight to the line of sight of a Faraday beacon satellite by statistically fitting the TEC data to a simple model of the ionosphere. The mapped GPS TEC values were compared with the Faraday rotation measurements. Because GPS transmitter offsets are different for each satellite and because some GPS receiver offsets were uncalibrated, the sums of the satellite and receiver offsets were estimated simultaneously with the TEC in a least squares procedure. The accuracy of this estimation procedure is evaluated indicating that the error of the GPS-determined line of sight TEC can be at or below 1 x 10 to the 16th el/sq cm. Consequently, the current level of accuracy is comparable to the Faraday rotation technique; however, GPS provides superior sky coverage.

  19. Observation of subsecond variations in auroral region total electron content using 100 Hz sampling of GPS observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, A. M.; Jayachandran, P. T.

    2017-06-01

    First ever auroral region total electron content (TEC) measurements at 100 Hz using a Septentrio PolaRxS Pro receiver are analyzed to discover ionospheric signatures which would otherwise be unobtainable with the frequently used lower sampling rates. Two types of variations are observed: small-magnitude (amplitude) variations, which are present consistently throughout the data set, and larger-magnitude (amplitude) variations, which are less frequent. Small-amplitude TEC fluctuations are accounted for by the receiver phase jitter. However, estimated secondary ionospheric effects in the calculation of TEC and the receiver phase jitter were unable to account for the larger-amplitude TEC fluctuations. These variations are also accompanied by fluctuations in the magnetic field, which seems to indicate that these fluctuations are real and of geophysical significance. This paper presents a technique and the capability of high-rate TEC measurements in the study of auroral dynamics. Further detailed study is needed to identify the cause of these subsecond TEC fluctuations and associated magnetic field fluctuations.

  20. AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm Deep Surveys: Number Counts and Clustering of Millimeter-bright Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatsukade, B.; Kohno, K.; Aretxaga, I.; Austermann, J. E.; Ezawa, H.; Hughes, D. H.; Ikarashi, S.; Iono, D.; Kawabe, R.; Matsuo, H.; Matsuura, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T.; Scott, K. S.; Shirahata, M.; Takeuchi, T. T.; Tamura, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Tosaki, T.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.

    2010-10-01

    We present number counts and clustering properties of millimeter-bright galaxies uncovered by the AzTEC camera mounted on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE). We surveyed the AKARI Deep Field South (ADF-S), the Subaru/XMM Newton Deep Field (SXDF), and the SSA22 fields with an area of ~0.25 deg2 each with an rms noise level of ~0.4-1.0 mJy. We constructed differential and cumulative number counts, which provide currently the tightest constraints on the faint end. The integration of the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S find that the contribution of 1.1 mm sources with fluxes >=1 mJy to the cosmic infrared background (CIB) at 1.1 mm is 12-16%, suggesting that the large fraction of the CIB originates from faint sources of which the number counts are not yet constrained. We estimate the cosmic star-formation rate density contributed by 1.1 mm sources with >=1 mJy using the best-fit number counts in the ADF-S and find that it is lower by about a factor of 5-10 compared to those derived from UV/optically-selected galaxies at z~2-3. The average mass of dark halos hosting bright 1.1 mm sources was calculated to be 1013-1014 Msolar. Comparison of correlation lengths of 1.1 mm sources with other populations and with a bias evolution model suggests that dark halos hosting bright 1.1 mm sources evolve into systems of clusters at present universe and the 1.1 mm sources residing the dark halos evolve into massive elliptical galaxies located in the center of clusters.

  1. The dynamics and spectral characteristics of the GPS TEC wave packets excited by the solar terminator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afraimovich, E. L.; Edemsky, I. K.; Voeykov, S. V.; Yasukevich, Y. V.; Zhivetiev, I. V.

    2009-04-01

    The great variety of solar terminator (ST) -linked phenomena in the atmosphere gave rise to a num¬ber of studies on the analysis of ionosphere parameter variations obtained by different ionosphere sounding methods. Main part of experimental data was obtained using methods for analyzing the spectrum of ionosphere parameter variations in separate local points. To identify ST-generated wave disturbances it is necessary to measure the dynamic and spectral characteristics of the wave disturbances and to compare it with spatial-temporal characteristics of ST. Using TEC measurements from the dense network of GPS sites GEONET (Japan), we have obtained the first GPS-TEC image of the space structure of medium-scale traveling wave packets (MS TWP) excited by the solar terminator. We use two known forms of the 2D GPS-TEC image for our presentation of the space structure of ST-generated MS TWP: 1) - the diagram "distance-time"; 2) - the 2D-space distribution of the values of filtered TEC series dI (λ, φ, t) on the latitude φ and longitude λ for each 30-sec TEC counts. We found that the time period and wave-length of ST-generated wave packets are about 10-20 min and 200-300 km, respectively. Dynamic images analysis of dI (λ, φ, t) gives precise estimation of velocity and azimuth of TWP wave front propagation. We use the method of determining velocity of traveling ionosphere disturbances (SADM-GPS), which take into account the relative moving of subionosphere points. We found that the velocity of the TWP phase front, traveling along GEONET sites, varies in accordance with the velocity of the ST line displacement. The space image of MS TWP manifests itself in pronounced anisotropy and high coherence over a long distance of about 2000 km. The TWP wave front extends along the ST line with the angular shift of about 20°. The hypothesis on the connection between the TWP generation and the solar terminator can be tested in the terminator local time (TLT) system: d

  2. (abstract) A Comparison Between Measurements of the F-layer Critical Frequency and Values Derived from the PRISM Adjustment Algorithm Applied to Total Electron Content Data in the Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mannucci, A. J.; Anderson, D. N.; Abdu, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Parametrized Real-Time Ionosphere Specification Model (PRISM) is a global ionospheric specification model that can incorporate real-time data to compute accurate electron density profiles. Time series of computed and measured data are compared in this paper. This comparison can be used to suggest methods of optimizing the PRISM adjustment algorithm for TEC data obtained at low altitudes.

  3. Total Electron Content forecast model over Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouya, Zahra; Terkildsen, Michael; Francis, Matthew

    Ionospheric perturbations can cause serious propagation errors in modern radio systems such as Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). Forecasting ionospheric parameters is helpful to estimate potential degradation of the performance of these systems. Our purpose is to establish an Australian Regional Total Electron Content (TEC) forecast model at IPS. In this work we present an approach based on the combined use of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to predict future TEC values. PCA is used to reduce the dimensionality of the original TEC data by mapping it into its eigen-space. In this process the top- 5 eigenvectors are chosen to reflect the directions of the maximum variability. An ANN approach was then used for the multicomponent prediction. We outline the design of the ANN model with its parameters. A number of activation functions along with different spectral ranges and different numbers of Principal Components (PCs) were tested to find the PCA-ANN models reaching the best results. Keywords: GNSS, Space Weather, Regional, Forecast, PCA, ANN.

  4. Validation of foF2 and TEC Modeling During Geomagnetic Disturbed Times: Preliminary Outcomes of International Forum for Space Weather Modeling Capabilities Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, J. S.; Tsagouri, I.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Kuznetsova, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    To address challenges of assessment of space weather modeling capabilities, the CCMC (Community Coordinated Modeling Center) is leading the newly established "International Forum for Space Weather Modeling Capabilities Assessment." This presentation will focus on preliminary outcomes of the International Forum on validation of modeled foF2 and TEC during geomagnetic storms. We investigate the ionospheric response to 2013 Mar. geomagnetic storm event using ionosonde and GPS TEC observations in North American and European sectors. To quantify storm impacts on foF2 and TEC, we first quantify quiet-time variations of foF2 and TEC (e.g., the median and the average of the five quietest days for the 30 days during quiet conditions). It appears that the quiet time variation of foF2 and TEC are about 10% and 20-30%, respectively. Therefore, to quantify storm impact, we focus on foF2 and TEC changes during the storm main phase larger than 20% and 50%, respectively, compared to 30-day median. We find that in European sector, both foF2 and TEC response to the storm are mainly positive phase with foF2 increase of up to 100% and TEC increase of 150%. In North America sector, however, foF2 shows negative effects (up to about 50% decrease), while TEC shows positive response (the largest increase is about 200%). To assess modeling capability of reproducing the changes of foF2 and TEC due to the storm, we use various model simulations, which are obtained from empirical, physics-based, and data assimilation models. The performance of each model depends on the selected metrics, therefore, only one metrics is not enough to evaluate the models' predictive capabilities in capturing the storm impact. The performance of the model also varies with latitude and longitude.

  5. Healthy and adverse effects of plant-derived functional metabolites: the need of revealing their content and bioactivity in a complex food matrix.

    PubMed

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse - unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods.

  6. Intracellular high cholesterol content disorders the clock genes, apoptosis-related genes and fibrinolytic-related genes rhythmic expressions in human plaque-derived vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Changpo; Tang, Xiao; Xu, Lirong; Qian, Ruizhe; Shi, Zhenyu; Wang, Lixin; Cai, Tingting; Yan, Dong; Fu, Weiguo; Guo, Daqiao

    2017-07-10

    The clock genes are involved in regulating cardiovascular functions, and their expression disorders would lead to circadian rhythm disruptions of clock-controlled genes (CCGs), resulting in atherosclerotic plaque formation and rupture. Our previous study revealed the rhythmic expression of clock genes were attenuated in human plaque-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (PVSMCs), but failed to detect the downstream CCGs expressions and the underlying molecular mechanism. In this study, we examined the difference of CCGs rhythmic expression between human normal carotid VSMCs (NVSMCs) and PVSMCs. Furthermore, we compared the cholesterol and triglycerides levels between two groups and the link to clock genes and CCGs expressions. Seven health donors' normal carotids and 19 carotid plaques yielded viable cultured NVSMCs and PVSMCs. The expression levels of target genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western-blot. The intracellular cholesterol and triglycerides levels were measured by kits. The circadian expressions of apoptosis-related genes and fibrinolytic-related genes were disordered. Besides, the cholesterol levels were significant higher in PVSMCs. After treated with cholesterol or oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), the expressions of clock genes were inhibited; and the rhythmic expressions of clock genes, apoptosis-related genes and fibrinolytic-related genes were disturbed in NVSMCs, which were similar to PVSMCs. The results suggested that intracellular high cholesterol content of PVSMCs would lead to the disorders of clock genes and CCGs rhythmic expressions. And further studies should be conducted to demonstrate the specific molecular mechanisms involved.

  7. 75 FR 77665 - Whirlpool Corporation, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Career Solutions TEC Staffing and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ..., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Career Solutions TEC Staffing and Andrews International, Fort Smith... Staffing, Fort Smith, Arkansas. The notice was published in the Federal Register on October 25, 2010 (75 FR... reports that workers leased from Andrews International were employed on-site at the Fort Smith, Arkansas...

  8. X-Ray Crystal Structure of Bone Marrow Kinase in the X Chromosome: A Tec Family Kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Muckelbauer, Jodi; Sack, John S.; Ahmed, Nazia

    Bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome, a member of the Tec family of tyrosine kinases, plays a role in both monocyte/macrophage trafficking as well as cytokine secretion. Although the structures of Tec family kinases Bruton's tyrosine kinase and IL-2-inducible T-cell kinase are known, the crystal structures of other Tec family kinases have remained elusive. We report the X-ray crystal structures of bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in complex with dasatinib at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution and PP2 at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures reveal a typical kinase protein fold; with well-orderedmore » protein conformation that includes an open/extended activation loop and a stabilized DFG-motif rendering the kinase in an inactive conformation. Dasatinib and PP2 bind to bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome in the ATP binding pocket and display similar binding modes to that observed in other Tec and Src protein kinases. The bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome structures identify conformational elements of the DFG-motif that could potentially be utilized to design potent and/or selective bone marrow kinase in the X chromosome inhibitors.« less

  9. Structures of human Bruton's tyrosine kinase in active and inactive conformations suggest a mechanism of activation for TEC family kinases

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, Douglas J.; Liu, Yu-Ting; Arduini, Robert M.

    Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), a member of the TEC family of kinases, plays a crucial role in B-cell maturation and mast cell activation. Although the structures of the unphosphorylated mouse BTK kinase domain and the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated kinase domains of human ITK are known, understanding the kinase selectivity profiles of BTK inhibitors has been hampered by the lack of availability of a high resolution, ligand-bound BTK structure. Here, we report the crystal structures of the human BTK kinase domain bound to either Dasatinib (BMS-354825) at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution or to 4-amino-5-(4-phenoxyphenyl)-7H-pyrrolospyrimidin- 7-yl-cyclopentane at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution. This data providesmore » information relevant to the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting BTK and the TEC family of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases. Analysis of the structural differences between the TEC and Src families of kinases near the Trp-Glu-Ile motif in the N-terminal region of the kinase domain suggests a mechanism of regulation of the TEC family members.« less

  10. 75 FR 11939 - Arkansas Lamp Manufacturing, Including On-Site Leased Workers From TEC, Van Buren, AR; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,714] Arkansas Lamp Manufacturing, Including On-Site Leased Workers From TEC, Van Buren, AR; Notice of Termination of Investigation... a petition filed on July 17, 2009, by a company official on behalf of workers of Arkansas Lamp...

  11. Using Paraffin PCM, Cryogel and TEC to Maintain Comet Surface Sample Cold from Earth Approach Through Retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2017-01-01

    An innovative thermal design concept to maintain comet surface samples cold (for example, 263 degrees Kelvin, 243 degrees Kelvin or 223 degrees Kelvin) from Earth approach through retrieval is presented. It uses paraffin phase change material (PCM), Cryogel insulation and thermoelectric cooler (TEC), which are commercially available.

  12. Master Teachers in Residence: Bringing a Classroom Perspective to Course Reform for NSF's Oklahoma Teacher Education Collaborative (O-TEC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Sarah; Neathery, Faye; Fholer, Gwen; Weger, Elayne; Voth, Bonnie; Townsend, Joyce; Campbell, DeAnn; Boedecker, Martha

    Master teachers can be influential in course revision. The Oklahoma Teacher Education Collaborative (O-TEC) teacher reform effort is a consortium of nine higher education institutions working with the National Science Foundation's (NSF's) reform effort to produce teachers better equipped for teaching science and mathematics. The reform emphasizes…

  13. Was Magnetic Storm the Only Driver of the Long-Duration Enhancements of Daytime Total Electron Content in the Asian-Australian Sector Between 7 and 12 September 2017?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Jiuhou; Huang, Fuqing; Chen, Xuetao; Zhong, Jiahao; Ren, Dexin; Wang, Wenbin; Yue, Xinan; Luan, Xiaoli; Jia, Mingjiao; Dou, Xiankang; Hu, Lianhuan; Ning, Baiqi; Owolabi, Charles; Chen, Jinsong; Li, Guozhu; Xue, Xianghui

    2018-04-01

    In this study, multiple data sets from Beidou geostationary orbit satellites total electron contents (TECs), ionosonde, meteor radar, magnetometer, and model simulations have been used to investigate the ionospheric responses in the Asian-Australian sector during the September 2017 geomagnetic storm. It was found that long-duration daytime TEC enhancements that lasted from 7 to 12 September 2017 were observed by the Beidou geostationary orbit satellite constellation. This is a unique event as the prominent TEC enhancements persisted during the storm recovery phase when geomagnetic activity became quiet. The Thermosphere-Ionosphere Electrodynamics Global Circulation Model predicted that the TEC enhancements on 7-9 September were associated with the geomagnetic activity, but it showed significant electron density depletions on 10 and 11 September in contrast to the observed TEC enhancements. Our results suggested that the observed long-duration TEC enhancements from 7 to 12 September are mainly associated with the interplay of ionospheric dynamics and electrodynamics. Nevertheless, the root causes for the observed TEC enhancements seen in the storm recovery phase are unknown and require further observations and model studies.

  14. Statistical evidence of seismo-ionospheric precursors of the GPS total electron content in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuh-Ing; Huang, Chi-Shen; Liu, Jann-Yenq

    2015-04-01

    Evidence of the seismo-ionospheric precursor (SIP) is reported by statistically investigating the relationship between the total electron content (TEC) in global ionosphere map (GIM) and 56 M≥6.0 earthquakes during 1998-2013 in China. A median-based method together with the z test is employed to examine the TEC variations 30 days before and after the earthquake. It is found that the TEC significantly decreases 0600-1000 LT 1-6 days before the earthquake, and anomalously increases in 3 time periods of 1300-1700 LT 12-15 days; 0000-0500 LT 15-17 days; and 0500-0900 LT 22-28 days before the earthquake. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is then used to evaluate the efficiency of TEC for predicting M≥6.0 earthquakes in China during a specified time period. Statistical results suggest that the SIP is the significant TEC reduction in the morning period of 0600-1000 LT. The SIP is further confirmed since the area under the ROC curve is positively associated with the earthquake magnitude.

  15. An investigation of solar flares and associated solar radio bursts impact on ionospheric total electron content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuyizere, Sarathiel

    2016-07-01

    Solar transients events such as Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and solar flares represent the cause of various aspects of space weather and can impact the modern man made technological system. Such solar transients are often associated with solar radio bursts (SRBs), particularly of type II and III that , at ground level can be detected by the CALLISTO (Compact Astronomical Low-frequency Low-cost Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatories) solar spectrometer. The present study aims at investigating solar flares and associated SRBs impact on the ionospheric total electron content (TEC). SRBs data used are dynamic spectra covering the 2014-2015 period and detected by the CALLISTO instrument that is installed at the university of Rwanda, Kigali. To investigate ionospheric impact, we use TEC data from IGS stations located at almost the same universal time zone, and correlate the observed TEC changes to the corresponding observed solar bursts events. Preliminary observations resulting from this study indicate a slight enhancement in TEC during the burst event days. The observed TEC enhancement on the burst day can be associated to increased UV and X-rays radiations and particle acceleration that are associated with SRBs events. This work is a contribution to more understanding of the geo-space impact of solar transients phenomena for modeling and prediction.

  16. An investigation of solar flares and associated solar radio bursts on ionospheric total electron content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uwamahoro, Jean

    2016-07-01

    Solar transients events such as Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and solar flares represent are the cause of various aspects of space weather and can impact the modern man made technological system. Such solar transients are often associated with solar radio bursts (SRBs), particularly of type II and III that , at ground level can be detected by the CALLISTO (Compact Astronomical Low-frequency Low-cost Instrument for Spectroscopy and Transportable Observatories) solar spectrometer. The present study aims at investigating solar flares and associated SRBs impact on the ionospheric total electron content (TEC). SRBs data used are dynamic spectra covering the 2014-2015 period and detected by the CALLISTO instrument that is installed at the university of Rwanda, Kigali. To investigate ionospheric impact, we use TEC data from IGS stations located at almost the same universal time zone, and correlate the observed TEC changes to the corresponding observed solar bursts events. Preliminary observations resulting from this study indicate a slight enhancement in TEC during the burst event days. The observed TEC enhancement on the burst day can be associated to increased UV and X-rays radiations and particle acceleration that are associated with SRBs events. This work is a contribution to more understanding of the geo-space impact of solar transients phenomena for modeling and prediction.

