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Sample records for context aware applications

  1. Context-aware workflow management of mobile health applications.

    PubMed

    Salden, Alfons; Poortinga, Remco

    2006-01-01

    We propose a medical application management architecture that allows medical (IT) experts readily designing, developing and deploying context-aware mobile health (m-health) applications or services. In particular, we elaborate on how our application workflow management architecture enables chaining, coordinating, composing, and adapting context-sensitive medical application components such that critical Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Context (QoC) requirements typical for m-health applications or services can be met. This functional architectural support requires learning modules for distilling application-critical selection of attention and anticipation models. These models will help medical experts constructing and adjusting on-the-fly m-health application workflows and workflow strategies. We illustrate our context-aware workflow management paradigm for a m-health data delivery problem, in which optimal communication network configurations have to be determined.

  2. Context-Aware Monitoring of Untrusted Mobile Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Andrew; Ryan, Mark

    Current measures to enhance the security of untrusted mobile applications require a user to trust the software vendor. They do not guarantee complete protection against the behaviours that mobile malware commonly exhibits. This paper expands execution monitoring, building a more precise system to prevent mobile applications deviating from their intended functions. User judgements about program execution can be specified abstractly and compiled into a monitor capable of identifying an event’s context. We demonstrate our development of a prototype system for the BlackBerry platform and show how it can defend the device against unseen malware more effectively than existing security tools.

  3. CAreDroid: Adaptation Framework for Android Context-Aware Applications

    PubMed Central

    Elmalaki, Salma; Wanner, Lucas; Srivastava, Mani

    2015-01-01

    Context-awareness is the ability of software systems to sense and adapt to their physical environment. Many contemporary mobile applications adapt to changing locations, connectivity states, available computational and energy resources, and proximity to other users and devices. Nevertheless, there is little systematic support for context-awareness in contemporary mobile operating systems. Because of this, application developers must build their own context-awareness adaptation engines, dealing directly with sensors and polluting application code with complex adaptation decisions. In this paper, we introduce CAreDroid, which is a framework that is designed to decouple the application logic from the complex adaptation decisions in Android context-aware applications. In this framework, developers are required— only—to focus on the application logic by providing a list of methods that are sensitive to certain contexts along with the permissible operating ranges under those contexts. At run time, CAreDroid monitors the context of the physical environment and intercepts calls to sensitive methods, activating only the blocks of code that best fit the current physical context. CAreDroid is implemented as part of the Android runtime system. By pushing context monitoring and adaptation into the runtime system, CAreDroid eases the development of context-aware applications and increases their efficiency. In particular, case study applications implemented using CAre-Droid are shown to have: (1) at least half lines of code fewer and (2) at least 10× more efficient in execution time compared to equivalent context-aware applications that use only standard Android APIs. PMID:26834512

  4. Improving Understanding and Trust with Intelligibility in Context-Aware Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Brian Y.

    2012-01-01

    To facilitate everyday activities, context-aware applications use sensors to detect what is happening and use increasingly complex mechanisms ( e.g., by using big rule-sets or machine learning) to infer the user's context and intent. For example, a mobile application can recognize that the user is in a conversation and suppress any incoming…

  5. Context-aware event detection smartphone application for first responders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Dave, Rakesh P.; McCartney, Matt; West, James A.; Williams, Robert L.

    2013-05-01

    The rise of social networking platforms like Twitter, Facebook, etc…, have provided seamless sharing of information (as chat, video and other media) among its user community on a global scale. Further, the proliferation of the smartphones and their connectivity networks has powered the ordinary individuals to share and acquire information regarding the events happening in his/her immediate vicinity in a real-time fashion. This human-centric sensed data being generated in "human-as-sensor" approach is tremendously valuable as it delivered mostly with apt annotations and ground truth that would be missing in traditional machine-centric sensors, besides high redundancy factor (same data thru multiple users). Further, when appropriately employed this real-time data can support in detecting localized events like fire, accidents, shooting, etc…, as they unfold and pin-point individuals being affected by those events. This spatiotemporal information, when made available for first responders in the event vicinity (or approaching it) can greatly assist them to make effective decisions to protect property and life in a timely fashion. In this vein, under SATE and YATE programs, the research team at AFRL Tec^Edge Discovery labs had demonstrated the feasibility of developing Smartphone applications, that can provide a augmented reality view of the appropriate detected events in a given geographical location (localized) and also provide an event search capability over a large geographic extent. In its current state, the application thru its backend connectivity utilizes a data (Text & Image) processing framework, which deals with data challenges like; identifying and aggregating important events, analyzing and correlating the events temporally and spatially and building a search enabled event database. Further, the smartphone application with its backend data processing workflow has been successfully field tested with live user generated feeds.

  6. Context Aware Middleware Architectures: Survey and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Eckert, Martina; Martinez, José-Fernán; Rubio, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Context aware applications, which can adapt their behaviors to changing environments, are attracting more and more attention. To simplify the complexity of developing applications, context aware middleware, which introduces context awareness into the traditional middleware, is highlighted to provide a homogeneous interface involving generic context management solutions. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art context aware middleware architectures proposed during the period from 2009 through 2015. First, a preliminary background, such as the principles of context, context awareness, context modelling, and context reasoning, is provided for a comprehensive understanding of context aware middleware. On this basis, an overview of eleven carefully selected middleware architectures is presented and their main features explained. Then, thorough comparisons and analysis of the presented middleware architectures are performed based on technical parameters including architectural style, context abstraction, context reasoning, scalability, fault tolerance, interoperability, service discovery, storage, security & privacy, context awareness level, and cloud-based big data analytics. The analysis shows that there is actually no context aware middleware architecture that complies with all requirements. Finally, challenges are pointed out as open issues for future work. PMID:26307988

  7. Context Aware Middleware Architectures: Survey and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Eckert, Martina; Martinez, José-Fernán; Rubio, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Context aware applications, which can adapt their behaviors to changing environments, are attracting more and more attention. To simplify the complexity of developing applications, context aware middleware, which introduces context awareness into the traditional middleware, is highlighted to provide a homogeneous interface involving generic context management solutions. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art context aware middleware architectures proposed during the period from 2009 through 2015. First, a preliminary background, such as the principles of context, context awareness, context modelling, and context reasoning, is provided for a comprehensive understanding of context aware middleware. On this basis, an overview of eleven carefully selected middleware architectures is presented and their main features explained. Then, thorough comparisons and analysis of the presented middleware architectures are performed based on technical parameters including architectural style, context abstraction, context reasoning, scalability, fault tolerance, interoperability, service discovery, storage, security & privacy, context awareness level, and cloud-based big data analytics. The analysis shows that there is actually no context aware middleware architecture that complies with all requirements. Finally, challenges are pointed out as open issues for future work.

  8. Context Aware Middleware Architectures: Survey and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Eckert, Martina; Martinez, José-Fernán; Rubio, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Context aware applications, which can adapt their behaviors to changing environments, are attracting more and more attention. To simplify the complexity of developing applications, context aware middleware, which introduces context awareness into the traditional middleware, is highlighted to provide a homogeneous interface involving generic context management solutions. This paper provides a survey of state-of-the-art context aware middleware architectures proposed during the period from 2009 through 2015. First, a preliminary background, such as the principles of context, context awareness, context modelling, and context reasoning, is provided for a comprehensive understanding of context aware middleware. On this basis, an overview of eleven carefully selected middleware architectures is presented and their main features explained. Then, thorough comparisons and analysis of the presented middleware architectures are performed based on technical parameters including architectural style, context abstraction, context reasoning, scalability, fault tolerance, interoperability, service discovery, storage, security & privacy, context awareness level, and cloud-based big data analytics. The analysis shows that there is actually no context aware middleware architecture that complies with all requirements. Finally, challenges are pointed out as open issues for future work. PMID:26307988

  9. Minimalism context-aware displays.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yang

    2004-12-01

    Despite the rapid development of cyber technologies, today we still have very limited attention and communication bandwidth to process the increasing information flow. The goal of the study is to develop a context-aware filter to match the information load with particular needs and capacities. The functions include bandwidth-resolution trade-off and user context modeling. From the empirical lab studies, it is found that the resolution of images can be reduced in order of magnitude if the viewer knows that he/she is looking for particular features. The adaptive display queue is optimized with real-time operational conditions and user's inquiry history. Instead of measuring operator's behavior directly, ubiquitous computing models are developed to anticipate user's behavior from the operational environment data. A case study of the video stream monitoring for transit security is discussed in the paper. In addition, the author addresses the future direction of coherent human-machine vision systems. PMID:15687797

  10. Context-Aware Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adomavicius, Gediminas; Tuzhilin, Alexander

    The importance of contextual information has been recognized by researchers and practitioners in many disciplines, including e-commerce personalization, information retrieval, ubiquitous and mobile computing, data mining, marketing, and management. While a substantial amount of research has already been performed in the area of recommender systems, most existing approaches focus on recommending the most relevant items to users without taking into account any additional contextual information, such as time, location, or the company of other people (e.g., for watching movies or dining out). In this chapter we argue that relevant contextual information does matter in recommender systems and that it is important to take this information into account when providing recommendations. We discuss the general notion of context and how it can be modeled in recommender systems. Furthermore, we introduce three different algorithmic paradigms - contextual prefiltering, post-filtering, and modeling - for incorporating contextual information into the recommendation process, discuss the possibilities of combining several contextaware recommendation techniques into a single unifying approach, and provide a case study of one such combined approach. Finally, we present additional capabilities for context-aware recommenders and discuss important and promising directions for future research.

  11. User Situational Context: An Essential Challenge to Context Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowafi, Yaser Abdallah

    2009-01-01

    Existing research on context and context awareness has broadly focused on the technical aspects of context acquisition and interpretation of users' surroundings, also called physical or sensor-based context. Such an approach has lacked from reconciling the perception of real-world context exhibited by humans, also known as user context, and…

  12. Context Aware Systems, Methods and Trends in Smart Home Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Rosslin John; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    Context aware applications respond and adapt to changes in the computing environment. It is the concept of leveraging information about the end user to improve the quality of the interaction. New technologies in context-enriched services will use location, presence, social attributes, and other environmental information to anticipate an end user's immediate needs, offering more-sophisticated, situation-aware and usable functions. Smart homes connect all the devices and appliances in your home so they can communicate with each other and with you. Context-awareness can be applied to Smart Home technology. In this paper, we discuss the context-aware tools for development of Smart Home Systems.

  13. A Context-Aware Application to Increase Elderly Users Compliance with Physical Rehabilitation Exercises at Home via Animatronic Biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Gamecho, Borja; Silva, Hugo; Guerreiro, José; Gardeazabal, Luis; Abascal, Julio

    2015-11-01

    Biofeedback from physical rehabilitation exercises has proved to lead to faster recovery, better outcomes, and increased patient motivation. In addition, it allows the physical rehabilitation processes carried out at the clinic to be complemented with exercises performed at home. However, currently existing approaches rely mostly on audio and visual reinforcement cues, usually presented to the user on a computer screen or a mobile phone interface. Some users, such as elderly people, can experience difficulties to use and understand these interfaces, leading to non-compliance with the rehabilitation exercises. To overcome this barrier, latest biosignal technologies can be used to enhance the efficacy of the biofeedback, decreasing the complexity of the user interface. In this paper we propose and validate a context-aware framework for the use of animatronic biofeedback, as a way of potentially increasing the compliance of elderly users with physical rehabilitation exercises performed at home. In the scope of our work, animatronic biofeedback entails the use of pre-programmed actions on a robot that are triggered in response to certain changes detected in the users biomechanical or electrophysiological signals. We use electromyographic and accelerometer signals, collected in real time, to monitor the performance of the user while executing the exercises, and a mobile robot to provide animatronic reinforcement cues associated with their correct or incorrect execution. A context-aware application running on a smartphone aggregates the sensor data and controls the animatronic feedback. The acceptability of the animatronic biofeedback has been tested on a set of volunteer elderly users, and results suggest that the participants found the animatronic feedback engaging and of added value.

  14. A Context-Aware Application to Increase Elderly Users Compliance with Physical Rehabilitation Exercises at Home via Animatronic Biofeedback.

    PubMed

    Gamecho, Borja; Silva, Hugo; Guerreiro, José; Gardeazabal, Luis; Abascal, Julio

    2015-11-01

    Biofeedback from physical rehabilitation exercises has proved to lead to faster recovery, better outcomes, and increased patient motivation. In addition, it allows the physical rehabilitation processes carried out at the clinic to be complemented with exercises performed at home. However, currently existing approaches rely mostly on audio and visual reinforcement cues, usually presented to the user on a computer screen or a mobile phone interface. Some users, such as elderly people, can experience difficulties to use and understand these interfaces, leading to non-compliance with the rehabilitation exercises. To overcome this barrier, latest biosignal technologies can be used to enhance the efficacy of the biofeedback, decreasing the complexity of the user interface. In this paper we propose and validate a context-aware framework for the use of animatronic biofeedback, as a way of potentially increasing the compliance of elderly users with physical rehabilitation exercises performed at home. In the scope of our work, animatronic biofeedback entails the use of pre-programmed actions on a robot that are triggered in response to certain changes detected in the users biomechanical or electrophysiological signals. We use electromyographic and accelerometer signals, collected in real time, to monitor the performance of the user while executing the exercises, and a mobile robot to provide animatronic reinforcement cues associated with their correct or incorrect execution. A context-aware application running on a smartphone aggregates the sensor data and controls the animatronic feedback. The acceptability of the animatronic biofeedback has been tested on a set of volunteer elderly users, and results suggest that the participants found the animatronic feedback engaging and of added value. PMID:26319272

  15. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; De Schutter, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction) with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation. Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling. PMID:25249944

  16. Configuring a context-aware middleware for Wireless Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Nadia; Cubo, Javier; Fuentes, Lidia; Pimentel, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    In the Future Internet, applications based on Wireless Sensor Networks will have to support reconfiguration with minimum human intervention, depending on dynamic context changes in their environment. These situations create a need for building these applications as adaptive software and including techniques that allow the context acquisition and decisions about adaptation. However, contexts use to be made up of complex information acquired from heterogeneous devices and user characteristics, making them difficult to manage. So, instead of building context-aware applications from scratch, we propose to use FamiWare, a family of middleware for Ambient Intelligence specifically designed to be aware of contexts in sensor and smartphone devices. It provides both, several monitoring services to acquire contexts from devices and users, and a context-awareness service to analyze and detect context changes. However, the current version of FamiWare does not allow the automatic incorporation related to the management of new contexts into the FamiWare family. To overcome this shortcoming, in this work, we first present how to model the context using a metamodel to define the contexts that must to be taken into account in an instantiation of FamiWare for a certain Ambient Intelligence system. Then, to configure a new context-aware version of FamiWare and to generate code ready-to-install within heterogeneous devices, we define a mapping that automatically transforms metamodel elements defining contexts into elements of the FamiWare family, and we also use the FamiWare configuration process to customize the new context-aware variant. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of our process, and we analyze both that the new version of the middleware works as expected and that it manages the contexts in an efficient way. PMID:23012505

  17. Configuring a Context-Aware Middleware for Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Gámez, Nadia; Cubo, Javier; Fuentes, Lidia; Pimentel, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    In the Future Internet, applications based on Wireless Sensor Networks will have to support reconfiguration with minimum human intervention, depending on dynamic context changes in their environment. These situations create a need for building these applications as adaptive software and including techniques that allow the context acquisition and decisions about adaptation. However, contexts use to be made up of complex information acquired from heterogeneous devices and user characteristics, making them difficult to manage. So, instead of building context-aware applications from scratch, we propose to use FamiWare, a family of middleware for Ambient Intelligence specifically designed to be aware of contexts in sensor and smartphone devices. It provides both, several monitoring services to acquire contexts from devices and users, and a context-awareness service to analyze and detect context changes. However, the current version of FamiWare does not allow the automatic incorporation related to the management of new contexts into the FamiWare family. To overcome this shortcoming, in this work, we first present how to model the context using a metamodel to define the contexts that must to be taken into account in an instantiation of FamiWare for a certain Ambient Intelligence system. Then, to configure a new context-aware version of FamiWare and to generate code ready-to-install within heterogeneous devices, we define a mapping that automatically transforms metamodel elements defining contexts into elements of the FamiWare family, and we also use the FamiWare configuration process to customize the new context-aware variant. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of our process, and we analyze both that the new version of the middleware works as expected and that it manages the contexts in an efficient way. PMID:23012505

  18. Context-aware visual tracking.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Wu, Ying; Hua, Gang

    2009-07-01

    Enormous uncertainties in unconstrained environments lead to a fundamental dilemma that many tracking algorithms have to face in practice: Tracking has to be computationally efficient, but verifying whether or not the tracker is following the true target tends to be demanding, especially when the background is cluttered and/or when occlusion occurs. Due to the lack of a good solution to this problem, many existing methods tend to be either effective but computationally intensive by using sophisticated image observation models or efficient but vulnerable to false alarms. This greatly challenges long-duration robust tracking. This paper presents a novel solution to this dilemma by considering the context of the tracking scene. Specifically, we integrate into the tracking process a set of auxiliary objects that are automatically discovered in the video on the fly by data mining. Auxiliary objects have three properties, at least in a short time interval: 1) persistent co-occurrence with the target, 2) consistent motion correlation to the target, and 3) easy to track. Regarding these auxiliary objects as the context of the target, the collaborative tracking of these auxiliary objects leads to efficient computation as well as strong verification. Our extensive experiments have exhibited exciting performance in very challenging real-world testing cases.

  19. Context-Aware Personal Navigation Using Embedded Sensor Fusion in Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Saeedi, Sara; Moussa, Adel; El-Sheimy, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Context-awareness is an interesting topic in mobile navigation scenarios where the context of the application is highly dynamic. Using context-aware computing, navigation services consider the situation of user, not only in the design process, but in real time while the device is in use. The basic idea is that mobile navigation services can provide different services based on different contexts—where contexts are related to the user's activity and the device placement. Context-aware systems are concerned with the following challenges which are addressed in this paper: context acquisition, context understanding, and context-aware application adaptation. The proposed approach in this paper is using low-cost sensors in a multi-level fusion scheme to improve the accuracy and robustness of context-aware navigation system. The experimental results demonstrate the capabilities of the context-aware Personal Navigation Systems (PNS) for outdoor personal navigation using a smartphone. PMID:24670715

  20. Context-awareness for heterogeneous access management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannweiler, C.; Klein, A.; Schneider, J.; Schotten, H. D.

    2010-11-01

    The increasing availability of both static and dynamic context information has steadily been driving the development of context-aware communication systems. Adapting system behavior according to current context of the network, the user, and the terminal can yield significant end-to-end performance improvements. In this paper, we present a concept for how to use context information, in particular location information and movement prediction, for Heterogeneous Access Management (HAM). In a first step, we outline the functional architecture of a distributed and extensible context management system (CMS) that defines the roles, tasks, and interfaces of all modules within such a system for large-scale context acquisition and dissemination. In a second step, we depict how the available context information can be exploited for optimizing terminal handover decisions to be made in a multi-RAT (radio access technology) environment. In addition, the utilized method for predicting terminal location as well as the objective functions used for evaluating and comparing system performance are described. Finally, we present preliminary simulation results demonstrating that HAM systems that include current and future terminal context information in the handover decision process clearly outperform conventional systems.

  1. Context-awareness in ubiquitous computing and the mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akçit, Nuhcan; Tomur, Emrah; Karslıoǧlu, Mahmut Onur

    2015-06-01

    Mobile device use has vastly increased in the last few years. Many people use many mobile devices in their daily lives. Context-aware computing is the main feature of pervasive and ubiquitous computing. Context awareness is also an important topic that becomes more available with ubiquitous computing. As the sensors increase, the data collected via mobile device sensors and sensor networks do not have much value because of the difficulty in analysis and understanding the data. Context-aware computing helps us store contextual information and use or search it by mobile devices when we want to see or analyze it. Contextual data can be made more meaningful by context-aware processing. There are different types of data and context information that must be considered. By combining spatial and contextual data, we obtain more meaningful data based on the entities. Contextual data is any information that can be used to characterize the situation of the entity. The entity is a person, place, or object considered relevant to the interaction between the user and an application, including the users and the applications. Using contextual data and good integration to mobile devices adds great value to this data, and combining these with our other data sets will allow us to obtain more useful information and analysis.

  2. Context aware adaptive security service model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunia, Marcin A.

    2015-09-01

    Present systems and devices are usually protected against different threats concerning digital data processing. The protection mechanisms consume resources, which are either highly limited or intensively utilized by many entities. The optimization of these resources usage is advantageous. The resources that are saved performing optimization may be utilized by other mechanisms or may be sufficient for longer time. It is usually assumed that protection has to provide specific quality and attack resistance. By interpreting context situation of business services - users and services themselves, it is possible to adapt security services parameters to countermeasure threats associated with current situation. This approach leads to optimization of used resources and maintains sufficient security level. This paper presents architecture of adaptive security service, which is context-aware and exploits quality of context data issue.

  3. A Multi-Temporal Context-Aware System for Competences Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, João H.; Barbosa, Jorge L.; Kich, Marcos; Brito, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of computing technology and wireless networks has contributed to the miniaturization of mobile devices and their increase in power, providing services anywhere and anytime. In this scenario, applications have considered the user's contexts to make decisions (Context Awareness). Context-aware applications have enabled new…

  4. AI Techniques in a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppola, Paolo; Mea, Vincenzo Della; di Gaspero, Luca; Lomuscio, Raffaella; Mischis, Danny; Mizzaro, Stefano; Nazzi, Elena; Scagnetto, Ivan; Vassena, Luca

    Nowadays, the mobile computing paradigm and the widespread diffusion of mobile devices are quickly changing and replacing many common assumptions about software architectures and interaction/communication models. The environment, in particular, or more generally, the so-called user context is claiming a central role in everyday’s use of cellular phones, PDAs, etc. This is due to the huge amount of data “suggested” by the surrounding environment that can be helpful in many common tasks. For instance, the current context can help a search engine to refine the set of results in a useful way, providing the user with a more suitable and exploitable information. Moreover, we can take full advantage of this new data source by “pushing” active contents towards mobile devices, empowering the latter with new features (e.g., applications) that can allow the user to fruitfully interact with the current context. Following this vision, mobile devices become dynamic self-adapting tools, according to the user needs and the possibilities offered by the environment. The present work proposes MoBe: an approach for providing a basic infrastructure for pervasive context-aware applications on mobile devices, in which AI techniques (namely a principled combination of rule-based systems, Bayesian networks and ontologies) are applied to context inference. The aim is to devise a general inferential framework to make easier the development of context-aware applications by integrating the information coming from physical and logical sensors (e.g., position, agenda) and reasoning about this information in order to infer new and more abstract contexts.

  5. Technical Feasibility of a Mobile Context-Aware (Social) Learning Schedule Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Jane Y. K.; Joy, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the technical feasibility of implementing their mobile context-aware learning schedule (mCALS) framework as a software application on a mobile device using current technologies, prior to its actual implementation. This process draws a set of compatible mobile and context-aware technologies at present and can be…

  6. A Reflective Goal-Based System for Context-Aware Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Dejian; Poslad, Stefan

    Many context-aware applications exploit current world contexts to control information access and service adaptation. To support a user centric utility model for a context-aware system, user goals are supported by the system. However, traditional goal-based approaches such as planning are hard to achieve in a context-aware environment because environments and systems are dynamic. This can lead to inconsistencies and goal conflicts. In this research, a new goal-context based approach is introduced to guide service adaptation for context-aware applications. A reflection model is investigated and applied to the system to resolve ambiguities and inconsistencies between goal-based planning and actual service adaptation. The new system, with its improved flexibility and robustness, is demonstrated in the form of a mobile spatial routing application.

  7. Toward sensor-based context aware systems.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yoshitaka; Takada, Kouhei; Anisetti, Marco; Bellandi, Valerio; Ceravolo, Paolo; Damiani, Ernesto; Tsuruta, Setsuo

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for sensor data interpretation that can combine sensor outputs with contexts represented as sets of annotated business rules. Sensor readings are interpreted to generate events labeled with the appropriate type and level of uncertainty. Then, the appropriate context is selected. Reconciliation of different uncertainty types is achieved by a simple technique that moves uncertainty from events to business rules by generating combs of standard Boolean predicates. Finally, context rules are evaluated together with the events to take a decision. The feasibility of our idea is demonstrated via a case study where a context-reasoning engine has been connected to simulated heartbeat sensors using prerecorded experimental data. We use sensor outputs to identify the proper context of operation of a system and trigger decision-making based on context information. PMID:22368489

  8. Critical Language Awareness in Pedagogic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Shamim

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the significance of developing students' critical language awareness through explicit teaching methodology of some procedures of critical discourse analysis. The researcher integrated critical activities into her teaching and students' learning process. The study was planned prudently to discover the…

  9. Context awareness and sensitivity in SEA implementation

    SciTech Connect

    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija Bjarnadottir, Holmfridur

    2007-10-15

    The Impact Assessment research community repeatedly asserts that the implementation of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) should take the issue of context into consideration. The primary aim of this paper then is to attempt to give substance to the concept of 'context' in relation to the implementation of SEA. The second aim is to discuss the relevance of context consciousness and sensitivity in relation to one of the main aims given to SEA implementation i.e. to contribute to the 'integration' of environmental perspectives in planning processes. Context must be defined in relation to a certain question. In this paper the question in focus is the assumption that SEA implementation will contribute to integration of environmental issues in planning processes. Research results relating to the use of environmental tools, like for example SEA, and experiences of integration efforts, strongly indicate that the use of a single tool like SEA is not enough to achieve this integration. The current 'context free' normative and procedural assumptions concerning the aim of SEA implementation and 'best practice' in term of SEA can be criticised on the same grounds as normative and procedural planning theories, as being context free. The assumptions behind the current formulations of the aim and best practice of SEA need to be revisited. A firm empirical and theoretical knowledge and discussion is needed, especially in relation to the issue of context and integration. This paper provides a starting point in this direction.

  10. Bluetooth-Assisted Context-Awareness in Educational Data Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Castano, F. J.; Garcia-Reinoso, J.; Gil-Castineira, F.; Costa-Montenegro, E.; Pousada-Carballo, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an auxiliary "location network", to support user-independent context-awareness in educational data networks; for example, to help visitors in a museum. We assume that, in such scenarios, there exist "service servers" that need to be aware of user location in real-time. Specifically, we propose the implementation of a…

  11. Management challenges of context-aware learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankowska, Malgorzata

    2015-02-01

    The work covers different definitions of context and the explanation of the context value for university learning organization and management. The thesis of the paper is as follows: students' focus on sources of context has impact on their knowledge acquisition and determines students' profiles and learning process, within which the teachers support de-contextualization, i.e., generalization of experience and knowledge. The work emphasizes the meaning of mobile devices in university learning process. The paper presents the value of BYOD (bring-your-own-device) strategy at universities and opportunities for m-education. The student survey results are presented to emphasize the value of that strategy. Beyond that, the students' preferences towards open source software and open learning materials are also discussed and evaluated by student survey. Finally, the process of contextualization and de-contextualization is developed for support the learning at university level.

  12. Trust-Based and Context-Aware Authentication in a Software Architecture for Context and Proximity-Aware Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenzini, Gabriele

    We describe an existing software architecture for context and proximity aware services that enables trust-based and context-aware authentication. A service is proximity aware when it automatically detects the presence of entities in its proximity. Authentication is context-aware when it uses contextual information to discern among different identities and to evaluate to which extent they are authentic. The software architecture that we describe here is functioning in our Institute: It manages a sensor network to detect the presence and location of users and their devices. A context manager is responsible to merge the different sources of contextual information, to solve potential contradictions, and to determine the level of authentication of the identity of the person approaching one of the services offered in the coffee-break corners of our Institute. In our solution for context-aware authentication, sensors are managed as if they were recommenders having subjective belief, disbelief, and uncertainty (i.e., trust) on the position and identity of users. A sensor’s subjective trust depends on what it has been sensing in the environment. We discuss the results of an array of simulations that we conducted to validate our concept of trust-based and context-aware authentication. We use Subjective Logic to manage trust.

  13. Privacy of Value-Added Context-Aware Service Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xin; He, Yin; Hou, Yifan; Li, Lisi; Sun, Lan; Zhang, Sina; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Tingting

    In the cloud computing era, service provider cloud and context service cloud store all your personal context data. This is a positive aspect for value-added context-aware service cloud as it makes that context information collection are easier than was the case previously. However, this computing environment does add a series of threats in relation to privacy protection. Whoever receives the context information is able to deduce the status of the owners and, generally owners are not happy to share this information. In this paper, we propose a privacy preserved framework which can be utilized by value-added context-aware service cloud. Context data and related services access privileges are determined by context-aware role-based access control (CRAC) extended from role-based access control (RAC). Privacy preserved context service protocol (PPCS) is designed to protect user privacy from exposed context information. Additionally, user network and information diffusion is combined to evaluate the privacy protection effect.

  14. Context-Aware Reviewer Assignment for Trust Enhanced Peer Review.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Wang, Yan; Liu, Guanfeng; Wang, Meng; Wu, Xindong

    2015-01-01

    Reviewer assignment is critical to peer review systems, such as peer-reviewed research conferences or peer-reviewed funding applications, and its effectiveness is a deep concern of all academics. However, there are some problems in existing peer review systems during reviewer assignment. For example, some of the reviewers are much more stringent than others, leading to an unfair final decision, i.e., some submissions (i.e., papers or applications) with better quality are rejected. In this paper, we propose a context-aware reviewer assignment for trust enhanced peer review. More specifically, in our approach, we first consider the research area specific expertise of reviewers, and the institution relevance and co-authorship between reviewers and authors, so that reviewers with the right expertise are assigned to the corresponding submissions without potential conflict of interest. In addition, we propose a novel cross-assignment paradigm, and reviewers are cross-assigned in order to avoid assigning a group of stringent reviewers or a group of lenient reviewers to the same submission. More importantly, on top of them, we propose an academic CONtext-aware expertise relevanCe oriEnted Reviewer cross-assignmenT approach (CONCERT), which aims to effectively estimate the "true" ratings of submissions based on the ratings from all reviewers, even though no prior knowledge exists about the distribution of stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers. The experiments illustrate that compared with existing approaches, our proposed CONCERT approach can less likely assign more than one stringent reviewers or lenient reviewers to a submission simultaneously and significantly reduce the influence of ratings from stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers, leading to trust enhanced peer review and selection, no matter what kind of distributions of stringent reviewers and lenient reviewers are.

  15. Context-Aware Online Commercial Intention Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Derek Hao; Shen, Dou; Sun, Jian-Tao; Yang, Qiang; Chen, Zheng

    With more and more commercial activities moving onto the Internet, people tend to purchase what they need through Internet or conduct some online research before the actual transactions happen. For many Web users, their online commercial activities start from submitting a search query to search engines. Just like the common Web search queries, the queries with commercial intention are usually very short. Recognizing the queries with commercial intention against the common queries will help search engines provide proper search results and advertisements, help Web users obtain the right information they desire and help the advertisers benefit from the potential transactions. However, the intentions behind a query vary a lot for users with different background and interest. The intentions can even be different for the same user, when the query is issued in different contexts. In this paper, we present a new algorithm framework based on skip-chain conditional random field (SCCRF) for automatically classifying Web queries according to context-based online commercial intention. We analyze our algorithm performance both theoretically and empirically. Extensive experiments on several real search engine log datasets show that our algorithm can improve more than 10% on F1 score than previous algorithms on commercial intention detection.

  16. Context-Aware Adaptation in Web-Based Groupware Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Manuele Kirsch; Carrillo-Ramos, Angela; Villanova-Oliver, Marlène; Gensel, Jérôme; Berbers, Yolande

    In this chapter, we propose a context-aware filtering process for adapting content delivered to mobile users by Web-based Groupware Systems. This process is based on context-aware profiles, expressing mobile users preferences for particular situations they encounter when using these systems. These profiles, which are shared between members of a given community, are exploited by the adaptation process in order to select and organize the delivered information into several levels of detail, based on a progressive access model. By defining these profiles, we propose a filtering process that considers both the user's current context and the user's preferences for this context. The context notion of context is represented by an object-oriented model we propose and which takes into account consideration both the user's physical and collaborative context, including elements related to collaborative activities performed inside the groupware system. The filtering process selects, in a first step, the context-aware profiles that match the user's current context, and then it filters the available content according to the selected profiles and uses the progressive access model to organize the selected information.

  17. A Framework for Context-Aware Adaptation in Public Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Jorge C. S.; José, Rui

    Several approaches for context-aware public display systems exist but none has been able to bridge the gap between the myriad of possible interactive features of a display and adaptation rules for its content. In this paper, we propose a framework of digital footprints generated by the interaction with public displays that can be used as a means to dynamically characterise a place. We describe these footprints, how they can be generated and how they can be used by context-aware display systems to adapt to the social environment of a place.

  18. Context-aware adaptive spelling in motor imagery BCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdikis, S.; Leeb, R.; Millán, J. d. R.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. This work presents a first motor imagery-based, adaptive brain-computer interface (BCI) speller, which is able to exploit application-derived context for improved, simultaneous classifier adaptation and spelling. Online spelling experiments with ten able-bodied users evaluate the ability of our scheme, first, to alleviate non-stationarity of brain signals for restoring the subject’s performances, second, to guide naive users into BCI control avoiding initial offline BCI calibration and, third, to outperform regular unsupervised adaptation. Approach. Our co-adaptive framework combines the BrainTree speller with smooth-batch linear discriminant analysis adaptation. The latter enjoys contextual assistance through BrainTree’s language model to improve online expectation-maximization maximum-likelihood estimation. Main results. Our results verify the possibility to restore single-sample classification and BCI command accuracy, as well as spelling speed for expert users. Most importantly, context-aware adaptation performs significantly better than its unsupervised equivalent and similar to the supervised one. Although no significant differences are found with respect to the state-of-the-art PMean approach, the proposed algorithm is shown to be advantageous for 30% of the users. Significance. We demonstrate the possibility to circumvent supervised BCI recalibration, saving time without compromising the adaptation quality. On the other hand, we show that this type of classifier adaptation is not as efficient for BCI training purposes.

  19. Context-aware adaptive spelling in motor imagery BCI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perdikis, S.; Leeb, R.; Millán, J. d. R.

    2016-06-01

    Objective. This work presents a first motor imagery-based, adaptive brain–computer interface (BCI) speller, which is able to exploit application-derived context for improved, simultaneous classifier adaptation and spelling. Online spelling experiments with ten able-bodied users evaluate the ability of our scheme, first, to alleviate non-stationarity of brain signals for restoring the subject’s performances, second, to guide naive users into BCI control avoiding initial offline BCI calibration and, third, to outperform regular unsupervised adaptation. Approach. Our co-adaptive framework combines the BrainTree speller with smooth-batch linear discriminant analysis adaptation. The latter enjoys contextual assistance through BrainTree’s language model to improve online expectation-maximization maximum-likelihood estimation. Main results. Our results verify the possibility to restore single-sample classification and BCI command accuracy, as well as spelling speed for expert users. Most importantly, context-aware adaptation performs significantly better than its unsupervised equivalent and similar to the supervised one. Although no significant differences are found with respect to the state-of-the-art PMean approach, the proposed algorithm is shown to be advantageous for 30% of the users. Significance. We demonstrate the possibility to circumvent supervised BCI recalibration, saving time without compromising the adaptation quality. On the other hand, we show that this type of classifier adaptation is not as efficient for BCI training purposes.

  20. A Context Awareness System for Online Learning: Design Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laffey, James; Amelung, Chris; Goggins, Sean

    2009-01-01

    A design based research strategy examining the impressions and behavior of members of courses taught entirely online is used for refining a context-aware activity notification system (CANS). The findings show that CANS must address substantial variety in courses and members while also fitting with multitasking between online and real world…

  1. A Context-Aware Solution in Mobile Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatahipour, Majid; Ghaseminajm, Mahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Despite obvious benefits, some challenges exist in the way of sustainable utilization of mobile phone technology for language learning tasks. This paper shows how these challenges can be better addressed in the light of recent advancements in mobile phone technology, like context aware mobile learning, informed with a sound pedagogical basis for…

  2. Intelligent Context-Aware and Adaptive Interface for Mobile LBS

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jiangfan; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Context-aware user interface plays an important role in many human-computer Interaction tasks of location based services. Although spatial models for context-aware systems have been studied extensively, how to locate specific spatial information for users is still not well resolved, which is important in the mobile environment where location based services users are impeded by device limitations. Better context-aware human-computer interaction models of mobile location based services are needed not just to predict performance outcomes, such as whether people will be able to find the information needed to complete a human-computer interaction task, but to understand human processes that interact in spatial query, which will in turn inform the detailed design of better user interfaces in mobile location based services. In this study, a context-aware adaptive model for mobile location based services interface is proposed, which contains three major sections: purpose, adjustment, and adaptation. Based on this model we try to describe the process of user operation and interface adaptation clearly through the dynamic interaction between users and the interface. Then we show how the model applies users' demands in a complicated environment and suggested the feasibility by the experimental results. PMID:26457077

  3. PLEXIL-DL: Language and Runtime for Context-Aware Robot Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moser, Herwig; Reichelt, Toni; Oswald, Norbert; Förster, Stefan

    Faced with the growing complexity of application scenarios social robots are involved with, the perception of environmental circumstances and the sentient reactions are becoming more and more important abilities. Rather than regarding both abilities in isolation, the entire transformation process, from context-awareness to purposive behaviour, forms a robot’s adaptivity. While attaining context-awareness has received much attention in literature so far, translating it into appropriate actions still lacks a comprehensive approach. In this paper, we present PLEXIL-DL, an expressive language allowing complex context expressions as an integral part of constructs that define sophisticated behavioural reactions. Our approach extends NASA’s PLEXIL language by Description Logic queries, both in syntax and formal semantics. A prototypical implementation of a PLEXIL-DL interpreter shows the basic mechanisms facilitating the robot’s adaptivity through context-awareness.

  4. Advanced medical video services through context-aware medical networks.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charalampos N; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Pliakas, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a framework for advanced medical video delivery services, through network and patient-state awareness. Under this scope a context-aware medical networking platform is described. The developed platform enables proper medical video data coding and transmission according to both a) network availability and/or quality and b) patient status, optimizing thus network performance and telediagnosis. An evaluation platform has been developed based on scalable H.264 coding of medical videos. Corresponding results of video transmission over a WiMax network have proved the effectiveness and efficiency of the platform providing proper video content delivery. PMID:18002643

  5. Advanced medical video services through context-aware medical networks.

    PubMed

    Doukas, Charalampos N; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Pliakas, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a framework for advanced medical video delivery services, through network and patient-state awareness. Under this scope a context-aware medical networking platform is described. The developed platform enables proper medical video data coding and transmission according to both a) network availability and/or quality and b) patient status, optimizing thus network performance and telediagnosis. An evaluation platform has been developed based on scalable H.264 coding of medical videos. Corresponding results of video transmission over a WiMax network have proved the effectiveness and efficiency of the platform providing proper video content delivery.

  6. From Genre Awareness to Cross-Genre Awareness: A Study in an EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yayli, Demet

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to capture both how the participants' genre awareness becomes embedded in their stances through genre-based writing instruction in an EFL context and also how viable multi-genre portfolio use is in genre-based EFL writing instruction. The qualitative data were gathered from several sources: (1) the participants' annotations of…

  7. Review of game theory applications for situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Shen, Dan; Pham, Khanh D.; Chen, Genshe

    2015-05-01

    Game theoretical methods have been used for spectral awareness, space situational awareness (SSA), cyber situational awareness (CSA), and Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance situation awareness (ISA). Each of these cases, awareness is supported by sensor estimation for assessment and the situation is determined from the actions of multiple players. Game theory assumes rational actors in a defined scenario; however, variations in social, cultural and behavioral factors include the dynamic nature of the context. In a dynamic data-driven application system (DDDAS), modeling must include both the measurements but also how models are used by different actors with different priorities. In this paper, we highlight the applications of game theory by reviewing the literature to determine the current state of the art and future needs. Future developments would include building towards knowledge awareness with information technology (e.g., data aggregation, access, indexing); multiscale analysis (e.g., space, time, and frequency), and software methods (e.g., architectures, cloud computing, protocols).

  8. A Study on Automated Context-aware Access Control Model Using Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bokman; Jang, Hyokyung; Choi, Euiin

    Applications in context-aware computing environment will be connected wireless network and various devices. According to, recklessness access of information resource can make trouble of system. So, access authority management is very important issue both information resource and adapt to system through founding security policy of needed system. But, existing security model is easy of approach to resource through simply user ID and password. This model has a problem that is not concerned about user's environment information. In this paper, propose model of automated context-aware access control using ontology that can more efficiently control about resource through inference and judgment of context information that collect user's information and user's environment context information in order to ontology modeling.

  9. A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment for Conducting Complex Science Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Yang, Tzu-Chi; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Yang, Stephen J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning) is an innovative approach that integrates wireless, mobile, and context-awareness technologies to detect the situation of learners in the real world and provide adaptive support or guidance accordingly. In this paper, a context-aware u-learning environment is developed for guiding inexperienced…

  10. What is the potential for context aware communication aids?

    PubMed

    Judge, Simon; Hawley, Mark S; Cunningham, Stuart; Kirton, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Use of voice output communication aids (VOCAs) can be a very effective strategy to assist people with speech impairments in communicating. Despite this, people who use communication aids often express frustration with VOCAs-desiring devices that are simpler, quicker and more effective to use. Whilst it is not possible to resolve all these issues with technology, it is argued that significant progress can be made. The use of contextual information is one development that could improve the simplicity and effectiveness of communication aid design. Improving the effectiveness of communication aids, including through the use of context support, is a goal of the NIHR Devices for Dignity Assistive Technology Theme. This discussion paper examines the potential for creating 'context aware' communication aids. Three projects in which the authors have been involved are described to illustrate different approaches to the use of contextual information. PMID:26418171

  11. A context-aware video display scheme for mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Keewon; Kim, Changick

    2006-02-01

    A fully automatic and computationally efficient method is proposed for intelligent display of soccer video on small multimedia mobile devices. The rapid progress of the multimedia signal processing has contributed to the extensive use of multimedia devices with small LCD panel. With these flourishing mobile devices with small display, the video sequences captured for normal viewing on standard TV or HDTV may give the small-display-viewers uncomfortable experiences in understanding what is happening in a scene. For instance, in a soccer video sequence taken by a longshot camera technique, the tiny objects (e.g., soccer ball and players) may not be clearly viewed on the small LCD panel. Thus, an intelligent display technique is needed for small-display-viewers. To this end, one of the key technologies is to determine region of interest, which is a part of the scene that viewers pay more attention to than other regions. In this paper, we only focus on soccer video display for mobile devices. Instead of taking visual saliency into account, we take domain-specific approach to exploit the characteristics of the soccer video. We propose a context-aware soccer video display scheme, which includes three folds: ground color learning, shot classification, and ROI determination. The experimental results show the propose scheme is capable of context-aware video display on mobile devices.

  12. A Methodology and a Web Platform for the Collaborative Development of Context-Aware Systems

    PubMed Central

    Martín, David; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene; Lamsfus, Carlos; Torres-Manzanera, Emilio

    2013-01-01

    Information and services personalization is essential for an optimal user experience. Systems have to be able to acquire data about the user's context, process them in order to identify the user's situation and finally, adapt the functionality of the system to that situation, but the development of context-aware systems is complex. Data coming from distributed and heterogeneous sources have to be acquired, processed and managed. Several programming frameworks have been proposed in order to simplify the development of context-aware systems. These frameworks offer high-level application programming interfaces for programmers that complicate the involvement of domain experts in the development life-cycle. The participation of users that do not have programming skills but are experts in the application domain can speed up and improve the development process of these kinds of systems. Apart from that, there is a lack of methodologies to guide the development process. This article presents as main contributions, the implementation and evaluation of a web platform and a methodology to collaboratively develop context-aware systems by programmers and domain experts. PMID:23666131

  13. Induction of Kanizsa Contours Requires Awareness of the Inducing Context

    PubMed Central

    Banica, Theodora; Schwarzkopf, D. Samuel

    2016-01-01

    It remains unknown to what extent the human visual system interprets information about complex scenes without conscious analysis. Here we used visual masking techniques to assess whether illusory contours (Kanizsa shapes) are perceived when the inducing context creating this illusion does not reach awareness. In the first experiment we tested perception directly by having participants discriminate the orientation of an illusory contour. In the second experiment, we exploited the fact that the presence of an illusory contour enhances performance on a spatial localization task. Moreover, in the latter experiment we also used a different masking method to rule out the effect of stimulus duration. Our results suggest that participants do not perceive illusory contours when they are unaware of the inducing context. This is consistent with theories of a multistage, recurrent process of perceptual integration. Our findings thus challenge some reports, including those from neurophysiological experiments in anaesthetized animals. Furthermore, we discuss the importance to test the presence of the phenomenal percept directly with appropriate methods. PMID:27518569

  14. Enabling network-aware applications

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, Brian L.; Gunter, Dan; Lee, Jason; Stouffer, Martin

    2001-08-01

    Many high performance distributed applications use only a small fraction of their available bandwidth. A common cause of this problem is not a flaw in the application design, but rather improperly tuned network settings. Proper tuning techniques, such as setting the correct TCP buffers and using parallel streams, are well known in the networking community, but outside the networking community they are infrequently applied. In this paper, we describe a service that makes the task of network tuning trivial for application developers and users. Widespread use of this service should virtually eliminate a common stumbling block for high performance distributed applications.

  15. Development Context Driven Change Awareness and Analysis Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarma, Anita; Branchaud, Josh; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on workspace monitoring allows conflict prediction early in the development process, however, these approaches mostly use syntactic differencing techniques to compare different program versions. In contrast, traditional change-impact analysis techniques analyze related versions of the program only after the code has been checked into the master repository. We propose a novel approach, De- CAF (Development Context Analysis Framework), that leverages the development context to scope a change impact analysis technique. The goal is to characterize the impact of each developer on other developers in the team. There are various client applications such as task prioritization, early conflict detection, and providing advice on testing that can benefit from such a characterization. The DeCAF framework leverages information from the development context to bound the iDiSE change impact analysis technique to analyze only the parts of the code base that are of interest. Bounding the analysis can enable DeCAF to efficiently compute the impact of changes using a combination of program dependence and symbolic execution based approaches.

  16. Development Context Driven Change Awareness and Analysis Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarma, Anita; Branchaud, Josh; Dwyer, Matthew B.; Person, Suzette; Rungta, Neha; Wang, Yurong; Elbaum, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Recent work on workspace monitoring allows conflict prediction early in the development process, however, these approaches mostly use syntactic differencing techniques to compare different program versions. In contrast, traditional change-impact analysis techniques analyze related versions of the program only after the code has been checked into the master repository. We propose a novel approach, DeCAF (Development Context Analysis Framework), that leverages the development context to scope a change impact analysis technique. The goal is to characterize the impact of each developer on other developers in the team. There are various client applications such as task prioritization, early conflict detection, and providing advice on testing that can benefit from such a characterization. The DeCAF framework leverages information from the development context to bound the iDiSE change impact analysis technique to analyze only the parts of the code base that are of interest. Bounding the analysis can enable DeCAF to efficiently compute the impact of changes using a combination of program dependence and symbolic execution based approaches.

  17. An Expert System-based Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach for Conducting Science Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Po-Han; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Wen-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Context-aware ubiquitous learning has been recognized as being a promising approach that enables students to interact with real-world learning targets with supports from the digital world. Several researchers have indicated the importance of providing learning guidance or hints to individual students during the context-aware ubiquitous learning…

  18. A Heuristic Algorithm for Planning Personalized Learning Paths for Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Kuo, Fan-Ray; Yin, Peng-Yeng; Chuang, Kuo-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    In a context-aware ubiquitous learning environment, learning systems can detect students' learning behaviors in the real-world with the help of context-aware (sensor) technology; that is, students can be guided to observe or operate real-world objects with personalized support from the digital world. In this study, an optimization problem that…

  19. Learning in a u-Museum: Developing a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Chia-Chen; Huang, Tien-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Context-awareness techniques can support learners in learning without time or location constraints by using mobile devices and associated learning activities in a real learning environment. Enrichment of context-aware technologies has enabled students to learn in an environment that integrates learning resources from both the real world and the…

  20. Developing a Survey for Assessing Preferences in Constructivist Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, P.-S.; Tsai, C.-C.; Hwang, G.-J.

    2012-01-01

    This study developed a survey to explore students' preferences in constructivist context-aware ubiquitous learning environments. A constructivist context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning) environment survey (CULES) was developed, consisting of eight scales, including ease of use, continuity, relevance, adaptive content, multiple sources,…

  1. Using Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning to Support Students' Understanding of Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, context-aware ubiquitous learning was used to support 4th grade students as they learn angle concepts. Context-aware ubiquitous learning was provided to students primarily through the use of iPads to access real-world connections and a Dynamic Geometry Environment. Gravemeijer and van Eerde's (2009), design-based research (DBR)…

  2. Teacher Diversity Awareness in the Context of Changing Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acquah, Emmanuel O.; Tandon, Madhavi; Lempinen, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This study examined awareness of and knowledge of how to address increasing linguistic and cultural diversity among 89 teachers in an ethnically and racially diverse school located in Southwest Finland. The empirical evidence suggests that in a school with many years of experience with a diverse student population the levels of awareness and…

  3. An Architecture and Supporting Environment of Service-Oriented Computing Based-On Context Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianxiao; Wu, Gang; Huang, Jun

    Service-oriented computing (SOC) is emerging to be an important computing paradigm of the next future. Based on context awareness, this paper proposes an architecture of SOC. A definition of the context in open environments such as Internet is given, which is based on ontology. The paper also proposes a supporting environment for the context-aware SOC, which focus on services on-demand composition and context-awareness evolving. A reference implementation of the supporting environment based on OSGi[11] is given at last.

  4. Context-Aware Based Efficient Training System Using Augmented Reality and Gravity Sensor for Healthcare Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seoksoo; Jung, Sungmo; Song, Jae-Gu; Kang, Byong-Ho

    As augmented reality and a gravity sensor is of growing interest, siginificant developement is being made on related technology, which allows application of the technology in a variety of areas with greater expectations. In applying Context-aware to augmented reality, it can make useful programs. A traning system suggested in this study helps a user to understand an effcienct training method using augmented reality and make sure if his exercise is being done propery based on the data collected by a gravity sensor. Therefore, this research aims to suggest an efficient training environment that can enhance previous training methods by applying augmented reality and a gravity sensor.

