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Sample records for content validation study

  1. Content Validation Studies of the AP Chemistry Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Hessy L.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a curriculum survey of general chemistry courses at the college level and an evaluation survey of the advanced placement chemistry examination. Results indicated that the AP chemistry course should remain broad in coverage and should expand its laboratory component. Analyses also indicated that the AP exam was appropriate and valid.…

  2. A Content Validity Study of the Children's Version of The Family Environment Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pino, Christopher J.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the structural pictorial properties of a children's version of The Family Environment Scale as a content validity study of the scale. Age differences in results between third- and seventh-grade children were confirmed, and social comprehension levels increased with age. Implications for present use and future research are discussed.…

  3. A content validity study of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS1

    PubMed Central

    Aragão, Jamilly da Silva; de França, Inacia Sátiro Xavier; Coura, Alexsandro Silva; de Sousa, Francisco Stélio; Batista, Joana D'arc Lyra; Magalhães, Isabella Medeiros de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: to validate the content of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS for people with deafness Method: methodological development study, which involved 36 people with deafness and three LIBRAS specialists. The study was conducted in three stages: investigation of the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems, referred to by people with deafness, reported in a questionnaire; video recordings of how people with deafness express, through LIBRA, the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems; and validation of the contents of the recordings of the expressions by LIBRAS specialists. Data were processed in a spreadsheet and analyzed using univariate tables, with absolute frequencies and percentages. The validation results were analyzed using the Content Validity Index (CVI). Results: 33 expressions in LIBRAS, of signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems were evaluated, and 28 expressions obtained a satisfactory CVI (1.00). Conclusions: the signs, symptoms and diseases/health problems expressed in LIBRAS presented validity, in the study region, for health professionals, especially nurses, for use in the clinical anamnesis of the nursing consultation for people with deafness. PMID:26625991

  4. When Educational Material Is Delivered: A Mixed Methods Content Validation Study of the Information Assessment Method

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background The Information Assessment Method (IAM) allows clinicians to report the cognitive impact, clinical relevance, intention to use, and expected patient health benefits associated with clinical information received by email. More than 15,000 Canadian physicians and pharmacists use the IAM in continuing education programs. In addition, information providers can use IAM ratings and feedback comments from clinicians to improve their products. Objective Our general objective was to validate the IAM questionnaire for the delivery of educational material (ecological and logical content validity). Our specific objectives were to measure the relevance and evaluate the representativeness of IAM items for assessing information received by email. Methods A 3-part mixed methods study was conducted (convergent design). In part 1 (quantitative longitudinal study), the relevance of IAM items was measured. Participants were 5596 physician members of the Canadian Medical Association who used the IAM. A total of 234,196 ratings were collected in 2012. The relevance of IAM items with respect to their main construct was calculated using descriptive statistics (relevance ratio R). In part 2 (qualitative descriptive study), the representativeness of IAM items was evaluated. A total of 15 family physicians completed semistructured face-to-face interviews. For each construct, we evaluated the representativeness of IAM items using a deductive-inductive thematic qualitative data analysis. In part 3 (mixing quantitative and qualitative parts), results from quantitative and qualitative analyses were reviewed, juxtaposed in a table, discussed with experts, and integrated. Thus, our final results are derived from the views of users (ecological content validation) and experts (logical content validation). Results Of the 23 IAM items, 21 were validated for content, while 2 were removed. In part 1 (quantitative results), 21 items were deemed relevant, while 2 items were deemed not relevant

  5. Injection Drug User Quality of Life Scale (IDUQOL): Findings from a content validation study

    PubMed Central

    Hubley, Anita M; Palepu, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Background Quality of life studies among injection drug users have primarily focused on health-related measures. The chaotic life-style of many injection drug users (IDUs), however, extends far beyond their health, and impacts upon social relationships, employment opportunities, housing, and day to day survival. Most current quality of life instruments do not capture the realities of people living with addictions. The Injection Drug Users' Quality of Life Scale (IDUQOL) was developed to reflect the life areas of relevance to IDUs. The present study examined the content validity of the IDUQOL using judgmental methods based on subject matter experts' (SMEs) ratings of various elements of this measure (e.g., appropriateness of life areas or items, names and descriptions of life areas, instructions for administration and scoring). Methods Six SMEs were provided with a copy of the IDUQOL and its administration and scoring manual and a detailed content validation questionnaire. Two commonly used judgmental measures of inter-rater agreement, the Content Validity Index (CVI) and the Average Deviation Mean Index (ADM), were used to evaluate SMEs' agreement on ratings of IDUQOL elements. Results A total of 75 elements of the IDUQOL were examined. The CVI results showed that all elements were endorsed by the required number of SMEs or more. The ADM results showed that acceptable agreement (i.e., practical significance) was obtained for all elements but statistically significant agreement was missed for nine elements. For these elements, SMEs' feedback was examined for ways to improve the elements. Open-ended feedback also provided suggestions for other revisions to the IDUQOL. Conclusion The results of the study provided strong evidence in support of the content validity of the IDUQOL and direction for the revision of some IDUQOL elements. PMID:17663783

  6. Pressure ulcer prevention algorithm content validation: a mixed-methods, quantitative study.

    PubMed

    van Rijswijk, Lia; Beitz, Janice M

    2015-04-01

    Translating pressure ulcer prevention (PUP) evidence-based recommendations into practice remains challenging for a variety of reasons, including the perceived quality, validity, and usability of the research or the guideline itself. Following the development and face validation testing of an evidence-based PUP algorithm, additional stakeholder input and testing were needed. Using convenience sampling methods, wound care experts attending a national wound care conference and a regional wound ostomy continence nursing (WOCN) conference and/or graduates of a WOCN program were invited to participate in an Internal Review Board-approved, mixed-methods quantitative survey with qualitative components to examine algorithm content validity. After participants provided written informed consent, demographic variables were collected and participants were asked to comment on and rate the relevance and appropriateness of each of the 26 algorithm decision points/steps using standard content validation study procedures. All responses were anonymous. Descriptive summary statistics, mean relevance/appropriateness scores, and the content validity index (CVI) were calculated. Qualitative comments were transcribed and thematically analyzed. Of the 553 wound care experts invited, 79 (average age 52.9 years, SD 10.1; range 23-73) consented to participate and completed the study (a response rate of 14%). Most (67, 85%) were female, registered (49, 62%) or advanced practice (12, 15%) nurses, and had > 10 years of health care experience (88, 92%). Other health disciplines included medical doctors, physical therapists, nurse practitioners, and certified nurse specialists. Almost all had received formal wound care education (75, 95%). On a Likert-type scale of 1 (not relevant/appropriate) to 4 (very relevant and appropriate), the average score for the entire algorithm/all decision points (N = 1,912) was 3.72 with an overall CVI of 0.94 (out of 1). The only decision point/step recommendation

  7. Assessment study of insight ARTHRO VR (®) arthroscopy virtual training simulator: face, content, and construct validities.

    PubMed

    Bayona, Sofía; Fernández-Arroyo, José Manuel; Martín, Isaac; Bayona, Pilar

    2008-09-01

    The aims of this study were to test the face, content, and construct validities of a virtual-reality haptic arthroscopy simulator and to validate four assessment hypothesis. The participants in our study were 94 arthroscopists attending an international conference on arthroscopy. The interviewed surgeons had been performing arthroscopies for a mean of 8.71 years (σ = 6.94 years). We explained the operation, functionality, instructions for use, and the exercises provided by the simulator. They performed a trial exercise and then an exercise in which performance was recorded. After having using it, the arthroscopists answered a questionnaire. The simulator was classified as one of the best training methods (over phantoms), and obtained a mark of 7.10 out of 10 as an evaluation tool. The simulator was considered more useful for inexperienced surgeons than for surgeons with experience (mean difference 1.88 out of 10, P value < 0.001). The participants valued the simulator at 8.24 as a tool for learning skills, its fidelity at 7.41, the quality of the platform at 7.54, and the content of the exercises at 7.09. It obtained a global score of 7.82. Of the subjects, 30.8% said they would practise with the simulator more than 6 h per week. Of the surgeons, 89.4% affirmed that they would recommend the simulator to their colleagues. The data gathered support the first three hypotheses, as well as face and content validities. Results show statistically significant differences between experts and novices, thus supporting the construct validity, but studies with a larger sample must be carried out to verify this. We propose concrete solutions and an equation to calculate economy of movement. Analogously, we analyze competence measurements and propose an equation to provide a single measurement that contains them all and that, according to the surgeons' criteria, is as reliable as the judgment of experts observing the performance of an apprentice.

  8. Non-invasive quantification of small bowel water content by MRI: a validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoad, C. L.; Marciani, L.; Foley, S.; Totman, J. J.; Wright, J.; Bush, D.; Cox, E. F.; Campbell, E.; Spiller, R. C.; Gowland, P. A.

    2007-12-01

    Substantial water fluxes across the small intestine occur during digestion of food, but so far measuring these has required invasive intubation techniques. This paper describes a non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique for measuring small bowel water content which has been validated using naso-duodenal infusion. Eighteen healthy volunteers were intubated, with the tube position being verified by MRI. After a baseline MRI scan, each volunteer had eight 40 ml boluses of a non-absorbable mannitol and saline solution infused into their proximal small bowel with an MRI scan being acquired after each bolus. The MRI sequence used was an adapted magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography sequence. The image data were thresholded to allow for intra- and inter-subject signal variations. The MRI measured volumes were then compared to the known infused volumes. This MRI technique gave excellent images of the small bowel, which closely resemble those obtained using conventional radiology with barium contrast. The mean difference between the measured MRI volumes and infused volumes was 2% with a standard deviation of 10%. The maximum 95% limits of agreement between observers were -15% to +17% while measurements by the same operator on separate occasions differed by only 4%. This new technique can now be applied to study alterations in small bowel fluid absorption and secretion due to gastrointestinal disease or drug intervention.

  9. Construct Validation of Content Standards for Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Schaaf, Marieke F.; Stokking, Karel M.

    2011-01-01

    Current international demands to strengthen the teaching profession have led to an increased development and use of professional content standards. The study aims to provide insight in the construct validity of content standards by researching experts' underlying assumptions and preferences when participating in a delphi method. In three rounds 21…

  10. Spinal palpatory diagnostic procedures utilized by practitioners of spinal manipulation: annotated bibliography of content validity and reliability studies

    PubMed Central

    Seffinger, Michael; Adams, Alan; Najm, Wadie; Dickerson, Vivian; Mishra, Shiraz I; Reinsch, Sibylle; Murphy, Linda

    2003-01-01

    The diagnosis of spinal neuro-musculoskeletal dysfunction is a pre-requisite for application of spinal manual therapy. Different disciplines rely on palpatory procedures to establish this diagnosis and design treatment plans. Over the past 30 years, the osteopathic, chiropractic, physical therapy and allopathic professions have investigated the validity and reliability of spinal palpatory procedures. We explored the literature from all four disciplines looking for scientific papers studying the content validity and reliability of spinal palpatory procedures. Thirteen databases were searched for relevant papers between January 1966 and October 2001. An annotated bibliography of these articles is presented and organized by the type of test used.

  11. Racial Differences in Adolescent Self-Report: A Comparative Validity Study Using Homogeneous MMPI Content Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrobel, Nancy Howells; Lachar, David

    1995-01-01

    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventories (MMPIs) were administered to an urban mixed-race sample of 218 adolescent psychiatric patients. Wiggins scale elevations for African Americans and whites were compared, and the validity of the scales was assessed through comparison with parent observations. Implications for the MMPI-Adolescent content…

  12. Content Validity in Evaluation and Policy-Relevant Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Melvin M.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The role of content validity in policy-relevant research is illustrated in a study contrasting results of surveys concerning public opinion toward gun control. Inadequate content validity threatened inferences about the overall level of support for gun control, but not about opinion difference between sexes or respondents of varying political…

  13. Evaluating the Content Validity of Multistage-Adaptive Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crotts, Katrina; Sireci, Stephen G.; Zenisky, April

    2012-01-01

    Validity evidence based on test content is important for educational tests to demonstrate the degree to which they fulfill their purposes. Most content validity studies involve subject matter experts (SMEs) who rate items that comprise a test form. In computerized-adaptive testing, examinees take different sets of items and test "forms"…

  14. Two quantitative approaches for estimating content validity.

    PubMed

    Wynd, Christine A; Schmidt, Bruce; Schaefer, Michelle Atkins

    2003-08-01

    Instrument content validity is often established through qualitative expert reviews, yet quantitative analysis of reviewer agreements is also advocated in the literature. Two quantitative approaches to content validity estimations were compared and contrasted using a newly developed instrument called the Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Tool (ORAT). Data obtained from a panel of eight expert judges were analyzed. A Content Validity Index (CVI) initially determined that only one item lacked interrater proportion agreement about its relevance to the instrument as a whole (CVI = 0.57). Concern that higher proportion agreement ratings might be due to random chance stimulated further analysis using a multirater kappa coefficient of agreement. An additional seven items had low kappas, ranging from 0.29 to 0.48 and indicating poor agreement among the experts. The findings supported the elimination or revision of eight items. Pros and cons to using both proportion agreement and kappa coefficient analysis are examined.

  15. Content Validation of a Catalog of Exercises for Judo.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Gustavo F; Soares, Ytalo M; Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Couto, Bruno P; Dias, Ronaldo A; Costa, Varley T; Kalina, Roman M; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the content validity of a catalog of 76 judo exercises. Two groups of raters comprising 16 judo experts evaluated the following content validity indicators: Clarity of Language, Practical Pertinence, Theoretical Relevance, and the Dimension of each exercise. The results confirmed the content validity of the judo training catalog with indicators showing scores greater than 0.80. These findings suggest that all 76 judo exercises are pertinent, representative of judo training and understandable for judo coaches. Thus, this catalog of judo exercises may help judo coaches in the selection and recording of exercises.

  16. Curriculum-based Measurement in the Content Areas: Validity of Vocabulary-Matching as an Indicator of Performance in Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin, Christine A.; Busch, Todd W.; Shin, Jongho; Kruschwitz, Ron

    2001-01-01

    A study examined the reliability and validity of two curriculum-based measures (CBMs) as indicators of the performance of 58 7th-graders in a content-area classroom. CBM measures were student- and administrator-read vocabulary-matching probes. Results revealed moderate alternate-form reliability for both vocabulary-matching measures. Scores for…

  17. An independent validation association study of carcass quality, shear force, intramuscular fat percentage and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content with gene markers in Australian lamb.

    PubMed

    Knight, Matthew I; Daetwyler, Hans D; Hayes, Ben J; Hayden, Matthew J; Ball, Alex J; Pethick, David W; McDonagh, Matthew B

    2014-02-01

    Previous association studies revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that explained the observed phenotypic variation for meat tenderness and long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content of Australian lamb. To confirm the validity of these associated SNPs at predicting meat tenderness and omega-3 PUFA content, an independent validation study was designed. The OvineSNP50 genotypes of these animals were used to impute the 192 SNP Meat Quality Research (MQR) panel genotypes on nearly 6200 animals from the Cooperative Research Centre for Sheep Industry Innovation Information Nucleus Flock and Sheep Genomics Falkiner Memorial Field Station flock. Association analysis revealed numerous SNP from the 192 SNP MQR panel that were associated with carcass quality - fat depth at the C-site and eye muscle depth; shear force at day 1 and day 5 after slaughter (SF1 and SF5); and omega-3 PUFA content at P<0.01. However, 1 SNP was independently validated for SF5 (i.e. CAST_101781475). The magnitude of the effect of each significant SNP and the relative allele frequencies across Merino-, Maternal- and Terminal-sired progeny was determined. The independently validated SNP for SF5 and the associated SNP with omega-3 PUFA content will accelerate efforts to improve these phenotypic traits in Australian lamb.

  18. Content Validation of Terms and Definitions in a Wound Glossary

    PubMed Central

    Milne, Catherine T.; Paine, Tim; Sullivan, Valerie; Sawyer, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Objective A common language and lexicon provide the easiest means of mutual understanding. Inconsistency in terminology makes effective information exchange difficult. Previous studies identified the need to determine standard, accepted definitions for the vocabulary frequently used in wound care. The objective of this study was to establish content validation for these terms and develop an evidence-based glossary for this specialty. Methods Members of the Association for the Advancement of Wound Care Quality of Care Task Force reviewed literature to determine glossary content generation and the associated literature-based definitions. Thirty-nine wound care professionals from wound care stakeholder professional organizations in the United States and Canada participated in the content validation process. Participants were asked to quantify the degree of validity using a 367-item, 4-point Likert-type scale. Results On a scale of 1 to 4, the mean score of the entire instrument was 3.84. The instrument’s overall scale content validity index was 0.96. Terms with an item content validity index of less than 0.70 were removed from the glossary, leaving 365 items with established content validity. Qualitative data analysis revealed themes suggesting that enhanced communication between providers improves patient outcomes. The need for ongoing updates of the glossary was also identified. Conclusion The wound care glossary in its finalized form proved valid. An evidence-based glossary bridges the chasm of miscommunication and nonstandardization so that wound care, as an emerging specialized medical science field, can move forward to optimize both process and clinical outcomes. PMID:24527368

  19. Content validation of algorithms to guide negative pressure wound therapy in adults with acute or chronic wounds:a cross-sectional study .

    PubMed

    Beitz, Janice M; van Rijswijk, Lia

    2012-09-01

    Despite extensive use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) and reported patient safety concerns, evidence-based algorithms to guide its safe and appropriate use in various wounds have only recently been developed. Preliminary content validity was established using literature review and expert-based face validity with a small sample of experts (N = 12). To examine the content validity of this set of three NPWT algorithms and to enhance understanding about previously identified wound terminology issues, a cross-sectional, mixed-methods, quantitative study was conducted among wound experts. The paper/pencil survey instrument consisted of the algorithms, a demographic questionnaire, and request to provide definitions of five commonly used terms: acute wound, chronic wound, and primary, secondary, and tertiary intention healing. A Likert scale (range 1 to 4) was included to rate the relevance of each of the 34 unique steps/statements/decision points contained in the algorithms, and space was provided to comment on each component. Convenience-sampling methods were used in three different settings: an international professional wound care meeting; a regional wound, ostomy, continence (WOC) nurses meeting; and an urban university with a suburban satellite campus. Of the 190 wound care experts invited to participate, 114 accepted. Participants' average age was 48 (range 23 to 68) years, and most were registered nurses (72%) practicing in the United States (94%). The content validity of the NPWT components was strong, with an overall mean rating of 3.76 (SD = 0.56, range 3.49 to 3.92; very relevant/appropriate, relevant/appropriate). The overall content validity index for the 5,696 responses received was 0.96 (range 0.88 to 1.0). Qualitative themes included comments about wound terminology and definitions, the presentation of the central algorithm, reading level, helpfulness/ease of use, the use of color, and information placement in the algorithm document. Some

  20. Establishing Content Validity for a Literacy Coach Performance Appraisal Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Mae; Robbins, Mary; Price, Debra

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to determine whether or not the Literacy Coach Appraisal Instrument developed for use in evaluating literacy coaches had content validity. The study, a fully mixed concurrent equal status design conducted from a pragmatist philosophy, collected qualitative and quantitative data from literacy experts about the elements of…

  1. Recalculation of the Critical Values for Lawshe's Content Validity Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, F. Robert; Pan, Wei; Schumsky, Donald A.

    2012-01-01

    The content validity ratio (Lawshe) is one of the earliest and most widely used methods for quantifying content validity. To correct and expand the table, critical values in unit steps and at multiple alpha levels were computed. Implications for content validation are discussed. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  2. The Content Validity of Juvenile Psychopathy: An Empirical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynam, Donald R.; Derefinko, Karen J.; Caspi, Avshalom; Loeber, Rolf; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the content validity of a juvenile psychopathy measure, the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (CPS; D. R. Lynam, 1997), based on a downward translation of an adult instrument, the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R; R. D. Hare, 1991). The CPS was compared with two other indices of juvenile psychopathy: (a) an index derived…

  3. Examining the Content Validity of the WHOQOL-BRF from Respondents' Perspective by Quantitative Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Grace; Wu, Chia-Huei; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    2008-01-01

    Content validity, the extent to which a measurement reflects the specific intended domain of content, is a basic type of validity for a valid measurement. It was usually examined qualitatively and relied on experts' subjective judgments, not on respondents' responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to introduce and demonstrate how to use…

  4. Validation of the content of the prevention protocol for early sepsis caused by Streptococcus agalactiaein newborns

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Fabiana Alves; Vidal, Cláudia Fernanda de Lacerda; de Araújo, Ednaldo Cavalcante

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to validate the content of the prevention protocol for early sepsis caused by Streptococcus agalactiaein newborns. Method: a transversal, descriptive and methodological study, with a quantitative approach. The sample was composed of 15 judges, 8 obstetricians and 7 pediatricians. The validation occurred through the assessment of the content of the protocol by the judges that received the instrument for data collection - checklist - which contained 7 items that represent the requisites to be met by the protocol. The validation of the content was achieved by applying the Content Validity Index. Result: in the judging process, all the items that represented requirements considered by the protocol obtained concordance within the established level (Content Validity Index > 0.75). Of 7 items, 6 have obtained full concordance (Content Validity Index 1.0) and the feasibility item obtained a Content Validity Index of 0.93. The global assessment of the instruments obtained a Content Validity Index of 0.99. Conclusion: the validation of content that was done was an efficient tool for the adjustment of the protocol, according to the judgment of experienced professionals, which demonstrates the importance of conducting a previous validation of the instruments. It is expected that this study will serve as an incentive for the adoption of universal tracking by other institutions through validated protocols. PMID:26444165

  5. Content validity of manual spinal palpatory exams - A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Najm, Wadie I; Seffinger, Michael A; Mishra, Shiraz I; Dickerson, Vivian M; Adams, Alan; Reinsch, Sibylle; Murphy, Linda S; Goodman, Arnold F

    2003-01-01

    Background Many health care professionals use spinal palpatory exams as a primary and well-accepted part of the evaluation of spinal pathology. However, few studies have explored the validity of spinal palpatory exams. To evaluate the status of the current scientific evidence, we conducted a systematic review to assess the content validity of spinal palpatory tests used to identify spinal neuro-musculoskeletal dysfunction. Methods Review of eleven databases and a hand search of peer-reviewed literature, published between 1965–2002, was undertaken. Two blinded reviewers abstracted pertinent data from the retrieved papers, using a specially developed quality-scoring instrument. Five papers met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Results Three of the five papers included in the review explored the content validity of motion tests. Two of these papers focused on identifying the level of fixation (decreased mobility) and one focused on range of motion. All three studies used a mechanical model as a reference standard. Two of the five papers included in the review explored the validity of pain assessment using the visual analogue scale or the subjects' own report as reference standards. Overall the sensitivity of studies looking at range of motion tests and pain varied greatly. Poor sensitivity was reported for range of motion studies regardless of the examiner's experience. A slightly better sensitivity (82%) was reported in one study that examined cervical pain. Conclusions The lack of acceptable reference standards may have contributed to the weak sensitivity findings. Given the importance of spinal palpatory tests as part of the spinal evaluation and treatment plan, effort is required by all involved disciplines to create well-designed and implemented studies in this area. PMID:12734016

  6. Adjustments for drink size and ethanol content: New results from a self-report diary and trans-dermal sensor validation study

    PubMed Central

    Bond, J. C.; Greenfield, T. K.; Patterson, D.; Kerr, W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prior studies adjusting self-reported measures of alcohol intake for drink size and ethanol content have relied on single-point assessments. Methods A prospective 28-day diary study investigated magnitudes of drink ethanol adjustments and factors associated with these adjustments. Transdermal alcohol sensor (TAS) readings and prediction of alcohol-related problems by number of drinks versus ethanol-adjusted intake were used to validate drink ethanol adjustments. Self-completed event diaries listed up to 4 beverage types and 4 drinking events/day. Eligible volunteers had ≥ weekly drinking and ≥ 3+ drinks per occasion with ≥ 26 reported days and pre- and post-summary measures (n = 220). Event reports included drink types, sizes, brands or spirits contents, venues, drinks consumed and drinking duration. Results Wine drinks averaged 1.19, beer, 1.09 and spirits 1.54 US standard drinks (14g ethanol). Mean adjusted alcohol intake was 22% larger using drink size and strength (brand/ethanol concentration) data. Adjusted drink levels were larger than “raw” drinks in all quantity ranges. Individual-level drink ethanol adjustment ratios (ethanol adjusted/unadjusted amounts) averaged across all days drinking ranged from 0.73-3.33 (mean 1.22). Adjustment ratio was only marginally (and not significantly) positively related to usual quantity, frequency and heavy drinking (all ps<.1), independent of gender, age, employment, and education, but those with lower incomes (both p<.01) drank stronger/bigger drinks. Controlling for raw number of drinks and other covariates, degree of adjustment independently predicted alcohol dependence symptoms (p<.01) and number of consequences (p<.05). In 30 respondents with sufficiently high quality TAS readings, higher correlations (p=.04) were found between the adjusted vs. the raw drinks/event and TAS areas under the curve. Conclusions Absent drink size and strength data, intake assessments are downward biased by at least 20

  7. Content Validation of the Comprehension of Written Grammar Assessment for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Joanna E.; Hubley, Anita M.

    2014-01-01

    Content validation is a crucial, but often neglected, component of good test development. In the present study, content validity evidence was collected to determine the degree to which elements (e.g., grammatical structures, items, picture responses, administration, and scoring instructions) of the Comprehension of Written Grammar (CWG) test are…

  8. Structure of the Oral Interview and Content Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Pardee, Jr.

    The use by interviewers of a deliberate, prearranged, and consistent overall structure, comprising warm-up, level check, probes, and wind-up, can strengthen the content validity of interview tests. Moreover, the flexibility necessary for elicitation is increased if an established battery of well-structured tasks exists for candidates to perform.…

  9. Valid and Reliable Science Content Assessments for Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tretter, Thomas R.; Brown, Sherri L.; Bush, William S.; Saderholm, Jon C.; Holmes, Vicki-Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Science teachers' content knowledge is an important influence on student learning, highlighting an ongoing need for programs, and assessments of those programs, designed to support teacher learning of science. Valid and reliable assessments of teacher science knowledge are needed for direct measurement of this crucial variable. This paper…

  10. Content Validity for a Child Care Self-assessment Tool: Creating Healthy Eating Environments Scale (CHEERS).

    PubMed

    Lafave, Lynne; Tyminski, Sheila; Riege, Theresa; Hoy, Diane; Dexter, Bria

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop and content validate both a formative and summative self-assessment scale designed to measure the nutrition and physical activity environment in community-based child care programs. The study followed a mixed-method modified Ebel procedure. An expert group with qualifications in nutrition, physical activity, and child care were recruited for content validation. The survey was subjected to expert review through digital communication followed by a face-to-face validation meeting. To establish consensus for content validity beyond the standard error of proportion (P < 0.05) the content validity index (CVI) required was ≥0.78. Of the initial 64 items, 44 scored an acceptable CVI for inclusion. The remaining items were discussed, missing concepts identified, and a final CVI employed to determine inclusion. The final tool included 62 items with 5 subscales: food served, healthy eating program planning, healthy eating environment, physical activity environment, and healthy body image environment. Content validation is an integral step in scale development that is often overlooked or poorly carried out. Initial content validity of this scale has been established and will be of value to researchers and practitioners interested in conducting healthy eating interventions in child care.

  11. Content Validation of the Scale of Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Classrooms (STATIC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimura, Trisha Sugita; Busse, R. T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the content validity of the Scale of Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Classrooms (STATIC). An expert panel of 20 special education teachers and five university faculty members provided individual item ratings on a five-point scale regarding wording and content, along with comments. Item and comment…

  12. Content validity of the Geriatric Health Assessment Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Pedreira, Rhaine Borges Santos; Rocha, Saulo Vasconcelos; dos Santos, Clarice Alves; Vasconcelos, Lélia Renata Carneiro; Reis, Martha Cerqueira

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Assess the content validity of the Elderly Health Assessment Tool with low education. Methods The data collection instrument/questionnaire was prepared and submitted to an expert panel comprising four healthcare professionals experienced in research on epidemiology of aging. The experts were allowed to suggest item inclusion/exclusion and were asked to rate the ability of individual items in questionnaire blocks to encompass target dimensions as “not valid”, “somewhat valid” or “valid”, using an interval scale. Percent agreement and the Content Validity Index were used as measurements of inter-rater agreement; the minimum acceptable inter-rater agreement was set at 80%. Results The mean instrument percent agreement rate was 86%, ranging from 63 to 99%, and from 50 to 100% between and within blocks respectively. The Mean Content Validity Index score was 93.47%, ranging from 50 to 100% between individual items. Conclusion The instrument showed acceptable psychometric properties for application in geriatric populations with low levels of education. It enabled identifying diseases and assisted in choice of strategies related to health of the elderly. PMID:27462889

  13. Content validity and reliability of test of gross motor development in Chilean children

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Cappellacci, Marcelo; Leyton, Fernanda Aleitte; Carreño, Joshua Durán

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To validate a Spanish version of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2) for the Chilean population. METHODS Descriptive, transversal, non-experimental validity and reliability study. Four translators, three experts and 92 Chilean children, from five to 10 years, students from a primary school in Santiago, Chile, have participated. The Committee of Experts has carried out translation, back-translation and revision processes to determine the translinguistic equivalence and content validity of the test, using the content validity index in 2013. In addition, a pilot implementation was achieved to determine test reliability in Spanish, by using the intraclass correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman method. We evaluated whether the results presented significant differences by replacing the bat with a racket, using T-test. RESULTS We obtained a content validity index higher than 0.80 for language clarity and relevance of the TGMD-2 for children. There were significant differences in the object control subtest when comparing the results with bat and racket. The intraclass correlation coefficient for reliability inter-rater, intra-rater and test-retest reliability was greater than 0.80 in all cases. CONCLUSIONS The TGMD-2 has appropriate content validity to be applied in the Chilean population. The reliability of this test is within the appropriate parameters and its use could be recommended in this population after the establishment of normative data, setting a further precedent for the validation in other Latin American countries. PMID:26815160

  14. Validation of the Intestinal Part of the Prostate Cancer Questionnaire 'QUFW94': Psychometric Properties, Responsiveness, and Content Validity

    SciTech Connect

    Reidunsdatter, Randi J.; Lund, Jo-Asmund; Fransson, Per; Widmark, Anders

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: Several treatment options are available for patients with prostate cancer. Applicable and valid self-assessment instruments for assessing health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are of paramount importance. The aim of this study was to explore the validity and responsiveness of the intestinal part of the prostate cancer-specific questionnaire QUFW94. Methods and Materials: The content of the intestinal part of QUFW94 was examined by evaluation of experienced clinicians and reviewing the literature. The psychometric properties and responsiveness were assessed by analyzing HRQOL data from the randomized study Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group 7 (SPCG)/Swedish Association for Urological Oncology 3 (SFUO). Subscales were constructed by means of exploratory factor analyses. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Responsiveness was investigated by comparing baseline scores with the 4-year posttreatment follow-up. Results: The content validity was found acceptable, but some amendments were proposed. The factor analyses revealed two symptom scales. The first scale comprised five items regarding general stool problems, frequency, incontinence, need to plan toilet visits, and daily activity. Cronbach's alpha at 0.83 indicated acceptable homogeneity. The second scale was less consistent with a Cronbach's alpha at 0.55. The overall responsiveness was found to be very satisfactory. Conclusion: Two scales were identified in the bowel dimension of the QUFW94; the first one had good internal consistency. The responsiveness was excellent, and some modifications are suggested to strengthen the content validity.

  15. The Development, Validity and Reliability of TPACK-Deep: A Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurdakul, Isil Kabakci; Odabasi, Hatice Ferhan; Kilicer, Kerem; Coklar, Ahmet Naci; Birinci, Gurkay; Kurt, Adile Askim

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a TPACK (technological pedagogical content knowledge) scale based on the centered component of TPACK framework in order to measure preservice teachers' TPACK. A systematic and step-by-step approach was followed for the development of the scale. The validity and reliability studies of the scale were carried…

  16. A New Method for Analyzing Content Validity Data Using Multidimensional Scaling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xueming; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Validity evidence based on test content is of essential importance in educational testing. One source for such evidence is an alignment study, which helps evaluate the congruence between tested objectives and those specified in the curriculum. However, the results of an alignment study do not always sufficiently capture the degree to which a test…

  17. The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP): content validation using prototypical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kreis, Mette K F; Cooke, David J; Michie, Christine; Hoff, Helge A; Logan, Caroline

    2012-06-01

    The Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP; Cooke, Hart, Logan, & Michie, 2004) is a new personality-based model and clinical assessment of psychopathy. This study was the first to examine the content validity of the English-language CAPP. Content validation is a crucial part of the development and refinement of any new instrument. Prototypical analysis was used to evaluate the representativeness of CAPP symptoms to the psychopathy construct in adults. Symptoms were rated by international mental health professionals (N = 132). Findings support good content validity of the CAPP, with most symptoms rated as highly representative of psychopathy. Domains relating to interpersonal style were particularly prototypical. Confirmatory factor analyses further suggested that CAPP domains are highly unidimensional. However, some CAPP symptoms may be weaker items in the model and further refinement is needed.

  18. Brief Assessment of Motor Function: Content Validity and Reliability of the Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cintas, Holly Lea; Parks, Rebecca; Don, Sarah; Gerber, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Content validity and reliability of the Brief Assessment of Motor Function (BAMF) Upper Extremity Gross Motor Scale (UEGMS) were evaluated in this prospective, descriptive study. The UEGMS is one of five BAMF ordinal scales designed for quick documentation of gross, fine, and oral motor skill levels. Designed to be independent of age and…

  19. A Model-Based Method for Content Validation of Automatically Generated Test Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xinxin; Gierl, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe a methodology to recover the item model used to generate multiple-choice test items with a novel graph theory approach. Beginning with the generated test items and working backward to recover the original item model provides a model-based method for validating the content used to automatically generate test…

  20. Validity of General Outcome Measures for Predicting Secondary Students' Performance on Content-Area Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin, Christine A.; Foegen, Anne

    1996-01-01

    This study investigated the validity of 3 curriculum-based measures for predicting the performance of 184 secondary students (including 13 with mild disabilities) on content-area tasks. Reliable correlations were found between oral reading, maze, and vocabulary measures; and students' performance on comprehension, acquisition, and retention of…

  1. Validation studies and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Ankilam, Elke; Heinze, Petra; Kay, Simon; Van den Eede, Guy; Popping, Bert

    2002-01-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) entered the European food market in 1996. Current legislation demands the labeling of food products if they contain <1% GMO, as assessed for each ingredient of the product. To create confidence in the testing methods and to complement enforcement requirements, there is an urgent need for internationally validated methods, which could serve as reference methods. To date, several methods have been submitted to validation trials at an international level; approaches now exist that can be used in different circumstances and for different food matrixes. Moreover, the requirement for the formal validation of methods is clearly accepted; several national and international bodies are active in organizing studies. Further validation studies, especially on the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods, need to be performed to cover the rising demand for new extraction methods and other background matrixes, as well as for novel GMO constructs.

  2. PSI-Center Validation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, B. A.; Akcay, C.; Glasser, A. H.; Hansen, C. J.; Jarboe, T. R.; Marklin, G. J.; Milroy, R. D.; Morgan, K. D.; Norgaard, P. C.; Shumlak, U.; Sutherland, D. A.; Victor, B. S.; Sovinec, C. R.; O'Bryan, J. B.; Held, E. D.; Ji, J.-Y.; Lukin, V. S.

    2014-10-01

    The Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI-Center - http://www.psicenter.org) supports collaborating validation platform experiments with 3D extended MHD simulations using the NIMROD, HiFi, and PSI-TET codes. Collaborators include the Bellan Plasma Group (Caltech), CTH (Auburn U), HBT-EP (Columbia), HIT-SI (U Wash-UW), LTX (PPPL), MAST (Culham), Pegasus (U Wisc-Madison), SSX (Swarthmore College), TCSU (UW), and ZaP/ZaP-HD (UW). The PSI-Center is exploring application of validation metrics between experimental data and simulations results. Biorthogonal decomposition (BOD) is used to compare experiments with simulations. BOD separates data sets into spatial and temporal structures, giving greater weight to dominant structures. Several BOD metrics are being formulated with the goal of quantitive validation. Results from these simulation and validation studies, as well as an overview of the PSI-Center status will be presented.

  3. Scale indicators of social exchange relationships: a comparison of relative content validity.

    PubMed

    Colquitt, Jason A; Baer, Michael D; Long, David M; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D K

    2014-07-01

    Although social exchange theory has become one of the most oft-evoked theories in industrial and organizational psychology, there remains no consensus about how to measure its key mechanism: social exchange relationships (Blau, 1964). Drawing on Cropanzano and Byrne's (2000) review of contemporary social exchange theorizing, we examined the content validity of perceived support, exchange quality, affective commitment, trust, and psychological contract fulfillment as indicators of social exchange relationships. We used Hinkin and Tracey's (1999) quantitative approach to content validation, which asks participants to rate the correspondence between scale items and definitions of intended (and unintended) constructs. Our results revealed that some of the most frequently utilized indicators of social exchange relationships--perceived support and exchange quality--were significantly less content valid than rarely used options like affect-based trust. Our results also revealed that 2 direct measures--Bernerth, Armenakis, Feild, Giles, and Walker's (2007) scale and a scale created for this study--were content valid. We discuss the implications of these results for future applications of social exchange theory.

  4. Translation, adaptation and validation the contents of the Diabetes Medical Management Plan for the Brazilian context

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho; Chaves, Fernanda Figueredo; da Silva, Daniel Dutra Romualdo; Bosco, Adriana Aparecida; Gabriel, Beatriz Diniz; Reis, Ilka Afonso; Rodrigues, Júlia Santos Nunes; Pagano, Adriana Silvina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to translate, adapt and validate the contents of the Diabetes Medical Management Plan for the Brazilian context. This protocol was developed by the American Diabetes Association and guides the procedure of educators for the care of children and adolescents with diabetes in schools. Method: this methodological study was conducted in four stages: initial translation, synthesis of initial translation, back translation and content validation by an expert committee, composed of 94 specialists (29 applied linguists and 65 health professionals), for evaluation of the translated version through an online questionnaire. The concordance level of the judges was calculated based on the Content Validity Index. Data were exported into the R program for statistical analysis: Results: the evaluation of the instrument showed good concordance between the judges of the Health and Applied Linguistics areas, with a mean content validity index of 0.9 and 0.89, respectively, and slight variability of the index between groups (difference of less than 0.01). The items in the translated version, evaluated as unsatisfactory by the judges, were reformulated based on the considerations of the professionals of each group. Conclusion: a Brazilian version of Diabetes Medical Management Plan was constructed, called the Plano de Manejo do Diabetes na Escola. PMID:27508911

  5. Validation and Determination of the Contents of Acetaldehyde and Formaldehyde in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hye-Seung; Chung, Hyun; Song, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Joon-Goo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient quantitative method for the determination of acetaldehyde (AA) and formaldehyde (FA) contents in solid and liquid food matrices. The determination of those compounds was validated and performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined by solid phase micro-extraction after derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-benzyl)-hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Validation was carried out in terms of limit of detection, limit of quantitation, linearity, precision, and recovery. Then their contents were analyzed in various food samples including 15 fruits, 22 milk products, 31 alcohol-free beverages, and 13 alcoholic beverages. The highest contents of AA and FA were determined in a white wine (40,607.02 ng/g) and an instant coffee (1,522.46 ng/g), respectively. PMID:26483886

  6. Validating spatial structure in canopy water content using geostatistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanderson, E. W.; Zhang, M. H.; Ustin, S. L.; Rejmankova, E.; Haxo, R. S.

    1995-01-01

    Heterogeneity in ecological phenomena are scale dependent and affect the hierarchical structure of image data. AVIRIS pixels average reflectance produced by complex absorption and scattering interactions between biogeochemical composition, canopy architecture, view and illumination angles, species distributions, and plant cover as well as other factors. These scales affect validation of pixel reflectance, typically performed by relating pixel spectra to ground measurements acquired at scales of 1m(exp 2) or less (e.g., field spectra, foilage and soil samples, etc.). As image analysis becomes more sophisticated, such as those for detection of canopy chemistry, better validation becomes a critical problem. This paper presents a methodology for bridging between point measurements and pixels using geostatistics. Geostatistics have been extensively used in geological or hydrogeolocial studies but have received little application in ecological studies. The key criteria for kriging estimation is that the phenomena varies in space and that an underlying controlling process produces spatial correlation between the measured data points. Ecological variation meets this requirement because communities vary along environmental gradients like soil moisture, nutrient availability, or topography.

  7. Critical validation studies of neurofeedback.

    PubMed

    Gruzelier, John; Egner, Tobias

    2005-01-01

    The field of neurofeedback training has proceeded largely without validation. In this article the authors review studies directed at validating sensory motor rhythm, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, and music performance in healthy participants. Importantly, benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and neurophysiologic measures that were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning to enhance sensory motor rhythm and beta activity. The first evidence of operant control over the alpha-theta ratio is provided, together with remarkable improvements in artistic aspects of music performance equivalent to two class grades in conservatory students. These are initial steps in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback.

  8. [Nondestructive test on predicting sugar content and valid acidity of mango by spectroscopy technology].

    PubMed

    Yu, Jia-jia; He, Yong; Bao, Yi-dan

    2008-12-01

    Mango is a kind of popular tropic fruit in the word, and its quality will affect the health of consumers. Unsaturated acid is an important component in mango. So it is very important and necessary to detect the sugar content and valid acidity in mango fast and non-destructively. Visible and short-wave near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (VIS/SWNIRS) was applied in the present study to predict sugar content and valid acidity of mango. Because of the non-linear information in spectral data characteristics of the pattern were analyzed by neural network optimized by genetic algorithm (GA-BP). Spectral data were compressed by the partial least squares (PLS). The best number of principal components (PCs) was selected according the accumulative reliabilities (AR). PCs could be used to replace the complex spectral data. After some preprocessing and through full cross validation, 17 principal components presenting important information of spectra were confirmed as the best number of principal components for valid acidity, and 18 PCs as best number of principal components for sugar content. Then, these best principal components were taken as the input of GA-BP neural network. One hundred thirty five samples were randomly collected as modeling, and the remaining 45 as samples to check the forecast results by the model. For the sake of testing the GA-BP model, at the same time we took the BP neural network on the same PCs. The quality of the calibration model was evaluated by the correlation coefficients (R) and standard error of calibration (SECV), and the prediction results were assessed by correlation coefficients (R) and standard error of prediction (SEP). Comparing PLS-BP model with PLS-GA-BP model, the coefficients of determination (R) of 0.788/0.83699 and standard errors of prediction (SEP) of 0.133312/0.109447 were calculated in valid acidity. The sugar content result was calculated by the coefficients of determination (R) = 0.75705/0.85409 and standard errors of

  9. Determinants of meditation practice inventory: development, content validation, and initial psychometric testing.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anna-Leila; Dixon, Jane; McCorkle, Ruth; Van Ness, Peter H

    2011-01-01

    Background Meditation health benefits have been difficult to document, as many efficacy studies are marred by lack of statistical power secondary to small sample size and/or threats to validity from high attrition. To date, no published studies have examined barriers to meditation that are likely responsible for low enrollment and high attrition. Objective To develop an instrument to capture barriers to meditation use, namely, the Determinants of Meditation Practice Inventory (DMPI). Design A five-step, mixed-methods approach was used, including literature review, qualitative interviews, content validation, reliability testing, and construct validation. Participants/Setting Four distinct participant groups contributed. Four meditation teachers participated in qualitative interviews. Five expert panelists conducted the content validation. Ten nonmeditators participated in the pilot test. For reliability testing and construct validation, 150 cancer family caregivers participated. Outcome Measures Big Five Inventory (BFI) and Caregiver Reactions Assessment (CRA) were used to test convergent construct validity. Results The three content domains are perceptions and misconceptions, pragmatic concerns, and sociocultural beliefs. Initially, 53 items were generated. Three reviews by the expert panel concluded with a 22-item survey. After pilot testing, a 17-item survey was created. Data from 150 caregivers showed Cronbach's coefficient alpha of 0.87. The intraclass correlation for baseline and retest was 0.86 (confidence interval 0.82-0.90). BFI and CRA were significantly and positively correlated with DMPI. Conclusion Preliminary results indicate the DMPI is psychometrically sound. By identifying barriers to meditation, the DMPI will enable researchers to address the needs and concerns of the target population when designing recruitment and intervention procedures, potentially maximizing recruitment, minimizing attrition, and optimizing interpretation of results.

  10. Critical Values for Lawshe's Content Validity Ratio: Revisiting the Original Methods of Calculation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayre, Colin; Scally, Andrew John

    2014-01-01

    The content validity ratio originally proposed by Lawshe is widely used to quantify content validity and yet methods used to calculate the original critical values were never reported. Methods for original calculation of critical values are suggested along with tables of exact binomial probabilities.

  11. CTF Void Drift Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Salko, Robert K.; Gosdin, Chris; Avramova, Maria N.; Gergar, Marcus

    2015-10-26

    This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.

