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Sample records for contextual human factors

  1. Teleoperator hand controllers: A contextual human factors assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, J.V.

    1994-05-01

    This document provides a human factors assessment of controllers for use with remotely controlled manipulators deployed to remove hazardous waste from underground storage tanks. The analysis concentrates on controller technique (i.e., the broad class of hand controller) and not on details of controller ergonomics. Examples of controller techniques include, for example, direct rate control, resolved unilateral position control, and direct bilateral position control. Using an existing concept, the Tank Waste Retrieval Manipulator System, as a reference, two basic types of manipulators may be identified for this application. A long reach, gross-positioning manipulator (LRM) may be used to position a smaller manipulator or an end-effector within a work site. For a Long Reach Manipulator, which will have an enormous motion range and be capable of high end-effector velocity, it will be safest and most efficient to use a resolved rate control system. A smaller, dexterous manipulator may be used to perform handling work within a relatively small work site, (i.e., to complete tasks requiring near-human dexterity). For a Dexterous Manipulator, which will have a smaller motion range than the LRM and be required to perform more difficult tasks, a resolved bilateral position control system will be safest and most efficient. However, during some waste recovery tasks it may be important to support the users by restricting movements to a single plane or axis. This can be done with a resolved bilateral position control system by (1) using the master controller force output to restrict controller inputs or (2) switching the controller to a multiaxis rate control mode and using the force output to provide a spring return to center functionality.

  2. Contextual Factors in Adolescent Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hochhauser, Mark; And Others

    Research on adolescent substance use has focused on prevalence and incidence; however, contextual factors have been largely ignored. A survey of 155 adolescents from a Minneapolis suburb was conducted to assess contextual factors affecting adolescent substance use. Subjects reported their use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marihuana with respect to…

  3. Consequences of Contextual Factors on Clinical Reasoning in Resident Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Picho, Katherine; Artino, Anthony R., Jr.; Schuwirth, Lambert; Kelly, William; Masel, Jennifer; van der Vleuten, Cees; Durning, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Context specificity and the impact that contextual factors have on the complex process of clinical reasoning is poorly understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of resident physicians in order to describe what impact the presence of contextual factors have…

  4. Consequences of contextual factors on clinical reasoning in resident physicians.

    PubMed

    McBee, Elexis; Ratcliffe, Temple; Picho, Katherine; Artino, Anthony R; Schuwirth, Lambert; Kelly, William; Masel, Jennifer; van der Vleuten, Cees; Durning, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Context specificity and the impact that contextual factors have on the complex process of clinical reasoning is poorly understood. Using situated cognition as the theoretical framework, our aim was to evaluate the verbalized clinical reasoning processes of resident physicians in order to describe what impact the presence of contextual factors have on their clinical reasoning. Participants viewed three video recorded clinical encounters portraying straightforward diagnoses in internal medicine with select patient contextual factors modified. After watching each video recording, participants completed a think-aloud protocol. Transcripts from the think-aloud protocols were analyzed using a constant comparative approach. After iterative coding, utterances were analyzed for emergent themes with utterances grouped into categories, themes and subthemes. Ten residents participated in the study with saturation reached during analysis. Participants universally acknowledged the presence of contextual factors in the video recordings. Four categories emerged as a consequence of the contextual factors: (1) emotional reactions (2) behavioral inferences (3) optimizing the doctor patient relationship and (4) difficulty with closure of the clinical encounter. The presence of contextual factors may impact clinical reasoning performance in resident physicians. When confronted with the presence of contextual factors in a clinical scenario, residents experienced difficulty with closure of the encounter, exhibited as diagnostic uncertainty. This finding raises important questions about the relationship between contextual factors and clinical reasoning activities and how this relationship might influence the cost effectiveness of care. This study also provides insight into how the phenomena of context specificity may be explained using situated cognition theory.

  5. The Influence of Contextual and Psychosocial Factors on Handwashing.

    PubMed

    Seimetz, Elisabeth; Boyayo, Anne-Marie; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2016-06-01

    Even though washing hands with soap is among the most effective measures to reduce the risk of infection, handwashing rates in infrastructure-restricted settings remain seriously low. Little is known about how context alone and in interaction with psychosocial factors influence hand hygiene behavior. The aim of this article was to explore how both contextual and psychosocial factors affect handwashing practices. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 660 caregivers of primary school children in rural Burundi. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that household wealth, the amount of water per person, and having a designated place for washing hands were contextual factors significantly predicting handwashing frequency, whereas the contextual factors, time spent collecting water and amount of money spent on soap, were not significant predictors. The contextual factors explained about 13% of the variance of reported handwashing frequency. The addition of the psychosocial factors to the regression model resulted in a significant 41% increase of explained variation in handwashing frequency. In this final model, the amount of water was the only contextual factor that remained a significant predictor. The most important predictors were a belief of self-efficacy, planning how, when, and where to wash hands, and always remembering to do so. The findings suggest that contextual constraints might be perceived rather than actual barriers and highlight the role of psychosocial factors in understanding hygiene behaviors.

  6. Ethical decision making in the conduct of research: role of individual, contextual and organizational factors. Commentary on "Science, human nature, and a new paradigm for ethics education".

    PubMed

    Langlais, Philip J

    2012-09-01

    Despite the importance of scientific integrity to the well-being of society, recent findings suggest that training and mentoring in the responsible conduct of research are not very reliable or effective inhibitors of research misbehavior. Understanding how and why individual scientists decide to behave in ways that conform to or violate norms and standards of research is essential to the development of more effective training programs and the creation of more supportive environments. Scholars in business management, psychology, and other disciplines have identified many important factors that affect ethical behavior, including individual, contextual, and organizational factors. Surprisingly little research has been conducted to examine the role of these factors in either the development of ethical decision-making skills, or their applicability to ethical issues commonly encountered in research and other scholarly and professional activities. Interdisciplinary approaches combined with research and discipline relevant paradigms should greatly enhance understanding of the individual contextual and organizational factors involved in ethical and unethical research conduct. Such studies will inform and facilitate the development of more effective ethics education programs in the sciences and engineering professions.

  7. Human Parsing with Contextualized Convolutional Neural Network.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaodan; Xu, Chunyan; Shen, Xiaohui; Yang, Jianchao; Tang, Jinhui; Lin, Liang; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-03-02

    In this work, we address the human parsing task with a novel Contextualized Convolutional Neural Network (Co-CNN) architecture, which well integrates the cross-layer context, global image-level context, semantic edge context, within-super-pixel context and cross-super-pixel neighborhood context into a unified network. Given an input human image, Co-CNN produces the pixel-wise categorization in an end-to-end way. First, the cross-layer context is captured by our basic local-to-global-to-local structure, which hierarchically combines the global semantic information and the local fine details across different convolutional layers. Second, the global image-level label prediction is used as an auxiliary objective in the intermediate layer of the Co-CNN, and its outputs are further used for guiding the feature learning in subsequent convolutional layers to leverage the global imagelevel context. Third, semantic edge context is further incorporated into Co-CNN, where the high-level semantic boundaries are leveraged to guide pixel-wise labeling. Finally, to further utilize the local super-pixel contexts, the within-super-pixel smoothing and cross-super-pixel neighbourhood voting are formulated as natural sub-components of the Co-CNN to achieve the local label consistency in both training and testing process. Comprehensive evaluations on two public datasets well demonstrate the significant superiority of our Co-CNN over other state-of-the-arts for human parsing. In particular, the F-1 score on the large dataset [1] reaches 81:72% by Co-CNN, significantly higher than 62:81% and 64:38% by the state-of-the-art algorithms, MCNN [2] and ATR [1], respectively. By utilizing our newly collected large dataset for training, our Co-CNN can achieve 85:36% in F-1 score.

  8. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities

    PubMed Central

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today’s technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  9. Contextual Sensing: Integrating Contextual Information with Human and Technical Geo-Sensor Information for Smart Cities.

    PubMed

    Sagl, Günther; Resch, Bernd; Blaschke, Thomas

    2015-07-14

    In this article we critically discuss the challenge of integrating contextual information, in particular spatiotemporal contextual information, with human and technical sensor information, which we approach from a geospatial perspective. We start by highlighting the significance of context in general and spatiotemporal context in particular and introduce a smart city model of interactions between humans, the environment, and technology, with context at the common interface. We then focus on both the intentional and the unintentional sensing capabilities of today's technologies and discuss current technological trends that we consider have the ability to enrich human and technical geo-sensor information with contextual detail. The different types of sensors used to collect contextual information are analyzed and sorted into three groups on the basis of names considering frequently used related terms, and characteristic contextual parameters. These three groups, namely technical in situ sensors, technical remote sensors, and human sensors are analyzed and linked to three dimensions involved in sensing (data generation, geographic phenomena, and type of sensing). In contrast to other scientific publications, we found a large number of technologies and applications using in situ and mobile technical sensors within the context of smart cities, and surprisingly limited use of remote sensing approaches. In this article we further provide a critical discussion of possible impacts and influences of both technical and human sensing approaches on society, pointing out that a larger number of sensors, increased fusion of information, and the use of standardized data formats and interfaces will not necessarily result in any improvement in the quality of life of the citizens of a smart city. This article seeks to improve our understanding of technical and human geo-sensing capabilities, and to demonstrate that the use of such sensors can facilitate the integration of different

  10. Contextual factors influencing HIV risk behaviour in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Smolak, Alex

    2010-06-01

    Central Asia has experienced a rapid increase in HIV. HIV interventions and prevention programmes are needed that adequately appreciate and account for the ways that ongoing cultural, political and economic changes in this region affect HIV risk reduction efforts. Drawing on relevant literature, this paper provides a contextual foundation to better understand the impact of context on HIV risk behaviour in the countries of Central Asia and to begin the conversation on the contextual factors of Islam and polygamy.

  11. Generalization of Contextual Fear in Humans.

    PubMed

    Andreatta, Marta; Leombruni, Estelle; Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Pauli, Paul; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Enhanced fear responses to cues, which were not associated with the threat but share perceptual characteristics with the threat signal, indicate generalization of conditioned fear. Here, we investigated for the first time generalization processes in contextual fear conditioning. Thirty-two participants were guided through two virtual offices (acquisition phases). Mildly painful electric shocks (unconditioned stimulus, US) were unpredictably delivered in one office (anxiety context, CTX+), but never in the other office (safety context, CTX-). During the generalization test, participants were guided through CTX+, CTX-, and the generalization context (G-CTX), which contained features of both the CTX+ and the CTX-, but no US was delivered. We found successful contextual fear conditioning (i.e., the CTX+ compared to the CTX- elicited potentiated startle responses and was rated with more negative valence, higher arousal and higher anxiety). Importantly, implicit and explicit responses dissociated in the generalization test. Thus, participants rated the G-CTX as more arousing and anxiogenic than the CTX- indicating anxiety generalization, but they showed enhanced startle responses to the CTX+ only, while the G-CTX and the CTX- did not differ. In summary, healthy participants on an explicit level responded to the generalization context like to the anxiety context, but on an implicit level responded to the generalization context like to the safety context. Possibly, this dissociation suggests distinct and specific generalization processes underlying contextual fear.

  12. Personal and Contextual Factors Related to Internalizing Problems during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliva, Alfredo; Parra, Águeda; Reina, M. Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, ample empirical evidence has been collected about the factors linked to internalizing problems during adolescence. However, there is a lack of research that use holistic approaches to study the joint analysis of a series of contextual and personal variables considered to be related to internalizing problems.…

  13. The Effects of Contextual and Personal Factors on Young Adolescents' Social Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiefer, Sarah M.; Matthews, Yanique T.; Montesino, Mario; Arango, Liza; Preece, Krystle K.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the proposal that (a) contextual and personal factors affect the endorsement of social goals during early adolescence and (b) contextual factors and social goals may change over time. Self-reports of classroom contextual factors (i.e., promotion of performance goals, social interaction, and mutual respect) and personal…

  14. Contextual Factors, Indoor Tanning, and Tanning Dependence in Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, Carolyn J.; Darlow, Susan D.; Kloss, Jacqueline D.; Munshi, Teja; Manne, Sharon L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The study's purpose was to investigate the association of contextual factors such as cost, tanning accessibility, regulations, or marketing and indoor tanning or tanning dependence. Methods One hundred thirty-nine college-aged female indoor tanners completed a questionnaire between 2009 and 2011. Results Higher scores on tanning dependence and assessment in the spring/summer (versus the fall/winter) were associated with more frequent indoor tanning in the last 30 days (ps < .05). More frequent indoor tanning, greater session length, and more trouble paying for tanning were associated with higher scores on tanning dependence (ps < .05). Conclusions Public health research and practice could benefit from attention to such contextual factors as tanning cost and regulations regarding session length. PMID:25741682

  15. Contextual fear conditioning in humans using feature-identical contexts.

    PubMed

    Baeuchl, Christian; Meyer, Patric; Hoppstädter, Michael; Diener, Carsten; Flor, Herta

    2015-05-01

    Contextual fear conditioning studies in animals and humans found an involvement of the hippocampus and amygdala during fear learning. To exclude a focus on elements of the context we employed a paradigm, which uses two feature-identical contexts that only differ in the arrangement of the features and requires configural processing. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the role of the hippocampus and neocortical areas during the acquisition of contextual fear in humans. For contextual fear acquisition, we paired one context (CS+) with an aversive electrical stimulus, whereas the other (CS-) was never followed by aversive stimulation. Blood oxygen level dependent activation to the CS+ was present in the insula, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, superior medial gyrus and caudate nucleus. Furthermore, the amygdala and hippocampus were involved in a time-dependent manner. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed functional connectivity of a more posterior hippocampal seed region with the anterior hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex and superior parietal lobule. The anterior hippocampus was functionally coupled with the amygdala and postcentral gyrus. This study complements previous findings in contextual fear conditioning in humans and provides a paradigm which might be useful for studying patients with hippocampal impairment.

  16. Profiling contextual factors which influence safety in heavy vehicle industries.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jason R D; Davey, Jeremy; Armstrong, Kerry A

    2014-12-01

    A significant proportion of worker fatalities within Australia result from truck-related incidents. Truck drivers face a number of health and safety concerns. Safety culture, viewed here as the beliefs, attitudes and values shared by an organisation's workers, which interact with their surrounding context to influence behaviour, may provide a valuable lens for exploring safety-related behaviours in heavy vehicle operations. To date no major research has examined safety culture within heavy vehicle industries. As safety culture provides a means to interpret experiences and generate behaviour, safety culture research should be conducted with an awareness of the context surrounding safety. The current research sought to examine previous health and safety research regarding heavy vehicle operations to profile contextual factors which influence health and safety. A review of 104 peer-reviewed papers was conducted. Findings of these papers were then thematically analysed. A number of behaviours and scenarios linked with crashes and non-crash injuries were identified, along with a selection of health outcomes. Contextual factors which were found to influence these outcomes were explored. These factors were found to originate from government departments, transport organisations, customers and the road and work environment. The identified factors may provide points of interaction, whereby culture may influence health and safety outcomes.

  17. Multi-Level Model of Contextual Factors and Teachers' Assessment Practices: An Integrative Review of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulmer, Gavin W.; Lee, Iris C. H.; Tan, Kelvin H. K.

    2015-01-01

    We present a multi-level model of contextual factors that may influence teachers' assessment practices, and use this model in a selected review of existing literature on teachers' assessment knowledge, views and conceptions with respect to these contextual factors. Adapting Kozma's model, we distinguish three levels of influence on teachers'…

  18. Perceived Best Friend Delinquency Moderates the Link between Contextual Risk Factors and Juvenile Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fite, Paula; Preddy, Teresa; Vitulano, Michael; Elkins, Sara; Grassetti, Stevie; Wimsatt, Amber

    2012-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of contextual risk factors (i.e., negative life events and neighborhood problems) and perceived best friend delinquency on child self-reported delinquency. More specifically, the present study extended the literature by evaluating whether best friend delinquency moderated the effects of contextual risk…

  19. Contextual factors associated with smoking among Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Giatti, Luana; Casado, Leticia; de Moura, Lenildo; Crespo, Claudio; Malta, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Very few studies have examined the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking in middle-income countries. Methods This work describes smoking exposure among 59 992 high school students who took part in the Brazilian Survey of School Health and investigates contextual factors associated with regular smoking, defined as smoking cigarettes at least once in the past 30 days. The explaining variables were grouped into: socio-demographic characteristics, school context, household context and family rapport. Variables independently associated with smoking in each context were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 53% of the total sample were girls, 89% were aged 13–15 years. 24% had already experimented with cigarettes, 50% before the age of 12 years. The prevalence of regular smoking was 6.3% (95% CI 5.87 to 6.74), with no sex variation. Smoking was not associated with either the mother's education or the index of household assets. In the multivariable analysis, studying at a private school, the possibility of purchasing cigarettes at school and skipping of classes without parents' consent increased the chances of smoking. In the household context, living with both parents was negatively associated with smoking, while having smoking parents and exposure to other people's smoking was positively related to smoking. In the family context, parental unawareness of what the adolescent was doing increased smoking, but having meals with the mother one or more days per week and parents' negative reactions to adolescent smoking reduced the chances of smoking. Conclusion The results reinforce the role of school, household and family contexts in youth smoking behaviours and will help improve public health policies aimed at preventing smoking and health promotion in adolescents. PMID:21471139

  20. Impact of Contextual Factors on Prostate Cancer Risk and Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    months 1-6) 1c. Clean addresses of cases and controls (months 1-3) 1d. Transmit data to Cockburn USC lab for geocoding (months 4-6) 1e. Prepare...registry data 1f. Append interview data to contextual data (months 7-9) 1g. Compute distance and travel time to facilities in GIS (months 10-12...1h. Compute distance buffers in GIS for determining distance to businesses (months 10-12) 1g. Merge case data to California Cancer Registry (CCR

  1. Dynamics of contextual modulation of perceived shape in human vision

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghiu, Elena; Kingdom, Frederick A. A.

    2017-01-01

    In biological vision, contextual modulation refers to the influence of a surround pattern on either the perception of, or the neural responses to, a target pattern. One studied form of contextual modulation deals with the effect of a surround texture on the perceived shape of a contour, in the context of the phenomenon known as the shape aftereffect. In the shape aftereffect, prolonged viewing, or adaptation to a particular contour’s shape causes a shift in the perceived shape of a subsequently viewed contour. Shape aftereffects are suppressed when the adaptor contour is surrounded by a texture of similarly-shaped contours, a surprising result given that the surround contours are all potential adaptors. Here we determine the motion and temporal properties of this form of contextual modulation. We varied the relative motion directions, speeds and temporal phases between the central adaptor contour and the surround texture and measured for each manipulation the degree to which the shape aftereffect was suppressed. Results indicate that contextual modulation of shape processing is selective to motion direction, temporal frequency and temporal phase. These selectivities are consistent with one aim of vision being to segregate contours that define objects from those that form textured surfaces. PMID:28230085

  2. Individual and contextual factors of sexual risk behavior in youth perinatally infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Elkington, Katherine S; Bauermeister, José A; Robbins, Reuben N; Gromadzka, Olga; Abrams, Elaine J; Wiznia, Andrew; Bamji, Mahrukh; Mellins, Claude A

    2012-07-01

    This study prospectively examines the effects of maternal and child HIV infection on youth penetrative and unprotected penetrative sex, as well as the role of internal contextual, external contextual, social and self-regulatory factors in influencing the sexual behaviors of HIV-infected (PHIV+), HIV-affected (uninfected with an HIV+ caregiver), and HIV unaffected (uninfected with an HIV- caregiver) youth over time. Data (N=420) were drawn from two longitudinal studies focused on the effects of pediatric or maternal HIV on youth (51% female; 39% PHIV+) and their caregivers (92% female; 46% HIV+). PHIV+ youth were significantly less likely to engage in penetrative sex than HIV- youth at follow-up, after adjusting for contextual, social, and self-regulatory factors. Other individual- and contextual-level factors such as youth alcohol and marijuana use, residing with a biological parent, caregiver employment, caregiver marijuana use, and youth self-concept were also associated with penetrative sex. Youth who used alcohol were significantly more likely to engage in unprotected penetrative sex. Data suggest that, despite contextual, social, and self-regulatory risk factors, PHIV+ youth are less likely to engage in sexual behavior compared to HIV- youth from similar environments. Further research is required to understand delays in sexual activity in PHIV+ youth and also to understand potential factors that promote resiliency, particularly as they age into older adolescence and young adulthood.

  3. Chinese Children's Perceived School Satisfaction: The Role of Contextual and Intrapersonal Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Sun, Rachel C. F.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of school contextual factors and intrapersonal factors to school satisfaction among a sample of Hong Kong Chinese primary school children. A total of 760 children completed the School Satisfaction Subscale of the Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale for Children along with self-report measures of…

  4. Neural processes mediating contextual influences on human choice behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Rigoli, Francesco; Friston, Karl J.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2016-01-01

    Contextual influences on choice are ubiquitous in ecological settings. Current evidence suggests that subjective values are normalized with respect to the distribution of potentially available rewards. However, how this context-sensitivity is realised in the brain remains unknown. To address this, here we examine functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data during performance of a gambling task where blocks comprise values drawn from one of two different, but partially overlapping, reward distributions or contexts. At the beginning of each block (when information about context is provided), hippocampus is activated and this response is enhanced when contextual influence on choice increases. In addition, response to value in ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra (VTA/SN) shows context-sensitivity, an effect enhanced with an increased contextual influence on choice. Finally, greater response in hippocampus at block start is associated with enhanced context sensitivity in VTA/SN. These findings suggest that context-sensitive choice is driven by a brain circuit involving hippocampus and dopaminergic midbrain. PMID:27535770

  5. Individual and contextual factors influencing dental health care utilization by preschool children: a multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Agostini, Bernardo Antonio; Michel-Crosato, Edgard

    2017-03-30

    The effect of contextual factors on dental care utilization was evaluated after adjustment for individual characteristics of Brazilian preschool children. This cross-sectional study assessed 639 preschool children aged 1 to 5 years from Santa Maria, a town in Rio Grande do Sul State, located in southern Brazil. Participants were randomly selected from children attending the National Children's Vaccination Day and 15 health centers were selected for this research. Visual examinations followed the ICDAS criteria. Parents answered a questionnaire about demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. Contextual influences on children's dental care utilization were obtained from two community-related variables: presence of dentists and presence of workers' associations in the neighborhood. Unadjusted and adjusted multilevel logistic regression models were used to describe the association between outcome and predictor variables. A prevalence of 21.6% was found for regular use of dental services. The unadjusted assessment of the associations of dental health care utilization with individual and contextual factors included children's ages, family income, parents' schooling, mothers' participation in their children's school activities, dental caries, and presence of workers' associations in the neighborhood as the main outcome covariates. Individual variables remained associated with the outcome after adding contextual variables in the model. In conclusion, individual and contextual variables were associated with dental health care utilization by preschool children.

  6. The role of contextual factors for musculoskeletal disorders in the New Zealand meat processing industry.

    PubMed

    Tappin, D C; Bentley, T A; Vitalis, A

    2008-10-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are the leading cause of occupational injury internationally. In New Zealand, the highest incidence of MSD is in meat processing, accounting for over half the injury compensation costs for the sector. MSD in meat processing have proven highly resistant to physical, micro-level interventions, suggesting a new approach is required. This paper reports on part of a 2-year study looking at MSD in the New Zealand meat processing industry. The qualitative study involved interviews with 237 workers, management, union and safety personnel in 28 processing sites. These data were summarised into a list of contextual factors, which, it is postulated, may create conditions under which greater exposure to physical and psychosocial factors can occur in meat processing. Some of the contextual factors are recognised as problematic by the industry, but have not previously been associated with MSD risk. The paper concludes by reflecting on conducting MSD research with a focus on contextual factors and how this may influence MSD prevention. The manuscript provides industry-based data on MSD risk and outlines the approach used in its collection. Identifying contextual factors and understanding their role in creating MSD risk may help improve the acceptance and effectiveness of MSD interventions in industry.

  7. Understanding the Contextual Factors that Influence School Counselors' Multicultural Diversity Integration Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packer-Williams, Catherine L.; Jay, Michelle L.; Evans, Kathy M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the contextual factors that influence a school counselor's decision to actively integrate multicultural diversity in his/her work. Through using the Integrating Multicultural Diversity Questionnaire (IMDQ) the effectiveness of multicultural diversity training, the types of multicultural diversity practices that are used with…

  8. Influence of Contextual Factors on EFL Mexican Teachers' Beliefs and the Use of Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera Cuayahuitl, Eliphelet; Pérez Carranza, Celso

    2016-01-01

    While much has been written about the use of instructional materials in the field of language education, very few studies have actually studied the impact of the context in the use of materials in teachers' practices. This work shows the findings of a study about the contextual factors that a group of experienced Mexican teachers believe shaped…

  9. More than Numbers: Individual and Contextual Factors in How Gender Diversity Affects Women's Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner-Rubino, Kathi; Settles, Isis H.; Stewart, Abigail J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined factors related to workplace gender diversity in a sample of 87 college-educated White women. Specifically, we investigated the moderating effects of one individual difference variable (sensitivity to sexism) and one contextual variable (perceptions of the workplace climate) in the relationship between the gender composition at…

  10. Exploring Contextual Factors and Patient Activation: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Sample of Patients with Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie; Mortensen, Karoline; Bloodworth, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Patient activation has been considered as a "blockbuster drug of the century." Patients with mental disorders are less activated compared to patients with other chronic diseases. Low activation due to mental disorders can affect the efficiency of treatment of other comorbidities. Contextual factors are significantly associated with…

  11. Understanding and Interpreting Japanese NP1 "wa" NP2 "da" Sentences: Mechanism and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Megumi

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the contextual factors that affect the understanding and interpretation of one Japanese topicalized construction, NP[subscript 1] wa NP[subscript 2] da sentences, by native speakers of Japanese. The construction allows two possibilities in the relation between the NP[subscript 1] and the NP[subscript 2]. When the two…

  12. Age-Related Differences in Emotion Regulation Strategies: Examining the Role of Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R.; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2016-01-01

    Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and…

  13. Factors Affecting Relationships between the Contextual Variables and the Information Characteristics of Accounting Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choe, Jong-Min; Lee, Jinjoo

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of accounting information systems that explored the interactions among influence factors (e.g., user participation in the development process, top management support, capability of information systems personnel, and existence of steering committees), contextual variables (e.g., organizational structure and task characteristics),…

  14. The Impact of Contextual Factors on the Use of Students' Conceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saglam, Yilmaz; Karaaslan, Emre Harun; Ayas, Alipasa

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of contextual factors on the use of students' conceptions. A total of 106 students received a questionnaire involving open-ended questions on acid-base and equilibrium concepts. Of these students, 16 students who provided complete and accurate responses to the questions participated in an interview. In…

  15. The Problems of Beginning Special Education Teachers: Exploring the Contextual Factors Influencing Their Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgore, Karen; Griffin, Cynthia; Otis-Wilborn, Amy; Winn, Judy

    2003-01-01

    Assessed problems confronting beginning special education teachers, noting whether contextual factors facilitated or impeded their efforts to solve these problems. Teacher surveys indicated that the most common problems related to insufficient curricular material, handling student behavior, and obstacles in collaboration with general educators.…

  16. Contextual Factors Relevant to Elementary Teachers Using Interactive Whiteboards in Mathematics Classroom Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Omar; Krockover, Cheri

    2014-01-01

    This study contributes to the literature by examining in more detail the correlations among contextual factors defined by the teachers' technical confidence, lesson planning skills, and the extent of IWB usage in mathematics classroom discourse. The sample for the current study consisted of 134 elementary school teachers in grades K-5 using…

  17. Contextual Factors Influencing the Facilitation of Others' Learning through Everyday Work Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; Cseh, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Interest and research on workplace learning has intensified in recent years, however, research on assessing how employees facilitate each other's learning through everyday work experiences and how organizational contextual factors promote or impede the facilitation of others' learning at work is underdeveloped. Therefore, the purpose of…

  18. Math and Science Social Cognitive Variables in College Students: Contributions of Contextual Factors in Predicting Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byars-Winston, Angela M.; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of two contextual factors, parental involvement and perceived career barriers, on math/science goals. Using social cognitive career theory (SCCT; Lent, Brown, & Hackett, 1994), a path model was tested to investigate hypothesized relationships between math- and science-related efficacy beliefs (i.e., task and…

  19. A Longitudinal Study of Career Maturity of Korean Adolescents: The Effects of Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Kyu Jin; Joeng, Ju-Ri; Goh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study is to examine the effects of personal factors and contextual determinants on the career maturity change of Korean adolescents over a 5-year period. This study used data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey which was administered to 3,449 junior high students from Grades 8 to 12, starting in 2003. A linear…