  5. Context Aware Multiparty Session Support for Adaptive Multicasting in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, Josephine; Riede, Christian; Pinto, Filipe Cabral; Pitsillides, Andreas

    The paper addresses the issue of achieving context-aware, adaptive multiparty sessions in a heterogeneous system by illustrating how to add elements of adaptivity and context-awareness to the session management functionality of such systems. The effective usage of situation/context information can lead to context-aware content casting, especially context-aware, adaptive multicasting. Therefore, regarding the multicast service, the key functionality of the enhanced session management is to create network subgroups based on network information as well as general user and environment context information to the extent that these are considered necessary for forming network-efficient groups, and in turn communicating the characteristics of these subgroups in the form of content stream descriptions to the media delivery function for obtaining the appropriate content for each subgroup.

  6. Multi-core aware applications in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. D.; Elmer, P.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Green, C.; Baldooci, A.

    2011-12-01

    One of the significant trends of recent years has been the move towards multicore CPU's with ever increasing numbers of cores. CMS has been preparing multicore aware applications that rely on "multi-processing", namely the sharing of memory between processes forked from a single parent process. First experience with deploying these applications for production will be presented, as well as results from detailed profiling done to understand the limits of scaling with increasing numbers of cores.

  7. An infrastructure to enable lightweight context-awareness for mobile users.

    PubMed

    Curiel, Pablo; Lago, Ana B

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phones enable us to carry out a wider range of tasks every day, and as a result they have become more ubiquitous than ever. However, they are still more limited in terms of processing power and interaction capabilities than traditional computers, and the often distracting and time-constricted scenarios in which we use them do not help in alleviating these limitations. Context-awareness is a valuable technique to address these issues, as it enables to adapt application behaviour to each situation. In this paper we present a context management infrastructure for mobile environments, aimed at controlling context information life-cycle in this kind of scenarios, with the main goal of enabling application and services to adapt their behaviour to better meet end-user needs. This infrastructure relies on semantic technologies and open standards to improve interoperability, and is based on a central element, the context manager. This element acts as a central context repository and takes most of the computational burden derived from dealing with this kind of information, thus relieving from these tasks to more resource-scarce devices in the system. PMID:23899932

  8. Modeling Battery Behavior on Sensory Operations for Context-Aware Smartphone Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yurur, Ozgur; Liu, Chi Harold; Moreno, Wilfrido

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption is a major concern in context-aware smartphone sensing. This paper first studies mobile device-based battery modeling, which adopts the kinetic battery model (KiBaM), under the scope of battery non-linearities with respect to variant loads. Second, this paper models the energy consumption behavior of accelerometers analytically and then provides extensive simulation results and a smartphone application to examine the proposed sensor model. Third, a Markov reward process is integrated to create energy consumption profiles, linking with sensory operations and their effects on battery non-linearity. Energy consumption profiles consist of different pairs of duty cycles and sampling frequencies during sensory operations. Furthermore, the total energy cost by each profile is represented by an accumulated reward in this process. Finally, three different methods are proposed on the evolution of the reward process, to present the linkage between different usage patterns on the accelerometer sensor through a smartphone application and the battery behavior. By doing this, this paper aims at achieving a fine efficiency in power consumption caused by sensory operations, while maintaining the accuracy of smartphone applications based on sensor usages. More importantly, this study intends that modeling the battery non-linearities together with investigating the effects of different usage patterns in sensory operations in terms of the power consumption and the battery discharge may lead to discovering optimal energy reduction strategies to extend the battery lifetime and help a continual improvement in context-aware mobile services. PMID:26016916

  9. Modeling battery behavior on sensory operations for context-aware smartphone sensing.

    PubMed

    Yurur, Ozgur; Liu, Chi Harold; Moreno, Wilfrido

    2015-01-01

    Energy consumption is a major concern in context-aware smartphone sensing. This paper first studies mobile device-based battery modeling, which adopts the kinetic battery model (KiBaM), under the scope of battery non-linearities with respect to variant loads. Second, this paper models the energy consumption behavior of accelerometers analytically and then provides extensive simulation results and a smartphone application to examine the proposed sensor model. Third, a Markov reward process is integrated to create energy consumption profiles, linking with sensory operations and their effects on battery non-linearity. Energy consumption profiles consist of different pairs of duty cycles and sampling frequencies during sensory operations. Furthermore, the total energy cost by each profile is represented by an accumulated reward in this process. Finally, three different methods are proposed on the evolution of the reward process, to present the linkage between different usage patterns on the accelerometer sensor through a smartphone application and the battery behavior. By doing this, this paper aims at achieving a fine efficiency in power consumption caused by sensory operations, while maintaining the accuracy of smartphone applications based on sensor usages. More importantly, this study intends that modeling the battery non-linearities together with investigating the effects of different usage patterns in sensory operations in terms of the power consumption and the battery discharge may lead to discovering optimal energy reduction strategies to extend the battery lifetime and help a continual improvement in context-aware mobile services.

  10. A Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) of Routing Protocol for Agricultural Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPAL).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yibo; Chanet, Jean-Pierre; Hou, Kun-Mean; Shi, Hongling; de Sousa, Gil

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, IoT (Internet of Things) technologies have seen great advances, particularly, the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL), which provides a powerful and flexible routing framework that can be applied in a variety of application scenarios. In this context, as an important role of IoT, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can utilize RPL to design efficient routing protocols for a specific application to increase the ubiquity of networks with resource-constrained WSN nodes that are low-cost and easy to deploy. In this article, our work starts with the description of Agricultural Low-power and Lossy Networks (A-LLNs) complying with the LLN framework, and to clarify the requirements of this application-oriented routing solution. After a brief review of existing optimization techniques for RPL, our contribution is dedicated to a Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) that can adapt RPL to the environmental monitoring of A-LLNs, through combining energy-aware, reliability-aware, robustness-aware and resource-aware contexts according to the composite routing metrics approach. The correct behavior of this enhanced RPL version (RPAL) was verified by performance evaluations on both simulation and field tests. The obtained experimental results confirm that SCAOF can deliver the desired advantages on network lifetime extension, and high reliability and efficiency in different simulation scenarios and hardware testbeds. PMID:26266411

  11. A Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) of Routing Protocol for Agricultural Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPAL)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yibo; Chanet, Jean-Pierre; Hou, Kun-Mean; Shi, Hongling; de Sousa, Gil

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, IoT (Internet of Things) technologies have seen great advances, particularly, the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL), which provides a powerful and flexible routing framework that can be applied in a variety of application scenarios. In this context, as an important role of IoT, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can utilize RPL to design efficient routing protocols for a specific application to increase the ubiquity of networks with resource-constrained WSN nodes that are low-cost and easy to deploy. In this article, our work starts with the description of Agricultural Low-power and Lossy Networks (A-LLNs) complying with the LLN framework, and to clarify the requirements of this application-oriented routing solution. After a brief review of existing optimization techniques for RPL, our contribution is dedicated to a Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) that can adapt RPL to the environmental monitoring of A-LLNs, through combining energy-aware, reliability-aware, robustness-aware and resource-aware contexts according to the composite routing metrics approach. The correct behavior of this enhanced RPL version (RPAL) was verified by performance evaluations on both simulation and field tests. The obtained experimental results confirm that SCAOF can deliver the desired advantages on network lifetime extension, and high reliability and efficiency in different simulation scenarios and hardware testbeds. PMID:26266411

  12. A Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) of Routing Protocol for Agricultural Low-Power and Lossy Networks (RPAL).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yibo; Chanet, Jean-Pierre; Hou, Kun-Mean; Shi, Hongling; de Sousa, Gil

    2015-08-10

    In recent years, IoT (Internet of Things) technologies have seen great advances, particularly, the IPv6 Routing Protocol for Low-power and Lossy Networks (RPL), which provides a powerful and flexible routing framework that can be applied in a variety of application scenarios. In this context, as an important role of IoT, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) can utilize RPL to design efficient routing protocols for a specific application to increase the ubiquity of networks with resource-constrained WSN nodes that are low-cost and easy to deploy. In this article, our work starts with the description of Agricultural Low-power and Lossy Networks (A-LLNs) complying with the LLN framework, and to clarify the requirements of this application-oriented routing solution. After a brief review of existing optimization techniques for RPL, our contribution is dedicated to a Scalable Context-Aware Objective Function (SCAOF) that can adapt RPL to the environmental monitoring of A-LLNs, through combining energy-aware, reliability-aware, robustness-aware and resource-aware contexts according to the composite routing metrics approach. The correct behavior of this enhanced RPL version (RPAL) was verified by performance evaluations on both simulation and field tests. The obtained experimental results confirm that SCAOF can deliver the desired advantages on network lifetime extension, and high reliability and efficiency in different simulation scenarios and hardware testbeds.

  13. A Three-Dimensional Context-Awareness Model for Peer Recommendation in the E-Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yanlin; Li, Luyi

    2008-01-01

    It is widely recognized that peer interaction is valuable for improving learning and achievement. This article proposes a three-dimensional context-awareness (CA) model to help learners in distributed e-learning settings to find suitable peers for potential collaboration. Based on the recognition of the e-learning context that involves the…

  14. Metacognitive Awareness of Reading Strategies: An Indian Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinninti, Lakshmana Rao

    2016-01-01

    Over the last four decades, there has been a substantial body of research on metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. However, very few studies have focused on stage-wise frequency (pre-, while- and post-reading) and conditional knowledge of reading strategies. The purpose of this paper is to report stage-wise frequency and conditional…

  15. A Quality of Context-Aware Approach to Access Control in Pervasive Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toninelli, Alessandra; Corradi, Antonio; Montanari, Rebecca

    The widespread diffusion of wireless-enabled portable devices creates novel opportunities for users to share resources anywhere and anytime, but makes access control a crucial issue. User/device mobility and heterogeneity, together with network topology and conditions variability, complicate access control and call for novel solutions to dynamically adapt access decisions to the different operating conditions. Several research efforts have emerged in recent years that propose to exploit context-awareness to control access to resources based on context visibility and changes. Context-based access control requires, however, to take into account the quality of context information used to drive access decisions (QoC). Quality of context has in fact a profound impact on the correct behavior of any context-aware access control framework. Using context information with insufficient quality might increase the risk of incorrect access control decisions, thus leading to dangerous security breaches in resource sharing. In this paper we propose a QoC-aware approach to access control for anywhere, anytime resource sharing. The paper describes the design, implementation and evaluation of the Proteus policy framework, which combines two design guidelines to enable dynamic adaptation of policies depending on context changes: context-awareness with QoC guarantees and semantic technologies to allow high-level description of context/policy specification and reasoning about context/policies.

  16. Context-Aware Intelligent Assistant Approach to Improving Pilot's Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2004-01-01

    Faulty decision making due to inaccurate or incomplete awareness of the situation tends to be the prevailing cause of fatal general aviation accidents. Of these accidents, loss of weather situational awareness accounts for the largest number of fatalities. We describe a method for improving weather situational awareness through the support of a contextaware,domain and task knowledgeable, personalized and adaptive assistant. The assistant automatically monitors weather reports for the pilot's route of flight and warns her of detected anomalies. When and how warnings are issued is determined by phase of flight, the pilot s definition of acceptable weather conditions, and the pilot's preferences for automatic notification. In addition to automatic warnings, the pilot is able to verbally query for weather and airport information. By noting the requests she makes during the approach phase of flight, our system learns to provide the information without explicit requests on subsequent flights with similar conditions. We show that our weather assistant decreases the effort required to maintain situational awareness by more than 5.5 times when compared to the conventional method of in-flight weather briefings.

  17. Logic depth aware context independent timing model generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatnagar, Parag; Kumar, Naresh; Bhatnagar, P. S.; Agarwal, N. K.

    2016-03-01

    Logic depth aware static timing analysis involves a pre-characterized library that models the variability over the path on the basis of total timing path depth. With shrinking design geometries and rush to pack more components in a reduced size chip, hierarchical timing analysis has emerged as a stronger alternative to closing the designs however logic depth based timing analysis brings new set of challenges in generating timing models for the multiply instantiated hierarchical blocks at the chip level. In this paper, we discuss challenges imposed by logic depth in creating hierarchical timing analysis and propose a new algorithm in generating a model comprehending logic depths for multiply instantiated blocks. We demonstrate that usage of such timing model generation algorithm can significantly speedup the process of model extraction and process accuracy within 10% of the original block timing.

  18. A Knowledge-Based Approach to Retrieving Teaching Materials for Context-Aware Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Wen-Chung; Tseng, Shian-Shyong

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid development of wireless communication and sensor technologies, ubiquitous learning has become a promising solution to educational problems. In context-aware ubiquitous learning environments, it is required that learning content is retrieved according to environmental contexts, such as learners' location. Also, a learning content…

  19. A Context-Aware Self-Adaptive Fractal Based Generalized Pedagogical Agent Framework for Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulehouache, Soufiane; Maamri, Ramdane; Sahnoun, Zaidi

    2015-01-01

    The Pedagogical Agents (PAs) for Mobile Learning (m-learning) must be able not only to adapt the teaching to the learner knowledge level and profile but also to ensure the pedagogical efficiency within unpredictable changing runtime contexts. Therefore, to deal with this issue, this paper proposes a Context-aware Self-Adaptive Fractal Component…

  20. Context-Aware Adaptive Hybrid Semantic Relatedness in Biomedical Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emadzadeh, Ehsan

    Text mining of biomedical literature and clinical notes is a very active field of research in biomedical science. Semantic analysis is one of the core modules for different Natural Language Processing (NLP) solutions. Methods for calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts can be very useful in solutions solving different problems such as relationship extraction, ontology creation and question / answering [1--6]. Several techniques exist in calculating semantic relatedness of two concepts. These techniques utilize different knowledge sources and corpora. So far, researchers attempted to find the best hybrid method for each domain by combining semantic relatedness techniques and data sources manually. In this work, attempts were made to eliminate the needs for manually combining semantic relatedness methods targeting any new contexts or resources through proposing an automated method, which attempted to find the best combination of semantic relatedness techniques and resources to achieve the best semantic relatedness score in every context. This may help the research community find the best hybrid method for each context considering the available algorithms and resources.

  1. Context-aware patch-based image inpainting using Markov random field modeling.

    PubMed

    Ružić, Tijana; Pižurica, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce a general approach for context-aware patch-based image inpainting, where textural descriptors are used to guide and accelerate the search for well-matching (candidate) patches. A novel top-down splitting procedure divides the image into variable size blocks according to their context, constraining thereby the search for candidate patches to nonlocal image regions with matching context. This approach can be employed to improve the speed and performance of virtually any (patch-based) inpainting method. We apply this approach to the so-called global image inpainting with the Markov random field (MRF) prior, where MRF encodes a priori knowledge about consistency of neighboring image patches. We solve the resulting optimization problem with an efficient low-complexity inference method. Experimental results demonstrate the potential of the proposed approach in inpainting applications like scratch, text, and object removal. Improvement and significant acceleration of a related global MRF-based inpainting method is also evident.

  2. Flexible Macroblock Ordering for Context-Aware Ultrasound Video Transmission over Mobile WiMAX

    PubMed Central

    Martini, Maria G.; Hewage, Chaminda T. E. R.

    2010-01-01

    The most recent network technologies are enabling a variety of new applications, thanks to the provision of increased bandwidth and better management of Quality of Service. Nevertheless, telemedical services involving multimedia data are still lagging behind, due to the concern of the end users, that is, clinicians and also patients, about the low quality provided. Indeed, emerging network technologies should be appropriately exploited by designing the transmission strategy focusing on quality provision for end users. Stemming from this principle, we propose here a context-aware transmission strategy for medical video transmission over WiMAX systems. Context, in terms of regions of interest (ROI) in a specific session, is taken into account for the identification of multiple regions of interest, and compression/transmission strategies are tailored to such context information. We present a methodology based on H.264 medical video compression and Flexible Macroblock Ordering (FMO) for ROI identification. Two different unequal error protection methodologies, providing higher protection to the most diagnostically relevant data, are presented. PMID:20827292

  3. Flexible Macroblock Ordering for Context-Aware Ultrasound Video Transmission over Mobile WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Martini, Maria G; Hewage, Chaminda T E R

    2010-01-01

    The most recent network technologies are enabling a variety of new applications, thanks to the provision of increased bandwidth and better management of Quality of Service. Nevertheless, telemedical services involving multimedia data are still lagging behind, due to the concern of the end users, that is, clinicians and also patients, about the low quality provided. Indeed, emerging network technologies should be appropriately exploited by designing the transmission strategy focusing on quality provision for end users. Stemming from this principle, we propose here a context-aware transmission strategy for medical video transmission over WiMAX systems. Context, in terms of regions of interest (ROI) in a specific session, is taken into account for the identification of multiple regions of interest, and compression/transmission strategies are tailored to such context information. We present a methodology based on H.264 medical video compression and Flexible Macroblock Ordering (FMO) for ROI identification. Two different unequal error protection methodologies, providing higher protection to the most diagnostically relevant data, are presented. PMID:20827292

  4. Flexible Macroblock Ordering for Context-Aware Ultrasound Video Transmission over Mobile WiMAX.

    PubMed

    Martini, Maria G; Hewage, Chaminda T E R

    2010-01-01

    The most recent network technologies are enabling a variety of new applications, thanks to the provision of increased bandwidth and better management of Quality of Service. Nevertheless, telemedical services involving multimedia data are still lagging behind, due to the concern of the end users, that is, clinicians and also patients, about the low quality provided. Indeed, emerging network technologies should be appropriately exploited by designing the transmission strategy focusing on quality provision for end users. Stemming from this principle, we propose here a context-aware transmission strategy for medical video transmission over WiMAX systems. Context, in terms of regions of interest (ROI) in a specific session, is taken into account for the identification of multiple regions of interest, and compression/transmission strategies are tailored to such context information. We present a methodology based on H.264 medical video compression and Flexible Macroblock Ordering (FMO) for ROI identification. Two different unequal error protection methodologies, providing higher protection to the most diagnostically relevant data, are presented.

  5. Locality Aware Concurrent Start for Stencil Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Shrestha, Sunil; Gao, Guang R.; Manzano Franco, Joseph B.; Marquez, Andres; Feo, John T.

    2015-02-10

    Stencil computations are at the heart of many physical simulations used in scientific codes. Thus, there exists a plethora of optimization efforts for this family of computations. Among these techniques, tiling techniques that allow concurrent start have proven to be very efficient in providing better performance for these critical kernels. Nevertheless, with many core designs being the norm, these optimization techniques might not be able to fully exploit locality (both spatial and temporal) on multiple levels of the memory hierarchy without compromising parallelism. It is no longer true that the machine can be seen as a homogeneous collection of nodes with caches, main memory and an interconnect network. New architectural designs exhibit complex grouping of nodes, cores, threads, caches and memory connected by an ever evolving network-on-chip design. These new designs may benefit greatly from carefully crafted schedules and groupings that encourage parallel actors (i.e. threads, cores or nodes) to be aware of the computational history of other actors in close proximity. In this paper, we provide an efficient tiling technique that allows hierarchical concurrent start for memory hierarchy aware tile groups. Each execution schedule and tile shape exploit the available parallelism, load balance and locality present in the given applications. We demonstrate our technique on the Intel Xeon Phi architecture with selected and representative stencil kernels. We show improvement ranging from 5.58% to 31.17% over existing state-of-the-art techniques.

  6. Context-Aware Design for Process Flexibility and Adaptation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Today's organizations face continuous and unprecedented changes in their business environment. Traditional process design tools tend to be inflexible and can only support rigidly defined processes (e.g., order processing in the supply chain). This considerably restricts their real-world applications value, especially in the dynamic and…

  7. Understanding social disparities in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control: the role of neighborhood context.

    PubMed

    Morenoff, Jeffrey D; House, James S; Hansen, Ben B; Williams, David R; Kaplan, George A; Hunte, Haslyn E

    2007-11-01

    The spatial segregation of the US population by socioeconomic position and especially race/ethnicity suggests that the social contexts or "neighborhoods" in which people live may substantially contribute to social disparities in hypertension. The Chicago Community Adult Health Study did face-to-face interviews, including direct measurement of blood pressure, with a representative probability sample of adults in Chicago. These data were used to estimate socioeconomic and racial-ethnic disparities in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension, and to analyze how these disparities are related to the areas in which people live. Hypertension was significantly negatively associated with neighborhood affluence/gentrification, and adjustments for context eliminated the highly significant disparity between blacks/African-Americans and whites, and reduced the significant educational disparity by 10-15% to borderline statistical significance. Awareness of hypertension was significantly higher in more disadvantaged neighborhoods and in places with higher concentrations of blacks (and lower concentrations of Hispanics and immigrants). Adjustment for context completely eliminated blacks' greater awareness, but slightly accentuated the lesser awareness of Hispanics and the greater levels of awareness among the less educated. There was no consistent evidence of either social disparities in or contextual associations with treatment of hypertension, given awareness. Among those on medication, blacks were only 40-50% as likely as whites to have their hypertension controlled, but context played little or no role in either the level of or disparities in control of hypertension. In sum, residential contexts potentially play a large role in accounting for racial/ethnic and, to a lesser degree, socioeconomic disparities in hypertension prevalence and, in a different way, awareness, but not in treatment or control of diagnosed hypertension. PMID:17640788

  8. Network Awareness in P2P-TV Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traverso, Stefano; Leonardi, Emilio; Mellia, Marco; Meo, Michela

    The increasing popularity of applications for video-streaming based on P2P paradigm (P2P-TV) is raising the interest of both broadcasters and network operators. The former see a promising technology to reduce the cost of streaming content over the Internet, while offering a world-wide service. The latter instead fear that the traffic offered by these applications can grow without control, affecting other services, and possibly causing network congestion and collapse. The “Network-Aware P2P-TV Application over Wise Networks” FP7 project aims at studying and developing a novel P2P-TV application offering the chance to broadcast high definition video to broadcasters and to carefully manage the traffic offered by peers to the network, therefore avoiding worries to Internet providers about network overload. In such context, we design a simulator to evaluate performance of different P2P-TV solutions, to compare them both considering end-users’ and network providers’ perspectives, such as quality of service perceived by subscribers and link utilization. In this paper, we provide some results that show how effective can be a network aware P2P-TV system.

  9. FleXConf: A Flexible Conference Assistant Using Context-Aware Notification Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armenatzoglou, Nikos; Marketakis, Yannis; Kriara, Lito; Apostolopoulos, Elias; Papavasiliou, Vicky; Kampas, Dimitris; Kapravelos, Alexandros; Kartsonakis, Eythimis; Linardakis, Giorgos; Nikitaki, Sofia; Bikakis, Antonis; Antoniou, Grigoris

    Integrating context-aware notification services to ubiquitous computing systems aims at the provision of the right information to the right users, at the right time, in the right place, and on the right device, and constitutes a significant step towards the realization of the Ambient Intelligence vision. In this paper, we present FlexConf, a semantics-based system that supports location-based, personalized notification services for the assistance of conference attendees. Its special features include an ontology-based representation model, rule-based context-aware reasoning, and a novel positioning system for indoor environments.

  10. A practical indoor context-aware surveillance system with multi-Kinect sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Lili; You, Ying; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Shun

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we develop a novel practical application, which give scalable services to the end users when abnormal actives are happening. Architecture of the application has been presented consisting of network infrared cameras and a communication module. In this intelligent surveillance system we use Kinect sensors as the input cameras. Kinect is an infrared laser camera which its user can access the raw infrared sensor stream. We install several Kinect sensors in one room to track the human skeletons. Each sensor returns the body positions with 15 coordinates in its own coordinate system. We use calibration algorithms to calibrate all the body positions points into one unified coordinate system. With the body positions points, we can infer the surveillance context. Furthermore, the messages from the metadata index matrix will be sent to mobile phone through communication module. User will instantly be aware of an abnormal case happened in the room without having to check the website. In conclusion, theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the proposed system is reasonable and efficient. And the application method introduced in this paper is not only to discourage the criminals and assist police in the apprehension of suspects, but also can enabled the end-users monitor the indoor environments anywhere and anytime by their phones.

  11. Context and task-aware knowledge-enhanced compressive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Shankar; Ni, Kang-Yu; Owechko, Yuri

    2013-09-01

    We describe a foveated compressive sensing approach for image analysis applications that utilizes knowledge of the task to be performed to reduce the number of required measurements compared to conventional Nyquist sampling and compressive sensing based approaches. Our Compressive Optical Foveated Architecture (COFA) adapts the dictionary and compressive measurements to structure and sparsity in the signal, task, and scene by reducing measurement and dictionary mutual coherence and increasing sparsity using principles of actionable information and foveated compressive sensing. Actionable information is used to extract task-relevant regions of interest (ROIs) from a low-resolution scene analysis by eliminating the effects of nuisances for occlusion and anomalous motion detection. From the extracted ROIs, preferential measurements are taken using foveation as part of the compressive sensing adaptation process. The task-specific measurement matrix is optimized by using a novel saliency-weighted coherence minimization with respect to the learned signal dictionary. This incorporates the relative usage of the atoms in the dictionary. Therefore, the measurement matrix is not random, as in conventional compressive sensing, but is based on the dictionary structure and atom distributions. We utilize a patch-based method to learn the signal priors. A treestructured dictionary of image patches using KSVD is learned which can sparsely represent any given image patch with the tree-structure. We have implemented COFA in an end-to-end simulation of a vehicle fingerprinting task for aerial surveillance using foveated compressive measurements adapted to hierarchical ROIs consisting of background, roads, and vehicles. Our results show 113x reduction in measurements over conventional sensing and 28x reduction over compressive sensing using random measurements.

  12. NCBO Technology: Powering semantically aware applications.

    PubMed

    Whetzel, Patricia L

    2013-04-15

    As new biomedical technologies are developed, the amount of publically available biomedical data continues to increase. To help manage these vast and disparate data sources, researchers have turned to the Semantic Web. Specifically, ontologies are used in data annotation, natural language processing, information retrieval, clinical decision support, and data integration tasks. The development of software applications to perform these tasks requires the integration of Web services to incorporate the wide variety of ontologies used in the health care and life sciences. The National Center for Biomedical Ontology, a National Center for Biomedical Computing created under the NIH Roadmap, developed BioPortal, which provides access to one of the largest repositories of biomedical ontologies. The NCBO Web services provide programmtic access to these ontologies and can be grouped into four categories; Ontology, Mapping, Annotation, and Data Access. The Ontology Web services provide access to ontologies, their metadata, ontology versions, downloads, navigation of the class hierarchy (parents, children, siblings) and details of each term. The Mapping Web services provide access to the millions of ontology mappings published in BioPortal. The NCBO Annotator Web service "tags" text automatically with terms from ontologies in BioPortal, and the NCBO Resource Index Web services provides access to an ontology-based index of public, online data resources. The NCBO Widgets package the Ontology Web services for use directly in Web sites. The functionality of the NCBO Web services and widgets are incorporated into semantically aware applications for ontology development and visualization, data annotation, and data integration. This overview will describe these classes of applications, discuss a few examples of each type, and which NCBO Web services are used by these applications.

  13. The Effectiveness of a Meaningful Learning-Based Evaluation Model for Context-Aware Mobile Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Yueh-Min; Chiu, Po-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, context-aware mobile learning (CAML) has been widely applied to various fields and has become a popular issue in educational research. Despite the tremendous potential of CAML and its growing significance, continued evaluations and refinements under the advice of field experts and instructors are crucial to ensure its validity,…

  14. College Students' Conceptions of Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning: A Phenomenographic Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Pei-Shan; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Hwang, Gwo-Haur

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore students' conceptions of context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning). The students participated in a u-learning exercise using PDAs equipped with RFID readers. The data were collected from individual interviews with each of the students by a trained researcher, and the responses of the interviewees were…

  15. Criteria, Strategies and Research Issues of Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Yang, Stephen J. H.

    2008-01-01

    Recent progress in wireless and sensor technologies has lead to a new development of learning environments, called context-aware ubiquitous learning environment, which is able to sense the situation of learners and provide adaptive supports. Many researchers have been investigating the development of such new learning environments; nevertheless,…

  16. Analyzing the Effects of Context-Aware Mobile Design Principles on Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seneca, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of mobile technology is rapidly transforming how individuals obtain information. Learning occurs when content is accessed in a recursive process of awareness, exploration, reflection and resolution within one's social context. Specifically, the most visible, current definitions of mobile learning provide an overview of the learning…

  17. An Adaptive Navigation Support System for Conducting Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning in Museums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiou, Chuang-Kai; Tseng, Judy C. R.; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Heller, Shelly

    2010-01-01

    In context-aware ubiquitous learning, students are guided to learn in the real world with personalized supports from the learning system. As the learning resources are realistic objects in the real world, certain physical constraints, such as the limitation of stream of people who visit the same learning object, the time for moving from one object…

  18. iMuseumA: an agent-based context-aware intelligent museum system.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Amor, Mercedes; Pinto, Mónica; Fuentes, Lidia; Gámez, Nadia

    2014-11-10

    Currently, museums provide their visitors with interactive tour guide applications that can be installed in mobile devices and provide timely tailor-made multimedia information about exhibits on display. In this paper, we argue that mobile devices not only could provide help to visitors, but also to museum staff. Our goal is to integrate, within the same system, multimedia tour guides with the management facilities required by museums. In this paper, we present iMuseumA (intelligent museum with agents), a mobile-based solution to customize visits and perform context-aware management tasks. iMuseumA follows an agent-based approach, which makes it possible to interact easily with the museum environment and make decisions based on its current status. This system is currently deployed in the Museum of Informatics at the Informatics School of the University of Málaga, and its main contributions are: (i) a mobile application that provides management facilities to museum staff by means of sensing and processing environmental data; (ii) providing an integrated solution for visitors, tour guides and museum staff that allows coordination and communication enrichment among different groups of users; (iii) using and benefiting from group communication for heterogeneous groups of users that can be created on demand.

  19. iMuseumA: An Agent-Based Context-Aware Intelligent Museum System

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Inmaculada; Amor, Mercedes; Pinto, Mónica; Fuentes, Lidia; Gámez, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Currently, museums provide their visitors with interactive tour guide applications that can be installed in mobile devices and provide timely tailor-made multimedia information about exhibits on display. In this paper, we argue that mobile devices not only could provide help to visitors, but also to museum staff. Our goal is to integrate, within the same system, multimedia tour guides with the management facilities required by museums. In this paper, we present iMuseumA (intelligent museum with agents), a mobile-based solution to customize visits and perform context-aware management tasks. iMuseumA follows an agent-based approach, which makes it possible to interact easily with the museum environment and make decisions based on its current status. This system is currently deployed in the Museum of Informatics at the Informatics School of the University of Málaga, and its main contributions are: (i) a mobile application that provides management facilities to museum staff by means of sensing and processing environmental data; (ii) providing an integrated solution for visitors, tour guides and museum staff that allows coordination and communication enrichment among different groups of users; (iii) using and benefiting from group communication for heterogeneous groups of users that can be created on demand. PMID:25390409

  20. A Wearable Context-Aware ECG Monitoring System Integrated with Built-in Kinematic Sensors of the Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Fen; Cheng, Yayu; He, Yi; He, Qingyun; Li, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the ECG signals over hours combined with activity status is very important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. A traditional ECG holter is often inconvenient to carry because it has many electrodes attached to the chest and because it is heavy. This work proposes a wearable, low power context-aware ECG monitoring system integrated built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone with a self-designed ECG sensor. The wearable ECG sensor is comprised of a fully integrated analog front-end (AFE), a commercial micro control unit (MCU), a secure digital (SD) card, and a Bluetooth module. The whole sensor is very small with a size of only 58 × 50 × 10 mm for wearable monitoring application due to the AFE design, and the total power dissipation in a full round of ECG acquisition is only 12.5 mW. With the help of built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone, the proposed system can compute and recognize user’s physical activity, and thus provide context-aware information for the continuous ECG monitoring. The experimental results demonstrated the performance of proposed system in improving diagnosis accuracy for arrhythmias and identifying the most common abnormal ECG patterns in different activities. In conclusion, we provide a wearable, accurate and energy-efficient system for long-term and context-aware ECG monitoring without any extra cost on kinetic sensor design but with the help of the widespread smartphone. PMID:25996508

  1. A Wearable Context-Aware ECG Monitoring System Integrated with Built-in Kinematic Sensors of the Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Miao, Fen; Cheng, Yayu; He, Yi; He, Qingyun; Li, Ye

    2015-05-19

    Continuously monitoring the ECG signals over hours combined with activity status is very important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. A traditional ECG holter is often inconvenient to carry because it has many electrodes attached to the chest and because it is heavy. This work proposes a wearable, low power context-aware ECG monitoring system integrated built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone with a self-designed ECG sensor. The wearable ECG sensor is comprised of a fully integrated analog front-end (AFE), a commercial micro control unit (MCU), a secure digital (SD) card, and a Bluetooth module. The whole sensor is very small with a size of only 58 × 50 × 10 mm for wearable monitoring application due to the AFE design, and the total power dissipation in a full round of ECG acquisition is only 12.5 mW. With the help of built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone, the proposed system can compute and recognize user's physical activity, and thus provide context-aware information for the continuous ECG monitoring. The experimental results demonstrated the performance of proposed system in improving diagnosis accuracy for arrhythmias and identifying the most common abnormal ECG patterns in different activities. In conclusion, we provide a wearable, accurate and energy-efficient system for long-term and context-aware ECG monitoring without any extra cost on kinetic sensor design but with the help of the widespread smartphone.

  2. A Wearable Context-Aware ECG Monitoring System Integrated with Built-in Kinematic Sensors of the Smartphone.

    PubMed

    Miao, Fen; Cheng, Yayu; He, Yi; He, Qingyun; Li, Ye

    2015-01-01

    Continuously monitoring the ECG signals over hours combined with activity status is very important for preventing cardiovascular diseases. A traditional ECG holter is often inconvenient to carry because it has many electrodes attached to the chest and because it is heavy. This work proposes a wearable, low power context-aware ECG monitoring system integrated built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone with a self-designed ECG sensor. The wearable ECG sensor is comprised of a fully integrated analog front-end (AFE), a commercial micro control unit (MCU), a secure digital (SD) card, and a Bluetooth module. The whole sensor is very small with a size of only 58 × 50 × 10 mm for wearable monitoring application due to the AFE design, and the total power dissipation in a full round of ECG acquisition is only 12.5 mW. With the help of built-in kinetic sensors of the smartphone, the proposed system can compute and recognize user's physical activity, and thus provide context-aware information for the continuous ECG monitoring. The experimental results demonstrated the performance of proposed system in improving diagnosis accuracy for arrhythmias and identifying the most common abnormal ECG patterns in different activities. In conclusion, we provide a wearable, accurate and energy-efficient system for long-term and context-aware ECG monitoring without any extra cost on kinetic sensor design but with the help of the widespread smartphone. PMID:25996508

  3. Peer Interaction and Social Network Analysis of Online Communities with the Support of Awareness of Different Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Mai, Li-Jung; Lai, Yung-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies related to social-context awareness (SA) and knowledge-context awareness (KA) argued that each (SA or KA) can individually enhance peer interaction in an online learning community, other studies reached opposite conclusions. These conflicting findings likely stem from different experimental settings. Most importantly, few…

  4. Context-aware brain-computer interfaces: exploring the information space of user, technical system and environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zander, T. O.; Jatzev, S.

    2012-02-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are usually applied in highly controlled environments such as research laboratories or clinical setups. However, many BCI-based applications are implemented in more complex environments. For example, patients might want to use a BCI system at home, and users without disabilities could benefit from BCI systems in special working environments. In these contexts, it might be more difficult to reliably infer information about brain activity, because many intervening factors add up and disturb the BCI feature space. One solution for this problem would be adding context awareness to the system. We propose to augment the available information space with additional channels carrying information about the user state, the environment and the technical system. In particular, passive BCI systems seem to be capable of adding highly relevant context information—otherwise covert aspects of user state. In this paper, we present a theoretical framework based on general human-machine system research for adding context awareness to a BCI system. Building on that, we present results from a study on a passive BCI, which allows access to the covert aspect of user state related to the perceived loss of control. This study is a proof of concept and demonstrates that context awareness could beneficially be implemented in and combined with a BCI system or a general human-machine system. The EEG data from this experiment are available for public download at www.phypa.org. Parts of this work have already been presented in non-journal publications. This will be indicated specifically by appropriate references in the text.

  5. CASPER: context-aware scheme for paired-end reads from high-throughput amplicon sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Merging the forward and reverse reads from paired-end sequencing is a critical task that can significantly improve the performance of downstream tasks, such as genome assembly and mapping, by providing them with virtually elongated reads. However, due to the inherent limitations of most paired-end sequencers, the chance of observing erroneous bases grows rapidly as the end of a read is approached, which becomes a critical hurdle for accurately merging paired-end reads. Although there exist several sophisticated approaches to this problem, their performance in terms of quality of merging often remains unsatisfactory. To address this issue, here we present a context-aware scheme for paired-end reads (CASPER): a computational method to rapidly and robustly merge overlapping paired-end reads. Being particularly well suited to amplicon sequencing applications, CASPER is thoroughly tested with both simulated and real high-throughput amplicon sequencing data. According to our experimental results, CASPER significantly outperforms existing state-of-the art paired-end merging tools in terms of accuracy and robustness. CASPER also exploits the parallelism in the task of paired-end merging and effectively speeds up by multithreading. CASPER is freely available for academic use at http://best.snu.ac.kr/casper. PMID:25252785

  6. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness. PMID:26308002

  7. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-08-21

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness.

  8. A Context-Aware EEG Headset System for Early Detection of Driver Drowsiness.

    PubMed

    Li, Gang; Chung, Wan-Young

    2015-01-01

    Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many Brain-Machine-Interface (BMI) systems have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. However, detecting driver drowsiness at its early stage poses a major practical hurdle when using existing BMI systems. This study proposes a context-aware BMI system aimed to detect driver drowsiness at its early stage by enriching the EEG data with the intensity of head-movements. The proposed system is carefully designed for low-power consumption with on-chip feature extraction and low energy Bluetooth connection. Also, the proposed system is implemented using JAVA programming language as a mobile application for on-line analysis. In total, 266 datasets obtained from six subjects who participated in a one-hour monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to evaluate this system. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an overall detection accuracy of 82.71% for classifying alert and slightly drowsy events by using EEG data alone and 96.24% by using the hybrid data of head-movement and EEG. These results indicate that the combination of EEG data and head-movement contextual information constitutes a robust solution for the early detection of driver drowsiness. PMID:26308002

  9. Adaptive and context-aware detection and classification of potential QoS degradation events in biomedical wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abreu, Carlos; Miranda, Francisco; Mendes, Paulo M.

    2016-06-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks in healthcare has the potential to enhance the services provided to citizens. In particular, they play an important role in the development of state-of-the-art patient monitoring applications. Nevertheless, due to the critical nature of the data conveyed by such patient monitoring applications, they have to fulfil high standards of quality of service in order to obtain the confidence of all players in the healthcare industry. In such context, vis-à-vis the quality of service being provided by the wireless sensor network, this work presents an adaptive and context-aware method to detect and classify performance degradation events. The proposed method has the ability to catch the most significant and damaging variations on the metrics being used to quantify the quality of service provided by the network without overreacting to small and innocuous variations on the metric's value.

  10. Internet of Things: A Review of Surveys Based on Context Aware Intelligent Services.

    PubMed

    Gil, David; Ferrández, Antonio; Mora-Mora, Higinio; Peral, Jesús

    2016-07-11

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has made it possible for devices around the world to acquire information and store it, in order to be able to use it at a later stage. However, this potential opportunity is often not exploited because of the excessively big interval between the data collection and the capability to process and analyse it. In this paper, we review the current IoT technologies, approaches and models in order to discover what challenges need to be met to make more sense of data. The main goal of this paper is to review the surveys related to IoT in order to provide well integrated and context aware intelligent services for IoT. Moreover, we present a state-of-the-art of IoT from the context aware perspective that allows the integration of IoT and social networks in the emerging Social Internet of Things (SIoT) term.

  11. Internet of Things: A Review of Surveys Based on Context Aware Intelligent Services.

    PubMed

    Gil, David; Ferrández, Antonio; Mora-Mora, Higinio; Peral, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has made it possible for devices around the world to acquire information and store it, in order to be able to use it at a later stage. However, this potential opportunity is often not exploited because of the excessively big interval between the data collection and the capability to process and analyse it. In this paper, we review the current IoT technologies, approaches and models in order to discover what challenges need to be met to make more sense of data. The main goal of this paper is to review the surveys related to IoT in order to provide well integrated and context aware intelligent services for IoT. Moreover, we present a state-of-the-art of IoT from the context aware perspective that allows the integration of IoT and social networks in the emerging Social Internet of Things (SIoT) term. PMID:27409623

  12. Internet of Things: A Review of Surveys Based on Context Aware Intelligent Services

    PubMed Central

    Gil, David; Ferrández, Antonio; Mora-Mora, Higinio; Peral, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) has made it possible for devices around the world to acquire information and store it, in order to be able to use it at a later stage. However, this potential opportunity is often not exploited because of the excessively big interval between the data collection and the capability to process and analyse it. In this paper, we review the current IoT technologies, approaches and models in order to discover what challenges need to be met to make more sense of data. The main goal of this paper is to review the surveys related to IoT in order to provide well integrated and context aware intelligent services for IoT. Moreover, we present a state-of-the-art of IoT from the context aware perspective that allows the integration of IoT and social networks in the emerging Social Internet of Things (SIoT) term. PMID:27409623

  13. Technological Applications to Support Children's Development of Spatial Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, David; Geist, Eugene A.

    2002-01-01

    This article presents methods and theory behind promoting children's spatial awareness through representing 3D reality in 2D cyberspace. Spatial awareness in children is an often neglected aspect in early education. However, applications such as GPS and 3D modeling programs can be used to offer children rich experiences that allow children to…

  14. Context-Aware Mobile Collaborative Systems: Conceptual Modeling and Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Benítez-Guerrero, Edgard; Mezura-Godoy, Carmen; Montané-Jiménez, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    A Mobile Collaborative System (MCOS) enable the cooperation of the members of a team to achieve a common goal by using a combination of mobile and fixed technologies. MCOS can be enhanced if the context of the group of users is considered in the execution of activities. This paper proposes a novel model for Context-Aware Mobile COllaborative Systems (CAMCOS) and a functional architecture based on that model. In order to validate both the model and the architecture, a prototype system in the tourism domain was implemented and evaluated. PMID:23202007

  15. Ubiquitous Geo-Sensing for Context-Aware Analysis: Exploring Relationships between Environmental and Human Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Sagl, Günther; Blaschke, Thomas; Beinat, Euro; Resch, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    Ubiquitous geo-sensing enables context-aware analyses of physical and social phenomena, i.e., analyzing one phenomenon in the context of another. Although such context-aware analysis can potentially enable a more holistic understanding of spatio-temporal processes, it is rarely documented in the scientific literature yet. In this paper we analyzed the collective human behavior in the context of the weather. We therefore explored the complex relationships between these two spatio-temporal phenomena to provide novel insights into the dynamics of urban systems. Aggregated mobile phone data, which served as a proxy for collective human behavior, was linked with the weather data from climate stations in the case study area, the city of Udine, Northern Italy. To identify and characterize potential patterns within the weather-human relationships, we developed a hybrid approach which integrates several spatio-temporal statistical analysis methods. Thereby we show that explanatory factor analysis, when applied to a number of meteorological variables, can be used to differentiate between normal and adverse weather conditions. Further, we measured the strength of the relationship between the ‘global’ adverse weather conditions and the spatially explicit effective variations in user-generated mobile network traffic for three distinct periods using the Maximal Information Coefficient (MIC). The analyses result in three spatially referenced maps of MICs which reveal interesting insights into collective human dynamics in the context of weather, but also initiate several new scientific challenges. PMID:23012571

  16. The Role of Context-Aware Computing in Support of People with Dementia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgarten, Matthias; Mulvenna, Maurice D.

    There is a strong motivation, in particular in the domain of healthcare, for new perspectives on context-driven research and computing in order to provide next-generation services to people that are tailored to individual needs rather than generalised assumptions that could potentially endanger human life. For that, context awareness is a key requirement in order to reach a better understanding of human-centric computing systems and environments, and subsequently, the deployment of dedicated services that are specifically adapted to the context to which they are applied. Such context-driven services would be able to provide the means of delivering situation-aware and person-centric services that ultimately may even anticipate future behaviour and problems of the user itself and the context in which the user finds themselves. However, the perpetual provision of contextual data in pervasive environments is far from being easy and includes major challenges that vary between environments. The reason for this is not only the sensor diversity within the environments themselves but also the contextual scope to be analysed and the amount of data to be collected and correlated to actually reach a minimum degree of contextual understanding. For that reason, in this chapter, contextual environments have been categorised as well as their interaction into different groups that reflect individual contextual levels of interest of which contextual understanding is required and consequently to which services can be applied.

  17. Toward interactive context-aware affective educational recommendations in computer-assisted language learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Olga C.; Saneiro, Mar; Boticario, Jesus G.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, M. C.

    2016-01-01

    This work explores the benefits of supporting learners affectively in a context-aware learning situation. This features a new challenge in related literature in terms of providing affective educational recommendations that take advantage of ambient intelligence and are delivered through actuators available in the environment, thus going beyond previous approaches which provided computer-based recommendation that present some text or tell aloud the learner what to do. To address this open issue, we have applied TORMES elicitation methodology, which has been used to investigate the potential of ambient intelligence for making more interactive recommendations in an emotionally challenging scenario (i.e. preparing for the oral examination of a second language learning course). Arduino open source electronics prototyping platform is used both to sense changes in the learners' affective state and to deliver the recommendation in a more interactive way through different complementary sensory communication channels (sight, hearing, touch) to cope with a universal design. An Ambient Intelligence Context-aware Affective Recommender Platform (AICARP) has been built to support the whole experience, which represents a progress in the state of the art. In particular, we have come up with what is most likely the first interactive context-aware affective educational recommendation. The value of this contribution lies in discussing methodological and practical issues involved.

  18. The Social Awareness Inventory: Development and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Kennon M.

    1996-01-01

    The Social Awareness Inventory (SAI), which assesses individual differences in eight social-perceptual styles, is introduced and applied in three studies. The model is derived by crossing the three binary dimensions of target (self or other), perspective (own or other's), and content (overt appearance or covert experience). The SAI appears to…

  19. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Context-Aware Smart Home Energy Manager (CASHEM)

    SciTech Connect

    Foslien, Wendy K; Curtner, Keith L

    2013-01-15

    Because of growing energy demands and shortages, residential home owners are turning to energy conservation measures and smart home energy management devices to help them reduce energy costs and live more sustainably. In this context, the Honeywell team researched, developed, and tested the Context Aware Smart Home Energy Manager (CASHEM) as a trusted advisor for home energy management. The project focused on connecting multiple devices in a home through a uniform user interface. The design of the user interface was an important feature of the project because it provided a single place for the homeowner to control all devices and was also where they received coaching. CASHEM then used data collected from homes to identify the contexts that affect operation of home appliances. CASHEM's goal was to reduce energy consumption while keeping the user's key needs satisfied. Thus, CASHEM was intended to find the opportunities to minimize energy consumption in a way that fit the user's lifestyle.

  20. Context-Aware and Locality-Constrained Coding for Image Categorization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Improving the coding strategy for BOF (Bag-of-Features) based feature design has drawn increasing attention in recent image categorization works. However, the ambiguity in coding procedure still impedes its further development. In this paper, we introduce a context-aware and locality-constrained Coding (CALC) approach with context information for describing objects in a discriminative way. It is generally achieved by learning a word-to-word cooccurrence prior to imposing context information over locality-constrained coding. Firstly, the local context of each category is evaluated by learning a word-to-word cooccurrence matrix representing the spatial distribution of local features in neighbor region. Then, the learned cooccurrence matrix is used for measuring the context distance between local features and code words. Finally, a coding strategy simultaneously considers locality in feature space and context space, while introducing the weight of feature is proposed. This novel coding strategy not only semantically preserves the information in coding, but also has the ability to alleviate the noise distortion of each class. Extensive experiments on several available datasets (Scene-15, Caltech101, and Caltech256) are conducted to validate the superiority of our algorithm by comparing it with baselines and recent published methods. Experimental results show that our method significantly improves the performance of baselines and achieves comparable and even better performance with the state of the arts. PMID:24977215

  1. A Study of Context-Awareness RBAC Model Using User Profile on Ubiquitous Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bokman; Park, Sungdo; Chang, Hyokyung; Ahn, Hyosik; Choi, Euiin

    Recently, With the IT technique growth, there is getting formed to convert to ubiquitous environment that means it can access information everywhere and every-time using various devices, and the computer can decide to provide useful services to users. But, in this computing environment will be connected to wireless network and various devices. According to, recklessness approaches of information resource make trouble to system. So, access authority management is very important issue both information resource and adapt to system through founding security policy to need a system. So, this model has a problem that is not concerned about user's context information as user's profile. In this paper suppose to context-awareness RABC model that based on profile about which user's information which provide efficiently access control to user through active classification, inference and judgment about user who access to system and resource.

  2. Multicore Architecture-aware Scientific Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasa, Avinash

    2011-11-28

    Modern high performance systems are becoming increasingly complex and powerful due to advancements in processor and memory architecture. In order to keep up with this increasing complexity, applications have to be augmented with certain capabilities to fully exploit such systems. These may be at the application level, such as static or dynamic adaptations or at the system level, like having strategies in place to override some of the default operating system polices, the main objective being to improve computational performance of the application. The current work proposes two such capabilites with respect to multi-threaded scientific applications, in particular a large scale physics application computing ab-initio nuclear structure. The first involves using a middleware tool to invoke dynamic adaptations in the application, so as to be able to adjust to the changing computational resource availability at run-time. The second involves a strategy for effective placement of data in main memory, to optimize memory access latencies and bandwidth. These capabilties when included were found to have a significant impact on the application performance, resulting in average speedups of as much as two to four times.

  3. Adaptive and Context-Aware Reconciliation of Reactive and Pro-active Behavior in Evolving Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajcevski, Goce; Scheuermann, Peter

    One distinct characteristics of the context-aware systems is their ability to react and adapt to the evolution of the environment, which is often a result of changes in the values of various (possibly correlated) attributes. Based on these changes, reactive systems typically take corrective actions, e.g., adjusting parameters in order to maintain the desired specifications of the system's state. Pro-active systems, on the other hand, may change the mode of interaction with the environment as well as the desired goals of the system. In this paper we describe our (ECA)2 paradigm for reactive behavior with proactive impact and we present our ongoing work and vision for a system that is capable of context-aware adaptation, while ensuring the maintenance of a set of desired behavioral policies. Our main focus is on developing a formalism that provides tools for expressing normal, as well as defeasible and/or exceptional specification. However, at the same time, we insist on a sound semantics and the capability of answering hypothetical "what-if" queries. Towards this end, we introduce the high-level language L_{ EAR} that can be used to describe the dynamics of the problem domain, specify triggers under the (ECA)2 paradigm, and reason about the consequences of the possible evolutions.