  12. Content Validity of the National Literary Braille Competency Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allman, Carol B.; Lewis, Sandra

    1996-01-01

    To test the validity of the National Literary Braille Competency Test (NLBCT), 181 Florida teachers of students with visual impairments were asked if they transcribe Braille using a Braillewriter, a slate and stylus, Braille computer programs, or transcriber aides. The majority transcribed using computer software or a Braillewriter. (CR)

  13. Content Validation of Athletic Therapy Clinical Presentations in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafave, Mark R.; Yeo, Michelle; Westbrook, Khatija; Valdez, Dennis; Eubank, Breda; McAllister, Jenelle

    2016-01-01

    Context: Competency-based education requires strong planning and a vehicle to deliver and track students' progress across their undergraduate programs. Clinical presentations (CPs) are proposed as 1 method to deliver a competency-based curriculum in a Canadian undergraduate athletic therapy program. Objective: Validation of 253 CPs. Setting:…

  14. CANFOR Portuguese version: validation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in prisoner population is a troublesome reality in several regions of the world. Along with this growth there is increasing evidence that prisoners have a higher proportion of mental illnesses and suicide than the general population. In order to implement strategies that address criminal recidivism and the health and social status of prisoners, particularly in mental disordered offenders, it is necessary to assess their care needs in a comprehensive, but individual perspective. This assessment must include potential harmful areas like comorbid personality disorder, substance misuse and offending behaviours. The Camberwell Assessment of Need – Forensic Version (CANFOR) has proved to be a reliable tool designed to accomplish such aims. The present study aimed to validate the CANFOR Portuguese version. Methods The translation, adaptation to the Portuguese context, back-translation and revision followed the usual procedures. The sample comprised all detainees receiving psychiatric care in four forensic facilities, over a one year period. A total of 143 subjects, and respective case manager, were selected. The forensic facilities were chosen by convenience: one prison hospital psychiatric ward (n=68; 47.6%), one male (n=24; 16.8%) and one female (n=22; 15.4%) psychiatric clinic and one civil security ward (n=29; 20.3%), all located nearby Lisbon. Basic descriptive statistics and Kappa weighted coefficients were calculated for the inter-rater and the test-retest reliability studies. The convergent validity was evaluated using the Global Assessment of Functioning and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores. Results The majority of the participants were male and single, with short school attendance, and accused of a crime involving violence against persons. The most frequent diagnosis was major depression (56.1%) and almost half presented positive suicide risk. The reliability study showed average Kappa weighted coefficients of 0.884 and 0

  15. Reliability and validity of job content questionnaire for university research laboratory staff in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nehzat, F; Huda, B Z; Tajuddin, S H Syed

    2014-03-01

    Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) has been proven a reliable and valid instrument to assess job stress in many countries and among various occupations. In Malaysia, both English and Malay versions of the JCQ have been administered to automotive workers, schoolteachers, and office workers. This study assessed the reliability and validity of the instrument with research laboratory staff in a university. A cross sectional study was conducted among 258 research laboratory staff in Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). Malaysian laboratory staff who have worked for at least one year were randomly selected from nine faculties and institutes in the university that have research laboratory. A self-administered English and Malay version of Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ) was used. Three major scales of JCQ: decision latitude, psychological job demands, and social support were assessed. Cronbach's alpha coefficients of two scales were acceptable, decision latitude and psychological job demands (0.70 and 0.72, respectively), while Cronbach's alpha coefficient for social support (0.86) was good. Exploratory factor analysis showed five factors that correspond closely to the theoretical construct of the questionnaire. The results of this research suggest that the JCQ is reliable and valid for examining psychosocial work situations and job strain among research laboratory staff. Further studies should be done for confirmative results, and further evaluation is needed on the decision authority subscale for this occupation.

  16. Translation, cultural adaptation and content re-validation of the observational teamwork assessment for surgery tool.

    PubMed

    Amaya Arias, Ana Carolina; Barajas, Rocío; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H; Wheelock, Ana; Gaitán Duarte, Hernando; Hull, Louise; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-12-01

    Background. Poor teamwork and nontechnical skill performance are increasingly recognized as important contributing factors to errors and adverse events in the operating room. Assessment of these safety critical skills is important to facilitate improvement, however there are no tools available to assess these safety skills in Latin America. This study aimed to translate, culturally adapt and content validate the Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) tool for use in Latin America. Methods. A multi-phase, multi-method study was conducted: Phase 1: translation and back-translation; Phase 2: content validity assessed via expert consensus; Phase 3: inter-rater reliability assessed via real-time observation in 98 general surgical procedures using OTAS-S. Results. The first change in OTAS-S, was to distinguish between the surgical nurses and scrub technicians (both OR team members are captured in the nursing sub-team in the original OTAS). OTAS-S consists of 168 exemplar behaviors: 60/114 identical to the exemplars listed in the original OTAS tool, 48/114 original exemplars underwent minor modifications, 13 were duplicated (to account for the additional sub-team distinguished in OTAS-S), 6 original exemplars were removed, and 47 new exemplar behaviors were added. Inter-observer agreement was substantial (KW = 0.602; IC: 0.581-0.620). The calculated KW by phase, behaviors and teams were between 0.534 and 0.678. Conclusions. The study provides a content validated teamwork assessment tool for use within Colombian operating rooms and potentially Latin-American. OTAS-S can be used to assess the quality of teamwork in ORs, facilitate structured debriefing and thus improve patient safety and reduce team-related errors.

  17. Determination of the content of desmopressin in pharmaceutical preparations by HPLC and validation of the method.

    PubMed

    Dudkiewicz-Wilczyńska, Jadwiga; Snycerski, Andrzej; Tautt, Jadwiga

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to apply high performance liquid chromatography to the determination of content of desmopressin in pharmaceutical preparations and validation of the method. The satisfactory results have been obtained using a column Luna C 8.5 microm, 100 x 4.6 mm and a mobile phase containing 0.067 M phosphate buffer of pH = 7 and acetonitrile in the proportion 83:17. It has been shown that the elaborated method shows good precision and accuracy and can be applied to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical preparations containing desmopressin.

  18. A comprehensive process of content validation of curriculum consensus guidelines for a medical specialty.

    PubMed

    Cumyn, Annabelle; Harris, Ilene B

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we outline an innovative and comprehensive approach to the development by consensus of curriculum content guidelines for a medical specialty. We initially delineated the content domain by triangulation of sources, validated a curriculum blueprint by both quantitative and qualitative methodology, and finally reached consensus on content by Delphi methodology. Development of curricular objectives is an important step in curriculum development. Content definition or "blueprinting" refers to the systematic definition of content from a specified domain for the purpose of creating test items with validity evidence. Content definition can be achieved in a number of ways and we demonstrate how the concepts of content definition or validation can be transferred beyond assessment, to other steps in curriculum development and instructional design. Validity in Education refers to the multiple sources of evidence to support the use or interpretation of different aspects of a curriculum. In this approach, there are multiple sources of content-related validity evidence which, when accumulated, give credibility and strength to curriculum consensus guidelines.

  19. Cultural adaptation, content validity and inter-rater reliability of the "STAR Skin Tear Classification System"1

    PubMed Central

    Strazzieri-Pulido, Kelly Cristina; Santos, Vera Lúcia Conceição de Gouveia; Carville, Keryln

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: to perform the cultural adaptation of the STAR Skin Tear Classification System into the Portuguese language and to test the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the adapted version. METHODS: methodological study with a quantitative approach. The cultural adaptation was developed in three phases: translation, evaluation by a committee of judges and back-translation. The instrument was tested regarding content validity and inter-rater reliability. RESULTS: the adapted version obtained a regular level of concordance when it was applied by nurses using photographs of friction injuries. Regarding its application in clinical practice, the adapted version obtained a moderate and statistically significant level of concordance. CONCLUSION: the study tested the content validity and inter-rater reliability of the version adapted into the Portuguese language. Its inclusion in clinical practice will enable the correct identification of this type of injury, as well as the implementation of protocols for the prevention and treatment of friction injuries. PMID:25806644

  20. Development of a Content-Valid Standardized Orthopedic Assessment Tool (SOAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafave, Mark; Katz, Larry; Butterwick, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Content validation of an instrument that measures student performance in OSCE-type practical examinations is a critical step in a tool's overall validity and reliability [Hopkins (1998), "Educational and Psychological Measurement and Evaluation" (8th ed.). Toronto: Allyn & Bacon]. The purpose of the paper is to outline the process…

  1. Validating Proofs and Counterexamples across Content Domains: Practices of Importance for Mathematics Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Yi-Yin; Knuth, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Validating proofs and counterexamples across content domains is considered vital practices for undergraduate students to advance their mathematical reasoning and knowledge. To date, not enough is known about the ways mathematics majors determine the validity of arguments in the domains of algebra, analysis, geometry, and number theory--the domains…

  2. The Protective Behavioral Strategies Scale-20: improved content validity of the Serious Harm Reduction subscale.

    PubMed

    Treloar, Hayley; Martens, Matthew P; McCarthy, Denis M

    2015-03-01

    Excessive drinking in college leads to serious harms, but students who use protective behavioral strategies (PBS) avoid negative consequences by drinking in a safer manner. This study aimed to increase the content validity of the Serious Harm Reduction (SHR) subscale of the most widely used measure of PBS, the Protective Behavioral Strategies Scale (PBSS: Martens et al., 2005). An initial item pool was developed from literature on college student drinking, existing lists of drinking control strategies, and an online pilot survey of college students (N = 1,832). Items were also evaluated by focus groups of experts and members of the target population. Next, 1,376 students (57.9% women; Mage = 18.5 years; 86.3% White) completed questionnaires online. A subset (n = 170; 12.4%) completed a second survey 4-6 weeks later to examine test-retest reliability and criterion-related validity. The remaining students (n = 1,206) were divided into equal development and validation samples. Analyses included exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis of the development sample, factor structure replication, and gender invariance testing in the validity sample. Results of this process produced the PBSS-20, with an expanded SHR scale of eight items. The revised SHR scale demonstrated improved internal consistency and was associated with a broader range of alcohol-related negative consequences at follow-up. Given its focus on reducing serious harms, the SHR scale is arguably the most clinically relevant PBSS factor, and those who use this measure will benefit from the expanded breadth of SHR content and improved psychometric properties of the PBSS-20.

  3. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  4. Validation and Profile of Chinese Pre-Service Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sang, Guoyuan; Tondeur, Jo; Chai, Ching Sing; Dong, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Researchers state that teachers in different contexts reported different technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). This phenomenon may partially be explained by cultural differences. Based on this consideration, the development and validation of the Chinese pre-service teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge (CTPCK) scale…

  5. Lost in translation? Issues of content validity in interpreter-mediated aphasia assessments.

    PubMed

    Roger, Peter; Code, Chris

    2011-02-01

    In many parts of the world, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are frequently called upon to assess aphasia in bilingual speakers, or in speakers of languages of which they have little or no knowledge. One of the strategies that SLPs employ in these situations is to involve an interpreter in the assessment process. Three authentic interpreter-mediated aphasia assessments were analysed for the present study, which aimed to determine the degree to which the content validity of the individual tests was compromised in the process of their administration through an interpreter. Findings reveal that content validity was frequently weakened either at the point of administration of the test or at the point at which responses were reported back by the interpreter to the SLP. Based on these findings, it is argued that the conduct of interpreter-mediated aphasia assessments needs to be fundamentally re-thought to take account of the limitations inherent in the interpreting process. To this end, this study presents a number of practical recommendations for the involvement of interpreters in aphasia assessments, with a view to making optimal use of existing assessment materials and enhancing the quality of diagnostic information to emerge from such clinical sessions.

  6. The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ): validation of a content-independent measure of repetitive negative thinking.

    PubMed

    Ehring, Thomas; Zetsche, Ulrike; Weidacker, Kathrin; Wahl, Karina; Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke

    2011-06-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) has been found to be involved in the maintenance of several types of emotional problems and has therefore been suggested to be a transdiagnostic process. However, existing measures of RNT typically focus on a particular disorder-specific content. In this article, the preliminary validation of a content-independent self-report questionnaire of RNT is presented. The 15-item Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire was evaluated in two studies (total N = 1832), comprising non-clinical as well as clinical participants. Results of confirmatory factor analyses across samples supported a second-order model with one higher-order factor representing RNT in general and three lower-order factors representing (1) the core characteristics of RNT (repetitiveness, intrusiveness, difficulties with disengagement), (2) perceived unproductiveness of RNT and (3) RNT capturing mental capacity. High internal consistencies and high re-test reliability were found for the total scale and all three subscales. The validity of the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire was supported by substantial correlations with existing measures of RNT and associations with symptom levels and clinical diagnoses of depression and anxiety. Results suggest the usefulness of the new measure for research into RNT as a transdiagnostic process.

  7. The Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ): Validation of a content-independent measure of repetitive negative thinking

    PubMed Central

    Ehring, Thomas; Zetsche, Ulrike; Weidacker, Kathrin; Wahl, Karina; Schönfeld, Sabine; Ehlers, Anke

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) has been found to be involved in the maintenance of several types of emotional problems and has therefore been suggested to be a transdiagnostic process. However, existing measures of RNT typically focus on a particular disorder-specific content. In this article, the preliminary validation of a content-independent self-report questionnaire of RNT is presented. The 15-item Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire was evaluated in two studies (total N = 1832), comprising non-clinical as well as clinical participants. Results of confirmatory factor analyses across samples supported a second-order model with one higher-order factor representing RNT in general and three lower-order factors representing (1) the core characteristics of RNT (repetitiveness, intrusiveness, difficulties with disengagement), (2) perceived unproductiveness of RNT and (3) RNT capturing mental capacity. High internal consistencies and high re-test reliability were found for the total scale and all three subscales. The validity of the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire was supported by substantial correlations with existing measures of RNT and associations with symptom levels and clinical diagnoses of depression and anxiety. Results suggest the usefulness of the new measure for research into RNT as a transdiagnostic process. PMID:21315886

  8. Tool for Assessing Responsibility-Based Education (TARE): Instrument Development, Content Validity, and Inter-Rater Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Paul M.; Craig, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous scholars have stressed the importance of personal and social responsibility in physical activity settings; however, there is a lack of instrumentation to study the implementation of responsibility-based teaching strategies. The development, content validity, and initial inter-rater reliability testing of the Tool for Assessing…

  9. Development and content validity of a screening instrument for gaming addiction in adolescents: the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT).

    PubMed

    Vadlin, Sofia; Åslund, Cecilia; Nilsson, Kent W

    2015-08-01

    This study describes the development of a screening tool for gaming addiction in adolescents - the Gaming Addiction Identification Test (GAIT). Its development was based on the research literature on gaming and addiction. An expert panel comprising professional raters (n = 7), experiential adolescent raters (n = 10), and parent raters (n = 10) estimated the content validity of each item (I-CVI) as well as of the whole scale (S-CVI/Ave), and participated in a cognitive interview about the GAIT scale. The mean scores for both I-CVI and S-CVI/Ave ranged between 0.97 and 0.99 compared with the lowest recommended I-CVI value of 0.78 and the S-CVI/Ave value of 0.90. There were no sex differences and no differences between expert groups regarding ratings in content validity. No differences in the overall evaluation of the scale emerged in the cognitive interviews. Our conclusions were that GAIT showed good content validity in capturing gaming addiction. The GAIT needs further investigation into its psychometric properties of construct validity (convergent and divergent validity) and criterion-related validity, as well as its reliability in both clinical settings and in community settings with adolescents.

  10. Content validation of a clinical assessment instrument for stair ascent and descent in individuals with hemiparesis

    PubMed Central

    Natalio, Mavie A.; Faria, Christina D. C. M.; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Michaelsen, Stella M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Among the current instruments used to assess stair ambulation, none were observed that specifically evaluated the quality of movement or biomechanical strategies adopted by stroke patients. Objective: To evaluate the content validity of a clinical instrument designed to identify the qualitative and kinematic characteristics and strategies adopted by stroke patients during stair ascent and descent. Method: The first developed version, which comprised 80 items, had its content evaluated by an expert panel, which was composed of 9 well-known national and international professionals who are involved in stroke rehabilitation. The content validity index (CVI) and modified Kappa coefficients were employed for the statistical analyses. The items that demonstrated a CVI≥0.80 and Kappa≥0.75 were considered valid. Results: The content validation was performed in three stages. The final version of the instrument consisted of 38 items, which were divided into descriptive (8 items), a General Characteristics Domain (16 items) and adopted strategies (14 items) during stair ascent and descent. The total scores ranged from zero to 70 and zero to 74 for ascent and descent, respectively. Lower scores corresponded with better performance. Conclusion: Despite the satisfactory results obtained during the process of content validation, other psychometric properties of the instrument are necessary and must be evaluated. PMID:25054384

  11. Thinking and Creative Styles: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Vendramini, Claudette Maria Medeiros; Oakland, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The validity evidences of thinking and creative styles were analyzed. Two studies are reported, one analyzing the dimensionality of creative styles and the other verifying their external validity. Participants were Brazilians, 1,752 in the first study (55% women) and 128 in the second study (53% women), among whom 45% had demonstrated creative…

  12. Measuring Adverse Events in Helicopter Emergency Medical Services: Establishing Content Validity

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, P. Daniel; Lave, Judith R.; Martin-Gill, Christian; Weaver, Matthew D.; Wadas, Richard J.; Arnold, Robert M.; Roth, Ronald N.; Mosesso, Vincent N.; Guyette, Francis X.; Rittenberger, Jon C.; Yealy, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We sought to create a valid framework for detecting Adverse Events (AEs) in the high-risk setting of Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS). Methods We assembled a panel of 10 expert clinicians (n=6 emergency medicine physicians and n=4 prehospital nurses and flight paramedics) affiliated with a large multi-state HEMS organization in the Northeast U.S. We used a modified Delphi technique to develop a framework for detecting AEs associated with the treatment of critically ill or injured patients. We used a widely applied measure, the Content Validity Index (CVI), to quantify the validity of the framework’s content. Results The expert panel of 10 clinicians reached consensus on a common AE definition and four-step protocol/process for AE detection in HEMS. The consensus-based framework is composed of three main components: 1) a trigger tool, 2) a method for rating proximal cause, and 3) a method for rating AE severity. The CVI findings isolate components of the framework considered content valid. Conclusions We demonstrate a standardized process for the development of a content valid framework for AE detection. The framework is a model for the development of a method for AE identification in other settings, including ground-based EMS. PMID:24003951

  13. Criterion analysis and content validity for standardized behavioral tests in a detector-dog breeding program.

    PubMed

    Rocznik, Dorothee; Sinn, David L; Thomas, Scott; Gosling, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    Many working-dog programs assess behavior during a dog's first year of life with the aim of predicting success in the field. However, decisions about which tests to administer are frequently made on the basis of tradition or intuition. This study reports results from a survey given to U.S.A.'s Transportation Security Administration (TSA) detection-dog handlers (N = 34). We categorized and summarized handlers' responses regarding traits they felt were important for work. We used this criterion analysis to examine the content validity of the TSA's puppy tests. Results indicate that 13 of 15 traits that are currently being measured are relevant. However, several traits not currently measured were identified as being highly important, notably "play" and off-duty "calmness." These results provide support that the TSA tests are measuring traits relevant to operational search team performance but also highlight other traits that may be profitable to assess in this and other detection-dog programs.

  14. Rap-Music Attitude and Perception Scale: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyson, Edgar H.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the validity of the Rap-music Attitude and Perception (RAP) Scale, a 1-page, 24-item measure of a person's thoughts and feelings surrounding the effects and content of rap music. The RAP was designed as a rapid assessment instrument for youth programs and practitioners using rap music and hip hop culture in their work…

  15. A Validation Study of Cognitively Experienced Communication Apprehension Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Michael Joseph

    This study develops a self-report inventory of public speaking apprehension that establishes measures of content, construct, and predictive validity. An item pool was generated by students that were anxious about giving speeches, and the resulting instrument was then administered to the general student population and factor analyzed. Each factor…

  16. Cable SGEMP Code Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, William Parker

    2013-05-01

    This report compared data taken on the Modular Bremsstrahlung Simulator using copper jacketed (cujac) cables with calculations using the RHSD-RA Cable SGEMP analysis tool. The tool relies on CEPXS/ONBFP to perform radiation transport in a series of 1D slices through the cable, and then uses a Green function technique to evaluate the expected current drive on the center conductor. The data were obtained in 2003 as part of a Cabana verification and validation experiment using 1-D geometries, but were not evaluated until now. The agreement between data and model is not adequate unless gaps between the dielectric and outer conductor (ground) are assumed, and these gaps are large compared with what is believed to be in the actual cable.

  17. Validation of a multipoint near-infrared spectroscopy method for in-line moisture content analysis during freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Ari; Toiviainen, Maunu; Lehtonen, Marko; Järvinen, Kristiina; Paaso, Janne; Juuti, Mikko; Ketolainen, Jarkko

    2014-07-01

    This study assessed the validity of a multipoint near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy method for in-line moisture content analysis during a freeze-drying process. It is known that the moisture content affects the stability of a freeze-dried product and hence it is a major critical quality attribute. Therefore assessment of the validity of an analytical method for moisture content determination is vital to ensure the quality of the final product. An aqueous sucrose solution was used as the model formulation of the study. The NIR spectra were calibrated to the moisture content using partial least squares (PLS) regression with coulometric Karl Fischer (KF) titration as the reference method. Different spectral preprocessing methods were compared for the PLS models. A calibration model transfer protocol was established to enable the use of the method in the multipoint mode. The accuracy profile was used as a decision tool to determine the validity of the method. The final PLS model, in which NIR spectra were preprocessed with standard normal variate transformation (SNV), resulted in low root mean square error of prediction value of 0.04%-m/v, i.e. evidence of sufficient overall accuracy of the model. The validation results revealed that the accuracy of the model was acceptable within the moisture content range 0.16-0.70%-m/v that is specific for the latter stages of the freeze-drying process. In addition, the results demonstrated the method's reliable in-process performance and robustness. Thus, the multipoint NIR spectroscopy method was proved capable of providing in-line evaluation of moisture content and it is readily available for use in laboratory scale freeze-drying research and development.

  18. Validity of Multiprocess IRT Models for Separating Content and Response Styles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plieninger, Hansjörg; Meiser, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Response styles, the tendency to respond to Likert-type items irrespective of content, are a widely known threat to the reliability and validity of self-report measures. However, it is still debated how to measure and control for response styles such as extreme responding. Recently, multiprocess item response theory models have been proposed that…

  19. Interrater Reliability to Assure Valid Content in Peer Review of CME-Accredited Presentations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigg, Mark; Lado, Fred A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME) provides guidelines for continuing medical education (CME) materials to mitigate problems in the independence or validity of content in certified activities; however, the process of peer review of materials appears largely unstudied and the reproducibility of…

  20. Establishing the Content Validity of Tests Designed To Serve Multiple Purposes: Bridging Secondary-Postsecondary Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Leigh; And Others

    A method is presented for determining the content validity of a series of secondary school mathematics tests. These tests are part of the Mathematics Diagnostic Testing Project (MDTP), a collaborative effort by California university systems to develop placement examinations and a means to document student preparation in mathematics. Content…

  1. A Turn toward Specifying Validity Criteria in the Measurement of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Robert F.; Koehler, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    The impetus for this paper stems from a concern about directions and progress in the measurement of the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework for effective technology integration. In this paper, we develop the rationale for using a seven-criterion lens, based upon contemporary validity theory, for critiquing empirical…

  2. Application of Content Validity Methods to the Development of a Job-Related Performance Rating Criterion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Distefano, M. K., Jr.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrated the use of quantitative content validity procedures in the development of a job-related behavioral rating scale criterion for entry-level psychiatric aides. Found that 78 of 83 items were significantly job-relevant using the computation procedures of both Lawshe and Aiken. (JAC)

  3. The Nursing Diagnosis of risk for pressure ulcer: content validation 1

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Cássia Teixeira; Almeida, Miriam de Abreu; Lucena, Amália de Fátima

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to validate the content of the new nursing diagnosis, termed risk for pressure ulcer. Method: the content validation with a sample made up of 24 nurses who were specialists in skin care from six different hospitals in the South and Southeast of Brazil. Data collection took place electronically, through an instrument constructed using the SurveyMonkey program, containing a title, definition, and 19 risk factors for the nursing diagnosis. The data were analyzed using Fehring's method and descriptive statistics. The project was approved by a Research Ethics Committee. Results: title, definition and seven risk factors were validated as "very important": physical immobilization, pressure, surface friction, shearing forces, skin moisture, alteration in sensation and malnutrition. Among the other risk factors, 11 were validated as "important": dehydration, obesity, anemia, decrease in serum albumin level, prematurity, aging, smoking, edema, impaired circulation, and decrease in oxygenation and in tissue perfusion. The risk factor of hyperthermia was discarded. Conclusion: the content validation of these components of the nursing diagnosis corroborated the importance of the same, being able to facilitate the nurse's clinical reasoning and guiding clinical practice in the preventive care for pressure ulcers. PMID:27305182

  4. Cyber Victim and Bullying Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Bayram; Yaman, Erkan; Peker, Adem

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid scale, which determines cyber victimization and bullying behaviors of high school students. Research group consisted of 404 students (250 male, 154 male) in Sakarya, in 2009-2010 academic years. In the study sample, mean age is 16.68. Content validity and face validity of the scale was…

  5. Validation of simulated earthquake ground motions based on evolution of intensity and frequency content

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Zhong, Peng; Hartzell, Stephen; Zareian, Farzin

    2015-01-01

    Simulated earthquake ground motions can be used in many recent engineering applications that require time series as input excitations. However, applicability and validation of simulations are subjects of debate in the seismological and engineering communities. We propose a validation methodology at the waveform level and directly based on characteristics that are expected to influence most structural and geotechnical response parameters. In particular, three time-dependent validation metrics are used to evaluate the evolving intensity, frequency, and bandwidth of a waveform. These validation metrics capture nonstationarities in intensity and frequency content of waveforms, making them ideal to address nonlinear response of structural systems. A two-component error vector is proposed to quantify the average and shape differences between these validation metrics for a simulated and recorded ground-motion pair. Because these metrics are directly related to the waveform characteristics, they provide easily interpretable feedback to seismologists for modifying their ground-motion simulation models. To further simplify the use and interpretation of these metrics for engineers, it is shown how six scalar key parameters, including duration, intensity, and predominant frequency, can be extracted from the validation metrics. The proposed validation methodology is a step forward in paving the road for utilization of simulated ground motions in engineering practice and is demonstrated using examples of recorded and simulated ground motions from the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake.

  6. FDDS: A Cross Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Judy Parsons

    The Family Drawing Depression Scale (FDDS) was created by Wright and McIntyre to provide a clear and reliable scoring method for the Kinetic Family Drawing as a procedure for detecting depression. A study was conducted to confirm the value of the FDDS as a systematic tool for interpreting family drawings with populations of depressed individuals.…

  7. Simulators' validation study: Problem solution logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoultz, M. B.

    1974-01-01

    A study was conducted to validate the ground based simulators used for aircraft environment in ride-quality research. The logic to the approach for solving this problem is developed. The overall problem solution flow chart is presented. The factors which could influence the human response to the environment on board the aircraft are analyzed. The mathematical models used in the study are explained. The steps which were followed in conducting the validation tests are outlined.

  8. Development and Validation of a Measure of Elementary Teachers' Science Content Knowledge in Two Multiyear Teacher Professional Development Intervention Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maerten-Rivera, Jaime Lynn; Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne; Adamson, Karen; Lee, Okhee; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Using data collected from two multiyear teacher professional development projects employing randomized control trials, this study describes the development and validation of a paper-based test of elementary teachers' science content knowledge (SCK). Evidence of construct validity is presented, including evidence on internal structural…

  9. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Melissa A.; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J.; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies.

  10. Is the omega-3 index a valid marker of intestinal membrane phospholipid EPA+DHA content?

    PubMed

    Gurzell, Eric A; Wiesinger, Jason A; Morkam, Christina; Hemmrich, Sophia; Harris, William S; Fenton, Jenifer I

    2014-09-01

    Despite numerous studies investigating n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), the extent to which dietary n-3 LCPUFAs incorporate in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues and correlate with red blood cell (RBC) n-3 LCPUFA content is unknown. In this study, mice were fed three diets with increasing percent of energy (%en) derived from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)+docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Dietary levels reflected recommended intakes of fish/fish oil by the American Heart Association. We analyzed the FA composition of phospholipids extracted from RBCs, plasma, and GI tissues. We observed that the 0.1%en EPA+DHA diet was sufficient to significantly increase the omega-3 index (RBC EPA+DHA) after 5 week feeding. The baseline EPA levels were 0.2-0.6% across all tissues increasing to 1.6-4.3% in the highest EPA+DHA diet; these changes resulted in absolute increases of 1.4-3.9% EPA across tissues. The baseline DHA levels were 2.2-5.9% across all tissues increasing to 5.8-10.5% in the highest EPA+DHA diet; these changes resulted in absolute increases of 3.2-5.7% DHA across tissues. These increases in EPA and DHA across all tissues resulted in strong (r>0.91) and significant (P<0.001) linear correlations between the omega-3 index and plasma/GI tissue EPA+DHA content, suggesting that the omega-3 index reflects the relative amounts of EPA+DHA in GI tissues. These data demonstrate that the GI tissues are highly responsive to dietary LCPUFA supplementation and that the omega-3 index can serve as a valid biomarker for assessing dietary EPA+DHA incorporation into GI tissues.

  11. Code validation study for base flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ascoli, Edward P.; Heiba, Adel H.; Lagnado, Ronald R.; Ungewitter, Ronald J.; Williams, Morgan

    1993-07-01

    New and old rocket launch concepts recommend the clustering of motors for improved lift capability. The flowfield of the base region of the rocket is very complex and can contain high temperature plume gases. These hot gases can cause catastrophic problems if not adequately designed for. To assess the base region characteristics, advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is being used. As a precursor to these calculations the CFD code requires validation on base flows. The primary objective of this code validation study was to establish a high level of confidence in predicting base flows with the USA CFD code. USA has been extensively validated for fundamental flows and other applications. However, base heating flows have a number of unique characteristics so it was necessary to extend the existing validation for this class of problems. In preparation for the planned NLS 1.5 Stage base heating analysis, six case sets were studied to extend the USA code validation data base. This presentation gives a cursive review of three of these cases. The cases presented include a 2D axi-symmetric study, a 3D real nozzle study, and a 3D multi-species study. The results of all the studies show good general agreement with data with no adjustments to the base numerical algorithms or physical models in the code. The study proved the capability of the USA code for modeling base flows within the accuracy of available data.

  12. Code Validation Study for Base Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ascoli, Edward P.; Heiba, Adel H.; Lagnado, Ronald R.; Ungewitter, Ronald J.; Williams, Morgan

    1993-01-01

    New and old rocket launch concepts recommend the clustering of motors for improved lift capability. The flowfield of the base region of the rocket is very complex and can contain high temperature plume gases. These hot gases can cause catastrophic problems if not adequately designed for. To assess the base region characteristics, advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is being used. As a precursor to these calculations the CFD code requires validation on base flows. The primary objective of this code validation study was to establish a high level of confidence in predicting base flows with the USA CFD code. USA has been extensively validated for fundamental flows and other applications. However, base heating flows have a number of unique characteristics so it was necessary to extend the existing validation for this class of problems. In preparation for the planned NLS 1.5 Stage base heating analysis, six case sets were studied to extend the USA code validation data base. This presentation gives a cursive review of three of these cases. The cases presented include a 2D axi-symmetric study, a 3D real nozzle study, and a 3D multi-species study. The results of all the studies show good general agreement with data with no adjustments to the base numerical algorithms or physical models in the code. The study proved the capability of the USA code for modeling base flows within the accuracy of available data.

  13. Factorial Validity of the Decisional Involvement Scale as a Measure of Content and Context of Nursing Practice.

    PubMed

    Yurek, Leo A; Havens, Donna S; Hays, Spencer; Hughes, Linda C

    2015-10-01

    Decisional involvement is widely recognized as an essential component of a professional nursing practice environment. In recent years, researchers have added to the conceptualization of nurses' role in decision-making to differentiate between the content and context of nursing practice. Yet, instruments that clearly distinguish between these two dimensions of practice are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity of the Decisional Involvement Scale (DIS) as a measure of both the content and context of nursing practice. This secondary analysis was conducted using data from a longitudinal action research project to improve the quality of nursing practice and patient care in six hospitals (N = 1,034) in medically underserved counties of Pennsylvania. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from the parent study was used to compare the factor structure of two models (one nested within the other) using confirmatory factor analysis. Although a comparison of the two models indicated that the addition of second-order factors for the content and context of nursing practice improved model fit, neither model provided optimal fit to the data. Additional model-generating research is needed to develop the DIS as a valid measure of decisional involvement for both the content and context of nursing practice.

  14. How to measure wisdom: content, reliability, and validity of five measures.

    PubMed

    Glück, Judith; König, Susanne; Naschenweng, Katja; Redzanowski, Uwe; Dorner, Lara; Straßer, Irene; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom is a field of growing interest both inside and outside academic psychology, and researchers are increasingly interested in using measures of wisdom in their work. However, wisdom is a highly complex construct, and its various operationalizations are based on quite different definitions. Which measure a researcher chooses for a particular research project may have a strong influence on the results. This study compares four well-established measures of wisdom-the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (Webster, 2003, 2007), the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (Ardelt, 2003), the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory (Levenson et al., 2005), and the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm (Baltes and Smith, 1990; Baltes and Staudinger, 2000)-with respect to content, reliability, factorial structure, and construct validity (relationships to wisdom nomination, interview-based wisdom ratings, and correlates of wisdom). The sample consisted of 47 wisdom nominees and 123 control participants. While none of the measures performed "better" than the others by absolute standards, recommendations are given for researchers to select the most suitable measure for their substantive interests. In addition, a "Brief Wisdom Screening Scale" is introduced that contains those 20 items from the three self-report scales that were most highly correlated with the common factor across the scales.

  15. How to measure wisdom: content, reliability, and validity of five measures

    PubMed Central

    Glück, Judith; König, Susanne; Naschenweng, Katja; Redzanowski, Uwe; Dorner, Lara; Straßer, Irene; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom is a field of growing interest both inside and outside academic psychology, and researchers are increasingly interested in using measures of wisdom in their work. However, wisdom is a highly complex construct, and its various operationalizations are based on quite different definitions. Which measure a researcher chooses for a particular research project may have a strong influence on the results. This study compares four well-established measures of wisdom—the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (Webster, 2003, 2007), the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (Ardelt, 2003), the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory (Levenson et al., 2005), and the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm (Baltes and Smith, 1990; Baltes and Staudinger, 2000)—with respect to content, reliability, factorial structure, and construct validity (relationships to wisdom nomination, interview-based wisdom ratings, and correlates of wisdom). The sample consisted of 47 wisdom nominees and 123 control participants. While none of the measures performed “better” than the others by absolute standards, recommendations are given for researchers to select the most suitable measure for their substantive interests. In addition, a “Brief Wisdom Screening Scale” is introduced that contains those 20 items from the three self-report scales that were most highly correlated with the common factor across the scales. PMID:23874310

  16. Validation of adipose lipid content as a body condition index for polar bears

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Melissa A; Atwood, Todd; Dietz, Rune; Sonne, Christian; Iverson, Sara J; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Body condition is a key indicator of individual and population health. Yet, there is little consensus as to the most appropriate condition index (CI), and most of the currently used CIs have not been thoroughly validated and are logistically challenging. Adipose samples from large datasets of capture biopsied, remote biopsied, and harvested polar bears were used to validate adipose lipid content as a CI via tests of accuracy, precision, sensitivity, biopsy depth, and storage conditions and comparisons to established CIs, to measures of health and to demographic and ecological parameters. The lipid content analyses of even very small biopsy samples were highly accurate and precise, but results were influenced by tissue depth at which the sample was taken. Lipid content of capture biopsies and samples from harvested adult females was correlated with established CIs and/or conformed to expected biological variation and ecological changes. However, lipid content of remote biopsies was lower than capture biopsies and harvested samples, possibly due to lipid loss during dart retrieval. Lipid content CI is a biologically relevant, relatively inexpensive and rapidly assessed CI and can be determined routinely for individuals and populations in order to infer large-scale spatial and long-term temporal trends. As it is possible to collect samples during routine harvesting or remotely using biopsy darts, monitoring and assessment of body condition can be accomplished without capture and handling procedures or noninvasively, which are methods that are preferred by local communities. However, further work is needed to apply the method to remote biopsies. PMID:24634735

  17. South Dakota Social Studies Content Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    This document presents the South Dakota Content Standards for K-12 Social Studies. The document outlines the four major areas of social studies: history, geography, civics, and economics. Standards are provided for each major area according to grade level, separately for grades K-8 and collectively for grades 9-12. Grade level standards represent…

  18. A Delphi Study and Initial Validation of Counselor Supervision Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuer Colburn, Anita A.; Grothaus, Tim; Hays, Danica G.; Milliken, Tammi

    2016-01-01

    The authors addressed the lack of supervision training standards for doctoral counseling graduates by developing and validating an initial list of supervision competencies. They used content analysis, Delphi polling, and content validity methods to generate a list, vetted by 2 different panels of supervision experts, of 33 competencies grouped…

  19. Emotion Focused Therapy-Therapist Fidelity Scale (EFT-TFS): Conceptual Development and Content Validity.

    PubMed

    Denton, Wayne H; Johnson, Susan M; Burleson, Brant R

    2009-07-01

    The Emotion Focused Therapy-Therapist Fidelity Scale (EFT-TFS) is introduced as a scale to measure a therapist's fidelity to the EFT model. The rationale and conceptual development of the scale are presented. Members of an EFT electronic mailing list who participated in a survey (n=130) rated all of the items as highly important for the practice providing support for the content validity of the scale. Finally, the 13 items of the EFT-TFS are presented. Future research directions for the EFT-TFS are presented.

  20. Emotion Focused Therapy-Therapist Fidelity Scale (EFT-TFS): Conceptual Development and Content Validity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Susan M.; Burleson, Brant R.

    2009-01-01

    The Emotion Focused Therapy-Therapist Fidelity Scale (EFT-TFS) is introduced as a scale to measure a therapist's fidelity to the EFT model. The rationale and conceptual development of the scale are presented. Members of an EFT electronic mailing list who participated in a survey (n=130) rated all of the items as highly important for the practice providing support for the content validity of the scale. Finally, the 13 items of the EFT-TFS are presented. Future research directions for the EFT-TFS are presented. PMID:20052311

  1. Development and in house validation of a new thermogravimetric method for water content analysis in soft brown sugar.

    PubMed

    Ducat, Giseli; Felsner, Maria L; da Costa Neto, Pedro R; Quináia, Sueli P

    2015-06-15

    Recently the use of brown sugar has increased due to its nutritional characteristics, thus requiring a more rigid quality control. The development of a method for water content analysis in soft brown sugar is carried out for the first time by TG/DTA with application of different statistical tests. The results of the optimization study suggest that heating rates of 5°C min(-1) and an alumina sample holder improve the efficiency of the drying process. The validation study showed that thermo gravimetry presents good accuracy and precision for water content analysis in soft brown sugar samples. This technique offers advantages over other analytical methods as it does not use toxic and costly reagents or solvents, it does not need any sample preparation, and it allows the identification of the temperature at which water is completely eliminated in relation to other volatile degradation products. This is an important advantage over the official method (loss on drying).

  2. Analytical Study of Physics Education Websites' Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elayyan, Shaher R.

    2016-01-01

    The current study is compatible with the scientific mobility in dealing with the Internet as a source of knowledge. It aims to introduce the Physics Education Websites (PEWs) and guide their followers toward the most credibility of them by analyzing their content. The sample consisted of (36) websites which were selected according to specific…

  3. Assessment of Physical Self-Concept in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability: Content and Factor Validity of the Very Short Form of the Physical Self-Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Begarie, Jerome; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Ninot, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Very Short Form of the Physical Self-Inventory- (PSI-VSF) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total of 362 ID adolescents were involved in two studies. In Study 1, the content and format scale response of the PSI-VSF…

  4. Content validity and inter-rater reliability of the Halliwick-concept-based instrument 'Swimming with Independent Measure'.

    PubMed

    Sršen, Katja Groleger; Vidmar, Gaj; Pikl, Maša; Vrečar, Irena; Burja, Cirila; Krušec, Klavdija

    2012-06-01

    The Halliwick concept is widely used in different settings to promote joyful movement in water and swimming. To assess the swimming skills and progression of an individual swimmer, a valid and reliable measure should be used. The Halliwick-concept-based Swimming with Independent Measure (SWIM) was introduced for this purpose. We aimed to determine its content validity and inter-rater reliability. Fifty-four healthy children, 3.5-11 years old, from a mainstream swimming program participated in a content validity study. They were evaluated with SWIM and the national evaluation system of swimming abilities (classifying children into seven categories). To study the inter-rater reliability of SWIM, we included 37 children and youth from a Halliwick swimming program, aged 7-22 years, who were evaluated by two Halliwick instructors independently. The average SWIM score differed between national evaluation system categories and followed the expected order (P<0.001), whereby a ceiling effect was observed in the higher categories. High inter-rater reliability was found for all 11 SWIM items. The lowest reliability was observed for item G (sagittal rotation), although the estimates were still above 0.9. As expected, the highest reliability was observed for the total score (intraclass correlation 0.996). The validity of SWIM with respect to the national evaluation system of swimming abilities is high until the point where a swimmer is well adapted to water and already able to learn some swimming techniques. The inter-rater reliability of SWIM is very high; thus, we believe that SWIM can be used in further research and practice to follow the progress of swimmers.

  5. Fanpage metrics analysis. "Study on content engagement"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Zoha; Suberamanian, Kumaran; Zanuddin, Hasmah Binti; Moghavvemi, Sedigheh; Nasir, Mohd Hairul Nizam Bin Md

    2016-08-01

    Social Media is now determined as an excellent communicative tool to connect directly with consumers. One of the most significant ways to connect with the consumers through these Social Networking Sites (SNS) is to create a facebook fanpage with brand contents and to place different posts periodically on these fanpages. In measuring social networking sites' effectiveness, corporate houses are now analyzing metrics in terms of calculating engagement rate, number of comments/share and likings in fanpages. So now, it is very important for the marketers to know the effectiveness of different contents or posts of fanpages in order to increase the fan responsiveness and engagement rate in the fan pages. In the study the authors have analyzed total 1834 brand posts from 17 international brands of Electronics companies. Data of 9 months (From December 2014 to August 2015) have been collected for analyses, which were available online in the Brand' fan pages. An econometrics analysis is conducted using Eviews 9, to determine the impact of different contents on fanpage engagement. The study picked the four most frequently posted content to determine their impact on PTA (people Talking About) metrics and Fanpage engagement activities.

  6. Computerized content analysis of some adolescent writings of Napoleon Bonaparte: a test of the validity of the method.

    PubMed

    Gottschalk, Louis A; DeFrancisco, Don; Bechtel, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the validity of a computer software program previously demonstrated to be capable of making DSM-IV neuropsychiatric diagnoses from the content analysis of speech or verbal texts. In this report, the computer program was applied to three personal writings of Napoleon Bonaparte when he was 12 to 16 years of age. The accuracy of the neuropsychiatric evaluations derived from the computerized content analysis of these writings of Napoleon was independently corroborated by two biographers who have described pertinent details concerning his life situations, moods, and other emotional reactions during this adolescent period of his life. The relevance of this type of computer technology to psychohistorical research and clinical psychiatry is suggested.

  7. Validity of a Checklist for the Design, Content, and Instructional Qualities of Children's Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çer, Erkan; Sahin, Ertugrul

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a checklist whose validity has been tested in assessing children's books. Participants consisted of university students who had taken a course in children's literature. They were selected through convenience sampling and randomly assigned into experimental and control groups. Participants in the…

  8. Development of a Walking Safety Scale for Older Adults, Part I: Content Validity of the GEM Scale

    PubMed Central

    Boudreault, Renée; Rousseau, Jacqueline; Bourbonnais, Daniel; Nadeau, Sylvie; Dubé, François

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The Grille d’évaluation de la sécurité à la marche (GEM scale) is a performance-based tool developed to fill the need for an objective assessment of walking safety for older adults. It underwent a three-phase process of content validation. Method: A mailed questionnaire was used to assess the representativeness of the walking items (5-point pertinence scale). Subsequently, two physiotherapist focus groups (n = 20) were held to further evaluate the relevance of the scale and the walking items. Finally, a pilot study was completed with 3 raters administering the GEM scale to 12 hospitalized patients. Results: Comments and descriptive statistics (percentages) were analyzed from the questionnaire results and focus groups. On completion of the pilot study, which assessed 12 patients on the GEM scale, additional analyses were performed to address the theoretical background, the administration manual, the walking items, the scoring scale, and interpretation of the scale. Following each step, modifications were made to reflect the results of the analyses. Conclusion: The three-phase content-validation process demonstrated the relevance of this instrument and its representativeness as a walking safety assessment tool for older adults. PMID:20145759

  9. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling.

    PubMed

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R; Glück, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis.

  10. What Do You Think You Are Measuring? A Mixed-Methods Procedure for Assessing the Content Validity of Test Items and Theory-Based Scaling

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Ingrid; Levenson, Michael R.; Glück, Judith

    2017-01-01

    The valid measurement of latent constructs is crucial for psychological research. Here, we present a mixed-methods procedure for improving the precision of construct definitions, determining the content validity of items, evaluating the representativeness of items for the target construct, generating test items, and analyzing items on a theoretical basis. To illustrate the mixed-methods content-scaling-structure (CSS) procedure, we analyze the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory, a self-report measure of wisdom (ASTI, Levenson et al., 2005). A content-validity analysis of the ASTI items was used as the basis of psychometric analyses using multidimensional item response models (N = 1215). We found that the new procedure produced important suggestions concerning five subdimensions of the ASTI that were not identifiable using exploratory methods. The study shows that the application of the suggested procedure leads to a deeper understanding of latent constructs. It also demonstrates the advantages of theory-based item analysis. PMID:28270777

  11. Supplemental Milestones for Emergency Medicine Residency Programs: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Ketterer, Andrew R.; Salzman, David H.; Branzetti, Jeremy B.; Gisondi, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Emergency medicine (EM) residency programs may be 36 or 48 months in length. The Residency Review Committee for EM requires that 48-month programs provide educational justification for the additional 12 months. We developed additional milestones that EM training programs might use to assess outcomes in domains that meet this accreditation requirement. This study aims to assess for content validity of these supplemental milestones using a similar methodology to that of the original EM Milestones validation study. Methods A panel of EM program directors (PD) and content experts at two institutions identified domains of additional training not covered by the existing EM Milestones. This led to the development of six novel subcompetencies: “Operations and Administration,” “Critical Care,” “Leadership and Management,” “Research,” “Teaching and Learning,” and “Career Development.” Subject-matter experts at other 48-month EM residency programs refined the milestones for these subcompetencies. PDs of all 48-month EM programs were then asked to order the proposed milestones using the Dreyfus model of skill acquisition for each subcompetency. Data analysis mirrored that used in the original EM Milestones validation study, leading to the final version of our supplemental milestones. Results Twenty of 33 subjects (58.8%) completed the study. No subcompetency or individual milestone met deletion criteria. Of the 97 proposed milestones, 67 (69.1%) required no further editing and remained at the same level as proposed by the study authors. Thirty milestones underwent level changes: 15 (15.5%) were moved one level up and 13 (13.4%) were moved one level down. One milestone (1.0%) in “Leadership and Management” was moved two levels up, and one milestone in “Operations and Administration” was moved two levels down. One milestone in “Research” was ranked by the survey respondents at one level higher than that proposed by the authors

  12. 40 CFR 761.392 - Preparing validation study samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preparing validation study samples..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.392 Preparing validation study samples. (a)(1) To validate a procedure...