  20. Contextual Factors Affecting Learning in Laos and the Implications for Information Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorner, Daniel G.; Gorman, G. E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Laos is used as a case study of how factors such as culture and indigenous knowledge must be considered to plan for information literacy education that is culturally and contextually appropriate. Method: Data were obtained from observations during visits to four Lao schools and from interviews with fourteen teachers at these schools.…

  1. Contextual and Individual Factors Influencing Periodontal Treatment Needs by Elderly Brazilians: A Multilevel Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dalazen, Chaiane Emilia; De Carli, Alessandro Diogo; Bomfim, Rafael Aiello; dos Santos, Mara Lisiane Moraes

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the relationship between periodontal treatment needs by elderly Brazilians and contextual as well as individual variables. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the need for clinical periodontal treatment, based on National Oral Health Survey (SB Brasil 2010) data on the presence of dental calculus, shallow (3–5 mm) and deep (≥ 6 mm) periodontal pockets, and gingival bleeding in elderly people (n = 7,619). The contextual variables included the Municipal Human Development Index (MHDI), income inequality (Gini Index) and coverage of the municipal population by the Family Health Strategy (FHS) program oral health teams.<0} The individual variables were sex, income, education level and self-reported skin color. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%) between periodontal treatment needs and the contextual as well as individual variables. Results Gingival bleeding was found in 20.7% of the elderly analyzed (n = 1,577), dental calculus in 34% (n = 2,590), shallow periodontal pockets in 15.6% (n = 1,189), and deep periodontal pockets in 4.2% (n = 320). Individual factors were correlated with all the outcomes assessed. Sex was a protective factor in regard to gingival bleeding (OR = 0.87; CI95% 0.76–1.00), dental calculus (OR = 0.86; CI95% 0.75–0.99), shallow periodontal pockets (OR = 0.69; CI95% 0.60–0.80) and deep periodontal pockets (OR = 0.58; CI95% 0.45–0.74). It was found that fewer women needed treatment. Elderly people who self-reported having nonwhite skin had higher chances of needing periodontal treatment. Skin color was a risk factor for gingival bleeding (OR = 1.32; CI95% 1.14–1.53), dental calculus (OR = 1.32; CI95%1.14–1.54) and shallow periodontal pockets (OR = 1.27; CI95% 1.09–1.49). Education level was associated with the presence of dental calculus (OR = 0.77; CI95% 0.66–0.89), shallow periodontal pockets (OR = 0.86; CI

  2. Impact of Contextual Factors on Prostate Cancer Risk and Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    retail food environment index 1 (Model 4b: ( convenience stores + fast food restaurants )/supermarkets), retail food environment index 2 (Model 4c...street segments), traffic density, commute, restaurant environment, retail food environment, parks, and farmers markets; and the social environment...neighborhood SES, and case-level education, adjusted sequentially for behavioral factors + hospital characteristics (Model 3), restaurant index (Model 4a

  3. Neural mechanisms underlying contextual dependency of subjective values: converging evidence from monkeys and humans.

    PubMed

    Abitbol, Raphaëlle; Lebreton, Maël; Hollard, Guillaume; Richmond, Barry J; Bouret, Sébastien; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2015-02-04

    A major challenge for decision theory is to account for the instability of expressed preferences across time and context. Such variability could arise from specific properties of the brain system used to assign subjective values. Growing evidence has identified the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) as a key node of the human brain valuation system. Here, we first replicate this observation with an fMRI study in humans showing that subjective values of painting pictures, as expressed in explicit pleasantness ratings, are specifically encoded in the VMPFC. We then establish a bridge with monkey electrophysiology, by comparing single-unit activity evoked by visual cues between the VMPFC and the orbitofrontal cortex. At the neural population level, expected reward magnitude was only encoded in the VMPFC, which also reflected subjective cue values, as expressed in Pavlovian appetitive responses. In addition, we demonstrate in both species that the additive effect of prestimulus activity on evoked activity has a significant impact on subjective values. In monkeys, the factor dominating prestimulus VMPFC activity was trial number, which likely indexed variations in internal dispositions related to fatigue or satiety. In humans, prestimulus VMPFC activity was externally manipulated through changes in the musical context, which induced a systematic bias in subjective values. Thus, the apparent stochasticity of preferences might relate to the VMPFC automatically aggregating the values of contextual features, which would bias subsequent valuation because of temporal autocorrelation in neural activity.

  4. Contextual Factors in the Health of People With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Siantz, Elizabeth; Nicasio, Andel; Guarnaccia, Peter; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    People living with serious mental illness (SMI) have shorter life expectancies than the general population. We examined how contextual factors influence the physical health of this population. We conducted interviews, focus groups, and participant observations with stakeholders from six behavioral health organizations. We found that consumers’ avoidance of overt disagreement during medical visits, their mistrust of medical institutions, and cultural variations in body image influenced the clinical encounter. Mental health providers’ ambivalence about intervening in consumers’ physical health, primary care providers’ misattribution of physical symptoms to mental disorders, and providers’ stigmatization of consumers shaped clinical encounters. Consumers’ diets were shaped by food environments and social norms associated with traditional diets. Internal and external factors impacted consumers’ physical activity. In this article, we illustrate the importance of considering contextual factors in the development and implementation of interventions aimed at improving the physical health of people with SMI. PMID:24966198

  5. Youth Education Attainment and Participation in Europe: The Role of Contextual Factors and the Scope of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Benito, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how certain contextual factors explain levels of education attainment and participation amongst youths in 30 European countries, whilst also exploring the scope for action of education policy when dealing with these issues. Through simple OLS regressions, we first evaluate the impact of a group of contextual indicators on the…

  6. Individual, interpersonal, and contextual factors associated with discrepancies between intended and actual spring break drinking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christine M; Patrick, Megan E; Geisner, Irene Markman; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Mittmann, Angela; Zimmerman, Lindsey

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to examine the extent to which college students underestimate the quantity of alcohol they will consume during Spring Break (SB), and whether individual, interpersonal, and contextual factors may be related to underestimation of SB drinking and drinking consequences. College students participated in web-based surveys prior to and after SB (N=603; 57% women). Overall, results indicated that individual factors (being male, being a member of a fraternity or sorority, previously experiencing more alcohol-related consequences, and intending to drink less during SB), interpersonal factors (reporting friends encourage getting drunk), and contextual factors (going on a SB trip with friends and receiving drinks from others) predicted underestimating peak drinks consumed during SB. Underestimating the peak number of drinks to be consumed on SB was associated with experiencing a greater number of alcohol-related consequences. Targeted interventions designed specifically to focus on underestimation of college student drinking and the impact of SB contextual and interpersonal factors may be an important area of study to reduce negative consequences of alcohol use during SB.

  7. Contextual and sociopsychological factors in predicting habitual cleaning of water storage containers in rural Benin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stocker, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Recontamination of drinking water occurring between water collection at the source and the point of consumption is a current problem in developing countries. The household drinking water storage container is one source of contamination and should therefore be cleaned regularly. First, the present study investigated contextual factors that stimulate or inhibit the development of habitual cleaning of drinking water storage containers with soap and water. Second, based on the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) Model of behavior, the study aimed to determine which sociopsychological factors should be influenced by an intervention to promote habitual cleaning. In a cross-sectional study, 905 households in rural Benin were interviewed by structured face-to-face interviews. A forced-entry regression analysis was used to determine potential contextual factors related to habitual cleaning. Subsequently, a hierarchical regression was conducted with the only relevant contextual factor entered in the first step (R2 = 6.7%) and the sociopsychological factors added in the second step (R2 = 62.5%). Results showed that households using a clay container for drinking water storage had a significantly weaker habit of cleaning their water storage containers with soap and water than did households using other types of containers (β = -0.10). The most important sociopsychological predictors of habitual cleaning were commitment (β = 0.35), forgetting (β = -0.22), and self-efficacy (β = 0.14). The combined investigation of contextual and sociopsychological factors proved beneficial in terms of developing intervention strategies. Possible interventions based on these findings are recommended.

  8. Maternal Employment and Parenting Through Middle Childhood: Contextualizing Factors

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, Cheryl; O’Brien, Marion; Swartout, Kevin M.; Zhou, Nan

    2014-01-01

    The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) to examine maternal work hour status and parenting (sensitivity and learning opportunities) from infancy through middle childhood. Work hour status was conceptualized as nonemployment, part time, and full time. Adjusting for covariates, mothers employed part time had higher sensitivity scores and higher provision of child learning opportunity scores than did mothers who were not employed, and these differences characterized families during early childhood rather than middle childhood. Mothers’ provision of child learning opportunities was greater when employed full time (vs. part time) during early childhood. In addition to child age, mothers’ ethnic minority status and partner status moderated the association between maternal work hour status and mothers’ parenting. In general, the findings supported ideas forwarded by role expansionist theory. PMID:25530631

  9. Maternal Employment and Parenting Through Middle Childhood: Contextualizing Factors.

    PubMed

    Buehler, Cheryl; O'Brien, Marion; Swartout, Kevin M; Zhou, Nan

    2014-10-01

    The authors used data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,364) to examine maternal work hour status and parenting (sensitivity and learning opportunities) from infancy through middle childhood. Work hour status was conceptualized as nonemployment, part time, and full time. Adjusting for covariates, mothers employed part time had higher sensitivity scores and higher provision of child learning opportunity scores than did mothers who were not employed, and these differences characterized families during early childhood rather than middle childhood. Mothers' provision of child learning opportunities was greater when employed full time (vs. part time) during early childhood. In addition to child age, mothers' ethnic minority status and partner status moderated the association between maternal work hour status and mothers' parenting. In general, the findings supported ideas forwarded by role expansionist theory.

  10. Human Behavioral Contributions to Climate Change: Psychological and Contextual Drivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swim, Janet K.; Clayton, Susan; Howard, George S.

    2011-01-01

    We are facing rapid changes in the global climate, and these changes are attributable to human behavior. Humans produce this global impact through our use of natural resources, multiplied by the vast increase in population seen in the past 50 to 100 years. Our goal in this article is to examine the underlying psychosocial causes of human impact,…

  11. Contextual Control of Extinguished Conditioned Performance in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havermans, Remco C.; Keuker, Jantien; Lataster, Timeke; Jansen, Anita

    2005-01-01

    Animal research has shown that extinguished conditioned performance is modulated by the environmental context in which extinction treatment has occurred. When the conditioned stimulus is presented outside the extinction context, conditioned responding is renewed. In two experiments, whether a renewal effect can also be found in humans was…

  12. Contextual factors influencing U.S. college students' decisions to drink responsibly.

    PubMed

    Barry, Adam E; Goodson, Patricia

    2012-08-01

    This mixed-methods study qualitatively (n = 13-convenience) explored contextual factors influencing decisions to drink responsibly, and quantitatively (n = 729-random) assessed the prevalence of these factors and whether they varied as a function of sex and binge-drinking status. Data were collected in 2007 among Texas college students. The constant comparison model was used to analyze the qualitative data, while one-way ANOVAs and logistic regression were employed to assess the quantitative data. Effect sizes are reported for all significant ANOVA interactions. Psychometric properties are supplied for all quantitative scales. Implication and limitations are noted, and future research directions discussed.

  13. Contextual factors affecting autonomy for patients in Iranian hospitals: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Hossein; Sadeghian, Efat; Seyedfatemi, Naeimeh; Mohammadi, Eesa; Crowley, Maureen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Consideration of patient autonomy is an essential element in individualized, patient-centered, ethical care. Internal and external factors associated with patient autonomy are related to culture and it is not clear what they are in Iran. The aim of this study was to explore contextual factors affecting the autonomy of patients in Iranian hospitals. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative study using conventional content analysis methods. Thirty-four participants (23 patients, 9 nurses, and 2 doctors) from three Iranian teaching hospitals, selected using purposive sampling, participated in semi-structured interviews. Unstructured observation and filed notes were other methods for data collection. The data were subjected to qualitative content analysis and analyzed using the MAXQDA-10 software. Results: Five categories and sixteen subcategories were identified. The five main categories related to patient autonomy were: Intrapersonal factors, physical health status, supportive family and friends, communication style, and organizational constraints. Conclusions: In summary, this study uncovered contextual factors that the care team, managers, and planners in the health field should target in order to improve patient autonomy in Iranian hospitals. PMID:27186203

  14. Exploring tiny images: the roles of appearance and contextual information for machine and human object recognition.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Devi; Zitnick, C Lawrence; Chen, Tsuhan

    2012-10-01

    Typically, object recognition is performed based solely on the appearance of the object. However, relevant information also exists in the scene surrounding the object. In this paper, we explore the roles that appearance and contextual information play in object recognition. Through machine experiments and human studies, we show that the importance of contextual information varies with the quality of the appearance information, such as an image's resolution. Our machine experiments explicitly model context between object categories through the use of relative location and relative scale, in addition to co-occurrence. With the use of our context model, our algorithm achieves state-of-the-art performance on the MSRC and Corel data sets. We perform recognition tests for machines and human subjects on low and high resolution images, which vary significantly in the amount of appearance information present, using just the object appearance information, the combination of appearance and context, as well as just context without object appearance information (blind recognition). We also explore the impact of the different sources of context (co-occurrence, relative-location, and relative-scale). We find that the importance of different types of contextual information varies significantly across data sets such as MSRC and PASCAL.

  15. Organizational citizenship behavior and social loafing: the role of personality, motives, and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hwee Hoon; Tan, Min Li

    2008-01-01

    The present study integrates the literature on social loafing and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The authors examined the roles of personality, motives, and contextual factors in influencing the work behaviors of OCB and social loafing. In a sample of 341 individuals working in project groups, with data collected over 3 time periods, the authors found that conscientiousness was negatively related to social loafing. They also found the known positive relation of OCB with conscientiousness. Felt responsibility was negatively related to social loafing. The authors found no significant relations between social loafing and OCB motives.

  16. ISS Payload Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellenberger, Richard; Duvall, Laura; Dory, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Payload Human Factors Implementation Team (HFIT) is the Payload Developer's resource for Human Factors. HFIT is the interface between Payload Developers and ISS Payload Human Factors requirements in SSP 57000. ? HFIT provides recommendations on how to meet the Human Factors requirements and guidelines early in the design process. HFIT coordinates with the Payload Developer and Astronaut Office to find low cost solutions to Human Factors challenges for hardware operability issues.

  17. [Relevance of personal contextual factors of the ICF for use in practical social medicine and rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Grotkamp, S; Cibis, W; Bahemann, A; Baldus, A; Behrens, J; Nyffeler, I D; Echterhoff, W; Fialka-Moser, V; Fries, W; Fuchs, H; Gmünder, H P; Gutenbrunner, C; Keller, K; Nüchtern, E; Pöthig, D; Queri, S; Rentsch, H P; Rink, M; Schian, H-M; Schian, M; Schmitt, K; Schwarze, M; Ulrich, P; von Mittelstaedt, G; Seger, W

    2014-03-01

    Personal contextual factors play an essential part in the model of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The WHO has not yet classified personal factors for global use although they impact on the functioning of persons positively or negatively. In 2010, the ICF working group of the German Society of Social Medicine and Prevention (DGSMP) presented a proposal for the classification of personal factors into 72 categories previously arranged in 6 chapters. Now a positioning paper has been added in order to stimulate a discussion about the fourth component of the ICF, to contribute towards a broader and common understanding about the nature of personal factors and to incite a dialogue among all those involved in health care as well as those people with or with-out health problems in order to gain a comprehensive perspective about a person's condition.

  18. Demographic and contextual factors associated with inhalant use among youth in rural Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, David L.; Dotterrer, Bruce; Collins, David; Ogilvie, Kristen; Grube, Joel; Johnson, Knowlton

    2012-01-01

    Background Abuse of harmful legal products that can be inhaled or ingested is a serious and growing problem in many rural Alaskan communities, and particularly so among preteens. Methods This study analyses data collected during baseline measurements of a 5-year NIH/NIDA-funded study entitled A Community Trial to Prevent Youth's Abuse of Harmful Legal Products in Alaska. Youth in 8 communities located throughout the state participated in a survey during the fall of 2009 to measure the prevalence and availability of harmful legal products (n=697). The goal of the analysis presented here is to compare the contextual factors of inhalant users and non-users in rural Alaskan communities. Results As reported in national surveys of substance use among youth, participants in this study indicated using alcohol more than any other substance. Inhalants were the second-most common substance abused, higher than either cigarettes or marijuana. Lifetime use varied among demographic factors such as age, gender and ethnicity as well as contextual factors including academic performance, parent employment, household living situation and income. When compared to non-users, significantly larger proportions of participants reporting lifetime inhalant use indicated easy availability of inhalants in their home, school and retail outlets. Users were also significantly more likely than non-users to have consumed alcohol. Conclusion Results of this study may inform the development of effective interventions in other rural communities. PMID:22564464

  19. Demographic, psychosocial, and contextual factors associated with sexual risk behaviors among young sexual minority women.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Amy; Kuhns, Lisa; Kinsky, Suzanne; Johnson, Amy; Garofalo, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Young sexual minority women are at risk for negative sexual health outcomes, including sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies, yet little is known about these risks. We examined factors that may influence sexual risk from a psychosocial and contextual perspective. Analyses were conducted to examine within group relationships between sexual behaviors, negative outcomes, and related factors in a sample of young sexual minority women. Participants (N = 131) were young (mean = 19.8) and diverse in terms of race/ethnicity (57% non-White). Sex under the influence, having multiple partners, and having unprotected sex were common behaviors, and pregnancy (20%) and sexually transmitted infection (12%) were common outcomes. Risk behaviors were associated with age, alcohol abuse, and older partners. Results support the need for further research to understand how these factors contribute to risk in order to target risk reduction programs for this population.

  20. Therapeutic exercise for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a systematic review of contextual factors and prescription parameters.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Chris; Malliaras, Peter; Chance-Larsen, Ken

    2015-06-01

    Exercise is widely regarded as an effective intervention for symptomatic rotator cuff tendinopathy but the prescription is diverse and the important components of such programmes are not well understood. The objective of this study was to systematically review the contextual factors and prescription parameters of published exercise programmes for rotator cuff tendinopathy, to generate recommendations based on current evidence. An electronic search of AMED, CiNAHL, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PEDro and SPORTDiscus was undertaken from their inception to June 2014 and supplemented by hand searching. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of exercise in participants with rotator cuff tendinopathy. Included studies were appraised using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and synthesized narratively. Fourteen studies were included, and suggested that exercise programmes are widely applicable and can be successfully designed by physiotherapists with varying experience; whether the exercise is completed at home or within a clinic setting does not appear to matter and neither does pain production or pain avoidance during exercise; inclusion of some level of resistance does seem to matter although the optimal level is unclear, the optimal number of repetitions is also unclear but higher repetitions might confer superior outcomes; three sets of exercise are preferable to two or one set but the optimal frequency is unknown; most programmes should demonstrate clinically significant outcomes by 12 weeks. This systematic review has offered preliminary guidance in relation to contextual factors and prescription parameters to aid development and application of exercise programmes for rotator cuff tendinopathy.

  1. The Effects of Contextual and Individual Level Factors on Chinese Adults’ Attitudes towards Social Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiong; Xie, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the nationally representative China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we describe Chinese adults’ attitudes towards three specific aspects of social environments: local government performance, severity of major social issues, and social trust. We further explore how county level contextual factors and personal experiences relate to subjective social environments, while controlling for individual demographics. On average, Chinese adults in the CFPS endorsed moderately positive ratings for their local governments, but perceived high severities in various social issues, ranking economic inequality as the most severe. A moderate level of generalized trust (54%) was found, together with very high trust in parents and very low trust in Americans and strangers. Further analyses revealed that variations in subjective social environments at the prefectural level were relatively small compared with individual level variations. At the individual level, personal experiences such as perceived unfair treatment showed consistently negative effects on how people evaluated their social environments. At the contextual level, employment rates appeared more influential than other studied factors. Regional economic inequality, as indicated by prefectural Gini, was not associated with most studied outcomes. PMID:25893142

  2. Understanding early contextual and parental risk factors for the development of limited prosocial emotions

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Hyde, Luke W.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that parenting influences the development of youth callous unemotional (CU) behavior. However, less is known about the effects of parenting or contextual risk factors on ‘limited prosocial emotions’ (LPE), a recent conceptualization of CU behavior added to the DSM-5. We focused on LPE at ages 10–12 and age 20 among low income, urban males (N = 310), and examined potential developmental precursors, including contextual risk factors assessed during infancy and observed maternal warmth during the toddler period. We found unique direct associations between maternal warmth, maternal aggression, and low empathetic awareness on LPE at ages 10–12, controlling for concurrent self-reported antisocial behavior. Further, there were indirect effects of maternal aggression, low empathetic awareness, and difficult infant temperament assessed in infancy on LPE at ages 10–12 via their influence on maternal warmth at age 2. Finally, there were lasting indirect effects of parental warmth on LPE at age 20, via LPE at ages 10–12. We discuss the implications of these findings for ecological models of antisocial behavior and LPE development, and preventative interventions that target the broader early parenting environment. PMID:25510355

  3. Understanding Early Contextual and Parental Risk Factors for the Development of Limited Prosocial Emotions.

    PubMed

    Waller, Rebecca; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Hyde, Luke W

    2015-08-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that parenting influences the development of youth callous unemotional (CU) behavior. However, less is known about the effects of parenting or contextual risk factors on 'limited prosocial emotions' (LPE), a recent conceptualization of CU behavior added to the DSM-5. We focused on LPE at ages 10-12 and age 20 among low income, urban males (N = 310), and examined potential developmental precursors, including contextual risk factors assessed during infancy and observed maternal warmth during the toddler period. We found unique direct associations between maternal warmth, maternal aggression, and low empathetic awareness on LPE at ages 10-12, controlling for concurrent self-reported antisocial behavior. Further, there were indirect effects of maternal aggression, low empathetic awareness, and difficult infant temperament assessed in infancy on LPE at ages 10-12 via their influence on maternal warmth at age 2. Finally, there were lasting indirect effects of parental warmth on LPE at age 20, via LPE at ages 10-12. We discuss the implications of these findings for ecological models of antisocial behavior and LPE development, and preventative interventions that target the broader early parenting environment.

  4. Perpetration of aggressive behaviors against peers and teachers as predicted by student and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Khoury-Kassabri, Mona

    2012-01-01

    This study uses an ecological/contextual theory to explore how students' perpetration of violence and other aggressive behaviors is associated with individual factors such as gender, age, and perception of school climate, and contextual factors such as cultural affiliation, school climate, and teacher characteristics among 4th- through 6th-grade Jewish and Arab students in Israel. A questionnaire testing the use of aggressive behavior in school was completed by 120 homeroom teachers and 3,375 students. The results of the study show that levels of perpetration of violence and other aggressive behaviors vary between classes (15.20% directed against students and 7.33% directed against teachers). At the teacher-classroom level, higher levels of perpetration were found in classes with a lower percentage of girls and in classes with fewer or less clear and consistent policies to deal with aggressive behaviors. At the individual level, gender and perception of school climate were found to be associated with levels of perpetration of aggression. The "Discussion" section highlights the importance of improving school climate in order to deal more effectively with violence and aggressive behaviors in schools.

  5. The indirect effect of contextual factors on the emotional distress of infertile couples.

    PubMed

    Moura-Ramos, M; Gameiro, S; Canavarro, M C; Soares, I; Santos, T A

    2012-01-01

    Few studies were dedicated to study the role of contextual factors, such as the socioeconomic status and urban or rural residence in emotional distress of infertile couples. This study aimed to explore the impact of contextual factors on emotional distress, either directly or by affecting the importance of parenthood in one's life, which in turn affects emotional distress. In this cross-sectional study, 70 couples recruited during hormonal stimulation phase prior to in vitro fertilisation completed clinical and sociodemographic forms and self-report questionnaires assessing representations about the importance of parenthood and emotional distress. Path analysis using structural equation modelling was used to examine direct and indirect effects among variables. Results indicated that socioeconomic status and place of residence had an impact in emotional distress by affecting the representations about the importance of parenthood in one's life. Gender differences were found regarding model paths, suggesting that the social context may have a stronger influence on women's emotional distress than on their partners' distress. When delineating psychological interventions, health care providers should consider that cultural values about children and parenthood contribute to shape the infertility experience.

  6. Mapping the urban asthma experience: Using qualitative GIS to understand contextual factors affecting asthma control.

    PubMed

    Keddem, Shimrit; Barg, Frances K; Glanz, Karen; Jackson, Tara; Green, Sarah; George, Maureen

    2015-09-01

    Asthma is complex and connected to a number of factors including access to healthcare, crime and violence, and environmental triggers. A mixed method approach was used to examine the experiences of urban people with asthma in controlling their asthma symptoms. The study started with an initial phase of qualitative interviews in West Philadelphia, a primarily poor African American community. Data from qualitative, semi-structured interviews indicated that stress, environmental irritants, and environmental allergens were the most salient triggers of asthma. Based on the interviews, the team identified six neighborhood factors to map including crime, housing vacancy, illegal dumping, tree canopy and parks. These map layers were combined into a final composite map. These combined methodologies contextualized respondents' perceptions in the framework of the actual community and built environment which tells a more complete story about their experience with asthma.

  7. The Influence of Contextual Factors on the Sustainability of Professional Development Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Ringstaff, Cathy

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated how contextual factors influenced the sustainability of outcomes from a 3-year, state-funded professional development program that provided science assistance for K-2 teachers in small, rural school districts. The research used a case-study approach with a purposive sample of five elementary schools that varied in instructional time in science several years after the funding period. The primary data sources were teacher surveys and interviews conducted 2 and 3 years after the end of the professional development program. The findings highlight variations across schools and the influence of principal support, resources, collegial support, personal commitment, and external factors. The research holds practical implications for enhancing long-term sustainability of professional development outcomes in science education.

  8. Measuring the impact of arthritis on worker productivity: perspectives, methodologic issues, and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kenneth; Escorpizo, Reuben; Beaton, Dorcas E; Bombardier, Claire; Lacaille, Diane; Zhang, Wei; Anis, Aslam H; Boonen, Annelies; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Osborne, Richard H; Fautrel, Bruno; Gignac, Monique A M; Tugwell, Peter S

    2011-08-01

    Leading up to the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 10 meeting, the goal of the Worker Productivity Special Interest Group (WP-SIG) was to make progress on 3 key issues that relate to the application and interpretation of worker productivity outcomes in arthritis: (1) to review existing conceptual frameworks to help consolidate our intended target and scope of measurement; (2) to examine the methodologic issues associated with our goal of combining multiple indicators of worker productivity loss (e.g., absenteeism <-> presenteeism) into a single comprehensive outcome; and (3) to examine the relevant contextual factors of work and potential implications for the interpretation of scores derived from existing outcome measures. Progress was made on all 3 issues at OMERACT 10. We identified 3 theoretical frameworks that offered unique but converging perspectives on worker productivity loss and/or work disability to provide guidance with classification, selection, and future recommendation of outcomes. Several measurement and analytic approaches to combine absenteeism and presenteeism outcomes were proposed, and the need for further validation of such approaches was also recognized. Finally, participants at the WP-SIG were engaged to brainstorm and provide preliminary endorsements to support key contextual factors of worker productivity through an anonymous "dot voting" exercise. A total of 24 specific factors were identified, with 16 receiving ≥ 1 vote among members, reflecting highly diverse views on specific factors that were considered most important. Moving forward, further progress on these issues remains a priority to help inform the best application of worker productivity outcomes in arthritis research.

  9. Compositional, Contextual, and Collective Community Factors in Mental Health and Well-Being in Australian Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jessica; Ward, Bernadette M.; Snow, Pamela; Kippen, Sandra; Judd, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    There are disproportionately higher and inconsistently distributed rates of recorded suicides in rural areas. Patterns of rural suicide are well documented, but they remain poorly understood. Geographic variations in physical and mental health can be understood through the combination of compositional, contextual, and collective factors pertaining to particular places. The aim of this study was to explore the role of “place” contributing to suicide rates in rural communities. Seventeen mental health professionals participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Principles of grounded theory were used to guide the analysis. Compositional themes were demographics and perceived mental health issues; contextual themes were physical environment, employment, housing, and mental health services; and collective themes were town identity, community values, social cohesion, perceptions of safety, and attitudes to mental illness. It is proposed that connectedness may be the underlying mechanism by which compositional, contextual, and collective factors influence mental health and well-being in rural communities. PMID:26848083

  10. Correlates for Legal Help-Seeking: Contextual Factors for Battered Women in Shelter

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Caroline Vaile; Johnson, Dawn M.