  4. CAST: Effective and Efficient User Interaction for Context-Aware Selection in 3D Particle Clouds.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lingyun; Efstathiou, Konstantinos; Isenberg, Petra; Isenberg, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    We present a family of three interactive Context-Aware Selection Techniques (CAST) for the analysis of large 3D particle datasets. For these datasets, spatial selection is an essential prerequisite to many other analysis tasks. Traditionally, such interactive target selection has been particularly challenging when the data subsets of interest were implicitly defined in the form of complicated structures of thousands of particles. Our new techniques SpaceCast, TraceCast, and PointCast improve usability and speed of spatial selection in point clouds through novel context-aware algorithms. They are able to infer a user's subtle selection intention from gestural input, can deal with complex situations such as partially occluded point clusters or multiple cluster layers, and can all be fine-tuned after the selection interaction has been completed. Together, they provide an effective and efficient tool set for the fast exploratory analysis of large datasets. In addition to presenting Cast, we report on a formal user study that compares our new techniques not only to each other but also to existing state-of-the-art selection methods. Our results show that Cast family members are virtually always faster than existing methods without tradeoffs in accuracy. In addition, qualitative feedback shows that PointCast and TraceCast were strongly favored by our participants for intuitiveness and efficiency.

  5. Context-Awareness Based Personalized Recommendation of Anti-Hypertension Drugs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dexin; Jin, Dawei; Goh, Tiong-Thye; Li, Na; Wei, Leiru

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost one-third of the world's adult population are suffering from hypertension which has gradually become a "silent killer". Due to the varieties of anti-hypertensive drugs, patients are interested in how these drugs can be selected to match their respective conditions. This study provides a personalized recommendation service system of anti-hypertensive drugs based on context-awareness and designs a context ontology framework of the service. In addition, this paper introduces a Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL)-based rule to provide high-level context reasoning and information recommendation and to overcome the limitation of ontology reasoning. To make the information recommendation of the drugs more personalized, this study also devises three categories of information recommendation rules that match different priority levels and uses a ranking algorithm to optimize the recommendation. The experiment conducted shows that combining the anti-hypertensive drugs personalized recommendation service context ontology (HyRCO) with the optimized rule reasoning can achieve a higher-quality personalized drug recommendation service. Accordingly this exploratory study of the personalized recommendation service for hypertensive drugs and its method can be easily adopted for other diseases. PMID:27473866

  6. Context-Awareness Based Personalized Recommendation of Anti-Hypertension Drugs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dexin; Jin, Dawei; Goh, Tiong-Thye; Li, Na; Wei, Leiru

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost one-third of the world's adult population are suffering from hypertension which has gradually become a "silent killer". Due to the varieties of anti-hypertensive drugs, patients are interested in how these drugs can be selected to match their respective conditions. This study provides a personalized recommendation service system of anti-hypertensive drugs based on context-awareness and designs a context ontology framework of the service. In addition, this paper introduces a Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL)-based rule to provide high-level context reasoning and information recommendation and to overcome the limitation of ontology reasoning. To make the information recommendation of the drugs more personalized, this study also devises three categories of information recommendation rules that match different priority levels and uses a ranking algorithm to optimize the recommendation. The experiment conducted shows that combining the anti-hypertensive drugs personalized recommendation service context ontology (HyRCO) with the optimized rule reasoning can achieve a higher-quality personalized drug recommendation service. Accordingly this exploratory study of the personalized recommendation service for hypertensive drugs and its method can be easily adopted for other diseases.

  7. Activity Theory Approach to Developing Context-Aware Mobile Learning Systems for Understanding Scientific Phenomenon and Theories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uden, Lorna; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Mobile computing offers potential opportunities for students' learning especially when it combines a sensing device such as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification). Researchers have indicated that a key feature of in-field learning supported by mobile devices and technology is context awareness, with which context and functionality provided by…

  8. Terminology challenges implementing the HL7 context-aware knowledge retrieval (‘Infobutton’) standard

    PubMed Central

    Strasberg, Howard R; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Cimino, James J

    2013-01-01

    Point-of-care information needs are common and frequently unmet. One solution to this problem is the use of Infobuttons, which are context-sensitive links from electronic health records (EHR) to knowledge resources, sometimes involving an intermediate broker known as an Infobutton Manager. Health Level Seven (HL7) has developed the Context-Aware Knowledge Retrieval (Infobutton) standard to standardize the integration between EHR systems and knowledge resources. While the standard specifies a set of context attributes and standard terminologies, it leaves to knowledge resources the flexibility to decide how to use these attributes and terminologies to retrieve the most relevant content. This paper describes some of the challenges faced by knowledge resources in trying to locate the most relevant content based on the attribute values for a given Infobutton request. Various approaches to content retrieval are discussed, including the role of indexing with standardized codes, the role of text-based search engines together with their ranking algorithms, and the role of hybrid approaches. Knowledge resource developers must carefully consider business rules, heuristics, and precision/recall tradeoffs when implementing the HL7 Infobutton standard. PMID:23077131

  9. RFID sensor-tags feeding a context-aware rule-based healthcare monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Catarinucci, Luca; Colella, Riccardo; Esposito, Alessandra; Tarricone, Luciano; Zappatore, Marco

    2012-12-01

    Along with the growing of the aging population and the necessity of efficient wellness systems, there is a mounting demand for new technological solutions able to support remote and proactive healthcare. An answer to this need could be provided by the joint use of the emerging Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technologies and advanced software choices. This paper presents a proposal for a context-aware infrastructure for ubiquitous and pervasive monitoring of heterogeneous healthcare-related scenarios, fed by RFID-based wireless sensors nodes. The software framework is based on a general purpose architecture exploiting three key implementation choices: ontology representation, multi-agent paradigm and rule-based logic. From the hardware point of view, the sensing and gathering of context-data is demanded to a new Enhanced RFID Sensor-Tag. This new device, de facto, makes possible the easy integration between RFID and generic sensors, guaranteeing flexibility and preserving the benefits in terms of simplicity of use and low cost of UHF RFID technology. The system is very efficient and versatile and its customization to new scenarios requires a very reduced effort, substantially limited to the update/extension of the ontology codification. Its effectiveness is demonstrated by reporting both customization effort and performance results obtained from validation in two different healthcare monitoring contexts.

  10. A Context-Aware Interactive Health Care System Based on Ontology and Fuzzy Inference.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Tzu-Chiang; Liang, Wen-Hua

    2015-09-01

    In the present society, most families are double-income families, and as the long-term care is seriously short of manpower, it contributes to the rapid development of tele-homecare equipment, and the smart home care system gradually emerges, which assists the elderly or patients with chronic diseases in daily life. This study aims at interaction between persons under care and the system in various living spaces, as based on motion-sensing interaction, and the context-aware smart home care system is proposed. The system stores the required contexts in knowledge ontology, including the physiological information and environmental information of the person under care, as the database of decision. The motion-sensing device enables the person under care to interact with the system through gestures. By the inference mechanism of fuzzy theory, the system can offer advice and rapidly execute service, thus, implementing the EHA. In addition, the system is integrated with the functions of smart phone, tablet PC, and PC, in order that users can implement remote operation and share information regarding the person under care. The health care system constructed in this study enables the decision making system to probe into the health risk of each person under care; then, from the view of preventive medicine, and through a composing system and simulation experimentation, tracks the physiological trend of the person under care, and provides early warning service, thus, promoting smart home care. PMID:26265236

  11. Semantic classification of diseases in discharge summaries using a context-aware rule-based classifier.

    PubMed

    Solt, Illés; Tikk, Domonkos; Gál, Viktor; Kardkovács, Zsolt T

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Automated and disease-specific classification of textual clinical discharge summaries is of great importance in human life science, as it helps physicians to make medical studies by providing statistically relevant data for analysis. This can be further facilitated if, at the labeling of discharge summaries, semantic labels are also extracted from text, such as whether a given disease is present, absent, questionable in a patient, or is unmentioned in the document. The authors present a classification technique that successfully solves the semantic classification task. DESIGN The authors introduce a context-aware rule-based semantic classification technique for use on clinical discharge summaries. The classification is performed in subsequent steps. First, some misleading parts are removed from the text; then the text is partitioned into positive, negative, and uncertain context segments, then a sequence of binary classifiers is applied to assign the appropriate semantic labels. Measurement For evaluation the authors used the documents of the i2b2 Obesity Challenge and adopted its evaluation measures: F(1)-macro and F(1)-micro for measurements. RESULTS On the two subtasks of the Obesity Challenge (textual and intuitive classification) the system performed very well, and achieved a F(1)-macro = 0.80 for the textual and F(1)-macro = 0.67 for the intuitive tasks, and obtained second place at the textual and first place at the intuitive subtasks of the challenge. CONCLUSIONS The authors show in the paper that a simple rule-based classifier can tackle the semantic classification task more successfully than machine learning techniques, if the training data are limited and some semantic labels are very sparse. PMID:19390101

  12. A Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Approach for Providing Instant Learning Support in Personal Computer Assembly Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Kun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen

    2014-01-01

    Personal computer assembly courses have been recognized as being essential in helping students understand computer structure as well as the functionality of each computer component. In this study, a context-aware ubiquitous learning approach is proposed for providing instant assistance to individual students in the learning activity of a…

  13. A Decision-Tree-Oriented Guidance Mechanism for Conducting Nature Science Observation Activities in a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chu, Hui-Chun; Shih, Ju-Ling; Huang, Shu-Hsien; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2010-01-01

    A context-aware ubiquitous learning environment is an authentic learning environment with personalized digital supports. While showing the potential of applying such a learning environment, researchers have also indicated the challenges of providing adaptive and dynamic support to individual students. In this paper, a decision-tree-oriented…

  14. Coming to Understand Angle and Angle Measure: A Design-Based Research Curriculum Study Using Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crompton, Helen

    2013-01-01

    This study uses design-based research (DBR) to develop an empirically-substantiated instructional theory about students' development of angle and angle measure, with real-world connections and technological tools through the use of context-aware ubiquitous learning. The research questions guiding this research are: 1) How do students come to…

  15. An Investigation of Attitudes of Students and Teachers about Participating in a Context-Aware Ubiquitous Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ju-Ling; Chu, Hui-Chun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Kinshuk

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, digital learning has been converting from e-learning to m-learning because of the significant growth of wireless and mobile computing technologies. Students can learn any time and any where with mobile devices. Consequently, context-aware ubiquitous learning (u-learning) is emerging as a new research area. It integrates wireless,…

  16. Review of Self-Awareness and Its Clinical Application in Stroke Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Daniel P. K.; Liu, Karen P. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to explore, following a literature review, the concepts of self-awareness, its assessment, and intervention for self-awareness deficits, as well as its clinical significance in stroke rehabilitation; and (ii) to apply the concepts of self-awareness in the context of a rehabilitation program. The search was…

  17. Horror Image Recognition Based on Context-Aware Multi-Instance Learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Xiong, Weihua; Wu, Ou; Hu, Weiming; Maybank, Stephen; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-12-01

    Horror content sharing on the Web is a growing phenomenon that can interfere with our daily life and affect the mental health of those involved. As an important form of expression, horror images have their own characteristics that can evoke extreme emotions. In this paper, we present a novel context-aware multi-instance learning (CMIL) algorithm for horror image recognition. The CMIL algorithm identifies horror images and picks out the regions that cause the sensation of horror in these horror images. It obtains contextual cues among adjacent regions in an image using a random walk on a contextual graph. Borrowing the strength of the fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM), we define a heuristic optimization procedure based on the FSVM to search for the optimal classifier for the CMIL. To improve the initialization of the CMIL, we propose a novel visual saliency model based on the tensor analysis. The average saliency value of each segmented region is set as its initial fuzzy membership in the CMIL. The advantage of the tensor-based visual saliency model is that it not only adaptively selects features, but also dynamically determines fusion weights for saliency value combination from different feature subspaces. The effectiveness of the proposed CMIL model is demonstrated by its use in horror image recognition on two large-scale image sets collected from the Internet.

  18. Implementation of Context Aware e-Health Environments Based on Social Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Erik; Led, Santiago; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Serrano, Luís; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In this work, context aware scenarios applied to e-Health and m-Health in the framework of typical households (urban and rural) by means of deploying Social Sensors will be described. Interaction with end-users and social/medical staff is achieved using a multi-signal input/output device, capable of sensing and transmitting environmental, biomedical or activity signals and information with the aid of a combined Bluetooth and Mobile system platform. The devices, which play the role of Social Sensors, are implemented and tested in order to guarantee adequate service levels in terms of multiple signal processing tasks as well as robustness in relation with the use wireless transceivers and channel variability. Initial tests within a Living Lab environment have been performed in order to validate overall system operation. The results obtained show good acceptance of the proposed system both by end users as well as by medical and social staff, increasing interaction, reducing overall response time and social inclusion levels, with a compact and moderate cost solution that can readily be largely deployed. PMID:26938539

  19. Implementation of Context Aware e-Health Environments Based on Social Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Erik; Led, Santiago; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Serrano, Luís; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-03-01

    In this work, context aware scenarios applied to e-Health and m-Health in the framework of typical households (urban and rural) by means of deploying Social Sensors will be described. Interaction with end-users and social/medical staff is achieved using a multi-signal input/output device, capable of sensing and transmitting environmental, biomedical or activity signals and information with the aid of a combined Bluetooth and Mobile system platform. The devices, which play the role of Social Sensors, are implemented and tested in order to guarantee adequate service levels in terms of multiple signal processing tasks as well as robustness in relation with the use wireless transceivers and channel variability. Initial tests within a Living Lab environment have been performed in order to validate overall system operation. The results obtained show good acceptance of the proposed system both by end users as well as by medical and social staff, increasing interaction, reducing overall response time and social inclusion levels, with a compact and moderate cost solution that can readily be largely deployed.

  20. A Context-Aware Model to Provide Positioning in Disaster Relief Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Daniel; Ochoa, Sergio F.; Meseguer, Roc

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of the work performed during disaster relief efforts is highly dependent on the coordination of activities conducted by the first responders deployed in the affected area. Such coordination, in turn, depends on an appropriate management of geo-referenced information. Therefore, enabling first responders to count on positioning capabilities during these activities is vital to increase the effectiveness of the response process. The positioning methods used in this scenario must assume a lack of infrastructure-based communication and electrical energy, which usually characterizes affected areas. Although positioning systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) have been shown to be useful, we cannot assume that all devices deployed in the area (or most of them) will have positioning capabilities by themselves. Typically, many first responders carry devices that are not capable of performing positioning on their own, but that require such a service. In order to help increase the positioning capability of first responders in disaster-affected areas, this paper presents a context-aware positioning model that allows mobile devices to estimate their position based on information gathered from their surroundings. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using simulations, and the obtained results show that mobile devices without positioning capabilities were able to use the model to estimate their position. Moreover, the accuracy of the positioning model has been shown to be suitable for conducting most first response activities. PMID:26437406

  1. A Context-Aware Model to Provide Positioning in Disaster Relief Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Daniel; Ochoa, Sergio F; Meseguer, Roc

    2015-09-30

    The effectiveness of the work performed during disaster relief efforts is highly dependent on the coordination of activities conducted by the first responders deployed in the affected area. Such coordination, in turn, depends on an appropriate management of geo-referenced information. Therefore, enabling first responders to count on positioning capabilities during these activities is vital to increase the effectiveness of the response process. The positioning methods used in this scenario must assume a lack of infrastructure-based communication and electrical energy, which usually characterizes affected areas. Although positioning systems such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) have been shown to be useful, we cannot assume that all devices deployed in the area (or most of them) will have positioning capabilities by themselves. Typically, many first responders carry devices that are not capable of performing positioning on their own, but that require such a service. In order to help increase the positioning capability of first responders in disaster-affected areas, this paper presents a context-aware positioning model that allows mobile devices to estimate their position based on information gathered from their surroundings. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated using simulations, and the obtained results show that mobile devices without positioning capabilities were able to use the model to estimate their position. Moreover, the accuracy of the positioning model has been shown to be suitable for conducting most first response activities.

  2. Implementation of Context Aware e-Health Environments Based on Social Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Erik; Led, Santiago; Lopez-Iturri, Peio; Azpilicueta, Leyre; Serrano, Luís; Falcone, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    In this work, context aware scenarios applied to e-Health and m-Health in the framework of typical households (urban and rural) by means of deploying Social Sensors will be described. Interaction with end-users and social/medical staff is achieved using a multi-signal input/output device, capable of sensing and transmitting environmental, biomedical or activity signals and information with the aid of a combined Bluetooth and Mobile system platform. The devices, which play the role of Social Sensors, are implemented and tested in order to guarantee adequate service levels in terms of multiple signal processing tasks as well as robustness in relation with the use wireless transceivers and channel variability. Initial tests within a Living Lab environment have been performed in order to validate overall system operation. The results obtained show good acceptance of the proposed system both by end users as well as by medical and social staff, increasing interaction, reducing overall response time and social inclusion levels, with a compact and moderate cost solution that can readily be largely deployed. PMID:26938539

  3. Horror Image Recognition Based on Context-Aware Multi-Instance Learning.

    PubMed

    Li, Bing; Xiong, Weihua; Wu, Ou; Hu, Weiming; Maybank, Stephen; Yan, Shuicheng

    2015-12-01

    Horror content sharing on the Web is a growing phenomenon that can interfere with our daily life and affect the mental health of those involved. As an important form of expression, horror images have their own characteristics that can evoke extreme emotions. In this paper, we present a novel context-aware multi-instance learning (CMIL) algorithm for horror image recognition. The CMIL algorithm identifies horror images and picks out the regions that cause the sensation of horror in these horror images. It obtains contextual cues among adjacent regions in an image using a random walk on a contextual graph. Borrowing the strength of the fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM), we define a heuristic optimization procedure based on the FSVM to search for the optimal classifier for the CMIL. To improve the initialization of the CMIL, we propose a novel visual saliency model based on the tensor analysis. The average saliency value of each segmented region is set as its initial fuzzy membership in the CMIL. The advantage of the tensor-based visual saliency model is that it not only adaptively selects features, but also dynamically determines fusion weights for saliency value combination from different feature subspaces. The effectiveness of the proposed CMIL model is demonstrated by its use in horror image recognition on two large-scale image sets collected from the Internet. PMID:26390459

  4. Spatiotemporal Context Awareness for Urban Traffic Modeling and Prediction: Sparse Representation Based Variable Selection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su; Shi, Shixiong; Hu, Xiaobing; Wang, Minjie

    2015-01-01

    Spatial-temporal correlations among the data play an important role in traffic flow prediction. Correspondingly, traffic modeling and prediction based on big data analytics emerges due to the city-scale interactions among traffic flows. A new methodology based on sparse representation is proposed to reveal the spatial-temporal dependencies among traffic flows so as to simplify the correlations among traffic data for the prediction task at a given sensor. Three important findings are observed in the experiments: (1) Only traffic flows immediately prior to the present time affect the formation of current traffic flows, which implies the possibility to reduce the traditional high-order predictors into an 1-order model. (2) The spatial context relevant to a given prediction task is more complex than what is assumed to exist locally and can spread out to the whole city. (3) The spatial context varies with the target sensor undergoing prediction and enlarges with the increment of time lag for prediction. Because the scope of human mobility is subject to travel time, identifying the varying spatial context against time lag is crucial for prediction. Since sparse representation can capture the varying spatial context to adapt to the prediction task, it outperforms the traditional methods the inputs of which are confined as the data from a fixed number of nearby sensors. As the spatial-temporal context for any prediction task is fully detected from the traffic data in an automated manner, where no additional information regarding network topology is needed, it has good scalability to be applicable to large-scale networks.

  5. Spatiotemporal Context Awareness for Urban Traffic Modeling and Prediction: Sparse Representation Based Variable Selection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Su; Shi, Shixiong; Hu, Xiaobing; Wang, Minjie

    2015-01-01

    Spatial-temporal correlations among the data play an important role in traffic flow prediction. Correspondingly, traffic modeling and prediction based on big data analytics emerges due to the city-scale interactions among traffic flows. A new methodology based on sparse representation is proposed to reveal the spatial-temporal dependencies among traffic flows so as to simplify the correlations among traffic data for the prediction task at a given sensor. Three important findings are observed in the experiments: (1) Only traffic flows immediately prior to the present time affect the formation of current traffic flows, which implies the possibility to reduce the traditional high-order predictors into an 1-order model. (2) The spatial context relevant to a given prediction task is more complex than what is assumed to exist locally and can spread out to the whole city. (3) The spatial context varies with the target sensor undergoing prediction and enlarges with the increment of time lag for prediction. Because the scope of human mobility is subject to travel time, identifying the varying spatial context against time lag is crucial for prediction. Since sparse representation can capture the varying spatial context to adapt to the prediction task, it outperforms the traditional methods the inputs of which are confined as the data from a fixed number of nearby sensors. As the spatial-temporal context for any prediction task is fully detected from the traffic data in an automated manner, where no additional information regarding network topology is needed, it has good scalability to be applicable to large-scale networks. PMID:26496370

  6. Spatiotemporal Context Awareness for Urban Traffic Modeling and Prediction: Sparse Representation Based Variable Selection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Su; Shi, Shixiong; Hu, Xiaobing; Wang, Minjie

    2015-01-01

    Spatial-temporal correlations among the data play an important role in traffic flow prediction. Correspondingly, traffic modeling and prediction based on big data analytics emerges due to the city-scale interactions among traffic flows. A new methodology based on sparse representation is proposed to reveal the spatial-temporal dependencies among traffic flows so as to simplify the correlations among traffic data for the prediction task at a given sensor. Three important findings are observed in the experiments: (1) Only traffic flows immediately prior to the present time affect the formation of current traffic flows, which implies the possibility to reduce the traditional high-order predictors into an 1-order model. (2) The spatial context relevant to a given prediction task is more complex than what is assumed to exist locally and can spread out to the whole city. (3) The spatial context varies with the target sensor undergoing prediction and enlarges with the increment of time lag for prediction. Because the scope of human mobility is subject to travel time, identifying the varying spatial context against time lag is crucial for prediction. Since sparse representation can capture the varying spatial context to adapt to the prediction task, it outperforms the traditional methods the inputs of which are confined as the data from a fixed number of nearby sensors. As the spatial-temporal context for any prediction task is fully detected from the traffic data in an automated manner, where no additional information regarding network topology is needed, it has good scalability to be applicable to large-scale networks. PMID:26496370

  7. Web-of-Objects (WoO)-based context aware emergency fire management systems for the Internet of Things.

    PubMed

    Shamszaman, Zia Ush; Ara, Safina Showkat; Chong, Ilyoung; Jeong, Youn Kwae

    2014-02-13

    Recent advancements in the Internet of Things (IoT) and the Web of Things (WoT) accompany a smart life where real world objects, including sensing devices, are interconnected with each other. The Web representation of smart objects empowers innovative applications and services for various domains. To accelerate this approach, Web of Objects (WoO) focuses on the implementation aspects of bringing the assorted real world objects to the Web applications. In this paper; we propose an emergency fire management system in the WoO infrastructure. Consequently, we integrate the formation and management of Virtual Objects (ViO) which are derived from real world physical objects and are virtually connected with each other into the semantic ontology model. The charm of using the semantic ontology is that it allows information reusability, extensibility and interoperability, which enable ViOs to uphold orchestration, federation, collaboration and harmonization. Our system is context aware, as it receives contextual environmental information from distributed sensors and detects emergency situations. To handle a fire emergency, we present a decision support tool for the emergency fire management team. The previous fire incident log is the basis of the decision support system. A log repository collects all the emergency fire incident logs from ViOs and stores them in a repository.

  8. Web-of-Objects (WoO)-Based Context Aware Emergency Fire Management Systems for the Internet of Things

    PubMed Central

    Shamszaman, Zia Ush; Ara, Safina Showkat; Chong, Ilyoung; Jeong, Youn Kwae

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancements in the Internet of Things (IoT) and the Web of Things (WoT) accompany a smart life where real world objects, including sensing devices, are interconnected with each other. The Web representation of smart objects empowers innovative applications and services for various domains. To accelerate this approach, Web of Objects (WoO) focuses on the implementation aspects of bringing the assorted real world objects to the Web applications. In this paper; we propose an emergency fire management system in the WoO infrastructure. Consequently, we integrate the formation and management of Virtual Objects (ViO) which are derived from real world physical objects and are virtually connected with each other into the semantic ontology model. The charm of using the semantic ontology is that it allows information reusability, extensibility and interoperability, which enable ViOs to uphold orchestration, federation, collaboration and harmonization. Our system is context aware, as it receives contextual environmental information from distributed sensors and detects emergency situations. To handle a fire emergency, we present a decision support tool for the emergency fire management team. The previous fire incident log is the basis of the decision support system. A log repository collects all the emergency fire incident logs from ViOs and stores them in a repository. PMID:24531299

  9. Sharing a driver's context with a caller via continuous audio cues to increase awareness about driver state.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Christian P; Iqbal, Shamsi T; Ju, Yun-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    In an experiment using a driving simulator we investigated whether sharing information of a driver's context with a remote caller via continuous audio cues can make callers more aware of the driving situation. Increased awareness could potentially help in making the conversation less distracting. Prior research has shown that although sharing context using video can create such beneficial effects, it also has some practical disadvantages. It is an open question whether other modalities might also provide sufficient context for a caller. In particular, the effects of sharing audio, a cheaper, more salient, and perhaps more practical alternative than video, are not well understood. We investigated sharing context using direct cues in the form of realistic driving sounds (e.g., car honks, sirens) and indirect cues in the form of elevated heartbeats. Sound sharing affected the caller's perception of the driver's busyness. However, this had at most a modest effect on conversation and driving performance. An implication of these results is that although sharing sounds can increase a caller's awareness of changes in the driver's busyness, they need more training or information on how to leverage such context information to reduce disruption to driving. Limitations and implications are discussed.

  10. Mobile Phone Middleware Architecture for Energy and Context Awareness in Location-Based Services

    PubMed Central

    Galeana-Zapién, Hiram; Torres-Huitzil, César; Rubio-Loyola, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The disruptive innovation of smartphone technology has enabled the development of mobile sensing applications leveraged on specialized sensors embedded in the device. These novel mobile phone applications rely on advanced sensor information processes, which mainly involve raw data acquisition, feature extraction, data interpretation and transmission. However, the continuous accessing of sensing resources to acquire sensor data in smartphones is still very expensive in terms of energy, particularly due to the periodic use of power-intensive sensors, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The key underlying idea to design energy-efficient schemes is to control the duty cycle of the GPS receiver. However, adapting the sensing rate based on dynamic context changes through a flexible middleware has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel modular middleware architecture and runtime environment to directly interface with application programming interfaces (APIs) and embedded sensors in order to manage the duty cycle process based on energy and context aspects. The proposed solution has been implemented in the Android software stack. It allows continuous location tracking in a timely manner and in a transparent way to the user. It also enables the deployment of sensing policies to appropriately control the sampling rate based on both energy and perceived context. We validate the proposed solution taking into account a reference location-based service (LBS) architecture. A cloud-based storage service along with online mobility analysis tools have been used to store and access sensed data. Experimental measurements demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of our middleware, in terms of energy and location resolution. PMID:25513821

  11. Mobile phone middleware architecture for energy and context awareness in location-based services.

    PubMed

    Galeana-Zapién, Hiram; Torres-Huitzil, César; Rubio-Loyola, Javier

    2014-01-01

    The disruptive innovation of smartphone technology has enabled the development of mobile sensing applications leveraged on specialized sensors embedded in the device. These novel mobile phone applications rely on advanced sensor information processes, which mainly involve raw data acquisition, feature extraction, data interpretation and transmission. However, the continuous accessing of sensing resources to acquire sensor data in smartphones is still very expensive in terms of energy, particularly due to the periodic use of power-intensive sensors, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The key underlying idea to design energy-efficient schemes is to control the duty cycle of the GPS receiver. However, adapting the sensing rate based on dynamic context changes through a flexible middleware has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel modular middleware architecture and runtime environment to directly interface with application programming interfaces (APIs) and embedded sensors in order to manage the duty cycle process based on energy and context aspects. The proposed solution has been implemented in the Android software stack. It allows continuous location tracking in a timely manner and in a transparent way to the user. It also enables the deployment of sensing policies to appropriately control the sampling rate based on both energy and perceived context. We validate the proposed solution taking into account a reference location-based service (LBS) architecture. A cloud-based storage service along with online mobility analysis tools have been used to store and access sensed data. Experimental measurements demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of our middleware, in terms of energy and location resolution. PMID:25513821

  12. Mobile phone middleware architecture for energy and context awareness in location-based services.

    PubMed

    Galeana-Zapién, Hiram; Torres-Huitzil, César; Rubio-Loyola, Javier

    2014-12-10

    The disruptive innovation of smartphone technology has enabled the development of mobile sensing applications leveraged on specialized sensors embedded in the device. These novel mobile phone applications rely on advanced sensor information processes, which mainly involve raw data acquisition, feature extraction, data interpretation and transmission. However, the continuous accessing of sensing resources to acquire sensor data in smartphones is still very expensive in terms of energy, particularly due to the periodic use of power-intensive sensors, such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. The key underlying idea to design energy-efficient schemes is to control the duty cycle of the GPS receiver. However, adapting the sensing rate based on dynamic context changes through a flexible middleware has received little attention in the literature. In this paper, we propose a novel modular middleware architecture and runtime environment to directly interface with application programming interfaces (APIs) and embedded sensors in order to manage the duty cycle process based on energy and context aspects. The proposed solution has been implemented in the Android software stack. It allows continuous location tracking in a timely manner and in a transparent way to the user. It also enables the deployment of sensing policies to appropriately control the sampling rate based on both energy and perceived context. We validate the proposed solution taking into account a reference location-based service (LBS) architecture. A cloud-based storage service along with online mobility analysis tools have been used to store and access sensed data. Experimental measurements demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of our middleware, in terms of energy and location resolution.

  13. Fertility awareness-based mobile application for contraception

    PubMed Central

    Berglund Scherwitzl, Elina; Gemzell Danielsson, Kristina; Sellberg, Jonas A.; Scherwitzl, Raoul

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: The aim of the study was to retrospectively evaluate the effectiveness of a fertility awareness-based method supported by a mobile-based application to prevent unwanted pregnancies as a method of natural birth control. Methods: In a retrospective analysis, the application’s efficiency as a contraceptive method was examined on data from 4054 women who used the application as contraception for a total of 2085 woman-years. Results: The number of identified unplanned pregnancies was 143 during 2053 woman-years, giving a Pearl Index of 7.0 for typical use. Ten of the pregnancies were due to the application falsely attributing a safe day within the fertile window, producing a perfect-use Pearl Index of 0.5. Calculating the cumulative pregnancy probability by life-table analysis resulted in a pregnancy rate of 7.5% per year (95% confidence interval 5.9%, 9.1% per year). Conclusions: The application appears to improve the effectiveness of fertility awareness-based methods and can be used to prevent pregnancies if couples consistently protect themselves on fertile days. PMID:27003381

  14. Collaborative knowledge acquisition for the design of context-aware alert systems

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Erel; Havakuk, Ofer; Herskovic, Jorge R; Patel, Vimla L

    2012-01-01

    Objective To present a framework for combining implicit knowledge acquisition from multiple experts with machine learning and to evaluate this framework in the context of anemia alerts. Materials and Methods Five internal medicine residents reviewed 18 anemia alerts, while ‘talking aloud’. They identified features that were reviewed by two or more physicians to determine appropriate alert level, etiology and treatment recommendation. Based on these features, data were extracted from 100 randomly-selected anemia cases for a training set and an additional 82 cases for a test set. Two staff internists assigned an alert level, etiology and treatment recommendation before and after reviewing the entire electronic medical record. The training set of 118 cases (100 plus 18) and the test set of 82 cases were explored using RIDOR and JRip algorithms. Results The feature set was sufficient to assess 93% of anemia cases (intraclass correlation for alert level before and after review of the records by internists 1 and 2 were 0.92 and 0.95, respectively). High-precision classifiers were constructed to identify low-level alerts (precision p=0.87, recall R=0.4), iron deficiency (p=1.0, R=0.73), and anemia associated with kidney disease (p=0.87, R=0.77). Discussion It was possible to identify low-level alerts and several conditions commonly associated with chronic anemia. This approach may reduce the number of clinically unimportant alerts. The study was limited to anemia alerts. Furthermore, clinicians were aware of the study hypotheses potentially biasing their evaluation. Conclusion Implicit knowledge acquisition, collaborative filtering and machine learning were combined automatically to induce clinically meaningful and precise decision rules. PMID:22744961

  15. The Application of Context Theory in English Teaching of Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Jiang; Han, Lemeng

    2010-01-01

    Context theory is a very important theory in English teaching, especially the teaching of reading. This paper first analyzes the theory of context, including the features of context and some principles in context theory. Then the paper discusses the application of context theory in English teaching of reading, including some problems met in…

  16. Online updating of context-aware landmark detectors for prostate localization in daily treatment CT images

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Xiubin; Gao, Yaozong; Shen, Dinggang

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: In image guided radiation therapy, it is crucial to fast and accurately localize the prostate in the daily treatment images. To this end, the authors propose an online update scheme for landmark-guided prostate segmentation, which can fully exploit valuable patient-specific information contained in the previous treatment images and can achieve improved performance in landmark detection and prostate segmentation. Methods: To localize the prostate in the daily treatment images, the authors first automatically detect six anatomical landmarks on the prostate boundary by adopting a context-aware landmark detection method. Specifically, in this method, a two-layer regression forest is trained as a detector for each target landmark. Once all the newly detected landmarks from new treatment images are reviewed or adjusted (if necessary) by clinicians, they are further included into the training pool as new patient-specific information to update all the two-layer regression forests for the next treatment day. As more and more treatment images of the current patient are acquired, the two-layer regression forests can be continually updated by incorporating the patient-specific information into the training procedure. After all target landmarks are detected, a multiatlas random sample consensus (multiatlas RANSAC) method is used to segment the entire prostate by fusing multiple previously segmented prostates of the current patient after they are aligned to the current treatment image. Subsequently, the segmented prostate of the current treatment image is again reviewed (or even adjusted if needed) by clinicians before including it as a new shape example into the prostate shape dataset for helping localize the entire prostate in the next treatment image. Results: The experimental results on 330 images of 24 patients show the effectiveness of the authors’ proposed online update scheme in improving the accuracies of both landmark detection and prostate segmentation

  17. A Battery-Aware Algorithm for Supporting Collaborative Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, Sami; Chang-Yit, Cheryl

    Battery-powered devices such as laptops, cell phones, and MP3 players are becoming ubiquitous. There are several significant ways in which the ubiquity of battery-powered technology impacts the field of collaborative computing. First, applications such as collaborative data gathering, become possible. Also, existing applications that depend on collaborating devices to maintain the system infrastructure must be reconsidered. Fundamentally, the problem lies in the fact that collaborative applications often require end-user computing devices to perform tasks that happen in the background and are not directly advantageous to the user. In this work, we seek to better understand how laptop users use the batteries attached to their devices and analyze a battery-aware alternative to Gnutella’s ultrapeer selection algorithm. Our algorithm provides insight into how system maintenance tasks can be allocated to battery-powered nodes. The most significant result of our study indicates that a large portion of laptop users can participate in system maintenance without sacrificing any of their battery. These results show great promise for existing collaborative applications as well as new applications, such as collaborative data gathering, that rely upon battery-powered devices.

  18. Space situational awareness applications for radio astronomy assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watts, Galen; Ford, John M.; Ford, H. Alyson

    2015-05-01

    The National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) builds, operates, and maintains a suite of premier radio antennas, including the 100m aperture Green Bank Telescope, the largest fully-steerable antenna in the world. For more than five decades the NRAO has focused on astrophysics, providing researchers with the most advanced instruments possible: large apertures, extremely low-noise receivers, and signal processors with high frequency and time resolution. These instruments are adaptable to Space Situational Awareness (SSA) tasks such as radar detection of objects in near-Earth and cis-Lunar space, high accuracy orbit determination, object surveillance with passive methods, and uplink and downlink communications. We present the capabilities of antennas and infrastructure at the NRAO Green Bank Observatory in the context of SSA tasks, and discuss what additions and modifications would be necessary to achieve SSA goals while preserving existing radio astronomy performance. We also discuss how the Green Bank Observatory's surrounding topography and location within the National Radio Quiet Zone will enhance SSA endeavors.

  19. A Standard-Based and Context-Aware Architecture for Personal Healthcare Smart Gateways.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danilo F S; Gorgônio, Kyller C; Perkusich, Angelo; Almeida, Hyggo O

    2016-10-01

    The rising availability of Personal Health Devices (PHDs) capable of Personal Network Area (PAN) communication and the desire of keeping a high quality of life are the ingredients of the Connected Health vision. In parallel, a growing number of personal and portable devices, like smartphones and tablet computers, are becoming capable of taking the role of health gateway, that is, a data collector for the sensor PHDs. However, as the number of PHDs increase, the number of other peripherals connected in PAN also increases. Therefore, PHDs are now competing for medium access with other devices, decreasing the Quality of Service (QoS) of health applications in the PAN. In this article we present a reference architecture to prioritize PHD connections based on their state and requirements, creating a healthcare Smart Gateway. Healthcare context information is extracted by observing the traffic through the gateway. A standard-based approach was used to identify health traffic based on ISO/IEEE 11073 family of standards. A reference implementation was developed showing the relevance of the problem and how the proposed architecture can assist in the prioritization. The reference Smart Gateway solution was integrated with a Connected Health System for the Internet of Things, validating its use in a real case scenario.

  20. A Standard-Based and Context-Aware Architecture for Personal Healthcare Smart Gateways.

    PubMed

    Santos, Danilo F S; Gorgônio, Kyller C; Perkusich, Angelo; Almeida, Hyggo O

    2016-10-01

    The rising availability of Personal Health Devices (PHDs) capable of Personal Network Area (PAN) communication and the desire of keeping a high quality of life are the ingredients of the Connected Health vision. In parallel, a growing number of personal and portable devices, like smartphones and tablet computers, are becoming capable of taking the role of health gateway, that is, a data collector for the sensor PHDs. However, as the number of PHDs increase, the number of other peripherals connected in PAN also increases. Therefore, PHDs are now competing for medium access with other devices, decreasing the Quality of Service (QoS) of health applications in the PAN. In this article we present a reference architecture to prioritize PHD connections based on their state and requirements, creating a healthcare Smart Gateway. Healthcare context information is extracted by observing the traffic through the gateway. A standard-based approach was used to identify health traffic based on ISO/IEEE 11073 family of standards. A reference implementation was developed showing the relevance of the problem and how the proposed architecture can assist in the prioritization. The reference Smart Gateway solution was integrated with a Connected Health System for the Internet of Things, validating its use in a real case scenario. PMID:27624493

  1. Sensor fusion and computer vision for context-aware control of a multi degree-of-freedom prosthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Marko; Dosen, Strahinja; Popovic, Dejan; Graimann, Bernhard; Farina, Dario

    2015-12-01

    Objective. Myoelectric activity volitionally generated by the user is often used for controlling hand prostheses in order to replicate the synergistic actions of muscles in healthy humans during grasping. Muscle synergies in healthy humans are based on the integration of visual perception, heuristics and proprioception. Here, we demonstrate how sensor fusion that combines artificial vision and proprioceptive information with the high-level processing characteristics of biological systems can be effectively used in transradial prosthesis control. Approach. We developed a novel context- and user-aware prosthesis (CASP) controller integrating computer vision and inertial sensing with myoelectric activity in order to achieve semi-autonomous and reactive control of a prosthetic hand. The presented method semi-automatically provides simultaneous and proportional control of multiple degrees-of-freedom (DOFs), thus decreasing overall physical effort while retaining full user control. The system was compared against the major commercial state-of-the art myoelectric control system in ten able-bodied and one amputee subject. All subjects used transradial prosthesis with an active wrist to grasp objects typically associated with activities of daily living. Main results. The CASP significantly outperformed the myoelectric interface when controlling all of the prosthesis DOF. However, when tested with less complex prosthetic system (smaller number of DOF), the CASP was slower but resulted with reaching motions that contained less compensatory movements. Another important finding is that the CASP system required minimal user adaptation and training. Significance. The CASP constitutes a substantial improvement for the control of multi-DOF prostheses. The application of the CASP will have a significant impact when translated to real-life scenarious, particularly with respect to improving the usability and acceptance of highly complex systems (e.g., full prosthetic arms) by amputees.

  2. Metacognitive Awareness of EFL Student Writers in a Chinese ELT Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruan, Zhoulin

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation into metacognitive awareness of Chinese English as a foreign language (EFL) student writers, under a threefold metacognition framework--person, task, and strategy variables, and within the broader domain of cognitive writing theories. Data were collected in a Chinese tertiary English language teaching (ELT)…

  3. Promoting the Audience Awareness of EFL Writing in Chinese Communicative Context: A Case Study of "Notice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiping, Li

    2016-01-01

    It is a heated discussion among researchers of foreign-language teaching on how to enhance the audience awareness through the design, organization and implementation of classroom teaching of EFL writing, which is crucial for effective writing both in mother and in foreign language. And it is widely acknowledged that the cultivation of social…

  4. Creating a Culture of Language Awareness in Content-Based Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Kristen; Watkins, Naomi M.

    2015-01-01

    A "toolkit" approach to professional development is frequently used to assist teachers of English language learners (ELLs), wherein teachers are provided a grab bag of activities and strategies to implement in their classrooms. However, today's heightened language demands call for teachers to develop teacher language awareness (TLA), a…

  5. Introducing Intertextuality-Aware Instruction as a Novel Approach of Teaching Reading Passages in EFL Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khaghaninejad, Mohammad Saber

    2014-01-01

    This study was an attempt to investigate the possible effect of intertextuality-aware instruction of reading passages on a sample of intermediate EFL learners of both genders. First, the intertextuality deployed through the reading passages of the study's course-book was focused inspired by Fairclough's (192) framework in terms of genre,…

  6. Context management platform for tourism applications.

    PubMed

    Buján, David; Martín, David; Torices, Ortzi; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Lamsfus, Carlos; Abaitua, Joseba; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene

    2013-06-24

    The notion of context has been widely studied and there are several authors that have proposed different definitions of context. However, context has not been widely studied in the framework of human mobility and the notion of context has been imported directly from other computing fields without specifically addressing the tourism domain requirements. In order to store and manage context information a context data model and a context management platform are needed. Ontologies have been widely used in context modelling, but many of them are designed to be applied in general ubiquitous computing environments, do not contain specific concepts related to the tourism domain or some approaches do not contain enough concepts to represent context information related to the visitor on the move. That is why we propose a new approach to provide a better solution to model context data in tourism environments, adding more value to our solution reusing data about tourist resources from an Open Data repository and publishing it as Linked Data. We also propose the architecture for a context information management platform based on this context data model.

  7. Context Management Platform for Tourism Applications

    PubMed Central

    Buján, David; Martín, David; Torices, Ortzi; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Lamsfus, Carlos; Abaitua, Joseba; Alzua-Sorzabal, Aurkene

    2013-01-01

    The notion of context has been widely studied and there are several authors that have proposed different definitions of context. However, context has not been widely studied in the framework of human mobility and the notion of context has been imported directly from other computing fields without specifically addressing the tourism domain requirements. In order to store and manage context information a context data model and a context management platform are needed. Ontologies have been widely used in context modelling, but many of them are designed to be applied in general ubiquitous computing environments, do not contain specific concepts related to the tourism domain or some approaches do not contain enough concepts to represent context information related to the visitor on the move. That is why we propose a new approach to provide a better solution to model context data in tourism environments, adding more value to our solution reusing data about tourist resources from an Open Data repository and publishing it as Linked Data. We also propose the architecture for a context information management platform based on this context data model. PMID:23797739

  8. Team Awareness, Problem Drinking, and Drinking Climate: Workplace Social Health Promotion in a Policy Context

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Joel B.; Patterson, Camille R.; Reynolds, G. Shawn; Wiitala, Wyndy L.; Lehman, Wayne E. K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose (1) To determine the effectiveness of classroom health promotion/prevention training designed to improve work climate and alcohol outcomes; (2) to assess whether such training contributes to improvements in problem drinking beyond standard workplace alcohol policies. Design A cross-sectional survey assessed employee problem drinking across three time periods. This was followed by a prevention intervention study; work groups were randomly assigned to an 8-hour training course in workplace social health promotion (Team Awareness), a 4-hour informational training course, or a control group. Surveys were administered 2 to 4 weeks before and after training and 6 months after posttest. Setting and Subjects Employees were surveyed from work departments in a large municipality of 3000 workers at three points in time (year, sample, and response rates are shown): (1) 1992, n = 1081, 95%; (2) 1995, n = 856, 97%; and (3) 1999, n = 587, 73%. Employees in the 1999 survey were recruited from safety-sensitive departments and were randomly assigned to receive the psychosocial (n = 201), informational (n = 192), or control (n = 194) condition. Intervention The psychosocial program (Team Awareness) provided skills training in peer referral, team building, and stress management. Informational training used a didactic review of policy, employee assistance, and drug testing. Measures Self-reports measured alcohol use (frequency, drunkenness, hangovers, and problems) and work drinking climate (enabling, responsiveness, drinking norms, stigma, and drink with coworkers). Results Employees receiving Team Awareness reduced problem drinking from 20% to 11% and working with or missing work because of a hangover from 16% to 6%. Information-trained workers also reduced problem drinking from 18% to 10%. These rates of change contrast with changes in problem drinking seen from 1992 (24%) to 1999 (17%). Team Awareness improvements differed significantly from control subjects, which showed

  9. Scale-aware saliency for application to frame rate upconversion.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Natan; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2012-04-01

    Our understanding of human visual perception has been paramount in the development of tools for digital video processing. For this reason, saliency detection, i.e., the determination of visual importance in a scene, has come to the forefront in recent literature. In the proposed work, a new method for scale-aware saliency detection is introduced. Scale determination is afforded through a scale-space model utilizing color and texture cues. Scale information is fed back to a discriminant saliency engine by automatically tuning center-surround parameters through a soft weighting. Excellent results are demonstrated for the proposed method through its performance against a database of measured human fixations. Further evidence of the proposed algorithm's performance is demonstrated through an application to frame rate upconversion. The ability of the algorithm to detect salient objects at multiple scales allows for class-leading performance both objectively, in terms of peak signal-to-noise ratio/structural similarity index, and subjectively. Finally, the need for operator tuning of saliency parameters is dramatically reduced by the inclusion of scale information. The proposed method is well suited for any application requiring automatic saliency determination for images or video. PMID:22167626

  10. A Context-Aware-Based Audio Guidance System for Blind People Using a Multimodal Profile Model

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Han, Youngjoon

    2014-01-01

    A wearable guidance system is designed to provide context-dependent guidance messages to blind people while they traverse local pathways. The system is composed of three parts: moving scene analysis, walking context estimation and audio message delivery. The combination of a downward-pointing laser scanner and a camera is used to solve the challenging problem of moving scene analysis. By integrating laser data profiles and image edge profiles, a multimodal profile model is constructed to estimate jointly the ground plane, object locations and object types, by using a Bayesian network. The outputs of the moving scene analysis are further employed to estimate the walking context, which is defined as a fuzzy safety level that is inferred through a fuzzy logic model. Depending on the estimated walking context, the audio messages that best suit the current context are delivered to the user in a flexible manner. The proposed system is tested under various local pathway scenes, and the results confirm its efficiency in assisting blind people to attain autonomous mobility. PMID:25302812

  11. A Context-Aware Mobile User Behavior-Based Neighbor Finding Approach for Preference Profile Construction.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qian; Fu, Deqian; Dong, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is adopted to update the user preference profile by seeking users with similar interests based on the context obtainable for a mobile network instead of from desktop networks. The trust degree between mobile users is calculated by analyzing their behavior based on the context, and then the approximate neighbors are chosen by combining the similarity of the mobile user preference and the trust degree. The approach first considers the communication behaviors between mobile users, the mobile network services they use as well as the corresponding context information. Then a similarity degree of the preference between users is calculated with the evaluation score of a certain mobile web service provided by a mobile user. Finally, based on the time attenuation function, the users with similar preference are found, through which we can dynamically update the target user's preference profile. Experiments are then conducted to test the effect of the context on the credibility among mobile users, the effect of time decay factors and trust degree thresholds. Simulation shows that the proposed approach outperforms two other methods in terms of Recall Ratio, Precision Ratio and Mean Absolute Error, because neither of them consider the context mobile information. PMID:26805852

  12. International note: awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students in Oyo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Adesola O; Adams, Patricia; Amodu, Olukemi K

    2015-02-01

    We determined the awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students (653 survey respondents and 18 in-depth interviewees) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Respondents' mean age was 14.2 ± 2.2 years and 53.9% were aware of cyber-harassment occurring in their school or among their friends. Cyber-harassment was often perpetrated via phone calls (62.5%), text messaging (36.9%), chat rooms (28.7%), through pictures or video clips sent via mobile phones (11.9%), emails (6.8%) or websites (5.9%). Cyber-harassment behaviours mentioned were the use of abusive words (25.4%), saying mean things or making fun of the victim (13.9%), solicitations for relationships (7.9%) or sex (6.8%) and spreading rumours about the victim (6.8%). In-depth interviewees recounted experiences of cyber-harassment suffered by their friends. Many were relationship-related, sexual solicitations and threats and corroborated quantitative findings. Respondents are aware of cyber-harassment occurring among students in the study area. Comprehensive interventions to address the problem need to be instituted.