  17. Ionospheric Slant Total Electron Content Analysis Using Global Positioning System Based Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komjathy, Attila (Inventor); Mannucci, Anthony J. (Inventor); Sparks, Lawrence C. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A method, system, apparatus, and computer program product provide the ability to analyze ionospheric slant total electron content (TEC) using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS)-based estimation. Slant TEC is estimated for a given set of raypath geometries by fitting historical GNSS data to a specified delay model. The accuracy of the specified delay model is estimated by computing delay estimate residuals and plotting a behavior of the delay estimate residuals. An ionospheric threat model is computed based on the specified delay model. Ionospheric grid delays (IGDs) and grid ionospheric vertical errors (GIVEs) are computed based on the ionospheric threat model.

  18. A Regional GPS Receiver Network For Monitoring Mid-latitude Total Electron Content During Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, A.; Cander, Lj. R.

    A regional GPS receiver network has been used for monitoring mid-latitude total elec- tron content (TEC) during ionospheric storms at the current solar maximum. Differ- ent individual storms were examined to study how the temporal patterns of changes develop and how they are related to solar and geomagnetic activity for parameter de- scriptive of plasmaspheric-ionospheric ionisation. Use is then made of computer con- touring techniques to produce snapshot maps of TEC for different study cases. Com- parisons with the local ionosonde data at different phases of the storms enable the storm developments to be studied in detail.

  19. Comparison of double dose plateletpheresis on the Fenwal Amicus, Fresenius COM.TEC and Trima Accel cell separators.

    PubMed

    Keklik, Muzaffer; Eser, Bulent; Kaynar, Leylagul; Solmaz, Musa; Ozturk, Ahmet; Yay, Mehmet; Birekul, Ayse; Oztekin, Mehmet; Sivgin, Serdar; Cetin, Mustafa; Unal, Ali

    2014-10-01

    A variety of apheresis instruments are now available on the market for double dose plateletpheresis. We compared three apheresis devices (Fenwal Amicus, Fresenius COM.TEC and Trima Accel) with regard to processing time, platelet (PLT) yield, collection efficiency (CE) and collection rate (CR). The single-needle or double-needle double plateletpheresis procedures of the three instruments were compared in a retrospective, randomized study in 135 donors. In the pre-apheresis setting, 45 double plateletpheresis procedures performed with each instrument revealed no significant differences in donor's age, sex, weight, hemoglobin, white blood cell and PLT count between three groups. The blood volume processed to reach a target PLT yield of ≥ 6 × 10(11) was higher in the COM.TEC compared with the Amicus and Trima (4394 vs. 3780 and 3340 ml, respectively; p < 0.001). Also there was a significantly higher median volume of ACD used in collections on the COM.TEC compared with the Amicus and Trima (426 vs. 387 and 329 ml, respectively; p < 0.001). There was a significantly higher median time needed for the procedures on the COM.TEC compared with the Amicus and Trima (66 vs. 62 and 63 min, respectively; p = 0.024). The CE was significantly higher with the Trima compared with the Amicus and COM.TEC (83.57 ± 17.19 vs. 66.71 ± 3.47 and 58.79 ± 5.14%, respectively; p < 0.001). Also, there was a significantly higher product volume on the Trima compared with the Amicus and COM.TEC (395.56 vs. 363.11 and 386.4 ml, respectively; p = 0.008). Additionally, the CR was significantly lower with the COM.TEC compared with the Amicus and Trima (0.092 ± 0.011 vs. 0.099 ± 0.013 and 0.097 ± 0.013 plt × 10(11)/min, respectively; p = 0.039). There was no significant differences in PLT yield between the three groups (p = 0.636). Trima single-needle device collected double dose platelets more efficiently than Amicus and

  20. Comparison between IRI-2012 and GPS-TEC observations over the western Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inyurt, Samed; Yildirim, Omer; Mekik, Cetin

    2017-07-01

    The ionosphere is a dynamic layer which generally changes according to radiation emitted by the sun, the movement of the earth around the sun, and sunspot activity. Variations can generally be categorized as regular or irregular variations. Both types of variation have a huge effect on radio wave propagation. In this study, we have focused on the seasonal variation effect, which is one of the regular forms of variation in terms of the ionosphere. We examined the seasonal variation over the ZONG station in Turkey for the year 2014. Our analysis results and IRI-2012 present different ideas about ionospheric activity. According to our analysed results, the standard deviation reached a maximum value in April 2014. However, the maximum standard deviation obtained from IRI-2012 was seen in February 2014. Furthermore, it is clear that IRI-2012 underestimated the VTEC values when compared to our results for all the months analysed. The main source of difference between the two models is the IRI-2012 topside ionospheric representation. IRI-2012 VTEC has been produced as a result of the integration of an electron density profile within altitudinal limits of 60-2000 km. In other words, the main problem with regard to the IRI-2012 VTEC representation is not being situated in the plasmaspheric part of the ionosphere. Therefore we propose that the plasmaspheric part should be taken into account to calculate the correct TEC values in mid-latitude regions, and we note that IRI-2012 does not supply precise TEC values for use in ionospheric studies.

  1. Variations of total electron content during geomagnetic disturbances: A model/observation comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roble, G. Lu X. Pi A. D. Richmond R. G.

    1997-01-01

    This paper studies the ionospheric response to major geomagnetic storm of October 18-19, 1995, using the thermosphere-ionosphere electrodynamic general circulation model (TIE-GCM) simulations and the global ionospheric maps (GIM) of total electron content (TEC) observations from the Global Positioning System (GPS) worldwide network.

  2. Exploring grassroots feedback about cancer challenges in South Africa: a discussion of themes derived from content thematic analysis of 316 photo-narratives

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Lynn Barbara; Greeff, Linda Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Cancer is an important health problem in Africa with projections that incidence could double by 2030. While sparse, the literature on cancer control in African low- and middle-income countries suggests poor cancer planning, overburdened services and poor outcomes. South Africa has established oncology health care services but also has low cancer awareness, poor cancer surveillance and widespread service challenges. Methods Data for this study was derived from 316 photovoice interviews with cancer patients, families of cancer patients and oncology workers across South Africa. The objectives of the study were to collect first-hand feedback about cancer challenges and to develop recommendations for the improvement of cancer control strategies. Results 9 themes of cancer challenges were distinguished via thematic content analysis of the photo-narratives. The identified themes of cancer challenges were physical and treatment challenges, emotional, poor services, transport, finances, information, powerlessness, stigma, and schooling challenges. Conclusion The findings of this study offer the patient and family perspective of cancer challenges as a valid contribution to our body of cancer knowledge. The 9 themes of cancer challenges profile the emotional, physical and social impact of cancer on patients and families, and offer detailed subjective information about problem occurrence in the trajectory of care. Recommendations following from the 9 themes of cancer challenges include training for improved patient-centred care standards, the need for cancer surveillance, innovative and locally appropriate cancer awareness campaigns, private and government health care partnerships and the development of psychosocial services. The advocating of findings and recommendations to influence cancer control strategies in South Africa, is indicated. PMID:29541319

  3. Exploring grassroots feedback about cancer challenges in South Africa: a discussion of themes derived from content thematic analysis of 316 photo-narratives.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lynn Barbara; Greeff, Linda Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is an important health problem in Africa with projections that incidence could double by 2030. While sparse, the literature on cancer control in African low- and middle-income countries suggests poor cancer planning, overburdened services and poor outcomes. South Africa has established oncology health care services but also has low cancer awareness, poor cancer surveillance and widespread service challenges. Data for this study was derived from 316 photovoice interviews with cancer patients, families of cancer patients and oncology workers across South Africa. The objectives of the study were to collect first-hand feedback about cancer challenges and to develop recommendations for the improvement of cancer control strategies. 9 themes of cancer challenges were distinguished via thematic content analysis of the photo-narratives. The identified themes of cancer challenges were physical and treatment challenges, emotional, poor services, transport, finances, information, powerlessness, stigma, and schooling challenges. The findings of this study offer the patient and family perspective of cancer challenges as a valid contribution to our body of cancer knowledge. The 9 themes of cancer challenges profile the emotional, physical and social impact of cancer on patients and families, and offer detailed subjective information about problem occurrence in the trajectory of care. Recommendations following from the 9 themes of cancer challenges include training for improved patient-centred care standards, the need for cancer surveillance, innovative and locally appropriate cancer awareness campaigns, private and government health care partnerships and the development of psychosocial services. The advocating of findings and recommendations to influence cancer control strategies in South Africa, is indicated.

  4. Acid neutralizing capacity and leachate results for igneous rocks, with associated carbon contents of derived soils, Animas River AML site, Silverton, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, Douglas B.; Stanton, Mark R.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Burchell,

    2009-01-01

    solution from mine waste used in the kinetic reaction vessel test. This finding suggests that mine waste and not ANC rock may generate the majority of leachable metals in a field scenario.
    The organic carbon content of naturally reclaimed soils derived from weathering of propylitically-altered andesite was determined in catchments where ANC studies were initiated. Soils were found to have total carbon concentrations (TOC) that exceed global average soil TOC abundances by as much as 1.5 – 5 times. These data support an environmental management system involving use of ANC rocks as part of life-cycle mine planning to reduce post-mine closure acid mitigation measures. Carbon contents of undisturbed soils in mined catchments can possibly be used to validate post-reclamation success and help quantify carbon sequestration for CO2 emission offset trading as carbon markets mature.

  5. A statistical study of global ionospheric map total electron content changes prior to occurrences of M ≥ 6.0 earthquakes during 2000-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J. N.; Huard, J.; Masci, F.

    2017-02-01

    There are many reports on the occurrence of anomalous changes in the ionosphere prior to large earthquakes. However, whether or not these changes are reliable precursors that could be useful for earthquake prediction is controversial within the scientific community. To test a possible statistical relationship between ionospheric disturbances and earthquakes, we compare changes in the total electron content (TEC) of the ionosphere with occurrences of M ≥ 6.0 earthquakes globally for 2000-2014. We use TEC data from the global ionosphere map (GIM) and an earthquake list declustered for aftershocks. For each earthquake, we look for anomalous changes in GIM-TEC within 2.5° latitude and 5.0° longitude of the earthquake location (the spatial resolution of GIM-TEC). Our analysis has not found any statistically significant changes in GIM-TEC prior to earthquakes. Thus, we have found no evidence that would suggest that monitoring changes in GIM-TEC might be useful for predicting earthquakes.

  6. The impact of the 17 March 2015- St. Patrick's Day storm on the evolutionary pattern of Equatorial Ionization Anomaly over the Indian longitudes using high resolution spatio-temporal TEC maps - New insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, S.; Sunda, S.; Sridharan, R.

    2016-12-01

    The impact of the St. Patrick's Day storm (17 March 2015) on the major equatorial electro-dynamical process viz., the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) has been assessed using 2D (lat. x long.) total electron content (TEC) maps generated from the ground based SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation System) enabled receiver data. The various aspects of EIA viz., i) evolution/devolution, ii) longitudinal structure, and iii) its variability during different phases of a geomagnetic storm have been brought out. These 2D TEC maps, which have a large latitudinal (5̊ S-45° N) and longitudinal (55-110° E) coverage, show the complete reversal in the longitudinal structure of EIA during the recovery phase of the storm as compared to the quiet day. These results have been explained in the light of the combined effects of the storm associated processes viz., i) the penetration electric fields of magnetosphere origin, ii) storm induced thermospheric winds, and iii) activation of the consequent disturbance dynamo, effectively distorting the longitudinal wave number 4 (WN4) structure of the EIA. It has been shown unambiguously that even a separation of few degrees in longitude ( 30̊) could experience significantly different forcings. The relevance and the far reaching consequences of the study in the light of the current trends and requirements for reliable satellite based navigation are highlighted.

  7. Study of the Total Electron Content in Mars ionosphere from MARSIS data set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeot, Nicolas; Witasse, Olivier; Kofman, Wlodek; Grima, Cyril; Mouginot, Jeremie; Peter, Kerstin; Pätzold, Martin; Dehant, Véronique

    2016-04-01

    Centimeter level accuracy on the signal delay will be required on X-band radio link for future Mars landers such as InSIGHT, aiming at better determining the interior structure of Mars. One of the main error sources in the estimated signal delay is directly linked to the Total Electron Content (TEC) values at Earth and Mars ionosphere level. While the Earth ionosphere is now well modeled and monitored at regional and global scales, this is not the case concerning the Mars' upper atmosphere. The present paper aims at establishing the basis to model the climatological behavior of the TEC on a global scale in the Mars' ionosphere. For that we analyzed ˜8.5 years of data (mid-2005 to 2014) of the vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC) expressed in TEC units (1 TECu = 1016e-.m-2) from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) radar. Our study takes advantage of the double data set of EUV solar index and Mars vTEC data to develop an empirical Model of Mars Ionosphere (MoMo). The finality of this model is to predict the vTEC at a given latitude, solar zenith angle and season taking only F10.7P solar index as input. To minimize the differences during the least-square adjustment between the modeled and observed vTEC, we considered (1) a 4th-order polynomial function to describe the vTEC diurnal behavior (2) a discretization with respect to Mars seasons (depending on Ls) and (3) two latitudinal sectors (North and South hemispheres). The mean of the differences between the model and the observations is 0.00±0.07 TECu with an error of the model around 0.1 TECu depending on the Solar Zenith Angle (SZA), season and hemisphere of interest (e.g. rms 0.12 TECu for SZA equal to 50°±5° in the Northern hemisphere during the spring season). Additionally, comparison with 250 Mars Express radio occultation data shows differences with MoMo predictions of 0.02±0.06 TECu for solar zenith angles below 50 degrees. Using the model we (1) highlighted

  8. A method for separating seismo-ionospheric TEC outliers from heliogeomagnetic disturbances by using nu-SVR

    SciTech Connect

    Pattisahusiwa, Asis; Liong, The Houw; Purqon, Acep

    Seismo-Ionospheric is a study of ionosphere disturbances associated with seismic activities. In many previous researches, heliogeomagnetic or strong earthquake activities can caused the disturbances in the ionosphere. However, it is difficult to separate these disturbances based on related sources. In this research, we proposed a method to separate these disturbances/outliers by using nu-SVR with the world-wide GPS data. TEC data related to the 26th December 2004 Sumatra and the 11th March 2011 Honshu earthquakes had been analyzed. After analyzed TEC data in several location around the earthquake epicenter and compared with geomagnetic data, the method shows a good result inmore » the average to detect the source of these outliers. This method is promising to use in the future research.« less

  9. THE REDSHIFT AND NATURE OF AzTEC/COSMOS 1: A STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 4.6

    SciTech Connect

    Smolcic, V.; Capak, P.; Blain, A. W.

    2011-04-20

    Based on broadband/narrowband photometry and Keck DEIMOS spectroscopy, we report a redshift of z = 4.64{sup +0.06}{sub -0.08} for AzTEC/COSMOS 1, the brightest submillimeter galaxy (SMG) in the AzTEC/COSMOS field. In addition to the COSMOS-survey X-ray to radio data, we report observations of the source with Herschel/PACS (100, 160 {mu}m), CSO/SHARC II (350 {mu}m), and CARMA and PdBI (3 mm). We do not detect CO(5 {yields} 4) line emission in the covered redshift ranges, 4.56-4.76 (PdBI/CARMA) and 4.94-5.02 (CARMA). If the line is within this bandwidth, this sets 3{sigma} upper limits on the gas mass to {approx}<8 x 10{sup 9}more » M{sub sun} and {approx}<5 x 10{sup 10} M{sub sun}, respectively (assuming similar conditions as observed in z {approx} 2 SMGs). This could be explained by a low CO-excitation in the source. Our analysis of the UV-IR spectral energy distribution of AzTEC 1 shows that it is an extremely young ({approx}<50 Myr), massive (M{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 11} M{sub sun}), but compact ({approx}<2 kpc) galaxy, forming stars at a rate of {approx}1300 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. Our results imply that AzTEC 1 is forming stars in a 'gravitationally bound' regime in which gravity prohibits the formation of a superwind, leading to matter accumulation within the galaxy and further generations of star formation.« less

  10. Seismo-electromagnetic anomalies observed by Fomosat-1 and GIM TEC during January 27 1999 to July 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C. Y.; Liu, J. Y. G.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we examine the pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies (PEIAs) by the electron density (Ne) and ion temperature (Ti) observed by FORMOSAT-1 (ROCSAT-1) satellite during magnitude greater than 7.0 worldwide earthquakes during 1999-2004. Meanwhile, PEIAs is also currently investigated to have a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the ROCSAT-1 SIPs. Total electron density (TEC) of the global ionosphere map (GIM) confirm that the anomalous feature appear near the epicenters before the earthquakes.

  11. Analysis of Total Electron Content and Electron Density Profile during Different Geomagnetic Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapagain, N. P.; Rana, B.; Adhikari, B.

    2017-12-01

    Total Electron content (TEC) and electron density are the key parameters in the mitigation of ionospheric effects on radio communication system. Detail study of the TEC and electron density variations has been carried out during geomagnetic storms, with longitude and latitude, for four different locations: (13˚N -17˚N, 88˚E -98˚E), (30˚N-50˚N, 120˚W -95˚W), (29˚S-26˚S, 167˚W-163˚W,) and (60˚S-45˚S, 120˚W-105˚W) using the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite observations. In order to find the geomagnetic activity, the solar wind parameters such as north-south component of inter planetary magnetic field (Bz), plasma drift velocity (Vsw), flow pressure (nPa), AE, Dst and Kp indices were obtained from Operating Mission as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) web system. The data for geomagnetic indices have been correlated with the TEC and electron density for four different events of geomagnetic storms on 6 April 2008, 27 March 2008, 4 September 2008, and 11 October 2008. The result illustrates that the observed TEC and electron density profile significantly vary with longitudes and latitudes. This study illustrates that the values of TEC and the vertical electron density profile are influenced by the solar wind parameters associated with solar activities. The peak values of electron density and TEC increase as the geomagnetic storms become stronger. Similarly, the electron density profile varies with altitudes, which peaks around the altitude range of about 250- 350 km, depending on the strength of geomagnetic storms. The results clearly show that the peak electron density shifted to higher altitude (from about 250 km to 350 km) as the geomagnetic disturbances becomes stronger.