    2010-01-01

    Legal redress can play a critical role in interrupting the pattern of domination and control inherent in intimate partner violence (IPV), yet it remains an infrequent strategy among battered women. The current study employed a contextual framework for investigating the correlates for engagement in the criminal justice system for a sample of 227 sheltered battered women. Results indicated that individual, relational, and system-level factors were all associated with two legal help-seeking behaviors: having a civil protection order and criminal prosecution. In particular, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology, social support, and prior experience with police officers were significant correlates for legal help-seeking. Results highlight the need for a coordinated community response to IPV, addressing both legal needs and psychological needs simultaneously. PMID:20055214

  11. Impact of Contextual Factors and Substance Characteristics on Perspectives toward Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Sattler, Sebastian; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Éric; Sauer, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive performance with substances–especially prescription drugs–is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances. PMID:23940757

  12. Impact of contextual factors and substance characteristics on perspectives toward cognitive enhancement.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Sebastian; Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric; Sauer, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing cognitive performance with substances--especially prescription drugs--is a fiercely debated topic among scholars and in the media. The empirical basis for these discussions is limited, given that the actual nature of factors that influence the acceptability of and willingness to use cognitive enhancement substances remains unclear. In an online factorial survey, contextual and substance-specific characteristics of substances that improve academic performance were varied experimentally and presented to respondents. Students in four German universities rated their willingness to use and moral acceptance of different substances for cognitive enhancement. We found that the overall willingness to use performance enhancing substances is low. Most respondents considered the use of these substances as morally unacceptable. Situational influences such as peer pressure, policies concerning substance use, relative performance level of peers, but also characteristics of the substance, such as perceptions of substance safety, shape the willingness and acceptability of using a substance to enhance academic performance. Among the findings is evidence of a contagion effect meaning that the willingness was higher when the respondents have more CE drug users in their social network. We also found deterrence effects from strong side effects of using the substance, as well as from policy regulations and sanctions. Regulations might activate social norms against usage and sanctions can be seen as costly to users. Moreover, enhancement substances seem to be most tempting to low performers to catch up with others compared to high performers. By identifying contextual factors and substance characteristics influencing the willingness and acceptability of cognitive enhancers, policy approaches could consider these insights to better manage the use of such substances.

  13. Intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual risk factors for overprovision of partner support in marriage.

    PubMed

    Brock, Rebecca L; Lawrence, Erika

    2014-02-01

    Recent research indicates that receiving too much support from one's spouse (i.e., overprovision of support) is actually more detrimental to marriage than not receiving enough support. The principal goal of the present study was to develop a novel framework for explaining the pathways through which couples experience overprovision of support in their marriages. Intrapersonal factors (anxious and avoidant attachment), interpersonal factors (conflict management and emotional intimacy), and contextual factors (stress originating outside of the marriage) were assessed during the transition into marriage as potential risk factors for experiencing higher levels of support overprovision during the first 5 years of marriage in a sample of 103 couples using growth curve analytic techniques. To the extent that (a) husbands were higher in avoidant attachment, (b) husbands reported greater chronic role strain, and (c) couples had lower levels of emotional intimacy, support overprovision was greater for both husbands and wives. In addition, emotional intimacy (lower levels) was a partial pathway through which husband avoidant attachment contributed to support overprovision. Finally, factors placing couples at risk for support overprovision in their marriages appear to be distinct from those increasing the risk for support underprovision. The potential for results to inform contemporary marital theories and marital preparation programs is discussed.

  14. Institutional and Contextual Factors of Quality in Civic and Citizenship Education: Exploring Possibilities of Qualitative Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toots, Anu; Lauri, Triin

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses quality assurance (QA) policies of 30 countries in civic and citizenship education (CCE) by using fuzzy set qualitative comparative analysis (fsQCA). The main aim is to find combinations of institutional and contextual factors that are systematically associated with a high achievement in citizenship education. Based on fsQCA,…

  15. Contextual Factors at the School and Classroom Level Related to Pupils' Performance in Mathematics in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Sarah J.

    2005-01-01

    South African pupils performed well below the TIMSS international average in 1995 and 1999 and significantly below all other countries (including the other African countries) in the 1999 study. Path analysis, namely Partial Least Square (PLS) analysis, was applied to the South African TIMSS-R data to explore the effect of contextual factors at…

  16. Contextual Risk Factors as Predictors of Disruptive Behavior Disorder Trajectories in Girls: The Moderating Effect of Callous-Unemotional Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroneman, Leoniek M.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf; Koot, Hans M.; Pardini, Dustin A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The presence of callous-unemotional (CU) features may delineate a severe and persistent form of conduct problems in children with unique developmental origins. Contextual risk factors such as poor parenting, delinquent peers, or neighborhood risk are believed to influence the development of conduct problems primarily in children with…

  17. Schools as Sanctuaries: A Systematic Review of Contextual Factors Which Contribute to Student Retention in Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Gorman, Eva; Salmon, Nancy; Murphy, Carol-Anne

    2016-01-01

    Early school leaving is an international concern. Previous research indicates that the school context contributes to early school leaving. This systematic review is aimed to gather marginalised young peoples' perceptions concerning contextual factors that contributed to and interfered with their decisions to stay in alternative education.…

  18. Elementary Science Students' Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Andrea R.; Templin, Mark A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for…

  19. Developmental Differences in the Impact of Contextual Factors on Susceptibility to Retroactive Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Vakil, Eli

    2010-01-01

    The influence of contextual similarity on children's recognition memory performance was examined using a retroactive interference paradigm. In the study, 9- and 12-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of two contextual conditions. In both conditions, target and interfering information were presented in distinctive contexts by using different…

  20. Contextual conditioning enhances the psychostimulant and incentive properties of d-amphetamine in humans.

    PubMed

    Childs, Emma; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-11-01

    Learned associations between drugs and the places they are used are critical to the development of drug addiction. Contextual conditioning has long been studied in animals as an indirect measure of drug reward, but little is known about the process in humans. Here, we investigated de novo contextual conditioning with d-amphetamine in healthy humans (n = 34). Volunteers underwent four conditioning sessions conducted in two testing rooms with double-blind, alternating d-amphetamine (20 mg) and placebo administration. Before conditioning procedures began, they rated the two rooms to examine pre-existing preferences. One group (Paired, n = 19) always received d-amphetamine in their least preferred room and placebo in the other during conditioning sessions. Another group (Unpaired, n = 15) received d-amphetamine and placebo in both rooms. Subjective drug effects were monitored at repeated times. At a separate re-exposure test, preference ratings for the drug-associated room were increased among the Paired group only, and more subjects in the Paired than the Unpaired group switched their preference to their initially least preferred room. Also, ratings of d-amphetamine drug liking independently predicted room liking at test among the Paired group only. Further, Paired group subjects reported greater stimulation and drug craving after d-amphetamine on the second administration, relative to the first. This study supports preliminary findings that humans, like animals, develop a preference for a place associated with d-amphetamine that is related to its subjective effects. These findings also suggest that experiencing d-amphetamine in a consistent environment produces context-dependent changes in its subjective effects, including an enhanced rewarding efficacy and abuse potential.

  1. The extreme relativity of perception: A new contextual effect modulates human resolving power.

    PubMed

    Namdar, Gal; Ganel, Tzvi; Algom, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The authors report the discovery of a new effect of context that modulates human resolving power with respect to an individual stimulus. They show that the size of the difference threshold or the just noticeable difference around a standard stimulus depends on the range of the other standards tested simultaneously for resolution within the same experimental session. The larger this range, the poorer the resolving power for a given standard. The authors term this effect the range of standards effect (RSE). They establish this result both in the visual domain for the perception of linear extent, and in the somatosensory domain for the perception of weight. They discuss the contingent nature of stimulus resolution in perception and psychophysics and contrast it with the immunity to contextual influences of visually guided action.

  2. Age-related differences in emotion regulation strategies: Examining the role of contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2016-09-01

    Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and young adults. Forty-eight older adults and forty-nine young adults completed a retrospective survey inquiring about the use of emotion regulation strategies in emotion-eliciting situations experienced over the preceding 2 weeks. We used factor analysis to establish clusters of emotion regulation strategies, resulting in cognitive strategies, acceptance, and maladaptive strategies. Overall, we found context-dependent age-related differences in emotion regulation strategy use. Specifically, older adults reported greater use of acceptance than young adults in situations of moderate intensity and in situations that evoke anxiety and sadness. In addition, older adults reported using maladaptive strategies to a lesser extent in high- and moderate-intensity situations and in situations that elicit anxiety and sadness when compared with young adults. There were no age-related differences in the use of cognitive strategies across contexts. Older adults, compared to young adults, reported less use of maladaptive strategies and greater use of acceptance than young adults, which suggests that the enhanced emotional functioning observed later in life may be due to a shift in strategy implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Identifying Contextual and Emotional Factors to Explore Weight Disparities between Obese Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Keith, NiCole R.; Xu, Huiping; de Groot, Mary; Hemmerlein, Kimberly; Clark, Daniel O.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obese black women enrolled in weight loss interventions experience 50% less weight reduction than obese white women. This suggests that current weight loss strategies may increase health disparities. OBJECTIVE We evaluated the feasibility of identifying daily contextual factors that may influence obesity. METHODS In-home interviews with 16 obese (body mass index ≥ 30) black and white urban poor women were performed. For 14 days, ecological momentary assessment (EMA) was used to capture emotion and social interactions every other day, and day reconstruction method surveys were used the following day to reconstruct the context of the prior day’s EMA. RESULTS Factors included percentage of participants without weight scales (43.8%) or fitness equipment (68.8%) in the home and exposed to food at work (55.6%). The most frequently reported location, activity, and emotion were home (19.4 ± 8.53), working (7.1 ± 8.80), and happy (6.9 ± 10.03), respectively. CONCLUSION Identifying individual contexts may lead to valuable insights about obesogenic behaviors and new interventions to improve weight management. PMID:27840584

  4. Medial prefrontal pathways for the contextual regulation of extinguished fear in humans

    PubMed Central

    Åhs, Fredrik; Kragel, Philip A.; Zielinski, David J.; Brady, Rachael; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2015-01-01

    The maintenance of anxiety disorders is thought to depend, in part, on deficits in extinction memory, possibly due to reduced contextual control of extinction that leads to fear renewal. Animal studies suggest that the neural circuitry responsible fear renewal includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsomedial (dmPFC) and ventromedial (vmPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, the neural mechanisms of context-dependent fear renewal in humans remain poorly understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), combined with psychophysiology and immersive virtual reality, to elucidate how the hippocampus, amygdala, and dmPFC and vmPFC interact to drive the context-dependent renewal of extinguished fear. Healthy human participants encountered dynamic fear-relevant conditioned stimuli (CSs) while navigating through 3-D virtual reality environments in the MRI scanner. Conditioning and extinction were performed in two different virtual contexts. Twenty-four hours later, participants were exposed to the CSs without reinforcement while navigating through both contexts in the MRI scanner. Participants showed enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the previously-reinforced CS+ in the acquisition context on Day 2, consistent with fear renewal, and sustained responses in the dmPFC. In contrast, participants showed low SCRs to the CSs in the extinction context on Day 2, consistent with extinction recall, and enhanced vmPFC activation to the non-reinforced CS−. Structural equation modeling revealed that the dmPFC fully mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during fear renewal, whereas the vmPFC partially mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during extinction recall. These results indicate dissociable contextual influences of the hippocampus on prefrontal pathways, which, in turn, determine the level of reactivation of fear associations. PMID:26220745

  5. Medial prefrontal pathways for the contextual regulation of extinguished fear in humans.

    PubMed

    Åhs, Fredrik; Kragel, Philip A; Zielinski, David J; Brady, Rachael; LaBar, Kevin S

    2015-11-15

    The maintenance of anxiety disorders is thought to depend, in part, on deficits in extinction memory, possibly due to reduced contextual control of extinction that leads to fear renewal. Animal studies suggest that the neural circuitry responsible fear renewal includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and dorsomedial (dmPFC) and ventromedial (vmPFC) prefrontal cortex. However, the neural mechanisms of context-dependent fear renewal in humans remain poorly understood. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), combined with psychophysiology and immersive virtual reality, to elucidate how the hippocampus, amygdala, and dmPFC and vmPFC interact to drive the context-dependent renewal of extinguished fear. Healthy human participants encountered dynamic fear-relevant conditioned stimuli (CSs) while navigating through 3-D virtual reality environments in the MRI scanner. Conditioning and extinction were performed in two different virtual contexts. Twenty-four hours later, participants were exposed to the CSs without reinforcement while navigating through both contexts in the MRI scanner. Participants showed enhanced skin conductance responses (SCRs) to the previously-reinforced CS+ in the acquisition context on Day 2, consistent with fear renewal, and sustained responses in the dmPFC. In contrast, participants showed low SCRs to the CSs in the extinction context on Day 2, consistent with extinction recall, and enhanced vmPFC activation to the non-reinforced CS-. Structural equation modeling revealed that the dmPFC fully mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during fear renewal, whereas the vmPFC partially mediated the effect of the hippocampus on right amygdala activity during extinction recall. These results indicate dissociable contextual influences of the hippocampus on prefrontal pathways, which, in turn, determine the level of reactivation of fear associations.

  6. Measuring student engagement in science classrooms: An investigation of the contextual factors and longitudinal outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spicer, Justina Judy

    using the results for chapters two and three to identify aspects of engagement and learning in science. These findings motivate a set of variables and analytic approach that is undertaken in chapter four. Specifically, the questions how engagement influences experiences in ninth grade science and students' interest in pursuing a career in STEM using the HSLS:09 data. This multifaceted study contributes to the conceptualization of student engagement, and will help bring clarity to the relationship among engagement, context, and long-term outcomes in science. Engagement is more than being on-task or paying attention, but is a condition influenced by many factors including student background, the learning context of the classroom, teacher characteristics, and the features of instruction. Understanding this relationship between engagement and contextual factors is helpful in uncovering teacher actions and instructional activities that may elicit higher engagement in science classes. These findings highlight the importance of science instruction using more cognitively-demanding activities, such as problem-based learning.

  7. Contextual factors as a key to understanding the heterogeneity of effects of a maternal health policy in Burkina Faso?

    PubMed Central

    Belaid, Loubna; Ridde, Valéry

    2015-01-01

    Burkina Faso implemented a national subsidy for emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC) covering 80% of the cost of normal childbirth in public health facilities. The objective was to increase coverage of facility-based deliveries. After implementation of the EmONC policy, coverage increased across the country, but disparities were observed between districts and between primary healthcare centres (PHC). To understand the variation in coverage, we assessed the contextual factors and the implementation of EmONC in six PHCs in a district. We conducted a contrasted multiple case study. We interviewed women (n = 71), traditional birth attendants (n = 7), clinic management committees (n = 11), and health workers and district health managers (n = 26). Focus groups (n = 62) were conducted within communities. Observations were carried out in the six PHCs. Implementation was nearly homogeneous in the six PHCs but the contexts and human factors appeared to explain the variations observed on the coverage of facility-based deliveries. In the PHCs of Nogo and Tara, the immediate increase in coverage was attributed to health workers’ leadership in creatively promoting facility-based deliveries and strengthening relationships of trust with communities, users’ positive perceptions of quality of care and the arrival of female professional staff. The change of healthcare team at Iata’s PHC and a penalty fee imposed for home births in Belem may have caused the delayed effects there. Finally, the unchanged coverage in the PHCs of Fati and Mata was likely due to lack of promotion of facility-based deliveries, users’ negative perceptions of quality of care, and conflicts between health workers and users. Before implementation, decision-makers should perform pilot studies to adapt policies according to contexts and human factors. PMID:24633914

  8. Contextual Factors Among Indiscriminate or Large Attacks on Food or Water Supplies, 1946-2015

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Paul R.

    2016-01-01

    This research updates previous inventories of malicious attacks on food and water and includes data from 1946 through mid-2015. A systematic search of news reports, databases, and previous inventories of poisoning events was undertaken. Incidents that threatened or were intended to achieve direct harm to humans and that were either relatively large (more than 4 victims) or indiscriminate in intent or realization were included. Agents could be chemical, biological, or radionuclear. Reports of candidate incidents were subjected to systematic inclusion and exclusion criteria as well as validity analysis (not always clearly undertaken in previous inventories of such attacks). We summarize contextual aspects of the attacks that may be important for scenario prioritization, modelling, and defensive preparedness. Opportunity, and particularly access to dangerous agents, is key to most realized attacks. The most common motives and relative success rate in causing harm were very different between food and water attacks. The likelihood that people were made ill or died also varied by food or water mode and according to motive and opportunity for delivery of the hazardous agent. Deaths and illness associated with attacks during food manufacture and prior to sale have been fewer than those in some other contexts. Valuable opportunities for food defense improvements are identified in other contexts, especially food prepared in private or community settings. PMID:26889577

  9. Personal characteristics and contextual factors that determine "helping," "joining in," and "doing nothing" when witnessing cyberbullying.

    PubMed

    Van Cleemput, Katrien; Vandebosch, Heidi; Pabian, Sara

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we investigated several determinants of bystanders' reactive behaviors when confronted with cyberbullying using self-reported data from 2,333 Flemish 9-16 year olds. Structural equation modeling showed that adolescents that had joined in on the cyberbullying were older, had lower levels of empathy and were more likely to have been involved in cyberbullying or traditional bullying as perpetrators. Adolescents who had helped the victim were younger, had higher levels of empathy and were more likely to have been a victim of cyberbullying or traditional bullying in the past months. Adolescents that did nothing when they witnessed cyberbullying, were also older, showed lower levels of empathy and were less likely to have been a victim of traditional bullying. Social anxiety was not related to joining in, helping and remaining passive. In the second part of the analysis, we found that bystanders' passive behavior could be explained in more detail by moral disengagement theory and other contextual factors. In the discussion, the implications of the findings for research on cyberbullying are addressed.

  10. Personal and contextual factors in the escalation of driving after drinking across the college years.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Patrick D; Fromme, Kim

    2012-12-01

    College students continue to drive after drinking at alarmingly high rates. Age trends suggest that driving after drinking increases from late adolescence across the college years, largely mirroring trends in binge drinking. Relatively little research, however, has examined change over time in driving after drinking among college students or tested whether some students might be at greater risk of escalations in driving after drinking. Using a sample of 1,833 nonabstaining students who completed surveys for seven semesters across the college years, we tested whether personal (i.e., age of drinking onset, gender, risk perceptions, and sensation seeking) and contextual (i.e., college residence) factors were associated with changes in driving after drinking. Using latent growth curve modeling, we found significant individual differences in rates of change in driving after drinking. Male students and students who began drinking earlier in life increased in driving after drinking more rapidly, whereas living in on-campus housing was associated with time-specific decreases in driving after drinking. These results demonstrate the value of considering driving after drinking from a longitudinal perspective and suggest possible avenues toward preventing the public health consequences of intoxicated driving.

  11. Association Between Community Contextual Factors and Stigma of Mental Illness in South Korea: a Multilevel Analysis.

    PubMed

    Min, So-Young; Wong, Yin-Ling Irene

    2017-02-23

    This study examined the association of subjective and objective community contextual factors with stigma of mental illness in a sample of users of community mental health services centers in South Korea. Five hundred thirty-two persons with MI were surveyed on perceived stigma and experienced stigma, and on two subjective measures of community characteristics-perceived disorder and perceived collective efficacy of their neighborhood. Objective community indicators at the neighborhood level were collected from a government administrative data base. Multilevel statistical analysis was conducted to identify the effects of individual-level characteristics and community-level objective indicators on stigma. Perceived neighborhood disorder was associated with both perceived stigma and experienced stigma. Perceived collective efficacy was associated with perceived stigma but not experienced stigma. The proportion of persons with disabilities in the neighborhood, an objective community indicator, was associated with experienced stigma. Mental health practitioners and policy planners need to examine the relevance of neighborhood characteristics in the design of policy and practice interventions in order to enhance the social inclusion of persons with MI.

  12. Introduction to human factors.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Eric

    2012-03-01

    This paper provides an introduction to "human factors engineering," an applied science that seeks to optimize usability and safety of systems. Human factors engineering pursues this goal by aligning system design with the perceptual, cognitive, and physical capabilities of users. Human factors issues loom large in the diabetes management domain because patients and health care professionals interact with a complex variety of systems, including medical device hardware and software, which are themselves embedded within larger systems of institutions, people, and processes. Usability considerations must be addressed in these systems and devices to ensure safe and effective diabetes management.

  13. Effortful control as a moderator of the relation between contextual risk factors and growth in adjustment problems.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Bush, Nicole R; Long, Anna C; Kovacs, Erica A; Trancik, Anika M

    2008-01-01

    Effortful control was examined as a moderator of the relations of three domains of contextual risk factors to growth in internalizing and externalizing problems in a community sample (N = 189) of children (8-12 years at Time 1). Socioeconomic, maternal, and environmental risk factors were examined as predictors of initial levels and growth in children's adjustment problems across 3 years. The effects of the risk factors depended on children's level of effortful control. For children lower in effortful control, socioeconomic risk was related to significantly higher initial levels of internalizing and externalizing problems and decreases over time. However, children lower in effortful control had higher levels of problems at all three time points than children higher in effortful control. Maternal risk was associated with increases in internalizing for children lower in effortful control, and environmental risk was related to increases in internalizing and externalizing problems for children lower in effortful control, but not those higher in effortful control. Children who were lower in effortful control appeared to experience more adverse effects of contextual risk than those higher in effortful control, suggesting that interventions aimed at improving children's effortful control might serve to protect children from increased risk of adjustment problems associated with contextual risk factors.

  14. Aerospace Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    The following contains the final report on the activities related to the Cooperative Agreement between the human factors research group at NASA Ames Research Center and the Psychology Department at San Jose State University. The participating NASA Ames division has been, as the organization has changed, the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division (ASHFRD and Code FL), the Flight Management and Human Factors Research Division (Code AF), and the Human Factors Research and Technology Division (Code IH). The inclusive dates for the report are November 1, 1984 to January 31, 1999. Throughout the years, approximately 170 persons worked on the cooperative agreements in one capacity or another. The Cooperative Agreement provided for research personnel to collaborate with senior scientists in ongoing NASA ARC research. Finally, many post-MA/MS and post-doctoral personnel contributed to the projects. It is worth noting that 10 former cooperative agreement personnel were hired into civil service positions directly from the agreements.

  15. Introduction to human factors

    SciTech Connect

    Winters, J.M.

    1988-03-01

    Some background is given on the field of human factors. The nature of problems with current human/computer interfaces is discussed, some costs are identified, ideal attributes of graceful system interfaces are outlined, and some reasons are indicated why it's not easy to fix the problems. (LEW)

  16. Assessment of Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances; Foley, Tico

    1999-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering, often referred to as Ergonomics, is a science that applies a detailed understanding of human characteristics, capabilities, and limitations to the design, evaluation, and operation of environments, tools, and systems for work and daily living. Human Factors is the investigation, design, and evaluation of equipment, techniques, procedures, facilities, and human interfaces, and encompasses all aspects of human activity from manual labor to mental processing and leisure time enjoyments. In spaceflight applications, human factors engineering seeks to: (1) ensure that a task can be accomplished, (2) maintain productivity during spaceflight, and (3) ensure the habitability of the pressurized living areas. DSO 904 served as a vehicle for the verification and elucidation of human factors principles and tools in the microgravity environment. Over six flights, twelve topics were investigated. This study documented the strengths and limitations of human operators in a complex, multifaceted, and unique environment. By focusing on the man-machine interface in space flight activities, it was determined which designs allow astronauts to be optimally productive during valuable and costly space flights. Among the most promising areas of inquiry were procedures, tools, habitat, environmental conditions, tasking, work load, flexibility, and individual control over work.

  17. Contextual factors associated with health care service utilization for children with acute childhood illnesses in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Lilford, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the independent contribution of individual, community and state-level factors to health care service utilization for children with acute childhood illnesses in Nigeria. Materials and methods The study was based on secondary analyses of cross-sectional population-based data from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). Multilevel logistic regression models were applied to the data on 6,427 under-five children who used or did not use health care service when they were sick (level 1), nested within 896 communities (level 2) from 37 states (level 3). Results About one-quarter of the mothers were between 15 and 24 years old and almost half of them did not have formal education (47%). While only 30% of the children utilized health service when they were sick, close to 67% lived in the rural area. In the fully adjusted model, mothers with higher education attainment (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.63; 95% credible interval [CrI] = 1.31–2.03), from rich households (aOR = 1.76; 95% CrI = 1.35–2.25), with access to media (radio, television or magazine) (aOR = 1.18; 95% CrI = 1.08–1.29), and engaging in employment (aOR = 1.18; 95% CrI = 1.02–1.37) were significantly more likely to have used healthcare services for acute childhood illnesses. On the other hand, women who experienced difficulty getting to health facilities (aOR = 0.87; 95% CrI = 0.75–0.99) were less likely to have used health service for their children. Conclusions Our findings highlight that utilization of healthcare service for acute childhood illnesses was influenced by not only maternal factors but also community-level factors, suggesting that public health strategies should recognise this complex web of individual composition and contextual composition factors to guide provision of healthcare services. Such interventions could include: increase in female school enrolment, provision of interest-free loans for small and medium scale enterprises, introduction of

  18. The impact of state energy programs and other contextual factors on U.S. buildings energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ofori-Boadu, Andrea N. Y. A.

    High energy consumption in the United States has been influenced by populations, climates, income and other contextual factors. In the past decades, U.S. energy policies have pursued energy efficiency as a national strategy for reducing U.S. environmental degradation and dependence on foreign oils. The quest for improved energy efficiency has led to the development of energy efficient technologies and programs. The implementation of energy programs in the complex U.S. socio-technical environment is believed to promote the diffusion of energy efficiency technologies. However, opponents doubt the fact that these programs have the capacity to significantly reduce U.S. energy consumption. In order to contribute to the ongoing discussion, this quantitative study investigated the relationships existing among electricity consumption/ intensity, energy programs and contextual factors in the U.S. buildings sector. Specifically, this study sought to identify the significant predictors of electricity consumption and intensity, as well as estimate the overall impact of selected energy programs on electricity consumption and intensity. Using state-level secondary data for 51 U.S. states from 2006 to 2009, seven random effects panel data regression models confirmed the existence of significant relationships among some energy programs, contextual factors, and electricity consumption/intensity. The most significant predictors of improved electricity efficiency included the price of electricity, public benefits funds program, building energy codes program, financial and informational incentives program and the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) program. Consistently, the Southern region of the U.S. was associated with high electricity consumption and intensity; while the U.S. commercial sector was the greater benefactor from energy programs. On the average, energy programs were responsible for approximately 7% of the variation observed in electricity consumption

  19. Contextual Factors Contributing to Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Iranian American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daha, Maryam

    2011-01-01

    The data drawn from interviews with 55 second-generation Iranian American adolescents revealed that pride in ancient Persian culture, the adolescents' physical characteristics, perceived stereotypes, and community point of reference all combined to affect ethnic identity as well as to reinforce a sense of ethnic loyalty. The contextual factors…

  20. Contextual Factors in the Activation of First Hypotheses: Expert-Novice Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobus, Pie P. M.; And Others

    The role of contextual information in the generation of early hypotheses during the clinical interview was studied with expert and novice medical diagnosticians: 18 experienced family physicians versus 5 new physicians and 12 final-year medical students. The 18 experts and 17 novices were presented with 32 short case histories each presented on…

  1. The Role of ADHD in Academic Adversity: Disentangling ADHD Effects from Other Personal and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) experience significant academic difficulties that can lead to numerous negative academic consequences. With a focus on adverse academic outcomes, this study seeks to disentangle variance attributable to ADHD from variance attributable to salient personal and contextual covariates.…

  2. Demarcation of local neighborhoods to study relations between contextual factors and health

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    settlements. Conclusion Although the literature on neighborhood and health is increasing, little attention has been paid to criteria for demarcating neighborhoods. The proposed method is well-structured, available in open-access software, and easily reproducible, so we expect that new experiments will be conducted to evaluate its potential use in other settings. The method is thus a potentially important contribution to research on intra-urban differentials, particularly concerning contextual factors and their implications for different health outcomes. PMID:20587046

  3. Contextual control of conditioning is not affected by extinction in a behavioral task with humans.

    PubMed

    Nelson, James Byron; Lamoureux, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    The Attentional Theory of Context Processing (ATCP) states that extinction will arouse attention to contexts resulting in learning becoming contextually controlled. Participants learned to suppress responding to colored sensors in a video-game task where contexts were provided by different gameplay backgrounds. Four experiments assessed the contextual control of simple excitatory learning acquired to a test stimulus (T) after (Exp. 1) or during (Exp. 2-4) extinction of another stimulus (X). Experiment 1 produced no evidence of contextual control of T, though renewal to X was present both at the time T was trained and tested. In Experiment 2 no contextual control of T was evident when X underwent extensive conditioning and extinction. In Experiment 3 no contextual control of T was evident after extensive conditioning and extinction of X, and renewal to X was present. In Experiment 4 contextual control was evident to T, but it neither depended upon nor was enhanced by extinction of X. The results presented here appear to limit the generality of ATCP.