  13. International note: awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students in Oyo state, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olumide, Adesola O; Adams, Patricia; Amodu, Olukemi K

    2015-02-01

    We determined the awareness and context of cyber-harassment among secondary school students (653 survey respondents and 18 in-depth interviewees) in Oyo state, Nigeria. Respondents' mean age was 14.2 ± 2.2 years and 53.9% were aware of cyber-harassment occurring in their school or among their friends. Cyber-harassment was often perpetrated via phone calls (62.5%), text messaging (36.9%), chat rooms (28.7%), through pictures or video clips sent via mobile phones (11.9%), emails (6.8%) or websites (5.9%). Cyber-harassment behaviours mentioned were the use of abusive words (25.4%), saying mean things or making fun of the victim (13.9%), solicitations for relationships (7.9%) or sex (6.8%) and spreading rumours about the victim (6.8%). In-depth interviewees recounted experiences of cyber-harassment suffered by their friends. Many were relationship-related, sexual solicitations and threats and corroborated quantitative findings. Respondents are aware of cyber-harassment occurring among students in the study area. Comprehensive interventions to address the problem need to be instituted. PMID:25544425

  14. Adaptive Multimedia Content Delivery for Context-Aware U-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xinyou; Okamoto, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Empowered by mobile computing, teachers and students can benefit from computing in more scenarios beyond the traditional computer classroom. But because of the much diversity of device specification, learning contents and mobile context existing today, the learners get a bad learning experience (e.g. rich contents cannot be displayed correctly)…

  15. Raising Language Awareness in Peer Interaction: A Cross-Context, Cross-Methodology Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Masatoshi; Ballinger, Susan

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, both a cognitive and a sociocultural theoretical perspective are used to bring together findings from two studies that investigated the effects of instruction designed to enhance the potentially positive effect of peer interaction on L2 development. Despite differences between the studies' learning contexts, participants' age, and…

  16. Situational awareness and its application in the delivery suite.

    PubMed

    Edozien, Leroy C

    2015-01-01

    The delivery suite is a high-risk environment. Transitions between low-risk and high-risk can be swift, and sentinel events can occur without warning. The prevention of accidents in this environment rests on the vigilance of the individual practitioner at the frontline. It is, therefore, important that the individual practitioner should develop and maintain the cognitive skills to anticipate, recognize, and intercept unfolding error chains. This commentary gives an overview of a nontechnical skill that is essential for safe practice in a delivery suite: situational awareness. A basic description of situational awareness is provided, using examples of loss of situational awareness in the delivery suite and examples of simple interventions that could promote situational awareness. Involuntary automaticity readily creeps in during performance of routine tasks, and cognitive overload could deplete attentional resources that are, by nature, limited. Strategies and tactics for maintaining situational awareness include proactively seeking and managing information on unfolding events, continually updating individual and team mental models, mindful use of checklists and scoreboards, and avoidance of attentional blindness. These simple interventions require minimal financial resources but could immensely enhance clinical performance and patient safety. Situational awareness should be included in the training of obstetrician-gynecologists and other staff working in a delivery suite. PMID:25560106

  17. Review of self-awareness and its clinical application in stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Daniel P K; Liu, Karen P Y

    2011-09-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to explore, following a literature review, the concepts of self-awareness, its assessment, and intervention for self-awareness deficits, as well as its clinical significance in stroke rehabilitation; and (ii) to apply the concepts of self-awareness in the context of a rehabilitation program. The search was conducted by the electronic databases Web of Science, Science Direct, MEDLINE, and PsychcInfo. A systematic literature search of publications written in English between 1980 and 2010 was conducted using the keywords, self-awareness or self-regulation. The search was limited to the following keywords: stroke, deficits, assessment, intervention, and rehabilitation. Two important conceptual models, namely, the Pyramid Model of Self-Awareness and the Dynamic Comprehensive Model of Awareness, were reviewed. Suggestions were made to the constraint-induced movement therapy for enhancement of both assessment and treatment of self-awareness deficits. In conclusion, self-awareness is essential for the success of rehabilitation. It is hoped that more studies can be conducted on the effectiveness of awareness enhancement programs incorporated in on-going therapies can be conducted, so that the evidence base can be further built up in this evolving area of practice. PMID:21694602

  18. Scientist-Centered Workflow Abstractions via Generic Actors, Workflow Templates, and Context-Awareness for Groundwater Modeling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, George; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Critchlow, Terence J.; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Ngu, Anne Hee Hiong

    2011-07-04

    A drawback of existing scientific workflow systems is the lack of support to domain scientists in designing and executing their own scientific workflows. Many domain scientists avoid developing and using workflows because the basic objects of workflows are too low-level and high-level tools and mechanisms to aid in workflow construction and use are largely unavailable. In our research, we are prototyping higher-level abstractions and tools to better support scientists in their workflow activities. Specifically, we are developing generic actors that provide abstract interfaces to specific functionality, workflow templates that encapsulate workflow and data patterns that can be reused and adapted by scientists, and context-awareness mechanisms to gather contextual information from the workflow environment on behalf of the scientist. To evaluate these scientist-centered abstractions on real problems, we apply them to construct and execute scientific workflows in the specific domain area of groundwater modeling and analysis.

  19. Young children's racial awareness and affect and their perceptions about mothers' racial affect in a multiracial context.

    PubMed

    Lam, Virginia; Guerrero, Silvia; Damree, Natasha; Enesco, Ileana

    2011-11-01

    There is a substantial literature documenting pre-schoolers' racial awareness and affect from multiracial societies in North America and a fast-growing body of work from societies that are or were once more racially homogeneous. However, studies in Britain, a racially diverse society, on this developmental period have been curiously rare. This study examined racial awareness and affect of 125 White, Black, and Asian 3--to 5-year-olds in London. Children were tested on cognitive level, person description and classification, race labelling and matching, self-categorization and asked about their racial preference and rejection and inferences about their mothers' preference and rejection. Children were least likely to use race versus other categorical cues to spontaneously describe or classify others, even though the majority correctly sorted others by race labels, matched them to drawings, and categorized themselves by race. With age and increasing cognitive level, children described and categorized others by race more and improved in race matching. White children from age 4 preferred White peers and inferred that their mothers would prefer White children at age 5. Children's own preference and inference about mothers are related. Children did not show race-based rejection, but boys inferred that their mothers would prefer White children and reject Black children. The findings are discussed in relation to racial salience between contexts, previous research, and theories. PMID:21199507

  20. Context-Aware Data and IT Services Collaboration in E-Business

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukadi, Khouloud; Ghedira, Chirine; Maamar, Zakaria; Benslimane, Djamal; Vincent, Lucien

    This paper discusses the use of services in the design and development of adaptable business processes, which should let organizations quickly react to changes in regulations and needs. Two types of services are adopted namely Data and Information Technology. A data service is primarily used to hide the complexity of accessing distributed and heterogeneous data sources, while an information technology service is primarily used to hide the complexity of running requests that cross organizational boundaries. The combination of both services takes place under the control of another service, which is denoted by service domain. A service domain orchestrates and manages data and information technology services in response to the events that arise and changes that occur. This happens because service domains are sensible to context. Policies and aspect-oriented programming principles support the exercise of packaging data and information technology services into service domains as well as making service domains adapt to business changes.

  1. Cloud computing for context-aware enhanced m-Health services.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Llatas, Carlos; Pileggi, Salvatore F; Ibañez, Gema; Valero, Zoe; Sala, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    m-Health services are increasing its presence in our lives due to the high penetration of new smartphone devices. This new scenario proposes new challenges in terms of information accessibility that require new paradigms which enable the new applications to access the data in a continuous and ubiquitous way, ensuring the privacy required depending on the kind of data accessed. This paper proposes an architecture based on cloud computing paradigms in order to empower new m-Health applications to enrich their results by providing secure access to user data.

  2. Awareness of Biotechnological Application: A Study among University Geography Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozel, Ali; Terzi, Irfan; Ozel, Emine

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to measure the differences of university geography students about biotechnology. Therefore an awareness scale was developed by the researcher. 102 students from six different universities and their academic levels were included in the survey. The findings of the survey were evaluated both descriptively and statistically.…

  3. A Context-Aware Paradigm for Information Discovery and Dissemination in Mobile Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundquist, Doug

    2011-01-01

    The increasing power and ubiquity of mobile wireless devices is enabling real-time information delivery for many diverse applications. A crucial question is how to allocate finite network resources efficiently and fairly despite the uncertainty common in highly dynamic mobile ad hoc networks. We propose a set of routing protocols, Self-Balancing…

  4. A Novel Software Architecture for the Provision of Context-Aware Semantic Transport Information

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Asier; Perallos, Asier; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Onieva, Enrique; Salaberria, Itziar; Masegosa, Antonio D.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Intelligent Transportation Systems depends largely on the ability to integrate information from diverse sources and the suitability of this information for the specific user. This paper describes a new approach for the management and exchange of this information, related to multimodal transportation. A novel software architecture is presented, with particular emphasis on the design of the data model and the enablement of services for information retrieval, thereby obtaining a semantic model for the representation of transport information. The publication of transport data as semantic information is established through the development of a Multimodal Transport Ontology (MTO) and the design of a distributed architecture allowing dynamic integration of transport data. The advantages afforded by the proposed system due to the use of Linked Open Data and a distributed architecture are stated, comparing it with other existing solutions. The adequacy of the information generated in regard to the specific user’s context is also addressed. Finally, a working solution of a semantic trip planner using actual transport data and running on the proposed architecture is presented, as a demonstration and validation of the system. PMID:26016915

  5. A framework for a context-aware elderly entertainment support system.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Anwar; Alamri, Atif; Almogren, Ahmad S; Hossain, S K Alamgir; Parra, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Elderly people constitute a major portion of world's population. Many of them are physically and mentally vulnerable and need continuous support for their health and well-being. There is a growing trend that these elderly people are placed in an ambient assisted living environment (AAL) with an aim to receive better care and support. In such settings, a lot of attention has been given to continuous health monitoring for maintaining physical health status. However, much less attention has been given toward understanding the entertainment needs of the elderly people, which is an important factor relevant to their mental health and joyful living. This paper thus addresses the entertainment needs of the elderly and proposes a framework of an elderly entertainment support system. The proposed framework enables different categories of residents (e.g., elderly people and caregivers) to access various media services in both implicit and explicit manner in order to enhance the quality of their living experience in different contexts. Our experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed framework. We believe that the proposed approach will establish the need to develop entertainment systems and services for the elderly people and allow us to sensibly address the problems associated with their independent, happy and active living. PMID:24936946

  6. A Framework for a Context-Aware Elderly Entertainment Support System

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, M. Anwar; Alamri, Atif; Almogren, Ahmad S.; Hossain, SK Alamgir; Parra, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Elderly people constitute a major portion of world's population. Many of them are physically and mentally vulnerable and need continuous support for their health and well-being. There is a growing trend that these elderly people are placed in an ambient assisted living environment (AAL) with an aim to receive better care and support. In such settings, a lot of attention has been given to continuous health monitoring for maintaining physical health status. However, much less attention has been given toward understanding the entertainment needs of the elderly people, which is an important factor relevant to their mental health and joyful living. This paper thus addresses the entertainment needs of the elderly and proposes a framework of an elderly entertainment support system. The proposed framework enables different categories of residents (e.g., elderly people and caregivers) to access various media services in both implicit and explicit manner in order to enhance the quality of their living experience in different contexts. Our experimental results demonstrate the viability of the proposed framework. We believe that the proposed approach will establish the need to develop entertainment systems and services for the elderly people and allow us to sensibly address the problems associated with their independent, happy and active living. PMID:24936946

  7. Online handwriting recognition in a form-filling task: evaluating the impact of context-awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seni, Giovanni; Rice, Kimberly; Mayoraz, Eddy

    2003-12-01

    Guiding a recognition task using a language model is commonly accepted as having a positive effect on accuracy and is routinely used in automated speech processing. This paper presents a quantitative study of the impact of the use of word models in online handwriting recognition applied to form-filling tasks on handheld devices. Two types of word models are considered: a dictionary, typically from few thousands and up to hundred-thousand words; and a grammar or regular expression generating a language several orders of magnitude bigger than the dictionary. It is reported that the improvement in accuracy obtained by the use of a grammar compares with the gain provided by the use of a dictionary. Finally, the impact of the word models on user acceptance of online handwriting recognition in a specific form-filling application is presented.

  8. HPCC technology awareness program: Improved economic competitiveness through technology awareness, transfer and application. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    A need has been defined by Congress for the DOE National Laboratories to participate in various dual use and technology transfer programs. This requirement has spawned several technology transfer approaches at the DOE laboratories. These programs are designed to encourage large and small business to bring their problems and needs forward, and to allow the labs to transfer effective high performance computing technology to the commercial marketplace. This IG Technologies grant from the DOE was undertaken to address the issues and problems associated with technology transfer between the DOE National Laboratories and commercial industry. The key focus is to gain an understanding of how DOE and industry independently and collectively view the requirements and the missing elements that could allow DOE to facilitate HPCC technology transfer. At issue is HPCC Technology Transfer for the High Performance Computing industry and its relationship to the DOE National Laboratories. Several observations on this are addressed. The issue of a ``Technology Utilization Gap`` between the National Laboratories and Independent Software Vendors is discussed. This study addressed the HPCC Technology Transfer plans of all six DOE National Labs. Study team members briefed numerous industrial users of HPCC technology as to the feasibility of technology transfer for various applications. Significant findings of the effort are that the resistance to technology transfer is much higher than anticipated for both the National Labs and industry. Also, HPCC Technology Transfer is observed to be a large company`s dominion. Small businesses have a difficult time in addressing the requirements of technology transfer using Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA`s). Large businesses and the DOE National Labs however, often have requirements and objectives which are at cross purposes, making effective technology transfer difficult.

  9. A Cognitive-Developmental Model of Emotional Awareness and Its Application to the Practice of Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chhatwal, Jasleen; Lane, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    The ability to be aware of one's own emotional states has been a time-honored ingredient of successful psychodynamic psychotherapy. With the rise of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), however, the utility of experiencing and reflecting upon emotional experience has become less certain, and a quantifiable measure of emotional awareness for clinicians has not been previously available. Several recent advances cast the role of emotional awareness in psychotherapy in a different light: (1) a new theory of change in psychotherapy has been formulated that highlights emotional experience as an important ingredient of change in a variety of modalities; (2) new evidence shows that individual differences in the capacity for emotional awareness predict successful psychotherapeutic outcome in the treatment of panic disorder both by manualized psychodynamic psychotherapy and CBT; and (3) a new online version of the electronic Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (eLEAS) has been created that can be used with individual patients as a guide to psychotherapy treatment. Here we review evidence of a reliable and valid measure of emotional awareness that has been used in both normative and clinical contexts. The psychotherapeutic treatment of three patients is described to illustrate the clinical manifestations of the different levels of emotional awareness and the ways the eLEAS can be useful in the clinical context, including (1) assessment of the patient's current level of emotional functioning and his or her potential for higher levels of functioning, (2) the targeting of interventions to facilitate functioning at the next level, and (3) a possible marker of treatment progress. These observations suggest that the eLEAS has the potential to be a clinically useful tool that may assist clinicians in guiding psychotherapy treatment. PMID:27200467

  10. The Learning Management System at the Defence University: Awareness and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhary, Jowati

    2013-01-01

    This brief paper examines the issues of awareness and application of a Learning Management System (LMS) used at the National Defence University of Malaysia (NDUM), Kuala Lumpur Malaysia. The paper argues that due to the discouraging responses from academics at the university on using the LMS, proactive measures must be taken immediately in order…

  11. Awareness and Misconceptions of High School Students about Renewable Energy Resources and Applications: Turkey Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortop, Hasan Said

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is the one of the countries in the world which has potential of renewable energy resource because of its geographical position. However, being usage of renewable energy resources and applications (RERAs) is low, it shows that awareness and consciousness of RERAs is very low too. Education must play a key role in growing out of an energy…

  12. Concerning the knowledge domain of anticipation - awareness of early contributions in the context of defining the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadin, Mihai

    2015-08-01

    The knowledge domain of anticipation is still in the process of being defined, and is therefore subject to controversies. Science was never an endeavour of consensus but rather of debate. This additional argument to the debate integrates awareness of the early Soviet/Russian contributions to a science of anticipation. From this awareness derives the understanding of why anticipation faces opposition from established viewpoints. This article ascertains that anticipation advances a fundamental view of the living. Within this view, anticipation is always expressed in action. Short of this definitory condition, anticipation fades into the grey mass of speculative predictive methods.

  13. Video-Based Eye Tracking to Detect the Attention Shift: A Computer Classroom Context-Aware System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Yung-Lung; Lee, Jiann-Shu; Hsieh, Min-Chai

    2014-01-01

    Eye and head movements evoked in response to obvious visual attention shifts. However, there has been little progress on the causes of absent-mindedness so far. The paper proposes an attention awareness system that captures the conditions regarding the interaction of eye gaze and head pose under various attentional switching in computer classroom.…

  14. Understanding Total Quality Management in Context: Qualitative Research on Managers' Awareness of TQM Aspects in the Greek Service Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psychogios, Alexandros G.; Priporas, Constantinos-Vasilios

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses managers' awareness and familiarity with Total Quality Management (TQM). Eighteen (18) semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with managers working in a variety of service organizations in Greece. The major argument of the study is that although the acronym TQM and some of its concepts and practices are known by a…

  15. Context representation and fusion: advancements and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Asad Masood; Akbar, Noman; Aazam, Mohammad; Ali, Taqdir; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Jeon, Seokhee; Hwang, Myunggwon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems' design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges) are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems. PMID:24887042

  16. Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Khattak, Asad Masood; Akbar, Noman; Aazam, Mohammad; Ali, Taqdir; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Jeon, Seokhee; Hwang, Myunggwon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges) are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems. PMID:24887042

  17. A Context-Aware Mobile User Behavior-Based Neighbor Finding Approach for Preference Profile Construction †

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qian; Fu, Deqian; Dong, Xiangjun

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new approach is adopted to update the user preference profile by seeking users with similar interests based on the context obtainable for a mobile network instead of from desktop networks. The trust degree between mobile users is calculated by analyzing their behavior based on the context, and then the approximate neighbors are chosen by combining the similarity of the mobile user preference and the trust degree. The approach first considers the communication behaviors between mobile users, the mobile network services they use as well as the corresponding context information. Then a similarity degree of the preference between users is calculated with the evaluation score of a certain mobile web service provided by a mobile user. Finally, based on the time attenuation function, the users with similar preference are found, through which we can dynamically update the target user’s preference profile. Experiments are then conducted to test the effect of the context on the credibility among mobile users, the effect of time decay factors and trust degree thresholds. Simulation shows that the proposed approach outperforms two other methods in terms of Recall Ratio, Precision Ratio and Mean Absolute Error, because neither of them consider the context mobile information. PMID:26805852

  18. [Awareness and application of vaccine recommendations for chickenpox in French Nurse Schools].

    PubMed

    Dufour, V; Derrough, T; Gajdos, V; Gillet, Y; Perreaux, F; Caulin, E; Dodet, B; Floret, D

    2007-12-01

    Since 2004, the French High Committee on Public Hygiene has recommended chickenpox vaccination for first-year medical or paramedical students with no history of chickenpox and with negative serology. A survey was carried out among directors of nurse schools to evaluate both their awareness of these new recommendations and the way in which they had been applied. A questionnaire was sent by mail to each of the directors of the 332 nurse schools identified throughout France. Less than half (41%) of the 147 directors who responded said they were aware of recommendations, and 31% stated they had real knowledge of the recommendations. Only 21% enquire about chickenpox history of students enrolling in their school, and 9% undertake serological assessment of students with no known history of varicella or zoster. More needs to be done both to inform nurse school directors of the vaccine recommendations and to ensure their application.

  19. Website Analysis in an EFL Context: Content Comprehension, Perceptions on Web Usability and Awareness of Reading Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Debopriyo; Crabbe, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Website analysis is an interdisciplinary field of inquiry that focuses on both digital literacy and language competence (Brugger, 2009). Website analysis in an EFL learning context has the potential to facilitate logical thinking and in the process develop functional language proficiency. This study reported on an English language website…

  20. Towards New Learning Partnerships in Bilingual Educational Contexts--Raising "Learner Awareness" and Creating Conditions for "Reciprocity" and "Pedagogic Attention"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda; Coyle, Do

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the need to develop new pedagogic approaches which promote learner independence in contexts where learning takes place through the medium of more than one language. The challenges of responding to a rapidly changing educational landscape to ensure that our learners become pluriliterate global citizens are presented through…

  1. Intelligent battlespace awareness and information dissemination through the application of BDI intelligent agent technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Andrew; Ronnquist, Ralph; Howden, Nick; Gaertner, Paul S.; Haub, John

    2000-08-01

    Battlespace digitisation systems must be flexible enough to maximise the effectiveness of manoeuvre warfare against a range of possible threats. Currently, this flexibility is largely a manual process. The aim of this paper is to examine the applicability of Belief, Desire and Intention (BDI) intelligent agent technologies for use in situation awareness and information dissemination systems. This paper illustrates how intelligent software can be used: to enhance the effectiveness of battlespace digitisation systems. The BDI agent model is an event-driven execution model providing both reactive and proactive behaviour. The utility of this model is demonstrated via the agent-based Collection Plan Management System (CPMS).

  2. Towards Context-Aware and User-Centered Analysis in Assistive Environments: A Methodology and a Software Tool.

    PubMed

    Fontecha, Jesús; Hervás, Ramón; Mondéjar, Tania; González, Iván; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    One of the main challenges on Ambient Assisted Living (AAL) is to reach an appropriate acceptance level of the assistive systems, as well as to analyze and monitor end user tasks in a feasible and efficient way. The development and evaluation of AAL solutions based on user-centered perspective help to achive these goals. In this work, we have designed a methodology to integrate and develop analytics user-centered tools into assistive systems. An analysis software tool gathers information of end users from adapted psychological questionnaires and naturalistic observation of their own context. The aim is to enable an in-deep analysis focused on improving the life quality of elderly people and their caregivers.

  3. Reversible polymorphism-aware phylogenetic models and their application to tree inference.

    PubMed

    Schrempf, Dominik; Minh, Bui Quang; De Maio, Nicola; von Haeseler, Arndt; Kosiol, Carolin

    2016-10-21

    We present a reversible Polymorphism-Aware Phylogenetic Model (revPoMo) for species tree estimation from genome-wide data. revPoMo enables the reconstruction of large scale species trees for many within-species samples. It expands the alphabet of DNA substitution models to include polymorphic states, thereby, naturally accounting for incomplete lineage sorting. We implemented revPoMo in the maximum likelihood software IQ-TREE. A simulation study and an application to great apes data show that the runtimes of our approach and standard substitution models are comparable but that revPoMo has much better accuracy in estimating trees, divergence times and mutation rates. The advantage of revPoMo is that an increase of sample size per species improves estimations but does not increase runtime. Therefore, revPoMo is a valuable tool with several applications, from speciation dating to species tree reconstruction. PMID:27480613

  4. Abstractions of Awareness: Aware of What?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Markopoulos, Panos

    This chapter presents FN-AAR, an abstract model of awareness systems. The purpose of the model is to capture in a concise and abstract form essential aspects of awareness systems, many of which have been discussed in design essays or in the context of evaluating specific design solutions.

  5. Semantic-Aware Automatic Parallelization of Modern Applications Using High-Level Abstractions

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Willcock, J J; Panas, T

    2009-12-21

    Automatic introduction of OpenMP for sequential applications has attracted significant attention recently because of the proliferation of multicore processors and the simplicity of using OpenMP to express parallelism for shared-memory systems. However, most previous research has only focused on C and Fortran applications operating on primitive data types. Modern applications using high-level abstractions, such as C++ STL containers and complex user-defined class types, are largely ignored due to the lack of research compilers that are readily able to recognize high-level object-oriented abstractions and leverage their associated semantics. In this paper, we use a source-to-source compiler infrastructure, ROSE, to explore compiler techniques to recognize high-level abstractions and to exploit their semantics for automatic parallelization. Several representative parallelization candidate kernels are used to study semantic-aware parallelization strategies for high-level abstractions, combined with extended compiler analyses. Preliminary results have shown that semantics of abstractions can help extend the applicability of automatic parallelization to modern applications and expose more opportunities to take advantage of multicore processors.

  6. Morphological awareness assessment and intervention to improve language and literacy.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Julie A; Gibson, Frances E

    2015-02-01

    Morphological awareness positively influences language and literacy development and may be an ideal intervention focus for improving vocabulary, sight word reading, reading decoding, and reading comprehension in students with and without language and literacy deficits. This article will provide supporting theory, research, and strategies for implementing morphological awareness intervention with students with language and literacy deficits. Additionally, functional connections are explored through the incorporation and application of morphological awareness intervention in academic literacy contexts linked to Common Core State Standards.

  7. Morphological awareness assessment and intervention to improve language and literacy.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Julie A; Gibson, Frances E

    2015-02-01

    Morphological awareness positively influences language and literacy development and may be an ideal intervention focus for improving vocabulary, sight word reading, reading decoding, and reading comprehension in students with and without language and literacy deficits. This article will provide supporting theory, research, and strategies for implementing morphological awareness intervention with students with language and literacy deficits. Additionally, functional connections are explored through the incorporation and application of morphological awareness intervention in academic literacy contexts linked to Common Core State Standards. PMID:25633142

  8. Application of geosites assessment method in geopark context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Simon; Perret, Amandine; Renau, Pierre; Cartier-Moulin, Olivier; Regolini-Bissig, Géraldine

    2014-05-01

    The regional natural park of the Monts d'Ardèche (Ardèche and Haute-Loire departments, France) is candidate to the European Geopark Network (EGN) in 2014. The area has a wide geodiversity - with rocks from Cambrian to Pleistocene (basalt flows) - and interesting features like phonolitic protrusions, maars and granite boulders fields. Around 115 sites were selected and documented through a geosites inventory carried out in the territory. This pre-selection was supervised by the Ardèche Geological Society and is therefore expert advice based. In the context of EGN candidature, these potential geosites were assessed with a simplified method. It follows the spirit of the method from the University of Lausanne (Reynard et al., 2007) and its recent developments: assessment of the scientific (central) value and of a set of additional values (ecological and cultural). As this assessment aimed to offer a management tool to the future geopark's authorities, a special focus was given to management aspects. In particular, the opportunities to use the site for education (from schools to universities) and for tourism as well as the existence of protection and of interpretive facilities were documented and assessed. Several interesting conclusions may be drawn from this case study: (1) expert assessment is effective when it is based on a pre-existing inventory which is well structured and documented; (2) even simplified, an assessment method is a very useful framework to expert assessment as it focuses the discussions on most important points and helps to balance the assessment; (3) whereas the inventory can be extensively detailed and partly academic, the assessment in the geopark context is objective-driven in order to answer management needs. The place of the geosites assessment among the three key players of a geopark construction process (i.e. territory's managers, local geoscientists and EGN) is also discussed. This place can be defined as the point of consensus of needs

  9. Distributed situation awareness in dynamic systems: theoretical development and application of an ergonomics methodology.

    PubMed

    Stanton, N A; Stewart, R; Harris, D; Houghton, R J; Baber, C; McMaster, R; Salmon, P; Hoyle, G; Walker, G; Young, M S; Linsell, M; Dymott, R; Green, D

    The purpose of this paper is to propose foundations for a theory of situation awareness based on the analysis of interactions between agents (i.e. both human and non-human) in subsystems. This approach may help to promote a better understanding of technology-mediated interaction in systems, as well as helping in the formulation of hypotheses and predictions concerning distributed situation awareness. It is proposed that agents within a system each hold their own situation awareness, which may be very different from (although compatible with) that of other agents. It is argued that we should not always hope for, or indeed want, sharing of this awareness, as different system agents have different purposes. This view marks situation awareness as a dynamic and collaborative process binding agents together on tasks on a moment-by-moment basis. Implications of this viewpoint for the development of a new theory of, and accompanying methodology for, distributed situation awareness are offered. PMID:17008257

  10. High Performance Computing Software Applications Institute for Space Situational Awareness (HSAI-SSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabol, C.; Schumacher, P.; Duncan, B.

    This poster paper firstly provides a status of the Institute project team's work to date over the past year, starting with brief HSAI background from the Department of Defense (DOD) High Performance Computing Modernization Program (DOD HPCMP). HSAI-SSA is one of only nine DOD institute projects that have been selected by the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Science and Technology) to focus and use advanced computational science and high performance computing to accelerate solving the DOD's highest priority challenges and make important advances in research, development, test, and evaluation. HSAI-SSA is the only DOD institute project focused on Space. We next describe Space Situational Awareness (SSA), how its many challenges necessitate supercomputing, and identify the type of disciplines required to solve many SSA problems; and the role of the Institute, which is led by the Air Force Research Laboratory AFRL/RD Directorate and an Onsite Director located on Maui. We then follow with a short discussion of the vision, mission, and overview of the Institute's strategic goals and core competencies. HSAI-SSA core competencies include Image Enhancement, Astrodynamics, Non-Resolvable Satellite Characterization, Data Integration, and High Performance Computing. We then follow up with and most of the poster shows and discusses the technical status for several of our current software applications projects and show the high performance computing metrics we have been able to achieve to date. In closing, we quickly summarize HSAI-SSA challenges, members and partners, and technology transition payoffs for selected applications and users.

  11. An adaptive process-based cloud infrastructure for space situational awareness applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingwei; Chen, Yu; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Rubin, Bruce

    2014-06-01

    Space situational awareness (SSA) and defense space control capabilities are top priorities for groups that own or operate man-made spacecraft. Also, with the growing amount of space debris, there is an increase in demand for contextual understanding that necessitates the capability of collecting and processing a vast amount sensor data. Cloud computing, which features scalable and flexible storage and computing services, has been recognized as an ideal candidate that can meet the large data contextual challenges as needed by SSA. Cloud computing consists of physical service providers and middleware virtual machines together with infrastructure, platform, and software as service (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS) models. However, the typical Virtual Machine (VM) abstraction is on a per operating systems basis, which is at too low-level and limits the flexibility of a mission application architecture. In responding to this technical challenge, a novel adaptive process based cloud infrastructure for SSA applications is proposed in this paper. In addition, the details for the design rationale and a prototype is further examined. The SSA Cloud (SSAC) conceptual capability will potentially support space situation monitoring and tracking, object identification, and threat assessment. Lastly, the benefits of a more granular and flexible cloud computing resources allocation are illustrated for data processing and implementation considerations within a representative SSA system environment. We show that the container-based virtualization performs better than hypervisor-based virtualization technology in an SSA scenario.

  12. Context-Aware Image Compression

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Jacky C. K.; Mahjoubfar, Ata; Chen, Claire L.; Jalali, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    We describe a physics-based data compression method inspired by the photonic time stretch wherein information-rich portions of the data are dilated in a process that emulates the effect of group velocity dispersion on temporal signals. With this coding operation, the data can be downsampled at a lower rate than without it. In contrast to previous implementation of the warped stretch compression, here the decoding can be performed without the need of phase recovery. We present rate-distortion analysis and show improvement in PSNR compared to compression via uniform downsampling. PMID:27367904

  13. Mobile Therapy: Case Study Evaluations of a Cell Phone Application for Emotional Self-Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Kathawala, Qusai; Leen, Todd K; Gorenstein, Ethan E; Guilak, Farzin; Labhard, Michael; Deleeuw, William

    2010-01-01

    Background Emotional awareness and self-regulation are important skills for improving mental health and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Cognitive behavioral therapy can teach these skills but is not widely available. Objective This exploratory study examined the potential of mobile phone technologies to broaden access to cognitive behavioral therapy techniques and to provide in-the-moment support. Methods We developed a mobile phone application with touch screen scales for mood reporting and therapeutic exercises for cognitive reappraisal (ie, examination of maladaptive interpretations) and physical relaxation. The application was deployed in a one-month field study with eight individuals who had reported significant stress during an employee health assessment. Participants were prompted via their mobile phones to report their moods several times a day on a Mood Map—a translation of the circumplex model of emotion—and a series of single-dimension mood scales. Using the prototype, participants could also activate mobile therapies as needed. During weekly open-ended interviews, participants discussed their use of the device and responded to longitudinal views of their data. Analyses included a thematic review of interview narratives, assessment of mood changes over the course of the study and the diurnal cycle, and interrogation of this mobile data based on stressful incidents reported in interviews. Results Five case studies illustrate participants' use of the mobile phone application to increase self-awareness and to cope with stress. One example is a participant who had been coping with longstanding marital conflict. After reflecting on his mood data, particularly a drop in energy each evening, the participant began practicing relaxation therapies on the phone before entering his house, applying cognitive reappraisal techniques to cope with stressful family interactions, and talking more openly with his wife. His mean anger, anxiety and sadness

  14. Ceramic-polymer capacitive sensors for tactile/force awareness in harsh environment robotic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weadon, Timothy L.; Evans, Thomas H.; Sabolsky, Edward M.

    2013-12-01

    The need for force feedback and spatial awareness of contact in harsh environment applications, such as space servicing, has been unsatisfied due to the inability of current sensor technology to resist environmental effects. In this work, capacitive sensors based on a thick film 0:3 connectivity ceramic:polymer composite structure were evaluated for potential use in future operations within robotic end effectors, withstanding temperatures ranging from -80 ° C to 120 ° C and forces up to 350 kPa. A thick film design is utilized to allow for ease of embedding, allowing sensors to be implemented into exciting robotic hardware with minimal intrusion, and protecting sensors from electron bombardment, radiation, and point concentrations from metal-on-metal contact. Taguchi design of experiments allows composition variables including sensor thickness, ceramic composition, ceramic particle size, ceramic volume loading, polymer character, modifier character, and the polymer:modifier ratio to be evaluated simultaneously. Dynamic thermal and mechanical loading techniques were implemented to characterize the composite sensors with in situ electrical acquisition. Individual composition variables were linked to the sensor magnitude, sensitivity, drift, and hysteresis, showing that the sensor response is optimized with a thickness of single microns, 10 vol% loading of nano-particle ceramics, and high molecular weight polymers with a low content of simple architecture modifiers lacking glass or melting temperatures in the working range.

  15. [Level of awareness and the adequate application of sunscreen by beauticians].

    PubMed

    Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Machado, Érica Simionato; Vermelho, Sonia Cristina Soares Dias; Teixeira, Jorge Juarez Vieira; Cortez, Lucia Elaine Ranieri

    2016-06-01

    The scope of this research was to establish the level of awareness of beauticians regarding the importance of the application of sunscreen and to identify whether their patients had been properly instructed by these professionals. It involved a descriptive and exploratory study with interviews applying qualitative methodology among 30 beauticians. Data were gathered using the semi-structured interview technique in Maringá, in the southern state of Paraná. The data were analyzed using Atlas.ti software after applying quantitative analysis and response classification. Of those interviewed, 83.33% had a degree in Aesthetics, 20% attended ongoing training activities on sunscreen and 73.17% acquired sunscreen for its quality, though 86.67% were not familiar with sunscreens with natural anti-free radical components. Of those interviewed, 80% had never treated patients with skin cancer, though they reported having knowledge of care in relation to sun exposure and how to use the sunscreen and the relationship of these practices with the disease. The results showed that the recommendations and use of sunscreen by beauticians and users has been conducted in an adequate and conscientious manner. PMID:27383359

  16. Evolutionary awareness.

    PubMed

    Gorelik, Gregory; Shackelford, Todd K

    2014-08-27

    In this article, we advance the concept of "evolutionary awareness," a metacognitive framework that examines human thought and emotion from a naturalistic, evolutionary perspective. We begin by discussing the evolution and current functioning of the moral foundations on which our framework rests. Next, we discuss the possible applications of such an evolutionarily-informed ethical framework to several domains of human behavior, namely: sexual maturation, mate attraction, intrasexual competition, culture, and the separation between various academic disciplines. Finally, we discuss ways in which an evolutionary awareness can inform our cross-generational activities-which we refer to as "intergenerational extended phenotypes"-by helping us to construct a better future for ourselves, for other sentient beings, and for our environment.

  17. Environmental Awareness (Sensory Awareness).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Marian

    Capitalizing on the resources available within a city block, this resource guide for the emotionally handicapped (K-6) describes methods and procedures for developing sensory awareness in the urban out-of-doors. Conceptual focus is on interdependency ("living things are interdependent"). Involvement in the environment (observing, thinking, doing)…

  18. Self-Awareness and Personal Growth: Theory and Application of Bloom's Taxonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ugur, Hasan; Constantinescu, Petru-Madalin; Stevens, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: In this article, we summarize a group-based, self-development curriculum based on humanistic principles, framed by contemporary self-determination theory (SDT), and designed in accordance with Bloom's Taxonomy. The processes of awareness and integration are common to SDT and Bloom's Taxonomy, and to our knowledge, have not been…

  19. A Novel Audiovisual Brain-Computer Interface and Its Application in Awareness Detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; He, Yanbin; Pan, Jiahui; Xie, Qiuyou; Yu, Ronghao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-06-30

    Currently, detecting awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is a challenging task, which is commonly addressed through behavioral observation scales such as the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide an alternative approach to detect awareness in patients with DOC. However, these patients have a much lower capability of using BCIs compared to healthy individuals. This study proposed a novel BCI using temporally, spatially, and semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli involving numbers (i.e., visual and spoken numbers). Subjects were instructed to selectively attend to the target stimuli cued by instruction. Ten healthy subjects first participated in the experiment to evaluate the system. The results indicated that the audiovisual BCI system outperformed auditory-only and visual-only systems. Through event-related potential analysis, we observed audiovisual integration effects for target stimuli, which enhanced the discriminability between brain responses for target and nontarget stimuli and thus improved the performance of the audiovisual BCI. This system was then applied to detect the awareness of seven DOC patients, five of whom exhibited command following as well as number recognition. Thus, this audiovisual BCI system may be used as a supportive bedside tool for awareness detection in patients with DOC.

  20. A Novel Audiovisual Brain-Computer Interface and Its Application in Awareness Detection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; He, Yanbin; Pan, Jiahui; Xie, Qiuyou; Yu, Ronghao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Currently, detecting awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is a challenging task, which is commonly addressed through behavioral observation scales such as the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide an alternative approach to detect awareness in patients with DOC. However, these patients have a much lower capability of using BCIs compared to healthy individuals. This study proposed a novel BCI using temporally, spatially, and semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli involving numbers (i.e., visual and spoken numbers). Subjects were instructed to selectively attend to the target stimuli cued by instruction. Ten healthy subjects first participated in the experiment to evaluate the system. The results indicated that the audiovisual BCI system outperformed auditory-only and visual-only systems. Through event-related potential analysis, we observed audiovisual integration effects for target stimuli, which enhanced the discriminability between brain responses for target and nontarget stimuli and thus improved the performance of the audiovisual BCI. This system was then applied to detect the awareness of seven DOC patients, five of whom exhibited command following as well as number recognition. Thus, this audiovisual BCI system may be used as a supportive bedside tool for awareness detection in patients with DOC. PMID:26123281

  1. A Novel Audiovisual Brain-Computer Interface and Its Application in Awareness Detection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; He, Yanbin; Pan, Jiahui; Xie, Qiuyou; Yu, Ronghao; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuanqing

    2015-01-01

    Currently, detecting awareness in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is a challenging task, which is commonly addressed through behavioral observation scales such as the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) provide an alternative approach to detect awareness in patients with DOC. However, these patients have a much lower capability of using BCIs compared to healthy individuals. This study proposed a novel BCI using temporally, spatially, and semantically congruent audiovisual stimuli involving numbers (i.e., visual and spoken numbers). Subjects were instructed to selectively attend to the target stimuli cued by instruction. Ten healthy subjects first participated in the experiment to evaluate the system. The results indicated that the audiovisual BCI system outperformed auditory-only and visual-only systems. Through event-related potential analysis, we observed audiovisual integration effects for target stimuli, which enhanced the discriminability between brain responses for target and nontarget stimuli and thus improved the performance of the audiovisual BCI. This system was then applied to detect the awareness of seven DOC patients, five of whom exhibited command following as well as number recognition. Thus, this audiovisual BCI system may be used as a supportive bedside tool for awareness detection in patients with DOC. PMID:26123281

  2. Application of a plume model for decision makers' situation awareness during an outdoor airborne HAZMAT release.

    PubMed

    Meris, Ronald G; Barbera, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    In a large-scale outdoor, airborne, hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incident, such as ruptured chlorine rail cars during a train derailment, the local Incident Commanders and HAZMAT emergency responders must obtain accurate information quickly to assess the situation and act promptly and appropriately. HAZMAT responders must have a clear understanding of key information and how to integrate it into timely and effective decisions for action planning. This study examined the use of HAZMAT plume modeling as a decision support tool during incident action planning in this type of extreme HAZMAT incident. The concept of situation awareness as presented by Endsley's dynamic situation awareness model contains three levels: perception, comprehension, and projection. It was used to examine the actions of incident managers related to adequate data acquisition, current situational understanding, and accurate situation projection. Scientists and engineers have created software to simulate and predict HAZMAT plume behavior, the projected hazard impact areas, and the associated health effects. Incorporating the use of HAZMAT plume projection modeling into an incident action plan may be a complex process. The present analysis used a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodological approach and examined the use and limitations of a "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" process that can be integrated into the incident action planning cycle. HAZMAT response experts were interviewed using a computer-based simulation. One of the research conclusions indicated the "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" is a critical function so that an individual/team can be tasked with continually updating the hazard plume model with evolving data, promoting more accurate situation awareness.

  3. Application of a plume model for decision makers' situation awareness during an outdoor airborne HAZMAT release.

    PubMed

    Meris, Ronald G; Barbera, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    In a large-scale outdoor, airborne, hazardous materials (HAZMAT) incident, such as ruptured chlorine rail cars during a train derailment, the local Incident Commanders and HAZMAT emergency responders must obtain accurate information quickly to assess the situation and act promptly and appropriately. HAZMAT responders must have a clear understanding of key information and how to integrate it into timely and effective decisions for action planning. This study examined the use of HAZMAT plume modeling as a decision support tool during incident action planning in this type of extreme HAZMAT incident. The concept of situation awareness as presented by Endsley's dynamic situation awareness model contains three levels: perception, comprehension, and projection. It was used to examine the actions of incident managers related to adequate data acquisition, current situational understanding, and accurate situation projection. Scientists and engineers have created software to simulate and predict HAZMAT plume behavior, the projected hazard impact areas, and the associated health effects. Incorporating the use of HAZMAT plume projection modeling into an incident action plan may be a complex process. The present analysis used a mixed qualitative and quantitative methodological approach and examined the use and limitations of a "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" process that can be integrated into the incident action planning cycle. HAZMAT response experts were interviewed using a computer-based simulation. One of the research conclusions indicated the "HAZMAT Plume Modeling Cycle" is a critical function so that an individual/team can be tasked with continually updating the hazard plume model with evolving data, promoting more accurate situation awareness. PMID:25350360

  4. PORTENT: predator aware situation assessment for wireless sensor network surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghataoura, D. S.; Yang, Y.; Mitchell, J. E.; Matich, G. E.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed predator aware situation assessment system (PORTENT) to model and detect potential events occurring within an uncertain environment. PORTENT draws inspiration from how the mammalian brain detects and makes rational decisions through assessing fragmented signals of threat, within uncertainty, at different speeds. PORTENT represents the faster system using standard signal detection theory and the slower more accurate system as the integration of sensory data over time, until a certain level of confidence is reached. We also consider strategies to how both these systems could be combined optimally, to enhance PORTENT situation assessment performance. Our experimental simulations to verify the PORTENT concept demonstrates the effectiveness of our approach.

  5. Using Simplified Regulated Breathing with an Adolescent Stutterer: Application of Effective Intervention in a Residential Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Kurt A.; Friman, Patrick C.

    2004-01-01

    Simplified regulated breathing (SRB) has been demonstrated to reduce or eliminate stuttering in children. However, much of the current research has evaluated the intervention with school-aged children within educational contexts. In the current case report, we extended the application of SRB by evaluating its effectiveness in treating stuttering…

  6. The Applicability of Course Experience Questionnaire for a Malaysian University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thien, Lei Mee; Ong, Mei Yean

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the applicability of Course Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) in a Malaysian university context. Design/methodology/approach: The CEQ was translated into Malay language using rigorous cross-cultural adaptation procedures. The Malay version CEQ was administered to 190 undergraduate students in one…

  7. Mirth and Murder: Crime Scene Investigation as a Work Context for Examining Humor Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Gene L.; Vivona, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Within work settings, humor is used by workers for a wide variety of purposes. This study examines humor applications of a specific type of worker in a unique work context: crime scene investigation. Crime scene investigators examine death and its details. Members of crime scene units observe death much more frequently than other police officers…

  8. Further Applications of Linguistics to Australian Aboriginal Contexts. Occasional Papers Number 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, G. R., Ed.; Sommer, B. A., Ed.

    These papers represent applications of linguistics in Australian Aboriginal contexts, not only from a language viewpoint, but encompassing the interactions of language, society, politics, and culture. They include: "Loanwords: Ours or Theirs?" (Velma J. Leeding); "We Spell It 'Gooniyandi'" (David Street and Topsy Chestnut); "An Orthography Chosen…

  9. Usability of English Note-Taking Applications in a Foreign Language Learning Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Debopriyo; Brine, John; Murasawa, Fuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The act of note-taking offloads cognitive pressure and note-taking applications could be used as an important tool for foreign language acquisition. Its use, importance, and efficacy in a foreign language learning context could be justifiably debated. However, existing computer-assisted language learning literature is almost silent on the topic.…

  10. Development, Awareness and Inductive Selectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Brett K.; Lim, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Two studies examined whether adults and children could learn to make context-dependent inferences about novel stimuli and the role of awareness of context cues in such learning. Participants were trained to match probes to targets on the basis of shape or color with the relevant dimension shifting according to item context. A selective induction…

  11. Method and application of ocean environmental awareness measurement: Lessons learnt from university students of China.

    PubMed

    Umuhire, Marie Louise; Fang, Qinhua

    2016-01-30

    Different studies have proved that enhancing public Ocean Environmental Awareness (OEA) will lead to increased public support for ocean environmental protection. Our study develops a questionnaire to investigate current levels of students' OEA from three aspects including ocean environmental concerns, ocean environment knowledge and willingness to participate in ocean related activities. This questionnaire was applied to students from Xiamen University to understand the OEA of university students in China, of which there are few studies. Using data gathered from a random purposive sample, the OEA level of students in Xiamen University was investigated and then the influencing factors (education, geographical situation, age and gender etc.) were further analyzed. Findings suggest that most students are concerned about the ocean environment but their knowledge is not enough that makes the willingness to participate in ocean related actions limited as well. The results show there is an urgent need to improve students' OEA.

  12. Nanotechnology applications as a context for teaching the essential concepts of NST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakhnini, Sohair; Blonder, Ron

    2016-02-01

    The goals of this study are to map applications of nanotechnology that are recommended to be taught in high-school science and to identify the 'need-to-know' essential nanoscale science and technology (NST) concepts for each of the selected nanotechnology applications. A Delphi study using a community of experts was used to address these goals. Five nanotechnology applications that should be taught in high-school science were found to be important and reached a consensus by the Delphi-study experts: (1) nanomedicine, (2) nanoelectronics, (3) photovoltaic cells, (4) nanobots, and (5) self-cleaning. It was found that teaching these five nanotechnology applications should be based on all seven NST concepts, and therefore, these applications can be used as an appealing context for teaching the essential NST concepts. The different recommendations between the two communities of experts emphasize the importance of involving teachers and scientists in the process of designing a scientific curriculum. Identifying the applications of nanotechnology that should be taught in high-school science and identifying the connections between the applications and the essential NST concepts constitute an important step that supports designing a context-based nanotechnology program before it is integrated into a high-school science curriculum.

  13. Applying predictive analytics to develop an intelligent risk detection application for healthcare contexts.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Fatemeh Hoda; Cheung, Michael; Wickramasinghe, Nilmini

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare is an information rich industry where successful outcomes require the processing of multi-spectral data and sound decision making. The exponential growth of data and big data issues coupled with a rapid increase of service demands in healthcare contexts today, requires a robust framework enabled by IT (information technology) solutions as well as real-time service handling in order to ensure superior decision making and successful healthcare outcomes. Such a context is appropriate for the application of real time intelligent risk detection decision support systems using predictive analytic techniques such as data mining. To illustrate the power and potential of data science technologies in healthcare decision making scenarios, the use of an intelligent risk detection (IRD) model is proffered for the context of Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) in children, an area which requires complex high risk decisions that need to be made expeditiously and accurately in order to ensure successful healthcare outcomes.

  14. Communication Characterization and Optimization of Applications Using Topology-Aware Task Mapping on Large Supercomputers

    SciTech Connect

    Sreepathi, Sarat; D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Philip, Bobby; Worley, Patrick H

    2016-01-01

    On large supercomputers, the job scheduling systems may assign a non-contiguous node allocation for user applications depending on available resources. With parallel applications using MPI (Message Passing Interface), the default process ordering does not take into account the actual physical node layout available to the application. This contributes to non-locality in terms of physical network topology and impacts communication performance of the application. In order to mitigate such performance penalties, this work describes techniques to identify suitable task mapping that takes the layout of the allocated nodes as well as the application's communication behavior into account. During the first phase of this research, we instrumented and collected performance data to characterize communication behavior of critical US DOE (United States - Department of Energy) applications using an augmented version of the mpiP tool. Subsequently, we developed several reordering methods (spectral bisection, neighbor join tree etc.) to combine node layout and application communication data for optimized task placement. We developed a tool called mpiAproxy to facilitate detailed evaluation of the various reordering algorithms without requiring full application executions. This work presents a comprehensive performance evaluation (14,000 experiments) of the various task mapping techniques in lowering communication costs on Titan, the leadership class supercomputer at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  15. Developing General Cultural Awareness in a Monocultural English as a Foreign Language Context in a Mexican University: A Wiki-Based Critical Incident Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trejo Vences, Paola; Fay, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This article explores what the "intercultural turn" might mean in the case of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL). The discussion is contextualised in what has been termed the "expanding circle" of English and focuses on an English as a foreign language (EFL) class in a Mexican university, a context where…

  16. Exchanging the Context between OGC Geospatial Web clients and GIS applications using Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maso, Joan; Díaz, Paula; Riverola, Anna; Pons, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Currently, the discovery and sharing of geospatial information over the web still presents difficulties. News distribution through website content was simplified by the use of Really Simple Syndication (RSS) and Atom syndication formats. This communication exposes an extension of Atom to redistribute references to geospatial information in a Spatial Data Infrastructure distributed environment. A geospatial client can save the status of an application that involves several OGC services of different kind and direct data and share this status with other users that need the same information and use different client vendor products in an interoperable way. The extensibility of the Atom format was essential to define a format that could be used in RSS enabled web browser, Mass Market map viewers and emerging geospatial enable integrated clients that support Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) services. Since OWS Context has been designed as an Atom extension, it is possible to see the document in common places where Atom documents are valid. Internet web browsers are able to present the document as a list of items with title, abstract, time, description and downloading features. OWS Context uses GeoRSS so that, the document can be to be interpreted by both Google maps and Bing Maps as items that have the extent represented in a dynamic map. Another way to explode a OWS Context is to develop an XSLT to transform the Atom feed into an HTML5 document that shows the exact status of the client view window that saved the context document. To accomplish so, we use the width and height of the client window, and the extent of the view in world (geographic) coordinates in order to calculate the scale of the map. Then, we can mix elements in world coordinates (such as CF-NetCDF files or GML) with elements in pixel coordinates (such as WMS maps, WMTS tiles and direct SVG content). A smarter map browser application called MiraMon Map Browser is able to write a context document and read

  17. Variation of Ground GPS Integrated Precipitable Water Vapor Estimates among GPS Processing Packages and Strategies in the Context of Forecaster Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, A. W.; Haase, J. S.; Bock, Y.; Gutman, S. I.; Laber, J. L.; Small, I. J.; Dumas, J. L.; Holub, K.; Jackson, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Integrated precipitable water vapor (PW) estimated from ground GPS has for many years been assimilated into operational weather models, and under a NASA AIST project, our collaboration of JPL, SIO, NOAA Weather Forecasting Offices in southern California, and NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory demonstrated that GPS PW estimates enhance forecaster situational awareness during North American Monsoon events. However, during a rigorous investigation of operational near real-time processing, we discovered some interesting discrepancies between ESRL GAMIT 30-minute and JPL GIPSY 5-minute zenith delay and PW solutions. Exploring this more deeply, we observed that PW timeseries determined with various GPS software packages and mapping functions have variations that manifest themselves on seasonal timescales. We use radiosonde, water vapor radiometer (WVR), and weather model data to explore the underlying cause of the differences, with particular attention to processing artifacts that could lend themselves to misinterpretation in subjective forecasting.