  13. 40 CFR 761.392 - Preparing validation study samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preparing validation study samples..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.392 Preparing validation study samples. (a)(1) To validate a procedure...

  14. 40 CFR 761.392 - Preparing validation study samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preparing validation study samples..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.392 Preparing validation study samples. (a)(1) To validate a procedure...

  15. Validation of spot-testing kits to determine iodine content in salt.

    PubMed Central

    Pandav, C. S.; Arora, N. K.; Krishnan, A.; Sankar, R.; Pandav, S.; Karmarkar, M. G.

    2000-01-01

    . This overestimation could result in complacency. Therefore, we conclude that until a valid alternative is available, the titration method should be used for monitoring the iodine content of salt at all levels, from producer to consumer, to ensure effectiveness of the programme. PMID:10994281

  16. [Near infrared spectroscopy study on water content in turbine oil].

    PubMed

    Chen, Bin; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Xian-Ming

    2013-11-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy combined with successive projections algorithm (SPA) was investigated for determination of water content in turbine oil. Through the 57 samples of different water content in turbine oil scanned applying near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, with the water content in the turbine oil of 0-0.156%, different pretreatment methods such as the original spectra, first derivative spectra and differential polynomial least squares fitting algorithm Savitzky-Golay (SG), and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were applied for the extraction of effective wavelengths, the correlation coefficient (R) and root mean square error (RMSE) were used as the model evaluation indices, accordingly water content in turbine oil was investigated. The results indicated that the original spectra with different water content in turbine oil were pretreated by the performance of first derivative + SG pretreatments, then the selected effective wavelengths were used as the inputs of least square support vector machine (LS-SVM). A total of 16 variables selected by SPA were employed to construct the model of SPA and least square support vector machine (SPA-LS-SVM). There is 9 as The correlation coefficient was 0.975 9 and the root of mean square error of validation set was 2.655 8 x 10(-3) using the model, and it is feasible to determine the water content in oil using near infrared spectroscopy and SPA-LS-SVM, and an excellent prediction precision was obtained. This study supplied a new and alternative approach to the further application of near infrared spectroscopy in on-line monitoring of contamination such as water content in oil.

  17. Utilizing job/task analysis to establish content validity in the design of training programs

    SciTech Connect

    Nay, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    The decade of the 1980's has been a turbulent time for the Department of Energy. With concern mounting about the terrorist threat, a wave of congressional inquiries and internal inspections crossed the nation and engulfed many of the nuclear laboratories and facilities operated by DOE contractors. A typical finding was the need to improve, and increase, the training of the protective force. The immediate reaction resulted in a wide variety of responses, with most contractors feeling safer with too much, rather than not enough training. As soon as the initial pressures to upgrade subsided, a task force was established to evaluate the overall training needs. Representatives from the contractor facilities worked together to conduct a job analysis of the protective force. A generic task inventory was established, and validated at the different sites. This list has been invaluable for determining the tasks, conditions, and standards needed to develop well stated learning objectives. The enhanced training programs are being refined to ensure job content validity based on the data collected.

  18. A Comparison of Content-Balancing Procedures for Estimating Multiple Clinical Domains in Computerized Adaptive Testing: Relative Precision, Validity, and Detection of Persons with Misfitting Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Barth B.; Dennis, Michael L.; Conrad, Kendon J.

    2010-01-01

    This simulation study sought to compare four different computerized adaptive testing (CAT) content-balancing procedures designed for use in a multidimensional assessment with respect to measurement precision, symptom severity classification, validity of clinical diagnostic recommendations, and sensitivity to atypical responding. The four…

  19. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., such as those described in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests prepared by a joint... they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related...

  20. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., such as those described in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests prepared by a joint... they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related...

  1. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., such as those described in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests prepared by a joint... they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related...

  2. 29 CFR 1607.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., such as those described in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Tests prepared by a joint... they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by a criterion-related...

  3. Development, content validity, and piloting of an instrument designed to measure managers' attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support.

    PubMed

    Chow, Tan; Wolfe, Edward W; Olson, Beth H

    2012-07-01

    Manager attitude is influential in female employees' perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support. Currently, no instrument is available to assess manager attitude toward supporting women who wish to combine breastfeeding with work. We developed and piloted an instrument to measure manager attitudes toward workplace breastfeeding support entitled the "Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire," an instrument that measures four constructs using 60 items that are rated agree/disagree on a 4-point Likert rating scale. We established the content validity of the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures through expert content review (n=22), expert assessment of item fit (n=11), and cognitive interviews (n=8). Data were collected from a purposive sample of 185 front-line managers who had experience supervising female employees, and responses were scaled using the Multidimensional Random Coefficients Multinomial Logit Model. Dimensionality analyses supported the proposed four-construct model. Reliability ranged from 0.75 to 0.86, and correlations between the constructs were moderately strong (0.47 to 0.71). Four items in two constructs exhibited model-to-data misfit and/or a low score-measure correlation. One item was revised and the other three items were retained in the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire. Findings of this study suggest that the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures are reliable and valid indicators of manager attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support, and future research should be conducted to establish external validity. The Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire could be used to collect data in a standardized manner within and across companies to measure and compare manager attitudes toward supporting breastfeeding. Organizations can subsequently develop targeted strategies to improve support for breastfeeding

  4. Validation study of Polar V800 accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Vicente, Adrián; De Cocker, Katrien; Garatachea, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Background The correct quantification of physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) in daily life is an important target for researchers and professionals. The objective of this paper is to study the validity of the Polar V800 for the quantification of PA and the estimation of EE against the ActiGraph (ActiTrainer) in healthy young adults. Methods Eighteen Caucasian active people (50% women) aged between 19–23 years wore an ActiTrainer on the right hip and a Polar V800 on the preferred wrist during 7 days. Paired samples t-tests were used to analyze differences in outcomes between devices, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients to examine the correlation between outcomes. The agreement was studied using the Bland-Altman method. Also, the association between the difference and the magnitude of the measurement (heteroscedasticity) was examined. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC value) were calculated to evaluate the ability of the devices to accurately define a person who fulfills the recommendation of 10,000 daily steps. Results The devices significantly differed from each other on all outcomes (P<0.05), except for Polar V800’s alerts vs. ActiTrainer’s 1 hour sedentary bouts (P=0.595) and Polar V800’s walking time vs. ActiTrainer’s lifestyle time (P=0.484). Heteroscedasticity analyses were significant for all outcomes, except for Kcal and sitting time. The ROC-AUC value was fair (0.781±0.048) and the sensitivity and specificity was 98% and 58%, respectively. Conclusions The Polar V800 accelerometer has a comparable validity to the accelerometer in free-living conditions, regarding “1 hour sedentary bouts” and “V800’s walking time vs. ActiTrainer’s lifestyle time” in young adults. PMID:27570772

  5. Validation Studies for the Diet History Questionnaire II

    Cancer.gov

    Data show that the DHQ I instrument provides reasonable nutrient estimates, and three studies were conducted to assess its validity/calibration. There have been no such validation studies with the DHQ II.

  6. Practice analysis: a basis for content validity for american board of radiology examinations in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Yang, June C; Kazerooni, Ella A; Bosma, Jennifer L; Gerdeman, Anthony M; Becker, Gary J; Vydareny, Kay H

    2012-02-01

    The ABR performs practice analysis every 3 years, according to its strategic plan, in an effort to strengthen the content validity of its qualifying and certifying examinations as well as its maintenance of certification examinations. A nationwide survey of diagnostic radiologists was conducted in July 2010 for the purpose of determining the critically important and frequently performed activities in 12 clinical categories. The survey instrument was distributed electronically to 17,721 members of the ACR, with a unique identification code for each individual. A 5-point scale was established for both frequency and importance variables. The frequency scale ranged from 1 to 5 as follows: 1 = not applicable, 2 = occasionally, 3 = monthly, 4 = weekly, and 5 = daily. The scale for importance also ranged from 1 to 5: 1 = not applicable, 2 = not important, 3 = somewhat important, 4 = important, and 5 = essential. A total of 2,909 diagnostic radiologists (19.32%) participated. Of these, 2,233 (76.76%) indicated that they spent ≥50% of their time in clinical practice. Because of its brevity of the list of the activities, results for the gastrointestinal category are presented in this article. The list of activities weighted according to importance and frequency is presented in this article and, as illustrated, could become the foundation for developing a more detailed blueprint for the gastrointestinal category certifying examinations in diagnostic radiology. Findings on demographic information are also presented.

  7. Problems and possibilities of astronauts—Ground communication content analysis validity check

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, Nick; Gushin, Vadim; Yusupova, Anna

    The analysis of space crew's communication with mission control (MC) is the standard operational procedure of the psychological support group in the Institute for Biomedical problems, Russia. For more than 20 years it is used for the monitoring of the behavioral health of Russian crewmembers in space. We apply quantitative speech content analysis to reveal relationship dynamics within the group and between the crew and MC. We suggest that the features of individual communicative style reflect psychological emotional status and individuality of communicator, his coping strategy, fixed by POMS. Moreover, the appearance of certain psychological complexities would become apparent both in POMS profile change and in communicative style change. As a result of the validity check we arrived to a new objective method of crews' dynamic psychological monitoring. This method would not take any of astronauts' time, would not need any on-board equipment, and at the same time it is based on real performance in space, i.e. astronauts communication with MC.

  8. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section... PROHIBITIONS Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.395 A validation study. (a) Decontaminate the following prepared sample surfaces using...

  9. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section... PROHIBITIONS Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.395 A validation study. (a) Decontaminate the following prepared sample surfaces using...

  10. 40 CFR 761.395 - A validation study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false A validation study. 761.395 Section... PROHIBITIONS Comparison Study for Validating a New Performance-Based Decontamination Solvent Under § 761.79(d)(4) § 761.395 A validation study. (a) Decontaminate the following prepared sample surfaces using...

  11. A New Method for Assessing Content Validity in Model-Based Creation and Iteration of eHealth Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Marsac, Meghan L; Kohser, Kristen L; Kenardy, Justin A; March, Sonja; Winston, Flaura K

    2015-01-01

    Background The advent of eHealth interventions to address psychological concerns and health behaviors has created new opportunities, including the ability to optimize the effectiveness of intervention activities and then deliver these activities consistently to a large number of individuals in need. Given that eHealth interventions grounded in a well-delineated theoretical model for change are more likely to be effective and that eHealth interventions can be costly to develop, assuring the match of final intervention content and activities to the underlying model is a key step. We propose to apply the concept of “content validity” as a crucial checkpoint to evaluate the extent to which proposed intervention activities in an eHealth intervention program are valid (eg, relevant and likely to be effective) for the specific mechanism of change that each is intended to target and the intended target population for the intervention. Objective The aims of this paper are to define content validity as it applies to model-based eHealth intervention development, to present a feasible method for assessing content validity in this context, and to describe the implementation of this new method during the development of a Web-based intervention for children. Methods We designed a practical 5-step method for assessing content validity in eHealth interventions that includes defining key intervention targets, delineating intervention activity-target pairings, identifying experts and using a survey tool to gather expert ratings of the relevance of each activity to its intended target, its likely effectiveness in achieving the intended target, and its appropriateness with a specific intended audience, and then using quantitative and qualitative results to identify intervention activities that may need modification. We applied this method during our development of the Coping Coach Web-based intervention for school-age children. Results In the evaluation of Coping Coach content

  12. Content and Face Validation of a Curriculum for Ultrasonic Propulsion of Calculi in a Human Renal Model

    PubMed Central

    Dunmire, Barbrina; Cunitz, Bryan W.; He, Xuemei; Sorensen, Mathew D.; Harper, Jonathan D.; Bailey, Michael R.; Lendvay, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Ultrasonic propulsion to reposition urinary tract calculi requires knowledge about ultrasound image capture, device manipulation, and interpretation. The purpose of this study was to validate a cognitive and technical skills curriculum to teach urologists ultrasonic propulsion to reposition kidney stones in tissue phantoms. Materials and Methods: Ten board-certified urologists recruited from a single institution underwent a didactic session on renal ultrasound imaging. Subjects completed technical skills modules in tissue phantoms, including kidney imaging, pushing a stone through a translucent maze, and repositioning a lower pole calyceal stone. Objective cognitive and technical performance metrics were recorded. Subjects completed a questionnaire to ascertain face and content validity on a five-point Likert scale. Results: Eight urologists (80%) had never attended a previous ultrasound course, and nine (90%) performed renal ultrasounds less frequently than every 6 months. Mean cognitive skills scores improved from 55% to 91% (p<0.0001) on pre- and post-didactic tests. In the kidney phantom, 10 subjects (100%) repositioned the lower pole calyceal stone to at least the lower pole infundibulum, while 9 (90%) successfully repositioned the stone to the renal pelvis. A mean±SD (15.7±13.3) pushes were required to complete the task over an average of 4.6±2.2 minutes. Urologists rated the curriculum's effectiveness and realism as a training tool at a mean score of 4.6/5.0 and 4.1/5.0, respectively. Conclusions: The curriculum for ultrasonic propulsion is effective and useful for training urologists with limited ultrasound proficiency in stone repositioning technique. Further studies in animate and human models will be required to assess predictive validity. PMID:24228719

  13. FETAX interlaboratory validation study: Phase 2 testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bantle, J.A. . Dept. of Zoology); Burton, D.T. ); Dawson, D.A. . Dept. of Biology and Toxicology)

    1994-10-01

    The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) is a 96-h whole embryo developmental toxicity screening assay that can be used in ecotoxicology and in detecting mammalian developmental toxicants when an in vitro metabolic activation system is employed. A standardized American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guide for the conduct of FETAX has been published along with a companion atlas that helps in embryo staging and identifying malformations. As part of the ASTM process, an interlaboratory validation study was undertaken to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of FETAX. Six different laboratories participated in the study. Each laboratory utilized one technician with the exception of one laboratory, which utilized two independent technicians. In Phase 1, FETAX proved to be more repeatable and reliable than many other bioassays. However, some excessive variation was observed in a few laboratories. Some of this variation may have been due to an initial lack of experience with the assay by some technicians. Phase 2, which is reported here, showed far less intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability than did Phase 1. Nonteratogens such as saccharin and sodium cyclamate showed the most consistent results, whereas more variability was observed for the teratogens caffeine and 5-fluorouracil. Interlaboratory coefficient of variation values for all FETAX end points ranged from 7.3 to 54.7%. The minimum concentration to inhibit growth proved to be the most variable end point for three of the four test chemicals, whereas the LC50 and EC50 (malformation) proved to be less variable.

  14. Content Validity of the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: An International Delphi Survey

    PubMed Central

    Jobst, Andrea; Kirchberger, Inge; Cieza, Alarcos; Stucki, Gerold; Stucki, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The “Comprehensive ICF Core Set for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD)“ is an application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and represents the typical spectrum of problems in functioning of patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to validate this ICF Core Set from the perspective of physicians. Materials and Methodology: Physicians experienced in COPD treatment were asked about the patients’ problems treated by physicians in patients with COPD in a three-round electronic mail survey using the Delphi technique. Responses were linked to the ICF. Results: Seventy-six physicians in 44 countries gave a total of 1330 responses that were linked to 148 different ICF categories. Nine ICF categories were not represented in the Comprehensive ICF Core Set for COPD although at least 75% of the participants have rated them as important. Nineteen concepts were linked to the not yet developed ICF component personal factors and seventeen concepts were not covered by the ICF. Conclusion: The high percentage of ICF categories represented in the ICF Core Set for COPD indicates satisfactory content validity from the perspective of the physicians. However, some issues were raised that were not covered and need to be investigated further. PMID:23730367

  15. Content Validity Index and Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability of a New Muscle Strength/Endurance Test Battery for Swedish Soldiers.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Helena; Tegern, Matthias; Monnier, Andreas; Skoglund, Jörgen; Helander, Charlotte; Persson, Emelie; Malm, Christer; Broman, Lisbet; Aasa, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of commonly used muscle performance tests in military personnel and to investigate the reliability of a proposed test battery. For the content validity investigation, thirty selected tests were those described in the literature and/or commonly used in the Nordic and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries. Nine selected experts rated, on a four-point Likert scale, the relevance of these tests in relation to five different work tasks: lifting, carrying equipment on the body or in the hands, climbing, and digging. Thereafter, a content validity index (CVI) was calculated for each work task. The result showed excellent CVI (≥0.78) for sixteen tests, which comprised of one or more of the military work tasks. Three of the tests; the functional lower-limb loading test (the Ranger test), dead-lift with kettlebells, and back extension, showed excellent content validity for four of the work tasks. For the development of a new muscle strength/endurance test battery, these three tests were further supplemented with two other tests, namely, the chins and side-bridge test. The inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC2,1 0.99) for all five tests. The intra-rater reliability was good to high (ICC3,1 0.82-0.96) with an acceptable standard error of mean (SEM), except for the side-bridge test (SEM%>15). Thus, the final suggested test battery for a valid and reliable evaluation of soldiers' muscle performance comprised the following four tests; the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, chins, and back extension test. The criterion-related validity of the test battery should be further evaluated for soldiers exposed to varying physical workload.

  16. Content Validity Index and Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability of a New Muscle Strength/Endurance Test Battery for Swedish Soldiers

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Helena; Tegern, Matthias; Monnier, Andreas; Skoglund, Jörgen; Helander, Charlotte; Persson, Emelie; Malm, Christer; Broman, Lisbet; Aasa, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of commonly used muscle performance tests in military personnel and to investigate the reliability of a proposed test battery. For the content validity investigation, thirty selected tests were those described in the literature and/or commonly used in the Nordic and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) countries. Nine selected experts rated, on a four-point Likert scale, the relevance of these tests in relation to five different work tasks: lifting, carrying equipment on the body or in the hands, climbing, and digging. Thereafter, a content validity index (CVI) was calculated for each work task. The result showed excellent CVI (≥0.78) for sixteen tests, which comprised of one or more of the military work tasks. Three of the tests; the functional lower-limb loading test (the Ranger test), dead-lift with kettlebells, and back extension, showed excellent content validity for four of the work tasks. For the development of a new muscle strength/endurance test battery, these three tests were further supplemented with two other tests, namely, the chins and side-bridge test. The inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC2,1 0.99) for all five tests. The intra-rater reliability was good to high (ICC3,1 0.82–0.96) with an acceptable standard error of mean (SEM), except for the side-bridge test (SEM%>15). Thus, the final suggested test battery for a valid and reliable evaluation of soldiers’ muscle performance comprised the following four tests; the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, chins, and back extension test. The criterion-related validity of the test battery should be further evaluated for soldiers exposed to varying physical workload. PMID:26177030

  17. Psychologist in a Pocket: Lexicon Development and Content Validation of a Mobile-Based App for Depression Screening

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Roann Munoz; Bitsch, Jó Ágila; Jonas, Stephan Michael; Ix, Tim; See, Portia Lynn Quetulio; Wehrle, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Background Language reflects the state of one’s mental health and personal characteristics. It also reveals preoccupations with a particular schema, thus possibly providing insights into psychological conditions. Using text or lexical analysis in exploring depression, negative schemas and self-focusing tendencies may be depicted. As mobile technology has become highly integrated in daily routine, mobile devices have the capacity for ecological momentary assessment (EMA), specifically the experience sampling method (ESM), where behavior is captured in real-time or closer in time to experience in one’s natural environment. Extending mobile technology to psychological health could augment initial clinical assessment, particularly of mood disturbances, such as depression and analyze daily activities, such as language use in communication. Here, we present the process of lexicon generation and development and the initial validation of Psychologist in a Pocket (PiaP), a mobile app designed to screen signs of depression through text analysis. Objective The main objectives of the study are (1) to generate and develop a depressive lexicon that can be used for screening text-input in mobile apps to be used in the PiaP; and (2) to conduct content validation as initial validation. Methods The first phase of our research focused on lexicon development. Words related to depression and its symptoms based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) and in the ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders: Clinical Descriptions and Diagnostic Guidelines classification systems were gathered from focus group discussions with Filipino college students, interviews with mental health professionals, and the review of established scales for depression and other related constructs. Results The lexicon development phase yielded a database consisting of 13 categories based on the criteria depressive symptoms in the DSM-5 and ICD-10. For

  18. MEPROCS framework for Craniofacial Superimposition: Validation study.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, O; Vicente, R; Navega, D; Campomanes-Álvarez, C; Cattaneo, C; Jankauskas, R; Huete, M I; Navarro, F; Hardiman, R; Ruiz, E; Imaizumi, K; Cavalli, F; Veselovskaya, E; Humpire, D; Cardoso, J; Collini, F; Mazzarelli, D; Gibelli, D; Damas, S

    2016-11-01

    Craniofacial Superimposition (CFS) involves the process of overlaying a skull with a number of ante-mortem images of an individual and the analysis of their morphological correspondence. The lack of unified working protocols and the absence of commonly accepted standards, led to contradictory consensus regarding its reliability. One of the more important aims of 'New Methodologies and Protocols of Forensic Identification by Craniofacial Superimposition (MEPROCS)' project was to propose a common framework for CFS, what can be considered the first international standard in the field. The framework aimed to serve as a roadmap for avoiding particular assumptions that could bias the process. At the same time, it provides some empirical support to certain practices, technological means, and morphological criteria expected to facilitate the application of the CFS task and to improve its reliability. In order to confirm the utility and potential benefits of the framework use, there is a need to empirically evaluate it in CFS identification scenarios as close as possible to the reality. Thus, the purpose of this study is to validate the CFS framework developed. For that aim 12 participants were asked to report about a variable number of CFS following all the recommendations of the framework. The results are analysed and discussed according to the framework understanding and fulfilment, the participants' performance, and the correlation between expected decisions and those given by the participants. In view of the quantitative results and qualitative examination criteria we can conclude that those who follow the MEPROCS recommendations improve their performance.

  19. Development and Validation of Stability Indicating Spectroscopic Method for Content Analysis of Ceftriaxone Sodium in Pharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Ethiraj, Revathi; Thiruvengadam, Ethiraj; Sampath, Venkattapuram Saravanan; Vahid, Abdul; Raj, Jithin

    2014-01-01

    A simple, selective, and stability indicating spectroscopic method has been selected and validated for the assay of ceftriaxone sodium in the powder for injection dosage forms. Proposed method is based on the measurement of absorbance of ceftriaxone sodium in aqueous medium at 241 nm. The method obeys Beer's law in the range of 5–50 μg/mL with correlation coefficient of 0.9983. Apparent molar absorptivity and Sandell's sensitivity were found to be 2.046 × 103 L mol−1 cm−1 and 0.02732 μg/cm2/0.001 absorbance units. This study indicated that ceftriaxone sodium was degraded in acid medium and also underwent oxidative degradation. Percent relative standard deviation associated with all the validation parameters was less than 2, showing compliance with acceptance criteria of Q2 (R1), International Conference on Harmonization (2005) guidelines. Then the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of ceftriaxone sodium in sterile preparation and results were comparable with reported methods. PMID:27355020

  20. Identification of Learning Disabilities in Ontario: A Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Robert B.; And Others

    The study examined the process by which diagnostic data on children thought to have learning disabilities (LD) are generated and used. Emphasis was placed on the validity of test instruments in common use in the field. Since part of the practical validity of any instrument used to identify an LD child rests on the validity of the LD construct…

  1. Expert system verification and validation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Scott W.; Hamilton, David

    1992-01-01

    Five workshops on verification and validation (V&V) of expert systems (ES) where taught during this recent period of performance. Two key activities, previously performed under this contract, supported these recent workshops (1) Survey of state-of-the-practice of V&V of ES and (2) Development of workshop material and first class. The first activity involved performing an extensive survey of ES developers in order to answer several questions regarding the state-of-the-practice in V&V of ES. These questions related to the amount and type of V&V done and the successfulness of this V&V. The next key activity involved developing an intensive hands-on workshop in V&V of ES. This activity involved surveying a large number of V&V techniques, conventional as well as ES specific ones. In addition to explaining the techniques, we showed how each technique could be applied on a sample problem. References were included in the workshop material, and cross referenced to techniques, so that students would know where to go to find additional information about each technique. In addition to teaching specific techniques, we included an extensive amount of material on V&V concepts and how to develop a V&V plan for an ES project. We felt this material was necessary so that developers would be prepared to develop an orderly and structured approach to V&V. That is, they would have a process that supported the use of the specific techniques. Finally, to provide hands-on experience, we developed a set of case study exercises. These exercises were to provide an opportunity for the students to apply all the material (concepts, techniques, and planning material) to a realistic problem.

  2. Validity Studies of the Kindergarten Screening Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alston, Herbert L.; Doughtie, Eugene B.

    Research is reviewed on the validity of the Kindergarten Screening Inventory (KSI), an instrument developed by the Houston, Texas Independent School District to screen kindergarten students for possible difficulties that could lead to learning problems. The KSI includes eye-hand coordination, language learning, gross-motor subtests, as well as…

  3. An Attitude Scale for Smart Board Use in Education: Validity and Reliability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sad, Suleyman Nihat

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure the attitudes of elementary students towards smart board (SB) use in education. A sequential exploratory mixed method was used. So the study started with a qualitative approach to establish the content and face validity of the scale, followed by a quantitative approach to test…

  4. SAMICS Validation. SAMICS Support Study, Phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    SAMICS provides a consistent basis for estimating array costs and compares production technology costs. A review and a validation of the SAMICS model are reported. The review had the following purposes: (1) to test the computational validity of the computer model by comparison with preliminary hand calculations based on conventional cost estimating techniques; (2) to review and improve the accuracy of the cost relationships being used by the model: and (3) to provide an independent verification to users of the model's value in decision making for allocation of research and developement funds and for investment in manufacturing capacity. It is concluded that the SAMICS model is a flexible, accurate, and useful tool for managerial decision making.

  5. The Intra-Rater Reliability of Nine Content-Validated Technical Skill Assessment Instruments (TSAI) for Athletic Taping Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagumen, Niko G.; Butterwick, Dale J.; Paskevich, David M.; Fung, Tak S.; Donnon, Tyrone L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish the intra-rater reliability of nine content-validated Technical Skill Assessment Instruments (TSAI) for the skills of athletic taping. Setting: University of Calgary. Subjects: Canadian Certified Athletic Therapists, CAT(C), with a mean ± SD of 9.6 ± 10.8 years as a CAT(C), 7.8 ± 10.9 years as a Supervisory Athletic…

  6. Illness Among Persian Gulf War Veterans: Case Validation Studies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    case-validation and case - control studies nested within our population-based study, should provide an estimate of the true magnitude of the problem...and occupational and environmental exposures for validated illness in a series of nested case - control studies . Year 2 of 4 the grant has just been

  7. Can we use social media to support content validity of patient-reported outcome instruments in medical product development?

    PubMed

    Rothman, Margaret; Gnanaskathy, Ari; Wicks, Paul; Papadopoulos, Elektra J

    2015-01-01

    We report a panel designed to open a dialog between pharmaceutical sponsors, regulatory reviewers, and other stakeholders regarding the use of social media to collect data to support the content validity of patient-reported outcome instruments in the context of medical product labeling. Multiple stakeholder perspectives were brought together to better understand the issues encountered in pursuing social media as a form of data collection to support content validity. Presenters represented a pharmaceutical sponsor of clinical trials, a regulatory reviewer from the Food and Drug Administration, and an online data platform provider. Each presenter shared its perspective on the advantages and disadvantages of using social media to collect this type of information. There was consensus that there is great potential for using social media for this purpose. There remain, however, unanswered questions that need to be addressed such as identifying which type of social media is most appropriate for data collection and ensuring that participants are representative of the target population while maintaining the advantages of anonymity provided by online platforms. The use of social media to collect evidence of content validity holds much promise. Clarification of issues that need to be addressed and accumulation of empirical evidence to address these questions are essential to moving forward.

  8. Study on the validity region of Energy Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangjie; Chen, Hualing; Zhu, Danhui; Zhang, Wenbo

    2014-04-01

    The validity domain of Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) is studied in this paper. The validity region and criterion of EFEA are studied theoretically from the formation of reverberant plane wave field, one of the main assumptions of EFEA. The studies are acquired by virtue of the equation of radiative energy transfer method, a similar wave method that can express the direct field and its conversion relationship with reverberant field exactly. The result shows that the SEA criterion of diffuse field derived by Le Bot can be used as a good indicator for the EFEA validity. Numerical simulations on a rectangular plate with different physical parameters are applied to validate the criterion. The validity region and the diagrams of validity of EFEA are assessed and discussed. Some noteworthy conclusions about EFEA are drawn.

  9. Content Validity of the Lee Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease Symptom Scale as Assessed by Cognitive Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Merkel, Emily C.; Mitchell, Sandra A.; Lee, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    The Lee Chronic Graft-Versus-Host Disease (cGVHD) Symptom Scale has been recommended for use by the 2005 and 2014 NIH Consensus Conferences to capture chronic GVHD symptoms. Although the cGVHD Symptom Scale was previously validated, this study aims to re-examine the instrument’s content validity by exploring the clarity, comprehensibility, relevance and ease of use in a contemporary chronic GVHD sample, toward FDA qualification of this patient-reported outcomes (PRO) instrument as a drug development tool. Attaining FDA qualification means that an instrument has been judged to be a reliable and valid measure of clinical benefit. Twenty adult patients with a median age of 58 (range 31–79) years participated. Median duration of chronic GVHD was 33 (range 0–134.4) months, and current NIH severity was mild (n=1), moderate (n=10) or severe (n=9) with a median of 5.5 (range 0–14) treatments ever used for chronic GVHD. The median summary score was 23 (range 8–51), and the median time to complete the scale was 2 minutes 7 seconds (range 01:08–04:00 minutes). Chronic GVHD symptoms were well captured on the Symptom Scale, although four additional symptoms/signs were mentioned by 15% of participants. Participants reported that item wording was clear, and they provided accurate definitions of specific terminologies. However, 7 (35%) participants indicated that they found one or more items in the skin domain unclear, reporting, for example, that rashes and itchy skin seemed synonymous. Two (10.5%) of 19 participants described how their answers would have changed if asked about their symptoms within the past month instead of within the past week owing to recently resolved symptoms. All participants were able to accurately explain the concept of “bother” in their own words and distinguish it from symptom severity or other related symptom attributes. In summary, participants found the tool to be a comprehensive and understandable way to report their chronic GVHD

  10. Content Validity of the Lee Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Symptom Scale as Assessed by Cognitive Interviews.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Emily C; Mitchell, Sandra A; Lee, Stephanie J

    2016-04-01

    The Lee Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease (cGVHD) Symptom Scale has been recommended for use by the 2005 and 2014 National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Conferences to capture cGVHD symptoms. Although the cGVHD Symptom Scale was previously validated, this study aims to reexamine the instrument's content validity by exploring the clarity, comprehensibility, relevance, and ease of use in a contemporary cGVHD sample, toward Food and Drug Administration (FDA) qualification of this patient-reported outcomes (PRO) instrument as a drug development tool. Attaining FDA qualification means that an instrument has been judged to be a reliable and valid measure of clinical benefit. Twenty adult patients with a median age of 58 year (range, 31 to 79 years) participated. The median duration of cGVHD was 33 months (range, 0 to 134.4 months), and current NIH severity score was mild in 1 patient, moderate in 10 patients, and severe in 9 patients, with a median of 5.5 treatments (range, 0 to 14) ever used for cGVHD. The median summary score was 23 (range, 8 to 51), and the median time to complete the scale was 2 minutes, 7 seconds (range, 1 minute, 8 seconds to 4 minutes). Symptoms of cGVHD were well captured on the Lee cGVHD Symptom Scale, although 4 additional symptoms/signs were mentioned by 15% of the participants. Participants mostly reported that item wording was clear and provided accurate definitions of specific terminologies; however, 7 participants (35%) reported finding 1 or more items in the skin domain unclear, reporting, for example, that rashes and itchy skin seemed synonymous. Two of 19 participants (10.5%) described how their answers would have changed had they been asked about their symptoms within the past month instead of within the past week, owing to recently resolved symptoms. All participants were able to accurately explain the concept of "bother" in their own words and distinguish it from symptom severity or other related symptom attributes

  11. [French validation study of the levels of emotional awareness scale].

    PubMed

    Bydlowski, S; Corcos, M; Paterniti, S; Guilbaud, O; Jeammet, P; Consoli, S M

    2002-01-01

    According to a thesis based on the idea of an influence of cognitions in the structuring of internal reality, emotional awareness, ie the capacity of representing your own emotional experience and that of others, is a cognitive process that goes into maturation. Defining this concept, Lane and Schwartz present a cognitivo-developmental model in five stages of the processes of symbolization, accounting for the differences in levels of emotional awareness observed in individuals. The organization of these cognitive processes would thus be structured in well differentiated stages, in which the development of the emotions would be inseparable from the development of ego and of the relation to others. These authors focus on the capacity of representing in a conscious way the emotional experience and consider that verbal representations used to describe the contents of what is experience constitute a good reflection of the organization structural of the emotional awareness. Therefore, they worked out an instrument of evaluation: the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), which measures the capacity to describe your own emotional experience and the one you allow to others, in an emotional situation. The system of quotation of this scale is based on the analysis of the verbal contents of the provided answers, in direct reference to the authors' theory of the levels of differentiation and integration of the emotional experience. It is therefore an empirical measurement which is centered specifically on the structural organization of the emotional experience. The various studies of validation of this instrument show that it presents solid metrological properties. This work presents the validation of the French version of Lane and Schwartz's LEAS. Validity and fidelity were studied in a group of 121 healthy subjects. This setting is part of a larger clinical evaluation, also including a collection of socio-demographic and clinical data, and other instruments of self

  12. PLCO Ovarian Phase III Validation Study — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Our preliminary data indicate that the performance of CA 125 as a screening test for ovarian cancer can be improved upon by additional biomarkers. With completion of one additional validation step, we will be ready to test the performance of a consensus marker panel in a phase III validation study. Given the original aims of the PLCO trial, we believe that the PLCO represents an ideal longitudinal cohort offering specimens for phase III validation of ovarian cancer biomarkers.

  13. Content Validation of Statements Describing the Essential Work of Australian Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dally, Kerry A.; Dempsey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the procedures used in developing and validating a set of statements for Australian special education teachers. Using the existing AITSL Australian Professional Standards for Teachers at the proficient level as a basis, a set of statements describing the specific skills and knowledge required by Australian educators working…

  14. The Concurrent Validity of Standardized Achievement Tests by Content Area Using Teachers' Ratings as Criteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopkins, Kenneth D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Forty-two fourth- and fifth-grade teachers rated their 1,032 students in the five curricular subjects: reading, mathematics, language arts, science, and social science. The teachers' ratings substantially agreed with students' scores on the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills, indicating the concurrent validity of standardized achievement tests.…

  15. Validity study of the Moral Judgment Test in Physical Education: development and preliminary validation.

    PubMed

    Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Mouratidou, Katerina; Karamavrou, Sofia

    2008-02-01

    Teaching ethical behavior is an aspect of physical education. The purpose of the study was to present the construction and to estimate validity of a test which assesses physical education students' moral judgment, the Moral Judgment Test in Physical Education. The sample comprised 281 male and female participants (95 in Grades 7 to 9, 92 in Grades 10 to 12, and 94 university students), who completed Lind's Moral Judgment Test and the Moral Judgment Test-PE version. The validity of the latter was assessed using four criteria of Lind's moral theory. Analysis indicated that the Moral Judgment Test-PE had adequate construct validity and correlated positively, although relatively weakly, with the original test, so the new version has sufficient construct validity to be used in physical education.

  16. Content validity of a clinical problem solving test for use in recruitment to the acute specialties.

    PubMed

    Crossingham, Gemma; Gale, Thomas; Roberts, Martin; Carr, Alison; Langton, Jeremy; Anderson, Ian

    2011-02-01

    Clinical problem solving tests (CPSTs) have been shown to be reliable and valid for recruitment to general practice (GP) training programmes. This article presents the results from a Department of Health-funded pilot into the use of a CPST designed for recruitment to the acute specialties (AS). The pilot paper consisted of 99 items from the validated GP question bank and 40 new items aimed specifically at topics of relevance to AS training. The CPST successfully differentiated between applicants. The overall test and the GP section showed high internal reliability, whereas the AS pilot section performed less well. A detailed item analysis revealed that the AS pilot items were, on average, more difficult and of poorer quality than the GP items. Important issues that need to be addressed in the early development phase of a test used for high stakes selection to specialty training programmes are discussed.

  17. Evaluating the Content and Response Process Validity of Data from the Chemical Concepts Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Paul; Barbera, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Data produced by psychometric instruments are often used to inform understanding about a certain population's knowledge of ideas or perspectives about specific topics. Concept inventories are an example of psychometric instruments used to probe students' content knowledge within a defined framework. Concept inventories have been used as…

  18. Validating and Modelling Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework among Asian Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chai, Ching Shing; Ng, Eugenia M. W.; Li, Wenhao; Hong, Huang-Yao; Koh, Joyce H. L.

    2013-01-01

    The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK) framework has been adopted by many educational technologists and teacher educators for the research and development of knowledge about the pedagogical uses of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in classrooms. While the framework is potentially very important, efforts to survey…

  19. Content Validity of the GRE Physics Test as Indexed by Commonly Employed Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terwilliger, James S.; And Others

    The Graduate Record Examination (GRE) in Physics was analyzed as a specific indicator of learning outcomes in that undergraduate major. Textbooks were selected as a measure of curriculum content. A representative sample of colleges and universities (n=59) responded to questions about physics courses and textbooks and the existence of a graduate…

  20. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... selection procedure is valid; (2) Job similarity. The incumbents in the user's job and the incumbents in the job or group of jobs on which the validity study was conducted perform substantially the same major work behaviors, as shown by appropriate job analyses both on the job or group of jobs on which...

  1. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... selection procedure is valid; (2) Job similarity. The incumbents in the user's job and the incumbents in the job or group of jobs on which the validity study was conducted perform substantially the same major work behaviors, as shown by appropriate job analyses both on the job or group of jobs on which...

  2. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... selection procedure is valid; (2) Job similarity. The incumbents in the user's job and the incumbents in the job or group of jobs on which the validity study was conducted perform substantially the same major work behaviors, as shown by appropriate job analyses both on the job or group of jobs on which...

  3. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION UNIFORM GUIDELINES ON... selection procedure is valid; (2) Job similarity. The incumbents in the user's job and the incumbents in the job or group of jobs on which the validity study was conducted perform substantially the same...

  4. Measuring Long-Distance Romantic Relationships: A Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Roberts, Amber

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated aspects of construct validity for the scores of a new long-distance romantic relationship measure. A single-factor structure of the long-distance romantic relationship index emerged, with convergent and discriminant evidence of external validity, high internal consistency reliability, and applied utility of the scores.…

  5. An Empirical Study of Reporting Practices Concerning Measurement Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Thomas P.; Agnello, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the current research practice concerning reporting measurement validity evidence based on a sample of 696 research reports listed in the American Psychological Association's Directory of Unpublished Experimental Mental Measures. Only 55% of the reports included any type of validity evidence. This was a substantially lower…

  6. Validation and Determination of Ice Water Content - Radar Reflectivity Relationships during CRYSTAL-FACE: Flight Requirements for Future Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayres, D. S.; Smith, J. B.; Pittman, J. V.; Weinstock, E. M.; Anderson, J. G.; Heymsfield, G.; Fridland, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    In order for clouds to be more accurately represented in global circulation models (GCM), there is need for improved understanding of the properties of ice such as the total water in ice clouds, called ice water content (IWC), ice particle sizes and their shapes. Improved representation of clouds in models will enable GCMs to better predict for example, how changes in emissions of pollutants affect cloud formation and evolution, upper tropospheric water vapor, and the radiative budget of the atmosphere that is crucial for climate change studies. An extensive cloud measurement campaign called CRYSTAL-FACE was conducted during Summer 2002 using instrumented aircraft and a variety of instruments to measure properties of ice clouds. This paper deals with the measurement of IWC using the Harvard water vapor and total water instruments on the NASA WB-57 high-altitude aircraft. The IWC is measured directly by these instruments at the altitude of the WB-57, and it is compared with remote measurements from the Goddard Cloud Radar System (CRS) on the NASA ER-2. CRS measures vertical profiles of radar reflectivity from which IWC can be estimated at the WB-57 altitude. The IWC measurements obtained from the Harvard instruments and CRS were found to be within 20-30% of each other. Part of this difference was attributed to errors associated with comparing two measurements that are not collocated in time an space since both aircraft were not in identical locations. This study provides some credibility to the Harvard and CRS-derived IWC measurements that are in general difficult to validate except through consistency checks using different measurement approaches.

  7. Improving doctor-patient communication: content validity examination of a novel urinary system-simulating physical model.

    PubMed

    Hu, WenGang; Song, YaJun; Zhong, Xiao; Feng, JiaYu; Wang, PingXian; Huang, ChiBing

    2016-01-01

    Effective doctor-patient communication is essential for establishing a successful doctor-patient relationship and implementing high-quality health care. In this study, a novel urinary system-simulating physical model was designed and fabricated, and its content validity for improving doctor-patient communication was examined by conducting a randomized controlled trial in which this system was compared with photographs. A total of 240 inpatients were randomly selected and assigned to six doctors for treatment. After primary diagnosis and treatment had been determined, these patients were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group. Patients in the experimental group participated in model-based doctor-patient communication, whereas control group patients received picture-based communication. Within 30 min after this communication, a Demographic Information Survey Scale and a Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS) were distributed to investigate patients' demographic characteristics and their assessments of total satisfaction, distress relief, communication comfort, rapport, and compliance intent. The study results demonstrated that the individual groups were comparable with respect to demographic variables but that relative to patients in the picture-based communication group, patients in the model-based communication group had significantly higher total satisfaction scores and higher ratings for distress relief, communication comfort, rapport, and compliance intent. These results indicate that the physical model is more effective than the pictures at improving doctor-patient communication and patient outcomes. The application of the physical model in doctor-patient communication is helpful and valuable and therefore merits widespread clinical popularization.

  8. Improving doctor–patient communication: content validity examination of a novel urinary system-simulating physical model

    PubMed Central

    Hu, WenGang; Song, YaJun; Zhong, Xiao; Feng, JiaYu; Wang, PingXian; Huang, ChiBing

    2016-01-01

    Effective doctor–patient communication is essential for establishing a successful doctor–patient relationship and implementing high-quality health care. In this study, a novel urinary system-simulating physical model was designed and fabricated, and its content validity for improving doctor–patient communication was examined by conducting a randomized controlled trial in which this system was compared with photographs. A total of 240 inpatients were randomly selected and assigned to six doctors for treatment. After primary diagnosis and treatment had been determined, these patients were randomly divided into the experimental group and the control group. Patients in the experimental group participated in model-based doctor–patient communication, whereas control group patients received picture-based communication. Within 30 min after this communication, a Demographic Information Survey Scale and a Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale (MISS) were distributed to investigate patients’ demographic characteristics and their assessments of total satisfaction, distress relief, communication comfort, rapport, and compliance intent. The study results demonstrated that the individual groups were comparable with respect to demographic variables but that relative to patients in the picture-based communication group, patients in the model-based communication group had significantly higher total satisfaction scores and higher ratings for distress relief, communication comfort, rapport, and compliance intent. These results indicate that the physical model is more effective than the pictures at improving doctor–patient communication and patient outcomes. The application of the physical model in doctor–patient communication is helpful and valuable and therefore merits widespread clinical popularization. PMID:28008237

  9. Maryland State Content Standards: Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    Social studies should be viewed as a major subject matter area in kindergarten through eighth grade, and in specific courses in high school. Students should develop the knowledge and skills to understand and cope with change, resolve conflict, analyze issues, and appreciate diversity in a representative democracy. By the time Maryland students…

  10. A Study in Content Area Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broer, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted at a public school with a population of over 900 students. Among the main language groups represented were Punjabi, Hindi, Tamil, Estonian, Serbian, Arabic as well as 23 other language groups. The author monitored over 75 students, in grades 1, 2 and 4. She was interested in exploring what strategies best promoted…

  11. A Study in Content Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broer, Kathleen

    2003-01-01

    This study examines how young second language learners acquire academic language. Among the main language groups represented were Punjabi, Hindi, Tamil, Estonian, Serbian, Arabic as well as 23 other language groups. I monitored over 75 students, in grades 1, 2 and 4. I was interested in exploring what strategies best promoted coherence in…

  12. Validity of Empirical Studies of Information System Effectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    research design using the Campbell and Stanley (1966) taxonomy. 29 2. Handling Threats to Internal Validity Once a study was classified according to...randomized comparison groups, controls for all threats to internal validity. The difficult with the MIS empirical studies of effectiveness is that only four...a much sounder design that the one-group. Regrettably, only 2% of the reviewed studies employed a time-series design. B. HANDLING THREATS TO INTERNAL

  13. IRI related studies in Argentina: Topside profile and electron content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezquer, R. G.; Mosert, M.; Radicella, S. M.; Cabrera, M. A.

    predictions were obtained for hours of maximum ionisation over Arequipa in some cases. For Havana, which is not under the northern peak of the equatorial anomaly, the IRI generally gives good predictions for the period around the daily minimum, and for all hours in some cases. Moreover, IRI has been used to calculate the ionospheric slant electron content (SEC) for the ATS 6 geosynchronous satellite — Boulder (40.13° N, 254.76° E) ratio signal path. The comparison with measurements obtained during low solar activity showed cases with good agreement among predictions and measurements. But, in general, the model underestimates SEC. The need for additional studies covering more stations and conditions to complete the validation of IRI model is stressed.