  4. Human Factors Review Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Paramore, B.; Peterson, L.R.

    1985-12-01

    ''Human Factors'' is concerned with the incorporation of human user considerations into a system in order to maximize human reliability and reduce errors. This Review Plan is intended to assist in the assessment of human factors conditions in existing DOE facilities. In addition to specifying assessment methodologies, the plan describes techniques for improving conditions which are found to not adequately support reliable human performance. The following topics are addressed: (1) selection of areas for review describes techniques for needs assessment to assist in selecting and prioritizing areas for review; (2) human factors engineering review is concerned with optimizing the interfaces between people and equipment and people and their work environment; (3) procedures review evaluates completeness and accuracy of procedures, as well as their usability and management; (4) organizational interface review is concerned with communication and coordination between all levels of an organization; and (5) training review evaluates training program criteria such as those involving: trainee selection, qualification of training staff, content and conduct of training, requalification training, and program management.

  5. Helicopter human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    The state-of-the-art helicopter and its pilot are examined using the tools of human-factors analysis. The significant role of human error in helicopter accidents is discussed; the history of human-factors research on helicopters is briefly traced; the typical flight tasks are described; and the noise, vibration, and temperature conditions typical of modern military helicopters are characterized. Also considered are helicopter controls, cockpit instruments and displays, and the impact of cockpit design on pilot workload. Particular attention is given to possible advanced-technology improvements, such as control stabilization and augmentation, FBW and fly-by-light systems, multifunction displays, night-vision goggles, pilot night-vision systems, night-vision displays with superimposed symbols, target acquisition and designation systems, and aural displays. Diagrams, drawings, and photographs are provided.

  6. Exploring the Links Between Macro-Level Contextual Factors and Their Influence on Nursing Workforce Composition

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison; Beltrán-Sánchez, Hiram

    2012-01-01

    Research that links macro-level socioeconomic development variables to healthcare human resources workforce composition is scarce at best. The purpose of this study was to explore the links between non-nursing factors and nursing workforce composition through a secondary, descriptive analysis of year 2000, publicly available national nursing human resources data from Mexico. Building on previous research, the authors conducted multiple robust regression analysis by federal typing of nursing human resources from 31 Mexican states against macro-level socioeconomic development variables. Average education in a state was significantly associated in predicting all types of formally educated nurses in Mexico. Other results suggest that macro level indicators have a different association with each type of nurse. Context may play a greater role in determining nursing workforce composition than previously thought. Further studies may help to explain differences both within and between countries. PMID:22513839

  7. Human Factors Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Jack is an advanced human factors software package that provides a three dimensional model for predicting how a human will interact with a given system or environment. It can be used for a broad range of computer-aided design applications. Jack was developed by the computer Graphics Research Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania with assistance from NASA's Johnson Space Center, Ames Research Center and the Army. It is the University's first commercial product. Jack is still used for academic purposes at the University of Pennsylvania. Commercial rights were given to Transom Technologies, Inc.

  8. Contextual behavior and neural circuits

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Inah; Lee, Choong-Hee

    2013-01-01

    Animals including humans engage in goal-directed behavior flexibly in response to items and their background, which is called contextual behavior in this review. Although the concept of context has long been studied, there are differences among researchers in defining and experimenting with the concept. The current review aims to provide a categorical framework within which not only the neural mechanisms of contextual information processing but also the contextual behavior can be studied in more concrete ways. For this purpose, we categorize contextual behavior into three subcategories as follows by considering the types of interactions among context, item, and response: contextual response selection, contextual item selection, and contextual item–response selection. Contextual response selection refers to the animal emitting different types of responses to the same item depending on the context in the background. Contextual item selection occurs when there are multiple items that need to be chosen in a contextual manner. Finally, when multiple items and multiple contexts are involved, contextual item–response selection takes place whereby the animal either chooses an item or inhibits such a response depending on item–context paired association. The literature suggests that the rhinal cortical regions and the hippocampal formation play key roles in mnemonically categorizing and recognizing contextual representations and the associated items. In addition, it appears that the fronto-striatal cortical loops in connection with the contextual information-processing areas critically control the flexible deployment of adaptive action sets and motor responses for maximizing goals. We suggest that contextual information processing should be investigated in experimental settings where contextual stimuli and resulting behaviors are clearly defined and measurable, considering the dynamic top-down and bottom-up interactions among the neural systems for contextual behavior

  9. Human factors workplace considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, Richard F.

    1988-01-01

    Computer workstations assume many different forms and play different functions today. In order for them to assume the effective interface role which they should play they must be properly designed to take into account the ubiguitous human factor. In addition, the entire workplace in which they are used should be properly configured so as to enhance the operational features of the individual workstation where possible. A number of general human factors workplace considerations are presented. This ongoing series of notes covers such topics as achieving comfort and good screen visibility, hardware issues (e.g., mouse maintenance), screen symbology features (e.g., labels, cursors, prompts), and various miscellaneous subjects. These notes are presented here in order to: (1) illustrate how one's workstation can be used to support telescience activities of many other people working within an organization, and (2) provide a single complete set of considerations for future reference.

  10. Exploring the Psychosocial Impact of Wheelchair and Contextual Factors on Quality of Life of People with Neuromuscular Disorders.

    PubMed

    Pousada García, Thais; Groba González, Betania; Nieto Rivero, Laura; Pereira Loureiro, Javier; Díez Villoria, Emiliano; Pazos Sierra, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Neuromuscular disorders (NMDs) are a group of heterogeneous diseases that show differences in incidence, hereditary, etiology, prognosis, or functional impairments. Wheelchair use (manual or powered) is influenced by several factors, including personal and contextual factors, and comprehensive evaluation of their impact is required in order to optimize prescription and provision of wheelchairs. The authors therefore assessed the influence of wheelchair use on the quality of life (QoL) of 60 participants with NMD using the Psychosocial Impact of Assistive Devices Scale (PIADS). The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and a specially developed questionnaire were used to obtain information about contextual factors and participants' activity profile of activities of the participants. The results showed that using a wheelchair has psychosocial benefits, with the main determinants of benefit being type of wheelchair (powered), non-ambulation ability, and independence in mobility. Ensuring a good match between user and assistive technology (AT; e.g., wheelchair), as well as the effectiveness of the particular device, will increase the likelihood that the user will adopt it and use it effectively in daily life. Clinical prescription of AT would be improved by making appropriate use of outcome measures.

  11. The Association Among Individual and Contextual Factors and Unmet Healthcare Needs in South Korea: A Multilevel Study Using National Data

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Miyeon; Yoon, Tae-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate associations between contextual characteristics and unmet healthcare needs in South Korea after accounting for individual factors. Methods The present study used data from the 2012 Korean Community Health Survey (KCHS) of 228 902 adults residing within 253 municipal districts in South Korea. A multilevel analysis was conducted to investigate how contextual characteristics, defined by variables that describe the regional deprivation, degree of urbanity, and healthcare supply, are associated with unmet needs after controlling for individual-level variables. Results Of the surveyed Korean adults, 12.1% reported experiencing unmet healthcare needs in the past. This figure varied with the 253 districts surveyed, ranging from 2.6% to 26.2%. A multilevel analysis found that the association between contextual characteristics and unmet needs varied according to the factors that caused the unmet needs. The degree of urbanity was associated with unmet need due to “financial burden” (odds ratio [OR], 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.66 for rural vs. metropolitan), but not unmet need due to “service not available when needed.” There were no significant associations between these unmet need measures and regional deprivation. Among individual-level variables, income level showed the highest association with unmet need due to “financial burden” (OR, 5.63; 95% CI, 4.76 to 6.66), while employment status showed a strong association with unmet need due to “service not available when needed.” Conclusions Our finding suggests that different policy interventions should be considered for each at-risk population group to address the root cause of unmet healthcare needs. PMID:27744672

  12. Contextual Determination of Human Thinking: About Some Conceptual and Methodological Obstacles in Psychology Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorsana, Christine; Trognon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This theoretical paper discusses some conceptual and methodological obstacles that one encounters when analyzing the contextual determination of thinking in psychology. First, we comment upon the various representations of the "cognitive" individual that have been formed over the years--from the epistemic subject to the psychological subject, and…

  13. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households׳ energy consumption

    PubMed Central

    Jridi, Omar; Nouri, Fethi Zouheir

    2015-01-01

    We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG). The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015) [2]. PMID:26568974

  14. Survey of socio-economic and contextual factors of households׳ energy consumption.

    PubMed

    Jridi, Omar; Nouri, Fethi Zouheir

    2015-12-01

    We present a set of data relating to the investigation of the Tunisian Company of Electricity and Gas (STEG). The census is done on a sample of 3000 electrified households. The questionnaire is divided into three main sections: household socioeconomic status, contextual characteristics related to their housing and technical characteristics of equipments used. The objective of this survey is to achieve a reliable and detailed knowledge on the behavior of household energy consumption, particularly for energy saving behavior. This objective has recently been the subject of a research article Jridi et al. (2015) [2].

  15. Contextual approach to technology assessment: Implications for one-factor fix solutions to complex social problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayo, L. H.

    1975-01-01

    The contextual approach is discussed which undertakes to demonstrate that technology assessment assists in the identification of the full range of implications of taking a particular action and facilitates the consideration of alternative means by which the total affected social problem context might be changed by available project options. It is found that the social impacts of an application on participants, institutions, processes, and social interests, and the accompanying interactions may not only induce modifications in the problem contest delineated for examination with respect to the design, operations, regulation, and use of the posited application, but also affect related social problem contexts.

  16. Impaired Contextual Fear Extinction Learning is Associated with Aberrant Regulation of CHD-Type Chromatin Remodeling Factors.

    PubMed

    Wille, Alexandra; Maurer, Verena; Piatti, Paolo; Whittle, Nigel; Rieder, Dietmar; Singewald, Nicolas; Lusser, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Successful attenuation of fearful memories is a cognitive process requiring initiation of highly coordinated transcription programs. Chromatin-modulating mechanisms such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, including acetylation, are key regulators of these processes. However, knowledge concerning the role of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors (ChRFs) being required for successful fear extinction is lacking. Underscoring the potential importance of these factors that alter histone-DNA contacts within nucleosomes are recent genome-wide association studies linking several ChRFs to various human cognitive and psychiatric disorders. To better understand the role of ChRFs in the brain, and since to date little is known about ChRF expression in the brain, we performed a comprehensive survey of expression levels of 24 ATP-dependent remodelers across different brain areas, and we identified several distinct high molecular weight complexes by chromatographic methods. We next aimed to gain novel insight into the potential regulation of ChRFs in different brain regions in association with normal and impaired fear extinction learning. To this end, we established the 129S1/SvImJ (S1) laboratory mouse strain as a model for compromised contextual fear extinction learning that can be rescued by dietary zinc restriction (ZnR). Using this model along with genetically related but fear extinction-competent 129S6/SvEv (S6) mice as controls, we found that impaired fear extinction in S1 was associated with enhanced ventral hippocampal expression of CHD1 and reduced expression of CHD5 that was normalized following successful rescue of impaired fear extinction. Moreover, a select reduction in CHD3 expression was observed in the ventral hippocampus (vHC) following successful rescue of fear extinction in S1 mice. Taken together, these data provide novel insight into the regulation of specific ChRFs following an impaired cognitive process and its rescue, and they suggest that

  17. Helicopter Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.; Sridhar, Banavar (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Even under optimal conditions, helicopter flight is a most demanding form of human-machine interaction, imposing continuous manual, visual, communications, and mental demands on pilots. It is made even more challenging by small margins for error created by the close proximity of terrain in NOE flight and missions flown at night and in low visibility. Although technology advances have satisfied some current and proposed requirements, hardware solutions alone are not sufficient to ensure acceptable system performance and pilot workload. However, human factors data needed to improve the design and use of helicopters lag behind advances in sensor, display, and control technology. Thus, it is difficult for designers to consider human capabilities and limitations when making design decisions. This results in costly accidents, design mistakes, unrealistic mission requirements, excessive training costs, and challenge human adaptability. NASA, in collaboration with DOD, industry, and academia, has initiated a program of research to develop scientific data bases and design principles to improve the pilot/vehicle interface, optimize training time and cost, and maintain pilot workload and system performance at an acceptable level. Work performed at Ames, and by other research laboratories, will be reviewed to summarize the most critical helicopter human factors problems and the results of research that has been performed to: (1) Quantify/model pilots use of visual cues for vehicle control; (2) Improve pilots' performance with helmet displays of thermal imagery and night vision goggles for situation awareness and vehicle control; (3) Model the processes by which pilots encode maps and compare them to the visual scene to develop perceptually and cognitively compatible electronic map formats; (4) Evaluate the use of spatially localized auditory displays for geographical orientation, target localization, radio frequency separation; (5) Develop and flight test control

  18. Contextual and Community Factors Associated with Youth Access to Cigarettes through Commercial Sources

    PubMed Central

    Grube, Joel W.; Friend, Karen B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study examines contextual and community level characteristics associated with youth access to tobacco through commercial sources in 50 non-contiguous mid-sized California communities. Methods The study is based on data from access surveys conducted by 4 confederate buyers (2 males and 2 females) in 997 tobacco outlets. City demographics, adult smoking prevalence and measures of tobacco outlet density, local tobacco retailer licensing and cigarette tax were included. Results Multilevel regression analyses indicated that buyer actual age, a male clerk and asking young buyers about their age were related to successful cigarette purchases. Buyer actual age and minimum age signs increased the likelihood that clerks will request an ID. At the community level, higher percentage of minors, higher education, and a greater percentage of African Americans were associated with increased likelihood of a successful purchase. Lower percentage of minors, lower education, lower percentage of African Americans, and having a local tobacco retailer licensing were associated with retailer asked for ID. Additionally, supermarkets charged significantly more for a pack of cigarettes than small markets whereas smoke/tobacco shops and drug stores/pharmacies charged less. Higher prices were associated with higher median household income and greater percentage of Hispanics. Findings about community characteristics, however, differed by cigarette brand. Conclusions This study enhances our understanding of the associations between contextual and community characteristics and youth access to tobacco through commercial sources which can help policymakers to identify and target at-risk communities and outlets to decrease youth access to tobacco. PMID:23092887

  19. Contextual factors in substance use: A study of suburban and inner-city adolescents

    PubMed Central

    LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.; D’AVANZO, KAREN

    2012-01-01

    Objectives in this research were to examine contextual differences in correlates of substance use among high school students. The focus was on two broad categories of adjustment indices: personal psychopathology (internalizing and externalizing problems) and behaviors reflecting social competence (academic achievement, teacher-rated classroom behaviors, and peer acceptance or rejection). Associations between drug use and each of these constructs were examined in two sociodemographically disparate groups: teens from affluent, suburban families (n = 264), and low socioeconomic status adolescents from inner-city settings (n = 224). Results indicated that suburban youth reported significantly higher levels of substance use than inner-city youth. In addition, their substance use was more strongly linked with subjectively perceived maladjustment indices. Comparable negative associations involving grades and teacher-rated behaviors were found in both groups, and among suburban males only, substance use showed robust positive associations with acceptance by peers. Results are discussed in terms of developmental perspectives on adolescent deviance, contextual socializing forces, and implications for preventive interventions and treatment. PMID:10624729

  20. Unraveling the Relationship between Motor Symptoms, Affective States and Contextual Factors in Parkinson’s Disease: A Feasibility Study of the Experience Sampling Method

    PubMed Central

    Kuijf, Mark L.; Van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.; van Os, Jim; Leentjens, Albert F. G.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Parkinson's disease (PD), the complex relationship between motor symptoms, affective states, and contextual factors remains to be elucidated. The Experience Sampling Method provides (ESM) a novel approach to this issue. Using a mobile device with a special purpose application (app), motor symptoms, affective states and contextual factors are assessed repeatedly at random moments in the flow of daily life, yielding an intensive time series of symptoms and experience. The aim of this study was to study the feasibility of this method. Method We studied the feasibility of a five-day period of ESM in PD and its ability to objectify diurnal fluctuations in motor symptom severity and their relation with affect and contextual factors in five PD patients with motor fluctuations. Results Participants achieved a high compliance, with 84% of assessment moments completed without disturbance of daily activities. The utility of the device was rated 8 on a 10-point scale. We were able to capture extensive diurnal fluctuations that were not revealed by routine clinical assessment. In addition, we were able to detect clinically relevant associations between motor symptoms, emotional fluctuations and contextual factors at an intra-individual level. Conclusions ESM represents a viable and novel approach to elucidate relationships between motor symptoms, affective states and contextual factors at the level of individual subjects. ESM holds promise for clinical practice and scientific research. PMID:26962853

  1. Contextual factors influencing health-related quality of life in African American and Latina breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Aria M.; Ashing, Kimlin Tam; Modeste, Naomi N.; Herring, R. Patti; Sealy, Diadrey-Anne T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study explored the relationships between systemic and individual-level contextual factors and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a cohort of African American and Latina breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods Baseline questionnaire data of 320 BCS who participated in a HRQOL psycho-educational intervention were abstracted from the parent study. Hierarchical regression analysis tested the independent effects of contextual factors on HRQOL. Results HRQOL was higher in BCS who: were diagnosed at factors accounted for 14 % of the variance in HRQOL (F[6, 274]= 7.25, p<0.001). The socio-cultural context (i.e., ethnicity, life stress, perceived social support) explained 20% of the variance in HRQOL (FΔ[3, 271]=27.32, p<0.001). The health care system context contributed an additional 8 % to explaining HRQOL (FΔ[1, 270]=34.88, p<0.001). Health status and behavioral factors accounted for 18 % of the variance (FΔ[4, 266]=29.55, p<0.001). The full model explained 59 % of the variance in HRQOL (F[14, 266]=27.76, p<0.001). Conclusions HRQOL in ethnic minority BCS is multifaceted and is significantly influenced by cancer-related, socio-cultural, health care system, health status, and behavioral contextual factors. Therefore, survivorship research and practice must address broad multi-level domains to achieve equitable and optimal breast cancer outcomes. Implications for cancer survivors To enhance HRQOL, survivors must be provided the know-how and support to maintain healthy lifestyle and self-management practices. Advocates must engage the care team to consider systemic factors, including life stress and community resources, to be more patient-centered. PMID:25576214

  2. SARSCEST (human factors)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, H. Mcilvaine

    1988-01-01

    People interact with the processes and products of contemporary technology. Individuals are affected by these in various ways and individuals shape them. Such interactions come under the label 'human factors'. To expand the understanding of those to whom the term is relatively unfamiliar, its domain includes both an applied science and applications of knowledge. It means both research and development, with implications of research both for basic science and for development. It encompasses not only design and testing but also training and personnel requirements, even though some unwisely try to split these apart both by name and institutionally. The territory includes more than performance at work, though concentration on that aspect, epitomized in the derivation of the term ergonomics, has overshadowed human factors interest in interactions between technology and the home, health, safety, consumers, children and later life, the handicapped, sports and recreation education, and travel. Two aspects of technology considered most significant for work performance, systems and automation, and several approaches to these, are discussed.

  3. Ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index in the United States: the role of parental socioeconomic status and economic contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy; Krauss, Ramona C; Wang, Youfa

    2012-08-01

    This paper examined the importance of household and economic contextual factors as determinants of ethnic disparities in adolescent body mass index (BMI). Individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 for the years 1997 through 2000 were combined with economic contextual data on food prices, outlet density and median household income. The Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method was used to examine the factors that could help explain ethnic disparities in BMI. Ethnic differences in household demographic, parental socioeconomic status (SES), and economic contextual factors explained the majority of the male black-white (63%), male Hispanic-white (78%) and female Hispanic-white (62%) BMI gaps but less than one-half of the female black-white BMI gap (44%). We found that adding the economic contextual factors increased the explained portion of the ethnic BMI gap for both female and male adolescents: the economic contextual factors explained 28% and 38% of the black-white and Hispanic-white BMI gaps for males and 13% and 8% of the black-white and Hispanic-white BMI gaps for females, respectively. Parental SES was more important in explaining the Hispanic-white BMI gap than the black-white BMI gap for both genders, whereas neighborhood economic contextual factors were more important in explaining the male BMI gap than the female BMI gap for both black-white and Hispanic-white ethnic disparities. A significantly large portion of the ethnic BMI gap, however, remained unexplained between black and white female adolescents.

  4. Contextualizing gay-straight alliances: student, advisor, and structural factors related to positive youth development among members.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P; Gray, Mary L; DiGiovanni, Craig D; Lipkin, Arthur; Mundy-Shephard, Adrienne; Perrotti, Jeff; Scheer, Jillian R; Shaw, Matthew P

    2015-01-01

    Gay-straight alliances (GSAs) may promote resilience. Yet, what GSA components predict well-being? Among 146 youth and advisors in 13 GSAs (58% lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; 64% White; 38% received free/reduced-cost lunch), student (demographics, victimization, attendance frequency, leadership, support, control), advisor (years served, training, control), and contextual factors (overall support or advocacy, outside support for the GSA) that predicted purpose, mastery, and self-esteem were tested. In multilevel models, GSA support predicted all outcomes. Racial/ethnic minority youth reported greater well-being, yet lower support. Youth in GSAs whose advisors served longer and perceived more control and were in more supportive school contexts reported healthier outcomes. GSA advocacy also predicted purpose. Ethnographic notes elucidated complex associations and variability as to how GSAs operated.

  5. Contextualizing Gay-Straight Alliances: Student, Advisor, and Structural Factors Related to Positive Youth Development Among Members

    PubMed Central

    Poteat, V. Paul; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Calzo, Jerel P.; Gray, Mary L.; DiGiovanni, Craig. D.; Lipkin, Arthur; Mundy-Shephard, Adrienne; Perrotti, Jeff; Scheer, Jillian R.; Shaw, Mathew P.

    2014-01-01

    Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs) may promote resilience. Yet, what GSA components predict wellbeing? Among 146 youth and advisors in 13 GSAs (58% lesbian, gay, bisexual, or questioning; 64% white; 38% received free/reduced-cost lunch), student (demographics, victimization, attendance frequency, leadership, support, control), advisor (years served, training, control) and contextual factors (overall support or advocacy, outside support for the GSA) that predicted purpose, mastery, and self-esteem were tested. In multilevel models, GSA support predicted all outcomes. Racial/ethnic minority youth reported greater wellbeing, yet lower support. Youth in GSAs whose advisors served longer and perceived more control and were in more supportive school contexts reported healthier outcomes. GSA advocacy also predicted purpose. Ethnographic notes elucidated complex associations and variability in how GSAs operated. PMID:25176579

  6. The relationship between the quality of cooperative learning, students' goal preferences, and perceptions of contextual factors in the classroom.

    PubMed

    Hijzen, Daphne; Boekaerts, Monique; Vedder, Paul

    2006-02-01

    This study examined relationships between the quality of cooperative learning (CL) and students' goal preferences and perceptions of contextual factors in the classroom. Subjects were 1,920 students in secondary vocational schools. The study focused on four different types of goals: social support, belongingness, mastery, and superiority goals. It was found that social support goals had the strongest relation with the quality of CL. Further we found that the quality of CL was best predicted by a combination of social support goals, evaluations of the extent that students were taught cooperation skills, perception of teacher monitoring behavior, and the availability of academic and emotional peer support. Female students' preferences for mastery and social goals were stronger than those of male students, whereas male students had a stronger preference for superiority goals. Program type functioned as a moderator variable within the relation of students' superiority/ individuality goals and the quality of CL.

  7. Contextual and individual factors associated with dissatisfaction with the Brazilian Unified National Health System, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Passero, Lúcia Gimenes; Giordani, Jessye Melgarejo do Amaral; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Torman, Vanessa Bielefeldt Leotti; Camey, Suzi Alves; Hilgert, Juliana Balbinot

    2016-10-20

    User satisfaction is known to be related to quality of healthcare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of contextual and individual factors associated with user dissatisfaction with the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS). This was a cross-sectional multilevel study. Data were collected via telephone by the ombudsman's office of the SUS. Telephone numbers were randomly selected from a telephone company database. Health services, socioeconomic, and individual demographic variables were evaluated, in addition to information on the municipalities. The outcome variable was dissatisfaction with the SUS. Hierarchical multilevel logistic regression was used, and 18,673 individuals were contacted. Prevalence of dissatisfaction was 63.4% (95%CI: 62.7-64.1). Unmet demand (OR = 3.66), waiting time > 4 hours (OR = 2.82), and number of Primary Healthcare Units (OR = 0.89) were associated statistically with dissatisfaction. Characteristics of the health teams' work process showed a strong association with dissatisfaction.

  8. Research Needs for Human Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Research Inst. for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Arlington, VA.

    Human factors engineering can be defined as the application of scientific principles, methods, and data drawn from a variety of disciplines to the development of engineering systems in which people play a significant role. Since human factors issues arise in every domain in which humans interact with the products of a technological society, six…

  9. Human Factors in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin; Sandor, Aniko

    2009-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 08 (FY08) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: (1) Risk associated with poor task design (2) Risk of error due to inadequate information (3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design

  10. Human Factors in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byme, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current Shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. Training efforts in FY07 strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center operations. Beginning in January 2008, the training research effort will include team training prototypes and tools. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  11. Human Factors in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel; Byrne, Vicky; Arsintescu, Lucia; Connell, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Future space missions will be significantly longer than current shuttle missions and new systems will be more complex than current systems. Increasing communication delays between crews and Earth-based support means that astronauts need to be prepared to handle the unexpected on their own. As crews become more autonomous, their potential span of control and required expertise must grow to match their autonomy. It is not possible to train for every eventuality ahead of time on the ground, or to maintain trained skills across long intervals of disuse. To adequately prepare NASA personnel for these challenges, new training approaches, methodologies, and tools are required. This research project aims at developing these training capabilities. By researching established training principles, examining future needs, and by using current practices in space flight training as test beds, both in Flight Controller and Crew Medical domains, this research project is mitigating program risks and generating templates and requirements to meet future training needs. Training efforts in Fiscal Year 09 (FY09) strongly focused on crew medical training, but also began exploring how Space Flight Resource Management training for Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) Flight Controllers could be integrated with systems training for optimal Mission Control Center (MCC) operations. The Training Task addresses Program risks that lie at the intersection of the following three risks identified by the Project: 1) Risk associated with poor task design; 2) Risk of error due to inadequate information; and 3) Risk associated with reduced safety and efficiency due to poor human factors design.

  12. Gene-environment correlation in the development of adolescent substance abuse: selection effects of child personality and mediation via contextual risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Brian M; Johnson, Wendy; Durbin, C Emily; Blonigen, Daniel M; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2013-02-01

    We used a longitudinal twin design to examine selection effects of personality traits at age 11 on high-risk environmental contexts at age 14 and the extent to which these contexts mediated risk for substance abuse at age 17. Socialization at age 11 (willingness to follow rules and endorse conventional values) predicted exposure to contextual risk at age 14. Contextual risk partially mediated the effect of socialization on substance abuse, though socialization also had a direct effect. In contrast, boldness at age 11 (social engagement and assurance, thrill seeking, and stress resilience) also predicted substance abuse directly but was unrelated to contextual risk. There was substantial overlap in the genetic and shared environmental influences on socialization and contextual risk, and genetic risk in socialization contributed to substance abuse indirectly via increased exposure to contextual risk. This suggests that active gene-environment correlations related to individual differences in socialization contributed to an early, high-risk developmental trajectory for adolescent substance abuse. In contrast, boldness appeared to index an independent and direct genetic risk factor for adolescent substance abuse.