  18. Social Learning Theory: its application in the context of nurse education.

    PubMed

    Bahn, D

    2001-02-01

    Cognitive theories are fundamental to enable problem solving and the ability to understand and apply principles in a variety of situations. This article looks at Social Learning Theory, critically analysing its principles, which are based on observational learning and modelling, and considering its value and application in the context of nurse education. It also considers the component processes that will determine the outcome of observed behaviour, other than reinforcement, as identified by Bandura, namely: attention, retention, motor reproduction, and motivation.

  19. Mobile Learning Application Interfaces: First Steps to a Cognitive Load Aware System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deegan, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Mobile learning is a cognitively demanding application and more frequently the ubiquitous nature of mobile computing means that mobile devices are used in cognitively demanding environments. This paper examines the nature of this use of mobile devices from a Learning, Usability and Cognitive Load Theory perspective. It suggests scenarios where…

  20. Fertility Awareness

    MedlinePlus

    ... planning, periodic abstinence, and the rhythm method. How Does It Work? If a couple doesn't have ... get pregnant should not have sex. How Well Does It Work? Fertility awareness is not a reliable ...

  1. A metadata-aware application for remote scoring and exchange of tissue microarray images

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of tissue microarrays (TMA) and advances in digital scanning microscopy has enabled the collection of thousands of tissue images. There is a need for software tools to annotate, query and share this data amongst researchers in different physical locations. Results We have developed an open source web-based application for remote scoring of TMA images, which exploits the value of Microsoft Silverlight Deep Zoom to provide a intuitive interface for zooming and panning around digital images. We use and extend existing XML-based standards to ensure that the data collected can be archived and that our system is interoperable with other standards-compliant systems. Conclusion The application has been used for multi-centre scoring of TMA slides composed of tissues from several Phase III breast cancer trials and ten different studies participating in the International Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). The system has enabled researchers to simultaneously score large collections of TMA and export the standardised data to integrate with pathological and clinical outcome data, thereby facilitating biomarker discovery. PMID:23635078

  2. The role of early inter-professional and inter-agency encounters in increasing students' awareness of the clinical and community context of medicine.

    PubMed

    Thandi, Charankumal Singh; Forrest, Simon; Williamson, Catherine

    2016-08-01

    Coordinated input from a variety of health and social care professionals into medical education helps students to become strong, effective, successful and competent future practitioners able to function within the multi-disciplinary environment which characterizes modern medicine. This paper presents a new model of teaching developed within the context of the Phase 1 Medicine Programme at Durham, which has been used to help prepare students for this by intertwining a selection of lectures and activities run by external organizations with additional clinical exposure and experience. This one-week learning journey was called the Additional Clinical Experience (ACE) week, and now forms an integral part of the curriculum at Durham University. PMID:27432369

  3. Awareness of and attitudes towards heat waves within the context of climate change among a cohort of residents in Adelaide, Australia.

    PubMed

    Akompab, Derick A; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A; Augoustinos, Martha

    2013-01-01

    Heat waves are a public health concern in Australia and unprecedented heat waves have been recorded in Adelaide over recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the perception and attitudes towards heat waves in the context of climate change among a group of residents in Adelaide, an Australian city with a temperate climate. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the summer of 2012 among a sample of 267 residents. The results of the survey found that television (89.9%), radio (71.2%), newspapers (45.3%) were the main sources from which respondents received information about heat waves. The majority of the respondents (73.0%) followed news about heat waves very or somewhat closely. About 26.6% of the respondents were extremely or very concerned about the effects of heat waves on them personally. The main issues that were of personal concern for respondents during a heat wave were their personal comfort (60.7%), their garden (48.7%), and sleeping well (47.6%). Overall, respondents were more concerned about the impacts of heat waves to the society than on themselves. There was a significant association between gender (χ² = 21.2, df = 3, p = 0.000), gross annual household income (p = 0.03) and concern for the societal effects of heat waves. Less than half (43.2%) of the respondents believed that heat waves will extremely or very likely increase in Adelaide according to climate projections. Nearly half (49.3%) believed that the effects of heat waves were already being felt in Adelaide. These findings may inform the reframing and communication strategies for heat waves in Adelaide in the context of climate change. PMID:23343978

  4. Awareness of and attitudes towards heat waves within the context of climate change among a cohort of residents in Adelaide, Australia.

    PubMed

    Akompab, Derick A; Bi, Peng; Williams, Susan; Grant, Janet; Walker, Iain A; Augoustinos, Martha

    2012-12-20

    Heat waves are a public health concern in Australia and unprecedented heat waves have been recorded in Adelaide over recent years. The aim of this study was to examine the perception and attitudes towards heat waves in the context of climate change among a group of residents in Adelaide, an Australian city with a temperate climate. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the summer of 2012 among a sample of 267 residents. The results of the survey found that television (89.9%), radio (71.2%), newspapers (45.3%) were the main sources from which respondents received information about heat waves. The majority of the respondents (73.0%) followed news about heat waves very or somewhat closely. About 26.6% of the respondents were extremely or very concerned about the effects of heat waves on them personally. The main issues that were of personal concern for respondents during a heat wave were their personal comfort (60.7%), their garden (48.7%), and sleeping well (47.6%). Overall, respondents were more concerned about the impacts of heat waves to the society than on themselves. There was a significant association between gender (χ² = 21.2, df = 3, p = 0.000), gross annual household income (p = 0.03) and concern for the societal effects of heat waves. Less than half (43.2%) of the respondents believed that heat waves will extremely or very likely increase in Adelaide according to climate projections. Nearly half (49.3%) believed that the effects of heat waves were already being felt in Adelaide. These findings may inform the reframing and communication strategies for heat waves in Adelaide in the context of climate change.

  5. Application areas of multi-user virtual environments in the healthcare context.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Reza; Ghapanchi, Amir Hossein; Blumenstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study conducts a systematic literature review on the application of the three-dimensional virtual worlds (3DVW) in healthcare context. During the past decade, 3DVWs have emerged as a cutting edge technology that has much to offer to the healthcare sector. Our systematic review began with an initial set of 1088 studies published from 1990 to 2013 which have used 3DVWs for the healthcare specific purposes. We found a variety of areas of application for the 3DVWs in healthcare, and categorised them into the following categories: education, treatment, evaluation, lifestyle and simulation. The presented big picture of application areas of 3DVWs in this study can be very valuable and insightful for the researchers and healthcare community.

  6. Application areas of multi-user virtual environments in the healthcare context.

    PubMed

    Ghanbarzadeh, Reza; Ghapanchi, Amir Hossein; Blumenstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study conducts a systematic literature review on the application of the three-dimensional virtual worlds (3DVW) in healthcare context. During the past decade, 3DVWs have emerged as a cutting edge technology that has much to offer to the healthcare sector. Our systematic review began with an initial set of 1088 studies published from 1990 to 2013 which have used 3DVWs for the healthcare specific purposes. We found a variety of areas of application for the 3DVWs in healthcare, and categorised them into the following categories: education, treatment, evaluation, lifestyle and simulation. The presented big picture of application areas of 3DVWs in this study can be very valuable and insightful for the researchers and healthcare community. PMID:25087525

  7. Chance of Vulnerability Reduction in Application-Specific NoC through Distance Aware Mapping Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janidarmian, Majid; Fekr, Atena Roshan; Bokharaei, Vahhab Samadi

    2011-08-01

    Mapping algorithm which means which core should be linked to which router is one of the key issues in the design flow of network-on-chip. To achieve an application-specific NoC design procedure that minimizes the communication cost and improves the fault tolerant property, first a heuristic mapping algorithm that produces a set of different mappings in a reasonable time is presented. This algorithm allows the designers to identify the set of most promising solutions in a large design space, which has low communication costs while yielding optimum communication costs in some cases. Another evaluated parameter, vulnerability index, is then considered as a principle of estimating the fault-tolerance property in all produced mappings. Finally, in order to yield a mapping which considers trade-offs between these two parameters, a linear function is defined and introduced. It is also observed that more flexibility to prioritize solutions within the design space is possible by adjusting a set of if-then rules in fuzzy logic.

  8. Effects of customization on application decisions and applicant pool characteristics in a web-based recruitment context.

    PubMed

    Dineen, Brian R; Noe, Raymond A

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined 2 forms of customization in a Web-based recruitment context. Hypotheses were tested in a controlled study in which participants viewed multiple Web-based job postings that each included information about multiple fit categories. Results indicated that customization of information regarding person-organization (PO), needs-supplies, and demands-abilities (DA) fit (fit information customization) and customization of the order in which these fit categories were presented (configural customization) had differential effects on outcomes. Specifically, (a) applicant pool PO and DA fit were greater when fit information customization was provided, (b) applicant pool fit in high- versus low-relevance fit categories was better differentiated when configural customization was provided, and (c) overall application rates were lower when either or both forms of customization were provided. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Online Formative Assessments with Social Network Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jian-Wei; Lai, Yuan-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Social network awareness (SNA) has been used extensively as one of the strategies to increase knowledge sharing and collaboration opportunities. However, most SNA studies either focus on being aware of peer's knowledge context or on social context. This work proposes online formative assessments with SNA, trying to address the problems of online…

  10. Active Learning in Context-Driven Stream Mining With an Application to Image Mining.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Cem; van der Schaar, Mihaela

    2015-11-01

    We propose an image stream mining method in which images arrive with contexts (metadata) and need to be processed in real time by the image mining system (IMS), which needs to make predictions and derive actionable intelligence from these streams. After extracting the features of the image by preprocessing, IMS determines online the classifier to use on the extracted features to make a prediction using the context of the image. A key challenge associated with stream mining is that the prediction accuracy of the classifiers is unknown, since the image source is unknown; thus, these accuracies need to be learned online. Another key challenge of stream mining is that learning can only be done by observing the true label, but this is costly to obtain. To address these challenges, we model the image stream mining problem as an active, online contextual experts problem, where the context of the image is used to guide the classifier selection decision. We develop an active learning algorithm and show that it achieves regret sublinear in the number of images that have been observed so far. To further illustrate and assess the performance of our proposed methods, we apply them to diagnose breast cancer from the images of cellular samples obtained from the fine needle aspirate of breast mass. Our findings show that very high diagnosis accuracy can be achieved by actively obtaining only a small fraction of true labels through surgical biopsies. Other applications include video surveillance and video traffic monitoring. PMID:26087490

  11. PSF Rotation with Changing Defocus and Applications to 3D Imaging for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, S.; Kumar, R.

    2013-09-01

    different focal depths have shown remarkable robustness of our rotating-PSF approach to achieve good transverse and longitudinal resolution even for moderate SNR. Additionally, the work seeks to clarify an important theoretical issue about 3D imaging, namely the detailed nature of the interplay between transverse and longitudinal resolutions, including 3D generalizations of the space-bandwidth product (SBP) and its dependence on image noise. An underlying transport equation, which we shall derive and analyze, describes the trade-off between the transverse and longitudinal blur processes in a manner analogous to the diffractive spreading of a light beam that is transversely confined. This work has immediate applications for space-based surveillance, particularly for 3D mapping and tracking of space debris flying in the vicinity of important AF space assets. Working with a well corrected conventional imager, our 3D computational imager can acquire with high sensitivity and speed an extended focal volume in which individual objects of interest can be subsequently probed and imaged with high resolution over smaller 2D field segments. [1] S. Prasad, Rotating Point Spread Function by Pupil Phase Engineering, Opt. Lett., vol. 38, pp. 585-587 (2013)

  12. Wildfire Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Glenda

    2002-01-01

    Provides information about the Firewise Program whose goal is to assist people to become more fire-aware and better prepared for the effects of wildfire on property. Discusses why there are so many wildfires and what can be done. Includes the Wildland Fire Risk and Hazard Severity Assessment Form. (KHR)

  13. Handling Real-World Context Awareness, Uncertainty and Vagueness in Real-Time Human Activity Tracking and Recognition with a Fuzzy Ontology-Based Hybrid Method

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Natalia; Cadahía, Olmo León; Cuéllar, Manuel Pegalajar; Lilius, Johan; Calvo-Flores, Miguel Delgado

    2014-01-01

    Human activity recognition is a key task in ambient intelligence applications to achieve proper ambient assisted living. There has been remarkable progress in this domain, but some challenges still remain to obtain robust methods. Our goal in this work is to provide a system that allows the modeling and recognition of a set of complex activities in real life scenarios involving interaction with the environment. The proposed framework is a hybrid model that comprises two main modules: a low level sub-activity recognizer, based on data-driven methods, and a high-level activity recognizer, implemented with a fuzzy ontology to include the semantic interpretation of actions performed by users. The fuzzy ontology is fed by the sub-activities recognized by the low level data-driven component and provides fuzzy ontological reasoning to recognize both the activities and their influence in the environment with semantics. An additional benefit of the approach is the ability to handle vagueness and uncertainty in the knowledge-based module, which substantially outperforms the treatment of incomplete and/or imprecise data with respect to classic crisp ontologies. We validate these advantages with the public CAD-120 dataset (Cornell Activity Dataset), achieving an accuracy of 90.1% and 91.07% for low-level and high-level activities, respectively. This entails an improvement over fully data-driven or ontology-based approaches. PMID:25268914

  14. Awareness is awareness is awareness? Decomposing different aspects of awareness and their role in operant learning of pain sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Becker, Susanne; Kleinböhl, Dieter; Hölzl, Rupert

    2012-09-01

    Regarding awareness as a consistent concept has contributed to the controversy about implicit learning. The present study emphasized the importance of distinguishing aspects of awareness in order to determine whether learning is implicit. By decomposing awareness into awareness of contingencies, of the procedure being a learning task, and of the reinforcing stimuli, it was demonstrated that implicit operant learning modulated pain sensitivity. All of these aspects of awareness were demonstrated to not be necessary for learning. Additionally, discrimination of contingencies was not necessary on different levels of processing as demonstrated by a verbal and a behavioral method. It was demonstrated that explicit cognitive processes about one's own behavior, impaired learning, even though these cognitions were not immediately related to the learning process. The results of this study are of special interest in the context of pain, since implicit operant learning can explain the gradual development of hypersensitivity in chronic pain. PMID:22521471

  15. Awareness is awareness is awareness? Decomposing different aspects of awareness and their role in operant learning of pain sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Becker, Susanne; Kleinböhl, Dieter; Hölzl, Rupert

    2012-09-01

    Regarding awareness as a consistent concept has contributed to the controversy about implicit learning. The present study emphasized the importance of distinguishing aspects of awareness in order to determine whether learning is implicit. By decomposing awareness into awareness of contingencies, of the procedure being a learning task, and of the reinforcing stimuli, it was demonstrated that implicit operant learning modulated pain sensitivity. All of these aspects of awareness were demonstrated to not be necessary for learning. Additionally, discrimination of contingencies was not necessary on different levels of processing as demonstrated by a verbal and a behavioral method. It was demonstrated that explicit cognitive processes about one's own behavior, impaired learning, even though these cognitions were not immediately related to the learning process. The results of this study are of special interest in the context of pain, since implicit operant learning can explain the gradual development of hypersensitivity in chronic pain.

  16. Racial Differences in Awareness of the Affordable Care Act and Application Assistance Among Low-Income Adults in Three Southern States.

    PubMed

    Garcia Mosqueira, Adrian; Hua, Lynn M; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) expanded Medicaid eligibility to adults with incomes under 138% of the federal poverty level, leading to substantial reductions in uninsured rates among low-income adults. Despite large gains in coverage, studies suggest that Latinos may be less likely than other racial/ethnic groups to apply and enroll in health insurance, and they remain the group with the highest uninsured rate in the United States. We explore two potential factors related to racial/ethnic differences in ACA enrollment-awareness of the law and receipt of application assistance such as navigator services. Using a survey of nearly 3000 low-income U.S. citizens (aged 19-64) in 3 states in late 2014, we find that Latinos had significantly lower levels of awareness of the ACA relative to other groups, even after adjusting for demographic covariates. Higher education was the strongest positive predictor of ACA awareness. In contrast, Latinos were much more likely to receive assistance from navigators or social workers when applying, relative to other racial/ethnic groups. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of ACA outreach efforts to increase awareness among low-income and less educated populations, two groups that are overrepresented in the Latino population, to close existing disparities in coverage. PMID:26453675

  17. Racial Differences in Awareness of the Affordable Care Act and Application Assistance Among Low-Income Adults in Three Southern States.

    PubMed

    Garcia Mosqueira, Adrian; Hua, Lynn M; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) expanded Medicaid eligibility to adults with incomes under 138% of the federal poverty level, leading to substantial reductions in uninsured rates among low-income adults. Despite large gains in coverage, studies suggest that Latinos may be less likely than other racial/ethnic groups to apply and enroll in health insurance, and they remain the group with the highest uninsured rate in the United States. We explore two potential factors related to racial/ethnic differences in ACA enrollment-awareness of the law and receipt of application assistance such as navigator services. Using a survey of nearly 3000 low-income U.S. citizens (aged 19-64) in 3 states in late 2014, we find that Latinos had significantly lower levels of awareness of the ACA relative to other groups, even after adjusting for demographic covariates. Higher education was the strongest positive predictor of ACA awareness. In contrast, Latinos were much more likely to receive assistance from navigators or social workers when applying, relative to other racial/ethnic groups. Taken together, these results highlight the importance of ACA outreach efforts to increase awareness among low-income and less educated populations, two groups that are overrepresented in the Latino population, to close existing disparities in coverage.

  18. 4.4 Development of a 30-Year Soil Moisture Climatology for Situational Awareness and Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.; White, Kristopher D.; Bell, Jesse E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provided a brief background on the work being done at NASA SPoRT and the CDC to create a soil moisture climatology over the CONUS at high spatial resolution, and to provide a valuable source of soil moisture information to the CDC for monitoring conditions that could favor the development of Valley Fever. The soil moisture climatology has multi-faceted applications for both the NOAA/NWS situational awareness in the areas of drought and flooding, and for the Public Health community. SPoRT plans to increase its interaction with the drought monitoring and Public Health communities by enhancing this testbed soil moisture anomaly product. This soil moisture climatology run will also serve as a foundation for upgrading the real-time (currently southeastern CONUS) SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain based on LIS version 7 and incorporating real-time GVF data from the Suomi-NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (Vargas et al. 2013) into LIS-Noah. The upgraded SPoRT-LIS run will serve as a testbed proof-of-concept of a higher-resolution NLDAS-2 modeling member. The climatology run will be extended to near real-time using the NLDAS-2 meteorological forcing from 2011 to present. The fixed 1981-2010 climatology shall provide the soil moisture "normals" for the production of real-time soil moisture anomalies. SPoRT also envisions a web-mapping type of service in which an end-user could put in a request for either an historical or real-time soil moisture anomaly graph for a specified county (as exemplified by Figure 2) and/or for local and regional maps of soil moisture proxy percentiles. Finally, SPoRT seeks to assimilate satellite soil moisture data from the current Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS; Blankenship et al. 2014) and the recently-launched NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP; Entekhabi et al. 2010) missions, using the EnKF capability within LIS. The 9-km combined active radar and passive microwave retrieval product from SMAP (Das et al. 2011

  19. Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankatsing Nava, Tibisay; Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an educational programme coordinated by Leiden University that uses the beauty and grandeur of the Universe to encourage young children, particularly those from an underprivileged background, to have an interest in science and technology and foster their sense of global citizenship from the earliest age.UNAWE's twofold vision uses our Universe to inspire and motivate very young children: the excitement of the Universe provides an exciting introduction to science and technology, while the vastness and beauty of the Universe helps broaden the mind and stimulate a sense of global citizenship and tolerance. UNAWE's goals are accomplished through four main activities: the coordination of a global network of more than 1000 astronomers, teachers and educators from more than 60 countries, development of educational resources, teacher training activities and evaluation of educational activities.Between 2011 and 2013, EU-UNAWE, the European branch of UNAWE, was funded by the European Commission to implement a project in 5 EU countries and South Africa. This project has been concluded successfully. Since then, the global project Universe Awareness has continued to grow with an expanding international network, new educational resources and teacher trainings and a planned International Workshop in collaboration with ESA in October 2015, among other activities.

  20. Soil Moisture Data Assimilation in the NASA Land Information System for Local Modeling Applications and Improved Situational Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; Blakenship, Clay B.; Zavodsky, Bradley T.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Early Adopter (EA) program, the NASA Shortterm Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has implemented a data assimilation (DA) routine into the NASA Land Information System (LIS) for soil moisture retrievals from the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The SMAP EA program promotes application-driven research to provide a fundamental understanding of how SMAP data products will be used to improve decision-making at operational agencies. SPoRT has partnered with select NOAA/NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) that use output from a real-time regional configuration of LIS, without soil moisture DA, to initialize local numerical weather prediction (NWP) models and enhance situational awareness. Improvements to local NWP with the current LIS have been demonstrated; however, a better representation of the land surface through assimilation of SMOS (and eventually SMAP) retrievals is expected to lead to further model improvement, particularly during warm-season months. SPoRT will collaborate with select WFOs to assess the impact of soil moisture DA on operational forecast situations. Assimilation of the legacy SMOS instrument data provides an opportunity to develop expertise in preparation for using SMAP data products shortly after the scheduled launch on 5 November 2014. SMOS contains a passive L-band radiometer that is used to retrieve surface soil moisture at 35-km resolution with an accuracy of 0.04 cu cm cm (exp -3). SMAP will feature a comparable passive L-band instrument in conjunction with a 3-km resolution active radar component of slightly degraded accuracy. A combined radar-radiometer product will offer unprecedented global coverage of soil moisture at high spatial resolution (9 km) for hydrometeorological applications, balancing the resolution and accuracy of the active and passive instruments, respectively. The LIS software framework manages land surface model

  1. Different subjective awareness measures demonstrate the influence of visual identification on perceptual awareness ratings.

    PubMed

    Wierzchoń, Michał; Paulewicz, Borysław; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Timmermans, Bert; Cleeremans, Axel

    2014-07-01

    We compare four subjective awareness measures in the context of a visual identification task and investigate quantitative differences in terms of scale use and correlation with task performance. We also analyse the effect of identification task decisions on subsequent subjective reports. Results show that awareness ratings strongly predict accuracy for all scale types, although the type of awareness measure may influence the reported level of perceptual awareness. Surprisingly, the overall relationship between awareness ratings and performance was weaker when participants rated their awareness before providing identification responses. Furthermore, the Perceptual Awareness Scale was most exhaustive only when used after the identification task, whereas confidence ratings were most exhaustive when used before the identification task. We conclude that the type of subjective measure applied may influence the reports on visual awareness. We also propose that identification task decisions may affect subsequent awareness ratings.

  2. Context-dependent player's movement interpretation: application to adaptive game development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picard, Francois; Estraillier, Pascal

    2010-02-01

    Video games are more and more controlled by the real movements of the player. However, the player is constrained by the system devices, imposing a limited vocabulary of actions associated with a set of unnatural movements. To introduce more entertaining video games to players, a component-based architecture is proposed. It has been acknowledged as the starting point for the development of adaptive applications based on the hypothesis of a high level dialogue between the system and the player. The system adaptability relies on interpretation mechanisms of the player behaviors. These behaviors are defined through the representation of the real movements of the player who freely interacts with the 3D elements composing an immersive virtual environment, following a given game scenario. The efficient interpretation of the player movements relies on the introduction in the system of the management of the scene's context. The contextual information not only helps to determine the true meaning of an observed behavior but also makes the system to adapt its processes regarding this interpretation, while managing its hardware and software resources efficiently. A commercial motion capture interface has been enhanced by the elaboration of such a system.

  3. Explicit context matching in content-based publish/subscribe systems.

    PubMed

    Vavassori, Sergio; Soriano, Javier; Lizcano, David; Jiménez, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    Although context could be exploited to improve performance, elasticity and adaptation in most distributed systems that adopt the publish/subscribe (P/S) communication model, only a few researchers have focused on the area of context-aware matching in P/S systems and have explored its implications in domains with highly dynamic context like wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and IoT-enabled applications. Most adopted P/S models are context agnostic or do not differentiate context from the other application data. In this article, we present a novel context-aware P/S model. SilboPS manages context explicitly, focusing on the minimization of network overhead in domains with recurrent context changes related, for example, to mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). Our approach represents a solution that helps to effciently share and use sensor data coming from ubiquitous WSNs across a plethora of applications intent on using these data to build context awareness. Specifically, we empirically demonstrate that decoupling a subscription from the changing context in which it is produced and leveraging contextual scoping in the filtering process notably reduces (un)subscription cost per node, while improving the global performance/throughput of the network of brokers without altering the cost of SIENA-like topology changes.

  4. Large Context Problems and Their Applications to Education: Some Contemporary Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchester, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Some 35 years ago, Gerard K. O'Neill used the large context of space travel with his undergraduate physics students. A Canadian physics teacher, Art Stinner, independently arrived at a similar notion in a more limited but, therefore, more generally useful sense, which he referred to as the "large context problem" approach. At a slightly earlier…

  5. Fusion of Multi-View and Multi-Scale Aerial Imagery for Real-Time Situation Awareness Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, X.; Kurz, F.; Reinartz, P.

    2015-08-01

    Manned aircraft has long been used for capturing large-scale aerial images, yet the high costs and weather dependence restrict its availability in emergency situations. In recent years, MAV (Micro Aerial Vehicle) emerged as a novel modality for aerial image acquisition. Its maneuverability and flexibility enable a rapid awareness of the scene of interest. Since these two platforms deliver scene information from different scale and different view, it makes sense to fuse these two types of complimentary imagery to achieve a quick, accurate and detailed description of the scene, which is the main concern of real-time situation awareness. This paper proposes a method to fuse multi-view and multi-scale aerial imagery by establishing a common reference frame. In particular, common features among MAV images and geo-referenced airplane images can be extracted by a scale invariant feature detector like SIFT. From the tie point of geo-referenced images we derive the coordinate of corresponding ground points, which are then utilized as ground control points in global bundle adjustment of MAV images. In this way, the MAV block is aligned to the reference frame. Experiment results show that this method can achieve fully automatic geo-referencing of MAV images even if GPS/IMU acquisition has dropouts, and the orientation accuracy is improved compared to the GPS/IMU based georeferencing. The concept for a subsequent 3D classification method is also described in this paper.

  6. Representing word context effect in Chinese character perception--an application of information theory.

    PubMed

    Gan, K W; Lua, K T

    1991-01-01

    The perception of a letter in the context of a word is easier than in the context of a random letter sequence. It appears that our knowledge about words can influence our perception process. McClelland and Rumelhart (1981) propose an interactive activation model to account for the interaction between our knowledge about words and our visual input. They use their model to explain how these interactions facilitate perception. In their account, word context effect is a constant independent of the identity of the words. In this paper, we propose the use of information theory to quantify word context effect. In this way, the strength of word context effect will depend on the identity of the words. We apply the method to quantify word context effect in Chinese words. This knowledge is encoded in an artificial neural network using the interactive activation and competition model. The network is used to recognize Chinese characters and we are able to achieve a high recognition rate.

  7. A Model of Organizational Context and Shared Decision Making: Application to LGBT Racial and Ethnic Minority Patients.

    PubMed

    DeMeester, Rachel H; Lopez, Fanny Y; Moore, Jennifer E; Cook, Scott C; Chin, Marshall H

    2016-06-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) occurs when patients and clinicians work together to reach care decisions that are both medically sound and responsive to patients' preferences and values. SDM is an important tenet of patient-centered care that can improve patient outcomes. Patients with multiple minority identities, such as sexual orientation and race/ethnicity, are at particular risk for poor SDM. Among these dual-minority patients, added challenges to clear and open communication include cultural barriers, distrust, and a health care provider's lack of awareness of the patient's minority sexual orientation or gender identity. However, organizational factors like a culture of inclusion and private space throughout the visit can improve SDM with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender ("LGBT") racial/ethnic minority patients who have faced stigma and discrimination. Most models of shared decision making focus on the patient-provider interaction, but the health care organization's context is also critical. Context-an organization's structure and operations-can strongly influence the ability and willingness of patients and clinicians to engage in shared decision making. SDM is most likely to be optimal if organizations transform their contexts and patients and providers improve their communication. Thus, we propose a conceptual model that suggests ways in which organizations can shape their contextual structure and operations to support SDM. The model contains six drivers: workflows, health information technology, organizational structure and culture, resources and clinic environment, training and education, and incentives and disincentives. These drivers work through four mechanisms to impact care: continuity and coordination, the ease of SDM, knowledge and skills, and attitudes and beliefs. These mechanisms can activate clinicians and patients to engage in high-quality SDM. We provide examples of how specific contextual changes could make SDM more effective for LGBT

  8. A Model of Organizational Context and Shared Decision Making: Application to LGBT Racial and Ethnic Minority Patients.

    PubMed

    DeMeester, Rachel H; Lopez, Fanny Y; Moore, Jennifer E; Cook, Scott C; Chin, Marshall H

    2016-06-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) occurs when patients and clinicians work together to reach care decisions that are both medically sound and responsive to patients' preferences and values. SDM is an important tenet of patient-centered care that can improve patient outcomes. Patients with multiple minority identities, such as sexual orientation and race/ethnicity, are at particular risk for poor SDM. Among these dual-minority patients, added challenges to clear and open communication include cultural barriers, distrust, and a health care provider's lack of awareness of the patient's minority sexual orientation or gender identity. However, organizational factors like a culture of inclusion and private space throughout the visit can improve SDM with lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender ("LGBT") racial/ethnic minority patients who have faced stigma and discrimination. Most models of shared decision making focus on the patient-provider interaction, but the health care organization's context is also critical. Context-an organization's structure and operations-can strongly influence the ability and willingness of patients and clinicians to engage in shared decision making. SDM is most likely to be optimal if organizations transform their contexts and patients and providers improve their communication. Thus, we propose a conceptual model that suggests ways in which organizations can shape their contextual structure and operations to support SDM. The model contains six drivers: workflows, health information technology, organizational structure and culture, resources and clinic environment, training and education, and incentives and disincentives. These drivers work through four mechanisms to impact care: continuity and coordination, the ease of SDM, knowledge and skills, and attitudes and beliefs. These mechanisms can activate clinicians and patients to engage in high-quality SDM. We provide examples of how specific contextual changes could make SDM more effective for LGBT

  9. A comparison of near surface CO2 monitoring methods and their applicability in the CCS context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Ingo; Schlömer, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The detection, characterization and quantification of different gas species in the vicinity of the soil-atmosphere interface is considered as one key element of near surface monitoring related to CO2 storage operations. From a broad range of available techniques (see e.g. Korre et al. 2011 and Rütters et al. 2013), three different methods have initially been selected in order to compare their applicability in the CCS context: - The eddy covariance method which can compute CO2 fluxes within the atmospheric boundary layer, - CO2 flux measurements between soil and atmosphere by means of accumulation chambers, - Permanent CO2 concentration measurements in the vadose zone of the soil column. Additionally, basic atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements were also included in this comparison since they might have a potential as monitoring alternative on a low-cost basis. Results and lessons learned from practical field experiments were elaborated to point out advantages and disadvantages of the individual methods as well as their integration into an overall monitoring concept of CO2 storage sites. Field work has been carried out in different locations of Northern Germany, amongst others in the Altmark region, a formerly proposed CO2 injection site for enhanced gas recovery (Schlömer et al. 2014). This study benefits from interim results of the MONACO project (Monitoring approach for geological CO2 storage sites using an hierarchic observation concept) which is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, grant 03G0817A). References: Korre, A., Imrie, C.E., May, F., Beaubien, S.E., Vandermeijer, V., Persoglia, S., Golmen, L., Fabriol, H., Dixon, T., 2011. Quantification techniques for potential CO2 leakage from geological storage sites. Energy Proc. 4, pp. 3413-3420. Rütters, H., Möller, I., May, F., Flornes, K., Hladik, V., Arvanitis, A., Gülec, N.,Bakiler, C., Dudu, A., Kucharic, L., Juhojuntti, N., Shogenova, A., Georgiev, G., 2013. State

  10. The OGC Publish/Subscribe specification in the context of sensor-based applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigagli, Lorenzo

    2014-05-01

    be small. Instead, the Publish/Subscribe model is characterized by the ability for a Subscriber to specify an ongoing (persistent) expression of interest in some messages, and by the asynchronous delivery of such messages. Hence, the publish/subscribe model can be useful to reduce the latency between event occurrence and event notification, as it is the Publisher's responsibility to publish a message when the event occurs, rather than relying on clients to anticipate the occurrence. The following cross-service requirements have been identified for PubSub 1.0: • Provide notification capabilities as a module to existing OGC services with no impact on existing service semantics and by reusing service-specific filtering semantics. • Usable as a way to push actual data (not only references to data) from a data access service (i.e. WCS, WFS, SOS) to the client. • Usable as a way to push notification messages (i.e. lightweight, no data but rather references to data) to the client. • Usable as a way to provide notifications of service and dataset updates in order to simplify/optimize harvesting by catalogs. The use-cases identified for PubSub 1.0 include: • Service Filtered Data Push. • Service Filtered Notification. • Notification of Threshold Crossings. • FAA SAA Dissemination Pilot. • Emergency / Safety Critical Application. The above suggests that the OGC Publish/Subscribe specification could be successfully applied to sensor-based monitoring. This work elaborates on this technology and its possible applications in this context.

  11. Context-Based E-Health System Access Control Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Neyadi, Fahed; Abawajy, Jemal H.

    E-Health systems logically demand a sufficiently fine-grained authorization policy for access control. The access to medical information should not be just role-based but should also include the contextual condition of the role to access data. In this paper, we present a mechanism to extend the standard role-based access control to incorporate contextual information for making access control decisions in e-health application. We present an architecture consisting of authorisation and context infrastructure that work cooperatively to grant access rights based on context-aware authorization policies and context information.

  12. The Importance of Context in Development and Application of Ecosystem Services Production Functions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The task of estimating ecosystem service production and delivery deserves special attention. When approached as a function of land cover at any given time, context driven facets of ecosystem service production, delivery, and resulting effects on human well-being can be overlooke...

  13. Functional Grammar in the Context of Linguistic Applications in Turkish Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epcacan, Cahit

    2013-01-01

    In the last century, language researches adopted the scientific method and linguistics became an autonomous discipline. Linguistics is a framework concept that analyzes all languages in the world in various contexts according to its own rules and draws conclusions using the systematic approach. Functional linguistics is a linguistic trend that…

  14. A Tool for Intersecting Context-Free Grammars and Its Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gange, Graeme; Navas, Jorge A.; Schachte, Peter; Sondergaard, Harald; Stuckey, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a tool for intersecting context-free grammars. Since this problem is undecidable the tool follows a refinement-based approach and implements a novel refinement which is complete for regularly separable grammars. We show its effectiveness for safety verification of recursive multi-threaded programs.

  15. Incorporation of Student-Centered, Practical Applications of Geographic Information Systems to Raise Awareness and Generate Solutions for Local Environmental Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilsley, N. A.; Love, C. A.; Minster, J. B. H.

    2014-12-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) offer a plethora of applications for numerous fields, from geological sciences to urban planning. Therefore, developing a practical GIS curriculum for students from a diverse selection of majors can be challenging, especially since time constraints presented by the course term limit the number of projects that can cater to each student's academic focus. However, open ended assignments that allow students the freedom to personalize their projects present an opportunity to teach the universal functionality of GIS, as well as stimulate curiosity of students from all backgrounds by allowing them to tailor a project to their personal interests. During an introductory GIS course at the University of California, San Diego, projects prompted students to utilize ArcGIS in ways of their choice that raised awareness of local environmental issues, as well as encouraged students to incorporate environmentally sustainable practices into their lives. In view of the frequently stated interest of students to enter careers where they can use their newly learned GIS skills, the educational platform of choice is ESRI's ArcGIS, but the choice of platform remains flexible. As GIS resources become more accessible with the development of programs such as OpenGIS and OpenStreetMap, the potential for GIS to effectively communicate environmental issues to the public is growing fast. Incorporating these environmental issues into a curriculum not only allows students to personalize their education, but also raises awareness of such problems and provides students with the ability to communicate those issues using GIS.

  16. Application of Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Task Allocation Techniques for Controlling Operator Hazardous States of Awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2001-01-01

    Prinzel, Hadley, Freeman, and Mikulka found that adaptive task allocation significantly enhanced performance only when used at the endpoints of the task workload continuum (i.e., very low or high workload), but that the technique degraded performance if invoked during other levels of task demand. These researchers suggested that other techniques should be used in conjunction with adaptive automation to help minimize the onset of hazardous states of awareness (HSA) and keep the operator 'in-the-loop.' The paper reports on such a technique that uses psychophysiological self-regulation to modulate the level of task engagement. Eighteen participants were assigned to three groups (self-regulation, false feedback, and control) and performed a compensatory tracking task that was cycled between three levels of task difficulty on the basis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) record. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower NASA-TLX scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. Furthermore, the false feedback and control groups had significantly more task allocations resulting in return-to-manual performance decrements and higher EEG difference scores. Theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  17. Situation Awareness and Levels of Automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaber, David B.

    1999-01-01

    During the first year of this project, a taxonomy of theoretical levels of automation (LOAs) was applied to the advanced commercial aircraft by categorizing actual modes of McDonald Douglas MD-11 autoflight system operation in terms of the taxonomy. As well, high LOAs included in the taxonomy (e.g., supervisory control) were modeled in the context of MD-11 autoflight systems through development of a virtual flight simulator. The flight simulator was an integration of a re-configurable simulator developed by the Georgia Institute Technology and new software prototypes of autoflight system modules found in the MD-11 cockpit. In addition to this work, a version of the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) was developed for application to commercial piloting tasks. A software package was developed to deliver the SAGAT and was integrated with the virtual flight simulator.

  18. Real time emotion aware applications: a case study employing emotion evocative pictures and neuro-physiological sensing enhanced by Graphic Processor Units.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Evdokimos I; Frantzidis, Christos A; Pappas, Costas; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2012-07-01

    In this paper the feasibility of adopting Graphic Processor Units towards real-time emotion aware computing is investigated for boosting the time consuming computations employed in such applications. The proposed methodology was employed in analysis of encephalographic and electrodermal data gathered when participants passively viewed emotional evocative stimuli. The GPU effectiveness when processing electroencephalographic and electrodermal recordings is demonstrated by comparing the execution time of chaos/complexity analysis through nonlinear dynamics (multi-channel correlation dimension/D2) and signal processing algorithms (computation of skin conductance level/SCL) into various popular programming environments. Apart from the beneficial role of parallel programming, the adoption of special design techniques regarding memory management may further enhance the time minimization which approximates a factor of 30 in comparison with ANSI C language (single-core sequential execution). Therefore, the use of GPU parallel capabilities offers a reliable and robust solution for real-time sensing the user's affective state.

  19. Advanced Weather Awareness and Reporting Enhancements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Busquets, Anthony M. (Technical Monitor); Ruokangas, Corinne Clinton; Kelly, Wallace E., III

    2005-01-01

    AWARE (Aviation Weather Awareness and Reporting Enhancements) was a NASA Cooperative Research and Development program conducted jointly by Rockwell Scientific, Rockwell Collins, and NASA. The effort culminated in an enhanced weather briefing and reporting tool prototype designed to integrate graphical and text-based aviation weather data to provide clear situational awareness in the context of a specific pilot, flight and equipment profile. The initial implementation of AWARE was as a web-based preflight planning tool, specifically for general aviation pilots, who do not have access to support such as the dispatchers available for commercial airlines. Initial usability tests showed that for VFR (Visual Flight Rules) pilots, AWARE provided faster and more effective weather evaluation. In a subsequent formal usability test for IFR (Instrument Flight Rules) pilots, all users finished the AWARE tests faster than the parallel DUAT tests, and all subjects graded AWARE higher for effectiveness, efficiency, and usability. The decision analysis basis of AWARE differentiates it from other aviation safety programs, providing analysis of context-sensitive data in a personalized graphical format to aid pilots/dispatchers in their complex flight requirements.

  20. From Ambient Sensing to IoT-based Context Computing: An Open Framework for End to End QoC Management †

    PubMed Central

    Marie, Pierrick; Desprats, Thierry; Chabridon, Sophie; Sibilla, Michelle; Taconet, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Quality of Context (QoC) awareness is recognized as a key point for the success of context-aware computing. At the time where the combination of the Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, and Ambient Intelligence paradigms offer together new opportunities for managing richer context data, the next generation of Distributed Context Managers (DCM) is facing new challenges concerning QoC management. This paper presents our model-driven QoCIM framework. QoCIM is the acronym for Quality of Context Information Model. We show how it can help application developers to manage the whole QoC life-cycle by providing genericity, openness and uniformity. Its usages are illustrated, both at design time and at runtime, in the case of an urban pollution context- and QoC-aware scenario. PMID:26087372

  1. From Ambient Sensing to IoT-based Context Computing: An Open Framework for End to End QoC Management.

    PubMed

    Marie, Pierrick; Desprats, Thierry; Chabridon, Sophie; Sibilla, Michelle; Taconet, Chantal

    2015-06-16

    Quality of Context (QoC) awareness is recognized as a key point for the success of context-aware computing. At the time where the combination of the Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, and Ambient Intelligence paradigms offer together new opportunities for managing richer context data, the next generation of Distributed Context Managers (DCM) is facing new challenges concerning QoC management. This paper presents our model-driven QoCIM framework. QoCIM is the acronym for Quality of Context Information Model. We show how it can help application developers to manage the whole QoC life-cycle by providing genericity, openness and uniformity. Its usages are illustrated, both at design time and at runtime, in the case of an urban pollution context- and QoC-aware scenario.

  2. From Ambient Sensing to IoT-based Context Computing: An Open Framework for End to End QoC Management.

    PubMed

    Marie, Pierrick; Desprats, Thierry; Chabridon, Sophie; Sibilla, Michelle; Taconet, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Quality of Context (QoC) awareness is recognized as a key point for the success of context-aware computing. At the time where the combination of the Internet of Things, Cloud Computing, and Ambient Intelligence paradigms offer together new opportunities for managing richer context data, the next generation of Distributed Context Managers (DCM) is facing new challenges concerning QoC management. This paper presents our model-driven QoCIM framework. QoCIM is the acronym for Quality of Context Information Model. We show how it can help application developers to manage the whole QoC life-cycle by providing genericity, openness and uniformity. Its usages are illustrated, both at design time and at runtime, in the case of an urban pollution context- and QoC-aware scenario. PMID:26087372

  3. Expansion of the Real-time Sport-land Information System for NOAA / National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL (Jedlovec 2013; Ralph et al. 2013; Merceret et al. 2013) is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The SPoRT-LIS is currently run over a domain covering the southeastern half of the Continental United States (CONUS), with an additional experimental real-time run over the entire CONUS and surrounding portions of southern Canada and northern Mexico. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) product (Zhang et al. 2011, 2014), which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014. This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations. Section 2 gives background information on the NASA LIS and describes the realtime SPoRT-LIS configurations being compared. Section 3 presents recent work done to develop a training module on situational awareness applications of real-time SPoRT-LIS output. Comparisons between output from the two SPoRT-LIS runs are shown in Section 4, including a documentation of issues encountered in using the MRMS precipitation dataset. A summary and future work in given in Section 5, followed by acknowledgements and references.

  4. Battlefield awareness overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crites, Troy A.

    1997-06-01

    The Information Systems Office (ISO) at DARPA develops, applies, integrates, and transitions information technology and systems to enable domination of the battlespace. To that end, ISO is engaged in three thrusts: comprehensive battlespace awareness; intelligent and timely force management and battle execution; and, realistic and affordable simulation for training, mission rehearsal, and course of action evaluation. In each thrust, ISO concentrates on enduring and future threats and solutions. The development approach involves creating the next generation of infrastructure, technology, and applications to build, sustain, and maintain a tightly-coupled system of systems. ISO information systems drive evolving concepts and doctrine for implementing a new warfare paradigm in which knowledge, not mass and fire power, is key to battlespace dominance across the ever-expanding spectrum of conflict. DARPA views its Battlespace Awareness Program as the catalyst for accelerating the implementation of a continually-evolving system of information technology that will enable the information-based warfare paradigm described above. The roadmap being followed by DARPA is to design, develop and transition a pilot infrastructure of information systems that can be used to enable emerging new operational concepts and guide future system developments and acquisitions. This infrastructure requires integrated system applications and a common information support environment.

  5. Nanotechnology Applications as a Context for Teaching the Essential Concepts of NST

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakhnini, Sohair; Blonder, Ron

    2016-01-01

    The goals of this study are to map applications of nanotechnology that are recommended to be taught in high-school science and to identify the "need-to-know" essential nanoscale science and technology (NST) concepts for each of the selected nanotechnology applications. A Delphi study using a community of experts was used to address these…

  6. An application of the theory of multiple intelligences in mathematics classrooms in the context of origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wares, Arsalan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate how Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences may be applied in mathematics classrooms in the context of an origami project. The paper discusses an origami project and the mathematics behind the project. The paper finally uses the origami project to discuss how Howard Gardner's theory of Multiple Intelligences and idea of entry points can be applied in mathematics classrooms to help students understand and appreciate mathematics [H. Gardner, Multiple Intelligences: New Horizons, Basic Books, New York, 2006].

  7. Towards perception awareness: Perceptual event detection for Brain computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Nejati, Hossein; Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Pomponiu, Victor; Ehrenberg, Evan C; Ngai-Man Cheung; Sinha, Pawan

    2015-08-01

    Brain computer interface (BCI) technology is becoming increasingly popular in many domains such as entertainment, mental state analysis, and rehabilitation. For robust performance in these domains, detecting perceptual events would be a vital ability, enabling adaptation to and act on the basis of user's perception of the environment. Here we present a framework to automatically mine spatiotemporal characteristics of a given perceptual event. As this "signature" is derived directly from subject's neural behavior, it can serve as a representation of the subject's perception of the targeted scenario, which in turn allows a BCI system to gain a new level of context awareness: perception awareness. As a proof of concept, we show the application of the proposed framework on MEG signal recordings from a face perception study, and the resulting temporal and spatial characteristics of the derived neural signature, as well as it's compatibility with the neuroscientific literature on face perception.

  8. Application of a QMRA Framework to Inform Selection of Drinking Water Interventions in the Developing Context.

    PubMed

    Petterson, S R

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a modified quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) framework that could be applied as a decision support tool to choose between alternative drinking water interventions in the developing context. The impact of different household water treatment (HWT) interventions on the overall incidence of diarrheal disease and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) was estimated, without relying on source water pathogen concentration as the starting point for the analysis. A framework was developed and a software tool constructed and then implemented for an illustrative case study for Nepal based on published scientific data. Coagulation combined with free chlorine disinfection provided the greatest estimated health gains in the short term; however, when long-term compliance was incorporated into the calculations, the preferred intervention was porous ceramic filtration. The model demonstrates how the QMRA framework can be used to integrate evidence from different studies to inform management decisions, and in particular to prioritize the next best intervention with respect to estimated reduction in diarrheal incidence. This study only considered HWT interventions; it is recognized that a systematic consideration of sanitation, recreation, and drinking water pathways is important for effective management of waterborne transmission of pathogens, and the approach could be expanded to consider the broader water-related context.

  9. Knowledge-based public health situation awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Zhang, Jiajie; Srinivasan, Arunkumar; Richesson, Rachel L.; Smith, Jack W.

    2004-09-01

    There have been numerous efforts to create comprehensive databases from multiple sources to monitor the dynamics of public health and most specifically to detect the potential threats of bioterrorism before widespread dissemination. But there are not many evidences for the assertion that these systems are timely and dependable, or can reliably identify man made from natural incident. One must evaluate the value of so called 'syndromic surveillance systems' along with the costs involved in design, development, implementation and maintenance of such systems and the costs involved in investigation of the inevitable false alarms1. In this article we will introduce a new perspective to the problem domain with a shift in paradigm from 'surveillance' toward 'awareness'. As we conceptualize a rather different approach to tackle the problem, we will introduce a different methodology in application of information science, computer science, cognitive science and human-computer interaction concepts in design and development of so called 'public health situation awareness systems'. We will share some of our design and implementation concepts for the prototype system that is under development in the Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Informatics Research, in the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston. The system is based on a knowledgebase containing ontologies with different layers of abstraction, from multiple domains, that provide the context for information integration, knowledge discovery, interactive data mining, information visualization, information sharing and communications. The modular design of the knowledgebase and its knowledge representation formalism enables incremental evolution of the system from a partial system to a comprehensive knowledgebase of 'public health situation awareness' as it acquires new knowledge through interactions with domain experts or automatic discovery of new knowledge.

  10. An application of the Hospital-in-the-Home unlearning context.

    PubMed

    Cegarra-Navarro, Juan-Gabriel; Wensley, Anthony K P; Sánchez-Polo, Maria-Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Many researchers who have investigated health care organizations have indicated that health care professionals are replete with outdated knowledge, and some researchers go even further to argue that without the presence of a context that facilitates unlearning (forgetting) practitioners may lose the ability to recognize relevant changes with respect to knowledge pertaining to all aspects of the health care sector and they may decide to rely on potentially out-of-date knowledge and inappropriate ways of interpreting data with attendant loss of decision quality and attendant risks. This article presents an analysis and develops a model of the factors that influence unlearning which is focused on the health care industry and is comprised of three constituent components: (1) a framework characterizing the lens through which individuals view situations; (2) a framework for characterizing how individual habits change; and (3) a framework for characterizing the manner in which emergent understandings are consolidated into existing knowledge and knowledge structures. The model was developed and analyzed using qualitative data from the Hospital-in-the-Home Unit of a Spanish Regional Hospital. From a practical perspective the article provides for the identification of factors that influence the nature and effectiveness of the unlearning context in Hospital-in-the-Home-Units in regional hospitals. This not only valuably adds to the knowledge of the way these units function but also may enable actions to be taken to improve the learning processes associated with such units, resulting in an improvement in the quality of knowledge used in day-to-day decision making. It is to be assumed that, as a result of improving the quality of knowledge used in decision making, the quality of decisions will be improved.

  11. 17 CFR Appendix A to Part 4 - Guidance on the Application of Rule 4.13(a)(3) in the Fund-of-Funds Context

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Guidance on the Application of Rule 4.13(a)(3) in the Fund-of-Funds Context A Appendix A to Part 4 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... Appendix A to Part 4—Guidance on the Application of Rule 4.13(a)(3) in the Fund-of-Funds Context...