  14. Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Schizophrenia and Other Psychiatric Disorders: A Systematic Review of the Validity, Reliability, and Item Content of 10 Available Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Jay P.; Serper, Mark; Reinharth, Jonathan; Fazel, Seena

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To undertake a systematic review on structured violence risk assessment tools in individuals with schizophrenia. Methods: A systematic search was conducted from 1990 to 2011 to identify violence risk assessment tools and studies examining their predictive validity. Item content of the identified instruments was analyzed, and areas under the curve (AUC) from the studies were extracted. In addition, an 11-item checklist was developed to assess the utility and psychometric properties of these tools. Results: Ten risk assessment tools designed to predict community violence in psychiatric patients were identified, but only 2 studies reporting predictive validity estimates in patients with schizophrenia were found (median AUC = 0.69; interquartile range = 0.60–0.77). When inclusion criteria was broadened to include studies measuring accuracy for any diagnostic group, mixed evidence of predictive validity was found, with median AUCs ranging from 0.62 to 0.85 depending on the population. Item content included mostly clinical, sociodemographic, and criminal history factors. As only 1 tool included a neurobiological item, a structured review of brain-based and cognitive risk factors for violence was included, and 3 clusters (neurocognitive ability, neurocognitive awareness, and attitudinal cognition) were identified. Conclusions: While a number of violence risk assessment tools exist that can be used to predict the likelihood of community violence in psychiatric patients, there is currently little direct evidence for their utility in individuals with schizophrenia. In addition, there is large variation in item content between instruments, and further research is necessary to determine whether the inclusion of alternative factors could improve risk assessment. PMID:21860036

  15. A high content assay for biosensor validation and for examining stimuli that affect biosensor activity

    PubMed Central

    Slattery, Scott D.; Hahn, Klaus M.

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors are valuable tools used to monitor many different protein behaviors in vivo. Demand for new biosensors is high, but their development and characterization can be difficult. During biosensor design, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of different biosensor structures on specificity, brightness, and fluorescence responses. By co-expressing the biosensor with upstream proteins that either stimulate or inhibit the activity reported by the biosensor, one can determine the difference between the biosensor’s maximally activated and inactivated state, and examine response to specific proteins. This involves considerable labor and expense, as expression conditions must be optimized to saturate the biosensor with the regulator, and multiple replicates and controls are required. We describe here a protocol for biosensor validation in a 96-well plate format using an automated microscope. This protocol produces dose-response curves, enables efficient examination of many parameters, and unlike cell suspension assays allows visual inspection (eg for cell health and biosensor or regulator localization). Optimization of single chain and dual chain Rho GTPase biosensors is addressed, but the assay is applicable to any biosensor that can be expressed or otherwise loaded in adherent cells. The assay can also be used for purposes other than biosensor validation, using a well-characterized biosensor as a readout for variations in upstream molecules. PMID:25447074

  16. A High-Content Assay for Biosensor Validation and for Examining Stimuli that Affect Biosensor Activity.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Scott D; Hahn, Klaus M

    2014-12-01

    Biosensors are valuable tools used to monitor many different protein behaviors in vivo. Demand for new biosensors is high, but their development and characterization can be difficult. During biosensor design, it is necessary to evaluate the effects of different biosensor structures on specificity, brightness, and fluorescence responses. By co-expressing the biosensor with upstream proteins that either stimulate or inhibit the activity reported by the biosensor, one can determine the difference between the biosensor's maximally activated and inactivated state, and examine response to specific proteins. We describe here a method for biosensor validation in a 96-well plate format using an automated microscope. This protocol produces dose-response curves, enables efficient examination of many parameters, and unlike cell suspension assays, allows visual inspection (e.g., for cell health and biosensor or regulator localization). Optimization of single-chain and dual-chain Rho GTPase biosensors is addressed, but the assay is applicable to any biosensor that can be expressed or otherwise loaded in adherent cells. The assay can also be used for purposes other than biosensor validation, using a well-characterized biosensor as a readout for effects of upstream molecules.

  17. A validation of a thermal inertia approach to map soil water content on soils characterized by low fractional cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; La Loggia, Goffredo; Corbari, Chiara; Mancini, Marco

    2013-10-01

    The assessment of the spatial distribution of soil water content could improve the effectiveness of agro-hydrological models. Although it is possible to retrieve the spatial distribution of the soil water content using thermal inertia, the main limit is its applicability to bare soils only. Recently, a variation of the thermal inertia approach has been setup also on vegetated soils characterized by low fractional cover. In particular, the methodology proposes to attenuate the solar radiation at the top of the canopy to the one reaching the soil trough an extinction factor. In situ data were acquired in June 2011 and July 2012 over two fields of maize and sunflowers; both were at their early growing stages. An airborneplatform provided images in the visible/near infrared and thermal infrared, both in day and night time. Results of the 2011 experiment demonstrated that the vegetation cover correction is required even with low fractional cover; indeed, not applying this correction would results in strong overestimation. The 2012 experiment (REFLEX) further validates the model on an independent dataset, thus, confirming the reliability of the methodology. Furthermore, a spatial resolution analysis highlighted that retrievals at low spatial resolution best compares with in situsoil water content than those obtained at high-resolution. Finally, the availability of a thermal image acquired after irrigating demonstrated the unreliability of the method when soil water content significantly changes between the two thermal acquisitions.

  18. Sensor data validation and reconstruction. Phase 1: System architecture study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The sensor validation and data reconstruction task reviewed relevant literature and selected applicable validation and reconstruction techniques for further study; analyzed the selected techniques and emphasized those which could be used for both validation and reconstruction; analyzed Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) hot fire test data to determine statistical and physical relationships between various parameters; developed statistical and empirical correlations between parameters to perform validation and reconstruction tasks, using a computer aided engineering (CAE) package; and conceptually designed an expert system based knowledge fusion tool, which allows the user to relate diverse types of information when validating sensor data. The host hardware for the system is intended to be a Sun SPARCstation, but could be any RISC workstation with a UNIX operating system and a windowing/graphics system such as Motif or Dataviews. The information fusion tool is intended to be developed using the NEXPERT Object expert system shell, and the C programming language.

  19. Validation of Brix refractometer to estimate colostrum immunoglobulin G content and composition in the sow.

    PubMed

    Hasan, S M K; Junnikkala, S; Valros, A; Peltoniemi, O; Oliviero, C

    2016-10-01

    Colostrum is an essential source of immunoglobulin G (IgG) for neonate piglets. However, colostrum IgG content and nutritional composition can vary considerably among sows due to age, parity, feeding regime and immunological background. Currently, there is no practical way to obtain information about colostrum IgG concentration at herd level. We evaluated sows' colostrum IgG content on-farm using a Brix refractometer and its performance was compared with that of an IgG ELISA. In addition, nutritional compositions of the colostrum samples were analyzed using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy. Colostrum samples (5 to 6 ml) (n=153) were obtained within 0 to 3 h of farrowing. However, to obtain a 24 h IgG profile for 11 sows, colostrum samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16 and 24 h after farrowing. A 0.3 ml of freshly drawn colostrum sample was used for the on-farm measurement of Brix percentages using a digital refractometer shortly after collection. The remaining fractions of the samples were frozen and submitted to laboratory analysis for total IgG, using a commercially available pig IgG ELISA kit. For nutritional composition analysis, a 35 ml colostrum sample (n=34) was obtained immediately after birth of first piglet from the first three pairs of frontal teats. Colostrum concentrations of IgG averaged 52.03±30.70 mg/ml (mean±SEM) at 0 to 3 h after farrowing. Concentration of IgG decreased on average by 50% during the 1st day of lactation (P30%. Colostrum IgG concentration is highly variable among sows, Brix measurement of a sows' fresh colostrum is an inexpensive, rapid and satisfactorily accurate method of estimating IgG concentration, providing indication of differentiation between good and poor IgG content of colostrum.

  20. Analysis of health-related quality-of-life instruments measuring the impact of bariatric surgery: systematic review of the instruments used and their content validity.

    PubMed

    Tayyem, Raed; Ali, Abdulmajid; Atkinson, John; Martin, Colin R

    2011-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of obesity has been steadily rising, reaching alarming levels. Obesity, particularly morbid obesity, carries significant health risks to the lives of affected patients, including physical, psychological, and social co-morbidities. Bariatric surgery provides the only effective and sustainable approach to treat morbid obesity and reverse its adverse effects. The reduction in well-being due to poor health in obesity may have adverse effects on health-related quality of life (HR-QOL). There are numerous studies reporting HR-QOL in bariatric patients; however, there is a paucity of studies examining the psychometric properties of the HR-QOL instruments used. The main aim of this review is to identify the instruments used in assessing HR-QOL in bariatric patients and evaluate their content validity. We believe that this is the first systematic review of its kind to look in depth at various generic- and obesity-specific HR-QOL instruments that were used in bariatric surgery, and to analyze their content validity. A systematic and structured search of Ovid databases (1980-2009) was conducted using terms synonymous with bariatric surgery, combined with terms synonymous with HR-QOL instruments. A total of 112 relevant studies were identified, detailing the use of eight generic, nine obesity-specific, and numerous other condition-specific instruments. A conceptual framework comprising 20 domains pertinent to bariatric surgery and morbid obesity was proposed, against which the identified generic- and obesity-specific instruments were assessed. The results of this assessment showed that neither the generic nor the specific instruments were adequate instruments in terms of content validity. Given the lack of adequate HR-QOL instruments in the rapidly developing field of bariatric surgery, we suggest building a new bariatric-specific instrument informed by the proposed framework, which will then enable clinicians to assess the full impact of morbid

  1. A validation study on CO2 chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelman, Peter; Heijkers, Stijn; Tadayon Musavi, Samaneh; Graef, Wouter; Bogaerts, Annemie; Dijk, Van, Jan; Elementary Processes in Gas Discharges Team; Plasmant Team

    2016-09-01

    The demand for renewable energy has increased the popularity of various energy sources, such as solar and wind energy. These sources are intermittent by nature, which typically does not match the demand of energy. Therefore, storage of energy is needed. Current tools for this are, however, costly, slow, and inefficient. Storing energy by the formation of valuable fuels from CO2 is potentially an improvement. By plasma assisted CO2 dissociation CO is produced. In subsequent steps the CO is transformed in valuable fuels. An extensive CO2 microwave plasma chemistry is studied, with special attention to the vibrational modes, which provide a pathway for the dissociation. To that end we developed a global model, which is only time resolved and needs less computational time than spatially resolved models. We present the results from a verification study of the CO2 chemistry. This is done by verification of input data, and by comparison of results obtained by two independent models: ZDPlaskin and PLASIMO's Global Model. We also present results from a sensitivity study of the input data.

  2. Validation study for secretarial/administrative classifications using computer-based testing

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a content and concurrent criterion-related validity study conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory for clerical, secretarial and administrative classifications using computer-based testing. The advantages and disadvantages of different types of testing software incorporated in the study are explored. Job analysis methodology, adverse impact analysis, procedure for establishing cut-off score and problems associated with criterion development and restriction of range are discussed. 6 tabs.

  3. Test of Creative Imagination: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundogan, Aysun; Ari, Meziyet; Gonen, Mubeccel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate validity and reliability of the test of creative imagination. This study was conducted with the participation of 1000 children, aged between 9-14 and were studying in six primary schools in the city center of Denizli Province, chosen by cluster ratio sampling. In the study, it was revealed that the…

  4. Human Rights Attitude Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Recep; Yaman, Tugba; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable attitude scale having quality psychometric features that can measure secondary school students' attitudes towards human rights. The study group of the research is comprised by 710 6th, 7th and 8th grade students who study at 4 secondary schools in the centre of Sivas. The study group…

  5. Content Validation and Semantic Evaluation of a Check-List Elaborated for the Prevention of Gluten Cross-Contamination in Food Services.

    PubMed

    Farage, Priscila; Puppin Zandonadi, Renata; Cortez Ginani, Verônica; Gandolfi, Lenora; Pratesi, Riccardo; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla

    2017-01-06

    Conditions associated to the consumption of gluten have emerged as a major health care concern and the treatment consists on a lifelong gluten-free diet. Providing safe food for these individuals includes adapting to safety procedures within the food chain and preventing gluten cross-contamination in gluten-free food. However, a gluten cross-contamination prevention protocol or check-list has not yet been validated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform the content validation and semantic evaluation of a check-list elaborated for the prevention of gluten cross-contamination in food services. The preliminary version of the check-list was elaborated based on the Brazilian resolution for food safety Collegiate Board Resolution 216 (RDC 216) and Collegiate Board Resolution 275 (RDC 275), the standard 22000 from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 22000) and the Canadian Celiac Association Gluten-Free Certification Program documents. Seven experts with experience in the area participated in the check-list validation and semantic evaluation. The criteria used for the approval of the items, as to their importance for the prevention of gluten cross-contamination and clarity of the wording, was the achievement of a minimal of 80% of agreement between the experts (W-values ≥ 0.8). Moreover, items should have a mean ≥4 in the evaluation of importance (Likert scale from 1 to 5) and clarity (Likert scale from 0 to 5) in order to be maintained in the instrument. The final version of the check-list was composed of 84 items, divided into 12 sections. After being redesigned and re-evaluated, the items were considered important and comprehensive by the experts (both with W-values ≥ 0.89). The check-list developed was validated with respect to content and approved in the semantic evaluation.

  6. Content Validation and Semantic Evaluation of a Check-List Elaborated for the Prevention of Gluten Cross-Contamination in Food Services

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Priscila; Puppin Zandonadi, Renata; Cortez Ginani, Verônica; Gandolfi, Lenora; Pratesi, Riccardo; de Medeiros Nóbrega, Yanna Karla

    2017-01-01

    Conditions associated to the consumption of gluten have emerged as a major health care concern and the treatment consists on a lifelong gluten-free diet. Providing safe food for these individuals includes adapting to safety procedures within the food chain and preventing gluten cross-contamination in gluten-free food. However, a gluten cross-contamination prevention protocol or check-list has not yet been validated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform the content validation and semantic evaluation of a check-list elaborated for the prevention of gluten cross-contamination in food services. The preliminary version of the check-list was elaborated based on the Brazilian resolution for food safety Collegiate Board Resolution 216 (RDC 216) and Collegiate Board Resolution 275 (RDC 275), the standard 22000 from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 22000) and the Canadian Celiac Association Gluten-Free Certification Program documents. Seven experts with experience in the area participated in the check-list validation and semantic evaluation. The criteria used for the approval of the items, as to their importance for the prevention of gluten cross-contamination and clarity of the wording, was the achievement of a minimal of 80% of agreement between the experts (W-values ≥ 0.8). Moreover, items should have a mean ≥4 in the evaluation of importance (Likert scale from 1 to 5) and clarity (Likert scale from 0 to 5) in order to be maintained in the instrument. The final version of the check-list was composed of 84 items, divided into 12 sections. After being redesigned and re-evaluated, the items were considered important and comprehensive by the experts (both with W-values ≥ 0.89). The check-list developed was validated with respect to content and approved in the semantic evaluation. PMID:28067805

  7. Measuring Mobility Limitations in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Content and Construct Validity of a Mobility Questionnaire (MobQues)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Becher, Jules G.; Roorda, Leo D.; Verschuren, Olaf; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the validity of a mobility questionnaire (MobQues) that was developed to measure parent-reported mobility limitations in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: The parents of 439 children with CP (256 males and 183 females; age range 2-18y; Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] levels…

  8. Emphatic Tendency Scale for Student Teachers: Validity and Reliability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kocak, Canan; Onen, Aysem Seda

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the validity and reliability of the Empathic Tendency Scale, which was developed in order to identify student teachers' empathic tendencies. The sampling of the study consisted of 730 student teachers studying at Hacettepe University Faculty of Education. To determine the factor pattern of Empathic Tendency…

  9. Illness Among Persian Gulf War Veterans: Case Validation Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    series of case-validation and case - control studies nested within our population-based study, should provide an estimate of the true magnitude of the...series of nested case - control studies . Year 4 has just been completed. Through September 2001, 578 subjects have been assessed, with a participation

  10. Illness Among Persian Gulf War Veterans: Case Validation Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-10-01

    series of case-validation and case - control studies nested within our population-based study, should provide an estimate of the true magnitude of the...series of nested case - control studies . Year 3 of 4 has just been completed. Through September 2000, 456 subjects have been assessed, with a participation

  11. Environmental education curriculum evaluation questionnaire: A reliability and validity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minner, Daphne Diane

    The intention of this research project was to bridge the gap between social science research and application to the environmental domain through the development of a theoretically derived instrument designed to give educators a template by which to evaluate environmental education curricula. The theoretical base for instrument development was provided by several developmental theories such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Developmental Systems Theory, Life-span Perspective, as well as curriculum research within the area of environmental education. This theoretical base fueled the generation of a list of components which were then translated into a questionnaire with specific questions relevant to the environmental education domain. The specific research question for this project is: Can a valid assessment instrument based largely on human development and education theory be developed that reliably discriminates high, moderate, and low quality in environmental education curricula? The types of analyses conducted to answer this question were interrater reliability (percent agreement, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's Product-Moment correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability (percent agreement, correlation), and criterion-related validity (correlation). Face validity and content validity were also assessed through thorough reviews. Overall results indicate that 29% of the questions on the questionnaire demonstrated a high level of interrater reliability and 43% of the questions demonstrated a moderate level of interrater reliability. Seventy-one percent of the questions demonstrated a high test-retest reliability and 5% a moderate level. Fifty-five percent of the questions on the questionnaire were reliable (high or moderate) both across time and raters. Only eight questions (8%) did not show either interrater or test-retest reliability. The global overall rating of high, medium, or low quality was reliable across both coders and time, indicating

  12. Preparation, piloting and validation for a longitudinal birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jean

    2009-07-01

    No longitudinal study should go into the field prior to detailed piloting and validation studies of the measures and techniques to be used. Preparation should also involve the training of staff, the acquisition of space and appropriate equipment, and liaison with the community and ethical committees as well as with scientific collaborators. Because different measures will continually be introduced as the participants age, the preparation, piloting and validation studies have to be ongoing. Here we describe some of the different strategies that should be used.

  13. Verification, Validation and Sensitivity Studies in Computational Biomechanics

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Andrew E.; Ellis, Benjamin J.; Weiss, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Computational techniques and software for the analysis of problems in mechanics have naturally moved from their origins in the traditional engineering disciplines to the study of cell, tissue and organ biomechanics. Increasingly complex models have been developed to describe and predict the mechanical behavior of such biological systems. While the availability of advanced computational tools has led to exciting research advances in the field, the utility of these models is often the subject of criticism due to inadequate model verification and validation. The objective of this review is to present the concepts of verification, validation and sensitivity studies with regard to the construction, analysis and interpretation of models in computational biomechanics. Specific examples from the field are discussed. It is hoped that this review will serve as a guide to the use of verification and validation principles in the field of computational biomechanics, thereby improving the peer acceptance of studies that use computational modeling techniques. PMID:17558646

  14. Mathematical Modelling Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çelik, H. Coskun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the mathematical modelling studies done between 2004 and 2015 in Turkey and to reveal their tendencies. Forty-nine studies were selected using purposeful sampling based on the term, "mathematical modelling" with Higher Education Academic Search Engine. They were analyzed with content analysis.…

  15. California Diploma Project Technical Report III: Validity Study--Validity Study of the Health Sciences and Medical Technology Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGaughy, Charis; Bryck, Rick; de Gonzalez, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study is a validity study of the recently revised version of the Health Science Standards. The purpose of this study is to understand how the Health Science Standards relate to college and career readiness, as represented by survey ratings submitted by entry-level college instructors of health science courses and industry representatives. For…

  16. A Validation Study of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keck Seeley, Susan. M.; Perosa, Sandra, L.; Perosa, Linda, M.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to further the validation process of the Adolescent Dissociative Experiences Scale (A-DES). In this study, a 6-item Likert response format with descriptors was used when responding to the A-DES rather than the 11-item response format used in the original A-DES. Method: The internal reliability and construct…

  17. Imagery Measures of Ego, Id, Superego, and Identity: Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartwright, D.; DeBruin, J.

    1988-01-01

    Five validity studies of the id, ego, superego, and identity scales of the Study of Imagery are reported, using undergraduate students. Multistage Bonferroni procedures are used to evaluate the significance of results. The scales are related to each other and to toughmindedness, self-control, and behavioral conflict. (TJH)

  18. Performance Equivalence and Validation of the Soleris Automated System for Quantitative Microbial Content Testing Using Pure Suspension Cultures.

    PubMed

    Limberg, Brian J; Johnstone, Kevin; Filloon, Thomas; Catrenich, Carl

    2016-09-01

    Using United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary (USP-NF) general method <1223> guidance, the Soleris(®) automated system and reagents (Nonfermenting Total Viable Count for bacteria and Direct Yeast and Mold for yeast and mold) were validated, using a performance equivalence approach, as an alternative to plate counting for total microbial content analysis using five representative microbes: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus brasiliensis. Detection times (DTs) in the alternative automated system were linearly correlated to CFU/sample (R(2) = 0.94-0.97) with ≥70% accuracy per USP General Chapter <1223> guidance. The LOD and LOQ of the automated system were statistically similar to the traditional plate count method. This system was significantly more precise than plate counting (RSD 1.2-2.9% for DT, 7.8-40.6% for plate counts), was statistically comparable to plate counting with respect to variations in analyst, vial lots, and instruments, and was robust when variations in the operating detection thresholds (dTs; ±2 units) were used. The automated system produced accurate results, was more precise and less labor-intensive, and met or exceeded criteria for a valid alternative quantitative method, consistent with USP-NF general method <1223> guidance.

  19. Evaluating the Validity of Computerized Content Analysis Programs for Identification of Emotional Expression in Cancer Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Owen, Jason E.

    2009-01-01

    Psychological interventions provide linguistic data that are particularly useful for testing mechanisms of action and improving intervention methodologies. For this study, emotional expression in an Internet-based intervention for women with breast cancer (n = 63) was analyzed via rater coding and 2 computerized coding methods (Linguistic Inquiry…

  20. Reliability and Validity of a Computer-Based Knowledge Mapping System To Measure Content Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herl, H. E.; O'Neil, H. F., Jr.; Chung, G. K. W. K.; Schacter, J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents results from two computer-based knowledge-mapping studies developed by the National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing (CRESST): in one, middle and high school students constructed group maps while collaborating over a network, and in the second, students constructed individual maps while searching the Web.…

  1. Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Domain Names and Definitions Revisions: Further Evaluation of Content Validity in IRT-derived Item Banks

    PubMed Central

    Riley, William T.; Rothrock, Nan; Bruce, Bonnie; Christodolou, Christopher; Cook, Karon; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Cella, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Content validity of patient-reported outcomes (PROs) is evaluated primarily during item development, but subsequent psychometric analyses, particularly for item-response theory (IRT)-derived scales, often result in considerable item pruning and potential loss of content. After selecting items for the PROMIS banks based on psychometric and content considerations, we invited external content expert reviews of the degree to which the initial domain names and definitions represented the calibrated item bank content. Methods A minimum of four content experts reviewed each item bank and recommended a domain name and definition based on item content. Domain names and definitions then were revealed to the experts who rated how well these names and definitions fit the bank content and provided recommendations for definition revisions. Results These reviews indicated that the PROMIS domain names and definitions remained generally representative of bank content following item pruning, but modifications to two domain names and minor to moderate revisions of all domain definitions were needed to optimize fit with the item bank content. Conclusions This reevaluation of domain names and definitions following psychometric item pruning, although not previously documented in the literature, appears to be an important procedure for refining conceptual frameworks and further supporting content validity. PMID:20593306

  2. Pilot Validation Study: Canadian Global Rating Scale for Colonoscopy Services

    PubMed Central

    El Ouali, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Background. The United Kingdom Global Rating Scale (GRS-UK) measures unit-level quality metrics processes in digestive endoscopy. We evaluated the psychometric properties of its Canadian version (GRS-C), endorsed by the Canadian Association of Gastroenterology (CAG). Methods. Prospective data collection at three Canadian endoscopy units assessed GRS-C validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change according to responses provided by physicians, endoscopy nurses, and administrative personnel. These responses were compared to national CAG endoscopic quality guidelines and GRS-UK statements. Results. Most respondents identified the overarching theme each GRS-C item targeted, confirming face validity. Content validity was suggested as 18 out of 23 key CAG endoscopic quality indicators (78%, 95% CI: 56–93%) were addressed in the GRS-C; statements not included pertained to educational programs and competency monitoring. Concordance ranged 75–100% comparing GRS-C and GRS-UK ratings. Test-retest reliability Kappa scores ranged 0.60–0.83, while responsiveness to change scores at 6 months after intervention implementations were greater (P < 0.001) in two out of three units. Conclusion. The GRS-C exhibits satisfactory metrics, supporting its use in a national quality initiative aimed at improving processes in endoscopy units. Data collection from more units and linking to actual patient outcomes are required to ensure that GRS-C implementation facilitates improved patient care. PMID:27840810

  3. Evidence of non-extractable florfenicol residues: development and validation of a confirmatory method for total florfenicol content in kidney by UPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Faulkner, Dermot; Cantley, Margaret; Walker, Matthew; Crooks, Steven; Kennedy, David; Elliott, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    The parent compound florfenicol (FF) is a broad-spectrum antibacterial compound licensed in the UK for use in cattle, pigs and the aquaculture industry. The analysis of porcine tissues in this study demonstrates that significant amounts of solvent non-extractable FF-related residues are present in incurred tissues (kidney and muscle) from treated animals. The results indicate that methods based on solvent extraction alone may carry a significant risk of reporting false-negative results. The use of a strong acid hydrolysis step prior to solvent extraction of tissue samples is necessary for an accurate estimate of the total tissue FF content. A robust and sensitive method for the determination of total FF residue content in kidney samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated. This method covers the synthetic amphenicol drug FF and its metabolites, measured as the marker residue florfenicol amine (FFA) as per Commission Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010. Non-extractable and intermediate metabolites are converted to the hydrolysis product FFA, and then partitioned into ethyl acetate. Extracts are solvent exchanged prior to a dispersive solid-phase extraction step, then analysed using an alkaline reverse-phase gradient separation by UPLC-MS/MS. The method was validated around the maximum residue levels (MRLs) set out in Regulation (EU) No. 37/2010 for bovine kidney in accordance with Commission Decision No. 2002/657/EC. The following method performance characteristics were assessed during a single laboratory validation study: selectivity, specificity, sensitivity, linearity, matrix effects, accuracy and precision (decision limit (CCα) and detection capability (CCβ) were determined).

  4. External validity of post-stroke interventional gait rehabilitation studies.

    PubMed

    Kafri, Michal; Dickstein, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Gait rehabilitation is a major component of stroke rehabilitation, and is supported by extensive research. The objective of this review was to examine the external validity of intervention studies aimed at improving gait in individuals post-stroke. To that end, two aspects of these studies were assessed: subjects' exclusion criteria and the ecological validity of the intervention, as manifested by the intervention's technological complexity and delivery setting. Additionally, we examined whether the target population as inferred from the titles/abstracts is broader than the population actually represented by the reported samples.

  5. Development and Preliminary Face and Content Validation of the “Which Health Approaches and Treatments Are You Using?” (WHAT) Questionnaires Assessing Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use in Pediatric Rheumatology

    PubMed Central

    Toupin April, Karine; Stinson, Jennifer; Boon, Heather; Duffy, Ciarán M.; Huber, Adam M.; Gibbon, Michele; Descarreaux, Martin; Spiegel, Lynn; Vohra, Sunita; Tugwell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is commonly used by children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), yet no validated questionnaires assess that use. The objective of this study was to develop child self- and parent proxy-report questionnaires assessing CAM use and to determine the face and content validity of the “Which Health Approaches and Treatments are you using?” (WHAT) questionnaires in pediatric rheumatology. Methods A sequential phased mixed methods approach was used to develop the questionnaires. A Delphi Survey of 126 experts followed by an interdisciplinary consensus conference of 14 stakeholders in CAM, general pediatrics and pediatric rheumatology was held to develop consensus on the content of the questionnaires using a nominal group technique. To determine face and content validity of the questionnaires, two groups, including (a) a purposive sample of 22 children with JIA 8 to 18 years and their parents from the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario and the Hospital for Sick Children, and (b) 21 Canadian pediatric rheumatology experts, participated in interviews. Participants were independently asked about the goal, understandability and comprehensiveness of the WHAT questionnaires, as well as the relevance of items. Results Consensus was reached on 17 items of the WHAT questionnaires. The domains found to be relevant were child’s CAM use, factors associated with CAM use, perceived impact of CAM use, and communication about CAM. A total of 15 items in the parent proxy-report questionnaire and 13 items in the child report questionnaire showed adequate content validity. Conclusions Consensus was reached by experts on the content of a pediatric CAM questionnaire. Face and content validity testing and modifications made to the WHAT questionnaires have helped ensure adequate preliminary validity for use in pediatric rheumatology. This constitutes the basis for further testing of these questionnaires in pediatric

  6. Bridging the gap between comprehensive extraction protocols in plant metabolomics studies and method validation.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Van der Auwera, Anastasia; Foubert, Kenn; Voorspoels, Stefan; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2016-09-07

    It is vital to pay much attention to the design of extraction methods developed for plant metabolomics, as any non-extracted or converted metabolites will greatly affect the overall quality of the metabolomics study. Method validation is however often omitted in plant metabolome studies, as the well-established methodologies for classical targeted analyses such as recovery optimization cannot be strictly applied. The aim of the present study is to thoroughly evaluate state-of-the-art comprehensive extraction protocols for plant metabolomics with liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS) by bridging the gap with method validation. Validation of an extraction protocol in untargeted plant metabolomics should ideally be accomplished by validating the protocol for all possible outcomes, i.e. for all secondary metabolites potentially present in the plant. In an effort to approach this ideal validation scenario, two plant matrices were selected based on their wide versatility of phytochemicals: meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) for its polyphenols content, and spicy paprika powder (from the genus Capsicum) for its apolar phytochemicals content (carotenoids, phytosterols, capsaicinoids). These matrices were extracted with comprehensive extraction protocols adapted from literature and analysed with a generic LC-PDA-amMS characterization platform that was previously validated for broad range phytochemical analysis. The performance of the comprehensive sample preparation protocols was assessed based on extraction efficiency, repeatability and intermediate precision and on ionization suppression/enhancement evaluation. The manuscript elaborates on the finding that none of the extraction methods allowed to exhaustively extract the metabolites. Furthermore, it is shown that depending on the extraction conditions enzymatic degradation mechanisms can occur. Investigation of the fractions obtained with the different extraction methods

  7. The Content Validity of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Tool (BSP-QEII) and its Potential Application in Accommodation and Day-Support Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McVilly, K.; Webber, L.; Sharp, G.; Paris, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The quality of support provided to people with disability who show challenging behaviour could be influenced by the quality of the behaviour support plans (BSPs) on which staff rely for direction. This study investigated the content validity of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation tool (BSP-QEII), originally developed to guide…

  8. Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Case Study of ESL Teacher Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Siping

    2013-01-01

    This single-case study focuses on the pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) of a university faculty member teaching Second Language Acquisition to elementary teacher candidates. The research questions address the pattern and development of PCK for ESL teaching. Based on data from classroom observation, interviews and document review, the study finds…

  9. Greek version of the Internet Addiction Test: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Kokkali, Stamatia; Dardavesis, Theodoros; Young, Kimberly S; Arvanitidou, Malamatenia

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this project was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in Greek adults. Twenty-one post-graduate medical students participated in the cultural adaptation procedure and 151 both post- and under-graduate medical students in the validation process. The internal consistency shown by a Cronbach's alpha was 0.91. Two-week test-retest reliability was rtt = 0.84, p < 0.001. Face validity was affirmed by 83.6 % of the students. In terms of convergent validity, the hours of daily internet use were positively correlated with IAT score (rho = 0.48, p < 0.001). Moreover, IAT scores were higher in students that reported use of online gambling (40.5 vs 29.2, p = 0.004), pornographic sites (36.5 vs 28.0, p = 0.003) and online games (35.6 vs 28.2, p = 0.009). Exploratory factor analysis revealed three interpretable factors for the IAT, "Psychological/Emotional Conflict", "Time Management" and "Neglect Work", that showed good internal consistency and concurrent validity, explaining 55.3 % of the variance. The Greek version of IAT has shown good psychometric properties, comparable with the original IAT and the previously published translated versions, and can be a useful tool in future studies on internet addiction.

  10. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations. PMID:24175172

  11. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies.

    PubMed

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-10-22

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations.

  12. A Validation Study of the Existential Anxiety Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hullett, Michael A.

    Logotherapy is a meaning-centered psychotherapy which focuses on both the meaning of human existence and the personal search for meaning. If the will to search for meaning is frustrated, "existential frustration" may result. This study validates the Existential Anxiety Scale (EAS) developed by Good and Good (1974). Basic principles of…

  13. A Validation Study of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clay, Rex J.

    A study was conducted to expand the body of research that tests the validity of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory in a work context where it often serves as a guide for the supervisor's relationships with his subordinates. Data was gathered by questionnaire which tested for a hierarchy of needs among instructors at four community colleges…

  14. Reflective Thinking Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basol, Gulsah; Evin Gencel, Ilke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt Reflective Thinking Scale to Turkish and investigate its validity and reliability over a Turkish university students' sample. Reflective Thinking Scale (RTS) is a 5 point Likert scale (ranging from 1 corresponding Agree Completely, 3 to Neutral, and 5 to Not Agree Completely), purposed to measure reflective…

  15. A Cross-Validation Study of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheikh, Alia I.; Marotta, Sylvia A.

    2005-01-01

    This article is a cross-validation of R. G. Tedeschi and L. G. Calhoun's (1996) original study of the development of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI). It describes several psychometric properties of scores on the PTGI in a sample of middle- to old-aged adults with a history of cardiovascular disease. The results did not support the…

  16. A Validity Study of the Self-Esteem Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, H. John

    Results of this validation study of a slightly modified version of the Coppersmith Self-Esteem Inventory substantiate its use with seventh graders to assess Goal I (concerning self-understanding and appreciation of self-worth) of the Educational Quality Assessment Program in Pennsylvania. Appendixes include the definition and rationale for Goal I,…

  17. Teachers' Engagement at Work: An International Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Robert M.; Aldhafri, Said; Mansfield, Caroline F.; Purwanto, Edy; Siu, Angela F. Y.; Wong, Marina W.; Woods-McConney, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the validity of the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale in a sample of 853 practicing teachers from Australia, Canada, China (Hong Kong), Indonesia, and Oman. The authors used multigroup confirmatory factor analysis to test the factor structure and measurement invariance across settings, after which they examined the relationships…

  18. Homework Purpose Scale for Middle School Students: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to test the validity of scores on the Homework Purpose Scale (HPS) for middle school students. The participants were 1,181 eighth graders in the southeastern United States, including (a) 699 students in urban school districts and (b) 482 students in rural school districts. First, confirmatory factor analysis was…

  19. Assessing Meritorious Teacher Performance: A Differential Validity Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellett, Chad D; Capie, William

    The Teacher Assessment and Development System (TADS) - Meritorious Teacher Program (MTP) FORM instrument is used in the Dade County Public Schools, Miami, Florida, to evaluate teachers. Its validity for decisions concerning merit pay for master teachers was examined in this study. Specifically, its ability to discriminate between high performing…

  20. Dimensions of Intuition: First-Round Validation Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vrugtman, Rosanne

    2009-01-01

    This study utilized confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), canonical correlation analysis (CCA), regression analysis (RA), and correlation analysis (CA) for first-round validation of the researcher's Dimensions of Intuition (DOI) instrument. The DOI examined 25 personal characteristics and situations purportedly predictive of intuition. Data was…

  1. 40 CFR 761.392 - Preparing validation study samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE... surface to be used in the validation study as follows: (i) Use a spiking solution made of PCBs mixed with... to verify that there are measurable surface levels of PCBs resulting from the contamination...

  2. 40 CFR 761.392 - Preparing validation study samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCBs) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE... surface to be used in the validation study as follows: (i) Use a spiking solution made of PCBs mixed with... to verify that there are measurable surface levels of PCBs resulting from the contamination...

  3. Understanding Foreign Language Learning Strategies: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tragant, Elsa; Thompson, Marilyn S.; Victori, Mia

    2013-01-01

    The present work aims to contribute to our understanding of the underlying dimensions of language learning strategies in foreign language contexts. The study analyzes alternative factor structures underlying a recently developed instrument (Tragant and Victori, 2012) and it includes the age factor in the examination of its construct validity. The…

  4. A Validation Study of the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Lynn E.; Kenyon, Dorry M.; Rhodes, Nancy C.

    This study validated the Student Oral Proficiency Assessment (SOPA), an oral proficiency instrument designed for students in elementary foreign language programs. Elementary students who were tested with the SOPA were also administered other instruments designed to measure proficiency. These instruments included the Stanford Foreign Language Oral…

  5. Curriculum-Based Measurement in the Content Areas: Vocabulary Matching as an Indicator of Progress in Social Studies Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espin, Christine A.; Shin, Jongho; Busch, Todd W.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of curriculum-based measures as indicator of growth in content-area learning. Participants were 58 students in 2 seventh-grade social studies classes. CBM measures were student- and administrator-read vocabulary-matching probes. Criterion measures were performance on a knowledge…

  6. Development and Validation of a Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Method for the Prediction of Acrylamide Content in French-Fried Potato.

    PubMed

    Adedipe, Oluwatosin E; Johanningsmeier, Suzanne D; Truong, Van-Den; Yencho, G Craig

    2016-03-02

    This study investigated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict acrylamide content in French-fried potato. Potato flour spiked with acrylamide (50-8000 μg/kg) was used to determine if acrylamide could be accurately predicted in a potato matrix. French fries produced with various pretreatments and cook times (n = 84) and obtained from quick-service restaurants (n = 64) were used for model development and validation. Acrylamide was quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and reflectance spectra (400-2500 nm) of each freeze-dried sample were captured on a Foss XDS Rapid Content Analyzer-NIR spectrometer. Partial least-squares (PLS) discriminant analysis and PLS regression modeling demonstrated that NIRS could accurately detect acrylamide content as low as 50 μg/kg in the model potato matrix. Prediction errors of 135 μg/kg (R(2) = 0.98) and 255 μg/kg (R(2) = 0.93) were achieved with the best PLS models for acrylamide prediction in Russet Norkotah French-fried potato and multiple samples of unknown varieties, respectively. The findings indicate that NIRS can be used as a screening tool in potato breeding and potato processing research to reduce acrylamide in the food supply.

  7. Mathematics Education Research in Turkey: A Content Analysis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciltas, Alper; Guler, Gursel; Sozbilir, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a content analysis of research is aimed in the field of mathematics education of Turkish researchers. To this aim, the investigation of 359 article were made which were accessed from web in full text between 1987 and 2009 years and which were published in the field of mathematics education from 32 different journals. 27 of these…

  8. Undergraduate Knowledge of Aging: A Comparative Study of Biopsychosocial Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Funderburk, Brooke; Lee, Martin; Solomon, David H.

    2004-01-01

    This study assesses undergraduate knowledge of aging, distinguishing between types of deficits (ignorance vs. misinformation) and content areas as delineated by a biopsychosocial framework. Knowledge is examined as an outcome of taking an aging elective, while accounting for course rating and knowledge retention. A diverse body of UCLA…

  9. 23 CFR 650.117 - Content of design studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Content of design studies. 650.117 Section 650.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains §...

  10. 23 CFR 650.117 - Content of design studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Content of design studies. 650.117 Section 650.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains §...

  11. 23 CFR 650.117 - Content of design studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Content of design studies. 650.117 Section 650.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains §...

  12. 23 CFR 650.117 - Content of design studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Content of design studies. 650.117 Section 650.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains §...

  13. 23 CFR 650.117 - Content of design studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Content of design studies. 650.117 Section 650.117 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS BRIDGES, STRUCTURES, AND HYDRAULICS Location and Hydraulic Design of Encroachments on Flood Plains §...

  14. Sources of Self-Efficacy in Mathematics: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usher, Ellen L.; Pajares, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and validate items with which to assess A. Bandura's (1997) theorized sources of self-efficacy among middle school mathematics students. Results from Phase 1 (N=1111) were used to develop and refine items for subsequent use. In Phase 2 of the study (N=824), a 39-item, four-factor exploratory model fit best.…

  15. Container-content compatibility studies: a pharmaceutical team's integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Laschi, Alda; Sehnal, Natacha; Alarcon, Antoine; Barcelo, Beatrice; Caire-Maurisier, François; Delaire, Myriam; Feuilloley, Marc; Genot, Stéphanie; Lacaze, Catherine; Pisarik, Luc; Smati, Christophe

    2009-01-01

    Container-content compatibility studies are required as part of the submission of a new product market authorization file or for a change relating to the primary product-contact packaging. Many regulatory publications and guidances are available in the USA, Europe, and Japan. However these publications and guidances are not sufficiently precise enough to allow for consistent interpretation and implementation of the technical requirements. A working group has been formed by the French Society of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology (SFSTP) in order to propose guidance for container-content interaction studies that meet both European and US requirements, and allows consistent and standardized information to be presented by the industry to the regulators. When a pharmaceutical drug product remains in prolonged contact with a material, the two critical points to consider are the drug product's quality and safety. A pharmaceutical evaluation of the container-content relationship should be done based on the knowledge of the contact material (e.g., type, physicochemical properties), its manufacturing processes (e.g., the type of sterilization that could potentially alter the interactions), and the formulation components involved in contact with this material (e.g., physicochemical properties, pharmaceutical presentation, route of administration). Quality is evaluated using the stability study performed on the product. Safety is partially evaluated with the stability study and is analyzed in conjunction with toxicity testing, specifically with cytotoxicity testing. The toxicity aspect is the key point of the container-content compatibility study and of patient safety. Migration tests are conducted when an interaction is suspected, or found based on previous results, to identify the component responsible for this interaction and to help select a new material if needed. Therefore, such tests are perhaps not the best ones to use for the purpose of safety evaluation

  16. Verification, validation and sensitivity studies in computational biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Andrew E; Ellis, Benjamin J; Weiss, Jeffrey A

    2007-06-01

    Computational techniques and software for the analysis of problems in mechanics have naturally moved from their origins in the traditional engineering disciplines to the study of cell, tissue and organ biomechanics. Increasingly complex models have been developed to describe and predict the mechanical behavior of such biological systems. While the availability of advanced computational tools has led to exciting research advances in the field, the utility of these models is often the subject of criticism due to inadequate model verification and validation (V&V). The objective of this review is to present the concepts of verification, validation and sensitivity studies with regard to the construction, analysis and interpretation of models in computational biomechanics. Specific examples from the field are discussed. It is hoped that this review will serve as a guide to the use of V&V principles in the field of computational biomechanics, thereby improving the peer acceptance of studies that use computational modeling techniques.

  17. Content Validity of Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Items in the Context of HIV Clinical Care

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Todd C.; Fredericksen, Rob J.; Crane, Heidi M.; Crane, Paul K.; Kitahata, Mari M.; Matthews, William C.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Morales, Leo S.; Mugavero, Michael J.; Solorio, Rosa; Yang, Frances M.; Patrick, Donald L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess content validity and patient and provider prioritization of Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Depression, Anxiety, Fatigue, and Alcohol Use items in the context of clinical care for people living with HIV (PLWH), and to develop and assess new items as needed. Methods We conducted concept elicitation interviews (n=161), item pool matching, prioritization focus groups (n=227 participants), and cognitive interviews (n=48) with English-speaking (~75%) and Spanish-speaking (~25%) PLWH from clinical sites in Seattle, San Diego, Birmingham, and Boston. For each domain we also conducted item review and prioritization with two HIV provider panels of 3 to 8 members each. Results Among items most highly prioritized by PLWH and providers were those that included information regarding personal impacts of the concept being assessed, in addition to severity level. Items that addressed impact were considered most actionable for clinical care. We developed additional items addressing this. For depression we developed items related to suicide and other forms of self-harm, and for all domains we developed items addressing impacts PLWH and/or providers indicated were particularly relevant to clinical care. Across the 4 domains, 16 new items were retained for further psychometric testing. Conclusion PLWH and providers had priorities for what they believed providers should know to provide optimal care for PLWH. Incorporation of these priorities into clinical assessments used in clinical care of PLWH may facilitate patient-centered care. PMID:26245710

  18. Measurements of the Ice Water Content of Cirrus in the Tropics and Subtropics. I; Instrument Details and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstock, E. M.; Smith, J. B.; Sayres, D.; Pittman, J. V.; Allen, N.; Demusz, J.; Greenberg, M.; Rivero, M.; Anderson, J. G.

    2003-01-01

    We describe an instrument mounted in a pallet on the NASA WB-57 aircraft that is designed to measure the sum of gas phase and solid phase water, or total water, in cirrus clouds. Using an isokinetic inlet, a 600-watt heater mounted directly in the flow, and Lyman-alpha photofragment fluorescence technique for detection, accurate measurements of total water have been made over almost three orders of magnitude. Isokinetic flow is achieved with an actively controlled roots pump by referencing aircraft pressure, temperature, and true air speed, together with instrument flow velocity, temperature, and pressure. During CRYSTAL FACE, the instrument operated at duct temperatures sufficiently warm to completely evaporate particles up to 150 microns diameter. In flight diagnostics, intercomparison with water measured by absorption in flight, as well as intercomparisons in clear air with water vapor measured by the Harvard water vapor instrument and the JPL infrared tunable diode laser hygrometer validate the detection sensitivity of the instrument and illustrate minimal hysteresis from instrument surfaces. The simultaneous measurement of total water and water vapor in cirrus clouds yields their ice water content.