  13. Association of Contextual Factors with Drug Use and Binge Drinking among White, Native American, and Mixed-Race Adolescents in the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Hsing-Jung; Balan, Sundari; Price, Rumi Kato

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale surveys have shown elevated risk for many indicators of substance abuse among Native American and Mixed-Race adolescents compared to other minority groups in the United States. This study examined underlying contextual factors associated with substance abuse among a nationally representative sample of White, Native American, and…

  14. A Study of Factors Affecting the Adoption of E-Learning Systems Enabled with Cultural Contextual Features by Instructions in Jamaican Tertiary Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoden, Niccardo S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors affecting the acceptance of E-Learning Systems Enabled with Cultural Contextual Features by lnstructors in Jamaican Tertiary Institutions is an important topic that's relevant to not only educational institutions, but developers of software for on line learning. The use of the unified theory of acceptance and use of…

  15. Clinician and Parent Perspectives on Parent and Family Contextual Factors that Impact Community Mental Health Services for Children with Behavior Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    The present study employed qualitative methods to examine multiple stakeholder perspectives regarding the role of parent and family contextual factors on community child mental health treatment for children with behavior problems. Findings suggest agreement between clinicians and parents on the number, types and importance of parent and family…

  16. Investigating the Interpersonal and Contextual Factors Govern Saudi Lecturers' Motivation in Creating Innovative Blended Learning Environment That Web 2.0-Based

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghanmi, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    Sustaining success in higher education within an ever-changing landscape largely depends on academics' motivation to cope with it. Essentially, this study aims to explore the interpersonal and contextual factors that govern the introduction of blended learning in a Saudi context. A collective case study approach was employed with Self-…

  17. Characteristics of Systems and Leadership in K-12 Public School Educational Technology Programs: Understanding Data Use, Decision Making, and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, multi-case research study examines how leaders use data to inform decisions related to technology use, including how they use enGauge program evaluation data, identifies leadership practices and related contextual factors present in four K-12 public school districts. This research study examines the questions: What are the…

  18. Individual and Contextual Factors Influencing Engagement in Learning Activities after Errors at Work: A Replication Study in a German Retail Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leicher, Veronika; Mulder, Regina H.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this replication study is to identify relevant individual and contextual factors influencing learning from errors at work and to determine if the predictors for learning activities are the same for the domains of nursing and retail banking. Design/methodology/approach: A cross-sectional replication study was carried out in…

  19. On Contextuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thayer-Bacon, Barbara J.

    This exploration of what feminism has to contribute to pragmatism, and vice versa, considers the idea of contextuality through an examination of the role of current pragmatists, such as Cornel West and Richard Rorty, and current feminists, including Charlene Haddock Siegfried, Maxine Greene, and Seyla Benhabib. To set the stage historically for…

  20. Contextual Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This document consists of four papers presented at a symposium on contextual learning issues moderated by John Henschke at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development (AHRD). "Self-Directed Learning in Organizations: An Analysis of Policies and Practices of Seven Resource Companies in Western Canada" (H. K. Morris…

  1. Pathways between acculturation and health behaviors among residents of low-income housing: The mediating role of social and contextual factors

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jennifer Dacey; Caspi, Caitlin; Yang, May; Leyva, Bryan; Stoddard, Anne M.; Tamers, Sara; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D.; Sorensen, Glorian C.

    2015-01-01

    Acculturation may influence health behaviors, yet mechanisms underlying its effect are not well understood. In this study, we describe relationships between acculturation and health behaviors among low-income housing residents, and examine whether these relationships are mediated by social and contextual factors. Residents of 20 low-income housing sites in the Boston metropolitan area completed surveys that assessed acculturative characteristics, social/contextual factors, and health behaviors. A composite acculturation scale was developed using latent class analysis, resulting in four distinct acculturative groups. Path analysis was used to examine interrelationships between acculturation, health behaviors, and social/contextual factors, specifically self-reported social ties, social support, stress, material hardship, and discrimination. Of the 828 respondents, 69% were born outside of the U.S. Less acculturated groups exhibited healthier dietary practices and were less likely to smoke than more acculturated groups. Acculturation had a direct effect on diet and smoking, but not physical activity. Acculturation also showed an indirect effect on diet through its relationship with material hardship. Our finding that material hardship mediated the relationship between acculturation and diet suggests the need to explicate the significant role of financial resources in interventions seeking to promote healthy diets among low-income immigrant groups. Future research should examine these social and contextual mediators using larger, population-based samples, preferably with longitudinal data. PMID:25462602

  2. Pathways between acculturation and health behaviors among residents of low-income housing: the mediating role of social and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Allen, Jennifer Dacey; Caspi, Caitlin; Yang, May; Leyva, Bryan; Stoddard, Anne M; Tamers, Sara; Tucker-Seeley, Reginald D; Sorensen, Glorian C

    2014-12-01

    Acculturation may influence health behaviors, yet mechanisms underlying its effect are not well understood. In this study, we describe relationships between acculturation and health behaviors among low-income housing residents, and examine whether these relationships are mediated by social and contextual factors. Residents of 20 low-income housing sites in the Boston metropolitan area completed surveys that assessed acculturative characteristics, social/contextual factors, and health behaviors. A composite acculturation scale was developed using latent class analysis, resulting in four distinct acculturative groups. Path analysis was used to examine interrelationships between acculturation, health behaviors, and social/contextual factors, specifically self-reported social ties, social support, stress, material hardship, and discrimination. Of the 828 respondents, 69% were born outside of the U.S. Less acculturated groups exhibited healthier dietary practices and were less likely to smoke than more acculturated groups. Acculturation had a direct effect on diet and smoking, but not physical activity. Acculturation also showed an indirect effect on diet through its relationship with material hardship. Our finding that material hardship mediated the relationship between acculturation and diet suggests the need to explicate the significant role of financial resources in interventions seeking to promote healthy diets among low-income immigrant groups. Future research should examine these social and contextual mediators using larger, population-based samples, preferably with longitudinal data.

  3. Contextual Factors Impacting Battered Women's Intentions to Reuse the Criminal Legal System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleury-Steiner, Ruth E.; Bybee, Deborah; Sullivan, Cris M.; Belknap, Joanne; Melton, Heather C.

    2006-01-01

    While a small number of past studies have examined either situational, relational, or systems-level factors that influence battered women's use of either the police, prosecutorial, or court systems, no study to date has examined how these factors each influence women's intentions to reuse these systems. To address this gap, in-person interviews…

  4. Protective Factors for Children of Alcoholics: Parenting, Family Environment, Child Personality, and Contextual Supports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Lisa C.; Chassin, Laurie

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors that would ameliorate the risk for substance abuse problems among children of alcoholics (COA), and to explore mechanisms of protection, particularly the Stress-Buffering model. Protective factors for children of alcoholics were examined in a controlled study (N=386). Three possible models are…

  5. Human factors in visualization research.

    PubMed

    Tory, Melanie; Möller, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    Visualization can provide valuable assistance for data analysis and decision making tasks. However, how people perceive and interact with a visualization tool can strongly influence their understanding of the data as well as the system's usefulness. Human factors therefore contribute significantly to the visualization process and should play an important role in the design and evaluation of visualization tools. Several research initiatives have begun to explore human factors in visualization, particularly in perception-based design. Nonetheless, visualization work involving human factors is in its infancy, and many potentially promising areas have yet to be explored. Therefore, this paper aims to 1) review known methodology for doing human factors research, with specific emphasis on visualization, 2) review current human factors research in visualization to provide a basis for future investigation, and 3) identify promising areas for future research.

  6. NASA Space Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This booklet briefly and succinctly treats 23 topics of particular interest to the NASA Space Human Factors Program. Most articles are by different authors who are mainly NASA Johnson or NASA Ames personnel. Representative topics covered include mental workload and performance in space, light effects on Circadian rhythms, human sleep, human reasoning, microgravity effects and automation and crew performance.

  7. A Social Cognitive Examination of East Asian American Career Development: Contextual Factors Influencing Career Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Despite their educational and economic achievements in the United States, Asian Americans continue to be occupationally segregated in the labor force. Asian Americans are overrepresented in mathematics, engineering and biological sciences while underrepresented in field such as education, humanities, social and behavioral sciences (Bureau of Labor…

  8. Research Needs for Human Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    Research Note 83-07 RESEARCH NEEDS FOR HUMAN FACTORS Conmmittee on Human Factors Cot ittee on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National... Research Council IIJanuary 1983 i ~ Approvted for Dublit rellease; distribution unlimited. __ A N- This report, as submitted by the contractor, has...CATALOG NUMBE -- Research Note 83-07 A2{>/)/.2 ? ___ 4. TITLE (e 5110) S. TyPE of REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Renearch Needs for Human Facotrs S. PERFORMING

  9. Activation of human factor IX (Christmas factor).

    PubMed Central

    Di Scipio, R G; Kurachi, K; Davie, E W

    1978-01-01

    Human Factor IX (Christmas factor) is a single-chain plasma glycoprotein (mol wt 57,000) that participates in the middle phase of the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It is present in plasma as a zymogen and is converted to a serine protease, Factor IXabeta, by Factor XIa (activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent) in the presence of calcium ions. In the activation reaction, two internal peptide bonds are hydrolyzed in Factor IX. These cleavages occur at a specific arginyl-alanine peptide bond and a specific arginyl-valine peptide bond. This results in the release of an activation peptide (mol wt approximately equal to 11,000) from the internal region of the precursor molecule and the generation of Factor IXabeta (mol wt approximately equal to 46,000). Factor IXabeta is composed of a light chain (mol wt approximately equal to 18,000) and a heavy chain (mol wt approximately equal to 28,000), and these chains are held together by a disulfide bond(s). The light chain originates from the amino terminal portion of the precursor molecule and has an amino terminal sequence of Tyr-Asn-Ser-Gly-Lys. The heavy chain originates from the carboxyl terminal region of the precursor molecule and contains an amino terminal sequence of Val-Val-Gly-Gly-Glu. The heavy chain of Factor IXabeta also contains the active site sequence of Phe-Cys-Ala-Gly-Phe-His-Glu-Gly-Arg-Asp-Ser-Cys-Gln-Gly-Asp-SER-Gly-Gly-Pro. The active site serine residue is shown in capital letters. Factor IX is also converted to Factor IXaalpha by a protease from Russell's viper venom. This activation reaction, however, occurs in a single step and involves only the cleavage of the internal arginyl-valine peptide bond. Human Factor IXabeta was inhibited by human antithrombin III by the formation of a one-to-one complex of enzyme and inhibitor. In this reaction, the inhibitor was tightly bound to the heavy chain of the enzyme. These data indicate that the mechanism of activation of human Factor IX and its

  10. Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

  11. Individual and Contextual Factors for Bullying and Peer Victimization: Implications for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivolo, Alana M.; Holt, Melissa K.; Massetti, Greta M.

    2011-01-01

    The Division of Violence Prevention (DVP) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is committed to preventing youth violence. For the past decade, DVP has supported research on risk and protective factors associated with youth interpersonal violence and the development and evaluation of prevention programs. This commentary addresses…

  12. Resisting Smoking when a Best Friend Smokes: Do Intrapersonal and Contextual Factors Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Joan S.; Edelen, Maria Orlando; Go, Myung-Hyun; Pollard, Michael S.; Green, Harold D., Jr.; Kennedy, David P.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study examines individual differences in the tendency to initiate (N = 4,612) and escalate (N = 2,837) smoking when adolescents gain a best friend who smokes. Potential moderating factors include self-esteem, depression, problem behavior, school and family bonds, and household access to cigarettes. In addition to acquiring a…

  13. Personal Attitudes or Structural Factors? A Contextual Analysis of Breastfeeding Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, Nita Mary; Hyde, Janet Shibley

    2004-01-01

    A personal attitudes model (i.e., infant feeding choices are based on personal attitudes primarily) and a structural factors model (i.e., feeding choices are shaped by the structural contexts of women's lives, as much as personal attitudes) of women's breastfeeding behavior were tested by surveying a longitudinal sample of 548 mostly European…

  14. Personal Characteristics and Contextual Factors Associated with Residential Expenditures for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Jeffrey A.; Altman, Barbara M.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 3,920 individuals with mental retardation from 665 residential facilities found ownership, facility size, facility services, and location were factors associated with higher expenditures. Individuals with a greater number of activity of daily living limitations, developmental disabilities, and more severe mental retardation had…

  15. Reading Attitude as a Mediator between Contextual Factors and Reading Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Hyo Jin; Bong, Mimi; Woo, Yeon-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among the factors known to influence reading development and performance, attitude toward reading is shown to be particularly critical for developing learners. Reading attitude (McKenna, 1994; McKenna et al., 1995) enhances independent reading, levels of engagement in classroom reading activities, and the amount and variety of topics…

  16. Individual and Contextual Factors Associated with Patterns of Aggression and Peer Victimization during Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettencourt, Amie F.; Farrell, Albert D.

    2013-01-01

    Peer victimization is a common problem among adolescents that has been linked to a variety of adjustment problems. Youth involved in peer victimization represent a heterogeneous group who may differ not only in their levels of victimization and perpetration, but also in the factors that influence their behavior. The current study used latent class…

  17. Organizational Factors and the Implementation of Family to Family: Contextual Elements of Systems Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crea, Thomas M.; Crampton, David S.; Knight, Nelson; Paine-Wells, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In efforts to reform the child welfare system, agency leaders must involve staff at all levels; yet, little research has been done to determine which organizational factors encourage or inhibit staff engagement. Employees from an urban child welfare agency were invited to complete a survey regarding organizational effectiveness and its influence…

  18. Teleoperator Human Factors Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    An investigation of the spectrum of space teleoperation activities likely in the 1985 to 1995 decade focused on the resolution of critical human engineering issues and characterization of the technology effect on performance of remote human operators. The study began with the identification and documentation of a set of representative reference teleoperator tasks. For each task, technology, development, and design options, issues, and alternatives that bear on human operator performance were defined and categorized. A literature survey identified existing studies of man/machine issues. For each teleoperations category, an assessment was made of the state of knowledge on a scale from adequate to void. The tests, experiments, and analyses necessary to provide the missing elements of knowledge were then defined. A limited set of tests were actually performed, including operator selection, baseline task definition, control mode study, lighting study, camera study, and preliminary time delay study.

  19. Reactions to resistance: the role of contextual factors in sex offending.

    PubMed

    Balemba, Samantha; Beauregard, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Upon encountering victim resistance during the commission of a sexual assault, an offender makes a decision as to how to react to the resistance via the use of varying degrees of coercive or noncoercive tactics. Exhaustive chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) analyses were performed on a sample of 369 criminal events to detect the significant situational and crime-specific factors, the pertinent interactions between these factors, and how these affect an offender's reaction to victim resistance depending on whether the victim is a child or an adult. Findings show that multiple interactions do occur and, moreover, factors affecting the offender's reaction to victim resistance are very different depending on whether the victim is a child or an adult. Planning and preparation variables, such as the offender's attack strategy, were found to be significant in the child victim model, whereas reactive variables, such as the type of victim resistance, were found to be significant in the adult victim model. The findings lend support to the social interac-tionist perspective and the importance of victim-offender dynamics.

  20. Modeling contextual effects using individual-level data and without aggregation: an illustration of multilevel factor analysis (MLFA) with collective efficacy.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Erin C; Masyn, Katherine E; Johnston, William R; Subramanian, S V

    2015-01-01

    Population health scientists increasingly study how contextual-level attributes affect individual health. A major challenge in this domain relates to measurement, i.e., how best to measure and create variables that capture characteristics of individuals and their embedded contexts. This paper presents an illustration of multilevel factor analysis (MLFA), an analytic method that enables researchers to model contextual effects using individual-level data without using derived variables. MLFA uses the shared variance in sets of observed items among individuals within the same context to estimate a measurement model for latent constructs; it does this by decomposing the total sample variance-covariance matrix into within-group (e.g., individual-level) and between-group (e.g., contextual-level) matrices and simultaneously modeling distinct latent factor structures at each level. We illustrate the MLFA method using items capturing collective efficacy, which were self-reported by 2,599 adults in 65 census tracts from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LAFANS). MLFA identified two latent factors at the individual level and one factor at the neighborhood level. Indicators of collective efficacy performed differently at each level. The ability of MLFA to identify different latent factor structures at each level underscores the utility of this analytic tool to model and identify attributes of contexts relevant to health.

  1. DSN human factors project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chafin, R. L.; Martin, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    The project plan was to hold focus groups to identify the factors influencing the ease of use characteristics of software and to bond the problem. A questionnaire survey was conducted to evaluate those factors which were more appropriately measured with that method. The performance oriented factors were analyzed and relationships hypothesized. The hypotheses were put to test in the experimental phase of the project. In summary, the initial analysis indicates that there is an initial performance effect favoring computer controlled dialogue but the advantage fades fast as operators become experienced. The user documentation style is seen to have a significant effect on performance. The menu and prompt command formats are preferred by inexperienced operators. The short form mnemonic is least favored. There is no clear best command format but the short form mnemonic is clearly the worst.

  2. The impact of maternal characteristics, infant temperament and contextual factors on maternal responsiveness to infant.

    PubMed

    Tester-Jones, Michelle; O'Mahen, Heather; Watkins, Edward; Karl, Anke

    2015-08-01

    Postnatal maternal depressive symptoms are consistently associated with impairments in maternal attunement (i.e., maternal responsiveness and bonding). There is a growing body of literature examining the impact of maternal cognitive factors (e.g., rumination) on maternal attunement and mood. However, little research has examined the role of infant temperament and maternal social support in this relationship. This study investigated the hypothesis that rumination would mediate (1) the relationship between depressive symptoms and attunement and (2) the relationship between social support and attunement. We further predicted that infant temperament would moderate these relationships, such that rumination would demonstrate mediating effects on attunement when infant difficult temperament was high, but not low. Two hundred and three mothers completed measures on rumination, depressive symptoms, attunement, perceived social support and infant temperament. Rumination mediated the effect of postnatal maternal depressive mood on maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant when infants were low, but not high, in negative temperament. When infants had higher negative temperament, there were direct relationships between maternal depressive symptoms, social support and maternal self-reported responsiveness to the infant. This study is limited by its cross-sectional and correlational nature and the use of self-report measures to assess a mother's awareness of her infant needs and behaviours, rather than observational measures of maternal sensitivity. These findings suggest potentially different pathways to poor maternal responsiveness than those expected and provide new evidence about the contexts in which maternal cognitive factors, such as rumination, may impact on the mother-infant relationship.

  3. Contextual sensitivity in scientific reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Van Bavel, Jay J; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Brady, William J; Reinero, Diego A

    2016-06-07

    In recent years, scientists have paid increasing attention to reproducibility. For example, the Reproducibility Project, a large-scale replication attempt of 100 studies published in top psychology journals found that only 39% could be unambiguously reproduced. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the lack of reproducibility in psychology and other fields stems from various methodological factors, including low statistical power, researcher's degrees of freedom, and an emphasis on publishing surprising positive results. However, there is a contentious debate about the extent to which failures to reproduce certain results might also reflect contextual differences (often termed "hidden moderators") between the original research and the replication attempt. Although psychologists have found extensive evidence that contextual factors alter behavior, some have argued that context is unlikely to influence the results of direct replications precisely because these studies use the same methods as those used in the original research. To help resolve this debate, we recoded the 100 original studies from the Reproducibility Project on the extent to which the research topic of each study was contextually sensitive. Results suggested that the contextual sensitivity of the research topic was associated with replication success, even after statistically adjusting for several methodological characteristics (e.g., statistical power, effect size). The association between contextual sensitivity and replication success did not differ across psychological subdisciplines. These results suggest that researchers, replicators, and consumers should be mindful of contextual factors that might influence a psychological process. We offer several guidelines for dealing with contextual sensitivity in reproducibility.

  4. Seclusion and the importance of contextual factors: An innovation project revisited.

    PubMed

    Boumans, Christien E; Egger, Jos I M; Bouts, Richard A; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M

    2015-01-01

    Variation in seclusion rates between psychiatric facilities cannot be adequately explained by patient characteristics alone and there is a growing awareness of the influence of 'cultural' and staff factors on the use of seclusion. In this study, staff variables as well as seclusion parameters were investigated during the implementation of an innovation project, against the background of an institutional program to reduce the use of coercive measures. The results demonstrate the impact of confidence within the team, staffing level and communication with the patient on nurses' decisions on seclusion. The importance of the organizational context is further illustrated by the negative effects of organizational instability on nurses' attitudes and decision making with respect to seclusion, and on seclusion rates. A reduction in the use of seclusion was achieved after the implementation of the innovation project; however, during a period of organizational turmoil, the work engagement scores of staff decreased and the use of seclusion increased. The results of this study show the vulnerability of innovations within the continuously changing organizational context of mental health care.

  5. Human Factors in CAI Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambally, Gerard K.; Rambally, Rodney S.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies human factor issues involved in the student-computer interface in computer assisted instruction and makes specific recommendations for screen design. Factors considered include simplicity, spaciousness, relevance, standardization, changing display screen contents, color coding, shape and size coding, and brightness coding. (Author/LRW)

  6. Helicopter human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, David C.; Hart, Sandra G.

    1988-01-01

    Helicopter flight is among the most demanding of all human-machine integrations. The inherent manual control complexities of rotorcraft are made even more challenging by the small margin for error created in certain operations, such as nap-of-the-Earth (NOE) flight, by the proximity of the terrain. Accident data recount numerous examples of unintended conflict between helicopters and terrain and attest to the perceptual and control difficulties associated with low altitude flight tasks. Ames Research Center, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate, has initiated an ambitious research program aimed at increasing safety margins for both civilian and military rotorcraft operations. The program is broad, fundamental, and focused on the development of scientific understandings and technological countermeasures. Research being conducted in several areas is reviewed: workload assessment, prediction, and measure validation; development of advanced displays and effective pilot/automation interfaces; identification of visual cues necessary for low-level, low-visibility flight and modeling of visual flight-path control; and pilot training.

  7. Effect of condom-use measures in predicting sexually transmitted diseases: variation by individual and contextual factors of sexual risk.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Y; Li, X; Yang, H; Hong, Y; Fang, X; Wang, B; Stanton, B

    2012-09-01

    Inconsistent findings in the global literature regarding the effectiveness of condom use against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) may result from variations in the measurement of condom use. In this study, we assess the sensitivity and specificity of six condom-use measures in predicting STD infection, and assess the difference in sensitivity and specificity by type of sexual partner (clients versus stable partners), type of STD, ethnicity (Han versus non-Han), years of formal schooling (≤6 versus >6 years) and level of risk of STD exposure (high versus low). Cross-sectional data were obtained from 454 female sex workers (FSWs) in Guangxi, China. Measurements of condom use were created along types of use (any use, consistent use, correct use, or the combination of consistent and correct use) and periods of recall (life time, last month or recent three sexual episodes). Measures of consistent use had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than measures of any use in predicting STDs among FSWs, regardless of the recall period and type of sexual partner. Incorporating correct use improved the measures of consistent use. Measures of consistent use and the combination of consistent and correct use demonstrated high sensitivity in predicting particular STDs. They showed higher sensitivity in predicting STDs among FSWs who reported higher risk for STD exposure than among FSWs who reported lower risk of exposure to STDs. In conclusion, the findings suggest the superiority of consistent use and correct use of condoms in predicting STD infection. The findings also underscore the importance of considering the context of sexual risk such as type of sexual partner and risk of exposure to STD infection when we measure condom use. Future studies of condom effectiveness should collect and quantify these contextual and individual factors among the target population.

  8. Impact of Contextual Factors on the Effect of Interventions to Improve Health Worker Performance in Sub-Saharan Africa: Review of Randomised Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mickan, Sharon; Willcox, Merlin; Roberts, Nia; Bergström, Anna; Mant, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Africa bears 24% of the global burden of disease but has only 3% of the world’s health workers. Substantial variation in health worker performance adds to the negative impact of this significant shortfall. We therefore sought to identify interventions implemented in sub-Saharan African aiming to improve health worker performance and the contextual factors likely to influence local effectiveness. Methods and Findings A systematic search for randomised controlled trials of interventions to improve health worker performance undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa identified 41 eligible trials. Data were extracted to define the interventions’ components, calculate the absolute improvement in performance achieved, and document the likelihood of bias. Within-study variability in effect was extracted where reported. Statements about contextual factors likely to have modified effect were subjected to thematic analysis. Interventions to improve health worker performance can be very effective. Two of the three trials assessing mortality impact showed significant reductions in death rates (age<5 case fatality 5% versus 10%, p<0.01; maternal in-hospital mortality 6.8/1000 versus 10.3/1000; p<0.05). Eight of twelve trials focusing on prescribing had a statistically significant positive effect, achieving an absolute improvement varying from 9% to 48%. However, reported range of improvement between centres within trials varied substantially, in many cases exceeding the mean effect. Nine contextual themes were identified as modifiers of intervention effect across studies; most frequently cited were supply-line failures, inadequate supervision or management, and failure to follow-up training interventions with ongoing support, in addition to staff turnover. Conclusions Interventions to improve performance of existing staff and service quality have the potential to improve patient care in underserved settings. But in order to implement interventions effectively, policy

  9. Contextual-specificity of short-delay extinction in humans: Renewal of fear-potentiated startle in a virtual environment

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Ruben P.; Johnson, Linda; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    A recent fear-potentiated startle study in rodents suggested that extinction was not context dependent when extinction was conducted after a short delay following acquisition, suggesting that extinction can lead to erasure of fear learning in some circumstances. The main objective of this study was to attempt to replicate these findings in humans by examining the context specificity of short-delay extinction in an ABA renewal procedure using virtual reality environments. A second objective was to examine whether renewal, if any, would be influenced by context conditioning. Subjects underwent differential aversive conditioning in virtual context A, which was immediately followed by extinction in virtual context B. Extinction was followed by tests of renewal in context A and B, with the order counterbalanced across subjects. Results showed that extinction was context dependent. Evidence for renewal was established using fear-potentiated startle as well as skin conductance and fear ratings. In addition, although contextual anxiety was greater in the acquisition context than in the extinction context during renewal, as assessed with startle, context conditioning did not influence the renewal effect. These data do not support the view that extinction conducted shortly after acquisition is context independent. Hence, they do not provide evidence that extinction can lead to erasure of a fear memory established via Pavlovian conditioning. PMID:17412963

  10. Contextual Specificity of Extinction of Delay but Not Trace Eyeblink Conditioning in Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grillon, Christian; Alvarez, Ruben P.; Johnson, Linda; Chavis, Chanen

    2008-01-01

    Renewal of an extinguished conditioned response has been demonstrated in humans and in animals using various types of procedures, except renewal of motor learning such as eyeblink conditioning. We tested renewal of delay and trace eyeblink conditioning in a virtual environment in an ABA design. Following acquisition in one context (A, e.g., an…

  11. Homo floresiensis Contextualized: A Geometric Morphometric Comparative Analysis of Fossil and Pathological Human Samples

    PubMed Central

    Baab, Karen L.; McNulty, Kieran P.; Harvati, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The origin of hominins found on the remote Indonesian island of Flores remains highly contentious. These specimens may represent a new hominin species, Homo floresiensis, descended from a local population of Homo erectus or from an earlier (pre-H. erectus) migration of a small-bodied and small-brained hominin out of Africa. Alternatively, some workers suggest that some or all of the specimens recovered from Liang Bua are pathological members of a small-bodied modern human population. Pathological conditions proposed to explain their documented anatomical features include microcephaly, myxoedematous endemic hypothyroidism (“cretinism”) and Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity). This study evaluates evolutionary and pathological hypotheses through comparative analysis of cranial morphology. Geometric morphometric analyses of landmark data show that the sole Flores cranium (LB1) is clearly distinct from healthy modern humans and from those exhibiting hypothyroidism and Laron syndrome. Modern human microcephalic specimens converge, to some extent, on crania of extinct species of Homo. However in the features that distinguish these two groups, LB1 consistently groups with fossil hominins and is most similar to H. erectus. Our study provides further support for recognizing the Flores hominins as a distinct species, H. floresiensis, whose affinities lie with archaic Homo. PMID:23874886

  12. Factors Influencing Choices of Contextualized versus Traditional Practices with Children and Adolescents Who Have Traumatic Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koole, Heather; Nelson, Nickola W.; Curtis, Amy B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This preliminary investigation examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') use of contextualized practices (i.e., functional, personally relevant, nonhierarchical, and collaborative) compared with traditional practices (i.e., clinical, generic, hierarchical, and expert driven) with school-age children and adolescents with traumatic…

  13. Experiential and Contextual Factors That Shape Engineering Interest and Educational Decision-Making Processes among Female Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the formation of educational and vocational goals among female first-year engineering students at two community colleges and one four-year institution, as well as contextual influences on this process. Participants' pathways to college are also explored, as well as their pathways into engineering. The findings…

  14. The physiology of perception in human temporal lobe is specialized for contextual novelty

    PubMed Central

    Hermes, Dora; Witthoft, Nathan; Rao, Rajesh P. N.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.