  12. Solar and lunar tidal variabilities in GPS-TEC and geomagnetic field variations: Seasonal as well as during the sudden stratospheric warming of 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, S.

    2017-04-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) deduced total electron content (TEC) data at 15°N (geomagnetic), which is the northern crest region of equatorial ionization anomaly, are used to study solar and lunar tidal variabilities during the years 2008 and 2009 and also during the 2009-2010 winter, when a major sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) event has occurred. The diurnal and semidiurnal tidal amplitudes show semiannual variation with maximum amplitudes during February-March and September-November, whereas terdiurnal tide is larger during April-September. They show significant longitudinal variability with larger (smaller) amplitudes over 250°E-150°E (200°E-250°E). Lunar semidiurnal tidal amplitudes show sporadic enhancements during northern winter months and negligible amplitudes during northern summer months. They also show notable longitudinal variabilities. The solar migrating tides DW1 and SW2 show semiannual variation with larger amplitudes during spring equinox months, whereas TW3 maximizes during northern summer. DW2 shows larger amplitudes during summer months. During the SSW, except TW3, the migrating tides DW1 and SW2 show considerable enhancements. Among solar nonmigrating tides, SW1, TW2, and DS0 show larger enhancements. Solar tides in TEC and equatorial electrojet strength over Tirunelveli vary with the time scale of 60 days during October 2009-March 2010 similar to ozone mass mixing ratio at 10 hPa, and this confirms the vital role of ozone in tidal variabilities in ionospheric parameters. Lunar tidal amplitudes in changes in horizontal component of geomagnetic field (ΔH) are larger over Tirunelveli, a station near dip equator. Solar semidiurnal tides in ΔH have larger amplitudes than lunar tides over polar stations, Mawson and Godhavn.Plain Language SummaryIn this paper, the variations of solar and lunar tides in a few ionospheric parameters during the years 2008 and 2009 and during a disturbed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25316663','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25316663"><span>Comparative Analysis of Various Aspects of Plateletpheresis on the Fenwal Amicus and Fresenius COM.<span class="hlt">TEC</span> Cell Separator Instruments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Philip, Joseph; Biswas, Amit Kumar; Chatterjee, Tathagata; Mallhi, Rajiv Singh</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>To compare the Fenwal Amicus and the Fresenius COM.<span class="hlt">TEC</span> apheresis instruments regarding donor peripheral blood parameters, operational variables of the instruments, and quality control parameters of the product obtained. We performed 100 platelet collections from 100 voluntary donors using the 2 studied devices. We measured platelet count using an automated analyzer and analyzed the activation statuses using a flow cytometer. The median time needed to perform the procedures was significantly longer with the COM.<span class="hlt">TEC</span>. However, the product we obtained using the Amicus instrument showed higher degrees of platelet-activation. All products we obtained with both instruments had white blood cell counts of less than 5 × 10(6) per bag. We observed no statistical difference regarding collection efficiency and collection rates between the devices. Both instruments collected platelets efficiently, with minimal donor discomfort. Compared with the COM.<span class="hlt">TEC</span> instrument, the Amicus reached the platelet target yield more quickly; however, it displayed an increase in platelet activation. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2258456Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015IAUGA..2258456Y"><span>New LMT High Resolution Imaging and CO Spectroscopic Studies of the Brightest Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> 1.1mm Sources</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yun, Min S.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Hughes, David; Montana, A.; Pope, A.; Bruzual, Gustavo; Ferrusca, D.; Rosa Gonzalez, D.; Sanchez-Arguelles, D.; Narayanan, G.; Wilson, Grant; Gim, Hansung; Ibarra, H.; Mo, H.; Lowenthal, James; Zavala, J.; Carrasco, L.; Chavez, M.; Valazquez, M.; Zeballos, M.; Vega, O.; Schloerb, P.; Cybulsky, J. R.; Casey, Caitlin M.; Tang, Y.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>A substantial population of quiescent galaxies with stellar masses exceeding 10 billion solar masses have been found to z~4, suggesting a rapid formation and quenching of massive galaxies at z~6 or earlier. The submillimeter bright galaxies (SMGs) with SFR > 100-1000 solar masses per year represent natural candidates for the progenitor systems undergoing an epoch of rapid formation and cessation of stellar mass build up. Many of the most luminous SMGs are also extremely red and faint in the optical, suggesting a high redshift and are beyond the reach of the current optical spectroscopic redshift surveys. There is also a growing concern that these most luminous SMGs may be blends of several unrelated sources as a result of a poor angular resolution of the existing surveys (18" & 28" for the Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> 1.1mm surveys on JCMT and ASTE, respectively). We have obtained new 8" resolution Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> images of 40 brightest Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> sources previously found in the GOODS and COSMOS fields using the Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT) to examine the multiplicity question and for the identification of multi-wavelength counterparts. We have also conducted a CO redshift survey using the Redshift Search Receiver on the LMT. We will report the results of these analysis and several new CO redshifts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27620189','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27620189"><span>Hi<span class="hlt">TEC</span>: a connectionist model of the interaction between perception and action planning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haazebroek, Pascal; Raffone, Antonino; Hommel, Bernhard</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>Increasing evidence suggests that perception and action planning do not represent separable stages of a unidirectional processing sequence, but rather emerging properties of highly interactive processes. To capture these characteristics of the human cognitive system, we have developed a connectionist model of the interaction between perception and action planning: Hi<span class="hlt">TEC</span>, based on the Theory of Event Coding (Hommel et al. in Behav Brain Sci 24:849-937, 2001). The model is characterized by representations at multiple levels and by shared representations and processes. It complements available models of stimulus-response translation by providing a rationale for (1) how situation-specific meanings of motor actions emerge, (2) how and why some aspects of stimulus-response translation occur automatically and (3) how task demands modulate sensorimotor processing. The model is demonstrated to provide a unitary account and simulation of a number of key findings with multiple experimental paradigms on the interaction between perception and action such as the Simon effect, its inversion (Hommel in Psychol Res 55:270-279, 1993), and action-effect learning.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApJ...704..803Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009ApJ...704..803Y"><span>The Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span>/SMA Interferometric Imaging Survey of Submillimeter-selected High-redshift Galaxies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Younger, Joshua D.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Yun, Min S.; Wilson, Grant W.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Peck, Alison B.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Wilner, David J.; Hughes, David H.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Kim, Sungeun; Scott, Kimberly S.; Austermann, Jason; Perera, Thushara; Lowenthal, James D.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>We present results from a continuing interferometric survey of high-redshift submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with the Submillimeter Array, including high-resolution (beam size ~2 arcsec) imaging of eight additional Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> 1.1 mm selected sources in the COSMOS field, for which we obtain six reliable (peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >5 or peak S/N >4 with multiwavelength counterparts within the beam) and two moderate significance (peak S/N >4) detections. When combined with previous detections, this yields an unbiased sample of millimeter-selected SMGs with complete interferometric follow up. With this sample in hand, we (1) empirically confirm the radio-submillimeter association, (2) examine the submillimeter morphology—including the nature of SMGs with multiple radio counterparts and constraints on the physical scale of the far infrared—of the sample, and (3) find additional evidence for a population of extremely luminous, radio-dim SMGs that peaks at higher redshift than previous, radio-selected samples. In particular, the presence of such a population of high-redshift sources has important consequences for models of galaxy formation—which struggle to account for such objects even under liberal assumptions—and dust production models given the limited time since the big bang.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10212E..0SQ','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10212E..0SQ"><span>The ultraviolet detection component based on <span class="hlt">Te-Cs</span> image intensifier</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qian, Yunsheng; Zhou, Xiaoyu; Wu, Yujing; Wang, Yan; Xu, Hua</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Ultraviolet detection technology has been widely focused and adopted in the fields of ultraviolet warning and corona detection for its significant value and practical meaning. The component structure of ultraviolet ICMOS, imaging driving and the photon counting algorithm are studied in this paper. Firstly, the one-inch and wide dynamic range CMOS chip with the coupling optical fiber panel is coupled to the ultraviolet image intensifier. The photocathode material in ultraviolet image intensifier is <span class="hlt">Te-Cs</span>, which contributes to the solar blind characteristic, and the dual micro-channel plates (MCP) structure ensures the sufficient gain to achieve the single photon counting. Then, in consideration of the ultraviolet detection demand, the drive circuit of the CMOS chip is designed and the corresponding program based on Verilog language is written. According to the characteristics of ultraviolet imaging, the histogram equalization method is applied to enhance the ultraviolet image and the connected components labeling way is utilized for the ultraviolet single photon counting. Moreover, one visible light video channel is reserved in the ultraviolet ICOMS camera, which can be used for the fusion of ultraviolet and visible images. Based upon the module, the ultraviolet optical lens and the deep cut-off solar blind filter are adopted to construct the ultraviolet detector. At last, the detection experiment of the single photon signal is carried out, and the test results are given and analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9381E..08D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015SPIE.9381E..08D"><span>Optical power of VCSELs stabilized to 35 ppm/°C without a <span class="hlt">TEC</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Downing, John</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>This paper reports a method and system comprising a light source, an electronic method, and a calibration procedure for stabilizing the optical power of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and laser diodes (LDs) without the use thermoelectric coolers (<span class="hlt">TECs</span>). The system eliminates the needs for custom interference coatings, polarization adjustments, and the exact alignment required by the optical method reported in 2013 [1]. It can precisely compensate for the effects of temperature and wavelength drift on photodiode responsivity as well as changes in VCSEL beam quality and polarization angle over a 50°C temperature range. Data obtained from light sources built with single-mode polarization-locked VCSELs demonstrate that 30 ppm/°C stability can be readily obtained. The system has advantages over TECstabilized laser modules that include: 1) 90% lower relative RMS optical power and temperature sensitivity, 2) a five-fold enhancement of wall-plug efficiency, 3) less component testing and sorting, 4) lower manufacturing costs, and 5) automated calibration in batches at time of manufacture is practical. The system is ideally suited for battery-powered environmental and in-home medical monitoring applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21367385-aztec-sma-interferometric-imaging-survey-submillimeter-selected-high-redshift-galaxies','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21367385-aztec-sma-interferometric-imaging-survey-submillimeter-selected-high-redshift-galaxies"><span>THE Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span>/SMA INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Younger, Joshua D.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang Jiasheng</p> <p></p> <p>We present results from a continuing interferometric survey of high-redshift submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with the Submillimeter Array, including high-resolution (beam size approx2 arcsec) imaging of eight additional Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> 1.1 mm selected sources in the COSMOS field, for which we obtain six reliable (peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >5 or peak S/N >4 with multiwavelength counterparts within the beam) and two moderate significance (peak S/N >4) detections. When combined with previous detections, this yields an unbiased sample of millimeter-selected SMGs with complete interferometric follow up. With this sample in hand, we (1) empirically confirm the radio-submillimeter association, (2) examine the submillimeter morphology-includingmore » the nature of SMGs with multiple radio counterparts and constraints on the physical scale of the far infrared-of the sample, and (3) find additional evidence for a population of extremely luminous, radio-dim SMGs that peaks at higher redshift than previous, radio-selected samples. In particular, the presence of such a population of high-redshift sources has important consequences for models of galaxy formation-which struggle to account for such objects even under liberal assumptions-and dust production models given the limited time since the big bang.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AdSpR..61.1689O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AdSpR..61.1689O"><span>Low latitude ionospheric <span class="hlt">TEC</span> responses to dynamical complexity quantifiers during transient events over Nigeria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogunsua, Babalola</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>In this study, the values of chaoticity and dynamical complexity parameters for some selected storm periods in the year 2011 and 2012 have been computed. This was done using detrended <span class="hlt">TEC</span> data sets measured from Birnin-Kebbi, Torro and Enugu global positioning system (GPS) receiver stations in Nigeria. It was observed that the significance of difference (SD) values were mostly greater than 1.96 but surprisingly lower than 1.96 in September 29, 2011. The values of the computed SD were also found to be reduced in most cases just after the geomagnetic storm with immediate recovery a day after the main phase of the storm while the values of Lyapunov exponent and Tsallis entropy remains reduced due to the influence of geomagnetic storms. It was also observed that the value of Lyapunov exponent and Tsallis entropy reveals similar variation pattern during storm period in most cases. Also recorded surprisingly were lower values of these dynamical quantifiers during the solar flare event of August 8th and 9th of the year 2011. The possible mechanisms responsible for these observations were further discussed in this work. However, our observations show that the ionospheric effects of some other possible transient events other than geomagnetic storms can also be revealed by the variation of chaoticity and dynamical complexity.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.4755F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.4755F"><span>Large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances observed by GPS d<span class="hlt">TEC</span> maps over North and South America on Saint Patrick's Day storm in 2015</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Figueiredo, C. A. O. B.; Wrasse, C. M.; Takahashi, H.; Otsuka, Y.; Shiokawa, K.; Barros, D.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances (LSTIDs) were detected in both Northern and Southern Hemispheres over American sector during the geomagnetic storm on 17-18 March 2015, also known as the Saint Patrick's Day storm. Detrended total electronic <span class="hlt">content</span> (d<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) maps were made using dense GNSS network receiver data. The retrieved LSTIDs showed wavelengths of 1000 to 2000 km, phase velocity of 300-1000 m/s, and period of 30-50 min. Among them, three couples of LSTIDs were observed propagating from the polar regions to low latitudes. Two wave events observed in daytime showed the propagation direction of southwest in the Northern Hemisphere and northeast in the Southern Hemisphere, which means an asymmetric propagation against the geographic equator. The other wave event observed during the evening hour showed symmetric propagation direction, i.e., southwest in the Northern Hemisphere and northwest in the Southern Hemisphere, whereas their wavelength and phase velocity are significantly different between NH and SH. These observations indicate that the two groups of LSTID have different propagation conditions from polar to low-latitude regions. The observed asymmetric/symmetric propagation forms suggest asymmetric/symmetric auroral current activity between the northern and southern polar regions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MNRAS.405.2260S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010MNRAS.405.2260S"><span>Deep 1.1mm-wavelength imaging of the GOODS-S field by Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span>/ASTE - I. Source catalogue and number counts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Scott, K. S.; Yun, M. S.; Wilson, G. W.; Austermann, J. E.; Aguilar, E.; Aretxaga, I.; Ezawa, H.; Ferrusca, D.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D. H.; Iono, D.; Giavalisco, M.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T. A.; Rand, J.; Tamura, Y.; Tosaki, T.; Velazquez, M.; Williams, C. C.; Zeballos, M.</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>We present the first results from a confusion-limited map of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-South (GOODS-S) taken with the Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> camera on the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment. We imaged a field to a 1σ depth of 0.48-0.73 mJybeam-1, making this one of the deepest blank-field surveys at mm-wavelengths ever achieved. Although by traditional standards our GOODS-S map is extremely confused due to a sea of faint underlying sources, we demonstrate through simulations that our source identification and number counts analyses are robust, and the techniques discussed in this paper are relevant for other deeply confused surveys. We find a total of 41 dusty starburst galaxies with signal-to-noise ratios S/N >= 3. 5 within this uniformly covered region, where only two are expected to be false detections, and an additional seven robust source candidates located in the noisier (1σ ~ 1 mJybeam-1) outer region of the map. We <span class="hlt">derive</span> the 1.1 mm number counts from this field using two different methods: a fluctuation or ``P(d)'' analysis and a semi-Bayesian technique and find that both methods give consistent results. Our data are well fit by a Schechter function model with . Given the depth of this survey, we put the first tight constraints on the 1.1 mm number counts at S1.1mm = 0.5 mJy, and we find evidence that the faint end of the number counts at from various SCUBA surveys towards lensing clusters are biased high. In contrast to the 870μm survey of this field with the LABOCA camera, we find no apparent underdensity of sources compared to previous surveys at 1.1mm the estimates of the number counts of SMGs at flux densities >1mJy determined here are consistent with those measured from the Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span>/SHADES survey. Additionally, we find a significant number of SMGs not identified in the LABOCA catalogue. We find that in contrast to observations at λ <= 500μm, MIPS 24μm sources do not resolve the total energy density in the cosmic infrared background at 1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ACPD....7.4065H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007ACPD....7.4065H"><span>Global statistics of liquid water <span class="hlt">content</span> and effective number density of water clouds over ocean <span class="hlt">derived</span> from combined CALIPSO and MODIS measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Y.; Vaughan, M.; McClain, C.; Behrenfeld, M.; Maring, H.; Anderson, D.; Sun-Mack, S.; Flittner, D.; Huang, J.; Wielicki, B.; Minnis, P.; Weimer, C.; Trepte, C.; Kuehn, R.