  19. Development and validation of an environmentally friendly attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region method for the determination of ethanol content in used engine lubrication oil.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Sequinel, Rodrigo; Gualtieri, Carlos Eduardo; Tercini, Antônio Carlos Bergamaschi; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2013-05-15

    Lubricating oils are crucial in the operation of automotive engines because they both reduce friction between moving parts and protect against corrosion. However, the performance of lubricant oil may be affected by contaminants, such as gasoline, diesel, ethanol, water and ethylene glycol. Although there are many standard methods and studies related to the quantification of contaminants in lubricant oil, such as gasoline and diesel oil, to the best of our knowledge, no methods have been reported for the quantification of ethanol in used Otto cycle engine lubrication oils. Therefore, this work aimed at the development and validation of a routine method based on partial least-squares multivariate analysis combined with attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region to quantify ethanol content in used lubrication oil. The method was validated based on its figures of merit (using the net analyte signal) as follows: limit of detection (0.049%), limit of quantification (0.16%), accuracy (root mean square error of prediction=0.089% w/w), repeatability (0.05% w/w), fit (R(2)=0.9997), mean selectivity (0.047), sensitivity (0.011), inverse analytical sensitivity (0.016% w/w(-1)) and signal-to-noise ratio (max: 812.4 and min: 200.9). The results show that the proposed method can be routinely implemented for the quality control of lubricant oils.

  20. The Content Validation and Resource Development For a Course in Materials and Processes of Industry Through the Use of NASA Experts at Norfolk State College. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, James A.

    In an effort to develop a course in materials and processes of industry at Norfolk State College using Barton Herrscher's model of systematic instruction, a group of 12 NASA-Langley Research Center's (NASA-LRC) research engineers and technicians were recruited. The group acted as consultants in validating the content of the course and aided in…

  1. Using the Internet to Improve HRD Research: The Case of the Web-Based Delphi Research Technique to Achieve Content Validity of an HRD-Oriented Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatcher, Tim; Colton, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to highlight the results of the online Delphi research project; in particular the procedures used to establish an online and innovative process of content validation and obtaining "rich" and descriptive information using the internet and current e-learning technologies. The online Delphi was proven to be an…

  2. Content-Related Interactions in Self-initiated Study Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Karen; Talanquer, Vicente

    2012-09-01

    The central goal of the present exploratory study was to investigate the nature of the content-related interactions in study groups independently organized by college organic chemistry students. We were particularly interested in the identification of the different factors that affected the emergence of opportunities for students to co-construct understanding and engage in higher levels of cognitive processing. Our results are based on the analysis of in situ observations of 34 self-initiated study sessions involving over a 100 students in three academic semesters. The investigation revealed three major types of social regulation processes, teaching, tutoring, and co-construction in the observed study sessions. However, the extent to which students engaged in each of them varied widely from one session to another. This variability was mostly determined by the specific composition of the study groups and the nature of the study tasks in which they were engaged. Decisions about how to organize the study session, the relative content knowledge and conceptual understanding expressed by the participants, as well as the cognitive level of the problems that guided group work had a strong impact on the nature of student interactions. Nevertheless, group talk in the observed study groups was mostly focused on low-level cognitive processes. The results of our work provide insights on how to better support students' productive engagement in study groups.

  3. Framing deductive reasoning with emotional content: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Brunetti, M; Perrucci, M G; Di Naccio, M R; Ferretti, A; Del Gratta, C; Casadio, C; Romani, G L

    2014-06-01

    In the literature concerning the study of emotional effect on cognition, several researches highlight the mechanisms of reasoning ability and the influence of emotions on this ability. However, up to now, no neuroimaging study was specifically devised to directly compare the influence on reasoning performance of visual task-unrelated with semantic task-related emotional information. In the present functional fMRI study, we devised a novel paradigm in which emotionally negative vs. neutral visual stimuli (context) were used as primes, followed by syllogisms composed of propositions with emotionally negative vs. neutral contents respectively. Participants, in the MR scanner, were asked to assess the logical validity of the syllogisms. We have therefore manipulated the emotional state and arousal induced by the visual prime as well as the emotional interference exerted by the syllogism content. fMRI data indicated a medial prefrontal cortex deactivation and lateral/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in conditions with negative context. Furthermore, a lateral/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulation caused by syllogism content was observed. Finally, behavioral data confirmed the influence of emotional task-related stimuli on reasoning ability, since the performance was worse in conditions with syllogisms involving negative emotions. Therefore, on the basis of these data, we conclude that emotional states can impair the performance in reasoning tasks by means of the delayed general reactivity, whereas the emotional content of the target may require a larger amount of top-down resources to be processed.

  4. The modified patient enablement instrument: a Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation, validity and reliability study.

    PubMed

    Remelhe, Mafalda; Teixeira, Pedro M; Lopes, Irene; Silva, Luís; Correia de Sousa, Jaime

    2017-01-12

    Enabling patients with asthma to obtain the knowledge, confidence and skills they need in order to assume a major role in the management of their disease is cost effective. It should be an integral part of any plan for long-term control of asthma. The modified Patient Enablement Instrument (mPEI) is an easily administered questionnaire that was adapted in the United Kingdom to measure patient enablement in asthma, but its applicability in Portugal is not known. Validity and reliability of questionnaires should be tested before use in settings different from those of the original version. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the mPEI to Portuguese asthma patients after translation and cross-cultural adaptation, and to verify the structural validity, internal consistency and reproducibility of the instrument. The mPEI was translated to Portuguese and back translated to English. Its content validity was assessed by a debriefing interview with 10 asthma patients. The translated instrument was then administered to a random sample of 142 patients with persistent asthma. Structural validity and internal consistency were assessed. For reproducibility analysis, 86 patients completed the instrument again 7 days later. Item-scale correlations and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess structural validity. Cronbach's alpha was used to test internal consistency, and the intra-class correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of reproducibility. All items of the Portuguese version of the mPEI were found to be equivalent to the original English version. There were strong item-scale correlations that confirmed construct validity, with a one component structure and good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha >0.8) as well as high test-retest reliability (ICC=0.85). The mPEI showed sound psychometric properties for the evaluation of enablement in patients with asthma making it a reliable instrument for use in research and clinical practice in

  5. Metaanalysis of Validity Studies Published Between 1964 and 1982 and the Investigation of Study Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Neal; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed published validation studies for the years 1964-1982 of the Journal of Applied Psychology and Personnel Psychology. Results indicated minimal differences across study designs in the average validity coefficient and found selection ratios, standard deviations, reliabilities, predictor and criterion intercorrelations to be rarely and…

  6. LOFT input dataset reference document for RELAP5 validation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Birchley, J.C. )

    1992-04-01

    Analyses of LOFT experiment data are being carried out in order to validate the RELAP5 computer code for future application to PWR plant analysis. The MOD1 dataset was also used by CEGB Barnwood who subsequently converted the dataset to run with MOD2. The modifications included changes to the nodalisation to take advantage of the crossflow junction option at appropriate locations. Additional pipework representation was introduced for breaks in the intact (or active) loop. Further changes have been made by Winfrith following discussion of calculations performed by the CEGB and Winfrith. These concern the degree of noding in the steam generator, the fluid volume of the steam generator downcomer, and the location of the reactor vessel downcomer bypass path. This document describes the dataset contents relating to the volume, junction, and heat slab data for the intact loop, reactor pressure vessel, broken loop, steam generator secondary, and ECC system. Also described are the control system for steady state initialization, standard trip settings and boundary conditions.

  7. The Bronchiectasis Severity Index. An International Derivation and Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Goeminne, Pieter; Aliberti, Stefano; McDonnell, Melissa J.; Lonni, Sara; Davidson, John; Poppelwell, Lucy; Salih, Waleed; Pesci, Alberto; Dupont, Lieven J.; Fardon, Thomas C.; De Soyza, Anthony; Hill, Adam T.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: There are no risk stratification tools for morbidity and mortality in bronchiectasis. Identifying patients at risk of exacerbations, hospital admissions, and mortality is vital for future research. Objectives: This study describes the derivation and validation of the Bronchiectasis Severity Index (BSI). Methods: Derivation of the BSI used data from a prospective cohort study (Edinburgh, UK, 2008–2012) enrolling 608 patients. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to identify independent predictors of mortality and hospitalization over 4-year follow-up. The score was validated in independent cohorts from Dundee, UK (n = 218); Leuven, Belgium (n = 253); Monza, Italy (n = 105); and Newcastle, UK (n = 126). Measurements and Main Results: Independent predictors of future hospitalization were prior hospital admissions, Medical Research Council dyspnea score greater than or equal to 4, FEV1 < 30% predicted, Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization, colonization with other pathogenic organisms, and three or more lobes involved on high-resolution computed tomography. Independent predictors of mortality were older age, low FEV1, lower body mass index, prior hospitalization, and three or more exacerbations in the year before the study. The derived BSI predicted mortality and hospitalization: area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) 0.80 (95% confidence interval, 0.74–0.86) for mortality and AUC 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.84–0.91) for hospitalization, respectively. There was a clear difference in exacerbation frequency and quality of life using the St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire between patients classified as low, intermediate, and high risk by the score (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). In the validation cohorts, the AUC for mortality ranged from 0.81 to 0.84 and for hospitalization from 0.80 to 0.88. Conclusions: The BSI is a useful clinical predictive tool that identifies patients at risk of future mortality

  8. Annotations on Mexico's WISC-IV: a validity study.

    PubMed

    Fina, Anthony D; Sánchez-Escobedo, Pedro; Hollingworth, Liz

    2012-01-01

    This project seeks to provide evidence on the internal structure of the Escala Wechsler de Inteligencia para Niños-IV (EWIN-IV; Wechsler, 2007a ) through a confirmatory factor analysis and intercorrelational study. Also provided is information on the adaptation process and other sources of validity evidence in support of the EWIN-IV norms. The standardization data for the EWIN-IV were used for all analyses. The factor loadings and correlational patterns found on the EWIN-IV are comparable to those seen in the American versions of the test. The proposed factor and scoring structure of the EWIN-IV was supported.

  9. Identifying the Right Surface for the Right Patient at the Right Time: Generation and Content Validation of an Algorithm for Support Surface Selection

    PubMed Central

    McNichol, Laurie; Watts, Carolyn; Mackey, Dianne; Beitz, Janice M.

    2015-01-01

    Support surfaces are an integral component of pressure ulcer prevention and treatment, but there is insufficient evidence to guide clinical decision making in this area. In an effort to provide clinical guidance for selecting support surfaces based on individual patient needs, the Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nurses Society (WOCN®) set out to develop an evidence- and consensus-based algorithm. A Task Force of clinical experts was identified who: 1) reviewed the literature and identified evidence for support surface use in the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers; 2) developed supporting statements for essential components for the algorithm, 3) developed a draft algorithm for support surface selection; and 4) determined its face validity. A consensus panel of 20 key opinion leaders was then convened that: 1.) reviewed the draft algorithm and supporting statements, 2.) reached consensus on statements lacking robust supporting evidence, 3.) modified the draft algorithm and evaluated its content validity. The Content Validity Index (CVI) for the algorithm was strong (0.95 out of 1.0) with an overall mean score of 3.72 (out of 1 to 4), suggesting that the steps were appropriate to the purpose of the algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence and consensus based algorithm for support surface selection that has undergone content validation. PMID:25549306

  10. Poor replication validity of biomedical association studies reported by newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Andy; Boraud, Thomas; Gonon, François

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the replication validity of biomedical association studies covered by newspapers. Methods We used a database of 4723 primary studies included in 306 meta-analysis articles. These studies associated a risk factor with a disease in three biomedical domains, psychiatry, neurology and four somatic diseases. They were classified into a lifestyle category (e.g. smoking) and a non-lifestyle category (e.g. genetic risk). Using the database Dow Jones Factiva, we investigated the newspaper coverage of each study. Their replication validity was assessed using a comparison with their corresponding meta-analyses. Results Among the 5029 articles of our database, 156 primary studies (of which 63 were lifestyle studies) and 5 meta-analysis articles were reported in 1561 newspaper articles. The percentage of covered studies and the number of newspaper articles per study strongly increased with the impact factor of the journal that published each scientific study. Newspapers almost equally covered initial (5/39 12.8%) and subsequent (58/600 9.7%) lifestyle studies. In contrast, initial non-lifestyle studies were covered more often (48/366 13.1%) than subsequent ones (45/3718 1.2%). Newspapers never covered initial studies reporting null findings and rarely reported subsequent null observations. Only 48.7% of the 156 studies reported by newspapers were confirmed by the corresponding meta-analyses. Initial non-lifestyle studies were less often confirmed (16/48) than subsequent ones (29/45) and than lifestyle studies (31/63). Psychiatric studies covered by newspapers were less often confirmed (10/38) than the neurological (26/41) or somatic (40/77) ones. This is correlated to an even larger coverage of initial studies in psychiatry. Whereas 234 newspaper articles covered the 35 initial studies that were later disconfirmed, only four press articles covered a subsequent null finding and mentioned the refutation of an initial claim. Conclusion Journalists

  11. 29 CFR 1607.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... below, evidence of validity specific to each unit will not be required unless there are variables which are likely to affect validity significantly. D. Other significant variables. If there are variables...

  12. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Tests prepared by a joint committee of the American Psychological Association, the American Educational... procedures will be evaluated as they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by...

  13. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Tests prepared by a joint committee of the American Psychological Association, the American Educational... procedures will be evaluated as they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by...

  14. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Tests prepared by a joint committee of the American Psychological Association, the American Educational... procedures will be evaluated as they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by...

  15. 41 CFR 60-3.5 - General standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Tests prepared by a joint committee of the American Psychological Association, the American Educational... procedures will be evaluated as they become accepted by the psychological profession. B. Criterion-related, content, and construct validity. Evidence of the validity of a test or other selection procedure by...

  16. Assessing interpersonal aspects of schizoid personality disorder: preliminary validation studies.

    PubMed

    Kosson, David S; Blackburn, Ronald; Byrnes, Katherine A; Park, Sohee; Logan, Caroline; Donnelly, John P

    2008-03-01

    In 2 studies, we examined the reliability and validity of an interpersonal measure of schizoid personality disorder (SZPD) based on nonverbal behaviors and interpersonal interactions occurring during interviews. A total of 556 male jail inmates in the United States participated in Study 1; 175 mentally disordered offenders in maximum security hospitals in the United Kingdom participated in Study 2. Across both samples, scores on the Interpersonal Measure of Schizoid Personality Disorder (IM-SZ) exhibited adequate reliability and patterns of correlations with other measures consistent with expectations. The scale displayed patterns of relatively specific correlations with interview and self-report measures of SZPD. In addition, the IM-SZ correlated in an expected manner with features of psychopathy and antisocial personality and with independent ratings of interpersonal behavior. We address implications for assessment of personality disorder.

  17. [Study of the validity and reproducibility of passive ozone monitors].

    PubMed

    Cortez-Lugo, M; Romieu, I; Palazuelos-Rendón, E; Hernández-Avila, M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reproducibility between ozone measurements obtained with passive ozone monitors and those registered with a continuous ozone monitor, to determine the applicability of passive monitors in epidemiological research. The study was carried out during November and December 1992. Indoor and outdoor classroom air ozone concentrations were analyzed using 28 passive monitors and using a continuous monitor. The correlation between both measurements was highly significant (r = 0.089, p < 0.001), indicating a very good validity. Also, the correlation between the measurements obtained with two different passive monitors exposed concurrently was very high (r = 0.97, p < 0.001), indicating a good reproducibility in the measurements of the passive monitors. The relative error between the concentrations measured by the passive monitors and those from the continuous monitor tended to decrease with increasing ozone concentrations. The results suggest that passive monitors should be used to determine cumulative exposure of ozone exceeding 100 ppb, corresponding to an exposure period greater than five days, if used to analyze indoor air.

  18. Use of wearable technology for performance assessment: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Papi, Enrica; Osei-Kuffour, Denise; Chen, Yen-Ming A; McGregor, Alison H

    2015-07-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis is increasing globally but current compliance with rehabilitation remains poor. This study explores whether wearable sensors can be used to provide objective measures of performance with a view to using them as motivators to aid compliance to osteoarthritis rehabilitation. More specifically, the use of a novel attachable wearable sensor integrated into clothing and inertial measurement units located in two different positions, at the waist and thigh pocket, was investigated. Fourteen healthy volunteers were asked to complete exercises adapted from a knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation programme whilst wearing the three sensors including five times sit-to-stand test, treadmill walking at slow, preferred and fast speeds. The performances of the three sensors were validated against a motion capture system and an instrumented treadmill. The systems showed a high correlation (r(2) > 0.7) and agreement (mean difference range: -0.02-0.03 m, 0.005-0.68 s) with gold standards. The novel attachable wearable sensor was able to monitor exercise tasks as well as the inertial measurement units (ICC > 0.95). Results also suggested that a functional placement (e.g., situated in a pocket) is a valid position for performance monitoring. This study shows the potential use of wearable technologies for assessing subject performance during exercise and suggests functional solutions to enhance acceptance.

  19. Use of wearable technology for performance assessment: A validation study

    PubMed Central

    Papi, Enrica; Osei-Kuffour, Denise; Chen, Yen-Ming A; McGregor, Alison H

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis is increasing globally but current compliance with rehabilitation remains poor. This study explores whether wearable sensors can be used to provide objective measures of performance with a view to using them as motivators to aid compliance to osteoarthritis rehabilitation. More specifically, the use of a novel attachable wearable sensor integrated into clothing and inertial measurement units located in two different positions, at the waist and thigh pocket, was investigated. Fourteen healthy volunteers were asked to complete exercises adapted from a knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation programme whilst wearing the three sensors including five times sit-to-stand test, treadmill walking at slow, preferred and fast speeds. The performances of the three sensors were validated against a motion capture system and an instrumented treadmill. The systems showed a high correlation (r2 > 0.7) and agreement (mean difference range: −0.02–0.03 m, 0.005–0.68 s) with gold standards. The novel attachable wearable sensor was able to monitor exercise tasks as well as the inertial measurement units (ICC > 0.95). Results also suggested that a functional placement (e.g., situated in a pocket) is a valid position for performance monitoring. This study shows the potential use of wearable technologies for assessing subject performance during exercise and suggests functional solutions to enhance acceptance. PMID:25937613

  20. Testing the reliability and validity of computer-mediated social support measures among older adults: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nahm, Eun-Shim; Resnick, Barbara; Gaines, Jean

    2004-01-01

    With the increasing number of older adult online users, the Internet and e-mail are becoming a new source of social support for older adults. To assess this computer-mediated social support, two traditional social support measures were modified: (1) the Lubben Social Network Scale and (2) the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the reliability and validity of these modified measures. This study was a single group descriptive study with two data collection points. Data were collected using Web surveys. A total of 38 older adult participants completed the first survey; 35, the second survey. The findings of this preliminary study provided evidence for the reliability, content validity, and, to a limited extent, construct validity, of the modified measures. Additional studies with a larger representative sample are needed to further examine the psychometric aspects of these measures.

  1. Validity of Processes of Change in Physical Activity Among College Students in the TIGER Study

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Andrew S.; Bray, Molly S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the factorial validity and measurement equivalence/invariance of scales used to measure processes of change derived from the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) applied to physical activity. Methods Confirmatory factor analysis of questionnaire responses obtained from a diverse sample (N=1,429) of students enrolled in the Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study at the University of Houston during academic years 2004–2005 through 2007–2008. Cohorts of students (N=1,163) completed the scales at the beginning and end of each Fall semester, permitting longitudinal analysis. Results Theoretically and statistically sound models were developed that support the factorial validity of nine of the ten hypothesized 1st-order factors. A structure of nine correlated 1st order factors or a hierarchical structure of those factors subordinate to two correlated 2nd-order factors were each defensible. Multi-group invariance of each model was confirmed across race/ethnicity groups (African American, Hispanic, non-Hispanic White), gender, age, BMI levels, employment status, physical activity level, and study adherence. Longitudinal invariance across the semester was also confirmed. Conclusion The scores from the scales provide valid assessments that can be used in observational studies of naturally occurring change or in interventions designed to test the usefulness of TTM processes as mediators of change in physical activity among college students. Item content and factor structure require further evaluation in other samples in order to advance TTM theory applied to physical activity. PMID:20734174

  2. The Fast Scattering Code (FSC): Validation Studies and Program Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Ana F.; Dunn, Mark H.

    2011-01-01

    The Fast Scattering Code (FSC) is a frequency domain noise prediction program developed at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to simulate the acoustic field produced by the interaction of known, time harmonic incident sound with bodies of arbitrary shape and surface impedance immersed in a potential flow. The code uses the equivalent source method (ESM) to solve an exterior 3-D Helmholtz boundary value problem (BVP) by expanding the scattered acoustic pressure field into a series of point sources distributed on a fictitious surface placed inside the actual scatterer. This work provides additional code validation studies and illustrates the range of code parameters that produce accurate results with minimal computational costs. Systematic noise prediction studies are presented in which monopole generated incident sound is scattered by simple geometric shapes - spheres (acoustically hard and soft surfaces), oblate spheroids, flat disk, and flat plates with various edge topologies. Comparisons between FSC simulations and analytical results and experimental data are presented.

  3. Development, validation and stability study of pediatric atenolol syrup.

    PubMed

    Foppa, T; Murakami, F S; Silva, M A S

    2007-07-01

    Atenolol [4-(2-hydroxy-isopropylaminopropoxy)-phenylacetamide], is a cardioselective beta1-adrenergic receptor blocking agent prescribed for treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris and cardiac arrhythmias. However, most of these medicines are not formulated for easy or accurate administration to children. Atenolol is unstable in solutions and therefore the development of a liquid dosage form is a significant challenge. Studies showed that the degradation rate of atenolol is dependent on the temperature, indicating higher stability at 4 degrees C. Atenolol syrup is stable for 9 days, with acceptable apearance. A second order model adequately described atenolol decomposition when stored as syrup. A stability-indicating method was developed and validated in order to evaluate these studies.

  4. Content and Workflow Management for Library Websites: Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Holly, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Using database-driven web pages or web content management (WCM) systems to manage increasingly diverse web content and to streamline workflows is a commonly practiced solution recognized in libraries today. However, limited library web content management models and funding constraints prevent many libraries from purchasing commercially available…

  5. Working experiences of Iranian retired nurses: a content analysis study.

    PubMed

    Nobahar, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Alhani, Fatemah; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masood

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the experiences of retired nurses can be useful in increasing self-confidence, motivation to work and work enthusiasm among nurses. The purpose of this study was to explore the work experiences of Iranian retired nurses. A qualitative design was conducted using a content analysis approach. Purposive sampling was used to choose the study participants. Semi-structured interviews were held to collect the perspectives of 20 retired nurses (10 female and 10 male). Two main themes emerged in the data analysis: 'work problems and unpleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'exhausting work', 'insufficient salary', 'inappropriate relation' and 'unsuitable social position'; and 'job satisfaction and pleasant experiences in a sense' with subthemes 'divine satisfaction and religious belief', 'satisfaction of patients and their companions' and 'love of nursing profession and relaxation experience'. The findings indicate the challenges that nurses face after retirement. These experiences will help nurse managers to adopt appropriate measures to support nurses after retirement.

  6. Severity prediction rules in community acquired pneumonia: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, W; Lewis, S; Macfarlane, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The British Thoracic Society (BTS) developed a rule (BTSr) based on severity criteria to predict short term mortality in adults admitted to hospital with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, neither the BTSr nor a recent modification of it (mBTSr) have been validated in the UK. A case-control study was conducted in a typical UK population to determine the clinical factors predictive of mortality and to assess the performance of these rules.
METHODS—Cases were drawn from all patients with CAP who died in 1997 in five large hospitals in the Mid Trent area. Controls were randomly selected from survivors. Factors associated with mortality were identified following review of medical case notes and performance of the severity prediction rules assessed.
RESULTS—Age >65 years, temperature <37°C, respiratory rate >24 breaths/min, mental confusion, urea concentration of >7 mmol/l, sodium concentration of <135 mmol/l, and the presence of a pleural effusion, all determined on admission, were independently associated with in-hospital mortality on multivariate analysis. The BTSr was 52% sensitive and 79% specific in predicting death while the mBTSr displayed 66% sensitivity and 73% specificity.
CONCLUSIONS—The value of three of the four factors (presence of mental confusion, raised respiratory rate, raised urea) used in the mBTSr as predictors of mortality is confirmed. However, the BTSr and mBTSr did not perform as well in this validation study which included a high proportion (48%) of elderly patients (⩾75 years) compared with the derivation studies.

 PMID:10679541

  7. A validation study of a stochastic model of human interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchfield, Mitchel Talmadge

    The purpose of this dissertation is to validate a stochastic model of human interactions which is part of a developmentalism paradigm. Incorporating elements of ancient and contemporary philosophy and science, developmentalism defines human development as a progression of increasing competence and utilizes compatible theories of developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, social psychology, curriculum development, neurology, psychophysics, and physics. To validate a stochastic model of human interactions, the study addressed four research questions: (a) Does attitude vary over time? (b) What are the distributional assumptions underlying attitudes? (c) Does the stochastic model, {-}N{intlimitssbsp{-infty}{infty}}varphi(chi,tau)\\ Psi(tau)dtau, have utility for the study of attitudinal distributions and dynamics? (d) Are the Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, and Bose-Einstein theories applicable to human groups? Approximately 25,000 attitude observations were made using the Semantic Differential Scale. Positions of individuals varied over time and the logistic model predicted observed distributions with correlations between 0.98 and 1.0, with estimated standard errors significantly less than the magnitudes of the parameters. The results bring into question the applicability of Fisherian research designs (Fisher, 1922, 1928, 1938) for behavioral research based on the apparent failure of two fundamental assumptions-the noninteractive nature of the objects being studied and normal distribution of attributes. The findings indicate that individual belief structures are representable in terms of a psychological space which has the same or similar properties as physical space. The psychological space not only has dimension, but individuals interact by force equations similar to those described in theoretical physics models. Nonlinear regression techniques were used to estimate Fermi-Dirac parameters from the data. The model explained a high degree

  8. Developing an interactive mobile phone self-report system for self-management of hypertension. Part 2: content validity and usability.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Ulrika; Kjellgren, Karin; Höfer, Stefan; Taft, Charles; Ring, Lena

    2014-10-01

    Self-management support tools using technology may improve adherence to hypertension treatment. There is a need for user-friendly tools facilitating patients' understanding of the interconnections between blood pressure, wellbeing and lifestyle. This study aimed to examine comprehension, comprehensiveness and relevance of items, and further to evaluate the usability and reliability of an interactive hypertension-specific mobile phone self-report system. Areas important in supporting self-management and candidate items were derived from five focus group interviews with patients and healthcare professionals (n = 27), supplemented by a literature review. Items and response formats were drafted to meet specifications for mobile phone administration and were integrated into a mobile phone data-capture system. Content validity and usability were assessed iteratively in four rounds of cognitive interviews with patients (n = 21) and healthcare professionals (n = 4). Reliability was examined using a test-retest. Focus group analyses yielded six areas covered by 16 items. The cognitive interviews showed satisfactory item comprehension, relevance and coverage; however, one item was added. The mobile phone self-report system was reliable and perceived easy to use. The mobile phone self-report system appears efficiently to capture information relevant in patients' self-management of hypertension. Future studies need to evaluate the effectiveness of this tool in improving self-management of hypertension in clinical practice.

  9. Study of the detail content of Apollo orbital photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzly, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The results achieved during a study of the Detail Content of Apollo Orbital Photography are reported. The effect of residual motion smear or image reproduction processes upon the detail content of lunar surface imagery obtained from the orbiting command module are assessed. Data and conclusions obtained from the Apollo 8, 12, 14 and 15 missions are included. For the Apollo 8, 12 and 14 missions, the bracket-mounted Hasselblad camera had no mechanism internal to the camera for motion compensation. If the motion of the command module were left totally uncompensated, these photographs would exhibit a ground smear varying from 12 to 27 meters depending upon the focal length of the lens and the exposure time. During the photographic sequences motion compensation was attempted by firing the attitude control system of the spacecraft at a rate to compensate for the motion relative to the lunar surface. The residual smear occurring in selected frames of imagery was assessed using edge analyses methods to obtain and achieved modulation transfer function (MTF) which was compared to a baseline MTF.

  10. Goals of care among hospitalized patients: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Haberle, Tyler H; Shinkunas, Laura A; Erekson, Zachary D; Kaldjian, Lauris C

    2011-08-01

    Our objective was to validate 6 literature-derived goals of care by analyzing open-ended and closed-ended responses about goals of care from a previous study of hospitalized patients. Eight clinicians categorized patients' open-ended articulations of their goals of care using a literature-derived framework and then compared those categorizations to patients' own closed-ended selections of their most important goal of care. Clinicians successfully categorized patients' open-ended responses using the literature-derived framework 83.5% of the time, and their categorizations matched patients' closed-ended most important goal of care 87.8% of the time. Goals that did not fit within the literature-derived framework all pertained to the goal of understanding a patient's diagnosis or prognosis; this seventh potential goal can be added to the literature-derived framework of 6 goals of care.

  11. New York State TrueAllele® Casework Validation Study*

    PubMed Central

    Perlin, Mark W; Belrose, Jamie L; Duceman, Barry W

    2013-01-01

    DNA evidence can pose interpretation challenges, particularly with low-level or mixed samples. It would be desirable to make full use of the quantitative data, consider every genotype possibility, and objectively produce accurate and reproducible DNA match results. Probabilistic genotype computing is designed to achieve these goals. This validation study assessed TrueAllele® probabilistic computer interpretation on 368 evidence items in 41 test cases and compared the results with human review of the same data. Whenever there was a human result, the computer's genotype was concordant. Further, the computer produced a match statistic on 81 mixture items (for 87 inferred matching genotypes) in the test cases, while human review reported a statistic on 25 of these items (30.9%). Using match statistics to quantify information, probabilistic genotyping was shown to be sensitive, specific, and reproducible. These results demonstrate that objective probabilistic genotyping of biological evidence can reliably preserve DNA identification information. PMID:23865896

  12. Validation and cross-cultural adaptation of the 'Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire' to the Spanish population: study protocol.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Calvente, M; Medina-Porqueres, I; Fontalba-Navas, A; Pena-Andreu, J M; de Vos-Martin, C

    2015-09-01

    There are few high-quality instruments to evaluate the participation and social functioning of fibromyalgia patients. The Fibromyalgia Participation Questionnaire (FPQ) is a questionnaire that evaluates these aspects with high reliability and validity in its German original version. The aim of this work was to describe the translation and cross-cultural adaptation process of the FPQ into Spanish and its validation to ensure the equivalence against the original version. The questionnaire will be translated according to the FACIT methodology, and it will be tested in the Clinical Management Unit of North Almeria Health Area. This methodology includes several stages: double forward translation, reconciled version, back-translation, review of the previous versions and development of the prefinal version for the pretest. Once the pretest ends, the final version of the questionnaire will be developed, which will be subjected to a validation process to study its psychometric properties. Reliability will be studied by internal consistency and test-retest reliability through Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficient, respectively. External and construct validity will be analysed using correlation coefficients, content validity with an empirical analysis, and a differential item functioning analysis will be employed to measure discriminative validity. The presence of ceiling and floor effects will be calculated too. The validation of the FPQ into different languages will allow better evaluation and treatment based on the observed limitations fibromyalgia patients suffer from, as well as bringing the possibility to compare between other countries and generalize its use in the scientific community.

  13. Development of Prediction Model and Experimental Validation in Predicting the Curcumin Content of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    PubMed

    Akbar, Abdul; Kuanar, Ananya; Joshi, Raj K; Sandeep, I S; Mohanty, Sujata; Naik, Pradeep K; Mishra, Antaryami; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2016-01-01

    The drug yielding potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is largely due to the presence of phyto-constituent 'curcumin.' Curcumin has been found to possess a myriad of therapeutic activities ranging from anti-inflammatory to neuroprotective. Lack of requisite high curcumin containing genotypes and variation in the curcumin content of turmeric at different agro climatic regions are the major stumbling blocks in commercial production of turmeric. Curcumin content of turmeric is greatly influenced by environmental factors. Hence, a prediction model based on artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to map genome environment interaction basing on curcumin content, soli and climatic factors from different agroclimatic regions for prediction of maximum curcumin content at various sites to facilitate the selection of suitable region for commercial cultivation of turmeric. The ANN model was developed and tested using a data set of 119 generated by collecting samples from 8 different agroclimatic regions of Odisha. The curcumin content from these samples was measured that varied from 7.2% to 0.4%. The ANN model was trained with 11 parameters of soil and climatic factors as input and curcumin content as output. The results showed that feed-forward ANN model with 8 nodes (MLFN-8) was the most suitable one with R(2) value of 0.91. Sensitivity analysis revealed that minimum relative humidity, altitude, soil nitrogen content and soil pH had greater effect on curcumin content. This ANN model has shown proven efficiency for predicting and optimizing the curcumin content at a specific site.

  14. Development of Prediction Model and Experimental Validation in Predicting the Curcumin Content of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Akbar, Abdul; Kuanar, Ananya; Joshi, Raj K.; Sandeep, I. S.; Mohanty, Sujata; Naik, Pradeep K.; Mishra, Antaryami; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2016-01-01

    The drug yielding potential of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is largely due to the presence of phyto-constituent ‘curcumin.’ Curcumin has been found to possess a myriad of therapeutic activities ranging from anti-inflammatory to neuroprotective. Lack of requisite high curcumin containing genotypes and variation in the curcumin content of turmeric at different agro climatic regions are the major stumbling blocks in commercial production of turmeric. Curcumin content of turmeric is greatly influenced by environmental factors. Hence, a prediction model based on artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to map genome environment interaction basing on curcumin content, soli and climatic factors from different agroclimatic regions for prediction of maximum curcumin content at various sites to facilitate the selection of suitable region for commercial cultivation of turmeric. The ANN model was developed and tested using a data set of 119 generated by collecting samples from 8 different agroclimatic regions of Odisha. The curcumin content from these samples was measured that varied from 7.2% to 0.4%. The ANN model was trained with 11 parameters of soil and climatic factors as input and curcumin content as output. The results showed that feed-forward ANN model with 8 nodes (MLFN-8) was the most suitable one with R2 value of 0.91. Sensitivity analysis revealed that minimum relative humidity, altitude, soil nitrogen content and soil pH had greater effect on curcumin content. This ANN model has shown proven efficiency for predicting and optimizing the curcumin content at a specific site. PMID:27766103

  15. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range.

    PubMed

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface.

  16. Development and Validation of a High-Content Screening Assay to Identify Inhibitors of Cytoplasmic Dynein-Mediated Transport of Glucocorticoid Receptor to the Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Sunita N.; Hua, Yun; Shun, Tong Ying; Lazo, John S.; Day, Billy W.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Rapid ligand-induced trafficking of glucocorticoid nuclear hormone receptor (GR) from the cytoplasm to the nucleus is an extensively studied model for intracellular retrograde cargo transport employed in constructive morphogenesis and many other cellular functions. Unfortunately, potent and selective small-molecule disruptors of this process are lacking, which has restricted pharmacological investigations. We describe here the development and validation of a 384-well high-content screening (HCS) assay to identify inhibitors of the rapid ligand-induced retrograde translocation of cytoplasmic glucocorticoid nuclear hormone receptor green fluorescent fusion protein (GR-GFP) into the nuclei of 3617.4 mouse mammary adenocarcinoma cells. We selected 3617.4 cells, because they express GR-GFP under the control of a tetracycline (Tet)-repressible promoter and are exceptionally amenable to image acquisition and analysis procedures. Initially, we investigated the time-dependent expression of GR-GFP in 3617.4 cells under Tet-on and Tet-off control to determine the optimal conditions to measure dexamethasone (Dex)-induced GR-GFP nuclear translocation on the ArrayScan-VTI automated imaging platform. We then miniaturized the assay into a 384-well format and validated the performance of the GR-GFP nuclear translocation HCS assay in our 3-day assay signal window and dimethylsulfoxide validation tests. The molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) plays an essential role in the regulation of GR steroid binding affinity and ligand-induced retrograde trafficking to the nucleus. We verified that the GR-GFP HCS assay captured the concentration-dependent inhibition of GR-GFP nuclear translocation by 17-AAG, a benzoquinone ansamycin that selectively blocks the binding and hydrolysis of ATP by Hsp90. We screened the 1280 compound library of pharmacologically active compounds set in the Dex-induced GR-GFP nuclear translocation assay and used the multi-parameter HCS data to

  17. A validation study of elementary science ISTEP+ scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonelli, Glenn

    The Indiana Statewide Testing for Educational Progress-Plus (ISTEP+) was designed to assess student mastery of key educational goals. The 5th grade ISTEP+ Science Test (5-GIST) is part of the ISTEP+ testing regime. The Indiana Academic Standards were developed to guide instruction in the state, and questions on the ISTEP+ were aligned with these standards. Since its inception, the use of the ISTEP+ exam has been changed to comply with the dictates of both Indiana Public Law 221 and the national No Child Left Behind act. With these modifications, the purpose of the tests has shifted from assessment of individual student academic progress to evaluation of the quality of the educational institution administering the tests. The validity of this use has never been established. The purpose of this study is to assess the validity of the 5-GIST as an instrument for assessing and forming judgments about the quality of science instruction in a particular school. ISTEP+ scores of 2 cohorts of students in a Midwestern school district were converted into Z-scores and tracked from 3rd to 5th grade. A regression line was established to account for the general aptitude and the socio-economic status (SES) of the students. Examining the residuals of the 5-GIST scores revealed that between 57% and 60% of the variance in the scores can be attributed to the general aptitude and SES of the students, leaving between 40% and 43% that can be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the school on student learning.

  18. 40 CFR 152.92 - Submission of a new valid study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Submission of a new valid study. 152... Submitters' Rights § 152.92 Submission of a new valid study. An applicant may demonstrate compliance for a data requirement by submitting a valid study that has not previously been submitted to the Agency....

  19. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... valid study. 152.93 Section 152.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may demonstrate compliance for a data requirement by citing a valid study previously submitted to the Agency....

  20. Verification and Validation Studies for the LAVA CFD Solver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moini-Yekta, Shayan; Barad, Michael F; Sozer, Emre; Brehm, Christoph; Housman, Jeffrey A.; Kiris, Cetin C.

    2013-01-01

    The verification and validation of the Launch Ascent and Vehicle Aerodynamics (LAVA) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver is presented. A modern strategy for verification and validation is described incorporating verification tests, validation benchmarks, continuous integration and version control methods for automated testing in a collaborative development environment. The purpose of the approach is to integrate the verification and validation process into the development of the solver and improve productivity. This paper uses the Method of Manufactured Solutions (MMS) for the verification of 2D Euler equations, 3D Navier-Stokes equations as well as turbulence models. A method for systematic refinement of unstructured grids is also presented. Verification using inviscid vortex propagation and flow over a flat plate is highlighted. Simulation results using laminar and turbulent flow past a NACA 0012 airfoil and ONERA M6 wing are validated against experimental and numerical data.

  1. Portuguese validation of the Internet Addiction Test: An empirical study

    PubMed Central

    PONTES, HALLEY M.; PATRÃO, IVONE M.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. Methods: This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. Results: The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT’s items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. Conclusions: The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals. PMID:25215221

  2. Establishing the Criterion-Related, Construct, and Content Validities of a Simulation-Based Assessment of Inquiry Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Pai-Hsing; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2014-01-01

    The emphasis on scientific inquiry has increased the importance in developing the fundamental abilities to conduct scientific investigations and urged a need for valid assessments of students' inquiry abilities. We took advantage of the advanced technology to develop a simulation-based assessment of inquiry abilities (SAIA) that allowed…

  3. Content Validity and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Halliwick-Concept-Based Instrument "Swimming with Independent Measure"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srsen, Katja Groleger; Vidmar, Gaj; Pikl, Masa; Vrecar, Irena; Burja, Cirila; Krusec, Klavdija

    2012-01-01

    The Halliwick concept is widely used in different settings to promote joyful movement in water and swimming. To assess the swimming skills and progression of an individual swimmer, a valid and reliable measure should be used. The Halliwick-concept-based Swimming with Independent Measure (SWIM) was introduced for this purpose. We aimed to determine…

  4. Assessment of International Students through the Medium of English: Ensuring Validity and Fairness in Content-Based Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Stuart; Imam, Helen

    2013-01-01

    International assessments in a wide range of subjects are being prepared for and delivered through the medium of English in a variety of educational contexts. These assessments are taken by many candidates whose first language is not necessarily English. This raises important issues relating to assessment validity and fairness. This study…

  5. Hyper-X Stage Separation Trajectory Validation Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Bose, David M.; McMinn, John D.; Martin, John G.; Strovers, Brian K.

    2003-01-01

    An independent twelve degree-of-freedom simulation of the X-43A separation trajectory was created with the Program to Optimize Simulated trajectories (POST II). This simulation modeled the multi-body dynamics of the X-43A and its booster and included the effect of two pyrotechnically actuated pistons used to push the vehicles apart as well as aerodynamic interaction forces and moments between the two vehicles. The simulation was developed to validate trajectory studies conducted with a 14 degree-of-freedom simulation created early in the program using the Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanics Systems (ADAMS) simulation software. The POST simulation was less detailed than the official ADAMS-based simulation used by the Project, but was simpler, more concise and ran faster, while providing similar results. The increase in speed provided by the POST simulation provided the Project with an alternate analysis tool. This tool was ideal for performing separation control logic trade studies that required the running of numerous Monte Carlo trajectories.

  6. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Julia F; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

  7. Algorithms for verbal autopsies: a validation study in Kenyan children.

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, M. A.; Armstrong Schellenberg, J. R.; Snow, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    The verbal autopsy (VA) questionnaire is a widely used method for collecting information on cause-specific mortality where the medical certification of deaths in childhood is incomplete. This paper discusses review by physicians and expert algorithms as approaches to ascribing cause of deaths from the VA questionnaire and proposes an alternative, data-derived approach. In this validation study, the relatives of 295 children who had died in hospital were interviewed using a VA questionnaire. The children were assigned causes of death using data-derived algorithms obtained under logistic regression and using expert algorithms. For most causes of death, the data-derived algorithms and expert algorithms yielded similar levels of diagnostic accuracy. However, a data-derived algorithm for malaria gave a sensitivity of 71% (95% Cl: 58-84%), which was significantly higher than the sensitivity of 47% obtained under an expert algorithm. The need for exploring this and other ways in which the VA technique can be improved are discussed. The implications of less-than-perfect sensitivity and specificity are explored using numerical examples. Misclassification bias should be taken into consideration when planning and evaluating epidemiological studies. PMID:8706229

  8. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  9. The modified patient enablement instrument: a Portuguese cross-cultural adaptation, validity and reliability study

    PubMed Central

    Remelhe, Mafalda; Teixeira, Pedro M; Lopes, Irene; Silva, Luís; Correia de Sousa, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Enabling patients with asthma to obtain the knowledge, confidence and skills they need in order to assume a major role in the management of their disease is cost effective. It should be an integral part of any plan for long-term control of asthma. The modified Patient Enablement Instrument (mPEI) is an easily administered questionnaire that was adapted in the United Kingdom to measure patient enablement in asthma, but its applicability in Portugal is not known. Validity and reliability of questionnaires should be tested before use in settings different from those of the original version. The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the mPEI to Portuguese asthma patients after translation and cross-cultural adaptation, and to verify the structural validity, internal consistency and reproducibility of the instrument. The mPEI was translated to Portuguese and back translated to English. Its content validity was assessed by a debriefing interview with 10 asthma patients. The translated instrument was then administered to a random sample of 142 patients with persistent asthma. Structural validity and internal consistency were assessed. For reproducibility analysis, 86 patients completed the instrument again 7 days later. Item-scale correlations and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess structural validity. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test internal consistency, and the intra-class correlation coefficient was used for the analysis of reproducibility. All items of the Portuguese version of the mPEI were found to be equivalent to the original English version. There were strong item-scale correlations that confirmed construct validity, with a one component structure and good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha >0.8) as well as high test–retest reliability (ICC=0.85). The mPEI showed sound psychometric properties for the evaluation of enablement in patients with asthma making it a reliable instrument for use in research and clinical practice

  10. A Validity Study of the Kinetic School Drawing Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prout, H. Thompson; Celmer, David S.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship between Kinetic School Drawing responses and academic achievement in 100 normal fifth-grade students. Significant correlations were found for a number of measures, generally supporting the validity of the technique. (JAC)

  11. Sound Transmission Validation and Sensitivity Studies in Numerical Models.

    PubMed

    Oberrecht, Steve P; Krysl, Petr; Cranford, Ted W

    2016-01-01

    In 1974, Norris and Harvey published an experimental study of sound transmission into the head of the bottlenose dolphin. We used this rare source of data to validate our Vibroacoustic Toolkit, an array of numerical modeling simulation tools. Norris and Harvey provided measurements of received sound pressure in various locations within the dolphin's head from a sound source that was moved around the outside of the head. Our toolkit was used to predict the curves of pressure with the best-guess input data (material properties, transducer and hydrophone locations, and geometry of the animal's head). In addition, we performed a series of sensitivity analyses (SAs). SA is concerned with understanding how input changes to the model influence the outputs. SA can enhance understanding of a complex model by finding and analyzing unexpected model behavior, discriminating which inputs have a dominant effect on particular outputs, exploring how inputs combine to affect outputs, and gaining insight as to what additional information improves the model's ability to predict. Even when a computational model does not adequately reproduce the behavior of a physical system, its sensitivities may be useful for developing inferences about key features of the physical system. Our findings may become a valuable source of information for modeling the interactions between sound and anatomy.