    2015-01-01

    The human ventral temporal cortex has regions that are known to selectively process certain categories of visual inputs; they are specialized for the content (“faces,” “places,” “tools”) and not the form (“line,” “patch”) of the image being seen. In our study, human patients with implanted electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode arrays were shown sequences of simple face and house pictures. We quantified neuronal population activity, finding robust face-selective sites on the fusiform gyrus and house-selective sites on the lingual/parahippocampal gyri. The magnitude and timing of single trials were compared between novel (“house-face”) and repeated (“face-face”) stimulus-type responses. More than half of the category-selective sites showed significantly greater total activity for novel stimulus class. Approximately half of the face-selective sites (and none of the house-selective sites) showed significantly faster latency to peak (∼50 ms) for novel stimulus class. This establishes subregions within category-selective areas that are differentially tuned to novelty in sequential context, where novel stimuli are processed faster in some regions, and with increased activity in others. PMID:25972581

  15. Human Factors in Aircraft Maintenance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-03-01

    significant effect on the design of new systems but it can also mitigate problems found in the sub-optimal designs of current systems. 2. Human Factors...and parts 3. Airplane design and configuration 4. Job and task 5. Technical knowledge and skills 6. Factors affecting individual performance-e.g...software failures (e.g. documentation design ) were found. Note that there are typically multiple latent failures for each hazard pattern, so that

  16. Beyond expectation: a case for nonpersonal contextual factors in a more comprehensive approach to the placebo effect and the contribution of environmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Sütterlin, Stefan; Egner, Lars E; Lugo, Ricardo G; Wojniusz, Slawomir

    2015-01-01

    Creating an optimized health care environment to maximize the probability and magnitude of placebo effects draws on a number of well-researched mechanisms such as the patient's positive expectation toward treatment outcome. Patient-centered communication styles influence expectations and can thus be considered as a form of supplemental treatment. Unconsciously processed contextual triggering and facilitating placebo effects are omnipresent in clinical settings as well as in all other social and physical environments. Contextual cues in both the social and physical domain exert influences on the recipient's emotional state and recreational experiences. While the majority of research focuses on improving the patients' expectations, classical conditioning effects of nonsocial contextual factors have been largely neglected in discussions on practical implementation of placebo-enhancing environments. Built on the empirically well-supported argument that conditioning processes act as a powerful tool to mobilize self-healing resources just as verbally induced expectations do, we argue for a stronger consideration of the effects of permanent, nonsocial and nonverbal environmental contexts. Environmental psychology is a new field of research within the psychological domain and offers a toolbox of opportunities for medical psychological research and health care practitioners to improve the treatment outcomes and benefits of health care environments.

  17. Human factors in software development

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, B.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents an overview of ergonomics/human factors in software development, recent research, and classic papers. Articles are drawn from the following areas of psychological research on programming: cognitive ergonomics, cognitive psychology, and psycholinguistics. Topics examined include: theoretical models of how programmers solve technical problems, the characteristics of programming languages, specification formats in behavioral research and psychological aspects of fault diagnosis.

  18. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  19. Human Factors in Financial Trading

    PubMed Central

    Leaver, Meghan; Reader, Tom W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study tests the reliability of a system (FINANS) to collect and analyze incident reports in the financial trading domain and is guided by a human factors taxonomy used to describe error in the trading domain. Background Research indicates the utility of applying human factors theory to understand error in finance, yet empirical research is lacking. We report on the development of the first system for capturing and analyzing human factors–related issues in operational trading incidents. Method In the first study, 20 incidents are analyzed by an expert user group against a referent standard to establish the reliability of FINANS. In the second study, 750 incidents are analyzed using distribution, mean, pathway, and associative analysis to describe the data. Results Kappa scores indicate that categories within FINANS can be reliably used to identify and extract data on human factors–related problems underlying trading incidents. Approximately 1% of trades (n = 750) lead to an incident. Slip/lapse (61%), situation awareness (51%), and teamwork (40%) were found to be the most common problems underlying incidents. For the most serious incidents, problems in situation awareness and teamwork were most common. Conclusion We show that (a) experts in the trading domain can reliably and accurately code human factors in incidents, (b) 1% of trades incur error, and (c) poor teamwork skills and situation awareness underpin the most critical incidents. Application This research provides data crucial for ameliorating risk within financial trading organizations, with implications for regulation and policy. PMID:27142394

  20. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  1. Environmental Factors Inducing Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, N

    2012-01-01

    Background An explosion of research has been done in discovering how human health is affected by environmental factors. I will discuss the impacts of environmental cancer causing factors and how they continue to cause multiple disruptions in cellular networking. Some risk factors may not cause cancer. Other factors initiate consecutive genetic mutations that would eventually alter the normal pathway of cellular proliferations and differentiation. Genetic mutations in four groups of genes; (Oncogenes, Tumor suppressor genes, Apoptosis genes and DNA repairing genes) play a vital role in altering the normal cell division. In recent years, molecular genetics have greatly increased our understanding of the basic mechanisms in cancer development and utilizing these molecular techniques for cancer screening, diagnosis, prognosis and therapies. Inhibition of carcinogenic exposures wherever possible should be the goal of cancer prevention programs to reduce exposures from all environmental carcinogens. PMID:23304670

  2. Human factors in spacecraft design.

    PubMed

    Harrison, A A; Connors, M M

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some of the salient implications of evolving mission parameters for spacecraft design. Among the requirements for future spacecraft are new, higher standards of living, increased support of human productivity, and greater accommodation of physical and cultural variability. Design issues include volumetric allowances, architecture and layouts, closed life support systems, health maintenance systems, recreational facilities, automation, privacy, and decor. An understanding of behavioral responses to design elements is a precondition for critical design decisions. Human factors research results must be taken into account early in the course of the design process.

  3. Human factors in spacecraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Albert A.; Connors, Mary M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes some of the salient implications of evolving mission parameters for spacecraft design. Among the requirements for future spacecraft are new, higher standards of living, increased support of human productivity, and greater accommodation of physical and cultural variability. Design issues include volumetric allowances, architecture and layouts, closed life support systems, health maintenance systems, recreational facilities, automation, privacy, and decor. An understanding of behavioral responses to design elements is a precondition for critical design decisions. Human factors research results must be taken into account early in the course of the design process.

  4. Human factors in contingency operations.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Simon J; Khan, M A; Scott, T; Matthews, J J; Henning, Dcw; Stapley, S

    2016-06-10

    The UK Defence Medical Services are currently supporting contingency operations following a period of intensive activity in relatively mature trauma systems in Iraq and Afghanistan. Among the key lessons identified, human factors or non-technical skills played an important role in the improvement of patient care. This article describes the importance of human factors on Role 2 Afloat, one of the Royal Navy's maritime contingency capabilities, and illustrates how they are vital to ensuring that correct decisions are made for patient care in a timely manner. Teamwork and communication are particularly important to ensure that limited resources such as blood products and other consumables are best used and that patients are evacuated promptly, allowing the facility to accept further casualties and therefore maintain operational capability. These ideas may be transferred to any small specialist team given a particular role to perform.

  5. Human factors in incident reporting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper proposes a cooperative research effort be undertaken by academic institutions and industry organizations toward the compilation of a human factors data base in conjunction with technical information. Team members in any discipline can benefit and learn from observing positive examples of decision making and performance by crews under stressful or less than optimal circumstances. The opportunity to note trends in interpersonal and interactive behaviors and to categorize them is terms of more or less desirable outcomes should not be missed.

  6. The Impact of Personal Background and School Contextual Factors on Academic Competence and Mental Health Functioning across the Primary-Secondary School Transition

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Sharmila; Parsons, Richard; Falkmer, Torbjörn; Passmore, Anne Elizabeth; Falkmer, Marita

    2014-01-01

    Students negotiate the transition to secondary school in different ways. While some thrive on the opportunity, others are challenged. A prospective longitudinal design was used to determine the contribution of personal background and school contextual factors on academic competence (AC) and mental health functioning (MHF) of 266 students, 6-months before and after the transition to secondary school. Data from 197 typically developing students and 69 students with a disability were analysed using hierarchical linear regression modelling. Both in primary and secondary school, students with a disability and from socially disadvantaged backgrounds gained poorer scores for AC and MHF than their typically developing and more affluent counterparts. Students who attended independent and mid-range sized primary schools had the highest concurrent AC. Those from independent primary schools had the lowest MHF. The primary school organisational model significantly influenced post-transition AC scores; with students from Kindergarten - Year 7 schools reporting the lowest scores, while those from the Kindergarten - Year 12 structure without middle school having the highest scores. Attending a school which used the Kindergarten - Year 12 with middle school structure was associated with a reduction in AC scores across the transition. Personal background factors accounted for the majority of the variability in post-transition AC and MHF. The contribution of school contextual factors was relatively minor. There is a potential opportunity for schools to provide support to disadvantaged students before the transition to secondary school, as they continue to be at a disadvantage after the transition. PMID:24608366

  7. Contextual sensitivity in scientific reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Van Bavel, Jay J.; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Brady, William J.; Reinero, Diego A.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, scientists have paid increasing attention to reproducibility. For example, the Reproducibility Project, a large-scale replication attempt of 100 studies published in top psychology journals found that only 39% could be unambiguously reproduced. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the lack of reproducibility in psychology and other fields stems from various methodological factors, including low statistical power, researcher’s degrees of freedom, and an emphasis on publishing surprising positive results. However, there is a contentious debate about the extent to which failures to reproduce certain results might also reflect contextual differences (often termed “hidden moderators”) between the original research and the replication attempt. Although psychologists have found extensive evidence that contextual factors alter behavior, some have argued that context is unlikely to influence the results of direct replications precisely because these studies use the same methods as those used in the original research. To help resolve this debate, we recoded the 100 original studies from the Reproducibility Project on the extent to which the research topic of each study was contextually sensitive. Results suggested that the contextual sensitivity of the research topic was associated with replication success, even after statistically adjusting for several methodological characteristics (e.g., statistical power, effect size). The association between contextual sensitivity and replication success did not differ across psychological subdisciplines. These results suggest that researchers, replicators, and consumers should be mindful of contextual factors that might influence a psychological process. We offer several guidelines for dealing with contextual sensitivity in reproducibility. PMID:27217556

  8. Predictors of Co-Occurring Risk Behavior Trajectories among Economically Disadvantaged African American Youth: Contextual and Individual Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sterrett, Emma M.; Dymnicki, Allison B.; Henry, David; Byck, Gayle; Bolland, John; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Purpose African American youth, particularly those from low-income backgrounds, evidence high rates of negative outcomes associated with three problem behaviors, conduct problems, risky sexual behavior, and substance use. This study used a contextually-tailored version of Problem Behavior Theory (PBT) to examine predictors of the simultaneous development of problem behaviors in this specific cultural group. Methods Socio-contextual and individual variables representing four PBT predictor categories, controls protection, support protection, models risk, and vulnerability risk, were examined as predictors of co-occurring problem behaviors among economically disadvantaged African American adolescents (n = 949). Specifically, the likelihood of following three classes of multiple problem behavior trajectories spanning ages 12 to 18, labeled the “early experimenters,” “increasing high risk-takers,” and “adolescent-limited” classes, as opposed to a “normative” class was examined. Results Among other findings, controls protection in the form of a more stringent household curfew at age 12 was related to a lower likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” and “increasing high risk-takers” classes. Conversely, vulnerability risk manifested as stronger attitudes of violence inevitability was associated with a higher likelihood of being in the “early experimenters” class. However, the PBT category of support protection was not associated with risk trajectory class. More distal neighborhood-level manifestations of PBT categories also did not predict co-occurring behavior problems. Conclusion Guided by an incorporation of contextually-salient processes into PBT, prevention programs aiming to decrease co-occurring problem behaviors among low-income African American adolescents would do well to target both proximal systems and psychological constructs related to perceived security throughout adolescence. PMID:24755141

  9. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors. An operator must take the precautions necessary to account for human factors that can affect a crew's...

  10. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15... TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors. An operator must take the precautions necessary to account for human factors that can affect a crew's...

  11. Human factors training for aviation personnel.

    PubMed

    Johnston, A N; Maurino, D E

    1990-05-01

    The authors examine the reasons for new human factors training requirements contained in the ICAO circular 227-AN/136, Training of Operational Personnel in Human Factors. The circular, produced by the ICAO Flight Safety and Human Factors Study Group, includes a philosophical approach, a conceptual approach, and a model of software, hardware, environment, and liveware or the human element (SHEL model). Guidelines for human factors training, curriculum development, and trainee performance appraisal are included.

  12. Elementary Science Students' Motivation and Learning Strategy Use: Constructivist Classroom Contextual Factors in a Life Science Laboratory and a Traditional Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milner, Andrea R.; Templin, Mark A.; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of constructivist classroom contextual factors in a life science laboratory and a traditional science classroom on elementary students' motivation and learning strategy use. The Constructivist Teaching Inventory was used to examine classroom contextual factors. The Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire was used to examine student motivation and learning strategies. A Wilcoxon nonparametric test determined that constructivist teaching practices were found to occur more often in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom. Although constructivist teaching practices increased at each observation time in both the regular classroom and in the life laboratory, a Friedman test determined that they were not statistically significant increases. Paired sample t tests determined that student motivation and learning strategies were higher in the life laboratory than in the regular classroom overall as well as at each survey time except for learning strategies at Post 1. A 2 × 4 between 3 within repeated measure ANOVA determined that student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the regular classroom varied statistically significantly by teacher. Student MSLQ motivation and learning strategy scores in the life laboratory varied statistically significantly by teacher. To triangulate data, individual interviews of students were conducted at the end of the semester and revealed students regard the life laboratory as an asset to their science study; however, students do appreciate and value working in the learning environment that the regular classroom provides.

  13. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  14. Understanding adverse events: human factors.

    PubMed Central

    Reason, J

    1995-01-01

    (1) Human rather than technical failures now represent the greatest threat to complex and potentially hazardous systems. This includes healthcare systems. (2) Managing the human risks will never be 100% effective. Human fallibility can be moderated, but it cannot be eliminated. (3) Different error types have different underlying mechanisms, occur in different parts of the organisation, and require different methods of risk management. The basic distinctions are between: Slips, lapses, trips, and fumbles (execution failures) and mistakes (planning or problem solving failures). Mistakes are divided into rule based mistakes and knowledge based mistakes. Errors (information-handling problems) and violations (motivational problems) Active versus latent failures. Active failures are committed by those in direct contact with the patient, latent failures arise in organisational and managerial spheres and their adverse effects may take a long time to become evident. (4) Safety significant errors occur at all levels of the system, not just at the sharp end. Decisions made in the upper echelons of the organisation create the conditions in the workplace that subsequently promote individual errors and violations. Latent failures are present long before an accident and are hence prime candidates for principled risk management. (5) Measures that involve sanctions and exhortations (that is, moralistic measures directed to those at the sharp end) have only very limited effectiveness, especially so in the case of highly trained professionals. (6) Human factors problems are a product of a chain of causes in which the individual psychological factors (that is, momentary inattention, forgetting, etc) are the last and least manageable links. Attentional "capture" (preoccupation or distraction) is a necessary condition for the commission of slips and lapses. Yet, its occurrence is almost impossible to predict or control effectively. The same is true of the factors associated with

  15. Human factors in space telepresence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akin, D. L.; Howard, R. D.; Oliveria, J. S.

    1983-01-01

    The problems of interfacing a human with a teleoperation system, for work in space are discussed. Much of the information presented here is the result of experience gained by the M.I.T. Space Systems Laboratory during the past two years of work on the ARAMIS (Automation, Robotics, and Machine Intelligence Systems) project. Many factors impact the design of the man-machine interface for a teleoperator. The effects of each are described in turn. An annotated bibliography gives the key references that were used. No conclusions are presented as a best design, since much depends on the particular application desired, and the relevant technology is swiftly changing.

  16. Individual and contextual factors associated with tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis use among Chilean adolescents: A multilevel study.

    PubMed

    Gaete, Jorge; Araya, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    We studied the association between individual and contextual variables and the use of tobacco, alcohol, or cannabis in the last 30 days preceding the study, considering the hierarchical nature of students nested in schools. We used the 7th Chilean National School Survey of Substance Use (2007) covering 45,273 students (aged 12-21 years old) along with information from 1465 schools provided by the Chilean Ministry of Education. Multilevel univariable and multivariable logistic regression models were performed. We found a significant intra-class correlation within schools for all substances in the study. Common (e.g., availability of pocket money, more time spent with friends, poor parental monitoring, poor school bonding, bullying others, and lower risk perception of substance use) and unique predictors (e.g., school achievement on national tests) were identified. These findings may help in planning and conducting preventive interventions to reduce substance use.

  17. Human Factors Engineering Standards at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane; Tillman, Barry; Pickett, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    NASA has begun a new approach to human factors design standards. For years NASA-STD-3000, Manned Systems Integration Standards, has been a source of human factors design guidance for space systems. In order to better meet the needs of the system developers, NASA is revising its human factors standards system. NASA-STD-3000 will be replaced by two documents: set of broad human systems design standards (including both human factors and medical topics) and a human factors design handbook. At the present time the standards document is in final review with some disagreement on several critical issues. The handbook is progressing with November 2008 as the anticipated completion date.

  18. Human Factors Checklist: Think Human Factors - Focus on the People

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Darcy; Stelges, Katrine; Barth, Timothy; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Dischinger, Charles; Kanki, Barbara; Kramer, Ian

    2016-01-01

    A quick-look Human Factors (HF) Checklist condenses industry and NASA Agency standards consisting of thousands of requirements into 14 main categories. With support from contractor HF and Safety Practitioners, NASA developed a means to share key HF messages with Design, Engineering, Safety, Project Management, and others. It is often difficult to complete timely assessments due to the large volume of HF information. The HF Checklist evolved over time into a simple way to consider the most important concepts. A wide audience can apply the checklist early in design or through planning phases, even before hardware or processes are finalized or implemented. The checklist is a good place to start to supplement formal HF evaluation. The HF Checklist was based on many Space Shuttle processing experiences and lessons learned. It is now being applied to ground processing of new space vehicles and adjusted for new facilities and systems.

  19. Critique, Contextualism and Consensus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jane

    2004-01-01

    In an epistemology of contextualism, how robust does consensus need to be for critique to be practically effective? In 'Relativism and the Critical Potential of Philosophy of Education,' Frieda Heyting proposes a form of contextualism, but her argument raises a number of problems. The kinds of criteria that her version of contextualism will…

  20. Human Factors in Human-Systems Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitts, David J.; Sandor, Aniko; Litaker, Harry L., Jr.; Tillman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Any large organization whose mission is to design and develop systems for humans, and train humans needs a well-developed integration and process plan to deal with the challenges that arise from managing multiple subsystems. Human capabilities, skills, and needs must be considered early in the design and development process, and must be continuously considered throughout the development lifecycle. This integration of human needs within system design is typically formalized through a Human-Systems Integration (HSI) program. By having an HSI program, an institution or organization can reduce lifecycle costs and increase the efficiency, usability, and quality of its products because human needs have been considered from the beginning.

  1. Habitability and Human Factors Contributions to Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumaya, Jennifer Boyer

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch in support of human space flight in two main areas: Applied support to major space programs, and Space research. The field of Human Factors applies knowledge of human characteristics for the design of safer, more effective, and more efficient systems. This work is in several areas of the human space program: (1) Human-System Integration (HSI), (2) Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, (3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA), (4) Lunar Surface Systems, (5) International Space Station (ISS), and (6) Human Research Program (HRP). After detailing the work done in these areas, the facilities that are available for human factors work are shown.

  2. ERBS human factors analysis: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, K. L.; Weger, C.

    1983-01-01

    The incorporation of human factors into the system development process and the benefits derived are discussed. The human factors analysis task for the Earth radiation budget satellite (ERBS) payload operations control center (POCC) is a pathfinder in the new applications approach to this discipline within the mission and data operations directorate. The topics covered include: discussions of the motivation for human factors analysis; the involvement of the human factors research group (HFRG) with project and system developers, and some examples of human factors issues addressed in the ERBS analysis task.

  3. Contextual Uncertainties, Human Mobility, and Perceived Food Environment: The Uncertain Geographic Context Problem in Food Access Research.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2015-09-01

    We examined the uncertainty of the contextual influences on food access through an analytic framework of the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP). We first examined the compounding effects of two kinds of spatiotemporal uncertainties on people's everyday efforts to procure food and then outlined three key dimensions (food access in real time, temporality of the food environment, and perceived nutrition environment) in which research on food access must improve to better represent the contributing environmental influences that operate at the individual level. Guidelines to address the UGCoP in future food access research are provided to account for the multidimensional influences of the food environment on dietary behaviors.

  4. Development of an Integrated Human Factors Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Resnick, Marc L.

    2003-01-01

    An effective integration of human abilities and limitations is crucial to the success of all NASA missions. The Integrated Human Factors Toolkit facilitates this integration by assisting system designers and analysts to select the human factors tools that are most appropriate for the needs of each project. The HF Toolkit contains information about a broad variety of human factors tools addressing human requirements in the physical, information processing and human reliability domains. Analysis of each tool includes consideration of the most appropriate design stage, the amount of expertise in human factors that is required, the amount of experience with the tool and the target job tasks that are needed, and other factors that are critical for successful use of the tool. The benefits of the Toolkit include improved safety, reliability and effectiveness of NASA systems throughout the agency. This report outlines the initial stages of development for the Integrated Human Factors Toolkit.

  5. Sexual risk-taking among high-risk urban women with and without histories of childhood sexual abuse: mediating effects of contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Mosack, Katie E; Randolph, Mary E; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by being intoxicated during sex and engaging in sex work, whereas the association between relational control and unprotected sex was not mediated by contextual factors for the childhood sexual abuse group. The mechanisms of risk are different for those with divergent childhood sexual abuse histories and thus interventions should be developed to educate women with a history of childhood sexual abuse about ways to avoid revictimization, particularly within a context of poverty, prostitution, and drug use.

  6. A Systematic Review of Individual and Contextual Factors Affecting ART Initiation, Adherence, and Retention for HIV-Infected Pregnant and Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Ian; Plummer, Mary L.; Konopka, Sarah N.; Colvin, Christopher J.; Jonas, Edna; Albertini, Jennifer; Amzel, Anouk; Fogg, Karen P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite progress reducing maternal mortality, HIV-related maternal deaths remain high, accounting, for example, for up to 24 percent of all pregnancy-related deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is effective in improving outcomes among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women, yet rates of initiation, adherence, and retention remain low. This systematic literature review synthesized evidence about individual and contextual factors affecting ART use among HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women. Methods Searches were conducted for studies addressing the population (HIV-infected pregnant and postpartum women), intervention (ART), and outcomes of interest (initiation, adherence, and retention). Quantitative and qualitative studies published in English since January 2008 were included. Individual and contextual enablers and barriers to ART use were extracted and organized thematically within a framework of individual, interpersonal, community, and structural categories. Results Thirty-four studies were included in the review. Individual-level factors included both those within and outside a woman’s awareness and control (e.g., commitment to child’s health or age). Individual-level barriers included poor understanding of HIV, ART, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission, and difficulty managing practical demands of ART. At an interpersonal level, disclosure to a spouse and spousal involvement in treatment were associated with improved initiation, adherence, and retention. Fear of negative consequences was a barrier to disclosure. At a community level, stigma was a major barrier. Key structural barriers and enablers were related to health system use and engagement, including access to services and health worker attitudes. Conclusions To be successful, programs seeking to expand access to and continued use of ART by integrating maternal health and HIV services must identify and address the relevant barriers and enablers in

  7. Human Factors in Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara J.; Mount, Frances

    2005-01-01

    After forty years of experience with human space flight (Table 1), the current emphasis is on the design of space vehicles, habitats, and missions to ensure mission success. What lessons have we learned that will affect the design of spacecraft for future space exploration, leading up to exploring Mars? This chapter addresses this issue in four sections: Anthropometry and Biomechanics; Environmental Factors; Habitability and Architecture; and Crew Personal Sustenance. This introductory section introduces factors unique to space flight. A unique consideration for design of a habitable volume in a space vehicle is the lack of gravity during a space flight, referred to as microgravity. This affects all aspects of life, and drives special features in the habitat, equipment, tools, and procedures. The difference in gravity during a space mission requires designing for posture and motion differences. In Earth s gravity, or even with partial gravity, orientation is not a variable because the direction in which gravity acts defines up and down. In a microgravity environment the working position is arbitrary; there is no gravity cue. Orientation is defined primarily through visual cues. The orientation within a particular crew station or work area is referred to as local vertical, and should be consistent within a module to increase crew productivity. Equipment was intentionally arranged in various orientations in one module on Skylab to assess the efficiency in use of space versus the effects of inconsistent layout. The effects of that arrangement were confusion on entering the module, time spent in re-orientation, and conflicts in crew space requirements when multiple crew members were in the module. Design of a space vehicle is constrained by the three major mission drivers: mass, volume and power. Each of these factors drives the cost of a mission. Mass and volume determine the size of the launch vehicle directly; they can limit consumables such as air, water, and

  8. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors....

  9. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors....

  10. 14 CFR 460.15 - Human factors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Human factors. 460.15 Section 460.15 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING HUMAN SPACE FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS Launch and Reentry with Crew § 460.15 Human factors....

  11. Fuzzy-Contextual Contrast Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Parihar, Anil; Verma, Om; Khanna, Chintan

    2017-02-08

    This paper presents contrast enhancement algorithms based on fuzzy contextual information of the images. We introduce fuzzy similarity index and fuzzy contrast factor to capture the neighborhood characteristics of a pixel. A new histogram, using fuzzy contrast factor of each pixel is developed, and termed as the fuzzy dissimilarity histogram (FDH). A cumulative distribution function (CDF) is formed with normalized values of FDH and used as a transfer function to obtain the contrast enhanced image. The algorithm gives good contrast enhancement and preserves the natural characteristic of the image. In order to develop a contextual intensity transfer function, we introduce a fuzzy membership function based on fuzzy similarity index and coefficient of variation of the image. The contextual intensity transfer function is designed using the fuzzy membership function to achieve final contrast enhanced image. The overall algorithm is referred as the fuzzy contextual contrast-enhancement (FCCE) algorithm. The proposed algorithms are compared with conventional and state-of-art contrast enhancement algorithms. The quantitative and visual assessment of the results is performed. The results of quantitative measures are statistically analyzed using t-test. The exhaustive experimentation and analysis show the proposed algorithm efficiently enhances contrast and yields in natural visual quality images.

  12. HL-20 Vertical Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The HL-20 space taxi, Langley's candidate personnel launch system, is one of several designs being considered by NASA as a complement to the Space Shuttle. Human factors studies, using Langley volunteers as subjects, have been ongoing since March 1991 to verify crew seating arrangements, habitability, ingress and egress, equipment layout and maintenance and handling operations, and to determine visibility requirements during docking and landing operations. Langley volunteers, wearing flight suits and helmets, were put through a series of tests with the craft placed both vertically and horizontally to simulate launch and landing attitudes, The HL-20 would be launched into a low orbit by an expendable rocket and then use its own propulsion system to boost itself to the space station. Following exchange of crews or delivery of small payload, the HL-20 would return to Earth like the space shuttle, making a runway landing near the launch site, The full-scale engineering research model of the HL-20 design was constructed by students and faculty at North Carolina State University and North Carolina A&T State University with the Mars Mission Research Center under a grant from NASA Langley.

  13. Human factors in agile manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.

    1995-03-01

    As industries position themselves for the competitive markets of today, and the increasingly competitive global markets of the 21st century, agility, or the ability to rapidly develop and produce new products, represents a common trend. Agility manifests itself in many different forms, with the agile manufacturing paradigm proposed by the Iacocca Institute offering a generally accepted, long-term vision. In its many forms, common elements of agility or agile manufacturing include: changes in business, engineering and production practices, seamless information flow from design through production, integration of computer and information technologies into all facets of the product development and production process, application of communications technologies to enable collaborative work between geographically dispersed product development team members and introduction of flexible automation of production processes. Industry has rarely experienced as dramatic an infusion of new technologies or as extensive a change in culture and work practices. Human factors will not only play a vital role in accomplishing the technical and social objectives of agile manufacturing. but has an opportunity to participate in shaping the evolution of industry paradigms for the 21st century.

  14. [Mental Health in Children from Families Seeking Asylum in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 2007-2009 - Personal and Contextual Risk Factors].

    PubMed

    Reis, Olaf; Jung, Petra; Häßler, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Mental Health in Children from Families Seeking Asylum in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania 2007-2009 - Personal and Contextual Risk Factors The study presented describes severity and conditions of various psychiatric symptoms in children from families seeking refuge in Germany 2007-2009 and registered in the province of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Mothers of 58 children (aged 12 years on average, 23 girls, 33 boys) answered the items of the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991). First, the burden of disease among refugee children was compared to standard burdens of German children. Second, the extent of symptoms was predicted by person- and context-related factors. Internalizing symptoms were predicted by more proximal factors, such as parental burden of stress and parental education. Externalizing symptoms and social problems were rather predicted by the length of stay in Germany, the reason for migration, the school career and parental education. On one hand, the study underscores the immediate need for intervention among refugee parents and children. On the other hand, structural factors in the country of arrival (length of stay, schooling) play an important role.