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>This study presents an empirical relation that links layer integrated depolarization ratios, the extinction coefficients, and effective radii of water clouds, based on Monte Carlo simulations of CALIPSO lidar observations. Combined with cloud effective radius retrieved from MODIS, cloud liquid water <span class="hlt">content</span> and effective number density of water clouds are estimated from CALIPSO lidar depolarization measurements in this study. Global statistics of the cloud liquid water <span class="hlt">content</span> and effective number density are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3059023','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3059023"><span>Absence of <span class="hlt">Tec</span> Family Kinases Interleukin-2 Inducible T cell Kinase (Itk) and Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase (Btk) Severely Impairs FcϵRI-dependent Mast Cell Responses*</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Iyer, Archana S.; Morales, J. Luis; Huang, Weishan; Ojo, Folake; Ning, Gang; Wills, Elizabeth; Baines, Joel D.; August, Avery</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Mast cells are critical effector cells in the pathophysiology of allergic asthma and other IgE-mediated diseases. The <span class="hlt">Tec</span> family of tyrosine kinases Itk and Btk serve as critical signal amplifiers downstream of antigen receptors. Although both kinases are expressed and activated in mast cells following FcϵRI stimulation, their individual contributions are not clear. To determine whether these kinases play unique and/or complementary roles in FcϵRI signaling and mast cell function, we generated Itk and Btk double knock-out mice. Analyses of these mice show decreased mast cell granularity and impaired passive systemic anaphylaxis responses. This impaired response is accompanied by a significant elevation in serum IgE in Itk/Btk double knock-out mice. In vitro analyses of bone marrow-<span class="hlt">derived</span> mast cells (BMMCs) indicated that Itk/Btk double knock-out BMMCs are defective in degranulation and cytokine secretion responses downstream to FcϵRI activation. These responses were accompanied by a significant reduction in PLCγ2 phosphorylation and severely impaired calcium responses in these cells. This defect also results in altered NFAT1 nuclear localization in double knock-out BMMCs. Network analysis suggests that although they may share substrates, Itk plays both positive and negative roles, while Btk primarily plays a positive role in mast cell FcϵRI-induced cytokine secretion. PMID:21212279</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5607819-behavior-ionospheric-total-electron-content-over-ankara-final-report-january-december','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/5607819-behavior-ionospheric-total-electron-content-over-ankara-final-report-january-december"><span>Behavior of ionospheric total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> over Ankara. Final report, 1 January 1975--31 December 1977</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tulunay, Y.K.</p> <p>1977-12-31</p> <p>Total Electron <span class="hlt">Content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) was determined between October, 1975 and August, 1976 from measurements of the Faraday rotation of a plane polarized wave transmitted at 140 MHz from the geostationary satellite ATS 6, located at approximately 35 deg E over the equator. The computed results are presented as diurnal variations for single days and monthly means. Maximum daytime <span class="hlt">TEC</span> values were observed in April (about 20 x 10/sup 16/ el/sq m) and minimum in January (about 9 x 10/sup 16/ el/sq m); maximum night-time values were observed in January and February (about 3 x 10/sup 16/ el/sq m). The responsemore » of <span class="hlt">TEC</span> to the high magnetic activity associated with substorms was found to depend greatly on the time of day when the storm occurred.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMSA51A2377L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMSA51A2377L"><span>Using GPS <span class="hlt">TEC</span> measurements to probe ionospheric spatial spectra at mid-latitudes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lay, E. H.; Parker, P. A.; Light, M. E.; Carrano, C. S.; Debchoudhury, S.; Haaser, R. A.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>The physics of how random ionospheric structure causes signal degradation is well understood as weak forward scattering through an effective diffraction grating created by plasma irregularities in the ionosphere. However, the spatial scale spectrum of those irregularities required for input into scintillation models and models of traveling ionospheric disturbances is poorly characterized, particularly at the kilometer to tens of kilometer scale lengths important for very-high-frequency (VHF) scintillation prediction. Furthermore, the majority of characterization studies have been performed in low-latitude or high-latitude regions where geomagnetic activity dominates the physical processes. At mid-latitudes, tropospheric and geomagnetic phenomena compete in disturbing the ionosphere, and it is not well understood how these multiple sources affect the drivers that influence the spatial spectrum. In this study, we are interested in mid-latitude electron density irregularities on the order of 10s of kilometers that would affect VHF signals. Data from the GPS networks Japan GEONET and the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO, UNAVCO) in the western United States were analyzed for this study. Japan GEONET is a dense network of GPS receivers (station spacing of tens of km), with fairly evenly spaced positions over all of Japan. The PBO, on the other hand, has several pockets of extremely dense coverage (station spacing within a few km), but is less dense on average. We analyze a day with a large solar storm (2015/03/17, St. Patrick's Day Storm) to allow high scintillation potential at mid-latitudes, a day with low geomagnetic activity and low thunderstorm activity (2016/01/31), and a day with low geomagnetic activity and high thunderstorm activity (2015/08/02). We then perform two-dimensional spatial analyses on the <span class="hlt">TEC</span> data from these two networks on scale lengths of 20 to 200 km to infer the spatial scale spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830026122','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19830026122"><span>METSAT information <span class="hlt">content</span>: Cloud screening and solar correction investigations on the influence of NOAA-6 advanced very high resolution radiometer <span class="hlt">derived</span> vegetation assessment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mathews, M. L.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The development of the cloud indicator index (CII) for use with METSAT's advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) is described. The CII is very effective at identification of clouds. Also, explored are different solar correction and standard techniques and the impact of these corrections have on the information <span class="hlt">content</span> of AVHRR data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010045113&hterms=Xxxii&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DXxxii','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010045113&hterms=Xxxii&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3DXxxii"><span>Bimodal TiO2 <span class="hlt">Contents</span> of Mare Basalts at Apollo and Luna Sites and Implications for TiO2 <span class="hlt">Derived</span> from Clementine Spectral Reflectance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A revised algorithm to estimate Ti <span class="hlt">contents</span> of mare regions centered on Apollo and Luna sites shows a bimodal distribution, consistent with mare-basalt sample data. A global TiO2 map shows abundant intermediate TiO2 basalts in western Procellarum. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27995569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27995569"><span>Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging-<span class="hlt">Derived</span> Collagen <span class="hlt">Content</span> and Maturity Correlates with Stress in the Aortic Wall of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Patients.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheheltani, Rabee; Pichamuthu, Joseph E; Rao, Jayashree; Weinbaum, Justin S; Kiani, Mohammad F; Vorp, David A; Pleshko, Nancy</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a degenerative disease of the aorta characterized by severe disruption of the structural integrity of the aortic wall and its major molecular constituents. From the early stages of disease, elastin in the aorta becomes highly degraded and is replaced by collagen. Questions persist as to the contribution of collagen <span class="hlt">content</span>, quality and maturity to the potential for rupture. Here, using our recently developed Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) method, we quantified collagen <span class="hlt">content</span> and maturity in the wall of AAA tissues in pairs of specimens with different wall stresses. CT scans of AAAs from 12 patients were used to create finite element models to estimate stress in different regions of tissue. Each patient underwent elective repair of the AAA, and two segments of the AAA tissues from anatomic regions more proximal or distal with different wall stresses were evaluated by histology and FT-IRIS after excision. For each patient, collagen <span class="hlt">content</span> was generally greater in the tissue location with lower wall stress, which corresponded to the more distal anatomic regions. The wall stress/collagen ratio was greater in the higher stress region compared to the lower stress region (1.01 ± 1.09 vs. 0.55 ± 0.084, p = 0.02). The higher stress region also corresponded to the location with reduced intraluminal thrombus thickness. Further, collagen maturity tended to decrease with increased collagen <span class="hlt">content</span> (p = 0.068, R = 0.38). Together, these results suggest that an increase in less mature collagen <span class="hlt">content</span> in AAA patients does not effectively compensate for the loss of elastin in the aortic wall, and results in a reduced capability to endure wall stresses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMSA12B..05M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMSA12B..05M"><span>Case Studies of Forecasting Ionospheric Total Electron <span class="hlt">Content</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mannucci, A. J.; Meng, X.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.; Tsurutani, B.; McGranaghan, R. M.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>We report on medium-range forecast-mode runs of ionosphere-thermosphere coupled models that calculate ionospheric total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>), focusing on low-latitude daytime conditions. A medium-range forecast-mode run refers to simulations that are driven by inputs that can be predicted 2-3 days in advance, for example based on simulations of the solar wind. We will present results from a weak geomagnetic storm caused by a high-speed solar wind stream on June 29, 2012. Simulations based on the Global Ionosphere Thermosphere Model (GITM) and the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamic General Circulation Model (TIEGCM) significantly over-estimate <span class="hlt">TEC</span> in certain low latitude daytime regions, compared to <span class="hlt">TEC</span> maps based on observations. We will present the results from a more intense coronal mass ejection (CME) driven storm where the simulations are closer to observations. We compare high latitude data sets to model inputs, such as auroral boundary and convection patterns, to assess the degree to which poorly estimated high latitude drivers may be the largest cause of discrepancy between simulations and observations. Our results reveal many factors that can affect the accuracy of forecasts, including the fidelity of empirical models used to estimate high latitude precipitation patterns, or observation proxies for solar EUV spectra, such as the F10.7 index. Implications for forecasts with few-day lead times are discussed</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMED11A0843A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMED11A0843A"><span>Calculating Total Electron <span class="hlt">Content</span> under the presence of the Aurora Borealis in Fairbanks, Alaska, and Kiruna, Sweden.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ahmad, H.; Ehteshami, A.; Edgar, B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>With the presence of the ionosphere and plasmasphere interacting with geomagnetic storms, scattering effects can be seen by the signals sent to and by GPS/GLONASS satellites. To quantify this dispersive effect, scientists look into what the culprit is that causes this signal bias on an atomic level. Results have shown that the concentration of oscillating electrons is directly proportional to the amount of bias the signal from a point on earth to a GPS satellite witnesses. This is called the Total Electron <span class="hlt">Content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) of a specified path, measured in electrons per meters squared (. In this project, the process of collecting and analyzing <span class="hlt">TEC</span> units was kept the same as the previous methods while keeping the cost below $3,000. Using a dual-frequency GNSS receiver from Javad, Triumph-2, the project team recorded a series of 24 hour interval data logs as the receiver stored incoming signals from any reachable satellite. Because of the dispersive media in the ionosphere, the signal witnesses a bend in its path causing a delay, called the Slant <span class="hlt">TEC</span> (s<span class="hlt">TEC</span>). Using libraries from GPStk and TEQC, we analyzed RINEX files to view the differential phase and differential pseudorange frequency to compute slant <span class="hlt">TEC</span> units (sTECU). Using the obtained data, we analyzed the difference between the s<span class="hlt">TEC</span> units collected in Houston, Texas to the ones collected in Fairbanks, Alaska. Afterwards, the project will continue on another balloon in Kiruna, Sweden at the Esrange Space Center. The receiver will be in flight this time on a 48 hour flight.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914014M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1914014M"><span>Electrical conductivity structure of the mantle <span class="hlt">derived</span> from inversion of geomagnetic observatory data: implications for lateral variations in temperature, composition and water <span class="hlt">content</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Munch, Federico; Grayver, Alexander; Khan, Amir; Kuvshinov, Alexey</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>As most of Earth's interior remains geochemically unsampled, geophysical techniques based on seismology, geodesy, gravimetry, and electromagnetic studies play prominent roles because of their ability to sense structure at depth. Although seismic tomography maps show a variety of structures, separating thermal and compositional contributions from seismic velocities alone still remains a challenging task. Alternatively, as electrical conductivity is sensitive to temperature, chemical composition, oxygen fugacity, water <span class="hlt">content</span>, and the presence of melt, it can serve for determining chemistry, mineralogy, and physical structure of the deep mantle. In this work we estimate and invert local C-responses (period range 3-100 days) for a number of worldwide geomagnetic observatories to map lateral variations of electrical conductivity in Earth's mantle (400-1600 km depth). The obtained conductivity profiles are interpreted in terms of basalt fraction in a basalt-harzburgite mixture, temperature structure, and water <span class="hlt">content</span> variations. Interpretation is based on a self-consistent thermodynamic calculation of mineral phase equilibria, electrical conductivity databases, and probabilistic inverse methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24731362','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24731362"><span>Interaction of flavan-3-ol <span class="hlt">derivatives</span> and different caseins is determined by more than proline <span class="hlt">content</span> and number of proline repeats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bohin, Maxime C; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Westphal, Adrie H; Tripp, Annelise M; Dekker, Peter; van der Hijden, Harry T W M; Gruppen, Harry</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Interactions of Type A and B flavan-3-ol dimers (procyanidins) and several monomeric flavan-3-ols, with α-casein and β-casein, were investigated. Binding affinities measured were related to the ligands structure, including several properties (e.g. intrinsic flexibility (number of rotatable bonds) and hydrophobicity), and to the amino-acid composition of the caseins. A monomeric flavan-3-ol esterified with gallic acid (EGCG) had a five to ten times higher affinity to caseins compared to the non-galloylated dimeric flavan-3-ols. In this case, the larger number of rotatable bonds in EGCG might be accountable for this difference. Comparing flavan-3-ol dimers, intrinsic flexibility did not consistently promote interactions, as procyanidin A1 displayed a higher affinity to α-casein than the supposedly more flexible B-type dimers investigated. Despite its higher <span class="hlt">content</span> of proline, compared to α-casein, β-casein did not always have a higher affinity for the ligands investigated (e.g. no interaction with procyanidin A1 detected). These results suggest that more factors than proline <span class="hlt">content</span> and the number of proline repeats govern phenolic-casein interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.114..393C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JAESc.114..393C"><span>Statistical evidences of seismo-ionospheric precursors applying receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve on the GPS total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> in China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Yuh-Ing; Huang, Chi-Shen; Liu, Jann-Yenq</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Evidence of the seismo-ionospheric precursor (SIP) is reported by statistically investigating the relationship between the total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) in global ionosphere map (GIM) and 56 M ⩾ 6.0 earthquakes during 1998-2013 in China. A median-based method together with the z test is employed to examine the <span class="hlt">TEC</span> variations 30 days before and after the earthquake. It is found that the <span class="hlt">TEC</span> significantly decreases 0600-1000 LT 1-6 days before the earthquake, and anomalously increases in 3 time periods of 1300-1700 LT 12-15 days; 0000-0500 LT 15-17 days; and 0500-0900 LT 22-28 days before the earthquake. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve is then used to evaluate the efficiency of <span class="hlt">TEC</span> for predicting M ⩾ 6.0 earthquakes in China during a specified time period. Statistical results suggest that the SIP is the significant <span class="hlt">TEC</span> reduction in the morning period of 0600-1000 LT. The SIP is further confirmed since the area under the ROC curve is positively associated with the earthquake magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..51.2309H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AdSpR..51.2309H"><span>Seismo-ionospheric anomalies in total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> of the GIM and electron density of DEMETER before the 27 February 2010 M8.8 Chile earthquake</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ho, Yi-Ying; Jhuang, Hau-Kun; Su, Yung-Chih; Liu, Jann-Yenq</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>In this paper we examine the pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies by the total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) extracted from GIM (global ionospheric map) and the electron density (Ne) observed by the DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) satellite during the 2010 M8.8 Chile earthquake. Temporal variations show the nighttime <span class="hlt">TEC</span> and Ne simultaneously increase 9-19 days before the earthquake. A cross-comparison of data recorded during the period of 1 February to 3 March in 2006-2010 confirms the above temporal anomalies specifically appear in 2010. The spatial analyses show that the anomalies tend to appear over the epicenter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4089953','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4089953"><span>Activation Loop Dynamics Determine the Different Catalytic Efficiencies of B Cell- and T Cell-Specific <span class="hlt">Tec</span> Kinases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Joseph, Raji E.; Kleino, Iivari; Wales, Thomas E.; Xie, Qian; Fulton, D. Bruce; Engen, John R.; Berg, Leslie J.; Andreotti, Amy H.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Itk and Btk are nonreceptor tyrosine kinases of the <span class="hlt">Tec</span> family that signal downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR) and B cell receptor (BCR), respectively. Despite their high sequence similarity and related signaling roles, Btk is a substantially more active kinase than Itk. We showed that substitution of six of the 619 amino acid residues of Itk with those of Btk was sufficient to completely switch the activities of Itk and Btk. The substitutions responsible for the swap in activity are all localized to the activation segment of the kinase domain. Nuclear magnetic resonance and hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry analyses revealed that Itk and Btk had distinct protein dynamics in this region, which could explain the observed differences in catalytic efficiency between these kinases. Introducing Itk with enhanced activity into T cells led to enhanced and prolonged TCR signaling compared to that in cells with wild-type Itk. These findings imply that evolutionary pressures have led to <span class="hlt">Tec</span> kinases having distinct enzymatic properties depending on the cellular context. We suggest that the weaker catalytic activities observed for T cell–specific kinases is one mechanism to regulate cellular activation and prevent aberrant immune responses. PMID:23982207</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AdSpR..61.1952S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AdSpR..61.1952S"><span>Ionospheric perturbations due to earthquakes as determined from VLF and GPS-<span class="hlt">TEC</span> data analysis at Agra, India</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Singh, Dhananjali; Singh, Birbal; Pundhir, Devbrat</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>Employing SoftPAL receiver, amplitude variations of VLF transmitter signals NWC (19.8 kHz) and NPM (21.4 kHz) are analyzed at Agra station in India (Geograph. lat. 27.2°N, long. 78°E) ±15 days from five major earthquakes of magnitude M = 6.9-8.5 occurred in Indian subcontinent during the years 2011-2013. We apply nighttime fluctuation (NF) method and show that in almost all cases the trend decreases and dispersion and NF increase on the same days corresponding to each earthquake about 11-15 days prior to the main shock. Assuming that the ionospheric perturbations are caused by atmospheric gravity waves (AGW), we also calculate AGW modulation index for each case and find its values increased on the days amplitude fluctuations take place. Its value is decreased in one case only where the perturbations may be attributed to penetration of seismogenic electric field. In order to support the above results we also present GPS-<span class="hlt">TEC</span> data analyzed by us corresponding to three of the above earthquakes. We study the <span class="hlt">TEC</span> anomalies (unusual enhancements) and find that in one case the precursory period is almost the same as that found in NF method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=273814','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=273814"><span>Comparison of spot esculin hydrolysis with the Patho<span class="hlt">Tec</span> strip test for rapid differentiation of anaerobic bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Qadri, S M; Johnson, S; Smith, J C; Zubairi, S; Gillum, R L</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The ability of several anaerobic bacteria to hydrolyze esculin to esculetin is used by clinical microbiologists and taxonomists in the differentiation and identification of both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Conventional methods used for determining esculin hydrolysis by anaerobic bacteria require 24 to 48 h for completion. In this paper we evaluate two procedures which yield rapid results. A total of 738 anaerobic bacteria were used in this study. A total of 99% of the esculin-hydrolyzing anaerobic bacteria gave positive results with the spot test in 1 h, whereas the other test method, the Patho<span class="hlt">Tec</span> strip test (General Diagnostics, Morris Plains, N.J.), required 4 h for 96% of the strains tested to yield positive reactions. Both tests showed a 100% specificity when compared with the standard broth test and are easy to perform, accurate, and economical. The spot test is superior to the Patho<span class="hlt">Tec</span> strip test in yielding results more rapidly. PMID:7016896</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMSA43A2645Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AGUFMSA43A2645Y"><span>Juno Radio Science Observations and Gravity Science Calibrations of Plasma Electron <span class="hlt">Content</span> in Io Plasma Torus</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Y. M.; Buccino, D.; Folkner, W. M.; Oudrhiri, K.; Phipps, P. H.; Parisi, M.; Kahan, D. S.