  12. Alignment of an Alternate Assessment with State Academic Standards: "Evidence for the Content Validity of the Wisconsin Alternate Assessment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Andrew T.; Elliott, Stephan N.; Webb, Norman L.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe an alignment and content analysis of the Wisconsin Alternate Assessment (WAA) for students with disabilities. The WAA is an assessment of the academic performance of students with significant disabilities and is an alternative to the traditional on-demand achievement test. Alternate assessments like the WAA…

  13. Validation Study of the Spanish Version of the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Pérez, Alicia; López-Roig, Sofía; Pérez, Ana Pampliega; Gómez, Paula Peral; Pastor, María Ángeles; Pomares, Miriam Hurtado

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Disability Assessment for Dementia Scale (DAD-E) in the following areas: content, response process, internal structure, and relation to other constructs. We designed a cross-sectional observational study. The DAD-E was administered to 132 participants diagnosed with mild cognitive decline, prodromal Alzheimer disease, Alzheimer disease, or no cognitive decline. For the reliability study, we performed analyses of internal consistency, test–retest, and equivalent measures. To study validity, we performed item analysis, principal components analysis, and correlations with other measures. The sample was composed of 37 healthy participants (28%) and 95 patients (72%). In the total scale, Cronbach alpha was 0.963, intraclass correlation coefficient in the test–retest analysis was 0.983 (95% CI [95% confidence interval] = 0.969–0.991), and the analysis for equivalent measures was 0.949 (95% CI = 0.897–0.975). Out of the 40 items, we found that 37 presented a correlation index with the total score above 0.40. The principal components analysis suggests that 61.7% of the variance is explained by a single component that groups all scores on Activities of Daily Living. The DAD total score presents correlations with Barthel's Index of 0.882 (P = 0.000) and with Lawton and Brodie's Index of 0.877 (P = 0.000) and with the Mini Mental State Examination of 0.679 (P = 0.000). The DAD-E is a reliable and valid instrument to assess functional disability in people with cognitive decline in Spanish population. PMID:26554794

  14. A Validation Study of the Dutch Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Known-Groups Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Brett D.; Bernstein, David P.; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) has been translated into at least 10 different languages. The validity of translated versions of the CTQ-SF, however, has generally not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and known-groups…

  15. Accuracy of a self-collection kit for the microbiological study of the vaginal content.

    PubMed

    Passos, Mauro Romero L; Varella, Renata Q; Barreto, Nero A; Garcia, Maria Luiza; Giraldo, Paulo C

    2007-04-01

    Diagnosis of vaginal discharge is frequently performed in an empirical way, leading to inadequate treatment. This study tested the accuracy of a self-collection kit for microbiological study of the vaginal content. One hundred and forty-two women of Family Health Program units in Niterói and Piraí cities were enrolled in order to have their vaginal content studied. A brief explanation and a self-collection kit were provided in order to sample the vaginal content. The self-collection kit was composed of one empty plastic tube, two glass slides, a long handle cytobrush, an identification card and guideline notes. The vaginal sample was applied on the glass slides by the women and stained by Gram technique. A second sampling was done by the medical personnel. The microbiological diagnosis in a blinded analysis was made under optical microscopy. A validation diagnosis test was done taking the medical collection results as a gold standard. A total of 106 women had followed the protocol and were included in the study. Microbiological analysis was unsatisfactory in 12 cases (6 cases of self-collection material and 6 cases of medical collection). The microbiological analyses in the self-collection and in the medical collection material were respectively: bacterial vaginosis in 21.7% and 17.9%, non bacillar flora in 10.3% and 11.3%, vaginal trichomoniasis in 5.66% and 5.6%, candidiasis in 3.78% and 2.8% and a normal microbiota in 52.8% and 56.6%. The Kappa coefficient suggested a "very good correlation" of the microbiological results between the two methods of collection (K=0.7945). The self-collection kit provides samples for microbiological analysis of the vaginal microbiota as good as medical collection.

  16. Measuring humeral head translation using fluoroscopy: a validation study.

    PubMed

    San Juan, Jun G; Karduna, Andrew R

    2010-03-03

    Numerous techniques have been employed to monitor humeral head translation due to its involvement with several shoulder pathologies. However, most of the techniques were not validated. The objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of manual digitization and contour registration in measuring superior translation of the humeral head. Eight pairs of cadaver scapulae and humerii bones were harvested for this study. Each scapula and humerus was secured in a customized jig that allowed for control of humeral head translations and a vise that permitted rotations of the scapula about three axes. Fluoroscopy was used to take images of the shoulder bones. Scapular orientation was manipulated in different positions while the humerus was at 90 degrees of humeral elevation in the scapular plane. Humeral head translation was measured using the two methods and was compared to the known translation. Additionally, accuracy of the contour registration method to measure 2-D scapular rotations was assessed. The range for the root mean square (RMS) error for manual digitization method was 0.27 mm-0.43 mm and the contour registration method had a RMS error ranging from 0.18 mm-0.40 mm. In addition, the RMS error for the scapular angle rotation using the contour registration method was 2.4 degrees . Both methods showed acceptable errors. However, on average, the contour registration method showed lesser measurement error compared to the manual digitization method. In addition, the contour registration method was able to show good accuracy in measuring rotation that is useful in 2-D image analysis.

  17. Alaska North Slope Tundra Travel Model and Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Harry R. Bader; Jacynthe Guimond

    2006-03-01

    of variability in snow depth cover throughout the period of field experimentation. The amount of change in disturbance indicators was greater in the tundra communities of the Foothills than in those of the Coastal Plain. However the overall level of change in both community types was less than expected. In Coastal Plain communities, ground hardness and snow slab thickness were found to play an important role in change in active layer depth and soil moisture as a result of treatment. In the Foothills communities, snow cover had the most influence on active layer depth and soil moisture as a result of treatment. Once certain minimum thresholds for ground hardness, snow slab thickness, and snow depth were attained, it appeared that little or no additive effect was realized regarding increased resistance to disturbance in the tundra communities studied. DNR used the results of this modeling project to set a standard for maximum permissible disturbance of cross-country tundra travel, with the threshold set below the widely accepted standard of Low Disturbance levels (as determined by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service). DNR followed the modeling project with a validation study, which seemed to support the field trial conclusions and indicated that the standard set for maximum permissible disturbance exhibits a conservative bias in favor of environmental protection. Finally DNR established a quick and efficient tool for visual estimations of disturbance to determine when investment in field measurements is warranted. This Visual Assessment System (VAS) seemed to support the plot disturbance measurements taking during the modeling and validation phases of this project.

  18. Community-wide model validation studies for systematic assessment of ionosphere-thermosphere models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Ja Soon; Kuznetsova, Maria; Rastätter, Lutz

    2016-07-01

    As an unbiased agent, the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) has been leading community-wide model validation efforts; GEM, CEDAR and GEM-CEDAR Modeling Challenges since 2009. The CEDAR ETI (Electrodynamics Thermosphere Ionosphere) Challenge focused on the ability of ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) models to reproduce basic IT system parameters, such as electron and neutral densities, NmF2, hmF2, and Total Electron Content (TEC). Model-data time series comparisons were performed for a set of selected events with different levels of geomagnetic activity (quiet, moderate, storms). The follow-on CEDAR-GEM Challenge aims to quantify geomagnetic storm impacts on the IT system. On-going studies include quantifying the storm energy input, such as increase in auroral precipitation and Joule heating, and quantifying the storm-time variations of neutral density and TEC. In this paper, we will present lessons learned from the Modeling Challenges led by the CCMC.

  19. Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ) for Brazilian Patients: Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Sergio Vicente; Halliday, Vanessa; Maroco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    2016-01-01

    Background Appetite and symptoms, conditions generally reported by the patients with cancer, are somewhat challenging for professionals to measure directly in clinical routine (latent conditions). Therefore, specific instruments are required for this purpose. This study aimed to perform a cultural adaptation of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire (CASQ), into Portuguese and evaluate its psychometric properties on a sample of Brazilian cancer patients. Methods This is a validation study with Brazilian cancer patients. The face, content, and construct (factorial and convergent) validities of the Cancer Appetite and Symptom Questionnaire, the study tool, were estimated. Further, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. The ratio of chi-square and degrees of freedom (χ2/df), comparative fit index (CFI), goodness of fit index (GFI) and root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) were used for fit model assessment. In addition, the reliability of the instrument was estimated using the composite reliability (CR) and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (α), and the invariance of the model in independent samples was estimated by a multigroup analysis (Δχ2). Results Participants included 1,140 cancer patients with a mean age of 53.95 (SD = 13.25) years; 61.3% were women. After the CFA of the original CASQ structure, 2 items with inadequate factor weights were removed. Four correlations between errors were included to provide adequate fit to the sample (χ2/df = 8.532, CFI = .94, GFI = .95, and RMSEA = .08). The model exhibited a low convergent validity (AVE = .32). The reliability was adequate (CR = .82 α = .82). The refined model showed strong invariance in two independent samples (Δχ2: λ: p = .855; i: p = .824; Res: p = .390). A weak stability was obtained between patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiotherapy (Δχ2: λ: p = .155; i: p < .001; Res: p < .001), and between patients undergoing chemotherapy combined with radiotherapy and

  20. Study on the Validity and Reliability of Melbourne Decision Making Scale in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çolakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Deniz, M. Engin

    2015-01-01

    This study is to analyze the validity and reliability of Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ). The sample consisted of 650 university students. The structural validity of the MDMQ, as well as correlations among its sub-scales, measure-bound validity, internal consistency, item total correlations and test-retest reliability coefficients…

  1. Construct Validity of the GRE Aptitude Test across Populations--An Empirical Confirmatory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, D. A.; And Others

    The study evaluated the invariance of the construct validity and thus the interpretation of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) Aptitude Test scores. A systematic procedure for investigation of test bias from a construct validity frame of reference was developed and applied. Invariant construct validity was defined as similar patterns of loadings…

  2. A Validation Study of the Thinking Styles Inventory: Implications for Gifted Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, David Yun; Feldhusen, John F.

    1999-01-01

    A study involving 96 gifted adolescents examined internal and external validity of the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI) within the framework of Sternberg's (1988) theory of mental self-government. Results provided evidence of the external discriminant validity but lent only partial support to the internal validity of the instrument. (Author/CR)

  3. Physics validation studies for muon collider detector background simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Aaron Owen; /Northern Illinois U.

    2011-07-01

    Within the broad discipline of physics, the study of the fundamental forces of nature and the most basic constituents of the universe belongs to the field of particle physics. While frequently referred to as 'high-energy physics,' or by the acronym 'HEP,' particle physics is not driven just by the quest for ever-greater energies in particle accelerators. Rather, particle physics is seen as having three distinct areas of focus: the cosmic, intensity, and energy frontiers. These three frontiers all provide different, but complementary, views of the basic building blocks of the universe. Currently, the energy frontier is the realm of hadron colliders like the Tevatron at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) or the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. While the LHC is expected to be adequate for explorations up to 14 TeV for the next decade, the long development lead time for modern colliders necessitates research and development efforts in the present for the next generation of colliders. This paper focuses on one such next-generation machine: a muon collider. Specifically, this paper focuses on Monte Carlo simulations of beam-induced backgrounds vis-a-vis detector region contamination. Initial validation studies of a few muon collider physics background processes using G4beamline have been undertaken and results presented. While these investigations have revealed a number of hurdles to getting G4beamline up to the level of more established simulation suites, such as MARS, the close communication between us, as users, and the G4beamline developer, Tom Roberts, has allowed for rapid implementation of user-desired features. The main example of user-desired feature implementation, as it applies to this project, is Bethe-Heitler muon production. Regarding the neutron interaction issues, we continue to study the specifics of how GEANT4 implements nuclear interactions. The GEANT4 collaboration has been contacted regarding the minor discrepancies in the neutron

  4. Propeller aircraft interior noise model utilization study and validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.

    1984-01-01

    Utilization and validation of a computer program designed for aircraft interior noise prediction is considered. The program, entitled PAIN (an acronym for Propeller Aircraft Interior Noise), permits (in theory) predictions of sound levels inside propeller driven aircraft arising from sidewall transmission. The objective of the work reported was to determine the practicality of making predictions for various airplanes and the extent of the program's capabilities. The ultimate purpose was to discern the quality of predictions for tonal levels inside an aircraft occurring at the propeller blade passage frequency and its harmonics. The effort involved three tasks: (1) program validation through comparisons of predictions with scale-model test results; (2) development of utilization schemes for large (full scale) fuselages; and (3) validation through comparisons of predictions with measurements taken in flight tests on a turboprop aircraft. Findings should enable future users of the program to efficiently undertake and correctly interpret predictions.

  5. Dependence of seismoelectric amplitudes on water content - a field study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahser, M. H. P.; Matthey, P.-D.; Jouniaux, L.; Sailhac, P.

    2009-04-01

    In porous saturated media, seismic compressional waves can cause seismoelectric and seismoelectromagnetic signals through electrokinetic coupling. It has been observed that these measureable signals also occur in partially saturated media, but the theory is largely unknown for these circumstances. Seismoelectromagnetic tomography is expected to combine the sensitivity of electrical properties to water-content and permeability, to the high spatial resolution of seismic surveys. A better understanding of the physical processes and a reliable quantification of the conversion between seismic and electric energy are necessary and need to take into account the effect of water-content, especially for shallow subsurface investigations. In order to quantify seismoelectric signals with changing water content, we repeated seismoelectric and seismic measurements on the same profile in the Vosges Mountains during several months. The electrical resistivity was also monitored to take into account the water-content variations. We show that an exponential relation can be established between the seismoelectric amplitudes normalized with the seismic amplitudes and the resistivity which in turn is related to the saturation: Increasing resistivity (decreasing water content) leads to decreasing normalized seismoelectric amplitudes. These results imply that the electrokinetic coefficient should increase with water-saturation, as measured in laboratory, but not predicted by theory. This work was funded by CNRS and Université Louis Pasteur de Strasbourg.

  6. Lessons Learned from CFD Validation Study of Protuberance Heating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliver, Brandon; Blaisdell, Greogory

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this presentation are: (1) Share lessons learned from a recent exercise in CFD validation of protuberance heating (2) Impact of experimental data reduction assumptions and techniques on validation activity (3) Advanced data reduction techniques may provide useful data from non-typical test methods (4) Significance of the recovery factor for high-speed flows (5) Show typical results of the Lag turbulence model on protuberances (6) Introduce and inform the listener of a protuberance heating dataset which will soon be available for comparison

  7. Simulation verification techniques study. Subsystem simulation validation techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, L. M.; Reddell, J. P.; Schoonmaker, P. B.

    1974-01-01

    Techniques for validation of software modules which simulate spacecraft onboard systems are discussed. An overview of the simulation software hierarchy for a shuttle mission simulator is provided. A set of guidelines for the identification of subsystem/module performance parameters and critical performance parameters are presented. Various sources of reference data to serve as standards of performance for simulation validation are identified. Environment, crew station, vehicle configuration, and vehicle dynamics simulation software are briefly discussed from the point of view of their interfaces with subsystem simulation modules. A detailed presentation of results in the area of vehicle subsystems simulation modules is included. A list of references, conclusions and recommendations are also given.

  8. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  9. Family Studies I. Course Objectives, Content Analysis, Supporting Objectives and Content Generalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Sharon, Comp.; Martin, Joan, Ed.

    Family Studies I represents the first part of a consumer and homemaking program focusing on individual and family development, parenting, and the daily tasks of living in a family setting. The course is designed to help students study the family as it exists in day-to-day living and to aid them in understanding themselves in relation to their…

  10. Ecological Validity in Eye-Tracking: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinner, Patti; Gass, Susan M.; Behney, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Eye-trackers are becoming increasingly widespread as a tool to investigate second language (L2) acquisition. Unfortunately, clear standards for methodology--including font size, font type, and placement of interest areas--are not yet available. Although many researchers stress the need for ecological validity--that is, the simulation of natural…

  11. A Validity Study of the Salter Environmental Type Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salter, Daniel W.

    2002-01-01

    Correlational analyses of data from 202 students on the Work Environment Scale and Salter Environmental Type Assessment (SETA) supported concurrent validity. Factor analysis identified three factors accounting for 70% of variance: positive work settings, structure, and work pressure/task orientation. SETA appears useful as a commensurate Myers…

  12. Prenatal Child Abuse Risk Assessment: A Preliminary Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weberling, Lara Cady; Forgays, Deborah Kirby; Crain-Thoreson, Catherine; Hyman, Ira

    2003-01-01

    Tested the validity of the Brigid Collins Risk Screener (BCRS) to assess child abuse risk in a sample of 49 expectant mothers. Found that at 3 months postpartum, high-risk mothers scored significantly lower on the quality of infants' physical, social, and emotional environments than moderate or low-risk mothers. Concluded that the BCRS appears to…

  13. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... will be upon users or groups of users with a large number of persons in a job class, or test developers... professionally acceptable techniques with respect to validation of selection procedures. Where it is not... information to determine measures of work behavior(s) or performance that are relevant to the job or group...

  14. Training Objectives, Transfer, Validation and Evaluation: A Sri Lankan Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a stratified random sample, this paper examines the training practices of setting objectives, transfer, validation and evaluation in Sri Lanka. The paper further sets out to compare those practices across local, foreign and joint-venture companies based on the assumption that there may be significant differences across companies of different…

  15. Armed Services Vocational Battery (ASVAB): Integrative Review of Validity Studies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    Human Resources Laboratory. a Not defined for speeded tests. b Subtest reliabilities were derived using Kuder - Richardson Formula 20. c Estimated from...obtained with ASVAB sublests and composites. The reliability of a measure sets a limit on the validity of that measure. As shown in the formula below...22 Criterion Problems and Sources of Contamination .......................................... 22 Reliability of Criterion

  16. The Caregiver Role Identity Scale: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebert, Darcy Clay; Siebert, Carl F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article reports the validation of the Caregiver Role Identity Scale, designed to measure the prominence of helping professionals' identity as personal and professional caregivers. The authors developed the measure to test its application to burnout, depression, and professional impairment among social workers. Method: Data from a…

  17. Optical sensing of vegetation water content: A synthesis study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation Water Content (VWC) plays an important role in parameterizing the vegetation influence on microwave soil moisture retrieval. During the past decade, researchers have developed relationships between VWC and vegetation indices available from satellite optical sensors in order to create larg...

  18. Social Studies Content Teaching in Linguistically Diverse Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Irma M.

    The changing demographics of today's urban schools coupled with the corresponding shortage of bilingual teachers to provide an education for language minority students means that monolingual English teachers will have to carry out content area instruction for students with limited English proficiency (LEP) in the foreseeable future. This paper…

  19. Phaedra, a protocol-driven system for analysis and validation of high-content imaging and flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Cornelissen, Frans; Cik, Miroslav; Gustin, Emmanuel

    2012-04-01

    High-content screening has brought new dimensions to cellular assays by generating rich data sets that characterize cell populations in great detail and detect subtle phenotypes. To derive relevant, reliable conclusions from these complex data, it is crucial to have informatics tools supporting quality control, data reduction, and data mining. These tools must reconcile the complexity of advanced analysis methods with the user-friendliness demanded by the user community. After review of existing applications, we realized the possibility of adding innovative new analysis options. Phaedra was developed to support workflows for drug screening and target discovery, interact with several laboratory information management systems, and process data generated by a range of techniques including high-content imaging, multicolor flow cytometry, and traditional high-throughput screening assays. The application is modular and flexible, with an interface that can be tuned to specific user roles. It offers user-friendly data visualization and reduction tools for HCS but also integrates Matlab for custom image analysis and the Konstanz Information Miner (KNIME) framework for data mining. Phaedra features efficient JPEG2000 compression and full drill-down functionality from dose-response curves down to individual cells, with exclusion and annotation options, cell classification, statistical quality controls, and reporting.

  20. Searching for Educational Content in the For-Profit Internet: Case Study and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabos, Bettina

    This case study investigates the commercialized nature of Internet content and the ways educators and students negotiate and talk about such content. In factoring in the economic and historical context of educational Internet content, this case study also addresses educators' evolving attitudes towards commercialism in the classroom. A survey was…

  1. Design Characteristics Influence Performance of Clinical Prediction Rules in Validation: A Meta-Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Ban, Jong-Wook; Emparanza, José Ignacio; Urreta, Iratxe; Burls, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Background Many new clinical prediction rules are derived and validated. But the design and reporting quality of clinical prediction research has been less than optimal. We aimed to assess whether design characteristics of validation studies were associated with the overestimation of clinical prediction rules’ performance. We also aimed to evaluate whether validation studies clearly reported important methodological characteristics. Methods Electronic databases were searched for systematic reviews of clinical prediction rule studies published between 2006 and 2010. Data were extracted from the eligible validation studies included in the systematic reviews. A meta-analytic meta-epidemiological approach was used to assess the influence of design characteristics on predictive performance. From each validation study, it was assessed whether 7 design and 7 reporting characteristics were properly described. Results A total of 287 validation studies of clinical prediction rule were collected from 15 systematic reviews (31 meta-analyses). Validation studies using case-control design produced a summary diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) 2.2 times (95% CI: 1.2–4.3) larger than validation studies using cohort design and unclear design. When differential verification was used, the summary DOR was overestimated by twofold (95% CI: 1.2 -3.1) compared to complete, partial and unclear verification. The summary RDOR of validation studies with inadequate sample size was 1.9 (95% CI: 1.2 -3.1) compared to studies with adequate sample size. Study site, reliability, and clinical prediction rule was adequately described in 10.1%, 9.4%, and 7.0% of validation studies respectively. Conclusion Validation studies with design shortcomings may overestimate the performance of clinical prediction rules. The quality of reporting among studies validating clinical prediction rules needs to be improved. PMID:26730980

  2. Developing a patient-centered outcome measure for complementary and alternative medicine therapies II: Refining content validity through cognitive interviews

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Available measures of patient-reported outcomes for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) inadequately capture the range of patient-reported treatment effects. The Self-Assessment of Change questionnaire was developed to measure multi-dimensional shifts in well-being for CAM users. With content derived from patient narratives, items were subsequently focused through interviews on a new cohort of participants. Here we present the development of the final version in which the content and format is refined through cognitive interviews. Methods We conducted cognitive interviews across five iterations of questionnaire refinement with a culturally diverse sample of 28 CAM users. In each iteration, participant critiques were used to revise the questionnaire, which was then re-tested in subsequent rounds of cognitive interviews. Following all five iterations, transcripts of cognitive interviews were systematically coded and analyzed to examine participants' understanding of the format and content of the final questionnaire. Based on this data, we established summary descriptions and selected exemplar quotations for each word pair on the final questionnaire. Results The final version of the Self-Assessment of Change questionnaire (SAC) includes 16 word pairs, nine of which remained unchanged from the original draft. Participants consistently said that these stable word pairs represented opposite ends of the same domain of experience and the meanings of these terms were stable across the participant pool. Five pairs underwent revision and two word pairs were added. Four word pairs were eliminated for redundancy or because participants did not agree on the meaning of the terms. Cognitive interviews indicate that participants understood the format of the questionnaire and considered each word pair to represent opposite poles of a shared domain of experience. Conclusions We have placed lay language and direct experience at the center of questionnaire revision

  3. Some validation results of orbital and ground based CO and CH4 total content measurements in background and industrial regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakitin, Vadim; Shtabkin, Yury; Elansky, Nikolai; Skorokhod, Andrey; Safronov, Alexandr; Dzhola, Anatoly

    2015-04-01

    The results of ground-based spectroscopic measurements of CO and CH4 total content (TC) in Moscow, Zvenigorod (53 km toward West from the Moscow center), ZOTTO station (Central Siberia) and Beijing (China) during 2010-2014 years for conditions of typical and anomalous emission rates are presented and compared with satellite TC data (the latest versions of MOPITT, AIRS, IASI products). The empiric coefficients and relationships between data of ground-based and satellite CO and CH4 total contents (TC) are discussed. The comparison demonstrated a good agreement (R2 ~ 0.6-0.9) of satellite and ground-based CO TC data in low pollution conditions and systematic underestimation of satellite CO TC (150-300 %) in condition of intense surface emissions (events of wild fires in Siberia in 2011-2012 and strong atmospheric pollutions in Beijing). The best correlation (R2 ~ 0.4) for polluted conditions of Beijing was obtained in summer time-period for averaged AIRS v.6 CO TC data for 1o*1o grid, but K=Ugrb/Ustl = 2.5, where Ugrb and Ustlare ground based and satellite diurnal TC values relatively. Under excluding of the days with low ABL heights (HABL ≥1000m selection) the correlation between satellite and ground based CO TC diurnal data increases (R2 ~ 0.7, K=1.5). Orbital AIRS CH4 total columns good enough correlate with ground-based data (R2 ~0.4-0.7). IASI CH4TC diurnal data have no correlation with AIRS and ground-based TC.

  4. SELDI Validation Study Phase II — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    This project –A Comprehensive Program for the Validation of Prostate Cancer Early Detection with Novel Protein Identification Techniques -- is divided into three phases. The goal of Phase I was to assess the reproducibility and portability of Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption and Ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) using protein profiles generated from serum. Phase I was recently successfully completed at six institutions using a single source of pooled sera.

  5. 100 Area excavation treatability study data validation report

    SciTech Connect

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-05-19

    This report presents the results of sampling and chemical analyses at Hanford Reservation. The samples were analyzed by Thermo-Analytic Laboratories and Roy F. Weston Laboratories using US Environmental Protection Agency CLP protocols. Sample analyses included: volatile organics; semivolatile organics; inorganics; and general chemical parameters. The data from the chemical analyses were reviewed and validated to verify that reported sample results were of sufficient quality to support decisions regarding remedial actions performed at this site.

  6. A promising method for identifying cross-cultural differences in patient perspective: the use of Internet-based focus groups for content validation of new Patient Reported Outcome assessments

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark J; Lohs, Jan; Kuhagen, Ilka; Kaufman, Julie; Bhaidani, Shamsu

    2006-01-01

    Objectives This proof of concept (POC) study was designed to evaluate the use of an Internet-based bulletin board technology to aid parallel cross-cultural development of thematic content for a new set of patient-reported outcome measures (PROs). Methods The POC study, conducted in Germany and the United States, utilized Internet Focus Groups (IFGs) to assure the validity of new PRO items across the two cultures – all items were designed to assess the impact of excess facial oil on individuals' lives. The on-line IFG activities were modeled after traditional face-to-face focus groups and organized by a common 'Topic' Guide designed with input from thought leaders in dermatology and health outcomes research. The two sets of IFGs were professionally moderated in the native language of each country. IFG moderators coded the thematic content of transcripts, and a frequency analysis of code endorsement was used to identify areas of content similarity and difference between the two countries. Based on this information, draft PRO items were designed and a majority (80%) of the original participants returned to rate the relative importance of the newly designed questions. Findings The use of parallel cross-cultural content analysis of IFG transcripts permitted identification of the major content themes in each country as well as exploration of the possible reasons for any observed differences between the countries. Results from coded frequency counts and transcript reviews informed the design and wording of the test questions for the future PRO instrument(s). Subsequent ratings of item importance also deepened our understanding of potential areas of cross-cultural difference, differences that would be explored over the course of future validation studies involving these PROs. Conclusion The use of IFGs for cross-cultural content development received positive reviews from participants and was found to be both cost and time effective. The novel thematic coding methodology

  7. Determination of the caffeine contents of various food items within the Austrian market and validation of a caffeine assessment tool (CAT).

    PubMed

    Rudolph, E; Färbinger, A; König, J

    2012-01-01

    The caffeine content of 124 products, including coffee, coffee-based beverages, energy drinks, tea, colas, yoghurt and chocolate, were determined using RP-HPLC with UV detection after solid-phase extraction. Highest concentrations of caffeine were found for coffee prepared from pads (755 mg l⁻¹) and regular filtered coffee (659 mg l⁻¹). The total caffeine content of coffee and chocolate-based beverages was between 15 mg l⁻¹ in chocolate milk and 448 mg l⁻¹ in canned ice coffee. For energy drinks the caffeine content varied in a range from 266 to 340 mg l⁻¹. Caffeine concentrations in tea and ice teas were between 13 and 183 mg l⁻¹. Coffee-flavoured yoghurts ranged from 33 to 48 mg kg⁻¹. The caffeine concentration in chocolate and chocolate bars was between 17 mg kg⁻¹ in whole milk chocolate and 551 mg kg⁻¹ in a chocolate with coffee filling. A caffeine assessment tool was developed and validated by a 3-day dietary record (r²= 0.817, p < 0.01) using these analytical data and caffeine saliva concentrations (r²= 0.427, p < 0.01).

  8. A Case Study of Two Groups of Elementary Prospective Teachers' Experiences in Distinct Mathematics Content Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auslander, Susan Swars; Smith, Stephanie Z.; Smith, Marvin E.; Hart, Lynn C.; Carothers, Jody

    2016-01-01

    This multiple case study examined two groups of elementary prospective teachers (n=12) completing distinct mathematics content courses. Data were collected via two belief surveys, one content knowledge assessment, and individual interviews. The findings revealed differences in specialized content knowledge and mathematical beliefs between the two…

  9. Evaluation of the Bilingual Curriculum Content (BCC) Pilot Project: A Three Year Study. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothfarb, Sylvia H.; And Others

    A three-year longitudinal study of bilingual curriculum content (BCC) was initiated in the 1983-84 school year to assess alternative strategies for teaching curriculum content to Limited English Proficient (LEP) students in Dade County (Florida) Public Schools. The BCC strategy (in which content subjects are taught bilingually) was contrasted with…

  10. Content Metadata Standards for Marine Science: A Case Study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riall, Rebecca L.; Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey developed a content metadata standard to meet the demands of organizing electronic resources in the marine sciences for a broad, heterogeneous audience. These metadata standards are used by the Marine Realms Information Bank project, a Web-based public distributed library of marine science from academic institutions and government agencies. The development and deployment of this metadata standard serve as a model, complete with lessons about mistakes, for the creation of similarly specialized metadata standards for digital libraries.

  11. Multi-Core Processor Memory Contention Benchmark Analysis Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Tyler; McGalliard, James

    2009-01-01

    Multi-core processors dominate current mainframe, server, and high performance computing (HPC) systems. This paper provides synthetic kernel and natural benchmark results from an HPC system at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center that illustrate the performance impacts of multi-core (dual- and quad-core) vs. single core processor systems. Analysis of processor design, application source code, and synthetic and natural test results all indicate that multi-core processors can suffer from significant memory subsystem contention compared to similar single-core processors.

  12. A study of thematic content in hospital mission statements: a question of values.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jaime; Smythe, William; Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Malloy, David C; Martin, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    We examined the content of Canadian hospital mission statements using thematic content analysis. The mission statements that we studied varied in terms of both content and length. Although there was some content related to goals designed to ensure organizational visibility, survival, and competitiveness, the domain of values predominated over our entire coding structure. The primary value-related theme that emerged concerned the importance of patient care.

  13. 42 CFR 456.143 - Content of medical care evaluation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of medical care evaluation studies. 456.143...: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.143 Content of medical care evaluation studies. Each medical care evaluation study must— (a) Identify and analyze medical or administrative factors related to the...

  14. 42 CFR 456.243 - Content of medical care evaluation studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Content of medical care evaluation studies. 456.243... Ur Plan: Medical Care Evaluation Studies § 456.243 Content of medical care evaluation studies. Each medical care evaluation study must— (a) Identify and analyze medical or administrative factors related...

  15. 41 CFR 60-3.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... The incumbents in the user's job and the incumbents in the job or group of jobs on which the validity study was conducted perform substantially the same major work behaviors, as shown by appropriate job analyses both on the job or group of jobs on which the validity study was performed and on the job...

  16. Turkish Adaptation of the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yirci, Ramazan; Karakose, Turgut; Uygun, Harun; Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness Scale to Turkish, and to conduct validity and reliability tests regarding the scale. The study group consisted of 156 university science students receiving graduate education. Construct validity and factor structure of the scale was analyzed first through exploratory…

  17. Reliable Digit Span: A Systematic Review and Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Ryan W.; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip; Baade, Lyle E.; Marshall, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is a heavily researched symptom validity test with a recent literature review yielding more than 20 studies ranging in dates from 1994 to 2011. Unfortunately, limitations within some of the research minimize clinical generalizability. This systematic review and cross-validation study was conducted to address these…

  18. Quantum mechanics concept assessment: Development and validation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra R.; Pollock, Steven J.

    2015-06-01

    As part of an ongoing investigation of students' learning in first semester upper-division quantum mechanics, we needed a high-quality conceptual assessment instrument for comparing outcomes of different curricular approaches. The process of developing such a tool started with converting a preliminary version of a 14-item open-ended quantum mechanics assessment tool (QMAT) to a multiple-choice (MC) format. Further question refinement, development of effective distractors, adding new questions, and robust statistical analysis has led to a 31-item quantum mechanics concept assessment (QMCA) test. The QMCA is used as post-test only to assess students' knowledge about five main topics of quantum measurement: the time-independent Schrödinger equation, wave functions and boundary conditions, time evolution, and probability density. During two years of testing and refinement, the QMCA has been given in alpha (N =61 ) and beta versions (N =263 ) to students in upper division quantum mechanics courses at 11 different institutions with an average post-test score of 54%. By allowing for comparisons of student learning across different populations and institutions, the QMCA provides instructors and researchers a more standard measure of effectiveness of different curricula or teaching strategies on student conceptual understanding of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we discuss the construction of effective distractors and the use of student interviews and expert feedback to revise and validate both questions and distractors. We include the results of common statistical tests of reliability and validity, which suggest the instrument is presently in a stable, usable, and promising form.

  19. JaCVAM-organized international validation study of the in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay for detection of genotoxic carcinogens: II. Summary of definitive validation study results.

    PubMed

    Uno, Yoshifumi; Kojima, Hajime; Omori, Takashi; Corvi, Raffaella; Honma, Masamistu; Schechtman, Leonard M; Tice, Raymond R; Beevers, Carol; De Boeck, Marlies; Burlinson, Brian; Hobbs, Cheryl A; Kitamoto, Sachiko; Kraynak, Andrew R; McNamee, James; Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Pant, Kamala; Plappert-Helbig, Ulla; Priestley, Catherine; Takasawa, Hironao; Wada, Kunio; Wirnitzer, Uta; Asano, Norihide; Escobar, Patricia A; Lovell, David; Morita, Takeshi; Nakajima, Madoka; Ohno, Yasuo; Hayashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    The in vivo rodent alkaline comet assay (comet assay) is used internationally to investigate the in vivo genotoxic potential of test chemicals. This assay, however, has not previously been formally validated. The Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM), with the cooperation of the U.S. NTP Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM)/the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and the Japanese Environmental Mutagen Society/Mammalian Mutagenesis Study Group (JEMS/MMS), organized an international validation study to evaluate the reliability and relevance of the assay for identifying genotoxic carcinogens, using liver and stomach as target organs. The ultimate goal of this exercise was to establish an Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) test guideline. The study protocol was optimized in the pre-validation studies, and then the definitive (4th phase) validation study was conducted in two steps. In the 1st step, assay reproducibility was confirmed among laboratories using four coded reference chemicals and the positive control ethyl methanesulfonate. In the 2nd step, the predictive capability was investigated using 40 coded chemicals with known genotoxic and carcinogenic activity (i.e., genotoxic carcinogens, genotoxic non-carcinogens, non-genotoxic carcinogens, and non-genotoxic non-carcinogens). Based on the results obtained, the in vivo comet assay is concluded to be highly capable of identifying genotoxic chemicals and therefore can serve as a reliable predictor of rodent carcinogenicity.

  20. Non-clinical models: validation, study design and statistical consideration in safety pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, M K; Towart, R; Authier, S; Gallacher, D J; Curtis, M J

    2010-01-01

    The current issue of the Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods (JPTM) focuses exclusively on safety pharmacology methods. This is the 7th year the Journal has published on this topic. Methods and models that specifically relate to methods relating to the assessment of the safety profile of a new chemical entity (NCE) prior to first in human (FIH) studies are described. Since the Journal started publishing on this topic there has been a major effort by safety pharmacologists, toxicologists and regulatory scientists within Industry (both large and small Pharma as well as Biotechnology companies) and also from Contract Research Organizations (CRO) to publish the surgical details of the non-clinical methods utilized but also provide important details related to standard and non-standard (or integrated) study models and designs. These details from core battery and secondary (or ancillary) drug safety assessment methods used in drug development programs have been the focus of these special issues and have been an attempt to provide validation of methods. Similarly, the safety pharmacology issues of the Journal provide the most relevant forum for scientists to present novel and modified methods with direct applicability to determination of drug safety-directly to the safety pharmacology scientific community. The content of the manuscripts in this issue includes the introduction of additional important surgical methods, novel data capture and data analysis methods, improved study design and effects of positive control compounds with known activity in the model.

  1. Improving Content Validation Studies Using an Asymmetric Confidence Interval for the Mean of Expert Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penfield, Randall D.; Miller, Jeffrey M.

    2004-01-01

    As automated scoring of complex constructed-response examinations reaches operational status, the process of evaluating the quality of resultant scores, particularly in contrast to scores of expert human graders, becomes as complex as the data itself. Using a vignette from the Architectural Registration Examination (ARE), this article explores the…

  2. Reliability and Validity Study of the Chamorro Assisted Gait Scale for People with Sprained Ankles, Walking with Forearm Crutches

    PubMed Central

    Ridao-Fernández, Carmen; Ojeda, Joaquín; Benítez-Lugo, Marisa; Sevillano, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to design and validate a functional assessment scale for assisted gait with forearm crutches (Chamorro Assisted Gait Scale—CHAGS) and to assess its reliability in people with sprained ankles. Design Thirty subjects who suffered from sprained ankle (anterior talofibular ligament first and second degree) were included in the study. A modified Delphi technique was used to obtain the content validity. The selected items were: pelvic and scapular girdle dissociation(1), deviation of Center of Gravity(2), crutch inclination(3), steps rhythm(4), symmetry of step length(5), cross support(6), simultaneous support of foot and crutch(7), forearm off(8), facing forward(9) and fluency(10). Two raters twice visualized the gait of the sample subjects which were recorded. The criterion-related validity was determined by correlation between CHAGS and Coding of eight criteria of qualitative gait analysis (Viel Coding). Internal consistency and inter and intra-rater reliability were also tested. Results CHAGS obtained a high and negative correlation with Viel Coding. We obtained a good internal consistency and the intra-class correlation coefficients oscillated between 0.97 and 0.99, while the minimal detectable changes were acceptable. Conclusion CHAGS scale is a valid and reliable tool for assessing assisted gait with crutches in people with sprained ankles to perform partial relief of lower limbs. PMID:27168236

  3. Assessing Households Preparedness for Earthquakes: An Exploratory Study in the Development of a Valid and Reliable Persian-version Tool

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Ali; Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Iran is placed among countries suffering from the highest number of earthquake casualties. Household preparedness, as one component of risk reduction efforts, is often supported in quake-prone areas. In Iran, lack of a valid and reliable household preparedness tool was reported by previous disaster studies. This study is aimed to fill this gap by developing a valid and reliable tool for assessing household preparedness in the event of an earthquake. Methods: This survey was conducted through three phases including literature review and focus group discussions with the participation of eight key informants, validity measurements and reliability measurements. Field investigation was completed with the participation of 450 households within three provinces of Iran. Content validity, construct validity, the use of factor analysis; internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and test-retest reliability were carried out to develop the tool. Results: Based on the CVIs, ranging from 0.80 to 0.100, and exploratory factor analysis with factor loading of more than 0.5, all items were valid. The amount of Cronbach's alpha (0.7) and test-retest examination by Spearman correlations indicated that the scale was also reliable. The final instrument consisted of six categories and 18 questions including actions at the time of earthquakes, nonstructural safety, structural safety, hazard map, communications, drill, and safety skills. Conclusion: Using a Persian-version tool that is adjusted to the socio-cultural determinants and native language may result in more trustful information on earthquake preparedness. It is suggested that disaster managers and researchers apply this tool in their future household preparedness projects. Further research is needed to make effective policies and plans for transforming preparedness knowledge into behavior. PMID:26981326

  4. Pilot In-Trail Procedure Validation Simulation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bussink, Frank J. L.; Murdoch, Jennifer L.; Chamberlain, James P.; Chartrand, Ryan; Jones, Kenneth M.

    2008-01-01

    A Human-In-The-Loop experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) to investigate the viability of the In-Trail Procedure (ITP) concept from a flight crew perspective, by placing participating airline pilots in a simulated oceanic flight environment. The test subject pilots used new onboard avionics equipment that provided improved information about nearby traffic and enabled them, when specific criteria were met, to request an ITP flight level change referencing one or two nearby aircraft that might otherwise block the flight level change. The subject pilots subjective assessments of ITP validity and acceptability were measured via questionnaires and discussions, and their objective performance in appropriately selecting, requesting, and performing ITP flight level changes was evaluated for each simulated flight scenario. Objective performance and subjective workload assessment data from the experiment s test conditions were analyzed for statistical and operational significance and are reported in the paper. Based on these results, suggestions are made to further improve the ITP.

  5. Strategic and Organisational Considerations in Planning Content and Language Integrated Learning: A Study on the Coordination between Content and Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavón Vázquez, Víctor; Ávila López, Javier; Gallego Segador, Arturo; Espejo Mohedano, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Content and language integrated learning (CLIL) is generally recognised as a fruitful example of bilingual education. However, success in CLIL may not be straightforward and may require the establishment of coordination between content and language teachers. The aim of this study is to investigate if content and language teachers are able to plan…

  6. Development and validation of a near-infrared spectroscopy method for the prediction of acrylamide content in French-fried potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to predict acrylamide content in French-fried potato. Potato flour spiked with acrylamide (50-8000 µg/kg) was used to determine if acrylamide could be accurately predicted in a potato matrix. French fries produced with various ...

  7. I, Pronoun: A Study of Formality in Online Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer, Alexander; Evans, Mary B.; McBride, Alicia A.; Queen, Matt; Spyridakis, Jan H.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study that investigated readers' perceptions of tone formality in online text passages. The study found that readers perceived text passages to be less formal when they contained personal pronouns, active voice verbs, informal punctuation, or verb contractions. The study reveals that professional…

  8. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Chenfeng; Hu, Zhipeng; Hou, Yuyong

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana.

  9. A Mathematical Model of Neutral Lipid Content in terms of Initial Nitrogen Concentration and Validation in Coelastrum sp. HA-1 and Application in Chlorella sorokiniana

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue; Liu, Zhiyong; Liu, Chenfeng; Hu, Zhipeng

    2017-01-01

    Microalgae are considered to be a potential major biomass feedstock for biofuel due to their high lipid content. However, no correlation equations as a function of initial nitrogen concentration for lipid accumulation have been developed for simplicity to predict lipid production and optimize the lipid production process. In this study, a lipid accumulation model was developed with simple parameters based on the assumption protein synthesis shift to lipid synthesis by a linear function of nitrogen quota. The model predictions fitted well for the growth, lipid content, and nitrogen consumption of Coelastrum sp. HA-1 under various initial nitrogen concentrations. Then the model was applied successfully in Chlorella sorokiniana to predict the lipid content with different light intensities. The quantitative relationship between initial nitrogen concentrations and the final lipid content with sensitivity analysis of the model were also discussed. Based on the model results, the conversion efficiency from protein synthesis to lipid synthesis is higher and higher in microalgae metabolism process as nitrogen decreases; however, the carbohydrate composition content remains basically unchanged neither in HA-1 nor in C. sorokiniana. PMID:28194424

  10. 41 CFR 60-3.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... analyses both on the job or group of jobs on which the validity study was performed and on the job for... section 14B of this part clearly demonstrates that the selection procedure is valid; (2) Job similarity. The incumbents in the user's job and the incumbents in the job or group of jobs on which the...

  11. 41 CFR 60-3.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... analyses both on the job or group of jobs on which the validity study was performed and on the job for... section 14B of this part clearly demonstrates that the selection procedure is valid; (2) Job similarity. The incumbents in the user's job and the incumbents in the job or group of jobs on which the...

  12. 41 CFR 60-3.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... analyses both on the job or group of jobs on which the validity study was performed and on the job for... section 14B of this part clearly demonstrates that the selection procedure is valid; (2) Job similarity. The incumbents in the user's job and the incumbents in the job or group of jobs on which the...

  13. 41 CFR 60-3.7 - Use of other validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... analyses both on the job or group of jobs on which the validity study was performed and on the job for... section 14B of this part clearly demonstrates that the selection procedure is valid; (2) Job similarity. The incumbents in the user's job and the incumbents in the job or group of jobs on which the...

  14. Measuring Students' Writing Ability on a Computer-Analytic Developmental Scale: An Exploratory Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Hal; Swartz, Carl W.; Stenner, A. Jackson; Fitzgerald, Jill; Burdick, Don; Hanlon, Sean T.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore the validity of a novel computer-analytic developmental scale, the Writing Ability Developmental Scale. On the whole, collective results supported the validity of the scale. It was sensitive to writing ability differences across grades and sensitive to within-grade variability as compared to human-rated…

  15. Validation Study of a Gatekeeping Attitude Index for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Dora M. Y.; Coleman, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to validate the Gatekeeping Attitude Index, a 14-item Likert scaling index. The authors collected data from a convenience sample of social work field instructors (N = 188) with a response rate of 74.0%. Construct validation by exploratory factor analysis identified a 2-factor solution on the index after…

  16. A Study of the Criterion Validity of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Alberto Luis; Scheffel, Debora L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the criterion validity of the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale (S. Mattis, 1988) with a concurrent study to obtain a cut-off score for an Argentinean population by administering a battery of tests to 60 memory disorder patients. Findings demonstrate high convergent validity with another measure and show an appropriate cut score for use with…

  17. Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS) Validation Study Designs. CEELO FastFacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilder, D.

    2013-01-01

    In this "Fast Facts," a state has received Race to the Top Early Learning Challenge funds and is seeking information to inform the design of the Quality Rating and Improvement System (QRIS) validation study. The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) responds that according to Resnick (2012), validation of a QRIS is an…

  18. Improved Diagnostic Validity of the ADOS Revised Algorithms: A Replication Study in an Independent Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterling, Iris; Roos, Sascha; de Bildt, Annelies; Rommelse, Nanda; de Jonge, Maretha; Visser, Janne; Lappenschaar, Martijn; Swinkels, Sophie; van der Gaag, Rutger Jan; Buitelaar, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Recently, Gotham et al. ("2007") proposed revised algorithms for the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS) with improved diagnostic validity. The aim of the current study was to replicate predictive validity, factor structure, and correlations with age and verbal and nonverbal IQ of the ADOS revised algorithms for Modules 1 and 2…

  19. Validating the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betancourt, Theresa; Scorza, Pamela; Meyers-Ohki, Sarah; Mushashi, Christina; Kayiteshonga, Yvonne; Binagwaho, Agnes; Stulac, Sara; Beardslee, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We assessed the validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) as a screen for depression in Rwandan children and adolescents. Although the CES-DC is widely used for depression screening in high-income countries, its validity in low-income and culturally diverse settings, including sub-Saharan…

  20. Validation of a Computerized Cognitive Assessment System for Persons with Stroke: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Chi Kwong; Man, David W. K.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the validity of a newly developed computerized cognitive assessment system (CCAS) that is equipped with rich multimedia to generate simulated testing situations and considers both test item difficulty and the test taker's ability. It is also hypothesized that better predictive validity of the CCAS in self-care of persons…

  1. Validation study of air-sea gas transfer modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Asher, W.E.; Farley, P.J.; Leifer, I.S.