  15. Human Factors Plan for Maritime Safety

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES IN THE MARITIME ENVIRONMENT .............. 13 2. 1 DEFINITION OF HUMAN FACTORS ISSUES ........................ 13 2.2 CONTENT...The dotted line around the human factors technical basis in Figure 1 signifies that it needs to be developed. Safety data Accidents ) Definition of...and activity surveys, but met with some resistance from the ship personnel, and so little quntitative data was available from this study. Subjective

  16. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul; Lavery, David

    1991-01-01

    The FY-90 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  17. NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John; Depaula, Ramon; Hunter, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Fiscal year 1989 descriptions of technical accomplishments in seven sections are presented: automation and robotics; communications; computer sciences; controls and guidance; data systems; human factors; and sensor technology.

  18. NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee B.; Mciver, Duncan E.; Dibattista, John D.; Larsen, Ronald L.; Montemerlo, Melvin D.; Wallgren, Ken; Sokoloski, Marty; Wasicko, Dick

    1985-01-01

    This report contains FY 1984/85 descriptions and accomplishments in six sections: Computer Science and Automation, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, Sensor Technology, and Communications.

  19. Human Factors in Aeronautics at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogford, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This is a briefing to a regularly meeting DoD group called the Human Systems Community of Interest: Mission Effectiveness. I was asked to address human factors in aeronautics at NASA. (Exploration (space) human factors has apparently already been covered.) The briefing describes human factors organizations at NASA Ames and Langley. It then summarizes some aeronautics tasks that involve the application of human factors in the development of specific tools and capabilities. The tasks covered include aircrew checklists, dispatch operations, Playbook, Dynamic Weather Routes, Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests, and Airplane State Awareness and Prediction Technologies. I mention that most of our aeronautics work involves human factors as embedded in development tasks rather than basic research.

  20. Exploring the interaction of personal and contextual factors during the induction period of science teachers and how this interaction shapes their enactment of science reform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saka, Yavuz

    The first years of teaching are demanding as the novice works to gain a degree of familiarity in her/his professional work. It is during this period that many teachers decide to leave the teaching profession or move away from the reform-minded beliefs and practices acquired during their teacher preparation programs. To understand what happens during induction requires a focus on both the cognitive and contextual issues related to science teaching. The goal of this qualitative, multi-case study was to describe the induction experiences of two reform-minded first year science teachers and the strategies they used to negotiate contradictions embedded the context of schooling. Using the frame of Cultural Historical Activity Theory, in this research I focused on changes in science teachers' personal and professional identities, self-efficacy and pedagogical discontentment, the manner in which these factors shaped science teaching practices, and beliefs and practices shaped and were shaped by the context of the novices' work. Data included a year of participant observations, surveys, open-ended questionnaires, interviews, classroom observations, and mediating artifacts such as lesson plans and assignments. Identities and dispositions of these teachers played significant role their attempts to become competent members of their school communities, attempts that influenced and were influenced by their teaching self-efficacy and pedagogical discontentment. Mild contradictions in the system allowed for the refinement of reform-minded science teaching practices, while extreme contradictions in the system served to change one teacher's goals and prevented his successful enactment of science education reform. Findings indicated that the successful enactment of reform-minded practice depends not just on contextual factors related to schools, or just on individual factors associated with science teaching. Instead, personal and contextual factors interact to shape a novice's first

  1. Exploring the Contextual Factors Related to Transfer of Learning in a High School Implementation of the eMINTS Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Lorie F.

    2011-01-01

    Truly impacting teacher practices is a challenge for educational professional development (PD) providers. Typically, little attention is paid to the factors within the environment to which the educators return and how those factors will impact participants' ability to integrate what they have learned into their teaching practices. Even for…

  2. Predicting Homophobic Behavior among Heterosexual Youth: Domain General and Sexual Orientation-Specific Factors at the Individual and Contextual Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteat, V. Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D.; Scheer, Jillian R.

    2013-01-01

    As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual…

  3. Predicting homophobic behavior among heterosexual youth: domain general and sexual orientation-specific factors at the individual and contextual level.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; DiGiovanni, Craig D; Scheer, Jillian R

    2013-03-01

    As a form of bias-based harassment, homophobic behavior remains prominent in schools. Yet, little attention has been given to factors that underlie it, aside from bullying and sexual prejudice. Thus, we examined multiple domain general (empathy, perspective-taking, classroom respect norms) and sexual orientation-specific factors (sexual orientation identity importance, number of sexual minority friends, parents' sexual minority attitudes, media messages). We documented support for a model in which these sets of factors converged to predict homophobic behavior, mediated through bullying and prejudice, among 581 students in grades 9-12 (55 % female). The structural equation model indicated that, with the exception of media messages, these additional factors predicted levels of prejudice and bullying, which in turn predicted the likelihood of students to engage in homophobic behavior. These findings highlight the importance of addressing multiple interrelated factors in efforts to reduce bullying, prejudice, and discrimination among youth.

  4. Human Modeling For Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Donald; Stambolian, Damon; Henderson, Gena; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over that last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft and launch vehicles. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the different types of human modeling used currently and in the past at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) currently, and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs.

  5. Human Modeling for Ground Processing Human Factors Engineering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stambolian, Damon B.; Lawrence, Brad A.; Stelges, Katrine S.; Steady, Marie-Jeanne O.; Ridgwell, Lora C.; Mills, Robert E.; Henderson, Gena; Tran, Donald; Barth, Tim

    2011-01-01

    There have been many advancements and accomplishments over the last few years using human modeling for human factors engineering analysis for design of spacecraft. The key methods used for this are motion capture and computer generated human models. The focus of this paper is to explain the human modeling currently used at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), and to explain the future plans for human modeling for future spacecraft designs

  6. Human Factors Research and Nuclear Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moray, Neville P., Ed.; Huey, Beverly M., Ed.

    The Panel on Human Factors Research Needs in Nuclear Regulatory Research was formed by the National Research Council in response to a request from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The NRC asked the research council to conduct an 18-month study of human factors research needs for the safe operation of nuclear power plants. This report…

  7. Human Factors Simulation in Construction Management Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-01-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management…

  8. Human Factors and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, Brian; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Novak, Jennifer; Rathjen, Thomas; Whitmore, Mihriban; Maida, James; Woolford, Barbara

    2001-01-01

    The purposes of this panel are to inform the human factors community regarding the challenges of designing the International Space Station (ISS) and to stimulate the broader human factors community into participating in the various basic and applied research opportunities associated with the ISS. This panel describes the variety of techniques used to plan and evaluate human factors for living and working in space. The panel members have contributed to many different aspects of the ISS design and operations. Architecture, equipment, and human physical performance requirements for various tasks have all been tailored to the requirements of operating in microgravity.

  9. Implementing human factors in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Timmons, Stephen; Baxendale, Bryn; Buttery, Andrew; Miles, Giulia; Roe, Bridget; Browes, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand whether aviation-derived human factors training is acceptable and useful to healthcare professionals. To understand whether and how healthcare professionals have been able to implement human factors approaches to patient safety in their own area of clinical practice. Methods Qualitative, longitudinal study using semi-structured interviews and focus groups, of a multiprofessional group of UK NHS staff (from the emergency department and operating theatres) who have received aviation-derived human factors training. Results The human factors training was evaluated positively, and thought to be both acceptable and relevant to practice. However, the staff found it harder to implement what they had learned in their own clinical areas, and this was principally attributed to features of the informal organisational cultures. Conclusions In order to successfully apply human factors approaches in hospital, careful consideration needs to be given to the local context and informal culture of clinical practice. PMID:24631959

  10. Human factors considerations for contraindication alerts.

    PubMed

    van der Sijs, Heleen; Baboe, Imtiaaz; Phansalkar, Shobha

    2013-01-01

    Alert fatigue is a ubiquitous problem in clinical decision support systems. Several remedies to alert fatigue have been proposed including improving the specificity of alerts and compliance with human factors principles. Human factors principles that are relevant for drug safety alerting have been identified and operationalized for drug-drug interactions (DDIs), resulting in a previously developed and validated quantitative instrument. Such an instrument is lacking for contraindications. This study describes the operationalization of human factors principles for contraindication alerting. Thirty items associated with 10 human factors principles are included in the instrument: 4 items are new, 5 are similar, and 21 are equal to the DDI-instrument. The instrument was further operationalized to a test protocol. Three independent persons used the test protocol. Inter-rater reliability indicated moderate agreement (κ=0.540) It is feasible to test the implementation of human factors in contraindication alert design with the newly developed instrument.

  11. Coding Human Factors Observations in Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Tara N; Wiegmann, Douglas A; Reeves, Scott T; Boquet, Albert J; Shappell, Scott A

    2016-10-25

    The reliability of the Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS) for classifying retrospective observational human factors data in the cardiovascular operating room is examined. Three trained analysts independently used HFACS to categorize observational human factors data collected at a teaching and nonteaching hospital system. Results revealed that the framework was substantially reliable overall (Study I: k = 0.635; Study II: k = 0.642). Reliability increased when only preconditions for unsafe acts were investigated (Study I: k =0.660; Study II: k = 0.726). Preconditions for unsafe acts were the most commonly identified issues, with HFACS categories being similarly populated across both hospitals. HFACS is a reliable tool for systematically categorizing observational data of human factors issues in the operating room. Findings have implications for the development of a HFACS tool for proactively collecting observational human factors data, eliminating the necessity for classification post hoc.

  12. Contextual factors in the appearance of consumer robots: exploratory assessment of perceived anxiety toward humanlike consumer robots.

    PubMed

    Oyedele, Adesegun; Hong, Soonkwan; Minor, Michael S

    2007-10-01

    The authors use the "uncanny valley theory" as a diagnostic lens to better understand consumers' perceptions of humanlike consumer robots in different contexts. The results demonstrate that individuals were indifferent about the extent of the humanness of robotic images in the context of touching the robots. However, respondents showed more concern for robotic images' similarity to humans in the contexts of communicating with robots, watching robots in a movie, and living in the same house with robots. One key contribution of the study includes the initial empirical foundation for understanding individual evaluation of the appearance of consumer robots in a variety of contexts.

  13. TNO Human Factors - The Netherlands

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    making in naval command and control. SCI-129 Symposium on ‘Critical Design Issues for the Human- Machine Interface ’, Prague, Czech Republic, 19-21...System Interaction (Environnements virtuels dinteraction Homme -Système Intuitive)., The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT 15...to develop and test new concepts of team organisation, human- system task integration and intelligent interfaces for efficient and effective command

  14. Space operations and the human factor.

    PubMed

    Brody, A R

    1993-10-01

    The effects of human error on aviation and space flight are discussed and the role of human factor engineering in aviation and aerospace safety is examined. Specific areas discussed are docking and extravehicular activity; quantification of human capacity for space station design; and measurement of habitability, workload, and task analysis.

  15. Spousal Violence in 5 Transitional Countries: A Population-Based Multilevel Analysis of Individual and Contextual Factors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. I examined the individual- and community-level factors associated with spousal violence in post-Soviet countries. Methods. I used population-based data from the Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2005 and 2012. My sample included currently married women of reproductive age (n = 3932 in Azerbaijan, n = 4053 in Moldova, n = 1932 in Ukraine, n = 4361 in Kyrgyzstan, and n = 4093 in Tajikistan). I selected respondents using stratified multistage cluster sampling. Because of the nested structure of the data, multilevel logistic regressions for survey data were fitted to examine factors associated with spousal violence in the last 12 months. Results. Partner’s problem drinking was the strongest risk factor associated with spousal violence in all 5 countries. In Moldova, Ukraine, and Kyrgyzstan, women with greater financial power than their spouses were more likely to experience violence. Effects of community economic deprivation and of empowerment status of women in the community on spousal violence differed across countries. Women living in communities with a high tolerance of violence faced a higher risk of spousal violence in Moldova and Ukraine. In more traditional countries (Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan), spousal violence was lower in conservative communities with patriarchal gender beliefs or higher financial dependency on husbands. Conclusions. My findings underscore the importance of examining individual risk factors in the context of community-level factors and developing individual- and community-level interventions. PMID:26378858

  16. Physical Education and School Contextual Factors Relating to Students' Achievement and Cross-Grade Differences in Aerobic Fitness and Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Weimo; Boiarskaia, Elena A.; Welk, Gregory J.; Meredith, Marilu D.

    2010-01-01

    Using two major data sets from the Texas Youth Fitness Study, ordinary least squares regression, and hierarchical linear modeling, we examined the impact of key correlates in school physical education programs and policies on students' fitness status and cross-grade differences. While a number of factors, such as teachers' training/updates, recess…

  17. Basic Research in Human Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-01

    in the fields of experimental psychology , bimeccanics, mathematical psychology , cognitive and information sciences, sociology, business...administration, organizational and industrial psychology , and engineering. Each of these experts serves on the ccmittee or its subgroup without reimbursement other...studies on macro models and has identified researh needed for the description and prediction of human performance. Its report, which will recammend

  18. Human factors for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, Arnauld E.

    1988-01-01

    The implications of human participation in Mars missions are reviewed. The psychological effects of long-term confinement, tension, and boredom are examined. The medical implications of travel to Mars, including the effects of low gravity and exposure to radiation, are discussed. The difficulty of providing sufficient consumables, such as air, food, and water, is considered.

  19. Human factors for Mars missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.

    A manned mission to Mars will challenge the human capacity to cope with extreme environments and solve new problems associated with them. Life support systems capable of preventing the accumulation of toxic chemicals will be necessary. Psychological issues may gain greater importance.

  20. Human factors in safety and business management.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Joachim; Leonhardt, Jorg; Koper, Birgit; Pennig, Stefan

    2010-02-01

    Human factors in safety is concerned with all those factors that influence people and their behaviour in safety-critical situations. In aviation these are, for example, environmental factors in the cockpit, organisational factors such as shift work, human characteristics such as ability and motivation of staff. Careful consideration of human factors is necessary to improve health and safety at work by optimising the interaction of humans with their technical and social (team, supervisor) work environment. This provides considerable benefits for business by increasing efficiency and by preventing incidents/accidents. The aim of this paper is to suggest management tools for this purpose. Management tools such as balanced scorecards (BSC) are widespread instruments and also well known in aviation organisations. Only a few aviation organisations utilise management tools for human factors although they are the most important conditions in the safety management systems of aviation organisations. One reason for this is that human factors are difficult to measure and therefore also difficult to manage. Studies in other domains, such as workplace health promotion, indicate that BSC-based tools are useful for human factor management. Their mission is to develop a set of indicators that are sensitive to organisational performance and help identify driving forces as well as bottlenecks. Another tool presented in this paper is the Human Resources Performance Model (HPM). HPM facilitates the integrative assessment of human factors programmes on the basis of a systematic performance analysis of the whole system. Cause-effect relationships between system elements are defined in process models in a first step and validated empirically in a second step. Thus, a specific representation of the performance processes is developed, which ranges from individual behaviour to system performance. HPM is more analytic than BSC-based tools because HPM also asks why a certain factor is

  1. Developmental and contextual factors in the role of severe childhood trauma in geriatric depression: the sample case of former indentured child laborers.

    PubMed

    Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Maercker, Andreas; Bachem, Rahel; Simmen, Keti; Burri, Andrea

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the association between childhood traumatic experiences and geriatric depression (GDS) in a population of elderly who were exposed to severe childhood trauma. We aimed to identify the role of childhood maltreatment exposure in geriatric depression and the developmental and contextual factors that exacerbate this relationship. We interviewed 141 former indentured child laborers (58 females) about their experiences as children and their current depressive symptoms (Mage=77, SD=6.8). Participants provided their age, the year they were first indentured, duration indentured, current physical health, completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Child maltreatment, specifically emotional abuse, was strongly associated with geriatric depression symptoms. These effects were specific to individuals who were removed from their biological families between the ages of 3 and 9 years, and for children who were indentured for 6-12 years. Finally, depression partially mediated the association between medical conditions and daily health impairment, but not for individuals "at risk" for depression by virtue of their maltreatment experiences. This study was conducted with a specific subpopulation of elderly and therefore may not generalize to all geriatric depression, nor to all generations or populations with exposure to childhood adversity. This study demonstrates the importance of using a developmental framework to understand how childhood maltreatment facilitates increased risk for the development of depression in late life.

  2. Associations of contextual risk and protective factors with fathers’ parenting practices in the post-deployment environment

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Laurel; Hanson, Sheila K.; Zamir, Osnat; Gewirtz, Abigail H.; DeGarmo, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Deployment separation and reunifications are salient contexts that directly impact effective family functioning and parenting for military fathers. Yet, we know very little about determinants of post-deployed father involvement and effective parenting. The present study examined hypothesized risk and protective factors of observed parenting for 282 post-deployed fathers who served in the Army National Guard/Reserves. Pre-intervention data were employed from fathers participating in the After Deployment, Adaptive Parenting Tools (ADAPT) randomized control trial. Parenting practices were obtained from direct observation of father-child interaction and included measures of problem solving, harsh discipline, positive involvement, encouragement, and monitoring. Risk factors included combat exposure, negative life events, months deployed, and PTSD symptoms. Protective factors included education, income, dyadic adjustment, and social support. Results of a structural equation model predicting an effective parenting construct indicated that months deployed, income, and father age were most related to observed parenting, explaining 16% of the variance. We are aware of no other study utilizing direct parent-child observations of father’s parenting skills following overseas deployment. Implications for practice and preventive intervention are discussed. PMID:26213794

  3. Human Factors Directions for Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Sandra G.

    2002-01-01

    Despite considerable progress in understanding human capabilities and limitations, incorporating human factors into aircraft design, operation, and certification, and the emergence of new technologies designed to reduce workload and enhance human performance in the system, most aviation accidents still involve human errors. Such errors occur as a direct or indirect result of untimely, inappropriate, or erroneous actions (or inactions) by apparently well-trained and experienced pilots, controllers, and maintainers. The field of human factors has solved many of the more tractable problems related to simple ergonomics, cockpit layout, symbology, and so on. We have learned much about the relationships between people and machines, but know less about how to form successful partnerships between humans and the information technologies that are beginning to play a central role in aviation. Significant changes envisioned in the structure of the airspace, pilots and controllers' roles and responsibilities, and air/ground technologies will require a similarly significant investment in human factors during the next few decades to ensure the effective integration of pilots, controllers, dispatchers, and maintainers into the new system. Many of the topics that will be addressed are not new because progress in crucial areas, such as eliminating human error, has been slow. A multidisciplinary approach that capitalizes upon human studies and new classes of information, computational models, intelligent analytical tools, and close collaborations with organizations that build, operate, and regulate aviation technology will ensure that the field of human factors meets the challenge.

  4. Fundamentals of systems ergonomics/human factors.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John R

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomics/human factors is, above anything else, a systems discipline and profession, applying a systems philosophy and systems approaches. Many things are labelled as system in today's world, and this paper specifies just what attributes and notions define ergonomics/human factors in systems terms. These are obviously a systems focus, but also concern for context, acknowledgement of interactions and complexity, a holistic approach, recognition of emergence and embedding of the professional effort involved within organization system. These six notions are illustrated with examples from a large body of work on rail human factors.

  5. Human factors challenges for advanced process control

    SciTech Connect

    Stubler, W.F.; O`Hara, J..M.

    1996-08-01

    New human-system interface technologies provide opportunities for improving operator and plant performance. However, if these technologies are not properly implemented, they may introduce new challenges to performance and safety. This paper reports the results from a survey of human factors considerations that arise in the implementation of advanced human-system interface technologies in process control and other complex systems. General trends were identified for several areas based on a review of technical literature and a combination of interviews and site visits with process control organizations. Human factors considerations are discussed for two of these areas, automation and controls.

  6. Competing definitions of contextual environments

    PubMed Central

    Tatalovich, Zaria; Wilson, John P; Milam, Joel E; Jerrett, Michael; McConnell, Rob

    2006-01-01

    Background The growing interest in the effects of contextual environments on health outcomes has focused attention on the strengths and weaknesses of alternate contextual unit definitions for use in multilevel analysis. The present research examined three methods to define contextual units for a sample of children already enrolled in a respiratory health study. The Inclusive Equal Weights Method (M1) and Inclusive Sample Weighted Method (M2) defined communities using the boundaries of the census blocks that incorporated the residences of the CHS participants, except that the former estimated socio-demographic variables by averaging the census block data within each community, while the latter used weighted proportion of CHS participants per block. The Minimum Bounding Rectangle Method (M3) generated minimum bounding rectangles that included 95% of the CHS participants and produced estimates of census variables using the weighted proportion of each block within these rectangles. GIS was used to map the locations of study participants, define the boundaries of the communities where study participants reside, and compute estimates of socio-demographic variables. The sensitivity of census variable estimates to the choice of community boundaries and weights was assessed using standard tests of significance. Results The estimates of contextual variables vary significantly depending on the choice of neighborhood boundaries and weights. The choice of boundaries therefore shapes the community profile and the relationships between its components (variables). Conclusion Multilevel analysis concerned with the effects of contextual environments on health requires careful consideration of what constitutes a contextual unit for a given study sample, because the alternate definitions may have differential impact on the results. The three alternative methods used in this research all carry some subjectivity, which is embedded in the decision as to what constitutes the boundaries of

  7. Microgravity human factors workstation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Wilmington, Robert P.; Morris, Randy B.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1992-01-01

    Microgravity evaluations of workstation hardware as well as its system components were found to be very useful for determining the expected needs of the Space Station crew and for refining overall workstation design. Research at the Johnson Space Center has been carried out to provide optimal workstation design and human interface. The research included evaluations of hand controller configurations for robots and free flyers, the identification of cursor control device requirements, and the examination of anthropometric issues of workstation design such as reach, viewing distance, and head clearance.

  8. NASA information sciences and human factors program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee; Hood, Ray; Montemerlo, Melvin; Sokoloski, Martin; Jenkins, James; Smith, Paul; Dibattista, John

    1989-01-01

    The FY 1988 descriptions of technical accomplishments is presented in seven sections: Automation and Robotics, Communications Systems, Computer Sciences, Controls and Guidance, Data Systems, Human Factors, and Sensor Technology.

  9. NASA Information Sciences and Human Factors Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee (Editor); Hood, Ray (Editor); Montemerlo, Melvin (Editor); Sokoloski, Martin M. (Editor); Jenkins, James P. (Editor); Smith, Paul H. (Editor); Dibattista, John D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The FY 1987 descriptions of technical accomplishments are contained for seven areas: automation and robotics, communications systems, computer sciences, controls and guidance, data systems, human factors, and sensor technology.

  10. Human factors issues for interstellar spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Marc M.; Brody, Adam R.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in research on space human factors are reviewed in the context of a self-sustaining interstellar spacecraft based on the notion of traveling space settlements. Assumptions about interstellar travel are set forth addressing costs, mission durations, and the need for multigenerational space colonies. The model of human motivation by Maslow (1970) is examined and directly related to the design of space habitat architecture. Human-factors technology issues encompass the human-machine interface, crew selection and training, and the development of spaceship infrastructure during transtellar flight. A scenario for feasible instellar travel is based on a speed of 0.5c, a timeframe of about 100 yr, and an expandable multigenerational crew of about 100 members. Crew training is identified as a critical human-factors issue requiring the development of perceptual and cognitive aids such as expert systems and virtual reality.

  11. Individual and contextual factors influencing patient attrition from antiretroviral therapy care in an urban community of Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Musheke, Maurice; Bond, Virginia; Merten, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Despite the relatively effective roll-out of free life-prolonging antiretroviral therapy (ART) in public sector clinics in Zambia since 2005, and the proven efficacy of ART, some people living with HIV (PLHIV) are abandoning the treatment. Drawing on a wider ethnographic study in a predominantly low-income, high-density residential area of Lusaka, this paper reports the reasons why PLHIV opted to discontinue their HIV treatment. Methods Opened-ended, in-depth interviews were held with PLHIV who had stopped ART (n = 25), ART clinic staff (n = 5), religious leaders (n = 5), herbal medicine providers (n = 5) and lay home-based caregivers (n = 5). In addition, participant observations were conducted in the study setting for 18 months. Interview data were analysed using open coding first, and then interpreted using latent content analysis. The presentation of the results is guided by a social-ecological framework. Findings Patient attrition from ART care is influenced by an interplay of personal, social, health system and structural-level factors. While improved corporeal health, side effects and need for normalcy diminished motivation to continue with treatment, individuals also weighed the social and economic costs of continued uptake of treatment. Long waiting times for medical care and placing “defaulters” on intensive adherence counselling in the context of insecure labour conditions and livelihood constraints not only imposed opportunity costs which patients were not willing to forego, but also forced individuals to balance physical health with social integrity, which sometimes forced them to opt for faith healing and traditional medicine. Conclusions Complex and dynamic interplay of personal, social, health system and structural-level factors coalesces to influence patient attrition from ART care. Consequently, while patient-centred interventions are required, efforts should be made to improve ART care by extending and establishing flexible ART

  12. Human factors simulation in construction management education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeger, M.; Adair, D.

    2010-06-01

    Successful construction management depends primarily on the representatives of the involved construction project parties. In addition to effective application of construction management tools and concepts, human factors impact significantly on the processes of any construction management endeavour. How can human factors in construction management be taught effectively? Although simulations are applied in construction management education, they have not incorporated human factors sufficiently. The focus on human factors as part of the simulation of construction management situations increases students' learning effectiveness within a cross-cultural teaching setting. This paper shows the development of discrete-event human factors in construction management simulation. A description of the source code is given. Learning effectiveness in a cross-cultural education setting was analysed by evaluating data obtained through student questionnaire surveys. The mean score obtained by the students using the simulator was 32% better than those not exposed to the simulator. The spread of results was noticeably greater for the students not exposed to the simulator. The human factors simulation provides an effective means to teach students the complexities and dynamics of interpersonal relationships in construction management.

  13. Space Human Factors: Research to Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Human Factors has been instrumental in preventing potential on-orbit hazards and increasing overall crew safety. Poor performance & operational learning curves on-orbit are mitigated. Human-centered design is applied to optimize design and minimize potentially hazardous conditions, especially with larger crew sizes and habitat constraints. Lunar and Mars requirements and design developments are enhanced, based on ISS Lessons Learned.

  14. The association between contextual socioeconomic factors and prevalent asthma in a cohort of southern California school children

    PubMed Central

    Shankardass, Ketan; McConnell, Rob S; Milam, Joel; Berhane, Kiros; Tatalovich, Zaria; Wilson, John P; Jerrett, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Spatial variation in childhood asthma and a recent increase in prevalence indicate that environmental factors play a significant role in the etiology of this important disease. Socioeconomic position (SEP) has been associated inversely and positively with childhood asthma. These contradictory results indicate a need for systematic research about SEP and asthma. Pathways have been suggested for effects of SEP on asthma at both the individual and community level. We examined the relationship of prevalent asthma to community-level indicators of SEP among 5762 children in 12 Southern California, using a multilevel random effects model. Estimates of community-level SEP were derived by summarizing census block group-level data using a novel method of weighting by the proportion of the block groups included in a community-specific bounding rectangle that contained 95% of local study subjects. Community characteristics included measures of male unemployment, household income, low education (i.e. no high school diploma), and poverty. There was a consistent inverse association between male unemployment and asthma across the inter-quartile range of community unemployment rates, indicating that asthma rates increase as community SEP increases. The results were robust to individual-level confounding, methods for summarizing census block group data to the community level, scale of analysis (i.e. community-level vs. neighborhood-level) and the modeling algorithm. The positive association between SEP and prevalent childhood asthma might be explained by differential access to medical care that remains unmeasured, by the hygiene hypothesis (e.g. lower SES may associate with higher protective exposures to endotoxin in early life), or by SEP acting as a proxy for unmeasured neighborhood characteristics. PMID:17658674

  15. A Community-Based Oral Health Intervention in Navajo Nation Head Start: Participation Factors and Contextual Challenges.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Lucinda L; Quissell, David O; Braun, Patricia A; Henderson, William G; Johs, Nikolas; George, Carmen; Smith, Vong; Toledo, Nikola; Thomas, Jacob; Albino, Judith E

    2016-04-01

    Successful interventions require consistent participation by intended recipients. We utilized mixed methods to describe participation of 518 parent-child dyads enrolled in a randomized cluster trial of a 2-year oral health intervention for Head Start (HS) families across Navajo Nation delivered by native Community Oral Health Specialists (COHS). We quantitatively assessed factors that contributed to participation and qualitatively examined barriers and strategies. The intervention offered fluoride varnish (FV) and oral health promotion (OHP) activities for two cohorts (enrolled in 2011, N = 286, or 2012, N = 232) of children in the HS classrooms and OHP for parents outside the classroom. Child participation was good: FV: 79.7 (Cohort 1) and 85.3 % (Cohort 2) received at least 3 of 4 applications; OHP: 74.5 (Cohort 1) and 78.4 % (Cohort 2) attended at least 3 of 5 events. Parent participation was low: 10.5 (Cohort 1) and 29.8 % (Cohort 2) attended at least three of four events. Analysis of survey data found significant effects on parent participation from fewer people in the household, Cohort 2 membership, greater external-locus of control, and a greater perception that barriers existed to following recommended oral health behaviors. Qualitative analysis of reports from native field staff, COHS, community members, and the research team identified barriers (e.g., geographic expanse, constraints of a research trial) and suggested strategies to improve parent participation (e.g., improve communication between COHS and parents/community). Many challenges to participation exist when conducting interventions in rural areas with underserved populations. Working with community partners to inform the development and delivery of interventions is critical.