  12. Is Recess an Achievement Context? An Application of Expectancy-Value Theory to Playground Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy; Dunn, Janice Causgrove; Watkinson, E. Jane

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the application of an expectancy-value model to children's activity choices on the playground at recess. The purpose was to test the prediction that expectancies for success and subjective task values are related to decisions to engage in specific recess activities such as climbing, playing soccer, or skipping rope.…

  13. Language Awareness as a Challenge for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunerberg, Reinhard; Geile, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The following contribution is a meta-analysis of the language awareness discipline from a practical application point of view. It is based on a keynote speech at the "10th International Conference of the Association for Language Awareness," and deals with the implications of business requirements for language use in communication processes. The…

  14. Pragmatic Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Brian

    1994-01-01

    Advocates a language awareness approach that aims at helping learners of a second language develop awareness of how the target language is typically used to achieve communication. Presents a pragmatic awareness lesson for upper intermediate students of English based on an extract from Charles Webb's "The Graduate." (18 references) (MDM)

  15. Biological time series analysis using a context free language: applicability to pulsatile hormone data.

    PubMed

    Dean, Dennis A; Adler, Gail K; Nguyen, David P; Klerman, Elizabeth B

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel approach for analyzing biological time-series data using a context-free language (CFL) representation that allows the extraction and quantification of important features from the time-series. This representation results in Hierarchically AdaPtive (HAP) analysis, a suite of multiple complementary techniques that enable rapid analysis of data and does not require the user to set parameters. HAP analysis generates hierarchically organized parameter distributions that allow multi-scale components of the time-series to be quantified and includes a data analysis pipeline that applies recursive analyses to generate hierarchically organized results that extend traditional outcome measures such as pharmacokinetics and inter-pulse interval. Pulsicons, a novel text-based time-series representation also derived from the CFL approach, are introduced as an objective qualitative comparison nomenclature. We apply HAP to the analysis of 24 hours of frequently sampled pulsatile cortisol hormone data, which has known analysis challenges, from 14 healthy women. HAP analysis generated results in seconds and produced dozens of figures for each participant. The results quantify the observed qualitative features of cortisol data as a series of pulse clusters, each consisting of one or more embedded pulses, and identify two ultradian phenotypes in this dataset. HAP analysis is designed to be robust to individual differences and to missing data and may be applied to other pulsatile hormones. Future work can extend HAP analysis to other time-series data types, including oscillatory and other periodic physiological signals.

  16. The estimation of cortical activity for brain-computer interface: applications in a domotic context.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, F; Cincotti, F; Marciani, M; Salinari, S; Astolfi, L; Tocci, A; Aloise, F; De Vico Fallani, F; Bufalari, S; Mattia, D

    2007-01-01

    In order to analyze whether the use of the cortical activity, estimated from noninvasive EEG recordings, could be useful to detect mental states related to the imagination of limb movements, we estimate cortical activity from high-resolution EEG recordings in a group of healthy subjects by using realistic head models. Such cortical activity was estimated in region of interest associated with the subject's Brodmann areas by using a depth-weighted minimum norm technique. Results showed that the use of the cortical-estimated activity instead of the unprocessed EEG improves the recognition of the mental states associated to the limb movement imagination in the group of normal subjects. The BCI methodology presented here has been used in a group of disabled patients in order to give them a suitable control of several electronic devices disposed in a three-room environment devoted to the neurorehabilitation. Four of six patients were able to control several electronic devices in this domotic context with the BCI system.

  17. Importance of context in adoption and progress in application of strategic environmental assessment: Experience of Thailand

    SciTech Connect

    Wirutskulshai, Uma Sajor, Edsel Coowanitwong, Nowarat

    2011-04-15

    Following the example of other developed countries, strategic environmental assessment (SEA) tool is now being introduced in developing countries, with the expectations, among others, that it will influence decision-making process in planning, and also usher in the participatory and collaborative planning towards a more sustainable track in development. This article examines Thailand's own recent introduction of SEA. The authors underscore the particularity of the Thai planning context as well as the broader governance structure and processes in the country as the critical factor influencing the extent, substance and form of adoption of SEA. Top-down tradition of planning and serious limitation of public participation opportunity structures and institutional culture have minimized the tool's positive impact and influence in development planning. Thailand's experience in SEA introduction thus reaffirms the important lesson from a number of other developing countries: that legal framework for SEA is necessary and critical especially in its initial adoption; and, that public participation needs to be supported too and institutionalized for the tool to fulfill its promise of improving environmental governance and optimizing potentials of development projects vis-a-vis various social and environmental concerns.

  18. The Estimation of Cortical Activity for Brain-Computer Interface: Applications in a Domotic Context

    PubMed Central

    Babiloni, F.; Cincotti, F.; Marciani, M.; Salinari, S.; Astolfi, L.; Tocci, A.; Aloise, F.; Fallani, F. De Vico; Bufalari, S.; Mattia, D.

    2007-01-01

    In order to analyze whether the use of the cortical activity, estimated from noninvasive EEG recordings, could be useful to detect mental states related to the imagination of limb movements, we estimate cortical activity from high-resolution EEG recordings in a group of healthy subjects by using realistic head models. Such cortical activity was estimated in region of interest associated with the subject's Brodmann areas by using a depth-weighted minimum norm technique. Results showed that the use of the cortical-estimated activity instead of the unprocessed EEG improves the recognition of the mental states associated to the limb movement imagination in the group of normal subjects. The BCI methodology presented here has been used in a group of disabled patients in order to give them a suitable control of several electronic devices disposed in a three-room environment devoted to the neurorehabilitation. Four of six patients were able to control several electronic devices in this domotic context with the BCI system. PMID:18350134

  19. Moodle 2.0 Web Services Layer and Its New Application Contexts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Miguel Ángel; Aguilar, Diego Alonso Gómez; Del Pozo de Dios, Alberto; Peñalvo, Francisco José García

    Owing to the intrinsic relation among actual education and new technologies, it results essential the fact to found the new ways to satisfy both sides of the modern eLearning platforms, the needs of students and tutors and the enough technologies to support it. Consequently, the possibility to interconnect the LMS with other external applications to enrich and strengthen the comprehension of learning process is one of the principal paths to follow.

  20. Comprehensive Context Recognizer Based on Multimodal Sensors in a Smartphone

    PubMed Central

    Han, Manhyung; Vinh, La The; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Sungyoung

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in smartphones have increased the processing capabilities and equipped these devices with a number of built-in multimodal sensors, including accelerometers, gyroscopes, GPS interfaces, Wi-Fi access, and proximity sensors. Despite the fact that numerous studies have investigated the development of user-context aware applications using smartphones, these applications are currently only able to recognize simple contexts using a single type of sensor. Therefore, in this work, we introduce a comprehensive approach for context aware applications that utilizes the multimodal sensors in smartphones. The proposed system is not only able to recognize different kinds of contexts with high accuracy, but it is also able to optimize the power consumption since power-hungry sensors can be activated or deactivated at appropriate times. Additionally, the system is able to recognize activities wherever the smartphone is on a human's body, even when the user is using the phone to make a phone call, manipulate applications, play games, or listen to music. Furthermore, we also present a novel feature selection algorithm for the accelerometer classification module. The proposed feature selection algorithm helps select good features and eliminates bad features, thereby improving the overall accuracy of the accelerometer classifier. Experimental results show that the proposed system can classify eight activities with an accuracy of 92.43%.

  1. The problem-context dependence of students' application of Newton's second law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allbaugh, Alicia Ranee

    Previous research has indicated that improved knowledge organization allows experts to solve problems in a larger variety of contextual settings. In addition, it has been suggested that contextual appreciation is a form of learning ignored by much instruction. To that end, this study investigated students' understanding and application of Newton's Second Law (F = ma) in scenarios differing from those used in instruction of the concept. Instruction in these other contextual arenas, for example electrostatics, does not necessarily include Newton's laws explicitly. Instructors tacitly assumed that the student already has learned the concept fully from previous instruction on the topic. The study used a qualitative design in a constructivist framework. Students were asked questions regarding that concept in a series of six interviews that spanned several topics in a two-semester, calculus-based introductory physics course. No student was consistent with respect to the application of Newton's Second Law throughout the entire course. However, student responses from these interviews fell into clear categories and themes emerged. These categories revealed new contextually dependent misconceptions for Newton's second law. Additionally, student responses were clearly affected by the question contextual scenario for the following areas: Rotational Motion, Changing Mass Propulsion, Electric Charges, Electric and Magnetic Fields, Charge with Velocity.

  2. Adult Environmental Education: Awareness and Environmental Action. Adult Learning in the Context of Environment, Health and Population. A Series of 29 Booklets Documenting Workshops Held at the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education (Hamburg, Germany, July 14-18, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Hamburg (Germany). Inst. for Education.

    This booklet discusses the present state of environmental adult education and its major difficulties and shortcomings and develops recommendations for further development of this field. Section 1 discusses linking environmental and social issues and locating environmental problems within the context of one's daily life and action. Section 2…

  3. Expansion of the Real-Time SPoRT-Land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L; White, Kristopher D.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center in Huntsville, AL is running a real-time configuration of the Noah land surface model (LSM) within the NASA Land Information System (LIS) framework (hereafter referred to as the "SPoRT-LIS"). Output from the real-time SPoRT-LIS is used for (1) initializing land surface variables for local modeling applications, and (2) displaying in decision support systems for situational awareness and drought monitoring at select NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) partner offices. The experimental CONUS run incorporates hourly quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE) from the National Severe Storms Laboratory Multi- Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS) which will be transitioned into operations at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) in Fall 2014.This paper describes the current and experimental SPoRT-LIS configurations, and documents some of the limitations still remaining through the advent of MRMS precipitation analyses in the SPoRT-LIS land surface model (LSM) simulations.

  4. Aerosol scavenging: model application and sensitivity analysis in the Indian context.

    PubMed

    Pandey, J S; Khan, S; Joseph, V; Kumar, R

    2002-03-01

    Sulfate aerosols have been found to be the major contributors to precipitation acidity. Thus, in view of the long-term ecological repercussions they have on aquatic ecosystems and their acidity-potential, the present analysis focuses on a case study application of the layer-averaged aerosol-scavenging model (Okita et al., 1996) for predicting values of the wet scavenging coefficient and sulfate concentrations in precipitation samples on the basis of the information available for some selected Indian cities. Through sensitivity analysis (Pandey et al., 1997) the scavenging coefficient has been found to be very strongly dependent on precipitation intensity. Comparison of model predictions has been done with the measured values for Delhi, Mumbai, Calcutta and Chennai in India.

  5. Application of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) for controlling subsurface fire area: Indian context

    SciTech Connect

    Mohalik, N.K.; Singh, V.K.; Singh, R.V.K.

    2009-07-15

    In bord and pillar method of mining, the panels are sealed off after depillaring. Depending upon the site specific condition, 40 to 45 % coal are left in depillared panel as stook, loose coal left in goaf, hard coal on floor and roof of the panel. The left out coals in goaf area start oxidation, and this leads to spontaneous heating in side sealed off area. For assessment of fire in underground coal mines, thermo-compositional monitoring plays an important role. This paper presents scientific relevance and selective criteria for use of inert gas for control of subsurface fire. Finally the paper discusses spontaneous heating problem in sealed off area and application of inertisation technology by using CO, to prevent and control sealed off fire at Haripur Colliery, Kenda Area, ECL, India.

  6. Context enrichment of health risk surveillance data for use and application: conceptual considerations from an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Zubrick, Stephen R

    2005-01-01

    Increasing the relevance of health surveillance data for use and application remains a critical issue among users and stakeholders. However methods for displaying and communicating health risk data could do more to enrich these data for use and application. There is too much focus on developers, users and stakeholders and not enough focus on pathway models of disease and health. A greater focus on pathway models would help detail a wider explanation of the health problems across sectors and encourage better acceptance of responsibility for their occurrence within other sectors. Contextual enrichment of health data would encourage a shared theory among these players that would permit greater use and application. Better use of data and its translation into information and increased policy traction are likely to be achieved through processes that effectively: (1) establish a shared theoretical base for risk behaviour surveillance; (2) deliver data about the health and developmental status of individuals living in contexts over time; (3) maintain a systems approach to monitoring and surveillance that builds capacity for development, ownership, access to and dissemination of the data outside of the health system and (4) achieve sustainable partnerships that produce more intersectoral engagement. PMID:16003914

  7. Kepler Scientific Workflow Design and Execution with Contexts

    SciTech Connect

    Ngu, Anne Hee Hiong; Jamnagarwala, Arwa; Chin, George; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Critchlow, Terence J.

    2011-09-01

    A context-aware scientific workflow is a typical scientific workflow that is enhanced with context binding and awareness mechanisms. Context facilitates further configuration of the scientific workflow at runtime such that it is tuned to its environment during execution and responds intelligently based on such awareness without customized coding of the workflow. In this paper, we present a context annotation framework, which supports rapid development of context-aware scientific workflows. Context annotation enables a diverse type of actor in Kepler that may bind with different sensed environmental information as part of the actor’s regular data. Context-aware actors simplify the construction of scientific workflows that require intricate knowledge in initializing and configuring a large number of parameters to cover all different execution conditions. This paper presents the motivation, system design, implementation, and usage of context annotation in relation to the Kepler scientific workflow system.

  8. Detecting submerged objects: the application of side scan sonar to forensic contexts.

    PubMed

    Schultz, John J; Healy, Carrie A; Parker, Kenneth; Lowers, Bim

    2013-09-10

    Forensic personnel must deal with numerous challenges when searching for submerged objects. While traditional water search methods have generally involved using dive teams, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), and water scent dogs for cases involving submerged objects and bodies, law enforcement is increasingly integrating multiple methods that include geophysical technologies. There are numerous advantages for integrating geophysical technologies, such as side scan sonar and ground penetrating radar (GPR), with more traditional search methods. Overall, these methods decrease the time involved searching, in addition to increasing area searched. However, as with other search methods, there are advantages and disadvantages when using each method. For example, in instances with excessive aquatic vegetation or irregular bottom terrain, it may not be possible to discern a submersed body with side scan sonar. As a result, forensic personnel will have the highest rate of success during searches for submerged objects when integrating multiple search methods, including deploying multiple geophysical technologies. The goal of this paper is to discuss the methodology of various search methods that are employed for submerged objects and how these various methods can be integrated as part of a comprehensive protocol for water searches depending upon the type of underwater terrain. In addition, two successful case studies involving the search and recovery of a submerged human body using side scan sonar are presented to illustrate the successful application of integrating a geophysical technology with divers when searching for a submerged object. PMID:23890654

  9. Detecting submerged objects: the application of side scan sonar to forensic contexts.

    PubMed

    Schultz, John J; Healy, Carrie A; Parker, Kenneth; Lowers, Bim

    2013-09-10

    Forensic personnel must deal with numerous challenges when searching for submerged objects. While traditional water search methods have generally involved using dive teams, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), and water scent dogs for cases involving submerged objects and bodies, law enforcement is increasingly integrating multiple methods that include geophysical technologies. There are numerous advantages for integrating geophysical technologies, such as side scan sonar and ground penetrating radar (GPR), with more traditional search methods. Overall, these methods decrease the time involved searching, in addition to increasing area searched. However, as with other search methods, there are advantages and disadvantages when using each method. For example, in instances with excessive aquatic vegetation or irregular bottom terrain, it may not be possible to discern a submersed body with side scan sonar. As a result, forensic personnel will have the highest rate of success during searches for submerged objects when integrating multiple search methods, including deploying multiple geophysical technologies. The goal of this paper is to discuss the methodology of various search methods that are employed for submerged objects and how these various methods can be integrated as part of a comprehensive protocol for water searches depending upon the type of underwater terrain. In addition, two successful case studies involving the search and recovery of a submerged human body using side scan sonar are presented to illustrate the successful application of integrating a geophysical technology with divers when searching for a submerged object.

  10. Personalizing situation awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Linn Marks; Powell, James E; Roman, Jorge R; Martinez, Mark L B; Mane, Ketan K

    2009-01-01

    Emergency responders need access to information but what counts as actionable information depends on their role, task, location, and other variables. For example, experts who have unique knowledge and experience and are called on to serve as scientific and teclmical responders, require correspondingly unique situation awareness in order to do their work. In our research-in-progress we leverage emerging and evolving web and digital library technologies to create personalized situation awareness tools that address the needs of these scientific and technical responders in real time, through focused information collection, extraction, integration, representation, and dissemination. We describe three personalized situation awareness tools in this paper: the Theme Awareness Tool (THEMAT), Social Awareness Tool (SAT), and Expertise Awareness Tool (EXPAT). The concepts and technologies we are developing in collaboration with experts apply to those who use the Web, in general, and offer an approach to the general issue of HCI design for emergencies.

  11. Teacher Language Awareness in Supervisory Feedback Cycles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Kristen; Baecher, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates pre- and post-observation feedback provided to TESOL teacher candidates who are preparing to work in content-based instruction/content and language integrated learning contexts, extending the conceptualization of teacher language awareness (TLA) to candidate supervision. It examines the extent to which TLA is manifested by…

  12. Awareness and Monitoring in Outdoor Marine Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepath, Carl

    2004-01-01

    Background: This paper examines learning relationships associated with awareness, attitude and participatory action skills in the context of community education programs concerning the marine environment. Purpose: An investigation of the relationship of experiential marine education to environmental knowledge, attitudes and responsible ecological…

  13. Language Awareness Research: Where We Are Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalberg, Agneta M-L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper outlines the context in which Language Awareness (LA) research is currently situated and where it might be going. The starting point is Eric Hawkins's vision (40 years ago) of LA as a bridge between school subjects and, in wider society, between people of different backgrounds and languages. Although considerable progress has been made…

  14. Quantized visual awareness

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, W. A.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed model holds that, at its most fundamental level, visual awareness is quantized. That is to say that visual awareness arises as individual bits of awareness through the action of neural circuits with hundreds to thousands of neurons in at least the human striate cortex. Circuits with specific topologies will reproducibly result in visual awareness that correspond to basic aspects of vision like color, motion, and depth. These quanta of awareness (qualia) are produced by the feedforward sweep that occurs through the geniculocortical pathway but are not integrated into a conscious experience until recurrent processing from centers like V4 or V5 select the appropriate qualia being produced in V1 to create a percept. The model proposed here has the potential to shift the focus of the search for visual awareness to the level of microcircuits and these likely exist across the kingdom Animalia. Thus establishing qualia as the fundamental nature of visual awareness will not only provide a deeper understanding of awareness, but also allow for a more quantitative understanding of the evolution of visual awareness throughout the animal kingdom. PMID:24319436

  15. Edge-Aware BMA Filters.

    PubMed

    Guang Deng

    2016-01-01

    There has been continuous research in edge-aware filters which have found many applications in computer vision and image processing. In this paper, we propose a principled-approach for the development of edge-aware filters. The proposed approach is based on two well-established principles: 1) optimal parameter estimation and 2) Bayesian model averaging (BMA). Using this approach, we formulate the problem of filtering a pixel in a local pixel patch as an optimal estimation problem. Since a pixel belongs to multiple local patches, there are multiple estimates of the same pixel. We combine these estimates into a final estimate using BMA. We demonstrate the versatility of this approach by developing a family of BMA filters based on different settings of cost functions and log-likelihood and log-prior functions. We also present a new interpretation of the guided filter and develop a BMA guided filter which includes the guided filter as a special case. We show that BMA filters can produce similar smoothing results as those of the state-of-the-art edge-aware filters. Two BMA filters are computationally as efficient as the guided filter which is one of the fastest edge-aware filters. We also demonstrate that the BMA guided filter is better than the guided filter in preserving sharp edges. A new feature of the BMA guided filter is that the filtered image is similar to that produced by a clustering process.

  16. Achieving Optimal Privacy in Trust-Aware Social Recommender Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokoohaki, Nima; Kaleli, Cihan; Polat, Huseyin; Matskin, Mihhail

    Collaborative filtering (CF) recommenders are subject to numerous shortcomings such as centralized processing, vulnerability to shilling attacks, and most important of all privacy. To overcome these obstacles, researchers proposed for utilization of interpersonal trust between users, to alleviate many of these crucial shortcomings. Till now, attention has been mainly paid to strong points about trust-aware recommenders such as alleviating profile sparsity or calculation cost efficiency, while least attention has been paid on investigating the notion of privacy surrounding the disclosure of individual ratings and most importantly protection of trust computation across social networks forming the backbone of these systems. To contribute to addressing problem of privacy in trust-aware recommenders, within this paper, first we introduce a framework for enabling privacy-preserving trust-aware recommendation generation. While trust mechanism aims at elevating recommender's accuracy, to preserve privacy, accuracy of the system needs to be decreased. Since within this context, privacy and accuracy are conflicting goals we show that a Pareto set can be found as an optimal setting for both privacy-preserving and trust-enabling mechanisms. We show that this Pareto set, when used as the configuration for measuring the accuracy of base collaborative filtering engine, yields an optimized tradeoff between conflicting goals of privacy and accuracy. We prove this concept along with applicability of our framework by experimenting with accuracy and privacy factors, and we show through experiment how such optimal set can be inferred.

  17. Blogging and Audience Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Diane; Shea, Andrea; Wolsey, Thomas DeVere

    2011-01-01

    Weblogs or blogging may foreground audience needs for a written work and help novice authors grow in audience awareness and elicit and use audience feedback. A case study of a second-grade classroom compared students' growing audience awareness and the ways they addressed audience needs. Analysis of student written work, students' comments to…

  18. Multisensory constraints on awareness

    PubMed Central

    Deroy, Ophelia; Chen, Yi-Chuan; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Given that multiple senses are often stimulated at the same time, perceptual awareness is most likely to take place in multisensory situations. However, theories of awareness are based on studies and models established for a single sense (mostly vision). Here, we consider the methodological and theoretical challenges raised by taking a multisensory perspective on perceptual awareness. First, we consider how well tasks designed to study unisensory awareness perform when used in multisensory settings, stressing that studies using binocular rivalry, bistable figure perception, continuous flash suppression, the attentional blink, repetition blindness and backward masking can demonstrate multisensory influences on unisensory awareness, but fall short of tackling multisensory awareness directly. Studies interested in the latter phenomenon rely on a method of subjective contrast and can, at best, delineate conditions under which individuals report experiencing a multisensory object or two unisensory objects. As there is not a perfect match between these conditions and those in which multisensory integration and binding occur, the link between awareness and binding advocated for visual information processing needs to be revised for multisensory cases. These challenges point at the need to question the very idea of multisensory awareness. PMID:24639579

  19. Environmental Awareness Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Fred C.

    Environmental Awareness is the theme of this bibliography compiled by the Friends Council on Education to assist in the task of implementing environmental awareness courses and experiences into the crowded curricula and extra-curricular life of schools and colleges. Part One, "Definition of the Problem," is a selected bibliography of printed…

  20. Experience with Using the Sensewear BMS Sensor System in the Context of a Health and Wellbeing Application

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Val; Bults, Richard; de Wijk, Rene; Widya, Ing; Batista, Ricardo; Hermens, Hermie

    2011-01-01

    An assessment of a sensor designed for monitoring energy expenditure, activity, and sleep was conducted in the context of a research project which develops a weight management application. The overall goal of this project is to affect sustainable behavioural change with respect to diet and exercise in order to improve health and wellbeing. This paper reports results of a pretrial in which three volunteers wore the sensor for a total of 11 days. The aim was to gain experience with the sensor and determine if it would be suitable for incorporation into the ICT system developed by the project to be trialled later on a larger population. In this paper we focus mainly on activity monitoring and user experience. Data and results including visualizations and reports are presented and discussed. User experience proved positive in most respects. Exercise levels and sleep patterns correspond to user logs relating to exercise sessions and sleep patterns. Issues raised relate to accuracy, one source of possible interference, the desirability of enhancing the system with real-time data transmission, and analysis to enable real-time feedback. It is argued that automatic activity classification is needed to properly analyse and interpret physical activity data captured by accelerometry. PMID:21772840

  1. Phonological Awareness Is Child's Play!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yopp, Hallie Kay; Yopp, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Noticing and being able to manipulate the sounds of spoken language-phonological awareness-is highly related to later success in reading and spelling. The authors define and explain the levels of phonological awareness-syllable awareness, onset-rime awareness, phoneme awareness. They give teachers step-by-step instructions for implementing a…

  2. An Illustrative Case Study of the Heuristic Practices of a High-Performing Research Department: Toward Building a Model Applicable in the Context of Large Urban Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Marco A.; Rodosky, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    This case study provides an illustration of the heuristic practices of a high-performing research department, which in turn, will help build much needed models applicable in the context of large urban districts. This case study examines the accountability, planning, evaluation, testing, and research functions of a research department in a large…

  3. Expansion of the Real-time Sport-land Information System for NOAA/National Weather Service Situational Awareness and Local Modeling Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Jonathan L.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has been running a real-time version of the Land Information System (LIS) since summer 2010 (hereafter, SPoRTLIS). The real-time SPoRT-LIS runs the Noah land surface model (LSM) in an offline capacity apart from a numerical weather prediction model, using input atmospheric and precipitation analyses (i.e., "forcings") to drive the Noah LSM integration at 3-km resolution. Its objectives are to (1) produce local-scale information about the soil state for NOAA/National Weather Service (NWS) situational awareness applications such as drought monitoring and assessing flood potential, and (2) provide land surface initialization fields for local modeling initiatives. The current domain extent has been limited by the input atmospheric analyses that drive the Noah LSM integration within SPoRT-LIS, specifically the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Stage IV precipitation analyses. Due to the nature of the geographical edges of the Stage IV precipitation grid and its limitations in the western U.S., the SPoRT-LIS was originally confined to a domain fully nested within the Stage IV grid, over the southeastern half of the Conterminous United States (CONUS). In order to expand the real-time SPoRT-LIS to a full CONUS domain, alternative precipitation forcing datasets were explored in year-long, offline comparison runs of the Noah LSM. Based on results of these comparison simulations, we chose to implement the radar/gauge-based precipitation analyses from the National Severe Storms Laboratory as a replacement to the Stage IV product. The Multi-Radar Multi-Sensor (MRMS; formerly known as the National Mosaic and multi-sensor Quantitative precipitation estimate) product has full CONUS coverage at higher-resolution, thereby providing better coverage and greater detail than that of the Stage IV product. This paper will describe the expanded/upgraded SPoRT-LIS, present comparisons between the

  4. Year 2000 awareness

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, C.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the challenges business face with the year 2000 software problem. Estimates, roadmaps, virtual factory software, current awareness, and world wide web references are given.

  5. Aviation Career Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes a kit containing seven units, each designed to increase the elementary school student's awareness of aviation and career possibilities in aviation. Includes a sample section from one unit. (MLH)

  6. Population Education. Awareness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouse, Deborah E.

    1990-01-01

    Described are awareness activities that deal with human population growth, resources, and the environment. Activities include simulations, mathematical exercises, and discussions of the topic. Specific examples of what individuals can do to help are listed. (KR)

  7. Sleep and moral awareness.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Christopher M; Gunia, Brian C; Wagner, David T

    2015-04-01

    The implications of sleep for morality are only starting to be explored. Extending the ethics literature, we contend that because bringing morality to conscious attention requires effort, a lack of sleep leads to low moral awareness. We test this prediction with three studies. A laboratory study with a manipulation of sleep across 90 participants judging a scenario for moral content indicates that a lack of sleep leads to low moral awareness. An archival study of Google Trends data across 6 years highlights a national dip in Web searches for moral topics (but not other topics) on the Monday after the Spring time change, which tends to deprive people of sleep. Finally, a diary study of 127 participants indicates that (within participants) nights with a lack of sleep are associated with low moral awareness the next day. Together, these three studies suggest that a lack of sleep leaves people less morally aware, with important implications for the recognition of morality in others.

  8. Child Care Aware

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connected With Enews Subscribe Child Care Aware® of America Overview Vision & Mission Audience Partners Child Care Providers ... Public Policy Agenda 2016-2017 Child Care in America: 2016 State Fact Sheets We Can Do Better – ...

  9. Psychotherapist and expansion of awareness.

    PubMed

    Chung, C Y

    1990-01-01

    The author emphasizes the therapist's well-integrated and matured personality as the crucial element for being a good psychotherapist; therefore, it is essential for a psychotherapist to make ceaseless efforts regarding his own personality growth with his ongoing therapeutic experiences. Nevertheless, nowadays students are apt to satisfy themselves with or cling to the theories and techniques of psychotherapy, neglecting their own personality growth. The author attributes such a tendency, on the one hand, to the contemporary thought of 'technology first and convenience first', on the other, to the current system of medical education which is extremely faithful to scientism. He warns that concepts or theories sometimes serve as a barrier in one's mind and falsify the reality. He reiterates the importance of the therapist's own maturity and expansion of awareness. In this context, the author recommends Zen meditation or Theravada meditation as one of the advanced courses of training for psychotherapists. He elucidates a way of promoting one's awareness in Zen meditation and what the ultimate state of "no-self" of Zen should be, based on his own experience of Zen practices.

  10. Raising Cultural Awareness in the English Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jerrold

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can incorporate cultural knowledge into English language classes, exploring elements of culture, intercultural phenomena, and high-context and low-context cultures. Activities offered by the author to raise cultural awareness include web quests, role plays, cultural observations, and culture journals.

  11. Awareness and Use of Folic Acid among Women in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, James M.; Hopkins, Sarah E.; Mosley, Bridget S.; Casey, Patrick H.; Cleves, Mario A.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.

    2006-01-01

    Context: National and state efforts to increase folic acid awareness and use may not be reaching large segments of the population. Purpose: This study examines folic acid awareness and use among women of childbearing age in a representative, economically at-risk rural sample and identifies factors that influence awareness and use. Methods: A…

  12. Using Visual Analytics to Maintain Situation Awareness in Astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Aragon, Cecilia R.; Poon, Sarah S.; Aldering, Gregory S.; Thomas, Rollin C.; Quimby, Robert

    2008-07-01

    We present a novel collaborative visual analytics application for cognitively overloaded users in the astrophysics domain. The system was developed for scientists needing to analyze heterogeneous, complex data under time pressure, and then make predictions and time-critical decisions rapidly and correctly under a constant influx of changing data. The Sunfall Data Taking system utilizes severalnovel visualization and analysis techniques to enable a team of geographically distributed domain specialists to effectively and remotely maneuver a custom-built instrument under challenging operational conditions. Sunfall Data Taking has been in use for over eighteen months by a major international astrophysics collaboration (the largest data volume supernova search currently in operation), and has substantially improved the operational efficiency of its users. We describe the system design process by an interdisciplinary team, the system architecture, and the results of an informal usability evaluation of the production system by domain experts in the context of Endsley?s three levels of situation awareness.

  13. Improving situation awareness with the Android Team Awareness Kit (ATAK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usbeck, Kyle; Gillen, Matthew; Loyall, Joseph; Gronosky, Andrew; Sterling, Joshua; Kohler, Ralph; Hanlon, Kelly; Scally, Andrew; Newkirk, Richard; Canestrare, David

    2015-05-01

    To make appropriate, timely decisions in the field, Situational Awareness (SA) needs to be conveyed in a decentralized manner to the users at the edge of the network as well as at operations centers. Sharing real-time SA efficiently between command centers and operational troops poses many challenges, including handling heterogeneous and dynamic networks, resource constraints, and varying needs for the collection, dissemination, and display of information, as well as recording that information. A mapping application that allows teams to share relevant geospatial information efficiently and to communicate effectively with one another and command centers has wide applicability to many vertical markets across the Department of Defense, as well as a wide variety of federal, state local, and non-profit agencies that need to share locations, text, photos, and video. This paper describes the Android Team Awareness Kit (ATAK), an advanced, distributed tool for commercial- off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. ATAK provides a variety of useful SA functions for soldiers, law enforcement, homeland defense, and civilian collaborative use; including mapping and navigation, range and bearing, text chat, force tracking, geospatial markup tools, image and file sharing, video playback, site surveys, and many others. This paper describes ATAK, the SA tools that ATAK has built-in, and the ways it is being used by a variety of military, homeland security, and law enforcement users.

  14. Links among emotional awareness, somatic awareness and autonomic homeostatic processing.

    PubMed

    Kanbara, Kenji; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2016-01-01

    Emotional awareness and somatic interoceptive awareness are essential processes for human psychosomatic health. A typical trait of lacking emotional awareness related to psychosomatic symptoms is alexithymia. In contrast, alexisomia refers to the trait of lacking somatic awareness. Links between emotional and somatic awareness and homeostatic processing are also significant for the psychosomatic health. The purpose of the present paper is to review the links among emotional awareness, somatic interoceptive awareness and autonomic homeostatic processing. On the basis of the collected evidence, the following arguments were presented(1): (1) The main subcortical neural substrates for these processes are limbic-related systems, which are also responsible for autonomic functions for optimization of homeostatic efficiency. (2) Considerable studies have shown that autonomic activity and/or reactivity to stress correlate with both emotional and interoceptive awareness. A hypothesis was advocated about the links between the two types of awareness and autonomic function: Autonomic dysfunction, especially high sympathetic tone at baseline and/or attenuated reactivity or variability to stress, appears to be involved in disturbance of emotional and interoceptive awareness. (3) Several studies suggest that a link or a cooperative relationship exists between emotional and somatic awareness, and that somatic awareness is the more fundamental of the two types of awareness. Emotional awareness, somatic awareness and autonomic homeostatic processing generally occur in parallel or concurrently. However, some complex features of pathologies include coexistence of reduced interoceptive awareness and somatosensory amplification. The autonomic homeostatic process is fundamentally involved in emotional and somatic awareness. Investigation of these types of awareness with both neuroimaging evaluations and estimation of peripheral autonomic function are required as next steps for exploration

  15. Correlates of Awareness of and Willingness to Use Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Geosocial-Networking Smartphone Applications in New York City.

    PubMed

    Goedel, William C; Halkitis, Perry N; Greene, Richard E; Duncan, Dustin T

    2016-07-01

    Geosocial-networking smartphone applications are commonly used by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet sexual partners. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM who use geosocial-networking smartphone applications residing in New York City. Recruitment utilizing broadcast advertisements on a popular smartphone application for MSM yielded a sample of 152 HIV-uninfected MSM. Multivariable models were used to assess demographic and behavioral correlates of awareness of and willingness to use PrEP. Most participants (85.5 %) had heard about PrEP but few (9.2 %) reported current use. Unwillingness to use PrEP was associated with concerns about side effects (PR = 0.303; 95 % CI 0.130, 0.708; p = 0.006). Given that more than half (57.6 %) of participants were willing to use PrEP, future research is needed to elucidate both individual and structural barriers to PrEP use among MSM. PMID:26966013

  16. Correlates of Awareness of and Willingness to Use Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) in Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Geosocial-Networking Smartphone Applications in New York City.

    PubMed

    Goedel, William C; Halkitis, Perry N; Greene, Richard E; Duncan, Dustin T

    2016-07-01

    Geosocial-networking smartphone applications are commonly used by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) to meet sexual partners. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate awareness of and willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) among MSM who use geosocial-networking smartphone applications residing in New York City. Recruitment utilizing broadcast advertisements on a popular smartphone application for MSM yielded a sample of 152 HIV-uninfected MSM. Multivariable models were used to assess demographic and behavioral correlates of awareness of and willingness to use PrEP. Most participants (85.5 %) had heard about PrEP but few (9.2 %) reported current use. Unwillingness to use PrEP was associated with concerns about side effects (PR = 0.303; 95 % CI 0.130, 0.708; p = 0.006). Given that more than half (57.6 %) of participants were willing to use PrEP, future research is needed to elucidate both individual and structural barriers to PrEP use among MSM.

  17. Women’s Awareness and Knowledge of Abortion Laws: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Assifi, Anisa R.; Berger, Blair; Tunçalp, Özge; Khosla, Rajat; Ganatra, Bela

    2016-01-01

    Background Incorrect knowledge of laws may affect how women enter the health system or seek services, and it likely contributes to the disconnect between official laws and practical applications of the laws that influence women’s access to safe, legal abortion services. Objective To provide a synthesis of evidence of women’s awareness and knowledge of the legal status of abortion in their country, and the accuracy of women’s knowledge on specific legal grounds and restrictions outlined in a country’s abortion law. Methods A systematic search was carried for articles published between 1980–2015. Quantitative, mixed-method data collection, and objectives related to women’s awareness or knowledge of the abortion law was included. Full texts were assessed, and data extraction done by a single reviewer. Final inclusion for analysis was assessed by two reviewers. The results were synthesised into tables, using narrative synthesis. Results Of the original 3,126 articles, and 16 hand searched citations, 24 studies were included for analysis. Women’s correct general awareness and knowledge of the legal status was less than 50% in nine studies. In six studies, knowledge of legalization/liberalisation ranged between 32.3% - 68.2%. Correct knowledge of abortion on the grounds of rape ranged from 12.8% – 98%, while in the case of incest, ranged from 9.8% - 64.5%. Abortion on the grounds of fetal impairment and gestational limits, varied widely from 7% - 94% and 0% - 89.5% respectively. Conclusion This systematic review synthesizes literature on women’s awareness and knowledge of the abortion law in their own context. The findings show that correct general awareness and knowledge of the abortion law and legal grounds and restrictions amongst women was limited, even in countries where the laws were liberal. Thus, interventions to disseminate accurate information on the legal context are necessary. PMID:27010629

  18. Describing the Situational Contexts of Sweetened Product Consumption in a Middle Eastern Canadian Community: Application of a Mixed Method Design

    PubMed Central

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Cargo, Margaret; Receveur, Olivier; Daniel, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the situational contexts in which individuals consume processed sources of dietary sugars. This study aimed to describe the situational contexts associated with the consumption of sweetened food and drink products in a Catholic Middle Eastern Canadian community. A two-stage exploratory sequential mixed-method design was employed with a rationale of triangulation. In stage 1 (n = 62), items and themes describing the situational contexts of sweetened food and drink product consumption were identified from semi-structured interviews and were used to develop the content for the Situational Context Instrument for Sweetened Product Consumption (SCISPC). Face validity, readability and cultural relevance of the instrument were assessed. In stage 2 (n = 192), a cross-sectional study was conducted and exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the structure of themes that emerged from the qualitative analysis as a means of furthering construct validation. The SCISPC reliability and predictive validity on the daily consumption of sweetened products were also assessed. In stage 1, six themes and 40-items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption emerged from the qualitative analysis and were used to construct the first draft of the SCISPC. In stage 2, factor analysis enabled the clarification and/or expansion of the instrument's initial thematic structure. The revised SCISPC has seven factors and 31 items describing the situational contexts of sweetened product consumption. Initial validation of the instrument indicated it has excellent internal consistency and adequate test-retest reliability. Two factors of the SCISPC had predictive validity for the daily consumption of total sugar from sweetened products (Snacking and Energy demands) while the other factors (Socialization, Indulgence, Constraints, Visual Stimuli and Emotional needs) were rather associated to occasional consumption of these products. PMID:23028597

  19. Network-Based Learning and Assessment Applications on the Semantic Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, David

    2005-01-01

    Today's Web applications are already "aware" of the network of computers and data on the Internet, in the sense that they perceive, remember, and represent knowledge external to themselves. However, Web applications are generally not able to respond to the meaning and context of the information in their memories. As a result, most applications are…

  20. Environmental Awareness Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halnen, Andrew; And Others

    This sampler for teachers provides information for initiating and dealing with environmental studies in the classroom. Utilizing an interdisciplinary approach, behavioral objectives related to environmental awareness are listed for social studies, science, mathematics, language arts, health, physical education, recreation, music, and local…

  1. Career Awareness: Grade 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade two, performance…

  2. Enhancing Ethical Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Diane; Walker, Mary

    2012-01-01

    As teachers continue professional development throughout their careers to better serve the educational needs of students who are gifted, it becomes apparent that one of the goals is to strive to increase self-awareness of ethical and moral professional decisions and actions. Often, this requires intentional reminders and deliberate work to…

  3. Career Awareness: Grade 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade five, performance…

  4. Career Awareness: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The format for grade six, performance…

  5. Career Awareness: Grade 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and career education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The introduction contains the format for…

  6. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  7. Fostering Pragmatic Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Maryann; Yule, George

    1999-01-01

    Offers examples and proposals for fostering pragmatic awareness in a second language (L2) through the recognition of the interpersonal function of asset of common expressions in contemporary spoken English. Illustrates the use of these forms in marking assumptions of being similar, polite, accurate, being informative, and emphatic. (Author/VWL)

  8. Safety Awareness & Communications Internship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferson, Zanani

    2015-01-01

    The projects that I have worked on during my internships were updating the JSC Safety & Health Action Team JSAT Employee Guidebook, conducting a JSC mishap case study, preparing for JSC Today Close Call success stories, and assisting with event planning and awareness.

  9. International Agri-Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis.

    Technological progress in communication and transportation within the past 30 years has made many areas of the world accessible, as well as interdependent. Failure to understand the concept of interdependency greatly diminishes the potential of all nations and each citizen to appreciate this world community. This agricultural awareness program…

  10. Public Awareness Viewpoints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Gary, Ed.; Trohanis, Pascal, Ed.

    Designed for state Developmental Disabilities Planning Councils, the booklet presents seven papers dealing with public awareness of handicapped persons. M. Reilly describes the Connecticut Council's project to make contact with key groups of decision makers. The Vermont project is explained by T. Knox in terms of program goals and public relations…

  11. Processing Words without Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, Patricia; And Others

    Three studies were conducted in an attempt to replicate previous research concluding that semantic meaning is accessed in the absence of conscious awareness. A pattern mask was used to interrupt the processing of stimulus words after 30 milliseconds; at this duration subjects were not able to identify the stimulus words or even to determine…

  12. Global Awareness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, James

    The paper discusses the Global Awareness Test administered to 6,396 grade 9 students in New Brunswick, Canada at the beginning and end of the 1987 school year. The test was designed to better assess the impact of the grade 9 social studies program and the activities of New Brunswick's Global Education Centre. By comparing the results of the pre-…

  13. Career Awareness: Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boise City Independent School District, ID.

    A broad educational background is necessary to meet ever changing occupational fields, and Career Education is an approach incorporating career information within the regular school curriculum. For the elementary level, career awareness is the main thrust in this program to integrate students and community. The introduction contains the format for…

  14. Cultural Awareness for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Judy; And Others

    This book documents a portion of The Learning Tree program, which develops cultural awareness. It provides activities, written from practical experience, that are designed to give children their first contact with the customs of other cultures. These activities are for teachers to share with preschool-, kindergarten-, and primary-school-age…

  15. Developing Awareness through Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeming, Robert F., Ed.

    This booklet contains the proceedings of a seminar in which poets demonstrated through readings and analysis of their works how poetry, combining appeals to both reason and emotion, can develop and refine individual awareness of the world and nature around us. The primary participants in the program were Bruce Cutler, Dolores Kendrick, and May…

  16. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology.

  17. Mindfulness in cultural context.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2015-08-01

    Mindfulness meditation and other techniques drawn from Buddhism have increasingly been integrated into forms of psychotherapeutic intervention. In much of this work, mindfulness is understood as a mode of awareness that is present-centered and nonevaluative. This form of awareness is assumed to have intrinsic value in promoting positive mental health and adaptation by interrupting discursive thoughts that give rise to suffering. However, in the societies where it originated, mindfulness meditation is part of a larger system of Buddhist belief and practice with strong ethical and moral dimensions. Extracting techniques like mindfulness meditation from the social contexts in which they originate may change the nature and effects of the practice. The papers in this issue of Transcultural Psychiatry explore the implications of a cultural and contextual view of mindfulness for continued dialogue between Buddhist thought and psychiatry. This introductory essay considers the meanings of mindfulness meditation in cultural context and the uses of mindfulness as a therapeutic intervention in contemporary psychiatry and psychology. PMID:26264787

  18. Language Rights versus Speakers' Rights: On the Applicability of Western Language Rights Approaches in Eastern European Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of the present paper is to draw attention to contexts where two conceptions of linguistic rights--the rights of languages and the rights of speakers--come into conflict. To illustrate such conflict, I will examine justifications of language laws adopted in two post-Soviet countries, Latvia and Ukraine. I will begin with an…

  19. Application of Context Input Process and Product Model in Curriculum Evaluation: Case Study of a Call Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavgaoglu, Derya; Alci, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this research which was carried out in reputable dedicated call centres within the Turkish telecommunication sector aims is to evaluate competence-based curriculums designed by means of internal funding through Stufflebeam's context, input, process, product (CIPP) model. In the research, a general scanning pattern in the scope of…

  20. A Defining Moment in E-Working: The Application of an E-Working Definition to the Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beadle, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Using qualitative data gathered through 144 questionnaires completed online by education sector personnel, this paper examines the relevance of a definition of e-working to the educational context. It identifies that the definition, which draws on and extends existing knowledge and identifies e-working to be a way of being a worker as well as a…

  1. The Context of Context Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L.

    1992-01-01

    A conceptual framework and heuristic model for considering the existence, magnitude, and consequences of context effects are presented through an extension of some generalizability theory concepts. Context effects are often misunderstood, and current measurement models have serious limitations for examining them. Their importance needs to be…

  2. Awareness and Use of the After-Visit Summary Through a Patient Portal: Evaluation of Patient Characteristics and an Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Healey, Michael; Ting, David Y; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Ramelson, Harley; Suric, Vladimir; Bates, David W

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient portals are being used to provide a clinical summary of the office visit or the after-visit summary (AVS) to patients. There has been relatively little research on the characteristics of patients who access the AVS through a patient portal and their beliefs about the AVS. Objective The aim was to (1) assess the characteristics of patients who are aware of and access the AVS through a patient portal and (2) apply the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to predict behavioral intention of patients toward accessing the AVS provided through a patient portal. Methods We developed a survey capturing the components of TPB (beliefs, attitude, perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control). Over a 6-month period, patients with a patient portal account with an office visit in the previous week were identified using our organization’s scheduling system. These patients were sent an email about the study and a link to the survey via their portal account. We applied univariate statistical analysis (Pearson chi-square and 1-way ANOVA) to assess differences among groups (aware/unaware of AVS and accessed/did not access AVS). We reported means and standard deviations to depict belief strengths and presented correlations between beliefs and attitude, perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control. We used hierarchical regression analysis to predict behavioral intention toward accessing the AVS through the patient portal. Results Of the 23,336 patients who were sent the survey, 5370 responded for a response rate of 23.01%. Overall, 76.52% (4109/5370) were aware that the AVS was available through the patient portal and 54.71% of those (2248/4109) accessed the AVS within 5 days of the office visit. Patients who accessed the AVS had a greater number of sessions with the portal (mean 119, SD 221.5) than those who did not access the AVS (mean 79.1, SD 123.3, P<.001); the difference was not significant for awareness of the AVS. The strongest behavioral beliefs with

  3. Ambient Intelligence Context-Based Cross-Layer Design in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Seet, Boon-Chong; Al-Anbuky, Adnan

    2014-01-01

    By exchanging information directly between non-adjacent protocol layers, cross-layer (CL) interaction can significantly improve and optimize network performances such as energy efficiency and delay. This is particularly important for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where sensor devices are energy-constrained and deployed for real-time monitoring applications. Existing CL schemes mainly exploit information exchange between physical, medium access control (MAC), and routing layers, with only a handful involving application layer. For the first time, we proposed a framework for CL optimization based on user context of ambient intelligence (AmI) application and an ontology-based context modeling and reasoning mechanism. We applied the proposed framework to jointly optimize MAC and network (NET) layer protocols for WSNs. Extensive evaluations show that the resulting optimization through context awareness and CL interaction for both MAC and NET layer protocols can yield substantial improvements in terms of throughput, packet delivery, delay, and energy performances. PMID:25317760

  4. Coordinated Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning: Awareness and Awareness Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Jeroen; Bodemer, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, research on awareness during online collaboration focused on topics such as the effects of spatial information about group members' activities on the collaborative process. When the concept of awareness was introduced to computer-supported collaborative learning, this focus shifted to cognitive group awareness (e.g., information…

  5. Improving Speaking Accuracy through Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dormer, Jan Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Increased English learner accuracy can be achieved by leading students through six stages of awareness. The first three awareness stages build up students' motivation to improve, and the second three provide learners with crucial input for change. The final result is "sustained language awareness," resulting in ongoing…

  6. Awareness in dementia: conceptual issues.

    PubMed

    Marková, Ivana S; Clare, Linda; Wang, Michael; Romero, Barbara; Kenny, Geraldine

    2005-09-01

    There has been a recent proliferation of studies exploring awareness in people with dementia and, as is the case with similar studies in other clinical areas, results are generally mixed and inconsistent. One of the reasons underlying variability in study results relates to the complexities around the concept of awareness itself. Two sources of conceptual problems are explored. First, the meaning of awareness is examined and, within the dementia literature, various conceptualizations of awareness are identified which could be traced to three broad frameworks within which awareness and related terms are conceived. Differences between meanings of awareness are thus highlighted and the importance of making such differences explicit in studies was discussed. Second, the relational aspect of awareness is raised as a crucial issue determining the phenomenon of awareness elicited in clinical practice. Thus, in dementia, awareness is related to various "objects" including the illness as a whole, memory problems, activities of daily living, affective changes and many others. In each case, however, the object of awareness will elicit a different phenomenon of awareness, again carrying implications for the generalizability of study results. Clarification of conceptual problems is essential for future work in this area in order that empirical studies can provide meaningful answers concerning the therapeutic and predictive validity of different aspects of awareness.

  7. Situation Awareness and Workload Measures for SAFOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe; Hart, Sandra G.; Allen, Ed (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The present research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale (DRAWS), and a situation awareness measurement tool in which the crews self-evaluation of performance is compared against actual performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of an innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The DRAWS was found to be usable, but it offered no advantages over extant scales, and it had only limited resolution. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective.

  8. Concepts of context in music therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rolvsjord, Randi; Stige, Brynjulf

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary music therapy as well as in related interdisciplinary fields, the importance of context in relation to theory, research, and practice has been emphasized. However, the word context seems to be used in several different ways and conceptualizations of contextual approaches vary too. The objective of this theoretical article is to clarify traditions of language use in relation to context in music therapy. In reviewing and discussing the literature, we focus on the field of mental health care. When discussing issues related to context, this literature partly focuses on the surroundings of music therapy practice, partly on the ecology of reciprocal influences within and between situations or systems. On this basis, three types of context awareness in music therapy are identified: music therapy in context; music therapy as context; and music therapy as interacting contexts. The identified types of context awareness are exemplified through references to music therapy literature and then discussed in relation to two very different metaphors, namely context as frame and context as link. Implications for practice, research, and theory development in music therapy are suggested. PMID:26157199

  9. Physician communication in the operating room: expanding application of face-negotiation theory to the health communication context.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Communication variables that are associated with face-negotiation theory were examined in a sample of operating-room physicians. A survey was administered to anesthesiologists and surgeons at a teaching hospital in the southwestern United States to measure three variables commonly associated with face-negotiation theory: conflict-management style, face concern, and self-construal. The survey instrument that was administered to physicians includes items that measured these three variables in previous face-negotiation research with slight modification of item wording for relevance in the medical setting. The physician data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson's correlations, and t-tests. Results of this initial investigation showed that variables associated with face-negotiation theory were evident in the sample physician population. In addition, the correlations were similar among variables in the medical sample as those found in previous face-negotiation research. Finally, t-tests suggest variance between anesthesiologists and surgeons on specific communication variables. These findings suggest three implications that warrant further investigation with expanded sample size: (1) An intercultural communication theory and instrument can be utilized for health communication research; (2) as applied in a medical context, face-negotiation theory can be expanded beyond traditional intercultural communication boundaries; and (3) theoretically based communication structures applied in a medical context could help explain physician miscommunication in the operating room to assist future design of communication training programs for operating-room physicians.