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>Interplanetary and Earth ionosphere plasma electrons can have significant impacts on radio frequency signal propagation such as telecommunication between spacecraft and the Deep Space Network (DSN). On 27 August 2016, the first closest approach of The Juno spacecraft (Perijove 1) provided an opportunity to observe plasma electrons inside of the Io plasma torus using radio science measurements from Juno. Here, we report on the <span class="hlt">derivations</span> of plasma electron <span class="hlt">content</span> in the Io plasma torus by using two-way coherent radio science measurements made from Juno's Gravity Science Instrument and the Deep Space Network. During Perijove 1, Juno spacecraft passed through the inner region (perijove altitude of 1.06 Jovian Radii) between Jupiter and the Io plasma torus. Significant plasma electron variations of up to 30 <span class="hlt">TEC</span> units were observed while the radio link between Juno and the DSN traveled through the Io plasma torus. In this research, we compare observations made by open-loop and closed-loop processes using different frequency radio signals, corresponding Io plasma torus model simulations, and other Earth ionosphere observations. The results of three-dimensional Io plasma model simulations are consistent with observations with some discrepancies. Results are shown to improve our understanding of the Io plasma torus effect on Juno gravity science measurements and its calibrations to reduce the corresponding (non-gravity field induced) radio frequency shift.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..474A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18..474A"><span>Seasonal features of the quasi-biennial variations of the NO2 stratospheric <span class="hlt">content</span> <span class="hlt">derived</span> from results of ground-based measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aheyeva, Viktoryia; Gruzdev, Aleksandr N.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>According to the results of ground-based spectrometric measurements of the stratospheric column NO2 <span class="hlt">contents</span> (SC NO2) within the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), satellite measurements of total ozone (TO) and ERA-Interim reanalysis data of temperature, seasonal and latitudinal distributions of the amplitudes of the quasi-biennial variations of these quantities are obtained. The dependence of the diurnal cycle in the SC NO2 on the phase of quasi-biennial oscillation in the equatorial stratospheric wind (QBO) is revealed. The QBO effects in the SC NO2, TO, and stratospheric temperature in the northern (NH) and southern (SH) hemispheres are most significant during the winter-spring periods. Furthermore they exhibit an essential inter-hemispheric asymmetry. The SC NO2 in the Antarctic for the west QBO phase is less than that for the east phase, and the quasi-biennial variations of the SC NO2 in the SH middle latitudes are opposite to the variations in the Antarctic. In the NH, the winter values of the SC NO2 are generally less during the west QBO phase than during the east phase, whereas in spring, on the contrary, the NO2 values for the west QBO phase exceed those for the east phase. Along with SC NO2, the features of the quasi-biennial variations of TO and stratospheric temperature are discussed. Possible mechanisms of the quasi-biennial variations of the analyzed parameters are considered for the different latitudinal zones.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AnGeo..27.1803D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AnGeo..27.1803D"><span>Large enhancements in low latitude total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> during 15 May 2005 geomagnetic storm in Indian zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dashora, N.; Sharma, S.; Dabas, R. S.; Alex, S.; Pandey, R.</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Results pertaining to the response of the equatorial and low latitude ionosphere to a major geomagnetic storm that occurred on 15 May 2005 are presented. These results are also the first from the Indian zone in terms of (i) GPS <span class="hlt">derived</span> total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) variations following the storm (ii) Local low latitude electrodynamics response to penetration of high latitude convection electric field (iii) effect of storm induced traveling atmospheric disturbances (TAD's) on GPS-<span class="hlt">TEC</span> in equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) zone. Data set comprising of ionospheric <span class="hlt">TEC</span> obtained from GPS measurements, ionograms from an EIA zone station, New Delhi (Geog. Lat. 28.42° N, Geog. Long. 77.21° E), ground based magnetometers in equatorial and low latitude stations and solar wind data obtained from Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) has been used in the present study. GPS receivers located at Udaipur (Geog. Lat. 24.73° N, Geog. Long. 73.73° E) and Hyderabad (Geog. Lat. 17.33° N, Geog. Long. 78.47° E) have been used for wider spatial coverage in the Indian zone. Storm induced features in vertical <span class="hlt">TEC</span> (VTEC) have been obtained comparing them with the mean VTEC of quiet days. Variations in solar wind parameters, as obtained from ACE and in the SYM-H index, indicate that the storm commenced on 15 May 2005 at 02:39 UT. The main phase of the storm commenced at 06:00 UT on 15 May with a sudden southward turning of the Z-component of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF-Bz) and subsequent decrease in SYM-H index. The dawn-to-dusk convection electric field of high latitude origin penetrated to low and equatorial latitudes simultaneously as corroborated by the magnetometer data from the Indian zone. Subsequent northward turning of the IMF-Bz, and the penetration of the dusk-to-dawn electric field over the dip equator is also discernible. Response of the low latitude ionosphere to this storm may be characterized in terms of (i) enhanced background level of VTEC as compared to the mean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29782920','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29782920"><span>Whole lesion histogram analysis of meningiomas <span class="hlt">derived</span> from ADC values. Correlation with several cellularity parameters, proliferation index KI 67, nucleic <span class="hlt">content</span>, and membrane permeability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Surov, Alexey; Hamerla, Gordian; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Winter, Karsten; Schob, Stefan; Fiedler, Eckhard</p> <p>2018-09-01</p> <p>To analyze several histopathological features and their possible correlations with whole lesion histogram analysis <span class="hlt">derived</span> from ADC maps in meningioma. The retrospective study involved 36 patients with primary meningiomas. For every tumor, the following histogram analysis parameters of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated: ADC mean , ADC max , ADC min , ADC median , ADC mode , ADC percentiles: P10, P25, P75, P90, as well kurtosis, skewness, and entropy. All measures were performed by two radiologists. Proliferation index KI 67, minimal, maximal and mean cell count, total nucleic area, and expression of water channel aquaporin 4 (AQP4) were estimated. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze associations between investigated parameters. A perfect interobserver agreement for all ADC values (0.84-0.97) was identified. All ADC values correlated inversely with tumor cellularity with the strongest correlation between P10, P25 and mean cell count (-0.558). KI 67 correlated inversely with all ADC values except ADC min . ADC parameters did not correlate with total nucleic area. All ADC values correlated statistically significant with expression of AQP4. ADC histogram analysis is a valid method with an excellent interobserver agreement. Cellularity parameters and proliferation potential are associated with different ADC values. Membrane permeability may play a greater role for water diffusion than cell count and proliferation activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MNRAS.415.3831A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011MNRAS.415.3831A"><span>Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> millimetre survey of the COSMOS field - III. Source catalogue over 0.72 deg2 and plausible boosting by large-scale structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aretxaga, I.; Wilson, G. W.; Aguilar, E.; Alberts, S.; Scott, K. S.; Scoville, N.; Yun, M. S.; Austermann, J.; Downes, T. P.; Ezawa, H.; Hatsukade, B.; Hughes, D. H.; Kawabe, R.; Kohno, K.; Oshima, T.; Perera, T. A.; Tamura, Y.; Zeballos, M.</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>We present a 0.72 deg2 contiguous 1.1-mm survey in the central area of the Cosmological Evolution Survey field carried out to a 1σ≈ 1.26 mJy beam-1 depth with the Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> camera mounted on the 10-m Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment. We have uncovered 189 candidate sources at a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) ≥ 3.5, out of which 129, with S/N ≥ 4, can be considered to have little chance of being spurious (≲2 per cent). We present the number counts <span class="hlt">derived</span> with this survey, which show a significant excess of sources when compared to the number counts <span class="hlt">derived</span> from the ˜0.5 deg2 area sampled at similar depths in the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA) HAlf Degree Extragalactic Survey (SHADES). They are, however, consistent with those <span class="hlt">derived</span> from fields that were considered too small to characterize the overall blank-field population. We identify differences to be more significant in the S1.1mm≳ 5 mJy regime, and demonstrate that these excesses in number counts are related to the areas where galaxies at redshifts z≲ 1.1 are more densely clustered. The positions of optical-infrared galaxies in the redshift interval 0.6 ≲z≲ 0.75 are the ones that show the strongest correlation with the positions of the 1.1-mm bright population (S1.1mm≳ 5 mJy), a result which does not depend exclusively on the presence of rich clusters within the survey sampled area. The most likely explanation for the observed excess in number counts at 1.1-mm is galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-group lensing at moderate amplification levels, which increases in amplitude as one samples larger and larger flux densities. This effect should also be detectable in other high-redshift populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28914450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28914450"><span>Changes in composition and <span class="hlt">content</span> of food-<span class="hlt">derived</span> peptide in human blood after daily ingestion of collagen hydrolysate for 4 weeks.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shigemura, Yasutaka; Suzuki, Asahi; Kurokawa, Mihoko; Sato, Yoshio; Sato, Kenji</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>Daily ingestion of collagen hydrolysate for a long period improves skin and joint conditions. It has been speculated that the beneficial effects are exerted by food-<span class="hlt">derived</span> hydroxyproline (Hyp) peptides, which are detected in human blood after single ingestions. In the present study, to investigate the effect of long-term ingestion of collagen hydrolysate on Hyp peptides profile in blood, the concentrations of Hyp-peptides in human blood before and after daily ingestion for a long period were examined. Hyp-peptides increased to a maximum level at 1 h after ingestion and reverted to their initial levels within 24 h during experimental period. Pro-Gly and Hyp-peptides such as Pro-Hyp-Gly, Pro-Hyp, Ile-Hyp, Leu-Hyp, Hyp-Gly, Glu-Hyp and Ala-Hyp were identified in the blood after ingestion of collagen hydrolysate at 4.5 g day -1 for 4 weeks. For the whole period, Pro-Hyp was the leading compound. The compositional rate of Hyp-Gly showed a tendency to increase, while that of Pro-Hyp tended to decrease after daily ingestion. The present results indicate that daily ingestion of collagen hydrolysate for a long period can change compositional rate of Hyp peptides in human blood. This fact suggests that long-term ingestion of collagen hydrolysate might change exo- or endo-type protease activity in the digestive tract, which may consequently promote beneficial effects. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.A53C..09T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSM.A53C..09T"><span>Impact of the Combination of GNSS and Altimetry Data on the <span class="hlt">Derived</span> Global Ionosphere Maps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Todorova, S.; Schuh, H.; Hobiger, T.; Hernandez-Pajares, M.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The classical input data for development of Global Ionosphere Maps (GIM) of the Total Electron <span class="hlt">Content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) is the so called "geometry free linear combination", obtained from the dual-frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations. Such maps in general achieve good quality of the ionosphere representation. However, the GNSS stations are inhomogeneously distributed, with large gaps particularly over the sea surface, which lowers the precision of the GIM over these areas. On the other hand, the dual-frequency satellite altimetry missions such as Jason-1 and TOPEX/Poseidon provide information about the parameter of the ionosphere precisely above the sea surface, where the altimetry observations are preformed. Due to the limited spread of the measurements and some open issues related to systematic errors, the ionospheric data from satellite altimetry is used only for cross-validation of the GNSS GIM. It can be anticipated however, that some specifics of the ionosphere parameter <span class="hlt">derived</span> by satellite altimetry will partly balance the inhomogeneity of the GNSS data. Such important features are complementing in the global resolution, different biasing and the absence of additional mapping, as it is the case in GNSS. In this study we create two-hourly GIM from GNSS data and additionally introduce satellite altimetry observations, which help to compensate the insufficient GNSS coverage of the oceans. The combination of the data from around 180 GNSS stations and the satellite altimetry mission Jason-1 is performed on the normal equation level. The comparison between the integrated ionosphere models and the GNSS-only maps shows a higher accuracy of the combined GIM over the seas. A further effect of the combination is that the method allows the independent estimation of daily values of the Differential Code Biases (DCB) for all GNSS satellites and receivers, and of the systematic errors affecting the altimetry measurements. Such errors should include a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdSpR..60.1978P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdSpR..60.1978P"><span>Study of ionospheric precursors using GPS and GIM-<span class="hlt">TEC</span> data related to earthquakes occurred on 16 April and 24 September, 2013 in Pakistan region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pundhir, Devbrat; Singh, Birbal; Singh, O. P.; Gupta, Saral Kumar; Karia, S. P.; Pathak, K. N.</p> <p>2017-11-01</p> <p>In this paper, we have examined the diurnal variations of GPS-<span class="hlt">TEC</span> observed at two Indian stations of Agra (27.2°N, 78°E) and Surat (21.16°N, 72.78°E) and global ionospheric maps data (GIM-<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) for the months of April and September 2013 in search of ionospheric precursors of three major earthquakes (M > 6.5) that occurred in these months. The well-established quartile based statistical technique is adopted for the analysis of <span class="hlt">TEC</span> data. The results show two kinds of anomalies, one in which simultaneous enhancements in <span class="hlt">TEC</span> occurred in the three sets of data, 1-9 days and 3 days before the main shock in the two months respectively, and another in which anomalies occurred 15 days before in April, and 21 days before in September at Surat respectively. The depletions have also been found in three data sets but they are not significant. These anomalies are unlikely be influenced by geomagnetic parameters due to quiet magnetic conditions. The effect of also solar activity have also been considered and examined very precisely. The results are interpreted in terms of Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere coupling (LAIC) mechanisms available in the literature.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21344489-wide-field-imaging-survey-dust-continuum-emissions-lambda-mm-toward-chamaeleon-lupus-regions-aztec-aste','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21344489-wide-field-imaging-survey-dust-continuum-emissions-lambda-mm-toward-chamaeleon-lupus-regions-aztec-aste"><span>Wide-field Imaging Survey of Dust Continuum Emissions at lambda = 1.1 mm toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus Regions with Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> on ASTE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Momose, Munetake; Hiramatsu, Masaaki; Tsukagoshi, Takashi</p> <p>2009-08-05</p> <p>We carried out an imaging survey of dust continuum emissions toward the Chamaeleon and Lupus regions. Observations were made with the 144-element bolometer array camera Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> mounted on the 10-meter sub-millimeter telescope ASTE during 2007-2008. The preliminary results of disk search and the cloud structure of Lupus III are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5855746','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5855746"><span>Evaluation of an Internally Controlled Multiplex Tth Endonuclease Cleavage Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>-LAMP) Assay for the Detection of Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Clancy, Eoin; Cormican, Martin; Boo, Teck Wee; Cunney, Robert</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>Bacterial meningitis infection is a leading global health concern for which rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) offers an effective low-cost diagnostic approach; however, multiplex LAMP is difficult to achieve, limiting its application. We have developed novel real-time multiplex LAMP technology, <span class="hlt">TEC</span>-LAMP, using Tth endonuclease IV and a unique LAMP primer/probe. This study evaluates the analytical specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and clinical application of an internally controlled multiplex <span class="hlt">TEC</span>-LAMP assay for detection of leading bacterial meningitis pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae. Analytical specificities were established by testing 168 bacterial strains, and LODs were determined using Probit analysis. The <span class="hlt">TEC</span>-LAMP assay was 100% specific, with LODs for S. pneumoniae, N. meningitidis and H. influenzae of 39.5, 17.3 and 25.9 genome copies per reaction, respectively. Clinical performance was evaluated by testing 65 archived PCR-positive samples. Compared to singleplex real-time PCR, the multiplex <span class="hlt">TEC</span>-LAMP assay demonstrated diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 100%, respectively. This is the first report of a single-tube internally controlled multiplex LAMP assay for bacterial meningitis pathogen detection, and the first report of Tth endonuclease IV incorporation into nucleic acid amplification diagnostic technology. PMID:29425124</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=214443&keyword=reverse+AND+osmosis&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="https://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=214443&keyword=reverse+AND+osmosis&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>Removal of Inorganic, Microbial, and Particulate Contaminants from a Fresh Surface Water: Village Marine <span class="hlt">Tec</span>. Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier, Generation 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Village Marine <span class="hlt">Tec</span>. Generation 1 Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP) is a mobile skid-mounted system employing ultrafiltration (UF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to produce drinking water from a variety of different water quality sources. The UF components were evaluated to t...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29425124','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29425124"><span>Evaluation of an Internally Controlled Multiplex Tth Endonuclease Cleavage Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>-LAMP) Assay for the Detection of Bacterial Meningitis Pathogens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Higgins, Owen; Clancy, Eoin; Cormican, Martin; Boo, Teck Wee; Cunney, Robert; Smith, Terry J</p> <p>2018-02-09</p> <p>Bacterial meningitis infection is a leading global health concern for which rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) offers an effective low-cost diagnostic approach; however, multiplex LAMP is difficult to achieve, limiting its application. We have developed novel real-time multiplex LAMP technology, <span class="hlt">TEC</span>-LAMP, using Tth endonuclease IV and a unique LAMP primer/probe. This study evaluates the analytical specificity, limit of detection (LOD) and clinical application of an internally controlled multiplex <span class="hlt">TEC</span>-LAMP assay for detection of leading bacterial meningitis pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae , Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae . Analytical specificities were established by testing 168 bacterial strains, and LODs were determined using Probit analysis. The <span class="hlt">TEC</span>-LAMP assay was 100% specific, with LODs for S. pneumoniae , N. meningitidis and H. influenzae of 39.5, 17.3 and 25.9 genome copies per reaction, respectively. Clinical performance was evaluated by testing 65 archived PCR-positive samples. Compared to singleplex real-time PCR, the multiplex <span class="hlt">TEC</span>-LAMP assay demonstrated diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 92.3% and 100%, respectively. This is the first report of a single-tube internally controlled multiplex LAMP assay for bacterial meningitis pathogen detection, and the first report of Tth endonuclease IV incorporation into nucleic acid amplification diagnostic technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CG.....46..189L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012CG.....46..189L"><span>Ionospheric total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> anomalies due to Typhoon Nakri on 29 May 2008: A nonlinear principal component analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Jyh-Woei</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>This paper uses Nonlinear Principal Component Analysis (NLPCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to determine Total Electron <span class="hlt">Content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) anomalies in the ionosphere for the Nakri Typhoon on 29 May, 2008 (UTC). NLPCA, PCA and image processing are applied to the global ionospheric map (GIM) with transforms conducted for the time period 12:00-14:00 UT on 29 May 2008 when the wind was most intense. Results show that at a height of approximately 150-200 km the <span class="hlt">TEC</span> anomaly using NLPCA is more localized; however its intensity increases with height and becomes more widespread. The <span class="hlt">TEC</span> anomalies are not found by PCA. Potential causes of the results are discussed with emphasis given to vertical acoustic gravity waves. The approximate position of the typhoon's eye can be detected if the GIM is divided into fine enough maps with adequate spatial-resolution at GPS-<span class="hlt">TEC</span> receivers. This implies that the trace of the typhoon in the regional GIM is caught using NLPCA.