    1995-07-01

    Laboratory results have demonstrated the importance of bubble plumes to air-water gas transfer (Asher et al., 1994). Bubble plumes enhance gas transfer by disrupting surface films, by directly transporting a gas, and by the creation of turbulence. Models of bubble gas transfer have been developed by different authors (Atkinson, 1973; Memery and Merlivat, 1985; Woolf and Thorpe, 1991) to determine the magnitude of gas transfer due to bubbles. Laboratory measurements of both the gas transfer rate k{sub L}, and the bubble distribution {phi} in a whitecap simulation tank (WST) have allowed these models to be validated and deficiencies in the theoretical assumptions to be explored. In the WST, each bucket tip simulates a wave breaking event. Important tests of these models include whether they can explain the experimentally determined solubility and Schmidt number dependency of k{sub L}, predict the time varying bubble concentrations, predict the evasion-invasion asymmetry, and predict the fraction of k{sub L} due to bubble plumes. Four different models were tested, a steady state model (Atkinson, 1973), a non-turbulence model with constant bubble radius (Memery and Merlivat, 1985), a turbulence model with constant bubble radius (Wolf and Thorpe, 1991), and a turbulence model with varying bubble radius. All models simulated multiple bubble tip cycles. The two turbulence models were run for sufficient tip cycles to generate statistically significant number of eddies ({number_sign}{gt}50) for bubbles affected by turbulence (V{sub B}{le}V{sub T}), found to be at least four tip cycles. The models allowed up to nine gases simultaneously and were run under different conditions of trace and major gas concentrations and partial pressures.

  2. Awakening and Elaborating: Differentiation in Social Studies Content and Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses differentiating social studies curricula and instruction for gifted students. It explains the following variables of differentiation: open-ended structure, development and presentation of separate lessons rather than units, the teaching of universal social studies concepts, motivational segments, and use of appropriate…

  3. Content Analysis of Turkish Studies about the Multiple Intelligences Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saban, Ahmet

    2009-01-01

    Recently, there has been a significant increase in the number of multiple intelligences (MI) studies in Turkey. Consequently, a systematic analysis of these studies is crucial in order to be able to see the present situation and future trends in the field of education. By this way, it is also hoped that the current analysis will offer an avenue…

  4. ICT Student Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Nuray Parlak

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the difficulties that information technology student teachers have in teaching concepts. This qualitative study was carried out with 12 student teachers. The student teachers were fourth-year students enrolled in the Special Teaching Methods II course in the spring semester of the 2010-2011 academic year. The research…

  5. Do placebo based validation standards mimic real batch products behaviour? Case studies.

    PubMed

    Bouabidi, A; Talbi, M; Bouklouze, A; El Karbane, M; Bourichi, H; El Guezzar, M; Ziemons, E; Hubert, Ph; Rozet, E

    2011-06-01

    Analytical methods validation is a mandatory step to evaluate the ability of developed methods to provide accurate results for their routine application. Validation usually involves validation standards or quality control samples that are prepared in placebo or reconstituted matrix made of a mixture of all the ingredients composing the drug product except the active substance or the analyte under investigation. However, one of the main concerns that can be made with this approach is that it may lack an important source of variability that come from the manufacturing process. The question that remains at the end of the validation step is about the transferability of the quantitative performance from validation standards to real authentic drug product samples. In this work, this topic is investigated through three case studies. Three analytical methods were validated using the commonly spiked placebo validation standards at several concentration levels as well as using samples coming from authentic batch samples (tablets and syrups). The results showed that, depending on the type of response function used as calibration curve, there were various degrees of differences in the results accuracy obtained with the two types of samples. Nonetheless the use of spiked placebo validation standards was showed to mimic relatively well the quantitative behaviour of the analytical methods with authentic batch samples. Adding these authentic batch samples into the validation design may help the analyst to select and confirm the most fit for purpose calibration curve and thus increase the accuracy and reliability of the results generated by the method in routine application.

  6. A Comparative Study of Six Decades of General Science Textbooks: Evaluating the Evolution of Science Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Anna

    2008-01-01

    This study examined science textbooks over time to better understand the "science content" expectations that the U.S. educational system deems appropriate for 8th and 9th grade science students. The study attempted to answer the questions: (1) What specific science content has been presented via the textbook from 1952 to 2008? (2) Within…

  7. A National Study of Training Content and Activities for Faculty Development for Online Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Katrina A.; Murrell, Vicki S.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a national study of 39 higher education institutions that collected information about their practices for faculty development for online teaching and particularly the content and training activities used during 2011-2012. This study found that the most frequently offered training content (97% of the…

  8. Connecting Content, Context, and Communication in a Sixth-Grade Social Studies Class through Political Cartoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallavan, Nancy P.; Webster-Smith, Angela; Dean, Sheila S.

    2012-01-01

    Sixth-grade students are challenged in understanding social studies content relevant to particular contexts, then connecting the content and context to their contemporary lives while communicating new knowledge to peers and teachers. Using political cartoons published after September 11, 2001, one sixth-grade social studies teacher designed…

  9. Preliminary assestment of lint cotton water content in gin-drying temperature studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior studies to measure total water (free and bound) in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration showed the method is more accurate and precise than moisture content by standard oven drying. The objective of the current study was to compare the moisture and total water contents from five cultivars de...

  10. R&D Needs for Assessment in the Content Areas. Testing Study Group: Content Assessment. Report on Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Herman, Joan

    This paper surveys the status of current state and district level practice in content assessment, highlights related research efforts currently underway, and identifies high priority areas for subsequent research in content assessment. A needs assessment for research in content area assessment was conducted during 1986 by the Center for Research…

  11. Validation of hydraulic tomography in an unconfined aquifer: A controlled sandbox study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhanfeng; Illman, Walter A.; Yeh, Tian-Chyi J.; Berg, Steven J.; Mao, Deqiang

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the effectiveness of hydraulic tomography (HT) that considers variably saturated flow processes in mapping the heterogeneity of both the saturated and unsaturated zones in a laboratory unconfined aquifer. The successive linear estimator (SLE) developed by Mao et al. (2013c) for interpreting HT in unconfined aquifers is utilized to obtain tomograms of hydraulic conductivity (K), specific storage (Ss), and the unsaturated zone parameters (pore size parameter (α) and saturated water content (θs)) for the Gardner-Russo's model. The estimated tomograms are first evaluated by visually comparing them with stratigraphy visible in the sandbox. Results reveal that the HT analysis is able to accurately capture the location and extent of heterogeneity including high and low K layers within the saturated and unsaturated zones, as well as reasonable distribution patterns of α and θs for the Gardner-Russo's model. We then validate the estimated tomograms through predictions of drawdown responses of pumping tests not used during the inverse modeling effort. The strong agreement between simulated and observed drawdown curves obtained by pressure transducers and tensiometers demonstrates the robust performance of HT that considers variably saturated flow processes in unconfined aquifers and the unsaturated zone above it. In addition, compared to the case using the homogeneous assumption, HT results, as expected, yield significantly better predictions of drawdowns in both the saturated and unsaturated zones. This comparison further substantiates the unbiased and minimal variance of HT analysis with the SLE algorithm.

  12. Uptake of dietary milk miRNAs by adult humans: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Amanda; Vyas, Gopi; Li, Anne; Halushka, Marc; Witwer, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is replete with nutritional content as well as nucleic acids including microRNAs (miRNAs). In a recent report, adult humans who drank bovine milk appeared to have increased circulating levels of miRNAs miR-29b-3p and miR-200c-3p. Since these miRNAs are homologous between human and cow, these results could be explained by xeno-miRNA influx, endogenous miRNA regulation, or both. More data were needed to validate the results and explore for additional milk-related alterations in circulating miRNAs. Samples from the published study were obtained, and 223 small RNA features were profiled with a custom OpenArray, followed by individual quantitative PCR assays for selected miRNAs. Additionally, small RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data obtained from plasma samples of the same project were analyzed to find human and uniquely bovine miRNAs. OpenArray revealed no significantly altered miRNA signals after milk ingestion, and this was confirmed by qPCR. Plasma sequencing data contained no miR-29b or miR-200c reads and no intake-consistent mapping of uniquely bovine miRNAs. In conclusion, the results do not support transfer of dietary xenomiRs into the circulation of adult humans. PMID:27158459

  13. Study to validate the Non-Interference Performance Assessment (NIPA) technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeman, J. S.; Murphy, G. L.

    1973-01-01

    The NIPA (Non-Interference Performance Assessment) technique involves direct observation of group verbal activities by trained observers who rate the emotional content (affect) of each verbal interaction as either positive, negative, or neutral. During the test, in which four men were confined for 90 consecutive days, feasibility of the NIPA technique was demonstrated and observer reliability was verified. However, the validity of the test was not proved because an independent criterion measure of morale for the confined crew was lacking. There were indications, however, that NIPA measures were tracking changes in crew morale. At approximately the two-thirds point (Days 60 to 70), morale apparently fell dramatically for a period of about ten days, and simultaneously NIPA measure of positive verbalization decreased in number. A need was indicated for a separate study to apply the NIPA technique under experimental conditions and using a clearly defined criterion measure against which the ability of NIPA observations to truly measure morale changes could be determined.

  14. Domain Engineering Validation Case Study: Synthesis for the Air Traffic Display/Collision Warning Monitor Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    AD-A259 407 DTIC itELECTE JANI2 6 1993 C DOMAIN ENGINEERING VALIDATION CASE STUDY: SYNTHESIS FOR THE AIR TRAFFIC DISPLAY/COLLISION WARNING MONITOR...Kramer, DARPA/ SISTO, Arl., VA 22203 1-26-93 JK DOMAIN ENGINEERING VALIDATION CASE STUDY: SYNTHESIS FOR THE AIR TRAFFIC DISPLAY/COLLISION WARNING MONITOR...COLLISION WARNING MONITOR CASE STUDY WITH AUTOMATION ............... C-1 C .1 Introduction .............................................................. C -1

  15. Studying the information content of TMDs using Monte Carlo generators

    SciTech Connect

    Avakian, H.; Matevosyan, H.; Pasquini, B.; Schweitzer, P.

    2015-02-05

    Theoretical advances in studies of the nucleon structure have been spurred by recent measurements of spin and/or azimuthal asymmetries worldwide. One of the main challenges still remaining is the extraction of the parton distribution functions, generalized to describe transverse momentum and spatial distributions of partons from these observables with no or minimal model dependence. In this topical review we present the latest developments in the field with emphasis on requirements for Monte Carlo event generators, indispensable for studies of the complex 3D nucleon structure, and discuss examples of possible applications.

  16. Integration of Basic Skills into Social Studies Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunstrum, John P.; Irvin, Judith L.

    1981-01-01

    A basic skills model is presented which stresses the skills of writing, reading, study, and research for elementary school pupils. The model focuses on lesson background, the purpose of the reading, independent reading, follow-up discussion, developing related skills, and extending and applying ideas. A lesson about the 1910 British expedition to…

  17. Technical Guide for Implementing Content Standards: Social Studies, June 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota State Dept. of Education and Cultural Affairs, Pierre.

    This technical guide is a resource to help educators implement the adopted social studies standards for South Dakota. The guide to the standards includes the goals, indicators, benchmarks, and grade level standards. It is organized in grade level clusters according to benchmark levels: K-2, 3-5, 6-8, and 9-12. This format is provided as a…

  18. Secondary Social Studies: Arkansas Public School Course Content Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This guide is offered as a framework on which a comprehensive curriculum can be built. Within each subject area and grade level, skills have been identified at three instructional levels: basic, developmental, and extension. The study of political and economic systems, citizenship rights and responsibilities, and the foundations of the U.S.…

  19. A Quantitative Study of High School Yearbook Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krepel, Wayne J.; DuVall, Charles R.

    The purpose of this study was to analyze high school yearbooks, relative to quantitative page allotments, when classified by the size of the community, the type of socioeconomic environment of the school, and the size of the graduating class. A normative survey was conducted using a questionnaire requesting the respondent to furnish a copy of the…

  20. Genetic Architecture of Natural Variation in Rice Chlorophyll Content Revealed by a Genome-Wide Association Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanxiu; Xie, Weibo; Xing, Hongkun; Yan, Ju; Meng, Xiangzhou; Li, Xinglei; Fu, Xiangkui; Xu, Jiuyue; Lian, Xingming; Yu, Sibin; Xing, Yongzhong; Wang, Gongwei

    2015-06-01

    Chlorophyll content is one of the most important physiological traits as it is closely related to leaf photosynthesis and crop yield potential. So far, few genes have been reported to be involved in natural variation of chlorophyll content in rice (Oryza sativa) and the extent of variations explored is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a diverse worldwide collection of 529 O. sativa accessions. A total of 46 significant association loci were identified. Three F2 mapping populations with parents selected from the association panel were tested for validation of GWAS signals. We clearly demonstrated that Grain number, plant height, and heading date7 (Ghd7) was a major locus for natural variation of chlorophyll content at the heading stage by combining evidence from near-isogenic lines and transgenic plants. The enhanced expression of Ghd7 decreased the chlorophyll content, mainly through down-regulating the expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of chlorophyll and chloroplast. In addition, Narrow leaf1 (NAL1) corresponded to one significant association region repeatedly detected over two years. We revealed a high degree of polymorphism in the 5' UTR and four non-synonymous SNPs in the coding region of NAL1, and observed diverse effects of the major haplotypes. The loci or candidate genes identified would help to fine-tune and optimize the antenna size of canopies in rice breeding.

  1. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy of stratum corneum: a pre-clinical validation study.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Polefka, T G

    2008-02-01

    Skin moisturization is not only important for maintaining skin functional properties but also has great impact on the skin's aesthetic properties. The top layer of the skin, the stratum corneum (SC), plays a key role in protecting and preventing against external aggressions as well as in regulating water flux in and out. Confocal Raman microspectroscopy is the first commercially available technique that provides a non-invasive, in vivo method to determine depth profiles of water concentration in the skin, however, in this case it was applied in an in vitro setting. As the first phase of validating the usefulness of confocal Raman microspectroscopy, we used porcine skin as a surrogate for human skin. Water concentration profiles were obtained using confocal Raman microspectroscopy from isolated pigskin SC and compared with that using the Karl Fischer titration method. The two methods correlated very well with a regression coefficient of 1.07 as well as a correlation coefficient, R(2) = 0.989, which demonstrated the consistency and accuracy of confocal Raman microspectroscopy for water concentration determination. To evaluate the instrument's response to different skin care/cleansing products, a wide range of products were tested to compare their skin moisturization ability. Among those tested were a lotion, commercial soap bar, syndet bar, traditional non-emollient shower gel (water, Sodium Laureth Ether Sulfate (SLES), cocamidopropyl betaine system) and emollient containing shower gel (water, sunflower oil, SLES, cocamidopropyl betaine, glycerin, petrolatum). The results were consistent with what was expected. The water content on skin treated with (A) lotion was significantly higher than the non-treated control; (B) syndet bar-treated skin had a significantly higher water content than soap-based bar-treated sites; (C) non-emollient shower gel washed sites were more moisturized than soap-based bar-treated samples; and (D) emollient shower gel-treated skin was

  2. Structural and Dynamic Studies of Materials Possessing High Energy Content.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-31

    Diazabicyclo[2.2.2] Octene ," N.J. Turro and M.-M Liu H.-D. Martin and M. Kunze, Tetrahedron Lett., 21, 1299 (1980). "Quenching of Chemiexcited Acetone...Derivatives by Electron-Rich and Electron-Poor Ethylenes ," N.J. Turro and G. Farrington, J.Am. Chem. Soc.,102 6051 (1980). "Photoinduced Oxetane Formation...Between 2-Norbornanone and Derivatives with Electron Poor Ethylenes ", N.J. lurro and G. Farrington, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 102, 6056 (1980). "Studies of the

  3. Perspectives: Technology as Content in Social Studies Curricula for Young Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooler, Dennis D., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that elementary social studies teachers who wish to engage students in the social studies must see educational technology as both instructional tools and as content. Concludes that technological literacy will become as important as science or civic literacy. (ACM)

  4. Validity of repeating patient origin studies for rural hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Meade, J M

    1976-01-01

    Recent research in southwest Idaho and southeast Oregon indicates that hospital service areas in this rural locality have not changed over time. The 12-county study area includes approximately 42,000 square miles inhabited by only 265,491 people. The focal point of hospital care in this region is Boise, Idaho, with adjacent smaller centers. Data used in the paper came from two sources-a patient-origin study completed in 1968 and a health interview survey completed in 1973. In both studies information was collected on patients' places of residence and where they went to receive hospital care. Because of the 6-year timespan between the studies, it was suspected that there may have been changes in the hospitals' service areas. An examination of some variables that customarily influence hospital service areas, such as number of physicians, number of hospital beds, and size of population, revealed that, despite sizable changes in all these variables, no appreciable changes were noted in the spatial patterns of the hospitals' service areas. This result was unexpected, but it may indicate to others engaged in planning for rural hospitals that updating patient origin studies in their areas may produce only marginal benefits. PMID:815936

  5. Measuring suicidality using the personality assessment inventory: a convergent validity study with federal inmates.

    PubMed

    Patry, Marc W; Magaletta, Philip R

    2015-02-01

    Although numerous studies have examined the psychometric properties and clinical utility of the Personality Assessment Inventory in correctional contexts, only two studies to date have specifically focused on suicide ideation. This article examines the convergent validity of the Suicide Ideation Scale and the Suicide Potential Index on the Personality Assessment Inventory in a large, nontreatment sample of male and female federal inmates (N = 1,120). The data indicated robust validity support for both the Suicide Ideation Scale and Suicide Potential Index, which were each correlated with a broad group of validity indices representing multiple assessment modalities. Recommendations for future research to build upon these findings through replication and extension are made.

  6. Validity Studies Using the Comprehensive Ability Battery (CAB): I. Academic Achievement Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph; Bennet, Richard W.

    1977-01-01

    A new multiple abilities battery, the Comprehensive Ability Battery, is described, and the results of five criterion-related validity studies using eleven tests of the battery are reported. (Author/JKS)

  7. Theoretical Evaluation Self-Test (Test): A Preliminary Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    Over nearly 40 years, several scales have been developed to measure therapist theoretical orientation (Poznanski & McLennan, 1995). This study, unlike previous efforts, focuses on "community clinicians"--social workers and other mental health professionals (such as psychologists, counselors, psychiatrists, and psychiatric nurses) who…

  8. Book Reading Motivation Scale: Reliability and Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katranci, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Book reading enhances the intellectual world of people. It is very important to know the factors that motivate children to read books as it will help to instill book reading habit in them. As such, the present study aims to develop a "Book Reading Motivation Scale" to determine elementary and secondary school students' reading…

  9. A Predictive Validity Study of Creative and Effective Managerial Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffie, D. J.; Goodner, Susan

    This study tests the following hypotheses concerning the job creativity of managers: (1) There is a significant relationship between psychological test scores secured on subjects 15 to 20 years ago and creative performance on the job today, (2) there is a significant relationship between biographical information secured from subjects at the time…

  10. Virtual Environment Interpersonal Trust Scale: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usta, Ertugrul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is in the process of interpersonal communication in virtual environments is available from the trust problem is to develop a measurement tool. Trust in the process of distance education today, and has been a factor to be investigated. People, who take distance education course, they could may remain within the process…

  11. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... determination of the number of persons necessary to permit the conduct of a meaningful criterion-related study.... These guidelines do not require a user to hire or promote persons for the purpose of making it possible... view of the possibility of bias in subjective evaluations, supervisory rating techniques...

  12. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... determination of the number of persons necessary to permit the conduct of a meaningful criterion-related study.... These guidelines do not require a user to hire or promote persons for the purpose of making it possible... view of the possibility of bias in subjective evaluations, supervisory rating techniques...

  13. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... determination of the number of persons necessary to permit the conduct of a meaningful criterion-related study.... These guidelines do not require a user to hire or promote persons for the purpose of making it possible... view of the possibility of bias in subjective evaluations, supervisory rating techniques...

  14. Evaluating the Reliability, Validity, and Usefulness of Education Cost Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies that purport to estimate the costs of constitutionally adequate education have been described as either a "gold standard" that should guide legislative school finance policy design and judicial evaluation, or as pure "alchemy." Methods for estimating the cost of constitutionally adequate education can be roughly…

  15. Unmasking the Capability of Strategic Learning: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siren, Charlotta A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The strategic learning perspective has attracted increased interest among strategic management scholars, yet the operationalisation of this concept is still in its infancy. The aim of this study is to develop a multidimensional understanding of the strategic learning process and to build an instrument to measure this concept.…

  16. A Validity Study: Attitudes towards Statistics among Japanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satake, Eike

    2015-01-01

    This cross-cultural study investigated the relationship between attitudes toward statistics (ATS) and course achievement (CA) among Japanese college students. The sample consisted of 135 male and 134 female students from the first two-year liberal arts program of a four-year college in Tokyo, Japan. Attitudes about statistics were measured using…

  17. A Validation Study of a Measure of Musical Creativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzer, Sam

    1988-01-01

    Studies reliability of the Measures of Creativity in Sound and Music (MCSM), a test developed by Cecilia Wang. Compares the MCSM scores with subjects' academic achievement scores, sex, and age with music and classroom teacher ratings of subjects' creativity. Concludes that research is still needed to define a theory of musical creativity, define…

  18. Development and Validation of the Compliant and Principled Sportspersonship Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, John L.; Clough, Peter J.; Crust, Lee; Nabb, Sam L.; Nicholls, Adam R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A new measure of sportspersonship, which differentiates between compliance and principled approaches, was developed and initially validated in 3 studies. Method: Study 1 developed items, assessed content validity, and proposed a model. Study 2 tested the factorial validity of the model on an independent sample. Study 3 further tested the…

  19. Boundary Layer Study. Experimental Validation Test Plan. Phase 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    areas of experimental fluid mechanics, fiber technology, and control systems. During his four year activities in Owens - Corning Fiber Glass Technical...Flow and Temperature Fields of a Novel Fiberizing System - Owens - Corning Technical Report. 3. Direct Digital Control of the Flow Rate of an Electric...Melter - Owens - Corning Technical Report. 4. Numerical Study of the Flow of a Oravity Driven Non-Lsothermal Liquid Jet - Owens - Corning Technical Report

  20. Content-Based Instruction in Primary and Secondary School Settings. Case Studies in TESOL Practice Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Dorit, Ed.; Crandall, JoAnn, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Content-based instruction (CBI) challenges English language educators to teach English using materials that learners encounter in their regular subject-area classes. This volume helps ESL and EFL teachers meet that challenge by providing them with creative ways to integrate English language learning with the content that students study at primary…

  1. New Histories for a New State: A Study of History Textbook Content in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terra, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the changing content of history textbooks in Northern Ireland, drawing on a sample of 15 textbooks published from 1968 to 2010. Findings from the content and narrative analysis indicated that following the introduction of the Northern Ireland Curriculum in 1991, history textbooks shifted from a narrative to source-driven…

  2. Evaluation of the Use of Team Teaching for Delivering Sensitive Content: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerridge, Joanna; Kyle, Gaye; Marks-Maran, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Many programmes in further and higher education contain sensitive areas of content, such as diversity, racism, power and privilege, breaking bad news, counselling, sex education and ethical decision making. Team teaching may be a useful method for delivering sensitive areas of course content. This article presents a pilot study that was undertaken…

  3. Every Day Successes: Powerful Integration of Social Studies Content and English-Language Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Sherry L.; Bauml, Michelle; Ledbetter, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Instructional time for social studies has been reduced nationwide, particularly in the elementary grades. Yet states continue to promote content standards in history, economics, civics, and geography for young learners. Purposeful integrative content that is appropriate for grades K-6, while sometimes difficult to find, seems to many elementary…

  4. A Trend Study of Advertising Content Used by Banks Before, During and After a Banking Collapse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Riemer, Cynthia; Baxter, Richard L.

    To examine the content of newspaper advertisements used by banks before, during, and after a major bank collapse, issues of the Knoxville (Tennessee) "News Sentinel" from 1982, 1983, and 1984 were analyzed for bank sponsored product and nonproduct advertisements. These advertisements were studied for type, size, and content relating to…

  5. Validation of protein carbonyl measurement: a multi-centre study.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Edyta; Adam, Aisha; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Willetts, Rachel; Korkmaz, Ayhan; Atalay, Mustafa; Weber, Daniela; Grune, Tilman; Borsa, Claudia; Gradinaru, Daniela; Chand Bollineni, Ravi; Fedorova, Maria; Griffiths, Helen R

    2015-01-01

    Protein carbonyls are widely analysed as a measure of protein oxidation. Several different methods exist for their determination. A previous study had described orders of magnitude variance that existed when protein carbonyls were analysed in a single laboratory by ELISA using different commercial kits. We have further explored the potential causes of variance in carbonyl analysis in a ring study. A soluble protein fraction was prepared from rat liver and exposed to 0, 5 and 15min of UV irradiation. Lyophilised preparations were distributed to six different laboratories that routinely undertook protein carbonyl analysis across Europe. ELISA and Western blotting techniques detected an increase in protein carbonyl formation between 0 and 5min of UV irradiation irrespective of method used. After irradiation for 15min, less oxidation was detected by half of the laboratories than after 5min irradiation. Three of the four ELISA carbonyl results fell within 95% confidence intervals. Likely errors in calculating absolute carbonyl values may be attributed to differences in standardisation. Out of up to 88 proteins identified as containing carbonyl groups after tryptic cleavage of irradiated and control liver proteins, only seven were common in all three liver preparations. Lysine and arginine residues modified by carbonyls are likely to be resistant to tryptic proteolysis. Use of a cocktail of proteases may increase the recovery of oxidised peptides. In conclusion, standardisation is critical for carbonyl analysis and heavily oxidised proteins may not be effectively analysed by any existing technique.

  6. Peer review of validation studies: an assessment of the role of the OECD by reference to the validation of the uterotrophic assay for endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Combes, Robert D

    2004-06-01

    The involvement of the OECD in managing the validation of the rat uterotrophic assay for endocrine disruptors, and in organising the peer review of the results of this study, has been assessed and compared with the many conclusions and recommendations in several published reports of international workshops on validation, and information in guidance documents, produced by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), the US Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) and the OECD itself. It is concluded that the OECD has not followed the recommendations for full transparency and independence of the peer-review process. This is based on the fact that it has published a draft guidance document that differs from the report of a recent OECD workshop on validation, in such a way as to give the OECD the flexibility to fully control the peer-review process and, in so doing, to avoid full transparency. Comparison of the timing of the organisation of workshops by the OECD and the progression of the validation study, together with the fact that a draft test guideline for the assay was written before completion of the peer review, suggest that the OECD has given a higher priority to the expedition of the validation and regulatory acceptance of the uterotrophic assay than it has to good scientific and logistical practice. This severely undermines its credibility in the validation process, so, in order for the OECD to be rightly perceived as an honest broker, it is recommended that the OECD should play no role in the validation of new or revised tests, until after they have been successfully validated, peer reviewed, and endorsed by the appropriate authorities, and are ready for test guideline development. With regard to the on-going OECD validation studies of other in vivo assays for endocrine disruptors, the OECD should take immediate steps to ensure full independence and transparency of their peer review.

  7. Human Identification via Lateral Patella Radiographs: A Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Niespodziewanski, Emily; Stephan, Carl N; Guyomarc'h, Pierre; Fenton, Todd W

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the utility of patella outline shape for matching 3D scans of patellae to knee radiographs using elliptical Fourier analysis and subjective methods of human visual comparison of patellae across radiographs for identification purposes. Repeat radiographs were captured of cadaver's knees for visual comparison before patellae were extracted and skeletonized for quantitative comparisons. Quantitative methods provided significant narrowing down of the candidate pool to just a few potential matches (<5% of original sample), while the human analysts showed high capacity for correctly matching radiographs, irrespective of educational level (positive predictive value = 99.8%). The successful computerized matching based on a single quantified patella trait (outline shape) helps explain the potency achieved by subjective visual examination. This work adds to a growing body of studies demonstrating the value of single isolated infracranial bones for human identification via radiographic comparison.

  8. The Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores: A Summary of Studies Conducted from 1997 to 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talento-Miller, Eileen; Rudner, Lawrence M.

    2008-01-01

    The validity of Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) scores is examined by summarizing 273 studies conducted between 1997 and 2004. Each of the studies was conducted through the Validity Study Service of the test sponsor and contained identical variables and statistical methods. Validity coefficients from each of the studies were corrected…

  9. Tracking Study for Top-off Safety Validation at SSRL

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.; Bauer, J.; Corbett, J.; Dell'Orco, D.; Hettel, B.; Liu, J.; Rabedeau, T.; Safranek, J.; Schmerge, J.; Sebek, J.; Tanabe, J.; Terebilo, A.; Wang, L.

    2011-08-19

    A tracking study was performed at SSRL to identify necessary controls and to prove the safety of top-off operation from radiation hazard under such conditions. The safety rationale, tracking setup and the results are presented. Top-off operational mode has become a trend for existing and planned third-generation storage ring light sources for the many benefits such as increased average brightness, improved thermal stability and elimination of the interruption to user experiments due to traditional injection [1, 2]. Unlike the traditional decay mode injection which happens a few times a day and during which the photon beamline shutters are closed, top-off mode injection requires photon beamline shutters to remain open during injection and occurs much more frequently, from once every 5 seconds to once every 30 minutes. Therefore injection may be transparent to user experiments and the stored current variation can be significantly reduced. For a facility equipped with a full-energy injector, the biggest challenge to the implementation of the top-off mode may be the control of radiation hazard. Studies at ALS and SSRL [2, 3] have shown that a single injected electron pulse that enters the photon beamline and exits the radiation shield wall would cause unacceptable radiation doses on the experimental floor. For the protection of users and experimental equipment, it is hence a prerequisite for top-off operation to establish controls that absolutely prevent such occurrences. Similar to other facilities such as ALS and APS [2, 4], tracking simulations were conducted at SSRL to identify the control measures, define the specifications and prove the radiation safety. However, a different approach toward the proof of safety is taken at SSRL. In this paper we first describe the SSRL accelerator complex with emphasis on the aspects related to top-off in section 2. The general considerations and requirements for top-off are presented in section 3. Section 4 and 5 give a detailed

  10. Validation of a virtual preoperative evaluation clinic: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zetterman, Corey V; Sweitzer, Bobbie J; Webb, Brad; Barak-Bernhagen, Mary A; Boedeker, Ben H

    2011-01-01

    Patients scheduled for surgery at the Omaha VA Medical Center were evaluated preoperatively via telemedicine. Following the examination, patients filled out a 15 item, 5 point Likert scale questionnaire regarding their opinion of preoperative evaluation in a VTC format. Evaluations were performed under the direction of nationally recognized guidelines and recommendations of experts in the field of perioperative medicine and were overseen by a staff anesthesiologist from the Omaha VA Medical Center. No significant difficulties were encountered by the patient or the evaluator regarding the quality of the audio/visual capabilities of the VTC link and its ability to facilitate preoperative evaluation. 87.5% of patients felt that virtual evaluation would save them travel time; 87.5% felt virtual evaluation could save them money; 7.3% felt uncomfortable using the VTC link; 12.2% felt the virtual evaluation took longer than expected; 70.7% preferred to be evaluated via VTC link; 21.9% were undecided; 9.7% felt they would rather be evaluated face-to-face with 26.8% undecided; 85.0% felt that teleconsultation was as good as being seen at the Omaha surgical evaluation unit; 7.5% were undecided. Our study has shown that effective preoperative evaluation can be performed using a virtual preoperative evaluation clinic; patients are receptive to the VTC format and, in the majority of cases, prefer it to face-to-face evaluation.

  11. Intelligent Emergency Department: Validation of Sociometers to Study Workload.

    PubMed

    Yu, Denny; Blocker, Renaldo C; Sir, Mustafa Y; Hallbeck, M Susan; Hellmich, Thomas R; Cohen, Tara; Nestler, David M; Pasupathy, Kalyan S

    2016-03-01

    Sociometers are wearable sensors that continuously measure body movements, interactions, and speech. The purpose of this study is to test sociometers in a smart environment in a live clinical setting, to assess their reliability in capturing and quantifying data. The long-term goal of this work is to create an intelligent emergency department that captures real-time human interactions using sociometers to sense current system dynamics, predict future state, and continuously learn to enable the highest levels of emergency care delivery. Ten actors wore the devices during five simulated scenarios in the emergency care wards at a large non-profit medical institution. For each scenario, actors recited prewritten or structured dialogue while independent variables, e.g., distance, angle, obstructions, speech behavior, were independently controlled. Data streams from the sociometers were compared to gold standard video and audio data captured by two ward and hallway cameras. Sociometers distinguished body movement differences in mean angular velocity between individuals sitting, standing, walking intermittently, and walking continuously. Face-to-face (F2F) interactions were not detected when individuals were offset by 30°, 60°, and 180° angles. Under ideal F2F conditions, interactions were detected 50 % of the time (4/8 actor pairs). Proximity between individuals was detected for 13/15 actor pairs. Devices underestimated the mean duration of speech by 30-44 s, but were effective at distinguishing the dominant speaker. The results inform engineers to refine sociometers and provide health system researchers a tool for quantifying the dynamics and behaviors in complex and unpredictable healthcare environments such as emergency care.

  12. Clinical audit project in undergraduate medical education curriculum: an assessment validation study

    PubMed Central

    Steketee, Carole; Mak, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the merit of the Clinical Audit Project (CAP) in an assessment program for undergraduate medical education using a systematic assessment validation framework. Methods A cross-sectional assessment validation study at one medical school in Western Australia, with retrospective qualitative analysis of the design, development, implementation and outcomes of the CAP, and quantitative analysis of assessment data from four cohorts of medical students (2011- 2014). Results The CAP is fit for purpose with clear external and internal alignment to expected medical graduate outcomes.  Substantive validity in students’ and examiners’ response processes is ensured through relevant methodological and cognitive processes. Multiple validity features are built-in to the design, planning and implementation process of the CAP.  There is evidence of high internal consistency reliability of CAP scores (Cronbach’s alpha > 0.8) and inter-examiner consistency reliability (intra-class correlation>0.7). Aggregation of CAP scores is psychometrically sound, with high internal consistency indicating one common underlying construct.  Significant but moderate correlations between CAP scores and scores from other assessment modalities indicate validity of extrapolation and alignment between the CAP and the overall target outcomes of medical graduates.  Standard setting, score equating and fair decision rules justify consequential validity of CAP scores interpretation and use. Conclusions This study provides evidence demonstrating that the CAP is a meaningful and valid component in the assessment program. This systematic framework of validation can be adopted for all levels of assessment in medical education, from individual assessment modality, to the validation of an assessment program as a whole.  PMID:27716612

  13. The "RG Sausage's" Missing Ingredients: Investigating the Validity of Reliability Generalization Study Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Jeanine; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential impact of selected methodological factors on the validity of conclusions from reliability generalization (RG) studies. The study focused on four factors; (1) missing data in the primary studies; (2) transformation of sample reliability estimates; (3) use of sample weights for estimating mean…

  14. Validation of precision-cut liver slices to study drug-induced cholestasis: a transcriptomics approach.

    PubMed

    Vatakuti, Suresh; Olinga, Peter; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2017-03-01

    Hepatotoxicity is one of the major reasons for withdrawal of drugs from the market. Therefore, there is a need to screen new drugs for hepatotoxicity in humans at an earlier stage. The aim of this study was to validate human precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) as an ex vivo model to predict drug-induced cholestasis and identify the possible mechanisms of cholestasis-induced toxicity using gene expression profiles. Five hepatotoxicants, which are known to induce cholestasis (alpha-naphthyl isothiocyanate, chlorpromazine, cyclosporine, ethinyl estradiol and methyl testosterone) were used at concentrations inducing low (<30 %) and medium (30-50 %) toxicity, based on ATP content. Human PCLS were incubated with the drugs in the presence of a non-toxic concentration (60 µM) of a bile acid mixture (portal vein concentration and composition) as model for bile acid-induced cholestasis. Regulated genes include bile acid transporters and cholesterol transporters. Pathway analysis revealed that hepatic cholestasis was among the top ten regulated pathways, and signaling pathways such as farnesoid X receptor- and liver X receptor-mediated responses, which are known to play a role in cholestasis, were significantly affected by all cholestatic compounds. Other significantly affected pathways include unfolded protein response and protein ubiquitination implicating the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress. This study shows that human PCLS incubated in the presence of a physiological bile acid mixture correctly reflect the pathways affected in drug-induced cholestasis in the human liver. In the future, this human PCLS model can be used to identify cholestatic adverse drug reactions of new chemical entities.

  15. A pilot study on the validity of using pictures and videos for individualized symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Simon, Daniela; Kischkel, Eva; Spielberg, Rüdiger; Kathmann, Norbert

    2012-06-30

    Distressing symptom-related anxiety is difficult to study in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) due to the disorder's heterogeneity. Our aim was to develop and validate a set of pictures and films comprising a variety of prominent OCD triggers that can be used for individually tailored symptom provocation in experimental studies. In a two-staged production procedure a large pool of OCD triggers and neutral contents was produced and preselected by three psychotherapists specialized in OCD. A sample of 13 OCD patients and 13 controls rated their anxiety, aversiveness and arousal during exposure to OCD-relevant, aversive and neutral control stimuli. Our findings demonstrate differences between the responses of patients and controls to OCD triggers only. Symptom-related anxiety was stronger in response to dynamic compared with static OCD-relevant stimuli. Due to the small number of 13 patients included in the study, only tentative conclusions can be drawn and this study merely provides a first step of validation. These standardized sets constitute valuable tools that can be used in experimental studies on the brain correlates of OCD symptoms and for the study of therapeutic interventions in order to contribute to future developments in the field.

  16. Teachers' Professional Development: A Content Analysis about the Tendencies in Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurtseven, Nihal; Bademcioglu, Mehtap

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to carry out a content analysis about the studies on teachers' professional development and to determine the tendencies in these studies. Within this scope, 60 studies that were registered to Turkish National Thesis Centre and ProQuest database between the years 2005-2015 were examined. Of the 60 studies, 37 of them…

  17. Studying protein-reconstituted proteoliposome fusion with content indicators in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Diao, Jiajie; Zhao, Minglei; Zhang, Yunxiang; Kyoung, Minjoung; Brunger, Axel T.

    2015-01-01

    In vitro reconstitution assays are commonly used to study biological membrane fusion. However, to date, most ensemble and single-vesicle experiments involving SNARE proteins have been performed only with lipid-mixing, but not content-mixing indicators. Through simultaneous detection of lipid and small content-mixing indicators, we found that lipid mixing often occurs seconds prior to content mixing, or without any content mixing at all, during a 50-sec observation period, for Ca2+-triggered fusion with SNAREs, full-length synaptotagmin-1, and complexin. Our results illustrate the caveats of commonly used bulk lipid-mixing fusion experiments. We recommend that proteoliposome fusion experiments should always employ content-mixing indicators in addition to, or in place of, lipid-mixing indicators. PMID:23625805

  18. Development and validation of an UPLC method for determination of content uniformity in low-dose solid drugs products using the design space approach.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Alexis; Fariña, José B; Llabrés, Matías

    2013-10-15

    A simple and reproducible UPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of finasteride in low-dose drug products. Method validation demonstrated the reliability and consistency of analytical results. Due to the regulatory requirements of pharmaceutical analysis in particular, evaluation of robustness is vital to predict how small variations in operating conditions affect the responses. Response surface methodology as an optimization technique was used to evaluate the robustness. For this, a central composite design was implemented around the nominal conditions. Statistical treatment of the responses (retention factor and drug concentrations expressed as percentage of label claim) showed that methanol content in mobile-phase and flow rate were the most influential factors. In the optimization process, the compromise decision support problem (cDSP) strategy was used. Construction of the robust domain from response-surfaces provided tolerance windows for the factors affecting the effectiveness of the method. The specified limits for the USP uniformity of dosage units assay (98.5-101.5%) and the purely experimental variations based on the repeatability test for center points (nominal conditions repetitions) were used as criteria to establish the tolerance windows, which allowed definition design space (DS) of analytical method. Thus, the acceptance criteria values (AV) proposed by the USP-uniformity of assay only depend on the sampling error. If the variation in the responses corresponded to approximately twice the repeatability standard deviation, individual values for percentage label claim (%LC) response may lie outside the specified limits; this implies the data are not centered between the specified limits, and that this term plus the sampling error affects the AV value. To avoid this fact, the limits specified by the Uniformity of Dosage Form assay (i.e., 98.5-101.5%) must be taken into consideration to fix the tolerance windows for each

  19. Curriculum Design Orientations Preference Scale of Teachers: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable scale for preferences of teachers in regard of their curriculum design orientations. Because there was no scale development study similar to this one in Turkey, it was considered as an urgent need to develop such a scale in the study. The sample of the research consisted of 300…

  20. Construction and Validation of a Questionnaire to Study Future Teachers' Beliefs about Cultural Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López López, M. Carmen; Hinojosa Pareja, Eva F.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents the construction and validation process of a questionnaire designed to study student teachers' beliefs about cultural diversity. The study, beyond highlighting the complexity involved in the study of beliefs, emphasises their relevance in implementing inclusive educational processes that guarantee the right to a good education…

  1. The Addiction Severity Index: a field study of internal consistency and validity.

    PubMed

    Leonhard, C; Mulvey, K; Gastfriend, D R; Shwartz, M

    2000-03-01

    This study investigated whether the use of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) in a network of inner-city alcohol and drug abuse clinics under nonideal conditions would yield internally consistent and valid data. A sample of 8,984 ASI scores was collected over a 34-month period. Construct validity was examined by computing the internal consistency of all subscales. Convergent and divergent validity of composite scores and of severity ratings were evaluated using correlation matrices. Findings demonstrated that ASI scores were internally consistent and valid, even though the recommended administration protocol may not always have been followed as faithfully as might be desirable. This robustness bodes well for the use of the ASI in on-line clinical environments. Results should be viewed with caution until the reliability of ASI administration is tested under similar nonideal conditions and until permissible deviations from standard protocol can be quantified.

  2. Use of Daily Phone Diary to study religiosity and mood: Convergent validity

    PubMed Central

    Szczesniak, Rhonda D.; Zou, Yuanshu; Dimitriou, Sophia M.; Quittner, Alexandra L.; Grossoehme, Daniel H.

    2017-01-01

    Studies of religious/spiritual behavior frequently rely on self-reported questionnaire data, which is susceptible to bias. The Daily Phone Diary (DPD) was developed to minimize bias in reporting activities and behavior across a 24-hour period. A cross-sectional study of 126 parents of children with cystic fibrosis was used to establish the validity of the DPD to study religious/spiritual behaviors. Longitudinal models were used to determine the odds of improved mood during religious/spiritual activities. Convergent validity was found. Participants had increased odds of improved mood during religious/spiritual activities compared to non-religious/spiritual activities. Associations with gender and religious affiliations were found. The DPD is a valid tool for studying religious/spiritual activities and opens novel avenues for chaplaincy research and the development of chaplaincy interventions incorporating these findings. PMID:27869567

  3. Use of the Daily Phone Diary to Study Religiosity and Mood: Convergent Validity.

    PubMed

    Szczesniak, Rhonda D; Zou, Yuanshu; Dimitriou, Sophia M; Quittner, Alexandra L; Grossoehme, Daniel H

    2017-01-01

    Studies of religious/spiritual behavior frequently rely on self-reported questionnaire data, which is susceptible to bias. The Daily Phone Diary (DPD) was developed to minimize bias in reporting activities and behavior across a 24-hour period. A cross-sectional study of 126 parents of children with cystic fibrosis was used to establish the validity of the DPD to study religious/spiritual behaviors. Longitudinal models were used to determine the odds of improved mood during religious/spiritual activities. Convergent validity was found. Participants had increased odds of improved mood during religious/spiritual activities compared to nonreligious/spiritual activities. Associations with gender and religious affiliations were found. The DPD is a valid tool for studying religious/spiritual activities and opens novel avenues for chaplaincy research and the development of chaplaincy interventions incorporating these findings.

  4. 78 FR 42085 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Pediatric Study Plans: Content of and Process for Submitting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ...: Content of and Process for Submitting Initial Pediatric Study Plans and Amended Pediatric Study Plans... Plans: Content of and Process for Submitting Initial Pediatric Study Plans and Amended Pediatric Study... draft guidance for industry entitled ``Pediatric Study Plans: Content of and Process for...