  10. Physician communication in the operating room: expanding application of face-negotiation theory to the health communication context.

    PubMed

    Kirschbaum, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Communication variables that are associated with face-negotiation theory were examined in a sample of operating-room physicians. A survey was administered to anesthesiologists and surgeons at a teaching hospital in the southwestern United States to measure three variables commonly associated with face-negotiation theory: conflict-management style, face concern, and self-construal. The survey instrument that was administered to physicians includes items that measured these three variables in previous face-negotiation research with slight modification of item wording for relevance in the medical setting. The physician data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson's correlations, and t-tests. Results of this initial investigation showed that variables associated with face-negotiation theory were evident in the sample physician population. In addition, the correlations were similar among variables in the medical sample as those found in previous face-negotiation research. Finally, t-tests suggest variance between anesthesiologists and surgeons on specific communication variables. These findings suggest three implications that warrant further investigation with expanded sample size: (1) An intercultural communication theory and instrument can be utilized for health communication research; (2) as applied in a medical context, face-negotiation theory can be expanded beyond traditional intercultural communication boundaries; and (3) theoretically based communication structures applied in a medical context could help explain physician miscommunication in the operating room to assist future design of communication training programs for operating-room physicians. PMID:21899403

  11. Increasing situational awareness using smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boddhu, Sanjay K.; Williams, Robert L.; Wasser, Edward; Kode, Niranjan

    2012-06-01

    In recent years, the United States Armed Services and various law enforcement agencies have shown increasing interest in evaluating the feasibility of using smartphones and hand-held devices as part of the standard gear for its personnel, who are actively engaged on battlefield or in crime-prone areas. The primary motive driving analysis efforts to employ smartphone-based technologies is the prospect of the increased "Situational Awareness" achievable thru a digitally connected network of armed personnel. Personnel would be equipped with customized smart applications that use the device's sensors (GPS, camera, compass, etc...) to sense the hostile environments as well as enabling them to perform collaborative tasks to effectively complete a given mission. In this vein, as part of the Summer At The Edge (SATE) program, a group of student interns under the guidance of mentors from Qbase and AFRL, have employed smartphones and built three smart applications to tackle three real-world scenarios: PinPoint, IStream, and Cooperative GPS. This paper provides implementation details for these prototype applications, along with the supporting visualization and sensor cloud platforms and discusses results obtained from field testing of the same. Further, the paper concludes by providing the implications of the present work and insights into future work.

  12. Context predictor based sparse sensing technique and smart transmission architecture for IoT enabled remote health monitoring applications.

    PubMed

    Sai Kiran, M P R; Rajalakshmi, P; Acharyya, Amit

    2014-01-01

    In hyperconnectivity scenario, managing the amount of data acquired from sensors in the Body Area Networks (BANs) is one of the major issues. In this paper we propose an on-chip context predictor based sparse sensing technology with smart transmission architecture which makes use of confidence interval calculation from the features that present in the data, thereby achieving statistical guarantee. The proposed architecture uses intelligent sparse sensing, which eradicates the collection of redundant data, thereby reducing the amount of data generated. For the performance analysis, we considered ECG data acquisition and transmission system. The proposed architecture when applied on the data collected from 10 patients reduces the duty cycle of the sensing unit to 27.99%, by achieving an energy saving of 72% and the mean deviation of sampled data from the original data is 2%.

  13. Image processing for flight crew enhanced situation awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry

    1993-01-01

    This presentation describes the image processing work that is being performed for the Enhanced Situational Awareness System (ESAS) application. Specifically, the presented work supports the Enhanced Vision System (EVS) component of ESAS.

  14. Testing Privacy Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Mike

    In web-based business processes the disclosure of personal data by the user is an essential part and mandatory for the processes. Privacy policies help to inform the user about his/her rights and to protect the user’s privacy. In this paper we present a test to empirically measure how the user’s privacy awareness changes by presenting specific elements of the privacy policy in close proximity to the required data items. We compare an experimental group using an enhanced interface to a control group using a conventional interface regarding their capability to recall the agreed privacy-related facts. A concrete online survey has been performed. The major results are presented.

  15. Awareness as observational heterarchy

    PubMed Central

    Sonoda, Kohei; Kodama, Kentaro; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2013-01-01

    Libet et al. (1983) revealed that brain activity precedes conscious intention. For convenience in this study, we divide brain activity into two parts: a conscious field (CF) and an unconscious field (UF). Most studies have assumed a comparator mechanism or an illusion of CF and discuss the difference of prediction and postdiction. We propose that problems to be discussed here are a twisted sense of agency between CF and UF, and another definitions of prediction and postdiction in a mediation process for the twist. This study specifically examines the definitions throughout an observational heterarchy model based on internal measurement. The nature of agency must be emergence that involves observational heterarchy. Consequently, awareness involves processes having duality in the sense that it is always open to the world (postdiction) and that it also maintains self robustly (prediction). PMID:24101912

  16. European Universe Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, P.; Miley, G.; Westra van Holthe, F.; Schrier, W.; Reed, S.

    2011-10-01

    The European Universe Awareness (EU-UNAWE) programme uses the beauty and grandeur of the cosmos to encourage young children, particularly those from underprivileged backgrounds, to develop an interest in science and technology and to foster a sense of global citizenship. EU-UNAWE is already active in 40 countries and comprises a global network of almost 500 astronomers, teachers and other educators. The programme was recently awarded a grant of 1.9 million euros by the European Union so that it can be further developed in five European countries and South Africa. The grant will be used to organise teacher training workshops and to develop educational materials, such as an astronomy news service for children and games. During this presentation we will outline some of the biggest achievements of EU-UNAWE to date and discuss future plans for the programme.

  17. Dark-Skies Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Constance E.

    2009-05-01

    The arc of the Milky Way seen from a truly dark location is part of our planet's natural heritage. More than one fifth of the world population, two thirds of the United States population and one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. This loss, caused by light pollution, is a serious and growing issue that impacts astronomical research, the economy, ecology, energy conservation, human health, public safety and our shared ability to see the night sky. For this reason, "Dark Skies” is a cornerstone project of the International Year of Astronomy. Its goal is to raise public awareness of the impact of artificial lighting on local environments by getting people worldwide involved in a variety of programs that: 1. Teach about dark skies using new technology (e.g., an activity-based planetarium show on DVD, podcasting, social networking on Facebook and MySpace, a Second Life presence) 2. Provide thematic events on light pollution at star parties and observatory open houses (Dark Skies Discovery Sites, Nights in the (National) Parks, Sidewalk Astronomy) 3. Organize events in the arts (e.g., a photography contest) 4. Involve citizen-scientists in naked-eye and digital-meter star hunting programs (e.g., GLOBE at Night, "How Many Stars?", the Great World Wide Star Count and the radio frequency interference equivalent: "Quiet Skies") and 5. Raise awareness about the link between light pollution and public health, economic issues, ecological consequences, energy conservation, safety and security, and astronomy (e.g., The Starlight Initiative, World Night in Defense of Starlight, International Dark Sky Week, International Dark-Sky Communities, Earth Hour, The Great Switch Out, a traveling exhibit, downloadable posters and brochures). The presentation will provide an update, describe how people can become involved and take a look ahead at the program's sustainability. For more information, visit www.darkskiesawareness.org.

  18. "Community Aware" Education Policy: Enhancing Individual and Community Vitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, Hope; McGrath, Brian; Sipple, John W.; Todd, Liz

    2016-01-01

    This paper advances the theoretical and applied connection between education policy and community development. We call this community-aware education policy, and it is based on Dean's (2012) conception of human need that is thick (i.e., accounts for a relational context), rather than relying solely on a thin conception (i.e., instrumental view…

  19. A Handbook for Developing Multicultural Awareness. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Paul

    Counselors who disregard a client's cultural context are unlikely to interpret a client's behavior accurately. The same behavior across cultures might have a different interpretation, just as different behaviors might have the same interpretation. Therefore, developing multicultural awareness is essential for all counselors to accurately interpret…

  20. Phonological Awareness in Kindergarten: A Field Study in Luxembourgish Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bode, Sylvie; Content, Alain

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effectiveness of a phonological awareness training program in the specific context of the Luxembourgish educational system. The intervention was run by the kindergarten teachers in their classes with minimal external supervision. Forty-one classes of the area around Luxembourg City participated in…

  1. The Awareness of Morphemic Knowledge for Young Adults' Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varatharajoo, Chandrakala; Asmawi, Adelina Binti; Abdallah, Nabeel; Abedalaziz, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    The study explored the awareness of morphemic knowledge among young adult learners in the ESL context. Morphological Relatedness Test and Morphological Structure Test (adapted from Curinga, 2014) were two important tools used to assess the students' morphemic knowledge in this study. The tests measured the students' ability to reflect and…

  2. Telecollaboration and Sociopragmatic Awareness in the Foreign Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martí, Natalia Morollón; Fernández, Susana S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and implementation of a pedagogical intervention aimed at raising sociopragmatic awareness in the context of Spanish as a foreign language in Denmark. The intervention consists of a blended-learning environment where the three main components are synchronous telecollaboration via Skype, reflection sessions in groups…

  3. Seniors: Current Events and Consumer Awareness. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molek, Carol

    A project was conducted to design and implement a curriculum for older adults in the areas of consumer events and consumer awareness. The project aimed to improve the seniors' basic skills by providing relevant content in a basic education context. During the project a curriculum was developed and presented through workshops held in 2 senior…

  4. A distributed reasoning engine ecosystem for semantic context-management in smart environments.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Aitor; López-de-Ipiña, Diego

    2012-01-01

    To be able to react adequately a smart environment must be aware of the context and its changes. Modeling the context allows applications to better understand it and to adapt to its changes. In order to do this an appropriate formal representation method is needed. Ontologies have proven themselves to be one of the best tools to do it. Semantic inference provides a powerful framework to reason over the context data. But there are some problems with this approach. The inference over semantic context information can be cumbersome when working with a large amount of data. This situation has become more common in modern smart environments where there are a lot sensors and devices available. In order to tackle this problem we have developed a mechanism to distribute the context reasoning problem into smaller parts in order to reduce the inference time. In this paper we describe a distributed peer-to-peer agent architecture of context consumers and context providers. We explain how this inference sharing process works, partitioning the context information according to the interests of the agents, location and a certainty factor. We also discuss the system architecture, analyzing the negotiation process between the agents. Finally we compare the distributed reasoning with the centralized one, analyzing in which situations is more suitable each approach. PMID:23112596

  5. Design and technical evaluation of an enhanced location-awareness service enabler for spatial disorientation management of elderly with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Pedro A; Hernando, M Elena; Gómez, Enrique J

    2015-01-01

    The progressive ageing of population has turned the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) into a prevalent disease suffered by elderly. Consequently, the spatial disorientation has become a significant problem for older people and their caregivers. The ambient-assisted living applications are offering location-based services for empowering elderly to go outside and encouraging a greater independence. Therefore, this paper describes the design and technical evaluation of a location-awareness service enabler aimed at supporting and managing probable wandering situations of a person with MCI. Through the presence capabilities of the IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) architecture, the service will alert patient's contacts if a hazardous situation is detected depending on his location. Furthermore, information about the older person's security areas has been included in the user profile managed by IMS. In doing so, the service enabler introduced contribute to "context-awareness" paradigm allowing the adaptation and personalization of services depending on user's context and specific conditions or preferences.

  6. From Cultural Awareness to Intercultural Awareness: Culture in ELT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Will

    2012-01-01

    Cultural awareness (CA) has emerged over the last few decades as a significant part of conceptualizing the cultural dimension to language teaching. That is, L2 users need to understand L2 communication as a cultural process and to be aware of their own culturally based communicative behaviour and that of others. However, while CA has provided a…

  7. Exploring the Use of Multidimensional Analysis of Learner Language to Promote Register Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguado-Jimenez, Pilar; Perez-Paredes, Pascual; Sanchez, Purificacion

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of multidimensional analysis (MA) of learner language to promote the awareness of linguistic concepts such as register and variation. Our research explores the introduction of learner register awareness by using MA of learner language in the field of university Foreign Language Teaching (FLT). In this context, a group…

  8. Brief Report: Teachers' Awareness of the Relationship between Prior Knowledge and New Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    The author examined the degree to which experienced teachers are aware of the relationship between prior knowledge and new learning. Interviews with teachers revealed that they were explicitly aware of when students made connections between prior knowledge and new learning, when they applied their prior knowledge to new contexts, and when they…

  9. Development of a VR Application for Binge Eating Treatment: Identification of Contexts and Cues Related to Bingeing Behavior in Spanish Italian Patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrer-Garcia, Marta; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Pla, Joana; Riva, Giuseppe; Andreu-Gracia, Alexis; Dakanalis, Antonios; Fernandez-Aranda, Fernando; Forcano, Laura; Ribas-Sabaté, Joan; Riesco, Nadine; Rus-Calafel, Mar; Sánchez, Isabel; Sanchez-Planell, Luís

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify frequent situations and specific cues that produce the craving to binge in Spanish and Italian samples of patients with eating disorders (ED). There were two main aims: to assess transcultural differences in the contexts and cues that elicit food craving; and to develop valid, reliable VR environments for effective cue-exposure therapy (CET) for patients from both countries. Twenty-six Spanish and 75 Italian ED patients completed an ad hoc questionnaire to assess contexts and cues that trigger the craving to binge. No differences between groups were found. All patients reported experiencing higher levels of craving in the afternoon/early evening and in the late evening/night, between meals, when alone, and more frequently at the end of the week. Being in the dining room, the kitchen, the bedroom, the bakery and the supermarket were the specific situations that produced the highest levels of craving to binge. We used the questionnaire results to develop a virtual reality application for CET.

  10. Value-Based Assessment of New Medical Technologies: Towards a Robust Methodological Framework for the Application of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis in the Context of Health Technology Assessment.

    PubMed

    Angelis, Aris; Kanavos, Panos

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has emerged as a likely alternative to address shortcomings in health technology assessment (HTA) by offering a more holistic perspective to value assessment and acting as an alternative priority setting tool. In this paper, we argue that MCDA needs to subscribe to robust methodological processes related to the selection of objectives, criteria and attributes in order to be meaningful in the context of healthcare decision making and fulfil its role in value-based assessment (VBA). We propose a methodological process, based on multi-attribute value theory (MAVT) methods comprising five distinct phases, outline the stages involved in each phase and discuss their relevance in the HTA process. Importantly, criteria and attributes need to satisfy a set of desired properties, otherwise the outcome of the analysis can produce spurious results and misleading recommendations. Assuming the methodological process we propose is adhered to, the application of MCDA presents three very distinct advantages to decision makers in the context of HTA and VBA: first, it acts as an instrument for eliciting preferences on the performance of alternative options across a wider set of explicit criteria, leading to a more complete assessment of value; second, it allows the elicitation of preferences across the criteria themselves to reflect differences in their relative importance; and, third, the entire process of preference elicitation can be informed by direct stakeholder engagement, and can therefore reflect their own preferences. All features are fully transparent and facilitate decision making.

  11. Value-Based Assessment of New Medical Technologies: Towards a Robust Methodological Framework for the Application of Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis in the Context of Health Technology Assessment.

    PubMed

    Angelis, Aris; Kanavos, Panos

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, multiple criteria decision analysis (MCDA) has emerged as a likely alternative to address shortcomings in health technology assessment (HTA) by offering a more holistic perspective to value assessment and acting as an alternative priority setting tool. In this paper, we argue that MCDA needs to subscribe to robust methodological processes related to the selection of objectives, criteria and attributes in order to be meaningful in the context of healthcare decision making and fulfil its role in value-based assessment (VBA). We propose a methodological process, based on multi-attribute value theory (MAVT) methods comprising five distinct phases, outline the stages involved in each phase and discuss their relevance in the HTA process. Importantly, criteria and attributes need to satisfy a set of desired properties, otherwise the outcome of the analysis can produce spurious results and misleading recommendations. Assuming the methodological process we propose is adhered to, the application of MCDA presents three very distinct advantages to decision makers in the context of HTA and VBA: first, it acts as an instrument for eliciting preferences on the performance of alternative options across a wider set of explicit criteria, leading to a more complete assessment of value; second, it allows the elicitation of preferences across the criteria themselves to reflect differences in their relative importance; and, third, the entire process of preference elicitation can be informed by direct stakeholder engagement, and can therefore reflect their own preferences. All features are fully transparent and facilitate decision making. PMID:26739955

  12. 34 CFR 303.164 - Public awareness program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Application for a Grant Components of A Statewide System-Application Requirements § 303.164 Public awareness program. Each application must include information and assurances... that meets the requirements in § 303.320. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  13. 34 CFR 303.164 - Public awareness program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES State Application for a Grant Components of A Statewide System-Application Requirements § 303.164 Public awareness program. Each application must include information and assurances... that meets the requirements in § 303.320. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget...

  14. An exploration of the notion and nature of the construct of cultural safety and its applicability to the Australian health care context.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2007-07-01

    Cultural safety has been promoted by its New Zealand proponents as an effective process for managing cultural risk in health care and improving the cultural responsiveness of mainstream health services when delivering care to culturally diverse populations. Its effectiveness in this regard has not, however, been comprehensively investigated. A key purpose of this study was to explore and describe what is known and understood about the notion of cultural safety and its possible application to and in Australian health care domains. Findings from the study indicate that the notion of cultural safety is conceptually problematic, poorly understood, and underresearched and, unless substantially revised, cannot be meaningfully applied to the cultural context of Australia. PMID:17607062

  15. Double ABCX model of stress and adaptation in the context of families that care for children with a tracheostomy at home: application of a theory.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Rachel A; Goodfellow, Linda M; Simko, Lynn C

    2014-06-01

    Theories provide a roadmap for scientific inquiry, help organize knowledge, and establish the foundation for knowledge development. The Double ABCX Model of Family Stress and Adaptation is a middle-range theory developed in social science and widely used by researchers of various disciplines. This model encompasses the major variables of interest in this study, including stress, coping, duration of tracheostomy, and quality-of-life, and forms an excellent framework for this specific research study. The purpose of this article was to discuss relationships between various individual and environmental factors that can impact health and well-being in families. In addition, this article illustrates how the application of the model helps nurses and healthcare providers understand the significance of the family context on positive well-being and promote optimal caring practices to achieve a balance in the midst of illness and suffering.

  16. Disengagement Reconsidered: Awareness of Finitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sill, John Stewart

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes research concerning the disengagement theory of aging and examines awareness of finitude. Interviews with residents of old-age institutions revealed awareness of finitude to be a better predictor of disengagement than chronological age. Future research should examine this predictor in noninstitutional settings. (Author)

  17. Computer Awareness for Rural Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Bruce O.

    The meteoric rise of the computer age is a challenge for public educators, many of whom are still unfamiliar with basic computer technology. Yet many educators are finding that they can correct their misconceptions about computers by becoming "computer aware." Computer awareness comes from gaining a knowledge of computer history; a basic…

  18. [Sensory Awareness through Outdoor Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Carin; And Others

    Designed for instruction of emotionally handicapped children and youth, these seven articles present concepts and activities relative to sensory awareness and outdoor education. The first article presents definitions, concepts, detailed methodology, and over 50 activities designed to create awareness of man's five senses. Utilizing the art of…

  19. More Perspectives on Public Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richman, Gary, Ed.; Trohanis, Pascal, Ed.

    The booklet examines approaches in public awareness that may be used by Developmental Disabilities (DD) Councils. The eight chapters are explained to be an outgrowth of a national meeting of DD Councils. L. Wiseman, in "Beyond the Sixty-Second Solution," suggests that political action should be thought of as a public awareness resource, and that…

  20. Ethnic Awareness Through Curriculum Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Michael Joseph

    This study compared the attitudes towards ethnic groups of high school students enrolled in a standard U.S. history course with the attitudes of students enrolled in a revised U.S. history course which emphasized ethnic awareness. A review of the literature indicated a need for ethnic awareness. The experimental group consisted of 16 students; the…

  1. Awareness of Implicit Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M.; Hirsh, Holen K.; Blair, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming IAT measures of implicit attitudes toward five different social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across four studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2–4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants’ predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. All together, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes. PMID:24294868

  2. Enhancing young people's awareness.

    PubMed

    Doan Thi Tien

    1995-01-01

    The role of the Vietnam Youth Union (21 million members) is to educate the youth aged 14-28 years about the movement at the grassroots level. Since 1995, it has been entrusted with information, education, and communication (IEC) activities (implemented through the Educational Center for Population, Health, and Development) concerning family planning, the environment, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Mass media, direct communication, Youth Union leading staff, Youth Union cultural and arts activities, and advertisement have been used. 16 newspapers and magazines, a radio program, and a TV program disseminate information for the group. 1000 motivators' groups, 1370 Youth Clubs, and Youth Villages at the commune level work to enhance awareness and to change biased attitudes and habits. Leading staff speak at conferences and seminars that are attended by target groups. Art troupes perform at special local events; plays are organized and videos are shown. The HIV/AIDS information and prevention campaign is of great importance because research findings indicate that many young people believe that only prostitutes and drug addicts can be infected, and that condoms are bad and only for use with prostitutes. There are about 2300 persons infected with HIV in 14 provinces, mostly in the south and central regions. 131 are reported to have developed AIDS. PMID:12320323

  3. Awareness of implicit attitudes.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Adam; Judd, Charles M; Hirsh, Holen K; Blair, Irene V

    2014-06-01

    Research on implicit attitudes has raised questions about how well people know their own attitudes. Most research on this question has focused on the correspondence between measures of implicit attitudes and measures of explicit attitudes, with low correspondence interpreted as showing that people have little awareness of their implicit attitudes. We took a different approach and directly asked participants to predict their results on upcoming Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures of implicit attitudes toward 5 social groups. We found that participants were surprisingly accurate in their predictions. Across 4 studies, predictions were accurate regardless of whether implicit attitudes were described as true attitudes or culturally learned associations (Studies 1 and 2), regardless of whether predictions were made as specific response patterns (Study 1) or as conceptual responses (Studies 2-4), and regardless of how much experience or explanation participants received before making their predictions (Study 4). Study 3 further suggested that participants' predictions reflected unique insight into their own implicit responses, beyond intuitions about how people in general might respond. Prediction accuracy occurred despite generally low correspondence between implicit and explicit measures of attitudes, as found in prior research. Altogether, the research findings cast doubt on the belief that attitudes or evaluations measured by the IAT necessarily reflect unconscious attitudes.

  4. Semantic Referencing - Determining Context Weights for Similarity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janowicz, Krzysztof; Adams, Benjamin; Raubal, Martin

    Semantic similarity measurement is a key methodology in various domains ranging from cognitive science to geographic information retrieval on the Web. Meaningful notions of similarity, however, cannot be determined without taking additional contextual information into account. One way to make similarity measures context-aware is by introducing weights for specific characteristics. Existing approaches to automatically determine such weights are rather limited or require application specific adjustments. In the past, the possibility to tweak similarity theories until they fit a specific use case has been one of the major criticisms for their evaluation. In this work, we propose a novel approach to semi-automatically adapt similarity theories to the user's needs and hence make them context-aware. Our methodology is inspired by the process of georeferencing images in which known control points between the image and geographic space are used to compute a suitable transformation. We propose to semi-automatically calibrate weights to compute inter-instance and inter-concept similarities by allowing the user to adjust pre-computed similarity rankings. These known control similarities are then used to reference other similarity values.

  5. The application of strategic environmental assessment in a non-mandatory context: Regional transport planning in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    McGimpsey, Paul; Morgan, Richard K.

    2013-11-15

    There is no legal mandate for strategic environmental assessment (SEA) in New Zealand. However, a requirement to consider environmental and sustainability issues is a key feature of many statutes, including that relating to regional transport planning. Given this, the research sought to determine whether SEA could be used to improve the incorporation of environmental and sustainability aspects into the regional transport planning process in New Zealand. Existing practice was evaluated, examining what factors currently limiting the consideration of environmental and sustainability issues and to what extent elements of SEA are currently being used. The research culminated in the development of a conceptual model where SEA elements could be incorporated into the existing framework to promote improved consideration of environmental and sustainability issues. The results provide some reassurance about the value of SEA even where its application is not legally mandated. However, it also highlighted some ongoing issues around the integration of SEA in existing frameworks and around the scope of SEA as a decision-aiding tool. -- Highlights: • The research examined whether SEA can provide benefits even where it is not mandated. • The research examined the extent to which SEA elements are currently being used. • A conceptual model was developed to incorporate necessary SEA elements into an existing framework.

  6. Development of anti-E6 pegylated lipoplexes for mucosal application in the context of cervical preneoplastic lesions.

    PubMed

    Lechanteur, Anna; Furst, Tania; Evrard, Brigitte; Delvenne, Philippe; Hubert, Pascale; Piel, Géraldine

    2015-04-10

    Cervical cancer induced by human papillomavirus (HPV) is the fourth highest mortality causing cancer in women despite the use of prophylactic vaccines. E6 targeting represents an attractive strategy to treat this cancer. Indeed, oncoprotein E6 is produced by keratinocytes infected by HPV and is partially responsible for carcinogenesis. E6 interferes with the apoptosis process in stressed cells by degradation of p53 tumor suppressor gene. Our strategy consists in using E6 siRNA complexed with pegylated lipoplexes. The addition of hydrophilic polymer around the nanoparticles is crucial to use them by vaginal application on account of cervicovaginal mucus. Physicochemical characteristics were evaluated and in vitro assays were performed to evaluate transfection potential, E6 mRNA extinction and p53 re-expression. Cationic liposomes DOTAP/Cholesterol/DOPE 1/0.75/0.5 (N/P 2.5) with or without 50% DSPE-PEG2000 and associated with siE6 have demonstrated good physicochemical characteristics in terms of complexation, size, surface charge and stability. Both lipoplexes have been tested on CaSki cell line (HPV 16+) with 50 nM and 100 nM of siE6. Lipoplexes formulations induce 30-40% of E6 mRNA extinction and induce the re-expression of p53. In conclusion, pegylated anti-E6 lipoplexes have demonstrated their efficiency to cross the cellular membrane and to release siRNA into the cytoplasm confirmed by final p53 protein production.

  7. Programming models for energy-aware systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Haitao

    Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real

  8. [Aware and cooperative reduction].

    PubMed

    Tambone, V; Ghilardi, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to address the question of reduction in the scientific method, to evaluate its legitimacy as well as its pro and contra from an epistemological point of view. In the first paragraph we classify some kinds of reductionism, analysing their presuppositions and epistemological status and showing some examples of scientific reduction. The presentation includes a classificatory table that shows some of the different forms of biological reductionism. In the second paragraph we study the epistemology of science starting from its modern beginning: the Vienna Circle, focusing on the meaning of methodological reductionism. What did it mean for science to define itself mainly as method, which effects did this new concept of science have on methodology and what kind of problems did this movement bring about. In the third paragraph we examine the reactions triggered by methodological reductionism, we analyze the theoretical consistency of these answers, trying to offer a balanced view. We show how complexity can be seen as a paradigm of the anti-reductionism effort, and we study its epistemological basis. In the fourth paragraph we outline our operative proposal: the reduction that is both aware and cooperative. We point out the main reasons why science cannot avoid being reductive in some way, and therefore how we need to deal with this feature in order to prevent it to degenerate into reductionism. We show some examples of this new proposal taken from the practical realm and from literature, where it is possible to discern the spirit of this alternative methodology. PMID:22964706

  9. Fertility awareness in the 1990s--the Billings Ovulation Method of natural family planning, its scientific basis, practical application and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Hume, K

    1991-01-01

    Early methods of natural family planning (calendar rhythm, basal body temperature, and symptothermal) are briefly mentioned and dismissed as unsatisfactory for fertility regulation at our present state of knowledge of female reproductive physiology. Cervical mucus patterns, which reflect ovarian hormone levels, are shown to be accurate markers of the fertile and infertile phases of a woman's menstrual cycle. Interpretation of these patterns forms the basis of the Billings Ovulation Method of natural family planning. Extensive laboratory and clinical studies have shown this method to be on a sound scientific footing, that it is applicable to all phases of a woman's reproductive life, and that women readily understand and are able to teach other women the meaning of these patterns as experienced by changing sensations at the vulva and changing characteristics of any visible mucus. The simple rules which have been formulated for postponing and achieving pregnancy are given. Field trials of this non-invasive method for fertility regulation in both developing and developed countries show that the rules are readily understood by participants. In the most recent trials, it has been shown that the method-related pregnancy rate is less than 1 per 100 woman years, which compares more than favorably with other contraceptive techniques. PMID:1950726

  10. Challenges in the Implementation of a Mobile Application in Clinical Practice: Case Study in the Context of an Application that Manages the Daily Interventions of Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Wipfli, Rolf; Teodoro, Douglas; Sarrey, Everlyne; Walesa, Magali; Lovis, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background Working in a clinical environment requires unfettered mobility. This is especially true for nurses who are always on the move providing patients’ care in different locations. Since the introduction of clinical information systems in hospitals, this mobility has often been considered hampered by interactions with computers. The popularity of personal mobile assistants such as smartphones makes it possible to gain easy access to clinical data anywhere. Objective To identify the challenges involved in the deployment of clinical applications on handheld devices and to share our solutions to these problems. Methods A team of experts underwent an iterative development process of a mobile application prototype that aimed to improve the mobility of nurses during their daily clinical activities. Through the process, challenges inherent to mobile platforms have emerged. These issues have been classified, focusing on factors related to ensuring information safety and quality, as well as pleasant and efficient user experiences. Results The team identified five main challenges related to the deployment of clinical mobile applications and presents solutions to overcome each of them: (1) Financial: Equipping every care giver with a new mobile device requires substantial investment that can be lowered if users use their personal device instead, (2) Hardware: The constraints inherent to the clinical environment made us choose the mobile device with the best tradeoff between size and portability, (3) Communication: the connection of the mobile application with any existing clinical information systems (CIS) is insured by a bridge formatting the information appropriately, (4) Security: In order to guarantee the confidentiality and safety of the data, the amount of data stored on the device is minimized, and (5) User interface: The design of our user interface relied on homogeneity, hierarchy, and indexicality principles to prevent an increase in data acquisition errors

  11. Remote ischaemic conditioning in the context of type 2 diabetes and neuropathy: the case for repeat application as a novel therapy for lower extremity ulceration.

    PubMed

    Epps, J A; Smart, N A

    2016-01-01

    An emerging treatment modality for reducing damage caused by ischaemia-reperfusion injury is ischaemic conditioning. This technique induces short periods of ischaemia that have been found to protect against a more significant ischaemic insult. Remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) can be administered more conveniently and safely, by inflation of a pneumatic blood pressure cuff to a suprasystolic pressure on a limb. Protection is then transferred to a remote organ via humoral and neural pathways. The diabetic state is particularly vulnerable to ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and ischaemia is a significant cause of many diabetic complications, including the diabetic foot. Despite this, studies utilising ischaemic conditioning and RIC in type 2 diabetes have often been disappointing. A newer strategy, repeat RIC, involves the repeated application of short periods of limb ischaemia over days or weeks. It has been demonstrated that this improves endothelial function, skin microcirculation, and modulates the systemic inflammatory response. Repeat RIC was recently shown to be beneficial for healing in lower extremity diabetic ulcers. This article summarises the mechanisms of RIC, and the impact that type 2 diabetes may have upon these, with the role of neural mechanisms in the context of diabetic neuropathy a focus. Repeat RIC may show more promise than RIC in type 2 diabetes, and its potential mechanisms and applications will also be explored. Considering the high costs, rates of chronicity and serious complications resulting from diabetic lower extremity ulceration, repeat RIC has the potential to be an effective novel advanced therapy for this condition. PMID:27613524

  12. Remote ischaemic conditioning in the context of type 2 diabetes and neuropathy: the case for repeat application as a novel therapy for lower extremity ulceration.

    PubMed

    Epps, J A; Smart, N A

    2016-01-01

    An emerging treatment modality for reducing damage caused by ischaemia-reperfusion injury is ischaemic conditioning. This technique induces short periods of ischaemia that have been found to protect against a more significant ischaemic insult. Remote ischaemic conditioning (RIC) can be administered more conveniently and safely, by inflation of a pneumatic blood pressure cuff to a suprasystolic pressure on a limb. Protection is then transferred to a remote organ via humoral and neural pathways. The diabetic state is particularly vulnerable to ischaemia-reperfusion injury, and ischaemia is a significant cause of many diabetic complications, including the diabetic foot. Despite this, studies utilising ischaemic conditioning and RIC in type 2 diabetes have often been disappointing. A newer strategy, repeat RIC, involves the repeated application of short periods of limb ischaemia over days or weeks. It has been demonstrated that this improves endothelial function, skin microcirculation, and modulates the systemic inflammatory response. Repeat RIC was recently shown to be beneficial for healing in lower extremity diabetic ulcers. This article summarises the mechanisms of RIC, and the impact that type 2 diabetes may have upon these, with the role of neural mechanisms in the context of diabetic neuropathy a focus. Repeat RIC may show more promise than RIC in type 2 diabetes, and its potential mechanisms and applications will also be explored. Considering the high costs, rates of chronicity and serious complications resulting from diabetic lower extremity ulceration, repeat RIC has the potential to be an effective novel advanced therapy for this condition.

  13. Applicability of the RSCM geothermometry approach in a complex tectono-metamorphic context: The Jebilet massif case study (Variscan Belt, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delchini, Sylvain; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Plunder, Alexis; Michard, André

    2016-07-01

    The Raman Spectroscopy of Carbonaceous Materials (RSCM) geothermometry approach allows determining the peak temperature recorded by metasediments through their metamorphic history. This technique, however, has been calibrated using Meso-Cenozoic metapelitic rocks that underwent a single metamorphic cycle. Until now, the reliability of the RSCM method has never been demonstrated for contexts with superposition of regional and contact metamorphism, such as many Variscan contexts. The present study aims at testing the applicability of the RSCM method to these polyphased metamorphism terrains and at investigating the cumulative molecular transformations of carbonaceous materials related to metamorphic superposition. To address the above issues, samples were collected in the Variscan Jebilet massif of the Moroccan Meseta. This massif was first affected by a regional, greenschist facies metamorphic event (D1 phase), and then by a higher-T, regional and contact metamorphism that reached the hornfels/amphibolite facies conditions (D2 and D2/D3 phases). Mineralogical, thermobarometric and RSCM methods have been used in this study to determine the peak T recorded by the studied rocks. The results obtained for greenschist facies metapelitic rocks show a good agreement between the mineralogical assemblage Chlorite-Phengite-Felspar-Quartz and the Raman temperatures ranging from 330 to 394 ± 50 °C. In the metapelitic rocks that underwent higher metamorphism grades (hornfels/amphibolite facies), four dominant mineral assemblages were observed: (1) Chlorite-Biotite, (2) Cordierite-Biotite, (3) Andalusite-Garnet-Bt, and (4) Andalusite-Cordierite-Biotite. The corresponding Raman temperatures vary respectively between 474 ± 50 °C and 628 ± 50 °C. The pseudo-sections generated for samples from the hornfels/amphibolite facies confirmed the peak temperatures measured by the RSCM method. Our results do not support clear evidence of potential molecular cumulative effect on CM

  14. Sketching Awareness: A Participatory Study to Elicit Designs for Supporting Ad Hoc Emergency Medical Teamwork

    PubMed Central

    Kusunoki, Diana; Sarcevic, Aleksandra; Zhang, Zhan; Yala, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Prior CSCW research on awareness in clinical settings has mostly focused on higher-level team coordination spanning across longer-term trajectories at the department and inter-department levels. In this paper, we offer a perspective on what awareness means within the context of an ad hoc, time- and safety-critical medical setting by looking at teams treating severely ill patients with urgent needs. We report findings from four participatory design workshops conducted with emergency medicine clinicians at two regional emergency departments. Workshops were developed to elicit design ideas for information displays that support awareness in emergency medical situations. Through analysis of discussions and clinicians’ sketches of information displays, we identified five features of teamwork that can be used as a foundation for supporting awareness from the perspective of clinicians. Based on these findings, we contribute rich descriptions of four facets of awareness that teams manage during emergency medical situations: team member awareness, elapsed time awareness, teamwork-oriented and patient-driven task awareness, and overall progress awareness. We then discuss these four awareness types in relation to awareness facets found in the CSCW literature. PMID:25870498

  15. How Deep is Environmental Awareness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, George H.

    1972-01-01

    Results of an environmental awareness survey are assessed. Local citizens were questioned by personal interview following an Earth Week and Earth Day Fair at Humboldt State College, Arcata, California. (BL)

  16. Assistive Awareness in Smart Grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourazeri, Aikaterini; Almajano, Pablo; Rodriguez, Inmaculada; Lopez-Sanchez, Maite

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Background * The User-Infrastructure Interface * User Engagement through Assistive Awareness * Research Impact * Serious Games for Smart Grids * Serious Game Technology * Game scenario * Game mechanics * Related Work * Summary and Conclusions

  17. Awareness and Learning in Participatory Noise Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai (Muki); Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102

  18. Awareness and learning in participatory noise sensing.

    PubMed

    Becker, Martin; Caminiti, Saverio; Fiorella, Donato; Francis, Louise; Gravino, Pietro; Haklay, Mordechai Muki; Hotho, Andreas; Loreto, Vittorio; Mueller, Juergen; Ricchiuti, Ferdinando; Servedio, Vito D P; Sîrbu, Alina; Tria, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The development of ICT infrastructures has facilitated the emergence of new paradigms for looking at society and the environment over the last few years. Participatory environmental sensing, i.e. directly involving citizens in environmental monitoring, is one example, which is hoped to encourage learning and enhance awareness of environmental issues. In this paper, an analysis of the behaviour of individuals involved in noise sensing is presented. Citizens have been involved in noise measuring activities through the WideNoise smartphone application. This application has been designed to record both objective (noise samples) and subjective (opinions, feelings) data. The application has been open to be used freely by anyone and has been widely employed worldwide. In addition, several test cases have been organised in European countries. Based on the information submitted by users, an analysis of emerging awareness and learning is performed. The data show that changes in the way the environment is perceived after repeated usage of the application do appear. Specifically, users learn how to recognise different noise levels they are exposed to. Additionally, the subjective data collected indicate an increased user involvement in time and a categorisation effect between pleasant and less pleasant environments. PMID:24349102

  19. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  20. Does advanced driver training improve situational awareness?

    PubMed

    Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Kazi, Tara A; Salmon, Paul M; Jenkins, Daniel P

    2009-07-01

    Over 70 years of experiential evidence suggests that a specific form of advanced driver training, one based on an explicit system of car control, improves driver situation awareness (SA). Five experimental hypotheses are developed. They propose that advanced driving should increase the number of information elements in the driver's working memory, increase the interconnection between those elements, increase the amount of 'new' information in memory as well as the prominence of existing information, and that finally, it should stimulate behaviours that help drivers evolve better situations to be aware of. An approach to SA based on Neisser's perceptual cycle theory is anchored to a network based methodology. This is applied within the context of a longitudinal on-road study involving three groups of 25 drivers, all of whom were measured pre- and post-intervention. One experimental group was subject to advanced driver training and two further groups provided control for time and for being accompanied whilst driving. Empirical support is found for all five hypotheses. Advanced driving does improve driver SA but not necessarily in the way that existing situation focused, closed loop models of the concept might predict. PMID:18675387

  1. Realizing situation awareness within a cyber environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadda, George; Salerno, John J.; Boulware, Douglas; Hinman, Michael; Gorton, Samuel

    2006-04-01

    Situation Awareness (SA) problems all require an understanding of current activities, an ability to anticipate what may happen next, and techniques to analyze the threat or impact of current activities and predictions. These processes of SA are common regardless of the domain and can be applied to the detection of cyber attacks. This paper will describe the application of a SA framework to implementing Cyber SA, describe some metrics for measuring and evaluating systems implementing Cyber SA, and discuss ongoing work in this area. We conclude with some ideas for future activities.

  2. Symposium on Applications and the Internet (SAINT 2003) Proceedings (Orlando, Florida, January 27-31, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helal, Sumi, Ed.; Oie, Yuji, Ed.; Chang, Carl, Ed.; Murai, Jun, Ed.

    This proceedings from the 2003 Symposium on Applications and the Internet (SAINT) contains papers from sessions on: (1) mobile Internet, including a target-driven cache replacement policy, context-awareness for service discovery, and XML transformation; (2) collaboration technology I, including human-network-based filtering, virtual collaboration…

  3. Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.; McCaffrey, M.

    2009-12-01

    lead sustainable lifestyles. In this talk we will describe our efforts through CLN, CLEAN-NE, and the CLEAN Pathway to increase climate literacy and energy awareness in educational contexts as well for individual citizens and communities, providing them with the knowledge and tools to address these issues in a responsible way.

  4. A multimedia approach to raising awareness of information and communications technology amongst healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Grimson, J; Grimson, W; Flahive, M; Foley, C; O'Moore, R; Nolan, J; Chadwick, G

    2000-09-01

    This study is concerned with the application of advanced multimedia technology to the development of a programme aimed at raising awareness of information and communications technology (ICT) amongst health professionals in Ireland. The programme is delivered in the form of a symposium supplemented by a multimedia CD and associated web site. It examines how ICT can be used effectively in healthcare across all sectors - primary, secondary and tertiary - with a strong emphasis on supporting shared care. The aim is to empower users to make informed technological choices and to actively participate in the exploitation of ICT in the health sector. The programme was successfully completed and delivered to over 2300 health professionals across Ireland and follow-up activities include the active encouragement of leaders and champions within the sector. This will be supported by interactive web-based education and training material focused on specialised topics of particular interest within the broader context of continuing medical education (CME).

  5. Processor-Group Aware Runtime Support for Shared-and Global-Address Space Models

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Manoj Kumar; Tipparaju, Vinod; Palmer, Bruce; Nieplocha, Jarek

    2004-12-07

    Exploiting multilevel parallelism using processor groups is becoming increasingly important for programming on high-end systems. This paper describes a group-aware run-time support for shared-/global- address space programming models. The current effort has been undertaken in the context of the Aggregate Remote Memory Copy Interface (ARMCI) [5], a portable runtime system used as a communication layer for Global Arrays [6], Co-Array Fortran (CAF) [9], GPSHMEM [10], Co-Array Python [11], and also end-user applications. The paper describes the management of shared memory, integration of shared memory communication and RDMA on clusters with SMP nodes, and registration. These are all required for efficient multi- method and multi-protocol communication on modern systems. Focus is placed on techniques for supporting process groups while maximizing communication performance and efficiently managing global memory system-wide.

  6. Objective Situation Awareness Measurement Based on Performance Self-Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeMaio, Joe

    1998-01-01

    The research was conducted in support of the NASA Safe All-Weather Flight Operations for Rotorcraft (SAFOR) program. The purpose of the work was to investigate the utility of two measurement tools developed by the British Defense Evaluation Research Agency. These tools were a subjective workload assessment scale, the DRA Workload Scale and a situation awareness measurement tool. The situation awareness tool uses a comparison of the crew's self-evaluation of performance against actual performance in order to determine what information the crew attended to during the performance. These two measurement tools were evaluated in the context of a test of innovative approach to alerting the crew by way of a helmet mounted display. The situation assessment data are reported here. The performance self-evaluation metric of situation awareness was found to be highly effective. It was used to evaluate situation awareness on a tank reconnaissance task, a tactical navigation task, and a stylized task used to evaluated handling qualities. Using the self-evaluation metric, it was possible to evaluate situation awareness, without exact knowledge the relevant information in some cases and to identify information to which the crew attended or failed to attend in others.

  7. Hispanics' awareness of assistive technology.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Alberto; Ostrander, Noam

    2009-01-01

    This study compared Hispanics' awareness of services available to acquire assistive technology and whether they actually sought help to the findings from a national sample. The study assists the field by providing information on a group largely ignored in the literature. The authors sought to answer the following research questions: Are there intergroup differences between Hispanics with disabilities and non-Hispanics with disabilities in terms of how they receive help accessing AT services? and Are there intragroup differences among Hispanics with respect to how they receive help and their awareness of available help to acquire AT? The findings suggest a large disparity between awareness of available services to acquire assistive technology and actual receipt of such services. In addition, although similar patterns were found, the Hispanics from the national sample appear more aligned with the overall sample, while the Hispanics from the Hispanic-only sample seem to be using services at higher percentages.

  8. EU Space Awareness: Initial implemenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    EU Space Awareness uses the excitement of space to attract young people into science and technology and stimulate European and global citizenship. The project will show children and teenagers the opportunities offered by space science and engineering and inspire primary-school children when their curiosity is high and their value systems are being formed. EU Space Awareness, a 3-year project, has started in March 2015 with 10 partner organisations and 15 network nodes in 17 European countries and the IAU Office of Astronomy for Development. During this talk we will give a update about the intial implementation of the project and its relevant for astronomy for development.

  9. Assessment of radiation awareness training in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisker, Vaughn E., III

    The prospect of new nuclear power plant orders in the near future and the graying of the current workforce create a need to train new personnel faster and better. Immersive virtual reality (VR) may offer a solution to the training challenge. VR technology presented in a CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) provides a high-fidelity, one-to-one scale environment where areas of the power plant can be recreated and virtual radiation environments can be simulated, making it possible to safely expose workers to virtual radiation in the context of the actual work environment. The use of virtual reality for training is supported by many educational theories; constructivism and discovery learning, in particular. Educational theory describes the importance of matching the training to the task. Plant access training and radiation worker training, common forms of training in the nuclear industry, rely on computer-based training methods in most cases, which effectively transfer declarative knowledge, but are poor at transferring skills. If an activity were to be added, the training would provide personnel with the opportunity to develop skills and apply their knowledge so they could be more effective when working in the radiation environment. An experiment was developed to test immersive virtual reality's suitability for training radiation awareness. Using a mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative measures, the subjects' performances before and after training were assessed. First, subjects completed a pre-test to measure their knowledge prior to completing any training. Next they completed unsupervised computer-based training, which consisted of a PowerPoint presentation and a PDF document. After completing a brief orientation activity in the virtual environment, one group of participants received supplemental radiation awareness training in a simulated radiation environment presented in the CAVE, while a second group, the control group, moved directly to the

  10. QoS-Aware Error Recovery in Wireless Body Sensor Networks Using Adaptive Network Coding

    PubMed Central

    Razzaque, Mohammad Abdur; Javadi, Saeideh S.; Coulibaly, Yahaya; Hira, Muta Tah

    2015-01-01

    Wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) for healthcare and medical applications are real-time and life-critical infrastructures, which require a strict guarantee of quality of service (QoS), in terms of latency, error rate and reliability. Considering the criticality of healthcare and medical applications, WBSNs need to fulfill users/applications and the corresponding network's QoS requirements. For instance, for a real-time application to support on-time data delivery, a WBSN needs to guarantee a constrained delay at the network level. A network coding-based error recovery mechanism is an emerging mechanism that can be used in these systems to support QoS at very low energy, memory and hardware cost. However, in dynamic network environments and user requirements, the original non-adaptive version of network coding fails to support some of the network and user QoS requirements. This work explores the QoS requirements of WBSNs in both perspectives of QoS. Based on these requirements, this paper proposes an adaptive network coding-based, QoS-aware error recovery mechanism for WBSNs. It utilizes network-level and user-/application-level information to make it adaptive in both contexts. Thus, it provides improved QoS support adaptively in terms of reliability, energy efficiency and delay. Simulation results show the potential of the proposed mechanism in terms of adaptability, reliability, real-time data delivery and network lifetime compared to its counterparts. PMID:25551485

  11. Phonological Awareness: Factors of Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frohlich, Linda Paulina; Petermann, Franz; Metz, Dorothee

    2013-01-01

    Early child development is influenced by various genetic and environmental factors. This study aims to identify factors that affect the phonological awareness of preschool and first grade children. Based on a sample of 330 German-speaking children (mean age = 6.2 years) the following domains were evaluated: Parent factors, birth and pregnancy,…

  12. Metalinguistic Awareness and Teacher Explanation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Explores the relationship between Hong Kong secondary school English teachers' metalinguistic awareness and the ability to explain a grammar point. Teachers of different backgrounds and experience were asked to role play a grammar point on two separate occasions; videotapes of the role plays were transcribed and analyzed. (13 references)…

  13. Teaching Environmental Awareness in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jianguo, Mao

    2004-01-01

    This article is all about the integration of environmental education to the middle school mathematics in China. To raise environmental awareness and improve environmental quality, environmental education is a must. Environment-related materials can be found in middle school algebra and geometry textbooks. In order to provide environmental…

  14. Language Awareness for Student Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, D.

    1988-01-01

    The structural linguistic approach for teaching language awareness to student teachers is compared to the semiotic approach, which explores signs and symbols rather than morphemes and phonemes. Advantages of the semiotic approach include its simple introduction and use and its exclusive focus on communication rather than disembodied linguistic…

  15. Celebrating White Cane Awareness Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Judy; McGraw, Jane M.

    1995-01-01

    White Cane Awareness Month was created to teach the public that the long cane is a tool for maintaining independence and dignity and a symbol of freedom, not of pity or helplessness. Public relations materials were developed, including a demonstration for television stations on use of the long cane and a quiz to distribute at information booths.…

  16. Environmental Awareness; An Action Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Edgar L.; And Others

    In the changing world of today, man has created alarming imbalances of nature which threaten all living creatures of the earth. The public is becoming aware that severe measures must be taken to correct these imbalances. Indian people are closely attuned to their lands and resources--it is part of their traditional culture to have close ties with…

  17. Teaching Behavioral Awareness in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Joan S.; Safran, Stephen P.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a model for behavioral change which synthesizes behavioral awareness with empirically identified target behaviors. Stages of the model are presented and cautions for implementation are given. Suggests the model can help students gain an understanding of the consequences of behavioral problems. (BL)

  18. Marriage Enrichment through Choice Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Richard C.; Friest, Wendell P.