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JASS...34..245C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JASS...34..245C"><span>GPS <span class="hlt">TEC</span> Fluctuations in the Low and High Latitudes During the 2015 St. Patrick`s Day Storm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chung, Jong-Kyun; Hong, Junseok; Yoo, Sung-Moon; Kim, Jeong-Han; Jee, Geonhwa; Hegai, Valery V.</p> <p>2017-12-01</p> <p>As a part of collaborative efforts to understand ionospheric irregularities, the Korea ionospheric scintillation sites (KISS) network has been built based on global positioning system (GPS) receivers with sampling rates higher than 1 Hz. We produce the rate of <span class="hlt">TEC</span> index (ROTI) to represent GPS <span class="hlt">TEC</span> fluctuations related to ionospheric irregularities. In the KISS network, two ground-based GPS sites at Kiruna (marker: KIRN; geographic: 67.9° N, 21.4° E; geomagnetic: 65.2° N) and Chuuk (marker: CHUK; geographic: 7.5° N, 151.9° E; geomagnetic: 0.4° N) were selected to evaluate the ROTI value for ionospheric irregularities during the occurrence of the 2015 St. Patrick’s Day storm. The KIRN ROTI values in the aurora region appear to be generally much higher than the CHUK ROTI values in the EIA region. The CHUK ROTI values increased to 0.5 TECU/min around UT=13:00 (LT=23:00) on March 16 in the quiet geomagnetic condition. On March 17, 2015, CHUK ROTI values more than 1.0 TECU/min were measured between UT=9:00 and 12:00 (LT=19:00 and 22:00) during the first main phase of the St. Patrick’s Day storm. This may be due to ionospheric irregularities by increased pre-reversal enhancement (PRE) after sunset during the geomagnetic storm. Post-midnight, the CHUK ROTI showed two peaks of 0.5 TECU/min and 0.3 TECU/min near UT=15:00 (LT=01:00) and UT=18:00 (LT=04:00) at the second main phase. The KIRN site showed significant peaks of ROTI around geomagnetic latitude=63.3° N and MLT=15:40 on the same day. These can be explained by enhanced ionospheric irregularities in the auroral oval at the maximum of AE index</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910016460&hterms=1575&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231575','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910016460&hterms=1575&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D30%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231575"><span>Precise measurement method for ionospheric total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> using signals from GPS satellites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Imae, Michito; Kiuchi, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Akihiro; Hama, Shinichi; Miki, Chihiro</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A GPS codeless receiver called GTR-2 was for measuring total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) along the line of sight to the GPS satellite by using the cross correlation amplitude of the received P-code signals carried by L1(1575.42 MHz) and L2(1227.6 MHz). This equipment has the performance of uncertainty in the measurement of <span class="hlt">TEC</span> of about 2 X 10(exp 16) electrons/sq m when a 10 dBi gain antenna was used. To increase the measurement performance, an upper version of GTR-2 called GTR-3 is planned which uses the phase information of the continuous signals obtained by making a cross correlation or multiplication of the received L1 and L2 P-code signals. By using the difference of these measured phases values, the ionospheric delay with the ambiguities of the periods of L1+L2 and L1-L2 signals can be estimated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6055L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.6055L"><span>A statistical study on seismo-ionospheric precursors in the total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> of global ionosphere map associated with M×6.0 earthquakes in the West Pacific region during 1998-2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Jann-Yenq; Chen, Koichi; Tsai, Ho-Fang; Hattori, Katsumi; Le, Huijun</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>This paper reports statistical results of seismo-ionospheric precursors (SIPs) of the total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) in the global ionosphere map (GIM) over the epicenter of earthquakes with magnitude 6 and greater in China, Japan, and Taiwan during 1998-2012. To detect SIP, a quartile-based (i.e. median-based) process is performed. The earthquakes are sub-divided into various regions to have a better understanding on SIP characteristics, as well as examined with and without being led by magnetic storms to confirm the SIP existence. Results show that the SIPs mainly are the <span class="hlt">TEC</span> significant increase in Japan, and decrease in Taiwan and China, respectively, which suggests the latitudinal effect playing an important role. Meanwhile, for a practical application of monitoring SIPs, the GIM <span class="hlt">TEC</span> at a fixed point is tested. Results show that multi monitoring points and/or a spatial observation are required to enhance the SIP detection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.196B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016cosp...41E.196B"><span>Ionospheric response to the 17-18 March 2015 geomagnetic storm as seen from multiple <span class="hlt">TEC</span> and NmF2 measurements along 100°E</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bhuyan, Pradip; Yokoyama, Tatsuhiro; Kalita, Bitap Raj; Seemala, G. K.; Hazarika, Rumajyoti; Komolmis, Tharadol; Yatini, Clara; Chakrabarty, Dibyendu; Supnithi, Pornchai</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The response of the ionosphere along 100°E to the strong geomagnetic storm of 17-18 March 2015 has been investigated combining <span class="hlt">TEC</span> and NmF2 data from multiple stations spanning low latitudes in the northern and southern hemispheres to the equator. The GPS <span class="hlt">TEC</span> data measured over Dibrugarh (27.4°N, 95°E), Kohima (25.6°N, 94.1°E) and Ahmedabad (23.0°N, 72.5°E) and NmF2 measured along a chain of ionosonde stations Dibrugarh (27.5°N, 95°E), Chiang Mai (18.76ºN, 98.93ºE), Chumphon (10.72ºN,99.37ºE), Kototabang (0.2ºS,100.32ºE) and Cocos Island (12.2ºS,96.8ºE ) were used to examine the signature of the storm around the low-mid latitude ionosphere in this sector. Nearly similar <span class="hlt">TEC</span> variation has been observed over Dibrugarh and Kohima located at the northern edge of the EIA. The maximum <span class="hlt">TEC</span> on 18 March over Dibrugarh and Kohima was reduced by more than ~80 TECU compared to that on the geomagnetically quiet day of 16 March 2015. In contrast to the substantial reduction in <span class="hlt">TEC</span> over ~100°E <span class="hlt">TEC</span> from the ~75°E longitude station Ahmedabad showed insignificant variations on the same day. Strong reduction in NmF2 at the crest of the anomaly in both northern and southern hemisphere (Dibrugarh, Ching Mai and Cocos Island) and enhancement near the equator (Cumphon and Kototbang) has been observed. The O/N2 ratio as obtained from the TIMED/GUVI reduced substantially along 100°E on 18 March compared to other longitude sectors. Equatorward meridional winds depleted the ionization at the crest region and enhanced the same near the equator. No L band scintillation was observed in the evening of 17 March at Dibrugarh and Kohima indicating absence of F region irregularity along this longitude while strong scintillations were observed at 75°E. The reversal of the IMF Bz from southward to northward direction in the dusk to evening sector inhibited the growth of the irregularity due to reversal of the PPEF at 100°E while the PPEF favoured generation and growth of Spread F</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017A%26A...597A...4S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017A%26A...597A...4S"><span>(Sub)millimetre interferometric imaging of a sample of COSMOS/Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> submillimetre galaxies. III. Environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smolčić, V.; Miettinen, O.; Tomičić, N.; Zamorani, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Lemaux, B. C.; Aravena, M.; Capak, P.; Chiang, Y.-K.; Civano, F.; Delvecchio, I.; Ilbert, O.; Jurlin, N.; Karim, A.; Laigle, C.; Le Fèvre, O.; Marchesi, S.; McCracken, H. J.; Riechers, D. A.; Salvato, M.; Schinnerer, E.; Tasca, L.; Toft, S.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>We investigate the environment of 23 submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) drawn from a signal-to-noise (S/N)-limited sample of SMGs originally discovered in the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT)/Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> 1.1 mm continuum survey of a Cosmic Evolution Survey (COSMOS) subfield and then followed up with the Submillimetre Array and Plateau de Bure Interferometer at 890 μm and 1.3 mm, respectively. These SMGs already have well-defined multiwavelength counterparts and redshifts. We also analyse the environments of four COSMOS SMGs spectroscopically confirmed to lie at redshifts zspec > 4.5, and one at zspec = 2.49 resulting in a total SMG sample size of 28. We search for overdensities using the COSMOS photometric redshifts based on over 30 UV-NIR photometric measurements including the new UltraVISTA data release 2 and Spitzer/SPLASH data, and reaching an accuracy of σΔz/ (1 + z) = 0.0067 (0.0155) at z < 3.5 (>3.5). To identify overdensities we apply the Voronoi tessellation analysis, and estimate the redshift-space overdensity estimator δg as a function of distance from the SMG and/or overdensity centre. We test and validate our approach via simulations, X-ray detected groups or clusters, and spectroscopic verifications using VUDS and zCOSMOS catalogues which show that even with photometric redshifts in the COSMOS field we can efficiently retrieve overdensities out to z ≈ 5. Our results yield that 11 out of 23 (48%) JCMT/Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> 1.1 mm SMGs occupy overdense environments. Considering the entire JCMT/Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> 1.1 mm S/N ≥ 4 sample and taking the expected fraction of spurious detections into account, this means that 35-61% of the SMGs in the S/N-limited sample occupy overdense environments. We perform an X-ray stacking analysis in the 0.5-2 keV band using a 32″ aperture and our SMG positions, and find statistically significant detections. For our z < 2 subsample we find an average flux of (4.0 ± 0.8) × 10-16 erg s-1 cm-2 and a corresponding total mass of M200 = 2.8 × 1013M</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21452831-massive-molecular-gas-reservoir-submillimeter-galaxy-aztec','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/biblio/21452831-massive-molecular-gas-reservoir-submillimeter-galaxy-aztec"><span>A MASSIVE MOLECULAR GAS RESERVOIR IN THE z = 5.3 SUBMILLIMETER GALAXY Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span>-3</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Riechers, Dominik A.; Scoville, Nicholas Z.; Capak, Peter L.</p> <p>2010-09-10</p> <p>We report the detection of CO J = 2{yields}1, 5{yields}4, and 6{yields}5 emission in the highest-redshift submillimeter galaxy (SMG) Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span>-3 at z = 5.298, using the Expanded Very Large Array and the Plateau de Bure Interferometer. These observations ultimately confirm the redshift, making Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span>-3 the most submillimeter-luminous galaxy in a massive z {approx_equal} 5.3 protocluster structure in the COSMOS field. The strength of the CO line emission reveals a large molecular gas reservoir with a mass of 5.3 x 10{sup 10}({alpha}{sub CO}/0.8) M {sub sun}, which can maintain the intense 1800 M {sub sun} yr{sup -1} starburst in this systemmore » for at least 30 Myr, increasing the stellar mass by up to a factor of six in the process. This gas mass is comparable to 'typical' z {approx} 2 SMGs and constitutes {approx_gt}80% of the baryonic mass (gas+stars) and 30%-80% of the total (dynamical) mass in this galaxy. The molecular gas reservoir has a radius of <4 kpc and likely consists of a 'diffuse', low-excitation component, containing (at least) 1/3 of the gas mass (depending on the relative conversion factor {alpha}{sub CO}), and a 'dense', high-excitation component, containing {approx}2/3 of the mass. The likely presence of a substantial diffuse component besides highly excited gas suggests different properties between the star-forming environments in z > 4 SMGs and z > 4 quasar host galaxies, which perhaps trace different evolutionary stages. The discovery of a massive, metal-enriched gas reservoir in an SMG at the heart of a large z = 5.3 protocluster considerably enhances our understanding of early massive galaxy formation, pushing back to a cosmic epoch where the universe was less than 1/12 of its present age.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AdSpR..61.1193S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AdSpR..61.1193S"><span>Hierarchical Bayesian modeling of ionospheric <span class="hlt">TEC</span> disturbances as non-stationary processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seid, Abdu Mohammed; Berhane, Tesfahun; Roininen, Lassi; Nigussie, Melessew</p> <p>2018-03-01</p> <p>We model regular and irregular variation of ionospheric total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> as stationary and non-stationary processes, respectively. We apply the method developed to SCINDA GPS data set observed at Bahir Dar, Ethiopia (11.6 °N, 37.4 °E) . We use hierarchical Bayesian inversion with Gaussian Markov random process priors, and we model the prior parameters in the hyperprior. We use Matérn priors via stochastic partial differential equations, and use scaled Inv -χ2 hyperpriors for the hyperparameters. For drawing posterior estimates, we use Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods: Gibbs sampling and Metropolis-within-Gibbs for parameter and hyperparameter estimations, respectively. This allows us to quantify model parameter estimation uncertainties as well. We demonstrate the applicability of the method proposed using a synthetic test case. Finally, we apply the method to real GPS data set, which we decompose to regular and irregular variation components. The result shows that the approach can be used as an accurate ionospheric disturbance characterization technique that quantifies the total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> variability with corresponding error uncertainties.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018InJPh..92..819P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018InJPh..92..819P"><span>Growth of L-band scintillation at anomaly crest station in association with strong <span class="hlt">TEC</span> gradient: A study covering wide solar activity period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pathak, K.; Devi, M.; Barbara, A. K.; Zahan, Y.</p> <p>2018-07-01</p> <p>The paper aims at to study the sources associated with growth of L band scintillation over Guwahati, an Appleton anomaly region. Starting with the analysis of diurnal and seasonal characteristic features of scintillation from a minimum sunspot number (Rz) of 10 to a maximum of 140, the paper shows that scintillations are more likely to develop during high solar activity period. It also highlights the explosive increase in occurrence of scintillation from post sunset to pre midnight hours in vernal equinoctial months when the background <span class="hlt">TEC</span> is 50% more than on a normal day, accompanied by enhanced <span class="hlt">TEC</span> decay rate. The role of equatorial anomaly effects through EXB drift processes are brought into discussion as possible sources on the growth of small scale irregularities leading to such scintillations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018InJPh.tmp....4P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018InJPh.tmp....4P"><span>Growth of L-band scintillation at anomaly crest station in association with strong <span class="hlt">TEC</span> gradient: A study covering wide solar activity period</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pathak, K.; Devi, M.; Barbara, A. K.; Zahan, Y.</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>The paper aims at to study the sources associated with growth of L band scintillation over Guwahati, an Appleton anomaly region. Starting with the analysis of diurnal and seasonal characteristic features of scintillation from a minimum sunspot number (Rz) of 10 to a maximum of 140, the paper shows that scintillations are more likely to develop during high solar activity period. It also highlights the explosive increase in occurrence of scintillation from post sunset to pre midnight hours in vernal equinoctial months when the background <span class="hlt">TEC</span> is 50% more than on a normal day, accompanied by enhanced <span class="hlt">TEC</span> decay rate. The role of equatorial anomaly effects through EXB drift processes are brought into discussion as possible sources on the growth of small scale irregularities leading to such scintillations.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhyA..497..236O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018PhyA..497..236O"><span>Tsallis non-extensive statistical mechanics in the ionospheric detrended total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> during quiet and storm periods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ogunsua, B. O.; Laoye, J. A.</p> <p>2018-05-01</p> <p>In this paper, the Tsallis non-extensive q-statistics in ionospheric dynamics was investigated using the total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) obtained from two Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver stations. This investigation was carried out considering the geomagnetically quiet and storm periods. The micro density variation of the ionospheric total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> was extracted from the <span class="hlt">TEC</span> data by method of detrending. The detrended total electron <span class="hlt">content</span>, which represent the variation in the internal dynamics of the system was further analyzed using for non-extensive statistical mechanics using the q-Gaussian methods. Our results reveals that for all the analyzed data sets the Tsallis Gaussian probability distribution (q-Gaussian) with value q > 1 were obtained. It was observed that there is no distinct difference in pattern between the values of qquiet and qstorm. However the values of q varies with geophysical conditions and possibly with local dynamics for the two stations. Also observed are the asymmetric pattern of the q-Gaussian and a highly significant level of correlation for the q-index values obtained for the storm periods compared to the quiet periods between the two GPS receiver stations where the <span class="hlt">TEC</span> was measured. The factors responsible for this variation can be mostly attributed to the varying mechanisms resulting in the self-reorganization of the system dynamics during the storm periods. The result shows the existence of long range correlation for both quiet and storm periods for the two stations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007atnf.prop..911W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007atnf.prop..911W"><span>Observing the Birth and evolution of Galaxies - the ATCA-AKARI-ASTE/Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> deep South Ecliptic Pole Field</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>White, Glenn; Kohno, Kotaro; Matsuhara, Hideo; Matsuura, Shuji; Hanami, Hitoshi; Lee, Hyung Mok; Pearson, Chris; Takagi, Toshi; Serjeant, Stephen; Jeong, Woongseob; Oyabu, Shinki; Shirahata, Mai; Nakanishi, Kouichiro; Figueredo, Elysandra; Etxaluze, Mireya</p> <p>2007-04-01</p> <p>We propose deep 20 cm observations supporting the AKARI (3-160 micron)/ASTE/Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> (1.1 mm) SEP ultra deep ('Oyabu Field') survey of an extremely low cirrus region at the South Ecliptic Pole. Our combined IR/mm/Radio survey addresses the questions: How do protogalaxies and protospheroids form and evolve? How do AGN link with ULIRGs in their birth and evolution? What is the nature of the mm/submm extragalactic source population? We will address these by sampling the star formation history in the early universe to at least z~2. Compared to other Deep Surveys, a) AKARI multi-band IR measurements allow precision photo-z estimates of optically obscured objects, b) our multi-waveband contiguous area will mitigate effects of cosmic variance, c) the low cirrus noise at the SEP (< 0.08 MJy/sr) rivals that of the Lockman Hole "Astronomy's other ultra-deep 'cosmological window'", and d) our coverage of four FIR bands will characterise the far-IR dust emission hump of our starburst galaxies better than SPITZER's two MIPS bands allow. The ATCA data are crucial to galaxy identification, and determining the star formation rates and intrinsic luminosities through this unique Southern cosmological window.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MNRAS.393.1573A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009MNRAS.393.1573A"><span>Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> Millimetre Survey of the COSMOS field - II. Source count overdensity and correlations with large-scale structure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Austermann, J. E.; Aretxaga, I.; Hughes, D. H.; Kang, Y.; Kim, S.; Lowenthal, J. D.; Perera, T. A.; Sanders, D. B.; Scott, K. S.; Scoville, N.; Wilson, G. W.; Yun, M. S.