  5. The Turkish adaptation of scale to measure patient perceptions of the quality of nursing care and related hospital services: A validity and reliability study

    PubMed Central

    Oren, Besey; Zengin, Neriman; Yildiz, Nebahat

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of a version of the tool developed in Sri Lanka in 2011 to assess patient perceptions of the quality of nursing care and related hospital services created for use with Turkish patients. METHODS: This methodological study was conducted between November 2013 and November 2014 after obtaining ethical approval and organizational permission. Data was collected during discharge from 180 adult patients who were hospitalized for at least 3 days at a medical school hospital located in Istanbul. After language validation, validity and reliability analyses of the scale were conducted. Content validity, content validity index (CVI), construct validity, and exploratory factor analysis were assessed and examined, and reliability was tested using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and item-total correlations. RESULTS: Mean CVI was found to be 0.95, which is above expected value. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 factors with eigenvalues above 1, which explained 82.4% of total variance in the Turkish version of the tool to measure patient perceptions of nursing care and other hospital services. Factor loading for each item was ≥.40. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of sub-dimensions and total scale were found to be 0.84-0.98 and 0.98, respectively. Item-total correlations ranged from 0.56 to 0.83 for the entire group, which was above expected values. CONCLUSION: The Turkish version of the scale to assess patient perceptions of the quality of nursing care and related hospital services, which comprised 4 sub-dimensions and 36 items, was found to be valid and reliable for use with the Turkish population. PMID:28275750

  6. Development of a Valid and Reliable Knee Articular Cartilage Condition–Specific Study Methodological Quality Score

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Joshua D.; Erickson, Brandon J.; Cvetanovich, Gregory L.; Abrams, Geoffrey D.; McCormick, Frank M.; Gupta, Anil K.; Verma, Nikhil N.; Bach, Bernard R.; Cole, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Condition-specific questionnaires are important components in evaluation of outcomes of surgical interventions. No condition-specific study methodological quality questionnaire exists for evaluation of outcomes of articular cartilage surgery in the knee. Purpose: To develop a reliable and valid knee articular cartilage–specific study methodological quality questionnaire. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: A stepwise, a priori–designed framework was created for development of a novel questionnaire. Relevant items to the topic were identified and extracted from a recent systematic review of 194 investigations of knee articular cartilage surgery. In addition, relevant items from existing generic study methodological quality questionnaires were identified. Items for a preliminary questionnaire were generated. Redundant and irrelevant items were eliminated, and acceptable items modified. The instrument was pretested and items weighed. The instrument, the MARK score (Methodological quality of ARticular cartilage studies of the Knee), was tested for validity (criterion validity) and reliability (inter- and intraobserver). Results: A 19-item, 3-domain MARK score was developed. The 100-point scale score demonstrated face validity (focus group of 8 orthopaedic surgeons) and criterion validity (strong correlation to Cochrane Quality Assessment score and Modified Coleman Methodology Score). Interobserver reliability for the overall score was good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.842), and for all individual items of the MARK score, acceptable to perfect (ICC, 0.70-1.000). Intraobserver reliability ICC assessed over a 3-week interval was strong for 2 reviewers (≥0.90). Conclusion: The MARK score is a valid and reliable knee articular cartilage condition–specific study methodological quality instrument. Clinical Relevance: This condition-specific questionnaire may be used to evaluate the quality of studies reporting outcomes of

  7. Validity and feasibility of a digital diet estimation method for use with preschool children: a pilot study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the study was to assess the validity and feasibility of a digital diet estimation method for use with preschool children in Head Start. Preschool children and their caregivers participated in validation (n=22) and feasibility (n=24) pilot studies. Validity was determined in the metabolic...

  8. Validity and Feasibility of a Digital Diet Estimation Method for Use with Preschool Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicklas, Theresa A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Stuff, Janice; Goodell, Lora Suzanne; Liu, Yan; Martin, Corby K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the study was to assess the validity and feasibility of a digital diet estimation method for use with preschool children in "Head Start." Methods: Preschool children and their caregivers participated in validation (n = 22) and feasibility (n = 24) pilot studies. Validity was determined in the metabolic research unit using…

  9. Risser patient satisfaction scale: a validation study in Greek cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The current healthcare climate is characterized by a constant battle for the provision of quality care with limited resources and with patient satisfaction receiving increased attention, there is a need for reliable and valid assessment measures. This study describes the adaptation, testing and validation of the Risser Patient satisfaction Scale in an oncology care setting in Greece. The rationale for this study lies in the scarcity of such measures in the Greek language. Methods This is a test retest validation study in Greece. Data were collected from 298 hospitalized cancer patients. The validation methodology included the assessment of the item internal consistency, using the Cronbach alpha coefficient. The test-retest reliability was tested by the Kappa correlation coefficient. Results The scale demonstrated very good psychometric properties. The internal consistency of the instrument was good, Cronbach’s alpha was found to be 0.78 (p<0.001) and Kappa coefficient for reproducibility was found to be K=0.89 (95% CI: 0.83-0.91 p<0.0001). Conclusion The findings demonstrated strong agreement of the scale, suggesting that the Greek version offers substantial reliability. This study provides a valid and reliable tool to assess patient satisfaction in oncology settings. Means to monitor patient satisfaction, a key aspect of the policy agenda for quality care remain important for nurse leaders to develop better care in oncology settings. PMID:23190625

  10. A study of the metal content of municipal solid waste. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Churney, K.L.; Domalski, E.S.

    1998-01-01

    Knowledge of the content of toxic components, so called pollutant precursors, in the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream is essential to development of the strategies for source reduction and reuse, recycling, composting and disposal. Data are scarce; trends in composition for any locality even more so. In a previous study the total and water soluble chlorine content of the components of municipal solid waste were determined from sampling studies at two sites, Baltimore County, MD, and Brooklyn, NY, each for a five day period. The total sulfur content of the combined combustible components was also determined. Because of the scarcity of data and synergistic effects, it seemed appropriate to determine the heavy metal content of the preceding material prior to its disposal. The metals chosen were the so-called priority pollutant metals (PPM): antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, and zinc.

  11. Using qualitative methods to inform the trade-off between content validity and consistency in utility assessment: the example of type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Key stakeholders regard generic utility instruments as suitable tools to inform health technology assessment decision-making regarding allocation of resources across competing interventions. These instruments require a 'descriptor', a 'valuation' and a 'perspective' of the economic evaluation. There are various approaches that can be taken for each of these, offering a potential lack of consistency between instruments (a basic requirement for comparisons across diseases). The 'reference method' has been proposed as a way to address the limitations of the Quality-Adjusted Life Year (QALY). However, the degree to which generic measures can assess patients' specific experiences with their disease would remain unresolved. This has been neglected in the discussions on methods development and its impact on the QALY values obtained and resulting cost per QALY estimate underestimated. This study explored the content of utility instruments relevant to type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) as examples, and the role of qualitative research in informing the trade-off between content coverage and consistency. Method A literature review was performed to identify qualitative and quantitative studies regarding patients' experiences with type 2 diabetes or AD, and associated treatments. Conceptual models for each indication were developed. Generic- and disease-specific instruments were mapped to the conceptual models. Results Findings showed that published descriptions of relevant concepts important to patients with type 2 diabetes or AD are available for consideration in deciding on the most comprehensive approach to utility assessment. While the 15-dimensional health related quality of life measure (15D) seemed the most comprehensive measure for both diseases, the Health Utilities Index 3 (HUI 3) seemed to have the least coverage for type 2 diabetes and the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) for AD. Furthermore, some of the utility instruments contained items that

  12. Feasibility study for the quantification of total protein content by multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis.

    PubMed

    Toh, Y; Murakami, Y; Furutaka, K; Kimura, A; Koizumi, M; Hara, K; Kin, T; Nakamura, S; Harada, H

    2012-06-01

    Protein is an important nutrient in foods. The classical nitrogen analysis method is the Kjeldahl technique, which is time-consuming and inconvenient. As a convenient method to quantify protein content in biological samples, the feasibility of application of multiple prompt gamma-ray analysis (MPGA) to the quantification was studied. Results for protein content are reported for several reference materials and prove the method to be reliable.

  13. The Student Risk Screening Scale for Early Childhood: An Initial Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Menzies, Holly Mariah; Major, Rebecca; Allegra, Laurie; Powers, Lisa; Schatschneider, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We report findings of two exploratory validation studies of a revised instrument: the "Student Risk Screening Scale for Early Childhood" version (SRSS-EC). The SRSS-EC was modified to reflect characteristics of externalizing and internalizing behaviors manifested by preschool-age children. In Study 1, we explored the reliability of…

  14. A Validation and Reliability Study of Community Service Activities Scale in Turkey: A Social Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özden; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim; Tasdan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the reliability and validity of Community Service Activities Scale (CSAS) developed by Demir, Kaya and Tasdan (2012) with a view to identify perceptions of Faculty of Education students regarding community service activities. The participants of the study are 313 randomly chosen students who attend six…

  15. Development and Validation of the Short Use of Creative Cognition Scale in Studying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogaten, Jekaterina; Moneta, Giovanni B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the development and validation of a short Use of Creative Cognition Scale in Studying (UCCS) that was inspired by the Cognitive Processes Associated with Creativity (CPAC) scale. In Study 1, items from two of the six subscales of the CPAC were excluded due to conceptual and psychometric issues to create a 21-item CPAC scale,…

  16. The range of replications technique for assessing the external validity of road safety evaluation studies.

    PubMed

    Elvik, Rune

    2012-03-01

    This paper introduces a simple statistical technique that can be used to assess the external validity of road safety evaluation studies. External validity refers to the possibility of generalising the results of research to other contexts than those in which it was made. There are several aspects of external validity. Two aspects that are often of interest concern the applicability of the results of road safety evaluation studies across countries and time. Can the results of studies made in one or more countries be applied in countries where studies have not been made? Can the results of studies made many years ago still be applied? The technique introduced in this paper is designed to provide support in answering these questions. The technique evaluates the stability of research results in time and space. The technique is based on cumulative meta-analysis and produces statistics that show the consistency of study results in time and space (across countries). The range of replications denotes the span of time and countries in which studies have been made. The idea is that if the results of studies are stable throughout the range of replications, one may have greater confidence in their external validity than if the results of research vary in time and between countries. The technique is illustrated by means of numerical examples.

  17. The Validity and Reliability Studies of the Computer Anxiety Scale on Educational Administrators (CAS-EA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agaoglu, Esmahan; Ceyhan, Esra; Ceyhan, Aykut; Simsek, Yucel

    2008-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the validity and reliability studies of the "Computer Anxiety Scale" (Ceyhan & Gurcan Namlu, 2000) on educational administrators. The data gathered from 143 educational administrators of state schools located in Eskisehir show that the scale consists of 2 factors. The first of these factors, affective…

  18. Adaptation of Organizational Justice in Sport Scale into Turkish Language: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sayin, Ayfer; Sahin, Mustafa Yasar

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to provide a Turkish adaptation of the Organizational Justice in Sport Scale and perform reliability and validity studies. Answers provided by 260 participants who work as football, male basketball and female basketball coaches in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) were analysed using the original scale that…

  19. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Online Cooperative Learning Attitude Scale (OCLAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Ozgen

    2012-01-01

    Determination of students' attitudes towards online cooperative learning is an important issue, which has not been studied adequately. In the literature, there are few scales to measure the attitude towards online cooperative learning for which validity and reliability have been proven. The main purpose of this study is to develop an attitude…

  20. The Volunteer Satisfaction Index: A Validation Study in the Chinese Cultural Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lok Ping; Chui, Wing Hong; Kwok, Yan Yuen

    2011-01-01

    Using a Hong Kong-sourced sample of 261 participants, this study set out to validate the Volunteer Satisfaction Index (VSI) in the Chinese cultural context and to evaluate its psychometric properties. The VSI was originally developed by Galindo-Kuhn and Guzley (2001) to measure the outcomes of volunteer experiences. In this study, exploratory…

  1. The Gifted Rating Scales-School Form: A Validation Study Based on Age, Gender, and Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeiffer, Steven; Petscher, Yaacov; Kumtepe, Alper

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the internal consistency and validity of a new rating scale to identify gifted students, the Gifted Rating Scales-School Form (GRS-S). The study explored the effect of gender, race/ethnicity, age, and rater familiarity on GRS-S ratings. One hundred twenty-two students in first to eighth grade from elementary and middle schools…

  2. A Validity and Reliability Study on the Development of the Values Scale in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilmac, Bulent; Aricak, Osman Tolga; Cesur, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the initial psychometric properties of the Values Scale for adults. While developing the first stage of the Values Scale, open-ended data on the values held by 216 university students were obtained. During the second stage, the validity and reliability studies of the 60-item Values Scale obtained by…

  3. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan Ilker, Gökçe; Arslan, Yunus; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) for high school students. In total, 1605 students (829 girls, 776 boys, average age = 15.67 ± 1.19) from three different high schools in the central district of Ankara voluntarily participated in the study. The MSLQ was…

  4. A Case for Transforming the Criterion of a Predictive Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Brian F.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a case for applying a transformation (Box and Cox, 1964) of the criterion used in predictive validity studies. The goals of the transformation were to better meet the assumptions of the linear regression model and to reduce the residual variance of fitted (i.e., predicted) values. Using data for the 2008 cohort of first-time,…

  5. Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basha, Ertan; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine validity and reliability of the Albanian version of the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS), which is developed by Lovibond and Lovibond (1995). The sample of this study is consisted of 555 subjects who were living in Kosovo. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated 42 items loaded on…

  6. Sources of Validity Evidence for Educational and Psychological Tests: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cizek, Gregory J.; Bowen, Daniel; Church, Keri

    2010-01-01

    This study followed up on previous work that examined the incidence of reporting evidence based on test consequences in "Mental Measurements Yearbook". In the present study, additional possible outlets for what has been called "consequential validity" evidence were investigated, including all articles published in the past 10 years in several…

  7. Developing a Scale for Innovation Management at Schools: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulbul, Tuncer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable assessment tool for use in determining the competency beliefs of school administrators about innovation management. The scale applied to a study group of 216 school administrators, after work Centered on assessing intelligibility and specialized opinion. Exploratory and confirmatory…

  8. The Scales of Psychological Well-Being: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Scales of Psychological Well-being (Ryff, 1989a). The sample of the study consists of 1214 university students. Results of language equivalency showed that correlations between the Turkish and English forms were 0.94 for autonomy, 0.97 for environmental mastery,…

  9. Water Awareness Scale for Pre-Service Science Teachers: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filik Iscen, Cansu

    2015-01-01

    The role of teachers in the formation of environmentally sensitive behaviors in students is quite high. Thus, the water awareness of teachers, who represent role models for students, is rather important. The main purpose of this study is to identify the reliability and validity study outcomes of the Water Awareness Scale, which was developed to…

  10. The Relationship Between Sexual Content on Mass Media and Social Media: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Vandenbosch, Laura; van Oosten, Johanna M F; Peter, Jochen

    2015-12-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether exposure to sexual reality television content and Internet pornography (IP) is related to sexual self-presentation on social media. Based on a two-wave panel survey among 1,765 adolescents aged 13-17 years, we found that watching sexual reality television content stimulated adolescents to produce and distribute sexual images of themselves on social media. In turn, sexual self-presentation on social media led adolescents to watch sexual reality television content more frequently. These relationships were similar among boys and girls. No reciprocal relationship between exposure to IP and boys' and girls' sexual self-presentation on social media was found. The results suggest that sexual content in mainstream mass media may predict adolescents' sexually oriented behavior on social media and vice versa. Moreover, adolescents seem to differentiate between types of sexual content (i.e., mainstream versus more explicit sexual content) when incorporating sexual media content in their sexual behavior online.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA content contributes to healthy aging in Chinese: a study from nonagenarians and centenarians.

    PubMed

    He, Yong-Han; Lu, Xiang; Wu, Huan; Cai, Wang-Wei; Yang, Li-Qin; Xu, Liang-You; Sun, Hong-Peng; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2014-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content plays an important role in energy production and sustaining normal physiological function. A decline in the mtDNA content and subsequent dysfunction cause various senile diseases, with decreasing mtDNA content observed in the elderly individuals with age-related diseases. In contrast, the oldest old individuals, for example, centenarians, have a delayed or reduced prevalence of these diseases, suggesting centenarians may have a different pattern of the mtDNA content, enabling them to keep normal mitochondrial functions to help delay or escape senile diseases. To test this hypothesis, a total of 961 subjects, consisting of 424 longevity subjects and 537 younger control subjects from Hainan and Sichuan provinces of China, were recruited for this study. The mtDNA content was found to be inversely associated with age among the age of group 40-70 years. Surprisingly, no reduction of mtDNA content was observed in nonagenarians and centenarians; instead, these oldest old showed a significant increase than the elderly people aged between 50 and 70 years. The results suggest the higher mtDNA content may convey a beneficial effect to the longevity of people through assuring sufficient energy supply.

  12. Preliminary study: fibre content in pet rabbit diets, crude fibre versus total dietary fibre.

    PubMed

    Molina, J; Martorell, J; Hervera, M; Pérez-Accino, J; Fragua, V; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Fibre is an important nutrient for rabbit health, and, on commercial pet rabbit packaging, it is labelled as crude fibre (CF). In several species, it is considered that CF is not an accurate representation of the fibre content in feedstuffs. The objective of this study was to compare the CF stated on the label (CFL) with laboratory analysis of CF (CFA) and the analysed content of total dietary fibre (TDF) in different commercial pet rabbit feeds. We selected 15 commercial diets and analysed CF and TDF. A mixed model was used to evaluate differences between CFL, CFA and TDF, and linear regression was performed to study the correlation between CFL and CFA with TDF. CFA and CFL were not significantly different (p = 0.836) in the feeds studied, and both were lower than TDF (p < 0.001). The correlations between TDF and both CFA and CFL were significant (p < 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively), but the correlation was better with CFA (R = 0.86) than with CFL (R = 0.53). As expected, TDF content was higher than CF content, an average of two times. These results suggest that the CF content in rabbit diets reported on the label is not an appropriate indicator of their total fibre content, although further work with a larger sample size is required to confirm these results.

  13. Design, development, testing and validation of a Photonics Virtual Laboratory for the study of LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, Francisco L.; Martínez, Guadalupe; Pérez, Ángel L.; Pardo, Pedro J.

    2014-07-01

    This work presents the design, development, testing and validation of a Photonic Virtual Laboratory, highlighting the study of LEDs. The study was conducted from a conceptual, experimental and didactic standpoint, using e-learning and m-learning platforms. Specifically, teaching tools that help ensure that our students perform significant learning have been developed. It has been brought together the scientific aspect, such as the study of LEDs, with techniques of generation and transfer of knowledge through the selection, hierarchization and structuring of information using concept maps. For the validation of the didactic materials developed, it has been used procedures with various assessment tools for the collection and processing of data, applied in the context of an experimental design. Additionally, it was performed a statistical analysis to determine the validity of the materials developed. The assessment has been designed to validate the contributions of the new materials developed over the traditional method of teaching, and to quantify the learning achieved by students, in order to draw conclusions that serve as a reference for its application in the teaching and learning processes, and comprehensively validate the work carried out.

  14. Advanced computational tools for PEM fuel cell design. Part 2. Detailed experimental validation and parametric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, P. C.; Kumar, S.; Djilali, N.

    This paper reports on the systematic experimental validation of a comprehensive 3D CFD-based computational model presented and documented in Part 1. Simulations for unit cells with straight channels, similar to the Ballard Mk902 hardware, are performed and analyzed in conjunction with detailed current mapping measurements and water mass distributions in the membrane-electrode assembly. The experiments were designed to display sensitivity of the cell over a range of operating parameters including current density, humidification, and coolant temperature, making the data particularly well suited for systematic validation. Based on the validation and analysis of the predictions, values of model parameters, including the electro-osmotic drag coefficient, capillary diffusion coefficient, and catalyst specific surface area are determined adjusted to fit experimental data of current density and MEA water content. The predicted net water flux out of the anode (normalized by the total water generated) increases as anode humidification water flow rate is increased, in agreement with experimental results. A modification of the constitutive equation for the capillary diffusivity of water in the porous electrodes that attempts to incorporate the experimentally observed immobile (or irreducible) saturation yields a better fit of the predicted MEA water mass with experimental data. The specific surface area parameter used in the catalyst layer model is found to be effective in tuning the simulations to predict the correct cell voltage over a range of stoichiometries.

  15. A Study of Four-Way Stop Intersections: The Validation of a Delay Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    equations used at a simple four -way stop with one lane per approach are: Pns = I - (I - Pn)*(l - Ps ) (3) Sn = t(m)*[l - Pew] + T(c)*[Pew) (4) 2 V(S) = t(m...11. T;TLE (Include Security Classification) (UNCLASSIFIED) I A Study of Four -Way Stop Intersections: The Validation of a Delay Model 12. PERSONAL...Engineering DEGREE: Master of Science ADVISOR’S NAME: Nemeth, Zoltan A. TITLE OF THESIS: A STUDY OF FOUR -WAY STOP INTERSECTIONS: THE VALIDATION OF A

  16. A Derivation and Validation Study of an Early Blood Transfusion Needs Score for Severe Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Umejiego, Johnbosco; Robinson, Richard D.; Schrader, Chet D.; Leuck, JoAnna; Barra, Michael; Buca, Stefan; Shedd, Andrew; Bui, Andrew; Zenarosa, Nestor R.

    2016-01-01

    Background There is no existing adequate blood transfusion needs determination tool that Emergency Medical Services (EMS) personnel can use for prehospital blood transfusion initiation. In this study, a simple and pragmatic prehospital blood transfusion needs scoring system was derived and validated. Methods Local trauma registry data were reviewed retrospectively from 2004 through 2013. Patients were randomly assigned to derivation and validation cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the independent approachable risks associated with early blood transfusion needs in the derivation cohort in which a scoring system was derived. Sensitivity, specificity, and area under the receiver operational characteristic (AUC) were calculated and compared using both the derivation and validation data. Results A total of 24,303 patients were included with 12,151 patients in the derivation and 12,152 patients in the validation cohorts. Age, penetrating injury, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) were risks predictive of early blood transfusion needs. An early blood transfusion needs score was derived. A score > 5 indicated risk of early blood transfusion need with a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 80%. A sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 80% were also found in the validation study and their AUC showed no statistically significant difference (AUC of the derivation = 0.87 versus AUC of the validation = 0.86, P > 0.05). Conclusions An early blood transfusion scoring system was derived and internally validated to predict severe trauma patients requiring blood transfusion during prehospital or initial emergency department resuscitation. PMID:27429680

  17. The studying of washing of arsenic and sulfur from coals having different ranges of arsenic contents

    SciTech Connect

    Mingshi Wang; Dangyu Song; Baoshan Zheng; R.B. Finkelman

    2008-10-15

    To study the effectiveness of washing in removal of arsenic and sulfur from coals with different ranges of arsenic concentration, coal was divided into three groups on the basis of arsenic content: 0-5.5 mg/kg, 5.5 mg/kg-8.00 mg/kg, and over 8.00 mg/kg. The result shows that the arsenic in coals with higher arsenic content occurs mainly in an inorganic state and can be relatively easily removed. Arsenic removal is very difficult and less complete when the arsenic content is lower than 5.5 mg/kg because most of this arsenic is in an organic state. There is no relationship between washing rate of total sulfur and arsenic content, but the relationship between the washing rate of total sulfur and percent of organic sulfur is very strong.

  18. The studying of washing of arsenic and sulfur from coals having different ranges of arsenic contents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, M.; Song, D.; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R.B.; ,

    2008-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of washing in removal of arsenic and sulfur from coals with different ranges of arsenic concentration, coal was divided into three groups on the basis of arsenic content: 0-5.5 mg/kg, 5.5 mg/kg-8.00 mg/kg, and over 8.00 mg/kg. The result shows that the arsenic in coals with higher arsenic content occurs mainly in an inorganic state and can be relatively easily removed. Arsenic removal is very difficult and less complete when the arsenic content is lower than 5.5 mg/kg because most of this arsenic is in an organic state. There is no relationship between washing rate of total sulfur and arsenic content, but the relationship between the washing rate of total sulfur and percent of organic sulfur is very strong. ?? 2008 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. A Validation Study of Administrative Claims Data to Measure Ovarian Cancer Recurrence and Secondary Debulking Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Livaudais-Toman, Jennifer; Egorova, Natalia; Franco, Rebeca; Prasad-Hayes, Monica; Howell, Elizabeth A.; Wisnivesky, Juan; Bickell, Nina A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Administrative claims data offer an alternative to chart abstraction to assess ovarian cancer recurrence, treatment and outcomes. Such analyses have been hindered by lack of valid recurrence and treatment algorithms. In this study, we sought to develop claims-based algorithms to identify ovarian cancer recurrence and secondary debulking surgery, and to validate them against the gold-standard of chart abstraction. Methods: We conducted chart validation studies; 2 recurrence algorithms and 1 secondary surgery among 94 ovarian cancer patients treated at one hospital between 2003–2009. A new recurrence algorithm was based on treatment timing (≥6 months after primary treatment) and a previously validated algorithm was based on secondary malignancy codes. A secondary debulking surgery algorithm was based on surgical billing codes. Results: The new recurrence algorithm had: sensitivity=100% (95% confidence interval [CI]=87%-=100%), specificity=89% (95%CI=78%–95%), kappa=84% (SE=10%) while the secondary-malignancy-=code recurrence algorithm had: sensitivity=84% (95%CI=66%–94%), specificity=44% (95%CI=31%-=57%), kappa=23% (SE=8%). The secondary surgery algorithm had: sensitivity=77% (95%CI=50%–92%), = specificity= 92% (95%CI=83%–97%), kappa=66% (SE=10%).= Conclusions: A recurrence algorithm based on treatment timing accurately identified ovarian cancer =recurrence. If validated in other populations, such an algorithm can provide a tool to compare effectiveness of recurrent ovarian cancer treatments. PMID:27891525

  20. Quantification of construction waste prevented by BIM-based design validation: Case studies in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Won, Jongsung; Cheng, Jack C P; Lee, Ghang

    2016-03-01

    Waste generated in construction and demolition processes comprised around 50% of the solid waste in South Korea in 2013. Many cases show that design validation based on building information modeling (BIM) is an effective means to reduce the amount of construction waste since construction waste is mainly generated due to improper design and unexpected changes in the design and construction phases. However, the amount of construction waste that could be avoided by adopting BIM-based design validation has been unknown. This paper aims to estimate the amount of construction waste prevented by a BIM-based design validation process based on the amount of construction waste that might be generated due to design errors. Two project cases in South Korea were studied in this paper, with 381 and 136 design errors detected, respectively during the BIM-based design validation. Each design error was categorized according to its cause and the likelihood of detection before construction. The case studies show that BIM-based design validation could prevent 4.3-15.2% of construction waste that might have been generated without using BIM.

  1. Classification of Professional Values Based on Motivational Content: An Exploratory Study on Italian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallini, Susanna; Bove, Giuseppe; Laghi, Fiorenzo

    2011-01-01

    This study applies a multidimensional scaling (MSD) technique to investigate the structural validity of the Work Values Inventory for Adolescents with a sample of Italian students. The MSD results indicated the presence of two underlying orthogonal dimensions: individuality versus sociality and conservation versus exploration. Implications for…

  2. The ToMenovela - A Photograph-Based Stimulus Set for the Study of Social Cognition with High Ecological Validity.

    PubMed

    Herbort, Maike C; Iseev, Jenny; Stolz, Christopher; Roeser, Benedict; Großkopf, Nora; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Hellweg, Rainer; Walter, Henrik; Dziobek, Isabel; Schott, Björn H

    2016-01-01

    We present the ToMenovela, a stimulus set that has been developed to provide a set of normatively rated socio-emotional stimuli showing varying amount of characters in emotionally laden interactions for experimental investigations of (i) cognitive and (ii) affective Theory of Mind (ToM), (iii) emotional reactivity, and (iv) complex emotion judgment with respect to Ekman's basic emotions (happiness, anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise, Ekman and Friesen, 1975). Stimuli were generated with focus on ecological validity and consist of 190 scenes depicting daily-life situations. Two or more of eight main characters with distinct biographies and personalities are depicted on each scene picture. To obtain an initial evaluation of the stimulus set and to pave the way for future studies in clinical populations, normative data on each stimulus of the set was obtained from a sample of 61 neurologically and psychiatrically healthy participants (31 female, 30 male; mean age 26.74 ± 5.84), including a visual analog scale rating of Ekman's basic emotions (happiness, anger, disgust, fear, sadness, surprise) and free-text descriptions of the content of each scene. The ToMenovela is being developed to provide standardized material of social scenes that are available to researchers in the study of social cognition. It should facilitate experimental control while keeping ecological validity high.

  3. Is Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) Necessary for Reformed Science Teaching?: Evidence from an Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Soonhye; Jang, Jeong-Yoon; Chen, Ying-Chih; Jung, Jinhong

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a hypothesis that focused on whether or not teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a necessary body of knowledge for reformed science teaching. This study utilized a quantitative research method to investigate the correlation between a teacher's PCK level as measured by the PCK rubric (Park et al. 2008) and the degree…

  4. Comparative Study of Teaching Content in Teacher Education Programmes in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Jens; Bayer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative study of the content in selected teacher education programmes for primary and lower secondary teachers in Canada, Denmark, Finland and Singapore. First and foremost, the study is a comparison between teacher education programmes in, on the one hand, Canada, Finland and Singapore, all of which…

  5. The Six Remaining Facts: Social Studies Content Knowledge and Elementary Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Rebecca M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores and examines the social studies content knowledge that preservice teachers have about commonly studies historical figures. The data indicate that preservice teachers often have shallow and decontextualized understandings of historical individuals such as Christopher Columbus and Helen Keller, despite their being repeatedly…

  6. Implementation of a Text-Based Content Intervention in Secondary Social Studies Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    We describe teacher fidelity (adherence to the components of the treatment as specified by the research team) based on a series of studies of a multicomponent intervention, Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text (PACT), with middle and high school social studies teachers and their students. Findings reveal that even with…

  7. Singapore Pre-Service Secondary Mathematics Teachers' Content Knowledge: Findings from an International Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Tin Lam; Kaur, Berinderjeet; Koay, Phong Lee

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we explore the mathematical content knowledge of one entire cohort of pre-service teachers (N = 107) through analysing their performance in a Secondary Mathematics Audit that was developed for the International Comparative Studies in Mathematics Teacher Training that was initiated by the University of Plymouth. We study how their…

  8. Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content through Text in High School Social Studies Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon; Kent, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text intervention implemented with 11th-grade students enrolled in U.S. History classes. Using a within-teacher randomized design, the study was conducted in 41 classes (23 treatment classes) with 14 teachers providing the…

  9. The Content of Electronic Mentoring: A Study of Special Educators Participating in an Online Mentoring Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the content and frequency of interactions that occurred in an electronic mentoring program involving beginning special educators and their mentors. In addition, the characteristics of mentors' and mentees' and perceived outcomes of mentees' were provided. This study sought to address questions about the…

  10. A Study to Determine the Impact of Professional Development on Teachers' Knowledge of Literacy Content

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Rosaline Teresita

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This quantitative study investigated the impact of professional development on Belizean teachers' knowledge of literacy content needed to effectively develop early literacy skills of primary school children between the ages of five to eight. The specific focus of the research was to survey teachers' knowledge level…

  11. Seven Principles of Instructional Content Design for a Remote Laboratory: A Case Study on ERRL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cagiltay, N. E.; Aydin, E.; Aydin, C. C.; Kara, A.; Alexandru, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a study of the requirements for developing a remote radio frequency (RF) laboratory for electrical engineering students. It investigates students' preferred usage of the technical content of a state-of-the-art RF laboratory. The results of this study are compared to previous findings, which dealt with other user…

  12. Links between Content Knowledge and Practice in a Mathematics Teacher Education Course: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brijlall, D.; Isaac, V.

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the link between content knowledge and classroom practice from the perceptions of two university lecturers. The study was contextualized at a higher education institution in South Africa where the two university lecturers were lecturing to a second year undergraduate teacher trainee class (n = 78). The research was…

  13. Estimating the Prevalence of Treated Epilepsy Using Administrative Health Data and Its Validity: ESSENCE Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seo-Young; Chung, Soo-Eun; Kim, Dong Wook; Eun, So-Hee; Kang, Hoon Chul; Cho, Yong Won; Yi, Sang Do; Kim, Heung Dong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Few of the epidemiologic studies of epilepsy have utilized well-validated nationwide databases. We estimated the nationwide prevalence of treated epilepsy based on a comprehensive medical payment database along with diagnostic validation. Methods We collected data on patients prescribed of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment service, which covers the entire population of Korea. To assess the diagnostic validity, a medical records survey was conducted involving 6,774 patients prescribed AEDs from 43 institutions based on regional clusters and referral levels across the country. The prevalence of treated epilepsy was estimated by projecting the diagnostic validity on the number of patients prescribed AEDs. Results The mean positive predictive value (PPV) for epilepsy was 0.810 for those prescribed AEDs with diagnostic codes that indicate epilepsy or seizure (Diagnosis-E), while it was 0.066 for those without Diagnosis-E. The PPV tended to decrease with age in both groups, with lower values seen in females. The prevalence was 3.84 per 1,000, and it was higher among males, children, and the elderly. Conclusions The prevalence of epilepsy in Korea was comparable to that in other East Asian countries. The diagnostic validity of administrative health data varies depending on the method of case ascertainment, age, and sex. The prescriptions of AEDs even without relevant diagnostic codes should be considered as a tracer for epilepsy. PMID:27273925

  14. Content Analysis of Primary and Secondary School Textbooks Regarding Malaria Control: A Multi-Country Study

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Daisuke; Jimba, Masamine; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Jun; Yasuoka, Junko; Ayi, Irene; Jayatilleke, Achini C.; Shrestha, Sabina; Kikuchi, Kimiyo; Haque, Syed E.; Yi, Siyan

    2012-01-01

    Background In tropical settings, malaria education at school is potentially useful, but textbook content related to malaria education has so far received little attention. This study aimed to examine whether school textbooks contain sufficient knowledge and skills to help children in primary and lower secondary schools and their family members to cope with malaria. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a descriptive, cross-country study. We collected textbooks that were used by children in grades one to nine from nine countries endemic for malaria: Laos, Cambodia, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Zambia, Niger, Benin, and Ghana. Two reviewers per country identified descriptions about malaria by seeking the term “malaria” or a local word that corresponds to malaria in languages other than English. The authors categorized the identified descriptions according to the content of the descriptions. Additionally, the authors examined whether the identified contents addressed life skill messages. Of a total of 474 textbooks collected, 35 contained descriptions about malaria. The most commonly included content was transmission mode/vector (77.1%), followed by preventive measures (60.0%), epidemiology (57.1%), cause/agent (54.3%), signs/symptoms (37.1%) and treatment (22.9%). Treatment-related content was not included in any textbooks from four countries and textbooks failed to recommend the use of insecticide-treated bed nets in five countries. Very few textbooks included content that facilitated prompt treatment, protection of risk groups, and use of recommended therapy. Conclusion/Significance Textbooks rarely included knowledge and skills that are crucial to protect schoolchildren and their families from malaria. This study identified the need for improvement to textbook contents regarding malaria. PMID:22574203

  15. Effect of bread gluten content on gastrointestinal function: a crossover MRI study on healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Coletta, Marina; Gates, Fred K; Marciani, Luca; Shiwani, Henna; Major, Giles; Hoad, Caroline L; Chaddock, Gemma; Gowland, Penny A; Spiller, Robin C

    2016-01-14

    Gluten is a crucial functional component of bread, but the effect of increasing gluten content on gastrointestinal (GI) function remains uncertain. Our aim was to investigate the effect of increasing gluten content on GI function and symptoms in healthy participants using the unique capabilities of MRI. A total of twelve healthy participants completed this randomised, mechanistic, open-label, three-way crossover study. On days 1 and 2 they consumed either gluten-free bread (GFB), or normal gluten content bread (NGCB) or added gluten content bread (AGCB). The same bread was consumed on day 3, and MRI scans were performed every 60 min from fasting baseline up to 360 min after eating. The appearance of the gastric chime in the images was assessed using a visual heterogeneity score. Gastric volumes, the small bowel water content (SBWC), colonic volumes and colonic gas content and GI symptoms were measured. Fasting transverse colonic volume after the 2-d preload was significantly higher after GFB compared with NGCB and AGCB with a dose-dependent response (289 (SEM 96) v. 212 (SEM 74) v. 179 (SEM 87) ml, respectively; P=0·02). The intragastric chyme heterogeneity score was higher for the bread with increased gluten (AGCB 6 (interquartile range (IQR) 0·5) compared with GFB 3 (IQR 0·5); P=0·003). However, gastric half-emptying time was not different between breads nor were study day GI symptoms, postprandial SBWC, colonic volume and gas content. This MRI study showed novel mechanistic insights in the GI responses to different breads, which are poorly understood notwithstanding the importance of this staple food.

  16. Ride qualities criteria validation/pilot performance study: Flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nardi, L. U.; Kawana, H. Y.; Greek, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    Pilot performance during a terrain following flight was studied for ride quality criteria validation. Data from manual and automatic terrain following operations conducted during low level penetrations were analyzed to determine the effect of ride qualities on crew performance. The conditions analyzed included varying levels of turbulence, terrain roughness, and mission duration with a ride smoothing system on and off. Limited validation of the B-1 ride quality criteria and some of the first order interactions between ride qualities and pilot/vehicle performance are highlighted. An earlier B-1 flight simulation program correlated well with the flight test results.

  17. Consumers’ estimation of calorie content at fast food restaurants: cross sectional observational study

    PubMed Central

    Condon, Suzanne K; Kleinman, Ken; Mullen, Jewel; Linakis, Stephanie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl; Gillman, Matthew W

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate estimation of calorie (energy) content of meals from fast food restaurants in adults, adolescents, and school age children. Design Cross sectional study of repeated visits to fast food restaurant chains. Setting 89 fast food restaurants in four cities in New England, United States: McDonald’s, Burger King, Subway, Wendy’s, KFC, Dunkin’ Donuts. Participants 1877 adults and 330 school age children visiting restaurants at dinnertime (evening meal) in 2010 and 2011; 1178 adolescents visiting restaurants after school or at lunchtime in 2010 and 2011. Main outcome measure Estimated calorie content of purchased meals. Results Among adults, adolescents, and school age children, the mean actual calorie content of meals was 836 calories (SD 465), 756 calories (SD 455), and 733 calories (SD 359), respectively. A calorie is equivalent to 4.18 kJ. Compared with the actual figures, participants underestimated calorie content by means of 175 calories (95% confidence interval 145 to 205), 259 calories (227 to 291), and 175 calories (108 to 242), respectively. In multivariable linear regression models, underestimation of calorie content increased substantially as the actual meal calorie content increased. Adults and adolescents eating at Subway estimated 20% and 25% lower calorie content than McDonald’s diners (relative change 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.96; 0.75, 0.57 to 0.99). Conclusions People eating at fast food restaurants underestimate the calorie content of meals, especially large meals. Education of consumers through calorie menu labeling and other outreach efforts might reduce the large degree of underestimation. PMID:23704170

  18. Slicing the Attitude Pie: A Validity and Reliability Study of a New Attitude Assessment Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lull, James T.; Cappella, Joseph N.

    This paper introduces a new measure of attitude, the "attitude pie," which attempts to separate true neutrality from degree of indifference while providing an evaluation score on the issue being judged. A large reliability-validity study involving ten attitude traits, four different methods, and over one hundred subjects at three different times…

  19. Environmental Affective Dispositions Scale (EADS): The Study of Validity and Reliability and Adaptation to Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fettahlioglu, Pinar; Timur, Serkan; Timur, Betül

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to conduct a research under circumstances of Turkey about the validity and reliability of the Affective Tendencies towards Environmental Scale prepared by Yavetz, Goldman and Pe'er (2009). The translation of this scale to Turkish was done by the researchers and language specialists. And then, the scale was evaluated by the…

  20. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  1. Adaptation of Internet Addiction Scale in Azerbaijani Language: A Validity-Reliability and Prevalence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerimova, Melek; Gunuc, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to adapt Gunuc and Kayri's (2010) "Internet Addiction Scale," with show validity and reliability for many various sampling groups, into the Azerbaijani language. Another objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among Azerbaijani adolescents and youth, which…

  2. The Turkish Version of Web-Based Learning Platform Evaluation Scale: Reliability and Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dag, Funda

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the language equivalence and the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the "Web-Based Learning Platform Evaluation Scale" ("Web Tabanli Ögrenme Ortami Degerlendirme Ölçegi" [WTÖODÖ]) used in the selection and evaluation of web-based learning environments. Within this scope,…

  3. Open and Distance Education Accreditation Standards Scale: Validity and Reliability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Ertug

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop, and test the validity and reliability of a scale for the use of researchers to determine the accreditation standards of open and distance education based on the views of administrators, teachers, staff and students. This research was designed according to the general descriptive survey model since it aims…

  4. The Arabic Version of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory 4: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamed, Razan; Tariah, Hashem Abu; Malkawi, Somaya; Holm, Margo B.

    2012-01-01

    The Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory 4 (MPAI-4) is a valid and reliable assessment tool to detect clinical impairments in patients with acquired brain injury. The tool is widely used by rehabilitation therapists worldwide, given its good psychometric properties and its availability in several languages. The purpose of this study was to…

  5. Developing a Science Process Skills Test for Secondary Students: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feyzioglu, Burak; Demirdag, Baris; Akyildiz, Murat; Altun, Eralp

    2012-01-01

    Science process skills are claimed to enable an individual to improve their own life visions and give a scientific view/literacy as a standard of their understanding about the nature of science. The main purpose of this study was to develop a test for measuring a valid, reliable and practical test for Science Process Skills (SPS) in secondary…

  6. A Construct Validation Study of Phonological Awareness for Children Entering Prekindergarten

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Mi-Young Lee; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Kim, Seock-Ho

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the psychometric characteristics of a phonological awareness assessment for prekindergarten children using Messick's (1989) framework for unitary construct validity. Upon entry into prekindergarten, children were given rhyme discrimination, syllable segmentation, initial phoneme isolation, and phoneme…

  7. The 1983 National Teacher Examinations Core Battery Louisiana Validation Study: Final Report. (Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvue, Robert; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the National Teacher Examinations (NTE) Core Battery for use in teacher certification in Louisiana. This information was produced to assist in the recommendation and establishment of a required score on the NTE. The jury judgment approach was used. Panels of faculty members were drawn from…

  8. Assessing South China (Guangzhou) High School Students' Views on Nature of Science: A Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Feng; Chai, Ching Sing; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Lin, Tzung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Research on students' views on nature of science (VNOS) in Asian countries such as China is notably lacking. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument to measure South China high school students' VNOS. Based on the previously acquired qualitative data, the instrument included seven VNOS dimensions which reflect the crucial aspects of…

  9. Development and Validation of Information Technology Mentor Teacher Attitude Scale: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltan, Fatih

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study development and validation of a teacher attitude scale toward Information Technology Mentor Teachers (ITMT). ITMTs give technological support to other teachers for integration of technology in their lessons. In the literature, many instruments have been developed to measure teachers' attitudes towards the technological tools…

  10. Parent Reports of Young Spanish-English Bilingual Children's Productive Vocabulary: A Development and Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Gámez, Perla B.; Vagh, Shaher Banu; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This 2-phase study aims to extend research on parent report measures of children's productive vocabulary by investigating the development (n = 38) of the Spanish Vocabulary Extension and validity (n = 194) of the 100-item Spanish and English MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories Toddler Short Forms and Upward Extension…

  11. Validation Evidence for the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire for Young Children: The Iowa Bone Development Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janz, Kathleen F.; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the authors present reliability and validity information for the Netherlands (Health Education Project) Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ), a global proxy report of children's everyday activity preferences (Montoye, Kemper, Saris, & Washburn, 1996). In this study, the authors examined the measurement properties of a global…

  12. Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2: Results of Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Diken, Ozlem; Gilliam, James E.; Ardic, Avsar; Sweeney, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the validity and reliability of Turkish Version of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 (TV-GARS-2). Participants included 436 children diagnosed with autism (331 male and 105 female, mean of ages was 8.01 with SD = 3.77). Data were also collected from individuals diagnosed with intellectual…

  13. Validating the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Peter M.; Cooper, Diane L.

    2002-01-01

    Study assessed the effectiveness of the Student Developmental Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA) in measuring psychosocial changes from the freshman year through the senior year using longitudinal research design. Results provide evidence of validity for the SDTLA and demonstrate that as a measurement tool, the SDTLA is sensitive to changes…

  14. A Construct Validity Study of Clinical Competence: A Multitrait Multimethod Matrix Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baig, Lubna; Violato, Claudio; Crutcher, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of the study was to adduce evidence for estimating the construct validity of clinical competence measured through assessment instruments used for high-stakes examinations. Methods: Thirty-nine international physicians (mean age = 41 + 6.5 y) participated in high-stakes examination and 3-month supervised clinical practice…

  15. A Comparative Study of Adolescent Risk Assessment Instruments: Predictive and Incremental Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Jennifer L.; Schmidt, Fred; McKinnon, Lauren; Chattha, H. K.; Meyers, Joanna R.

    2008-01-01

    Promising new adolescent risk assessment tools are being incorporated into clinical practice but currently possess limited evidence of predictive validity regarding their individual and/or combined use in risk assessments. The current study compares three structured adolescent risk instruments, Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory…

  16. The National SAT Validity Study: Sharing Results from Recent College Success Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.; McKenzie, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    [Slides] presented at the annual conference of the Southern Association for College Admission Counseling, April 2010. This presentation summarizes recent research from the national SAT Validity Study and includes information on the Admitted Class Evaluation Service (ACES) system and how ACES can help institutions conduct their own validity…

  17. Incremental Validity of Thinking Styles in Predicting Academic Achievements: An Experimental Study in Hypermedia Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Weiqiao; Zhang, Li-Fang; Watkins, David

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the incremental validity of thinking styles in predicting academic achievement after controlling for personality and achievement motivation in the hypermedia-based learning environment. Seventy-two Chinese college students from Shanghai, the People's Republic of China, took part in this instructional experiment. The…

  18. Validation study of the USDA’s data quality evaluation system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) of USDA conducted a validation study of the USDA Data Quality Evaluation System (DQES). The system evaluates the quality of analytical data by rating important documentation concerning the analytical method, analytical quality control, number of samples, sampling ...

  19. Border College Consortium Descriptive Test of English Skills and Verbal Aptitude Test: Norming and Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karathanos, Demetrius

    1991-01-01

    The background and rationale for the 2 tests are described and results of a norming and validation study involving 804 Mexican-American college freshmen in 5 border community colleges are reported. The results provide evidence that the DTES and VAT are reliable and effective for Mexican-American students, having overcome inadequacies of other…

  20. Improving the Residency Admissions Process by Integrating a Professionalism Assessment: A Validity and Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajwa, Nadia M.; Yudkowsky, Rachel; Belli, Dominique; Vu, Nu Viet; Park, Yoon Soo

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide validity and feasibility evidence in measuring professionalism using the Professionalism Mini-Evaluation Exercise (P-MEX) scores as part of a residency admissions process. In 2012 and 2013, three standardized-patient-based P-MEX encounters were administered to applicants invited for an interview at the…