    1980-01-01

    Choice Awareness is a cognitive-affective-behavioral system that goes beyond both communication training and behavioral bartering approaches to marriage enrichment. Couples explore thoughts, feelings, and actions in their relationships and develop personal power in making choices and in taking responsibility for their own lives. (Author)

  19. Hispanics' Awareness of Assistive Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzman, Alberto; Ostrander, Noam

    2009-01-01

    This study compared Hispanics' awareness of services available to acquire assistive technology and whether they actually sought help to the findings from a national sample. The study assists the field by providing information on a group largely ignored in the literature. The authors sought to answer the following research questions: Are there…

  20. Expanding Career Awareness with CIPS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, John

    Career Information Packets is an individually oriented career exploration program developed for high school students. The program goals are to: (1) assist students in becoming aware of their patterns, of values, interests and aptitudes in relation to the world of work; (2) to assist students in making tentative career choices; and (3) assist them…

  1. Morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Casalis, Séverine; Colé, Pascale; Sopo, Delphine

    2004-06-01

    This study examines morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia. While the poor phonological awareness of dyslexic children has been related to their difficulty in handling the alphabetical principle, less is known about their morphological awareness, which also plays an important part in reading development. The aim of this study was to analyze in more detail the implications of the phonological impairments of dyslexics in dealing with larger units of language such as morphemes. First, the performance of dyslexic children in a series of morphological tasks was compared with the performance of children matched on reading-level and chronological age. In all the tasks, the dyslexic group performed below the chronological age control group, suggesting that morphological awareness cannot be developed entirely independently of reading experience and/or phonological skills. Comparisons with the reading-age control group indicated that, while the dyslexic children were poorer in the morphemic segmentation tasks, they performed normally for their reading level in the sentence completion tasks. Furthermore, they produced more derived words in the production task. This suggests that phonological impairments prevent the explicit segmentation of affixes while allowing the development of productive morphological knowledge. A second study compared dyslexic subgroups defined by their degree of phonological impairment. Our results suggest that dyslexics develop a certain type of morphological knowledge which they use as a compensatory reading strategy.

  2. Care Bears Environmental Awareness Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Greetings Corp., Cleveland, OH.

    Studies show that the three most frequently cited sources of environmental information are family, school, and the media. This kit provides parents with an opportunity to increase a child's environmental awareness through activities which focus on the environment in a way children ages four to nine can understand. A workbook uses the popular Care…

  3. Guided Imagery in Career Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, William C.; Eddy, John

    1982-01-01

    Suggests guided imagery can stimulate clients to become more aware of the role of personal values, attitudes, and beliefs in career decision making. Presents guidelines, examples, and implications to enable rehabilitation counselors to use guided imagery exercises in career counseling. (Author)

  4. Community Service Promotes Student Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools in the Middle, 1993

    1993-01-01

    Community service links the school with society and should be part of the middle-level curriculum. Ediger's article describes three sixth-grade community service projects involving a nursing home entertainment program, the police department, and a trash-awareness project. Hamilton and Hanna describe a "points of light" project involving middle…

  5. Emergency contraception: increasing public awareness.

    PubMed

    2003-02-01

    This article begins by addressing misperceptions that emergency contraception is something new and untested or inherently unsafe, and that it is comparable to an abortion. It then describes efforts that are underway to increase awareness among consumers and health care providers alike.

  6. 'Snow White' and Language Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Deborah Aldrich

    1987-01-01

    Noting that knowledge of grammar rules does not ensure correct usage in one's own writing, describes an approach used in a summer workshop to promote awareness of appropriate idiom where 35 highly motivated black students produced 'Snow White' using their own script, half in standard dialect and half in black dialect. (JG)

  7. Adaptive awareness for personal and small group decision making.

    SciTech Connect

    Perano, Kenneth J.; Tucker, Steve; Pancerella, Carmen M.; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Berry, Nina M.; Kyker, Ronald D.

    2003-12-01

    Many situations call for the use of sensors monitoring physiological and environmental data. In order to use the large amounts of sensor data to affect decision making, we are coupling heterogeneous sensors with small, light-weight processors, other powerful computers, wireless communications, and embedded intelligent software. The result is an adaptive awareness and warning tool, which provides both situation awareness and personal awareness to individuals and teams. Central to this tool is a sensor-independent architecture, which combines both software agents and a reusable core software framework that manages the available hardware resources and provides services to the agents. Agents can recognize cues from the data, warn humans about situations, and act as decision-making aids. Within the agents, self-organizing maps (SOMs) are used to process physiological data in order to provide personal awareness. We have employed a novel clustering algorithm to train the SOM to discern individual body states and activities. This awareness tool has broad applicability to emergency teams, military squads, military medics, individual exercise and fitness monitoring, health monitoring for sick and elderly persons, and environmental monitoring in public places. This report discusses our hardware decisions, software framework, and a pilot awareness tool, which has been developed at Sandia National Laboratories.

  8. Development of Phonological Awareness during the Preschool Year: The Influence of Gender and Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundberg, Ingvar; Larsman, Pernilla; Strid, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Phonological awareness is a critical enabling skill in learning to read, often developed outside the context of formal reading instruction. More than 2,000 6-year-old children were tested on phonological awareness at two occasions during the preschool year in two cohorts. Between the assessments, a training program was implemented. A two-level…

  9. Awareness of pulse polio immunisation.

    PubMed

    Gomber, S; Taneja, D K; Mohan, K

    1996-01-01

    Mass polio immunisation campaign was launched in the national capital territory of Delhi with 2 doses of polio vaccine to be administered to children upto 3 years of age on October and December 4, 1994 respectively. Massive information, education & communication (IEC) efforts through mass media and interpersonal communication preceded the dates of the campaign. A study to assess the awareness of general population was carried out by interviewing 225 adult residents of Delhi using a structured questionnaire. These were drawn by two stage stratified random sampling. Zonewise assembly segments in the first stage and census enumeration blocks in the second stage formed the sampling frame. The study, carried out 3 days prior to date of administration of first dose of oral polio, revealed that 60.4% of population was aware of the programme being launched and 31.6% about aim of the programme. None of the respondents were aware of all the specific parameters put together correctly viz., objective, immunisation days, age group & immunisation status of children. The higher level of awareness was directly proportional to the level of education. The overwhelming success of the programme was indicated by immunisation of > 90% children upto 3 years of age all over Delhi in the first phase of the programme. The key to success of the programme despite low awareness is explained on the basis of unflinching efforts put in by vaccine centre level committees, integrated child development scheme (ICDS) and urban basic service (UBS) functionaries in mobilising people to reach various vaccination centres. Other states planning to launch such mass campaigns should pay attention to social mobilisation in addition to IEC efforts for successful completion of the programme. PMID:10829972

  10. Human Behavior Analysis by Means of Multimodal Context Mining.

    PubMed

    Banos, Oresti; Villalonga, Claudia; Bang, Jaehun; Hur, Taeho; Kang, Donguk; Park, Sangbeom; Huynh-The, Thien; Le-Ba, Vui; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Razzaq, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Wahajat Ali; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2016-08-10

    There is sufficient evidence proving the impact that negative lifestyle choices have on people's health and wellness. Changing unhealthy behaviours requires raising people's self-awareness and also providing healthcare experts with a thorough and continuous description of the user's conduct. Several monitoring techniques have been proposed in the past to track users' behaviour; however, these approaches are either subjective and prone to misreporting, such as questionnaires, or only focus on a specific component of context, such as activity counters. This work presents an innovative multimodal context mining framework to inspect and infer human behaviour in a more holistic fashion. The proposed approach extends beyond the state-of-the-art, since it not only explores a sole type of context, but also combines diverse levels of context in an integral manner. Namely, low-level contexts, including activities, emotions and locations, are identified from heterogeneous sensory data through machine learning techniques. Low-level contexts are combined using ontological mechanisms to derive a more abstract representation of the user's context, here referred to as high-level context. An initial implementation of the proposed framework supporting real-time context identification is also presented. The developed system is evaluated for various realistic scenarios making use of a novel multimodal context open dataset and data on-the-go, demonstrating prominent context-aware capabilities at both low and high levels.

  11. Human Behavior Analysis by Means of Multimodal Context Mining

    PubMed Central

    Banos, Oresti; Villalonga, Claudia; Bang, Jaehun; Hur, Taeho; Kang, Donguk; Park, Sangbeom; Huynh-The, Thien; Le-Ba, Vui; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Razzaq, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Wahajat Ali; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2016-01-01

    There is sufficient evidence proving the impact that negative lifestyle choices have on people’s health and wellness. Changing unhealthy behaviours requires raising people’s self-awareness and also providing healthcare experts with a thorough and continuous description of the user’s conduct. Several monitoring techniques have been proposed in the past to track users’ behaviour; however, these approaches are either subjective and prone to misreporting, such as questionnaires, or only focus on a specific component of context, such as activity counters. This work presents an innovative multimodal context mining framework to inspect and infer human behaviour in a more holistic fashion. The proposed approach extends beyond the state-of-the-art, since it not only explores a sole type of context, but also combines diverse levels of context in an integral manner. Namely, low-level contexts, including activities, emotions and locations, are identified from heterogeneous sensory data through machine learning techniques. Low-level contexts are combined using ontological mechanisms to derive a more abstract representation of the user’s context, here referred to as high-level context. An initial implementation of the proposed framework supporting real-time context identification is also presented. The developed system is evaluated for various realistic scenarios making use of a novel multimodal context open dataset and data on-the-go, demonstrating prominent context-aware capabilities at both low and high levels. PMID:27517928

  12. Human Behavior Analysis by Means of Multimodal Context Mining.

    PubMed

    Banos, Oresti; Villalonga, Claudia; Bang, Jaehun; Hur, Taeho; Kang, Donguk; Park, Sangbeom; Huynh-The, Thien; Le-Ba, Vui; Amin, Muhammad Bilal; Razzaq, Muhammad Asif; Khan, Wahajat Ali; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2016-01-01

    There is sufficient evidence proving the impact that negative lifestyle choices have on people's health and wellness. Changing unhealthy behaviours requires raising people's self-awareness and also providing healthcare experts with a thorough and continuous description of the user's conduct. Several monitoring techniques have been proposed in the past to track users' behaviour; however, these approaches are either subjective and prone to misreporting, such as questionnaires, or only focus on a specific component of context, such as activity counters. This work presents an innovative multimodal context mining framework to inspect and infer human behaviour in a more holistic fashion. The proposed approach extends beyond the state-of-the-art, since it not only explores a sole type of context, but also combines diverse levels of context in an integral manner. Namely, low-level contexts, including activities, emotions and locations, are identified from heterogeneous sensory data through machine learning techniques. Low-level contexts are combined using ontological mechanisms to derive a more abstract representation of the user's context, here referred to as high-level context. An initial implementation of the proposed framework supporting real-time context identification is also presented. The developed system is evaluated for various realistic scenarios making use of a novel multimodal context open dataset and data on-the-go, demonstrating prominent context-aware capabilities at both low and high levels. PMID:27517928

  13. Worker awareness of exposure: industries and occupations with low awareness.

    PubMed

    Behrens, V J; Brackbill, R M

    1993-05-01

    A goal of occupational health is to inform workers of hazards on their jobs. This analysis addresses this goal by identifying industries and occupations with low worker awareness of potential exposures. Industries and occupations were ranked by the greatest positive difference between the proportion of workers exposed and proportion perceiving exposure to chemical and physical hazards. Those with low awareness had the greatest difference, i.e., high exposure and low perception. This analysis was performed by adding exposure data from a national exposure survey to a national health survey with perceived exposure data. The hospital and construction industries and occupations in these industries ranked among the top five for all hazards. For example, for hospital workers the difference between proportion exposed and proportion perceiving exposure to chemicals was 62% and to radiation was 42%, and for workers in construction the difference was 54% for exposure to noise and 63% for exposure to vibration.

  14. The educational and awareness purposes of the Paideia approach for heritage management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, F.; Oosterbeek, L.; Costa, C.

    2012-06-01

    The need to raise awareness among the communities about the challenge of resource use - and, more generally, about the principles of sustainability - is the reason why the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed, in December 2002, the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development, 2005-2014 (DESD). For operators and managers of cultural and natural heritage, it represents a profound challenge to their ability to transmit the content of scientific knowledge to the general public in order to empower everyone on the preservation of cultural and natural resources, and to raise awareness about the potential that mankind has at its disposal. In this context, the application of the PAIDEIA APPROACH for the management of cultural heritage is the key to the recovery of socio-economic values intrinsic to these resources. This approach to management is based on the enhancement of cultural (namely archaeological) and natural heritage for social benefit and it involves the tourist trade as a vehicle of knowledge transmission, intercultural dialogue and socio-economic sustainable development.

  15. Exploring the ethical issues of the research interview in the cancer context.

    PubMed

    McIlfatrick, S; Sullivan, K; McKenna, H

    2006-02-01

    This paper sets out to reflect on ethical issues in the context of a study exploring cancer patients', relatives' and nurses' experience of a day hospital chemotherapy service. Interviewing can be considered as a well-used approach within qualitative methodology, yet little attention has been paid to a many of the ethical deliberations that are inherent when adopting this approach, particularly in the context of cancer. It is the intention of the authors that this paper might raise awareness of these issues, contribute to the ongoing debate about conducting research interviews on sensitive topics and provide a 'real-world' application of these principles. It is considered that the article potentially raises more questions that answers and illustrates that there are not always quick-fix solutions for the 'real-world' problems qualitative researchers' experience.

  16. The Central Neural Foundations of Awareness and Self-Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaff, D.; Martin, E. M.; Weingarten, W.; Vimal, V.

    In the past, neuroscientists have done very well to concentrate onexplaining the mechanisms for very specific, simple behaviors. For example, our laboratory's work with molecular and neural mechanisms of a simple sex behavior proved for the first time that specific biochemical reactions in specific parts of the brain govern a specific behavior [D. W. Pfaff, Drive: Neurobiological and Molecular Mechanisms of Sexual Motivation (The MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999)]. Now, advances in our field coupled with new techniques permit us to attack the problems of explaining global changes of state in the central nervous system. For example, how does a simple sex behavior depend on sexual arousal, and in turn, how does that sexual arousal depend on other forms of CNS arousal? Of surpassing interest is the explanation of the primary causes of brain arousal [D. W. Pfaff, textit{Brain Arousal and Information Theory: Neural and Genetic Mechanisms} (Harvard University Press, Cambridg e, 2006)]. We have hypothesized that the earliest and most elementary event in waking up the brain is the activation of certain primitive nerve cells in the hindbrain reticular formation. Hypothesizing a `generalized arousal' force emanating from these cells puts forth an idea roughly analogous to the hypothesis of a `big bang' in astrophysics, or to our ideas about the magma of the earth in geophysics. Following the activation of this primitive arousal force we are able to be alert and aware. The neuroanatomical pathways serving brain arousal are fairly well known: they are Bilateral, Bidirectional, Universal among vertebrate animals including humans, and they are always involved in Response Potentiation, approach or avoidance responses (BBURP theory). More than 120 genes are involved in the regulation of brain arousal. In theoretical terms, the discussion so far has dealt with `bottoms up' approaches to awareness -- from mechanisms in the hindbrain working through several phylogenetically ancient

  17. Level of automation effects on performance, situation awareness and workload in a dynamic control task.

    PubMed

    Endsley, M R; Kaber, D B

    1999-03-01

    Various levels of automation (LOA) designating the degree of human operator and computer control were explored within the context of a dynamic control task as a means of improving overall human/machine performance. Automated systems have traditionally been explored as binary function allocations; either the human or the machine is assigned to a given task. More recently, intermediary levels of automation have been discussed as a means of maintaining operator involvement in system performance, leading to improvements in situation awareness and reductions in out-of-the-loop performance problems. A LOA taxonomy applicable to a wide range of psychomotor and cognitive tasks is presented here. The taxonomy comprises various schemes of generic control system function allocations. The functions allocated to a human operator and/or computer included monitoring displays, generating processing options, selecting an 'optimal' option and implementing that option. The impact of the LOA taxonomy was assessed within a dynamic and complex cognitive control task by measuring its effect on human/system performance, situation awareness and workload. Thirty subjects performed simulation trials involving various levels of automation. Several automation failures occurred and out-of-the-loop performance decrements were assessed. Results suggest that, in terms of performance, human operators benefit most from automation of the implementation portion of the task, but only under normal operating conditions; in contrast, removal of the operator from task implementation is detrimental to performance recovery if the automated system fails. Joint human/system option generation significantly degraded performance in comparison to human or automated option generation alone. Lower operator workload and higher situation awareness were observed under automation of the decision making portion of the task (i.e. selection of options), although human/system performance was only slightly improved. The

  18. Morphological awareness and vocabulary development among kindergartners with different ability levels.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Gloria; Walton, Patrick; Roberts, William

    2014-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the growth of vocabulary and morphological awareness over time in the context of an intervention for kindergartners with different ability levels in these skills. Participants in this exploratory study were 108 children from schools serving socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods. Results indicated that children significantly improved their morphological awareness skills and vocabulary over a period of 4 months ( eta(p)(2) = .61 for morphological awareness and eta(p)(2) = .53 for vocabulary), with the greatest gains made by children who were initially low on these measures. Morphological awareness and vocabulary skills were reciprocally related; each made a unique contribution to growth in the other. The results suggest that it may be beneficial to combine instruction in vocabulary and morphological awareness and that kindergarten teachers can successfully do so with guidance.

  19. Interoceptive awareness in experienced meditators.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Sahib S; Rudrauf, David; Damasio, Antonio R; Davidson, Richard J; Lutz, Antoine; Tranel, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Attention to internal body sensations is practiced in most meditation traditions. Many traditions state that this practice results in increased awareness of internal body sensations, but scientific studies evaluating this claim are lacking. We predicted that experienced meditators would display performance superior to that of nonmeditators on heartbeat detection, a standard noninvasive measure of resting interoceptive awareness. We compared two groups of meditators (Tibetan Buddhist and Kundalini) to an age- and body mass index-matched group of nonmeditators. Contrary to our prediction, we found no evidence that meditators were superior to nonmeditators in the heartbeat detection task, across several sessions and respiratory modulation conditions. Compared to nonmeditators, however, meditators consistently rated their interoceptive performance as superior and the difficulty of the task as easier. These results provide evidence against the notion that practicing attention to internal body sensations, a core feature of meditation, enhances the ability to sense the heartbeat at rest.

  20. Universe Awareness Among Young Poles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, Milena

    Astronomy, the most accessible of all the sciences, grabs and holds the attention not only of the elders, but also that of the youngsters from all over the world. Sharing the same sky provides the unique opportunity to use it as a tool to inspire children, to encourage them to develop an interest in science and technology, but also to increase awareness of global citizenship and tolerance. We shall present a wide spectrum of educational activities dedicated to young children, especially those from less privileged backgrounds, carried out under the Universe Awareness (UNAWE) project in Poland. We will also introduce the way we follow to support teachers and educators in discovering our wonderful cosmos.

  1. Awareness of Daily Life Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Georgios; Metin, Barbaros; Schneider, Jutta; Markopoulos, Panos; De Ruyter, Boris

    The well-publicized aging of Western societies has prompted a growing interest into technologies that support awareness in cross-generational families. The idea of supporting continual and partly automated flow of information between seniors living alone and their social intimates has been gaining ground among researchers but even among industries. It is anticipated that such an information flow can help bridge geographical distance, discrepant lifestyles, and daily routines, potentially providing peace of mind to both parties and feelings of being connected.

  2. Gang awareness for healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Hall-McGee, P

    1999-01-01

    All healthcare facilities--not just urban ones--need to train their staff and be equipped to handle gangs and gang-related crime and violence, says the author. This article discusses the various aspects of the ongoing training program in gang awareness for Durham Regional Hospital's Security Department--including types of gangs, their mindsets and what motivates them, and how to identify them as well as their graffiti, colors, hand signals, and tattoos.

  3. Genre: Language, Context, and Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyland, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on genre and its application in language teaching and learning. Suggests genre approaches have had an impact on how we understand discourse and transform literacy education in different contexts around the world. Describes studies on generic integrity and variation, and the ways that genres are seen as similar and different in terms of…

  4. Teaching Context in Information Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates teaching the application of technical ideas by non-technical means, especially by using puzzles to engage students. After discussing the need to teach students to evaluate contexts in which decisions about computer security must be made, we suggest questions and scenarios drawn from political science, history, as well as…

  5. Environmental Space Situational Awareness and Joint Space Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, K.; France, M.

    It is well known that successful military operations rely on our ability to effectively integrate weather information into the planning and execution of land, air and sea operations. What is not so well known are the implications of environmental effects on space capabilities and the subsequent impact on the delivery of joint space effects to the warfighter. This paper provides an overview of the how space systems and missions are impacted by the environment and how AFSPC plans to effectively integrate environmental effects information into space operations in the context of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and delivery of space effects to the warfighter. The desired end state of environmental SSA is the effective application of environmental SSA information-that is, to mitigate negative impacts on and improve performance of our space systems, and exploit potential space environment impacts on enemy systems. SSA is foundational to the success of the space superiority mission and effectively characterizing environmental effects is a critical part of that foundation. Space superiority operations ensure the continued delivery of space force enhancement to the military campaign, while denying those same advantages to the enemy. When SSA is successfully and sufficiently achieved, example results are a maintenance of space superiority, reduced "Fog of War" for commanders, lowered risk of space fratricide, rapid assessment of attacks on all blue, gray, or red space systems, and a shortened kill chain and targeting cycle. From a Defensive Counterspace (DCS) perspective, confirming or eliminating the environment as a factor enables us to respond in a much more effective way to protect our systems. From an offensive perspective, superior knowledge provides potential to exploit environmental effects on enemy space capabilities. To achieve a credible environmental SSA capability requires a system of systems (SoS) approach that includes three system components. Like a three

  6. Awareness and Responsibility in Autonomous Weapons Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhuta, Nehal; Rotolo, Antonino; Sartor, Giovanni

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Why Computational Awareness is Important in Autonomous Weapons * Flying Drones and Other Autonomous Weapons * The Impact of Autonomous Weapons Systems * From Autonomy to Awareness: A Perspective from Science Fiction * Summary and Conclusions

  7. Building shared situational awareness in surgery through distributed dialog

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Gwinner, Karleen; Fairweather, Nicole; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Background Failure to convey time-critical information to team members during surgery diminishes members’ perception of the dynamic information relevant to their task, and compromises shared situational awareness. This research reports the dialog around clinical decisions made by team members in the time-pressured and high-risk context of surgery, and the impact of these communications on shared situational awareness. Methods Fieldwork methods were used to capture the dynamic integration of individual and situational elements in surgery that provided the backdrop for clinical decisions. Nineteen semistructured interviews were performed with 24 participants from anesthesia, surgery, and nursing in the operating rooms of a large metropolitan hospital in Queensland, Australia. Thematic analysis was used. Results The domain “coordinating decisions in surgery” was generated from textual data. Within this domain, three themes illustrated the dialog of clinical decisions, ie, synchronizing and strategizing actions, sharing local knowledge, and planning contingency decisions based on priority. Conclusion Strategies used to convey decisions that enhanced shared situational awareness included the use of “self-talk”, closed-loop communications, and “overhearing” conversations that occurred at the operating table. Behaviors that compromised a team’s shared situational awareness included tunneling and fixating on one aspect of the situation. PMID:23662066

  8. Promoting UV Exposure Awareness with Persuasive, Wearable Technologies.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M Sazzad; Cripwell, Liam; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Freyne, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Current methods to promote awareness of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation have focussed on delivering population level information and some location-based reporting of UV Index (UVI). However, diseases related to excessive (e.g. sunburn, skin cancer) or insufficient (e.g. vitamin D deficiency) exposure to sunlight still remain a global burden. The emergence of wearable sensors and the application of persuasive technology in health domains raise the possibility for technology to influence awareness of sufficient sun intake for vitamin D production, as well as preventing risk of skin damage. This paper presents a personalised solution to promote healthy, safe sun exposure using wearable devices and persuasive techniques.

  9. Promoting UV Exposure Awareness with Persuasive, Wearable Technologies.

    PubMed

    Hussain, M Sazzad; Cripwell, Liam; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Freyne, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Current methods to promote awareness of the sun's ultraviolet (UV) radiation have focussed on delivering population level information and some location-based reporting of UV Index (UVI). However, diseases related to excessive (e.g. sunburn, skin cancer) or insufficient (e.g. vitamin D deficiency) exposure to sunlight still remain a global burden. The emergence of wearable sensors and the application of persuasive technology in health domains raise the possibility for technology to influence awareness of sufficient sun intake for vitamin D production, as well as preventing risk of skin damage. This paper presents a personalised solution to promote healthy, safe sun exposure using wearable devices and persuasive techniques. PMID:27440288

  10. Advanced situation awareness with localised environmental community observatories in the Future Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabeur, Z. A.; Denis, H.; Nativi, S.

    2012-04-01

    The phenomenal advances in information and communication technologies over the last decade have led to offering unprecedented connectivity with real potentials for "Smart living" between large segments of human populations around the world. In particular, Voluntary Groups(VGs) and individuals with interest in monitoring the state of their local environment can be connected through the internet and collaboratively generate important localised environmental observations. These could be considered as the Community Observatories(CO) of the Future Internet(FI). However, a set of FI enablers are needed to be deployed for these communities to become effective COs in the Future Internet. For example, these communities will require access to services for the intelligent processing of heterogeneous data and capture of advancend situation awarness about the environment. This important enablement will really unlock the communities true potential for participating in localised monitoring of the environment in addition to their contribution in the creation of business entreprise. Among the eight Usage Areas(UA) projects of the FP7 FI-PPP programme, the ENVIROFI Integrated Project focuses on the specifications of the Future Internet enablers of the Environment UA. The specifications are developed under multiple environmental domains in context of users needs for the development of mash-up applications in the Future Internet. It will enable users access to real-time, on-demand fused information with advanced situation awareness about the environment at localised scales. The mash-up applications shall get access to rich spatio-temporal information from structured fusion services which aggregate COs information with existing environmental monitoring stations data, established by research organisations and private entreprise. These applications are being developed in ENVIROFI for the atmospheric, marine and biodiversity domains, together with a potential to be extended to other

  11. Norm-Aware Socio-Technical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savarimuthu, Bastin Tony Roy; Ghose, Aditya

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * The Need for Norm-Aware Systems * Norms in human societies * Why should software systems be norm-aware? * Case Studies of Norm-Aware Socio-Technical Systems * Human-computer interactions * Virtual environments and multi-player online games * Extracting norms from big data and software repositories * Norms and Sustainability * Sustainability and green ICT * Norm awareness through software systems * Where To, From Here? * Conclusions

  12. An Analysis of Teachers' Opinions about Their Knowledge of Curriculum Terms Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkan, Hasan Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the teachers' awareness of curriculum terms and the level of their knowledge and to develop a valid and applicable measurement tool that can be used in determining the teachers' awareness of curriculum terms and the level of their knowledge. This research is in survey model. The data collection tool…

  13. Development and Evaluation of Game-Like Phonological Awareness Software for Kindergarteners: "JerenAli"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Günizi; Terziyan, Treysi

    2016-01-01

    The major goal of this study was to develop a game-like software application for phonological awareness training and to evaluate its role in improving phonological awareness skills at the kindergarten level, with the intention to eventually help reading acquisition in Turkish. The participants of the study came from two kindergarten classrooms in…

  14. Morphological Awareness Intervention in School-Age Children with Language and Literacy Deficits: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Julie A.; Green, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights the clinical application of morphological awareness intervention to facilitate phonological, vocabulary, reading, and spelling success in children with language and literacy deficits. First, the research-based benefits of morphological awareness instruction are reviewed and current theoretical and research-based…

  15. Children's Morphological Awareness and Reading Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, John R.; Deacon, S. Helene; Bowers, Peter N.; Izenberg, Leah; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of morphological awareness on five measures of reading in 103 children from Grades 1 to 3. Morphological awareness was assessed with a word analogy task that included a wide range of morphological transformations. Results indicated that the new measure had satisfactory reliability, and that morphological awareness was a…

  16. Perspectives on Economic Awareness? A Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Peter

    1989-01-01

    Presents a compelling argument refuting Ian Pearce's eclectic approach to economic awareness. Focuses on three questions: (1) what is the purpose of economic awareness; (2) what does economic awareness entail for the classroom; and (3) what view of economics does the Ian Pearce's approach convey? Offers five reasons for rejecting the eclectic…

  17. Research into Practice: Cultural and Intercultural Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Will

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the role of cultural awareness (CA) and intercultural awareness (ICA) in classroom theory and practice. CA and ICA can be roughly characterised as an awareness of the role of culture in communication with CA focused on national cultures and ICA on more dynamic and flexible relationships between languages and cultures. There…

  18. An appraisal of students' awareness of "self-reflection" in a first-year pathology course of undergraduate medical/dental education

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Self-reflection and reflective practice are increasingly considered as essential attributes of competent professionals functioning in complex and ever-changing healthcare systems of the 21st century. The aim of this study was to determine the extent of students' awareness and understanding of the reflective process and the meaning of 'self-reflection' within the contextual framework of their learning environment in the first-year of their medical/dental education. We endorse that the introduction of such explicit educational tasks at this early stage enhances and promotes students' awareness, understanding, and proficiency of this skill in their continuing life-long health professional learning. Methods Over two years, students registered in first-year pathology at the University of Saskatchewan were introduced to a self-reflection assignment which comprised in the submission of a one-page reflective document to a template of reflective questions provided in the given context of their learning environment. This was a mandatory but ungraded component at the midterm and final examinations. These documents were individually analyzed and thematically categorized to a "5 levels-of-reflection-awareness" scale using a specially-designed rubric based on the accepted major theories of reflection that included students' identification of: 1) personal abilities, 2) personal learning styles 3) relationships between course material and student history 4) emotional responses and 5) future applications. Results 410 self-reflection documents were analyzed. The student self-awareness on personal learning style (72.7% level 3+) and course content (55.2% level 3+) were well-reflected. Reflections at a level 1 awareness included identification of a) specific teaching strategies utilized to enhance learning (58.4%), b) personal strengths/weaknesses (53%), and c) emotional responses, values, and beliefs (71.5%). Students' abilities to connect information to life experiences

  19. A Novel Framework for Learning Geometry-Aware Kernels.

    PubMed

    Pan, Binbin; Chen, Wen-Sheng; Xu, Chen; Chen, Bo

    2016-05-01

    The data from real world usually have nonlinear geometric structure, which are often assumed to lie on or close to a low-dimensional manifold in a high-dimensional space. How to detect this nonlinear geometric structure of the data is important for the learning algorithms. Recently, there has been a surge of interest in utilizing kernels to exploit the manifold structure of the data. Such kernels are called geometry-aware kernels and are widely used in the machine learning algorithms. The performance of these algorithms critically relies on the choice of the geometry-aware kernels. Intuitively, a good geometry-aware kernel should utilize additional information other than the geometric information. In many applications, it is required to compute the out-of-sample data directly. However, most of the geometry-aware kernel methods are restricted to the available data given beforehand, with no straightforward extension for out-of-sample data. In this paper, we propose a framework for more general geometry-aware kernel learning. The proposed framework integrates multiple sources of information and enables us to develop flexible and effective kernel matrices. Then, we theoretically show how the learned kernel matrices are extended to the corresponding kernel functions, in which the out-of-sample data can be computed directly. Under our framework, a novel family of geometry-aware kernels is developed. Especially, some existing geometry-aware kernels can be viewed as instances of our framework. The performance of the kernels is evaluated on dimensionality reduction, classification, and clustering tasks. The empirical results show that our kernels significantly improve the performance.

  20. A Situation Awareness Assistant for Human Deep Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy A.; Platt, Donald

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development and testing of a Virtual Camera (VC) system to improve astronaut and mission operations situation awareness while exploring other planetary bodies. In this embodiment, the VC is implemented using a tablet-based computer system to navigate through inter active database application. It is claimed that the advanced interaction media capability of the VC can improve situation awareness as the distribution of hu man space exploration roles change in deep space exploration. The VC is being developed and tested for usability and capability to improve situation awareness. Work completed thus far as well as what is needed to complete the project will be described. Planned testing will also be described.

  1. Objective measures of situation awareness in a simulated medical environment

    PubMed Central

    Wright, M; Taekman, J; Endsley, M

    2004-01-01

    One major limitation in the use of human patient simulators is a lack of objective, validated measures of human performance. Objective measures are necessary if simulators are to be used to evaluate the skills and training of medical practitioners and teams or to evaluate the impact of new processes or equipment design on overall system performance. Situation awareness (SA) refers to a person's perception and understanding of their dynamic environment. This awareness and comprehension is critical in making correct decisions that ultimately lead to correct actions in medical care settings. An objective measure of SA may be more sensitive and diagnostic than traditional performance measures. This paper reviews a theory of SA and discusses the methods required for developing an objective measure of SA within the context of a simulated medical environment. Analysis and interpretation of SA data for both individual and team performance in health care are also presented. PMID:15465958

  2. MAppERS experience: natural processes and preparedness in the societal context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigerio, Simone; Schenato, Luca; Bossi, Giulia; Mantovani, Matteo; Marcato, Gianluca; Pasuto, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    Within natural processes responsibilities from central authorities to local levels as first actors of civil protection is a changing pattern. Prevention and preparedness in natural hazards are long-term goals based on capacities of professional volunteers, and improving the awareness of the citizens as local inhabitants. Local people have impacts on their lives but training and involvement towards specific techniques change their role within risk communication and emergency preparedness. A collaborative user environment is useful for emergency response and support in the wake of disasters, feeding updated information on the ground directly to on-site responders. MAppERS (Mobile Application for Emergency Response and Support) is a funded project (2013-2015 Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protection, ECHO A5) based on human role as "crowd-sourced mappers" through smart phone application able to share GPS-localised and detailed parameters. The feedback from testing and the training courses aim to raising public awareness and participation in a networked disaster response. The project implies design and test of smart phone linked with a real-time dashboard platform for rescue services citizens and volunteers of civil protection. Two pilot sites, including trainings on modules functioning control usability and quality of the product. The synchronized platform offers the activity of cloud data collection with a central data dashboard. Information is collected in a context of floods processes, with crowdsourcing action from local population, for proper awareness with own personal flood plan and long-term preparedness. A second context tested pre-emergency actions on field with rescue team, collecting state-of-art and condition of hazards.

  3. Situational awareness in public health preparedness settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirhaji, Parsa; Michea, Yanko F.; Zhang, Jiajie; Casscells, Samuel W.

    2005-05-01

    September 11 2001 attacks and following Anthrax mailings introduced emergent need for developing technologies that can distinguish between man made and natural incidents in the public health level. With this objective in mind, government agencies started a funding effort to foster the design, development and implementation of such systems on a wide scale. But the outcomes have not met the expectations set by the resources invested. Multiple elements explain this phenomenon: As it has been frequent with technology, introduction of new surveillance systems to the workflow equation has occurred without taking into consideration the need for understanding and inclusion of deeper personal, psychosocial, organizational and methodological concepts. The environment, in which these systems are operating, is complex, highly dynamic, uncertain, risky, and subject to intense time pressures. Such 'difficult' environments are very challenging to the human as a decision maker. In this paper we will challenge these systems from the perspective of human factors design. We will propose employment of systematic situational awareness research for design and implementation of the next generation public health preparedness infrastructures. We believe that systems designed based on results of such analytical definition of the domain enable public health practitioners to effectively collect the most important cues from the environment, process, interpret and understand the information in the context of organizational objectives and immediate tasks at hand, and use that understanding to forecast the short term and long term impact of the events in the safety and well being of the community.

  4. Awareness and recall during general anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Anesthesia awareness is defined as both consciousness and recall of surgical events. New research has been conducted out to test this phenomenon. However, testing methods have not proven reliable, including those using devices based on electroencephalographic techniques to detect and prevent intraoperative awareness. The limitations of a standard intraoperative brain monitor reflect our insufficient understanding of consciousness. Moreover, patients who experience an intraoperative awareness can develop serious post-traumatic stress disorders that should not be overlooked. In this review, we introduce the incidence of intraoperative awareness during general anesthesia and discuss the mechanisms of consciousness, as well as risk factors, various monitoring methods, outcome and prevention of intraoperative awareness. PMID:24910724

  5. Universe Awareness For Young Children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorza, C.; Miley, G.; Ödman, C.; Madsen, C.

    2006-08-01

    Universe Awareness (UNAWE) is an international programme that will expose economically disadvantaged young children aged between 4 and 10 years to the inspirational aspects of modern astronomy. The programme is motivated by the premise that access to simple knowledge about the Universe is a basic birth right of everybody. These formative ages are crucial in the development of a human value system. This is also the age range in which children can learn to develop a 'feeling' for the vastness of the Universe. Exposing young children to such material is likely to broaden their minds and stimulate their world-view. The goals of Universe Awareness are in accordance with two of the United Nations Millennium goals, endorsed by all 191 UN member states, namely (i) the achievement of universal primary education and (ii) the promotion of gender equality in schools. We propose to commence Universe Awareness with a pilot project that will target disadvantaged regions in about 4 European countries (possibly Spain, France, Germany and The Netherlands) and several non-EU countries (possibly Chile, Colombia, India, Tunisia, South Africa and Venezuela). There will be two distinct elements in the development of the UNAWE program: (i) Creation and production of suitable UNAWE material and delivery techniques, (ii) Training of educators who will coordinate UNAWE in each of the target countries. In addition to the programme, an international network of astronomy outreach will be organised. We present the first results of a pilot project developed in Venezuela, where 670 children from different social environments, their teachers and members of an indigenous tribe called Ye´kuana from the Amazon region took part in a wonderful astronomical and cultural exchange that is now being promoted by the Venezuelan ministry of Education at the national level.

  6. Dual-Use system architecture for a space situational awareness system in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, Y.; Kohtake, N.; Ohkami, Y.

    The use of outer space plays a vital role in both defense and civil fields. Since the separation of space activities between civil and defense applications is extremely inefficient, the Dual-Use concept has been considered fundamental for promoting the effective use of space. To the best of the authors' knowledge, most previous studies on Dual-Use focused on the technological aspects, and very few on a system engineering approach to Dual-Use. This left some important issues untouched such as the operational aspects of a system of systems, which need to be understood in a more generic context. This paper presents the results of a conceptual study, system design and management analysis of Dual-Use system architecture. First, an outline of the Dual-Use concept will be described and a definition of Dual-Use given. The effectiveness of applying the Dual-Use system concept to Space Situational Awareness (SSA) for both defense and civil users as a system of systems will then be discussed and investigated with a stakeholders analysis, context diagram and design structure matrix method. It has demonstrated that there is a need for a Dual-Use SSA Data Center which works as a binder between defense and civil systems as well as a data policy for constructing a Dual-Use SSA system.

  7. Assessment of radiation awareness training in immersive virtual environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whisker, Vaughn E., III

    The prospect of new nuclear power plant orders in the near future and the graying of the current workforce create a need to train new personnel faster and better. Immersive virtual reality (VR) may offer a solution to the training challenge. VR technology presented in a CAVE Automatic Virtual Environment (CAVE) provides a high-fidelity, one-to-one scale environment where areas of the power plant can be recreated and virtual radiation environments can be simulated, making it possible to safely expose workers to virtual radiation in the context of the actual work environment. The use of virtual reality for training is supported by many educational theories; constructivism and discovery learning, in particular. Educational theory describes the importance of matching the training to the task. Plant access training and radiation worker training, common forms of training in the nuclear industry, rely on computer-based training methods in most cases, which effectively transfer declarative knowledge, but are poor at transferring skills. If an activity were to be added, the training would provide personnel with the opportunity to develop skills and apply their knowledge so they could be more effective when working in the radiation environment. An experiment was developed to test immersive virtual reality's suitability for training radiation awareness. Using a mixed methodology of quantitative and qualitative measures, the subjects' performances before and after training were assessed. First, subjects completed a pre-test to measure their knowledge prior to completing any training. Next they completed unsupervised computer-based training, which consisted of a PowerPoint presentation and a PDF document. After completing a brief orientation activity in the virtual environment, one group of participants received supplemental radiation awareness training in a simulated radiation environment presented in the CAVE, while a second group, the control group, moved directly to the

  8. Context in Models of Human-Machine Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callantine, Todd J.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    All human-machine systems models represent context. This paper proposes a theory of context through which models may be usefully related and integrated for design. The paper presents examples of context representation in various models, describes an application to developing models for the Crew Activity Tracking System (CATS), and advances context as a foundation for integrated design of complex dynamic systems.

  9. Harnessing Context Sensing to Develop a Mobile Intervention for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Begale, Mark; Duffecy, Jennifer; Gergle, Darren; Karr, Chris J; Giangrande, Emily

    2011-01-01

    Background Mobile phone sensors can be used to develop context-aware systems that automatically detect when patients require assistance. Mobile phones can also provide ecological momentary interventions that deliver tailored assistance during problematic situations. However, such approaches have not yet been used to treat major depressive disorder. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the technical feasibility, functional reliability, and patient satisfaction with Mobilyze!, a mobile phone- and Internet-based intervention including ecological momentary intervention and context sensing. Methods We developed a mobile phone application and supporting architecture, in which machine learning models (ie, learners) predicted patients’ mood, emotions, cognitive/motivational states, activities, environmental context, and social context based on at least 38 concurrent phone sensor values (eg, global positioning system, ambient light, recent calls). The website included feedback graphs illustrating correlations between patients’ self-reported states, as well as didactics and tools teaching patients behavioral activation concepts. Brief telephone calls and emails with a clinician were used to promote adherence. We enrolled 8 adults with major depressive disorder in a single-arm pilot study to receive Mobilyze! and complete clinical assessments for 8 weeks. Results Promising accuracy rates (60% to 91%) were achieved by learners predicting categorical contextual states (eg, location). For states rated on scales (eg, mood), predictive capability was poor. Participants were satisfied with the phone application and improved significantly on self-reported depressive symptoms (betaweek = –.82, P < .001, per-protocol Cohen d = 3.43) and interview measures of depressive symptoms (betaweek = –.81, P < .001, per-protocol Cohen d = 3.55). Participants also became less likely to meet criteria for major depressive disorder diagnosis (bweek = –.65, P = .03, per

  10. Awareness, persuasion, and adoption: Enriching the Bass model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colapinto, Cinzia; Sartori, Elena; Tolotti, Marco

    2014-02-01

    In the context of diffusion of innovations, we propose a probabilistic model based on interacting populations connected through new communication channels. The potential adopters are heterogeneous in the connectivity levels and in their taste for innovation. The proposed framework can model the different stages of the adoption dynamics. In particular, the adoption curve is the result of a micro-founded decision process following the awareness phase. Eventually, we recover stylized facts pointed out by the extant literature in the field, such as delayed adoptions and non-monotonic adoption curves.

  11. Context and Pavlovian conditioning.

    PubMed

    Landeira-Fernandez, J

    1996-02-01

    Procedurally, learning has to occur in a context. Several lines of evidence suggest that contextual stimuli actively affect learning and expression of the conditional response. The experimental context can become associated with the unconditional stimulus (US), especially when the US is presented in a context in the absence of a discrete conditional stimulus (CS). Moreover, context can modulate CS-US associations. Finally, it appears that context can become associated with the CS when it is presented before the CS-US training. The purpose of the present paper is to review some of the relevant literature that considers the context as an important feature of Pavlovian conditioning and to discuss some of the main learning theories that incorporate the context into their theoretical framework. The paper starts by mentioning historical positions that considered context an important variable in conditioning and then describes how the approach to contextual conditioning changed with the modern study of Pavlovian conditioning. Various forms of measurement of context conditioning are presented and the associative strength attached to context in several experimental paradigms is examined. The possible functions that context may acquire during conditioning are pointed out and related to major learning theories. Moreover, the effect of certain neurological manipulations on context conditioning is presented and these results are discussed in terms of possible functions that the context might acquire during Pavlovian conditioning. It is concluded that contextual stimuli acquire different functions during normal conditioning. A procedure in which animals are exposed to an aversive US immediately after they are placed in the experimental context is suggested as a useful control for the study of context conditioning.

  12. Teacher Wellbeing in Neoliberal Contexts: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acton, Renae; Glasgow, Patti

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that the wellbeing of a workforce is an important consideration in any organisation. Within the context of education, possibilities for supporting teacher wellbeing are mediated by neoliberal policy technologies that are incongruent with key aspects of wellness. Reviewing the literature, it appears there is value…

  13. Glocalisation and English Language Education in Chinese Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rai, Laxmisha; Deng, Chunrao

    2016-01-01

    With the frequent interaction between China and the world, glocalisation, the combination of globalisation and localisation, is an unavoidable trend. This paper argues that the association of local situation with global awareness is one of the ways to assimilate English for daily use in Chinese context. The fundamental idea is that the use of…

  14. Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) Flight Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maris, John M.; Haynes, Mark A.; Wing, David J.; Burke, Kelly A.; Henderson, Jeff; Woods, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) is a cockpit decision support tool that has the potential to achieve significant fuel and time savings when it is embedded in the data-rich Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. To address a key step towards the operational deployment of TAP and the NASA concept of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR), a system evaluation was conducted in a representative flight environment in November, 2013. Numerous challenges were overcome to achieve this goal, including the porting of the foundational Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) software from its original simulation-based, avionics-embedded environment to an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) platform. A flight-test aircraft was modified to host the EFB, the TAP application, an Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) processor, and a satellite broadband datalink. Nine Evaluation Pilots conducted 26 hours of TAP assessments using four route profiles in the complex eastern and north-eastern United States airspace. Extensive avionics and video data were collected, supplemented by comprehensive inflight and post-flight questionnaires. TAP was verified to function properly in the live avionics and ADS-B environment, characterized by recorded data dropouts, latency, and ADS-B message fluctuations. Twelve TAP-generated optimization requests were submitted to ATC, of which nine were approved, and all of which resulted in fuel and/or time savings. Analysis of subjective workload data indicated that pilot interaction with TAP during flight operations did not induce additional cognitive loading. Additionally, analyses of post-flight questionnaire data showed that the pilots perceived TAP to be useful, understandable, intuitive, and easy to use. All program objectives were met, and the next phase of TAP development and evaluations with partner airlines is in planning for 2015.

  15. Treemap Visualizations for Space Situational Awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ianni, J.; Gorrell, Z.

    Making sense of massive data sets is a problem for many military domains including space. With unwieldy big data sets used for space situational awareness (SSA), important trends and outliers may not be easy to spot especially not at-a-glance. One method being explored to visualize SSA data sets is called treemapping. Treemaps fill screen space with nested rectangles (tiles) of various sizes and colors to represent multiple dimensions of hierarchical data sets. By mapping these dimensions effectively with a tiling algorithm that maintains an appropriate aspect ratio, patterns can emerge that often would have gone unnoticed. The ability to interactively perform range filtering (in our case with sliders) and object drill-downs (hyperlinking the tiles) make this technology powerful for in-depth analyses in addition to at-a-glance awareness. For one SSA analysis, the tiles could represent satellites that are grouped by country, sized by apogee, and colored/shaded by the launch date. Filter sliders could allow apogee range or launch dates to be narrowed for better resolution of a smaller data set. The application of this technology for the Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC) Mission System (JMS) is being explored on a DARPA Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) effort as a plug-in to the existing User-Defined Operational Picture (UDOP). In addition, visualization of DARPA OrbitOutlook small telescope data will be demonstrated. This research will investigate what SSA analyses are best served by treemaps, the best tiling algorithms for these problems, and how the treemaps should be integrated into the existing JMS UDOP workflow. Finally, we introduce a variation of treemaps that help leaders allocate their time to tasks based on importance and urgency.

  16. Pedagogical Potential of a Web-Based GIS Application for Migration Data: A Preliminary Investigation in the Context of South Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Minsung; Kim, Kamyoung; Lee, Sang-Il

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the pedagogical potential of a Web-based GIS application, Population Migration Web Service (PMWS), in which students can examine population geography in an interactive and exploratory manner. This article introduces PMWS, a tailored, unique Internet GIS application that provides functions for visualizing spatial interaction…

  17. Battlefield awareness computers: the engine of battlefield digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Jackson; Chamseddine, Ahmad

    1997-06-01

    solution, Computing Devices is planning to develop a notebook sized military computer designed for space limited vehicle-mounted applications, as well as a high-performance portable workstation equipped with a 19', full color, ultra-high resolution and high brightness active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) targeting the command posts and tactical operations centers (TOC) applications. Together with the wearable computers Computing Devices developed at the Minneapolis facility for dismounted soldiers, Computing Devices will have a complete suite of interoperable battlefield awareness computers spanning the entire spectrum of battle digitization operating environments. Although this paper's primary focus is on a second generation 'combat ready' battlefield awareness computer or the V3+, this paper also briefly discusses the extension of the V3+ architecture to address the needs of the embedded and command post applications.3080

  18. Imagining Another Context during Encoding Offsets Context-Dependent Forgetting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masicampo, E. J.; Sahakyan, Lili

    2014-01-01

    We tested whether imagining another context during encoding would offset context-dependent forgetting. All participants studied a list of words in Context A. Participants who remained in Context A during the test recalled more than participants who were tested in another context (Context B), demonstrating the standard context-dependent forgetting…

  19. Conscious awareness is required for holistic face processing.

    PubMed

    Axelrod, Vadim; Rees, Geraint

    2014-07-01

    Investigating the limits of unconscious processing is essential to understand the function of consciousness. Here, we explored whether holistic face processing, a mechanism believed to be important for face processing in general, can be accomplished unconsciously. Using a novel "eyes-face" stimulus we tested whether discrimination of pairs of eyes was influenced by the surrounding face context. While the eyes were fully visible, the faces that provided context could be rendered invisible through continuous flash suppression. Two experiments with three different sets of face stimuli and a subliminal learning procedure converged to show that invisible faces did not influence perception of visible eyes. In contrast, surrounding faces, when they were clearly visible, strongly influenced perception of the eyes. Thus, we conclude that conscious awareness might be a prerequisite for holistic face processing. PMID:24950500

  20. Creating environmental awareness among children.

    PubMed

    Nair, S M

    1992-01-01

    In India, most instruction in ecology and environment in schools and colleges comes from textbooks. Yet, this form of education rarely results in action. Children need to go into nature to study the flora, fauna, and ecosystems and into the environment to observe environmental problems, e.g., pollution, deforestation, and conservation processes. Educators need to first stir love and curiosity for nature so children can become aware of the environment and motivated to take action to preserve it. Well-conceived interpretive facilities with basic environmental information are needed in natural areas to help people identify plants and animals and learn about their characteristics and their interrelationships. They must incite joy and curiosity in what people can see rather than in what they cannot see. For example, many people go to national parks and sanctuaries to see a tiger or a leopard, but rarely see them. Nature study project material for children helps stir excitement about nature and their responsibility to respect it. Various groups have produced Joy of Learning, a handbook for environmental education activities. Environmental education depends on how educators can relate personal matters (e.g., wasteful use of paper to deforestation) to the environment. The National Museum of Natural History is committed to environmental education and to raising public awareness of conservation. It loans exhibits to classrooms. The Museum has a month-long summer program for teenagers called Exploring the Environment consisting of museum studies, nature field trips, urban field trips, and ecosystem observations in a national park or sanctuary. Its month-long program for younger children involves nature painting and animal modeling. The Touch, Feel, and Learn program benefits handicapped children. The Museum hosts 2-3 teacher workshops a year to orient them to museum resource materials and how to develop teaching aids. Other programs are outreach programs for children, college