</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>We report an overdensity of bright submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the 0.15 deg2 Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span>/COSMOS survey and a spatial correlation between the SMGs and the optical-IR galaxy density at z <~ 1.1. This portion of the COSMOS field shows a ~3σ overdensity of robust SMG detections when compared to a background, or `blank-field', population model that is consistent with SMG surveys of fields with no extragalactic bias. The SMG overdensity is most significant in the number of very bright detections (14 sources with measured fluxes S1.1mm > 6 mJy), which is entirely incompatible with sample variance within our adopted blank-field number densities and infers an overdensity significance of >> 4σ. We find that the overdensity and spatial correlation to optical-IR galaxy density are most consistent with lensing of a background SMG population by foreground mass structures along the line of sight, rather than physical association of the SMGs with the z <~ 1.1 galaxies/clusters. The SMG positions are only weakly correlated with weak-lensing maps, suggesting that the dominant sources of correlation are individual galaxies and the more tenuous structures in the survey region, and not the massive and compact clusters. These results highlight the important roles cosmic variance and large-scale structure can play in the study of SMGs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AAS...23145104T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018AAS...23145104T"><span>Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> Survey of the Central Molecular Zone: Modeling Dust SEDs and N-PDF with Hierarchical Bayesian Analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tang, Yuping; Wang, Daniel; Wilson, Grant; Gutermuth, Robert; Heyer, Mark</p> <p>2018-01-01</p> <p>We present the Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span>/LMT survey of dust continuum at 1.1mm on the central ˜ 200pc (CMZ) of our Galaxy. A joint SED analysis of all existing dust continuum surveys on the CMZ is performed, from 160µm to 1.1mm. Our analysis follows a MCMC sampling strategy incorporating the knowledge of PSFs in different maps, which provides unprecedented spacial resolution on distributions of dust temperature, column density and emissivity index. The dense clumps in the CMZ typically show low dust temperature ( 20K), with no significant sign of buried star formation, and a weak evolution of higher emissivity index toward dense peak. A new model is proposed, allowing for varying dust temperature inside a cloud and self-shielding of dust emission, which leads to similar conclusions on dust temperature and grain properties. We further apply a hierarchical Bayesian analysis to infer the column density probability distribution function (N-PDF), while simultaneously removing the Galactic foreground and background emission. The N-PDF shows a steep power-law profile with α > 3, indicating that formation of dense structures are suppressed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18270417','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18270417"><span>Preparation, certification and validation of a stable solid spike of uranium and plutonium coated with a cellulose <span class="hlt">derivative</span> for the measurement of uranium and plutonium <span class="hlt">content</span> in dissolved nuclear fuel by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Surugaya, Naoki; Hiyama, Toshiaki; Verbruggen, André; Wellum, Roger</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>A stable solid spike for the measurement of uranium and plutonium <span class="hlt">content</span> in nitric acid solutions of spent nuclear fuel by isotope dilution mass spectrometry has been prepared at the European Commission Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements in Belgium. The spike contains about 50 mg of uranium with a 19.838% (235)U enrichment and 2 mg of plutonium with a 97.766% (239)Pu abundance in each individual ampoule. The dried materials were covered with a thin film of cellulose acetate butyrate as a protective organic stabilizer to resist shocks encountered during transportation and to eliminate flaking-off during long-term storage. It was found that the cellulose acetate butyrate has good characteristics, maintaining a thin film for a long time, but readily dissolving on heating with nitric acid solution. The solid spike containing cellulose acetate butyrate was certified as a reference material with certified quantities: (235)U and (239)Pu amounts and uranium and plutonium amount ratios, and was validated by analyzing spent fuel dissolver solutions of the Tokai reprocessing plant in Japan. This paper describes the preparation, certification and validation of the solid spike coated with a cellulose <span class="hlt">derivative</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdSpR..59.1984M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AdSpR..59.1984M"><span>GPS receiver CODE bias estimation: A comparison of two methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCaffrey, Anthony M.; Jayachandran, P. T.; Themens, D. R.; Langley, R. B.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a valuable tool in the measurement and monitoring of ionospheric total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>). To obtain accurate GPS-<span class="hlt">derived</span> <span class="hlt">TEC</span>, satellite and receiver hardware biases, known as differential code biases (DCBs), must be estimated and removed. The Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) provides monthly averages of receiver DCBs for a significant number of stations in the International Global Navigation Satellite Systems Service (IGS) network. A comparison of the monthly receiver DCBs provided by CODE with DCBs estimated using the minimization of standard deviations (MSD) method on both daily and monthly time intervals, is presented. Calibrated <span class="hlt">TEC</span> obtained using CODE-<span class="hlt">derived</span> DCBs, is accurate to within 0.74 <span class="hlt">TEC</span> units (TECU) in differenced slant <span class="hlt">TEC</span> (s<span class="hlt">TEC</span>), while calibrated s<span class="hlt">TEC</span> using MSD-<span class="hlt">derived</span> DCBs results in an accuracy of 1.48 TECU.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10630363T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10630363T"><span>Seasonal variations of the ionospheric total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> in Asian equatorial anomaly regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsai, Ho-Fang; Liu, Jann-Yenq; Tsai, Wei-Hsiung; Liu, Chao-Han; Tseng, Ching-Liang; Wu, Chin-Chun</p> <p>2001-12-01</p> <p>The ionospheric total electron <span class="hlt">contents</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) in both northern and southern equatorial anomaly regions are examined by using the Global Positioning System (GPS) in Asian area. The <span class="hlt">TEC</span> contour charts obtained at YMSM (25.2°N, 121.6°E 14.0°N geomagnetic) and DGAR (7.3°S, 72.4°E 16.2°S geomagnetic) stations in 1997, solar minimum, are investigated. It is found that the ionospheric crests manifest remarkable seasonal variations. The <span class="hlt">TEC</span> values on both northern and southern equatorial anomaly crests yield their maximum values during the vernal and autumnal months, but the winter anomaly does not appear in the southern region. Results show that both crests are fully developed around midday in winter, postnoon in equinoxes and late afternoon in summer, and the two crests move significantly equatorward in winter but slightly poleward in summer and autumn. These phenomena can be fully explained by a combined theory of the transequatorial neutral wind, the subsolar point, and the auroral equatorward wind.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3059S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3059S"><span>Comparison of IRI-Plas and IONOLAB Slant Total Electron <span class="hlt">Content</span> for Disturbed Days of Ionosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shukurov, Seymur; Gulyaeva, Tamara; Arikan, Feza; Necat Deviren, M.; Tuna, Hakan; Arikan, Orhan</p> <p></p> <p>Variabilities due to geomagnetic, and seismic activities in ionosphere can be observed by using Total Electron <span class="hlt">Content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>). <span class="hlt">TEC</span> estimated on a path between a dual-frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and a GPS satellite at a given date and time is called Slant <span class="hlt">TEC</span> (STEC). STEC contains the variability of ionosphere on a given path, therefore it is a useful variable to identify the anisotropicity. IONOLAB group has developed a novel method for STEC estimation (IONOLAB-STEC) from GPS phase delay recordings resolving the phase ambiguity and calculating IONOLAB-BIAS as receiver interfrequency bias. International Reference Ionosphere Extended to Plasmasphere (IRI-Plas) is the standard climatic model of ionosphere. IONOLAB group automatized the computation of STEC between a GPS satellite and receiver for a given date. In this study, IRI-Plas-STEC and IONOLAB-STEC are compared for geomagnetically active storm days and for the days prior to earthquakes over Turkey using Symmetric Kullback-Liebler Distance (SKLD). It is observed that IRI-Plas-STEC and IONOLAB-STEC are very similar for magnetically quiet days, and IRI-Plas-STEC provides a background ionosphere. This study is supported by the joint grant of TUBITAK 112E568 and RFBR 13-02-91370-CT_a.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JSWSC...8A..33T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2018JSWSC...8A..33T"><span>A new short-term forecasting model for the total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> storm time disturbances</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tsagouri, Ioanna; Koutroumbas, Konstantinos; Elias, Panagiotis</p> <p>2018-06-01</p> <p>This paper aims to introduce a new model for the short-term forecast of the vertical Total Electron <span class="hlt">Content</span> (v<span class="hlt">TEC</span>). The basic idea of the proposed model lies on the concept of the Solar Wind driven autoregressive model for Ionospheric short-term Forecast (SWIF). In its original version, the model is operationally implemented in the DIAS system (<ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="http://dias.space.noa.gr">http://dias.space.noa.gr</ext-link>) and provides alerts and warnings for upcoming ionospheric disturbances, as well as single site and regional forecasts of the foF2 critical frequency over Europe up to 24 h in advance. The forecasts are driven by the real time assessment of the solar wind conditions at ACE location. The comparative analysis of the variations in foF2 and v<span class="hlt">TEC</span> during eleven geomagnetic storm events that occurred in the present solar cycle 24 reveals similarities but also differences in the storm-time response of the two characteristics with respect to the local time and the latitude of the observation point. Since the aforementioned dependences drive the storm-time forecasts of the SWIF model, the results obtained here support the upgrade of the SWIF's modeling technique in forecasting the storm-time v<span class="hlt">TEC</span> variation from its onset to full development and recovery. According to the proposed approach, the v<span class="hlt">TEC</span> storm-time response can be forecasted from 1 to 12-13 h before its onset, depending on the local time of the observation point at storm onset at L1. Preliminary results on the assessment of the performance of the proposed model and further considerations on its potential implementation in operational mode are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27471620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27471620"><span>A <span class="hlt">Tec</span> kinase BTK inhibitor ibrutinib promotes maturation and activation of dendritic cells.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Natarajan, Gayathri; Oghumu, Steve; Terrazas, Cesar; Varikuti, Sanjay; Byrd, John C; Satoskar, Abhay R</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Ibrutinib, a BTK inhibitor, is currently used to treat various hematological malignancies. We evaluated whether ibrutinib treatment during development of murine bone marrow-<span class="hlt">derived</span> dendritic cells (DCs) modulates their maturation and activation. Ibrutinib treatment increased the proportion of CD11c(+) DCs, upregulated the expression of MHC-II and CD80 and downregulated Ly6C expression by DCs. Additionally, ibrutinib treatment led to an increase in MHC-II(+), CD80(+) and CCR7(+) DCs but a decrease in CD86(+) DCs upon LPS stimulation. LPS/ibrutinib-treated DCs displayed increased IFNβ and IL-10 synthesis and decreased IL-6, IL-12 and NO production compared to DCs stimulated with LPS alone. Finally, LPS/ibrutinib-treated DCs promoted higher rates of CD4(+) T cell proliferation and cytokine production compared to LPS only stimulated DCs. Taken together, our results indicate that ibrutinib enhances the maturation and activation of DCs to promote CD4(+) T cell activation which could be exploited for the development of DC-based cancer therapies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH31A3846R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMNH31A3846R"><span>Seismo-Ionospheric Coupling as Intensified EIA Observed by Satellite Electron Density and GPS-<span class="hlt">TEC</span> Data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ryu, K.; Jangsoo, C.; Kim, S. G.; Jeong, K. S.; Parrot, M.; Pulinets, S. A.; Oyama, K. I.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Examples of intensified EIA features temporally and spatially related to large earthquakes observed by satellites and GPS-<span class="hlt">TEC</span> are introduced. The precursory, concurrent, and ex-post enhancements of EIA represented by the equatorial electron density, which are thought to be related to the M8.7 Northern Sumatra earthquake of March 2005, the M8.0 Pisco earthquake of August 2007, and the M7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake of 12 May 2008, are shown with space weather condition. Based on the case studies, statistical analysis on the ionospheric electron density data measured by the Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions satellite (DEMETER) over a period of 2005-2010 was executed in order to investigate the correlation between seismic activity and equatorial plasma density variations. To simplify the analysis, three equatorial regions with frequent earthquakes were selected and then one-dimensional time series analysis between the daily seismic activity indices and the EIA intensity indices were performed for each region with excluding the possible effects from the geomagnetic and solar activity. The statistically significant values of the lagged cross-correlation function, particularly in the region with minimal effects of longitudinal asymmetry, indicate that some of the very large earthquakes with M > 7.0 in the low latitude region can accompany observable seismo-ionospheric coupling phenomena in the form of EIA enhancements, even though the seismic activity is not the most significant driver of the equatorial ionospheric evolution. The physical mechanisms of the seismo-ionospheric coupling to explain the observation and the possibility of earthquake prediction using the EIA intensity variation are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGeod..89..331L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGeod..89..331L"><span>SHPTS: towards a new method for generating precise global ionospheric <span class="hlt">TEC</span> map based on spherical harmonic and generalized trigonometric series functions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Zishen; Yuan, Yunbin; Wang, Ningbo; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel; Huo, Xingliang</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>To take maximum advantage of the increasing Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data to improve the accuracy and resolution of global ionospheric <span class="hlt">TEC</span> map (GIM), an approach, named Spherical Harmonic plus generalized Trigonometric Series functions (SHPTS), is proposed by integrating the spherical harmonic and the generalized trigonometric series functions on global and local scales, respectively. The SHPTS-based GIM from January 1st, 2001 to December 31st, 2011 (about one solar cycle) is validated by the ionospheric <span class="hlt">TEC</span> from raw global GPS data, the GIM released by the current Ionospheric Associate Analysis Center (IAAC), the TOPEX/Poseidon satellite and the DORIS. The present results show that the SHPTS-based GIM over the area where no real data are available has the same accuracy level (approximately 2-6 TECu) to that released by the current IAAC. However, the ionospheric <span class="hlt">TEC</span> in the SHPTS-based GIM over the area covered by real data is more accurate (approximately 1.5 TECu) than that of the GIM (approximately 3.0 TECu) released by the current IAAC. The external accuracy of the SHPTS-based GIM validated by the TOPEX/Poseidon and DORIS is approximately 2.5-5.5 and 1.5-4.5 TECu, respectively. In particular, the SHPTS-based GIM is the best or almost the best ranked, along with those of JPL and UPC, when they are compared with TOPEX/Poseidon measurements, and the best (in addition to UPC) when they are validated with DORIS data. With the increase in the number of GNSS satellites and contributing stations, the performance of the SHPTS-based GIM can be further improved. The SHPTS-based GIM routinely calculated using global GPS, GLONASS and BDS data will be found at the website http://www.gipp.org.cn.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29704381','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29704381"><span>Study on ABO and RhD blood grouping: Comparison between conventional tile method and a new solid phase method (In<span class="hlt">Tec</span> Blood Grouping Test Kit).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yousuf, R; Abdul Ghani, S A; Abdul Khalid, N; Leong, C F</p> <p>2018-04-01</p> <p>'In<span class="hlt">Tec</span> Blood Grouping Test kit' using solid-phase technology is a new method which may be used at outdoor blood donation site or at bed side as an alternative to the conventional tile method in view of its stability at room temperature and fulfilled the criteria as point of care test. This study aimed to compare the efficiency of this solid phase method (In<span class="hlt">Tec</span> Blood Grouping Test Kit) with the conventional tile method in determining the ABO and RhD blood group of healthy donors. A total of 760 voluntary donors who attended the Blood Bank, Penang Hospital or offsite blood donation campaigns from April to May 2014 were recruited. The ABO and RhD blood groups were determined by the conventional tile method and the solid phase method, in which the tube method was used as the gold standard. For ABO blood grouping, the tile method has shown 100% concordance results with the gold standard tube method, whereas the solid-phase method only showed concordance result for 754/760 samples (99.2%). Therefore, for ABO grouping, tile method has 100% sensitivity and specificity while the solid phase method has slightly lower sensitivity of 97.7% but both with good specificity of 100%. For RhD grouping, both the tile and solid phase methods have grouped one RhD positive specimen as negative each, thus giving the sensitivity and specificity of 99.9% and 100% for both methods respectively. The 'In<span class="hlt">Tec</span> Blood Grouping Test Kit' is suitable for offsite usage because of its simplicity and user friendliness. However, further improvement in adding the internal quality control may increase the test sensitivity and validity of the test results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24863572','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24863572"><span>Antibody responses induced by Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>®, an A2-based vaccine for visceral leishmaniasis, in a heterogeneous canine population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Testasicca, Miriam C de Souza; dos Santos, Mariana Silva; Machado, Leopoldo Marques; Serufo, Angela Vieira; Doro, Daniel; Avelar, Daniel; Tibúrcio, Ana Maria Leonardi; Abrantes, Christiane de Freitas; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Fernandes, Ana Paula</p> <p>2014-08-29</p> <p>Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a widespread disease, and dogs are the main reservoirs for human parasite transmission. Hence, development of an effective vaccine that prevents disease and reduces the transmission of VL is required. As euthanasia of seropositive dogs is recommended in Brazil for VL epidemiological control, to include anti-VL canine vaccines as a mass control measure it is necessary to characterize the humoral responses induced by vaccination and if they interfere with the reactivity of vaccinated dogs in serological diagnostic tests. Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>(®) is an amastigote-specific A2 recombinant protein vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) that is commercially available in Brazil. Here, we tested the immunogenicity of Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>(®) in a heterogeneous dog population by measuring A2-specific antibody responses. Healthy dogs (n=140) of various breeds were allocated to two groups: one group received Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>(®) (n=70), and the other group received a placebo (n=70). Anti-A2 or anti-Leishmania promastigote antigen (LPA) antibody levels were measured by ELISA in serum samples collected before and after vaccination. An immunochromatographic test (DPP) based on the recombinant K28 antigen was also used for serodiagnosis of CVL. Vaccinated animals, except one, remained seronegative for anti-LPA total IgG and anti-K28 antibodies. Conversely, seropositivity for anti-A2 total IgG antibodies was found in 98% of animals after vaccination. This value decreased to 81.13% at 6 months before rising again (98%), after the vaccination boost. Anti-A2 IgG2 and IgG1 titers were also increased in vaccinated animals relative to control animals. These data indicate that Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>(®) is immunogenic for dogs of different genetic backgrounds and that humoral responses induced by vaccination can be detected by A2-ELISA, but do not interfere with the LPA-ELISA and DPP diagnostic tests for CVL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26997002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26997002"><span>Field randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of the Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>® vaccine against canine visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic area of Brazil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Regina-Silva, Shara; Feres, Ana Maria Leonardi Tibúrcio; França-Silva, João Carlos; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Michalsky, Érika Monteiro; de Andrade, Hélida Monteiro; Coelho, Eduardo Antonio Ferraz; Ribeiro, Gustavo Meirelles; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Machado-Coelho, George Luiz Lins</p> <p>2016-04-27</p> <p>A canine vaccine remains a promising approach for effective control of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), given its complex epidemiology in areas where zoonotic VL is prevalent. Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>(®) is a recombinant vaccine, based on the Leishmania A2 antigen, against canine VL (CVL). It is, since 2014, the single commercial vaccine licensed in Brazil. Here, Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>(®) efficacy was estimated through a randomized field trial (RFT), in a highly VL endemic area. The RFT was conducted from 2008 to 2010 in an endemic area of southeastern Brazil, presenting a CVL seroprevalence of 41.9%. Eight hundred forty-seven seronegative dogs were randomly selected to receive Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>(®) (n=429) or placebo (n=418). Animals were followed up by clinical, serological, and parasitological exams for 18 months. The CVL incidence in both groups was compared through proportion analysis. A significant reduction in the number of cases of CVL was observed in the vaccine group, as compared with the placebo group, whether efficacy was estimated according to parasitological results (71.4%; 95% CI: 34.9-87.3%; p=0.001; risk ratio=0.287), by adding results of xenodiagnosis and parasitological exams (58.1%; 95% CI: 26.0-76.3%; p=0.002; risk ratio=0.419). Among the animals that converted to a positive anti-A2 serology, efficacy reached 80.8% (95% CI: 37.6-94.1%, p=0.001; risk ratio=0.192). Xenodiagnosis has detected a reduction of 46.6% (p=0.05) in transmission to sand flies from vaccinated animals presenting anti-A2 positive serology. The Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>(®) vaccine proved significantly effective for prophylaxis of CVL, after natural challenge assured by transmission of Leishmania parasites, in a highly endemic area. Noteworthy, this report has unveiled the complexity of performing a RFT for anti-CVL vaccines in Brazil, which may be helpful for designing of future studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23363830','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23363830"><span>Comparison of (1->3)-β-D-glucan, mannan/anti-mannan antibodies, and Cand-<span class="hlt">Tec</span> Candida antigen as serum biomarkers for candidemia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Held, Jürgen; Kohlberger, Isabelle; Rappold, Elfriede; Busse Grawitz, Andrea; Häcker, Georg</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We conducted a case-control study using the Fungitell assay, the novel Platelia Candida Antigen (Ag) Plus and Candida Antibody (Ab) Plus assays, and the Cand-<span class="hlt">Tec</span> latex agglutination test to evaluate the usefulness of (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BDG), mannan antigen with/without anti-mannan antibody, and Cand-<span class="hlt">Tec</span> Candida antigen measurement for the diagnosis of candidemia. A total of 56 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were enrolled. One hundred patients with bacteremia and 100 patients with sterile blood cultures served as negative controls. In the candidemia group, median (1→3)-β-D-glucan, mannan antigen, and anti-mannan antibody levels were 427 pg/ml, 190 pg/ml, and 18.6 antibody units (AU)/ml, respectively. All three parameters were significantly elevated in patients with candidemia. The sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 87.5% and 85.5% for (1→3)-β-D-glucan, 58.9% and 97.5% for mannan antigen, 62.5% and 65.0% for anti-mannan antibody, 89.3% and 63.0% for mannan antigen plus anti-mannan antibody, 89.3% and 85.0% for BDG plus mannan antigen, and 13.0% and 93.9% for Cand-<span class="hlt">Tec</span> Candida antigen. The low mannan antigen sensitivity was in part caused by Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii fungemias, which were not detected by the Platelia Candida Ag Plus assay. When the cutoff was lowered from 125 pg/ml to 50 pg/ml, mannan antigen sensitivity increased to 69.6% without severely affecting the specificity (93.5%). Contrary to recently published data, superficial candidiasis was not associated with elevated mannan antigen levels, not even after the cutoff was lowered. Combining procalcitonin (PCT) with (1→3)-β-D-glucan to increase specificity provided a limited advantage because the benefit of the combination did not outweigh the loss of sensitivity. Our results demonstrate that the Cand-<span class="hlt">Tec</span> Candida antigen and the mannan antigen plus anti-mannan antibody measurements have unacceptably low sensitivity or specificity. Of the four</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666776','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3666776"><span>Comparison of (1→3)-β-d-Glucan, Mannan/Anti-Mannan Antibodies, and Cand-<span class="hlt">Tec</span> Candida Antigen as Serum Biomarkers for Candidemia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kohlberger, Isabelle; Rappold, Elfriede; Busse Grawitz, Andrea; Häcker, Georg</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We conducted a case-control study using the Fungitell assay, the novel Platelia Candida Antigen (Ag) Plus and Candida Antibody (Ab) Plus assays, and the Cand-<span class="hlt">Tec</span> latex agglutination test to evaluate the usefulness of (1→3)-β-d-glucan (BDG), mannan antigen with/without anti-mannan antibody, and Cand-<span class="hlt">Tec</span> Candida antigen measurement for the diagnosis of candidemia. A total of 56 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were enrolled. One hundred patients with bacteremia and 100 patients with sterile blood cultures served as negative controls. In the candidemia group, median (1→3)-β-d-glucan, mannan antigen, and anti-mannan antibody levels were 427 pg/ml, 190 pg/ml, and 18.6 antibody units (AU)/ml, respectively. All three parameters were significantly elevated in patients with candidemia. The sensitivity and specificity were, respectively, 87.5% and 85.5% for (1→3)-β-d-glucan, 58.9% and 97.5% for mannan antigen, 62.5% and 65.0% for anti-mannan antibody, 89.3% and 63.0% for mannan antigen plus anti-mannan antibody, 89.3% and 85.0% for BDG plus mannan antigen, and 13.0% and 93.9% for Cand-<span class="hlt">Tec</span> Candida antigen. The low mannan antigen sensitivity was in part caused by Candida parapsilosis and Candida guilliermondii fungemias, which were not detected by the Platelia Candida Ag Plus assay. When the cutoff was lowered from 125 pg/ml to 50 pg/ml, mannan antigen sensitivity increased to 69.6% without severely affecting the specificity (93.5%). Contrary to recently published data, superficial candidiasis was not associated with elevated mannan antigen levels, not even after the cutoff was lowered. Combining procalcitonin (PCT) with (1→3)-β-d-glucan to increase specificity provided a limited advantage because the benefit of the combination did not outweigh the loss of sensitivity. Our results demonstrate that the Cand-<span class="hlt">Tec</span> Candida antigen and the mannan antigen plus anti-mannan antibody measurements have unacceptably low sensitivity or specificity. Of the four</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...209.8307H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AAS...209.8307H"><span>A 1.1mm Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> Survey Tracing Accelerated Galaxy Formation Towards a Protocluster at z 3.8</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hughes, David H.; Montana, A.; Aretxaga, I.; Plionis, M.; Porras, A.; Wagg, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Huang, J.; Fazio, G.; Wilson, G.; Yun, M.; Lowenthal, J.; Perera, T.; Austermann, J.; Scott, K.; Dunlop, J.; Ivison, R.; Stevens, J.; Smail, I.; Appleton, P.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>Aztec has recently conducted a sensitive, wide-area (300 sq. Armin's) continuum survey at 1.1mm using the 15-m James Clerk Maxwell Telescope towards 4C41.17, a powerful high-redshift (z 3.8) radio galaxy. These Aztec data, which cover an area >40 times larger than our previous SCUBA survey, reveal a significant over-density of luminous, massive dust-enshrouded galaxies, compared to the results from lower-redshift blank-field sub-mm surveys. One natural interpretation of these new Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> data is that the over-density is tracing a large (5 x 5 Mpc) "proto-cluster" structure at z 3.8 associated with the environment of 4C41.17, within which the formation of ultra-luminous starburst galaxies (with rest-frame FIR luminosities >5 x 1012 Lsun or SFRs > 500 Msun/yr) is taking place at an accelerated rate. Proving the physical association of these massive optically-faint starbursts with the environment of this high-z AGN, and not with the blank-field sub-mm population, for which 50% of the population lies at 1.9 < z < 2.9, remains an outstanding problem. In this presentation we will describe the Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> survey, the empirical evidence for this protocluster structure in the early universe, and the planned multi-wavelength follow-up observations of the brightest Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> sources towards 4C41.17 that may demonstrate that we are witnessing accelerated galaxy formation, via an increased rate of merging gas-rich galaxies within a rapidly-developing gravitational potential. Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> is one of the suite of instruments destined for the 50-m Large Millimeter Telescope (LMT). We will conclude this presentation with a summary of future LMT observations that will trace the evolution of obscured starformation in the dynamic environments towards a significant sample of intermediate and high-z powerful AGN with greater sensitivity and spatial resolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27577735','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27577735"><span>Multicomponent LBSap vaccine displays immunological and parasitological profiles similar to those of Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>® and Leishmune® vaccines against visceral leishmaniasis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>de Mendonça, Ludmila Zanandreis; Resende, Lucilene Aparecida; Lanna, Mariana Ferreira; Aguiar-Soares, Rodrigo Dian de Oliveira; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Castro, Renata Alves de Oliveira E; Batista, Maurício Azevedo; Silveira-Lemos, Denise; Gomes, Juliana de Assis Silva; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio; Rezende, Simone Aparecida; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Corrêa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Giunchetti, Rodolfo Cordeiro</p> <p>2016-08-30</p> <p>In past years, many researchers have sought canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) prevention through the characterization of Leishmania antigens as vaccine candidates. Despite these efforts, there is still no efficient vaccine for CVL control. In the present study, we performed a pre-clinical vaccine trial using BALB/c mice to compare the effects of the multicomponent LBSap vaccine with those of Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>® and Leishmune®. Blood was collected to determine the frequency of peripheral blood cells and to evaluate hematologic and immunophenotypic parameters. Liver and spleen samples were collected for parasitological quantification, and spleen samples were used to access the cytokine profile. When measuring total IgG and IgG1 anti-Leishmania levels after the third vaccination and L. infantum challenge, it was evident that all vaccines were able to induce humoral immune response. Regarding the innate immune response, increased levels of NK CD3(-)CD49(+) cells were the hallmark of all vaccinated groups, whereas only the Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>® group displayed a high frequency of CD14(+) monocytes after L. infantum challenge. Moreover, CD3(+)CD4(+) T cells were the main circulating lymphocytes induced after L. infantum challenge with all evaluated vaccines. Importantly, after L. infantum challenge, splenocytes from the Leishmune® vaccine produced high levels of IL-2, whereas a prominent type 1 immune response was the hallmark of the LBSap vaccine, which presented high levels of IL-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. The efficacy analysis using real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated a reduction in the parasitism in the spleen (Leishmune®: 64 %; LBSap: 42 %; and Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>®: 36 %) and liver (Leishmune®: 71 %; LBSap: 62 %; and Leish-<span class="hlt">Tec</span>®: 48 %). The dataset led to the conclusion that the LBSap vaccination was able to induce immune and efficacy profiles comparable with those of commercial vaccines, thus demonstrating its potential as a promising vaccine candidate for visceral</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6281E..0EC','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006SPIE.6281E..0EC"><span>A new life for a 10-year old Mue<span class="hlt">Tec</span>2010 CD measurement system: the ultimate precision upgrade with additional film thickness measurement capability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cassol, Gian Luca; Bianucci, Giovanni; Murai, Shiaki; Falk, Günther; Scheuring, Gerd; Döbereiner, Stefan; Brück, Hans-Jürgen</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>A 10-year old Mue<span class="hlt">Tec</span>2010, white light CD measurement system, installed at DNP Photomask Europe and previously owned by STMicroelectronics, has been upgraded to fulfill the high-end optical CD measurement requirements, and to add the film thickness measurement capability. That is the ultimate upgrade, consisting of two new computers with WINDOWS 2000 operating system, a new 150X measurement objective, a new 16-bit CCD digital camera, a new tube lens for the old Leica Ergoplan microscope, and the NanoStar software with the pattern recognition option. The upgrade yielded an average 45% repeatability improvement for isolated and dense lines and spaces, with 1.2nm average repeatability in a 0.3-10μm CD nominal range. Contact holes report an average 50% repeatability improvement, with 2.5nm average repeatability. The improved precision allows a +/-2-nm CD calibration and correlation down to 0.4μm CD nominal. Overall, the upgraded Mue<span class="hlt">Tec</span>2010 shows same or better performance than the already installed Leica LWM250UV CD measurement system, despite the longer illumination wavelength of the former. The improved short and long term repeatability reduced the Gauge RandR figure from 24% to 11% at +/-20nm tolerance, which qualifies the system for high-end binary mask down to 0.5μm CD nominal. The feasibility to calibrate the system for 248nm Molybdenum Silicide Phase Shifting Masks is currently being investigated. In addition to that, the new measurement algorithms, the capability to take multiple measurements within the FOV, and the pattern recognition capability included in the NanoStar software gave a 75% throughput boost to the fully automated macros for the weekly calibration tests of the laser writing tools, compared to the LWM250UV run time. With little additional hardware and software, the system has also been upgraded to include the film thickness measurement capability for the PSM resist coating process (2nd exposure), without the need for a dedicated, more expensive</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013yCat..74261845M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013yCat..74261845M"><span>VizieR Online Data Catalog: Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> survey of the SHADES fields. II. (Michalowski+, 2012)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Michalowski, M. J.; Dunlop, J. S.; Ivison, R. J.; Cirasuolo, M.; Caputi, K. I.; Aretxaga, I.; Arumugam, V.; Austermann, J. E.; Chapin, E. L.; Chapman, S. C.; Coppin, K. E. K.; Egami, E.; Hughes, D. H.; Ibar, E.; Mortier, A. M. J.; Schael, A. M.; Scott, K. S.; Smail, I.; Targett, T. A.; Wagg, J.; Wilson, G. W.; Xu, L.; Yun, M.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We utilized the JCMT/Az<span class="hlt">TEC</span> 1.1mm maps and catalogues from Austermann et al. (2010, Cat. J/MNRAS/401/160). These data cover 0.7deg2 to an rms depth of 0.9-1.7mJy/beam. We selected all 148 sources presented by Austermann et al. (2010, Cat. J/MNRAS/401/160) with signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns) > 3.5, and adopted the statistically deboosted 1.1mm flux densities. The VLA 1.4GHz and GMRT 0.61GHz radio data were taken from Ivison et al. (2005MNRAS.364.1025I, 2007, Cat. J/MNRAS/380/199) and Ibar et al. (2009, Cat. J/MNRAS/397/281, 2010MNRAS.401L..53I), respectively. The mid-IR Spitzer data in the Lockman Hole East field are from programmes PID 81 (PI: G. Rieke) and PID 50249 (PI: E. Egami), described in Egami et al. (2004ApJS..154..130E) and Dye et al. (2008MNRAS.386.1107D), whereas in the UDS field the mid-IR data are from the Spitzer Public Legacy Survey of the UKIDSS UDS (PI: J. Dunlop, http://ssc.spitzer.caltech.edu/spitzermission/observingprograms/ legacy/spuds/) described in Caputi et al. (2011MNRAS.413..162C). The optical data in both fields were obtained with Subaru/SuprimeCam, as described in Dye et al. (2006MNRAS.372.1227D) and Furusawa et al. (2008, Cat. J/ApJS/176/1). The near-IR data in both fields are provided by the UKIRT Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS; Lawrence et al. 2007, Cat. II/314) with the SXDF/UDS field benefitting from the ultradeep J, H, K coverage provided by the UDS (e.g. Cirasuolo et al. 2010MNRAS.401.1166C), while the Lockman Hole East field is part of the somewhat shallower UKIDSS DXS (Warren et al., 2007MNRAS.375..213W). (5 data files).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/985868','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/985868"><span>Secure <span class="hlt">content</span> objects</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Evans, William D [Cupertino, CA</p> <p>2009-02-24</p> <p>A secure <span class="hlt">content</span> object protects electronic documents from unauthorized use. The secure <span class="hlt">content</span> object includes an encrypted electronic document, a multi-key encryption table having at least one multi-key component, an encrypted header and a user interface device. The encrypted document is encrypted using a document encryption key associated with a multi-key encryption method. The encrypted header includes an encryption marker formed by a random number followed by a <span class="hlt">derivable</span> variation of the same random number. The user interface device enables a user to input a user authorization. The user authorization is combined with each of the multi-key components in the multi-key encryption key table and used to try to decrypt the encrypted header. If the encryption marker is successfully decrypted, the electronic document may be decrypted. Multiple electronic documents or a document and annotations may be protected by the secure <span class="hlt">content</span> object.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.1338P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.1338P"><span>Morphology of high-latitude plasma density perturbations as deduced from the total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> measurements onboard the Swarm constellation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, Jaeheung; Lühr, Hermann; Kervalishvili, Guram; Rauberg, Jan; Stolle, Claudia; Kwak, Young-Sil; Lee, Woo Kyoung</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigate the climatology of high-latitude total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) variations as observed by the dual-frequency Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers onboard the Swarm satellite constellation. The distribution of <span class="hlt">TEC</span> perturbations as a function of geographic/magnetic coordinates and seasons reasonably agrees with that of the Challenging Minisatellite Payload observations published earlier. Categorizing the high-latitude <span class="hlt">TEC</span> perturbations according to line-of-sight directions between Swarm and GNSS satellites, we can deduce their morphology with respect to the geomagnetic field lines. In the Northern Hemisphere, the perturbation shapes are mostly aligned with the L shell surface, and this anisotropy is strongest in the nightside auroral (substorm) and subauroral regions and weakest in the central polar cap. The results are consistent with the well-known two-cell plasma convection pattern of the high-latitude ionosphere, which is approximately aligned with L shells at auroral regions and crossing different L shells for a significant part of the polar cap. In the Southern Hemisphere, the perturbation structures exhibit noticeable misalignment to the local L shells. Here the direction toward the Sun has an additional influence on the plasma structure, which we attribute to photoionization effects. The larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic poles in the south than in the north is responsible for the hemispheric difference.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.2119V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.2119V"><span>Total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> disturbances during minor sudden stratospheric warming, over the Brazilian region: A case study during January 2012</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vieira, F.; Fagundes, P. R.; Venkatesh, K.; Goncharenko, L. P.; Pillat, V. G.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>The effects of sudden stratospheric warming (SSW) on ionosphere have been investigated by several scientists, using different observational techniques and model simulations. However, the minor SSW event during January 2012 is one of those that are less studied. Influences of several types of possible drivers—minor SSW event, changing solar flux, moderate geomagnetic storm on 22-25 January, and one of the largest solar proton events on 23-30 January—make it a challenging period to interpret. In the present study, the GPS-total electron <span class="hlt">content</span> (<span class="hlt">TEC</span>) measurements from a network of 72 receivers over the Brazilian region are considered. This network of 72 GPS-<span class="hlt">TEC</span> locations lies between 5°N and 30°S (35°) latitudes and 35°W and 65°W (30°) longitudes. Further, two chains of GPS receivers are used to study the response of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in the Brazilian eastern and western sectors, as well as its day-to-day variability before and during the SSW-2012. It was noted that the <span class="hlt">TEC</span> is depleted to the order of 30% all over the Brazilian region, from equator to beyond the EIA regions and from east to west sectors. It is also noticed that the EIA strengths at the east and west sectors were weakened during the SSW-2012. However, the Brazilian eastern sector was found to be more disturbed compared to the western sector during this SSW-2012 event.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14500584','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14500584"><span>Homogeneous real-time detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms by strand displacement amplification on the BD Probe<span class="hlt">Tec</span> ET system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Sha-Sha; Thornton, Keith; Kuhn, Andrew M; Nadeau, James G; Hellyer, Tobin J</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p>The BD Probe<span class="hlt">Tec</span> ET System is based on isothermal strand displacement amplification (SDA) of target nucleic acid coupled with homogeneous real-time detection using fluorescent probes. We have developed a novel, rapid method using this platform that incorporates a universal detection format for identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and other genotypic var