  16. Contextual factors and weight change over time: a comparison between U.S. Hispanics and other population sub-groups.

    PubMed

    Ullmann, S Heidi; Goldman, Noreen; Pebley, Anne R

    2013-08-01

    In recent decades there has been an increasing interest in understanding the role of social and physical contexts in influencing health behaviors and outcomes. This is especially true for weight, which is considered to be highly dependent on environmental factors. The evidence linking neighborhood characteristics to weight in the United States, however, is mixed. Many studies in this area are hampered by cross sectional designs and a limited scope, insofar as they investigate only one dimension of neighborhood context. It is also unclear to what extent neighborhood characteristics account for racial/ethnic disparities in weight. Using longitudinal data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS), we compare patterns of weight change between Hispanics and other racial and ethnic groups in order to evaluate whether we observe a pattern of unhealthy assimilation in weight among Hispanic immigrants and to identify differences in the rate at which different groups gain weight over time. We also explore the extent to which patterns of weight change are related to a wider range of community characteristics. We find that weight increases across all groups between the two study waves of L.A. FANS and that the increases are significant except for Asians/Pacific Islanders. With respect to differences in the pace of weight change, second and higher generation Hispanic women and black men gain weight more rapidly than their first generation Hispanic counterparts. Although the evidence presented indicates that first generation Hispanics gain weight, we do not find evidence for convergence in weight since the U.S.-born gain weight at a more rapid rate. The inclusion of community-level variables does not alter the relationships between the race, ethnicity, and immigrant generation categories and weight change. Of the six types of community characteristics considered, only collective efficacy is consistently and significantly associated with weight change

  17. Contextuality of identical particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzyński, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    There exist quantum phenomena that cannot be explained by noncontextual hidden-variable theories, yet the majority of them requires measurements that are performed on a single quantum system at a time. This fact constrains the phenomenon of contextuality to the microscopic domain. It is therefore natural to ask if quantum contextuality can be observed in measurements on collections of particles. Since particles in nature are identical, one can expect that such contextuality would be linked to bosonic and fermionic properties. Analysis of quantum contextuality in such scenarios would broaden our understanding of nonclassical effects in composite systems and perhaps would give us a hint on how to observe quantum phenomena in the macroscopic world. In this work I propose a generalization of quantum contextuality to the case of many identical particles. I show that a type of contextuality exhibited by a collection of particles (state dependent, state independent, or noncontextual) depends on their type and their number. I also discuss further properties of this generalization and identify major open questions.

  18. Human factors and safety in emergency medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. G.; Helmreich, R. L.; Scheidegger, D.

    1994-01-01

    A model based on an input process and outcome conceptualisation is suggested to address safety-relevant factors in emergency medicine. As shown in other dynamic and demanding environments, human factors play a decisive role in attaining high quality service. Attitudes held by health-care providers, organisational shells and work-cultural parameters determine communication, conflict resolution and workload distribution within and between teams. These factors should be taken into account to improve outcomes such as operational integrity, job satisfaction and morale.

  19. Human factors and operating room safety.

    PubMed

    ElBardissi, Andrew W; Sundt, Thoralf M

    2012-02-01

    A human factors model is used to highlight the nature of many systems factors that affect surgical performance, including the OR environment, teamwork and communication, technology and equipment, tasks and workload factors, and organizational variables. If further improvements in the success rate and reliability of cardiac surgery are to be realized, interventions need to be developed to reduce the negative impact that work system failures can have on surgical performance. Some recommendations are proposed here; however, several challenges remain.

  20. Assessment of variation in the alberta context tool: the contribution of unit level contextual factors and specialty in Canadian pediatric acute care settings

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    specialty to between-unit variation enabled us to explain more variance (1.19% to 16.73%) in 6 of the 10 ACT concepts. Finally, when we assessed the unique contribution of the unit level variables available to us, we were able to explain additional variance (15.91% to 73.25%) in 7 of the 10 ACT concepts. Conclusion The findings reported here represent the third published argument for validity of the ACT and adds to the evidence supporting its use to discriminate patient care units by all 10 contextual factors. We found evidence of relationships between a variety of individual and unit-level variables that explained much of this between-unit variation for each of the 10 ACT concepts. Future research will include examination of the relationships between the ACT's contextual factors and research utilization by nurses and ultimately the relationships between context, research utilization, and outcomes for patients. PMID:21970404

  1. The motion commotion: Human factors in transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millar, A. E., Jr. (Editor); Rosen, R. L. (Editor); Gibson, J. D. (Editor); Crum, R. G. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    The program for a systems approach to the problem of incorporating human factors in designing transportation systems is summarized. The importance of the human side of transportation is discussed along with the three major factors related to maintaining a mobile and quality life. These factors are (1) people, as individuals and groups, (2) society as a whole, and (3) the natural environment and man-made environs. The problems and bottlenecks are presented along with approaches to their solutions through systems analysis. Specific recommendations essential to achieving improved mobility within environmental constraints are presented.

  2. Long-term expression of human contextual fear and extinction memories involves amygdala, hippocampus and ventromedial prefrontal cortex: a reinstatement study in two independent samples.

    PubMed

    Lonsdorf, Tina B; Haaker, Jan; Kalisch, Raffael

    2014-12-01

    Human context conditioning studies have focused on acquisition and extinction. Subsequent long-term changes in fear behaviors not only depend on associative learning processes during those phases but also on memory consolidation processes and the later ability to retrieve and express fear and extinction memories. Clinical theories explain relapse after successful exposure-based treatment with return of fear memories and remission with stable extinction memory expression. We probed contextual fear and extinction memories 1 week (Day8) after conditioning (Day1) and subsequent extinction (Day2) by presenting conditioned contexts before (Test1) and after (Test2) a reinstatement manipulation. We find consistent activation patterns in two independent samples: activation of a subgenual part of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex before reinstatement (Test1) and (albeit with different temporal profiles between samples) of the amygdala after reinstatement (Test2) as well as up-regulation of anterior hippocampus activity after reinstatement (Test2 > Test1). These areas have earlier been implicated in the expression of cued extinction and fear memories. The present results suggest a general role for these structures in defining the balance between fear and extinction memories, independent of the conditioning mode. The results are discussed in the light of hypotheses implicating the anterior hippocampus in the processing of situational ambiguity.

  3. The Resistance of Renewal to Instructions that Devalue the Role of Contextual Cues in a Conditioned Suppression Task with Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumann, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The renewal of extinguished conditioned behaviour appears to reflect context-dependent learning. The present research used a conditioned suppression task with humans to examine whether instructions concerning the context could influence renewal. Pairings of a conditional stimulus (CS) and unconditional stimulus (US) were made in one context,…

  4. Surgical Never Events and Contributing Human Factors

    PubMed Central

    Thiels, Cornelius A.; Lal, Tarun Mohan; Nienow, Joseph M.; Pasupathy, Kalyan S.; Blocker, Renaldo C.; Aho, Johnathon M.; Morgenthaler, Timothy I.; Cima, Robert R.; Hallbeck, Susan; Bingener, Juliane

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We report the first prospective analysis of human factors elements contributing to invasive procedural never events using a validated Human Factors Analysis and Classification System (HFACS). Methods From 8/2009 - 8/2014 surgical and invasive procedural “Never Events” (retained foreign object, wrong site/side procedure, wrong implant, wrong procedure) underwent systematic causation analysis promptly after the event. Contributing human factors were categorized using Reason's 4 levels of error causation and 161 HFACS subcategories (nano-codes). Results During the study approximately 1.5 million procedures were performed and 69 never events were identified. A total of 628 contributing human factors nano-codes were identified. Action-based errors (n=260) and preconditions to actions (n=296) accounted for the majority of the nano-codes across all four types of events, with individual cognitive factors contributing half of the nano-codes. The most common action nano-codes were confirmation bias (n=36) and failed to understand (n=36). The most common pre-condition nano-codes were channeled attention on a single issue (n=33) and inadequate communication (n=30). Conclusion Targeting quality and system improvement interventions addressing cognitive factors and team resource management as well as perceptual biases may reduce errors and further improve patient safety. These results delineate targets to further reduce never events from our healthcare system. PMID:26032826

  5. Contextual learning and context effects during infancy: 30 years of controversial research revisited.

    PubMed

    Revillo, D A; Cotella, E; Paglini, M G; Arias, C

    2015-09-01

    Over the last 30years a considerable number of reports have explored learning about context during infancy in both humans and rats. This research was stimulated by two different theoretical frameworks. The first, known as the neuromaturational model, postulates that learning and behavior are context-independent during early ontogeny, a hypothesis based on the idea that contextual learning is dependent on the hippocampal function, and that this brain structure does not reach full maturity until late in infancy. The second theoretical framework views infants not as immature organisms, but rather as perfectly matured ones, given that their behavioral and cognitive capacities allow them to adapt appropriately to the demands of their specific environment in accordance with their maturational level. This model predicts significant ontogenetic variations in learning and memory due to developmental differences in what is perceived and attended to during learning episodes, which can result in ontogenetic differences in contextual learning depending on the specific demands of the task. The present manuscript reviews those studies that have examined potential developmental differences in contextual learning and context effects in rats. The reviewed results show that, during infancy, context can exert a similar influence over learning and memory as that described for the adult rat. Moreover, in some cases, contextual learning and context effects were greater in infants than in adults. In contrast, under other experimental conditions, no evidence of contextual learning or context effects was observed. We analyzed the procedural factors of these studies with the aim of detecting those that favor or impede contextual learning during infancy, and we discussed whether existing empirical evidence supports the claim that the functionality of the hippocampus is a limiting factor for this type of learning during infancy. Finally, conclusions from human research into contextual learning

  6. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences

    PubMed Central

    Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Background Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers. Methods Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013–February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops. Results Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma) represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers. Conclusions Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization

  7. Dissemination Strategies to Improve Implementation of the PHS Smoking Cessation Guideline in MCH Public Health Clinics: Experimental Evaluation Results and Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manfredi, Clara; Cho, Young Ik; Warnecke, Richard; Saunders, Stephen; Sullivan, Myrtis

    2011-01-01

    We report results from an experimental study that tested the effectiveness of dissemination interventions to improve implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in maternal and child public health clinics. We additionally examine individual clinic results for contextual explanations not apparent from the experimental findings alone. Twelve…

  8. Cumulative knowledge and progress in human factors.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Robert W; Vu, Kim-Phuong L

    2010-01-01

    This review provides a cumulative perspective on current human factors research by first briefly acknowledging previous Annual Review articles. We show that several recent conceptual advances are an outgrowth of the information-processing approach adopted by the field and present several areas of current research that are built directly on prior work. Topic areas that provide fundamental tools for human factors analyses are summarized, and several current application areas are reviewed. We end by considering alternatives to the information-processing approach that have been proposed and placing those alternatives in context. We argue that the information-processing language provides the foundation that has enabled much of the growth in human factors. This growth reflects a cumulative development of concepts and methods that continues today.

  9. Toxicity profiling of water contextual zinc oxide, silver, and titanium dioxide nanoparticles in human oral and gastrointestinal cell systems.

    PubMed

    Giovanni, Marcella; Tay, Chor Yong; Setyawati, Magdiel Inggrid; Xie, Jianping; Ong, Choon Nam; Fan, Rongli; Yue, Junqi; Zhang, Lifeng; Leong, David Tai

    2015-12-01

    Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly detected in water supply due to environmental release of ENPs as the by-products contained within the effluent of domestic and industrial run-off. The partial recycling of water laden with ENPs, albeit at ultra-low concentrations, may pose an uncharacterized threat to human health. In this study, we investigated the toxicity of three prevalent ENPs: zinc oxide, silver, and titanium dioxide over a wide range of concentrations that encompasses drinking water-relevant concentrations, to cellular systems representing oral and gastrointestinal tissues. Based on published in silico-predicted water-relevant ENPs concentration range from 100 pg/L to 100 µg/L, we detected no cytotoxicity to all the cellular systems. Significant cytotoxicity due to the NPs set in around 100 mg/L with decreasing extent of toxicity from zinc oxide to silver to titanium dioxide NPs. We also found that noncytotoxic zinc oxide NPs level of 10 mg/L could elevate the intracellular oxidative stress. The threshold concentrations of NPs that induced cytotoxic effect are at least two to five orders of magnitude higher than the permissible concentrations of the respective metals and metal oxides in drinking water. Based on these findings, the current estimated levels of NPs in potable water pose little cytotoxic threat to the human oral and gastrointestinal systems within our experimental boundaries.

  10. HUMAN FACTORS GUIDANCE FOR CONTROL ROOM EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect

    OHARA,J.; BROWN,W.; STUBLER,W.; HIGGINS,J.; WACHTEL,J.; PERSENSKY,J.J.

    2000-07-30

    The Human-System Interface Design Review Guideline (NUREG-0700, Revision 1) was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to provide human factors guidance as a basis for the review of advanced human-system interface technologies. The guidance consists of three components: design review procedures, human factors engineering guidelines, and a software application to provide design review support called the ``Design Review Guideline.'' Since it was published in June 1996, Rev. 1 to NUREG-0700 has been used successfully by NRC staff, contractors and nuclear industry organizations, as well as by interested organizations outside the nuclear industry. The NRC has committed to the periodic update and improvement of the guidance to ensure that it remains a state-of-the-art design evaluation tool in the face of emerging and rapidly changing technology. This paper addresses the current research to update of NUREG-0700 based on the substantial work that has taken place since the publication of Revision 1.

  11. Human factors of the high technology cockpit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L.

    1990-01-01

    The rapid advance of cockpit automation in the last decade has outstripped the ability of the human factors profession to understand the changes in human functions required. High technology cockpits require less physical (observable) workload, but are highly demanding of cognitive functions such as planning, alternative selection, and monitoring. Furthermore, automation creates opportunity for new and more serious forms of human error, and many pilots are concerned about the possibility of complacency affecting their performance. On the positive side, the equipment works as advertized with high reliability, offering highly efficient, computer-based flight. These findings from the cockpit studies probably apply equally to other industries, such as nuclear power production, other modes of transportation, medicine, and manufacturing, all of which traditionally have looked to aviation for technological leadership. The challenge to the human factors profession is to aid designers, operators, and training departments in exploiting the positive side of automation, while seeking solutions to the negative side. Viewgraphs are given.

  12. Human Factors Engineering Guidelines for Overhead Cranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandler, Faith; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This guideline provides standards for overhead crane cabs that can be applied to the design and modification of crane cabs to reduce the potential for human error due to design. This guideline serves as an aid during the development of a specification for purchases of cranes or for an engineering support request for crane design modification. It aids human factors engineers in evaluating existing cranes during accident investigations or safety reviews.

  13. Information sciences and human factors overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holcomb, Lee B.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of program objectives of the Information Sciences and Human Factors Division of NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology is given in viewgraph form. Information is given on the organizational structure, goals, the research and technology base, telerobotics, systems autonomy in space operations, space sensors, humans in space, space communications, space data systems, transportation vehicle guidance and control, spacecraft control, and major program directions in space.

  14. Human Factors Interface with Systems Engineering for NASA Human Spaceflights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Douglas T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes the past and present successes of the Habitability and Human Factors Branch (HHFB) at NASA Johnson Space Center s Space Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) in including the Human-As-A-System (HAAS) model in many NASA programs and what steps to be taken to integrate the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into NASA s Systems Engineering (SE) process. The HAAS model stresses systems are ultimately designed for the humans; the humans should therefore be considered as a system within the systems. Therefore, the model places strong emphasis on human factors engineering. Since 1987, the HHFB has been engaging with many major NASA programs with much success. The HHFB helped create the NASA Standard 3000 (a human factors engineering practice guide) and the Human Systems Integration Requirements document. These efforts resulted in the HAAS model being included in many NASA programs. As an example, the HAAS model has been successfully introduced into the programmatic and systems engineering structures of the International Space Station Program (ISSP). Success in the ISSP caused other NASA programs to recognize the importance of the HAAS concept. Also due to this success, the HHFB helped update NASA s Systems Engineering Handbook in December 2007 to include HAAS as a recommended practice. Nonetheless, the HAAS model has yet to become an integral part of the NASA SE process. Besides continuing in integrating HAAS into current and future NASA programs, the HHFB will investigate incorporating the Human-Centered Design Philosophy (HCDP) into the NASA SE Handbook. The HCDP goes further than the HAAS model by emphasizing a holistic and iterative human-centered systems design concept.

  15. Annotated bibliography of human factors applications literature

    SciTech Connect

    McCafferty, D.B.

    1984-09-30

    This bibliography was prepared as part of the Human Factors Technology Project, FY 1984, sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Safety, US Department of Energy. The project was conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, with Essex Corporation as a subcontractor. The material presented here is a revision and expansion of the bibliographic material developed in FY 1982 as part of a previous Human Factors Technology Project. The previous bibliography was published September 30, 1982, as Attachment 1 to the FY 1982 Project Status Report.

  16. Human factors considerations for unattended ground sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Robert A.

    2009-05-01

    Even with traditional system design and development programs military systems are developed that end up being difficult for the target audience to use. Over the years the military has learned to incorporate human factors considerations and requirements in system requirements documents in order to minimize this problem. However in today's environment of procuring GOTS/COTS equipment to quickly field a needed capability, the human factors aspects are not always considered or they may have to be traded for other considerations. This occurs for a variety of reasons with the driving reason being the willingness of commanders and agencies to trade capabilities for speed of fielding. This paper addresses human factors considerations that should be observed in the design of unattended ground sensors (UGS) at the component, equipment and system levels. This is not an abstract paper on human factors engineering but an examination of current trends and applications. Lessons learned from recent fieldings and example designs from the Harris Falcon Watch system are provided. What Harris has found is that design considerations, development schedules, understanding of the target audience and the mission scenarios, and training are all key factors in determining whether a system will be found to have utility by a broad spectrum of users.

  17. Human Research Program: Space Human Factors and Habitability Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Dane M.

    2007-01-01

    The three project areas of the Space Human Factors and Habitability Element work together to achieve a working and living environment that will keep crews healthy, safe, and productive throughout all missions -- from Earth orbit to Mars expeditions. The Advanced Environmental Health (AEH) Project develops and evaluates advanced habitability systems and establishes requirements and health standards for exploration missions. The Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project s goal is to ensure a safe and productive environment for humans in space. With missions using new technologies at an ever-increasing rate, it is imperative that these advances enhance crew performance without increasing stress or risk. The ultimate goal of Advanced Food Technology (AFT) Project is to develop and deliver technologies for human centered spacecraft that will support crews on missions to the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  18. Nonlocality from Local Contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bi-Heng; Hu, Xiao-Min; Chen, Jiang-Shan; Huang, Yun-Feng; Han, Yong-Jian; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Cabello, Adán

    2016-11-01

    We experimentally show that nonlocality can be produced from single-particle contextuality by using two-particle correlations which do not violate any Bell inequality by themselves. This demonstrates that nonlocality can come from an a priori different simpler phenomenon, and connects contextuality and nonlocality, the two critical resources for, respectively, quantum computation and secure communication. From the perspective of quantum information, our experiment constitutes a proof of principle that quantum systems can be used simultaneously for both quantum computation and secure communication.

  19. The human factors of workstation telepresence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Thomas J.; Smith, Karl U.

    1990-01-01

    The term workstation telepresence has been introduced to describe human-telerobot compliance, which enables the human operator to effectively project his/her body image and behavioral skills to control of the telerobot itself. Major human-factors considerations for establishing high fidelity workstation telepresence during human-telerobot operation are discussed. Telerobot workstation telepresence is defined by the proficiency and skill with which the operator is able to control sensory feedback from direct interaction with the workstation itself, and from workstation-mediated interaction with the telerobot. Numerous conditions influencing such control have been identified. This raises the question as to what specific factors most critically influence the realization of high fidelity workstation telepresence. The thesis advanced here is that perturbations in sensory feedback represent a major source of variability in human performance during interactive telerobot operation. Perturbed sensory feedback research over the past three decades has established that spatial transformations or temporal delays in sensory feedback engender substantial decrements in interactive task performance, which training does not completely overcome. A recently developed social cybernetic model of human-computer interaction can be used to guide this approach, based on computer-mediated tracking and control of sensory feedback. How the social cybernetic model can be employed for evaluating the various modes, patterns, and integrations of interpersonal, team, and human-computer interactions which play a central role is workstation telepresence are discussed.

  20. Contextual and social influences on valuation and choice.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Jan B; Hein, Grit

    2013-01-01

    To survive in our complex environment, we have to adapt to changing contexts. Prior research that investigated how contextual changes are processed in the human brain has demonstrated important modulatory influences on multiple cognitive processes underlying decision-making, including perceptual judgments, working memory, as well as cognitive and attentional control. However, in everyday life, the importance of context is even more obvious during economic and social interactions, which often have implicit rule sets that need to be recognized by a decision-maker. Here, we review recent evidence from an increasing number of studies in the fields of Neuroeconomics and Social Neuroscience that investigate the neurobiological basis of contextual effects on valuation and social choice. Contrary to the assumptions of rational choice theory, multiple contextual factors, such as the availability of alternative choice options, shifts in reference point, and social context, have been shown to modulate behavior, as well as signals in task-relevant neural networks. A consistent picture that emerges from neurobiological results is that valuation-related activity in striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex is highly context dependent during both social and nonsocial choice. Alternative approaches to model and explain choice behavior, such as comparison-based choice models, as well as implications for future research are discussed.

  1. Host resistance factors in human milk.

    PubMed

    Goldman, A S; Smith, C W

    1973-06-01

    This paper discusses the nature of host resistance factors in human milk and epidemiologic studies regarding infections and mortality rates in breastfed and nonbreastfed babies. The defense factors and their proposed modes of action are: 1) a growth enhancer of lactobacilli, which interferes with intestinal colonization of enteric pathogens; 2) antistaphylococcal factors, which inhibit staphylococci; 3) secretory IgA and other immunoglobulins, which protect the gut and respiratory tract; 4) C4 and C3 (complement components; C3 fragments have opsonic, chemotactic, and anaphylatoxic activities); 5) lysozome, lysis of bacterial cell wall; 6) lactoperoxidase, killing of streptococci; 7) lactoferrin, kills microorganism by chelating iron, and 8) macrophages and lymphocytes, phagocytosis and cell-mediated immunity. Although it can be postulated that the breastfed infant's resistance to infection would be superior on account of the greater presence of these factors in human milk compared to cow's milk, little is known about the effects of these defense factors on the infant. Epidemiologic studies have reported on the lower morbidity and mortality rates of breastfed infants as compared to bottlefed infants. Other studies have focused on the protective effects of human milk upon the infant, but these have been inconclusive. In countries with poor sanitation and high infection rates, the incidence of bacterial infections is lowest in breastfed infants. The advantages of human milk however are difficult to demonstrate in societies with high standards of sanitation and low infection rates. Infection and mortality rates in infants have in fact declined in developed countries as the practice of breastfeeding declined. Until it is established that immunity to common pathogens is transmitted to the infant by human milk, it will not be known whether human milk does have protective effects.

  2. Advanced Human Factors Engineering Tool Technologies.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    representing the government, the military, academe, and private industry were surveyed to identify those tools that are most frequently used or viewed...tools by HFE researchers and practitioners within the academic, industrial , and military settings. % .. J. &@ossion For XTIS GR&&I DTIC TAS 0...267 E. Human Factors Engineering Tools Questionnaire .. ......... . 279 F. Listing of Industry , Government, and Academe

  3. Human and Mechanical Factors in Ergometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, M. J.; Hubbard, R. P.

    Analysis of the human and mechanical factors inherent in ergometry suggest many strategies for the improvement of experiments related to exertion. The resistive principles of gravitation, friction, elasticity, viscosity, magnetism, and inertia used in ergometers impose different restraints on experiments. The suitability of different resistive…

  4. Integrating Data and Networks: Human Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The development of technical linkages and interoperability between scientific networks is a necessary but not sufficient step towards integrated use and application of networked data and information for scientific and societal benefit. A range of "human factors" must also be addressed to ensure the long-term integration, sustainability, and utility of both the interoperable networks themselves and the scientific data and information to which they provide access. These human factors encompass the behavior of both individual humans and human institutions, and include system governance, a common framework for intellectual property rights and data sharing, consensus on terminology, metadata, and quality control processes, agreement on key system metrics and milestones, the compatibility of "business models" in the short and long term, harmonization of incentives for cooperation, and minimization of disincentives. Experience with several national and international initiatives and research programs such as the International Polar Year, the Group on Earth Observations, the NASA Earth Observing Data and Information System, the U.S. National Spatial Data Infrastructure, the Global Earthquake Model, and the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure provide a range of lessons regarding these human factors. Ongoing changes in science, technology, institutions, relationships, and even culture are creating both opportunities and challenges for expanded interoperability of scientific networks and significant improvement in data integration to advance science and the use of scientific data and information to achieve benefits for society as a whole.

  5. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  6. Contextual Text Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  7. Contextual Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This document contains four symposium papers on contextual learning issues. "Learning to Learn Strategies of Successful Real Estate Professionals: Implications for Learning in the Workplace" (Margot B. Weinstein) describes a multicase study in which a model called the Individual Learning System was used to identify the strategies and…

  8. Applications of Human Factors in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The main question for human factors practitioners is to determine if the user population can be accommodated within a design. Given the wide range of variables feeding into a design, just one of which is human factors, oftentimes designers will have restrictions that may potentially impact the level of accommodation. This paper focuses on two case studies where there have been impacts at the design level that may be detrimental to the ability of the design to meet certain criteria. The studies use novel approaches to determine what, if any, changes in population accommodation levels have occurred and what factors are important when manipulating the design in the future. The results of these studies provide a backbone for future analyses when working with design considerations.

  9. Real-Life Contextual Manifestations of Wisdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Shih-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Wisdom pertains to managing human affairs, and it arises in highly contextualized situations. The present study aims to investigate manifestations of wisdom in real-life contexts through semi-structured interviews with 66 individuals nominated as wise persons. All nominees were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan, an East Asian country which has…

  10. Factors Underlying Contextual Variations in the Structure of the Self: Differences Related to SES, Gender, Culture, and "Majority/Nonmajority" Status during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santo, Jonathan Bruce; Bukowski, William M.; Stella-Lopez, Luz; Carmago, Gina; Mayman, Shari B.; Adams, Ryan E.

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling was used to examine contextual variations in the structure of the "self" in a sample of 918 lower- and upper-middle class early adolescents (M age = 10.37 years, SD = 1.19) from a "majority" cultural context (i.e., Barranquilla in the Caribbean region of Colombia) and a "nonmajority" context (i.e.,…

  11. Contextual Variability in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Polyn, Sean M.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    According to contextual-variability theory, experiences encoded at different times tend to be associated with different contextual states. The gradual evolution of context implies that spaced items will be associated with more distinct contextual states, and thus have more unique retrieval cues, than items presented in proximity. Ross and Landauer…

  12. Human factors in high consequence manufacturing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Forsythe, C.; Grose, E.

    1997-11-01

    A high consequence system is often defined as one in which the potential exists for severe or catastrophic accidents. Familiar examples include nuclear power plants, airline and other mass transportation, dams and reservoirs, and large-scale food processing. Many manufacturing systems also qualify as high consequence systems. Much of the authors` experience with high consequence systems derives from work associated with the surveillance and dismantlement of nuclear weapons for the US Department of Energy. With such operations, there exists a risk of high explosive detonation accompanied by radiological dispersal and, potentially, nuclear detonation. Analysis of major industrial accidents such as Three Mile Island, Chernobyl and Bhopal have revealed that these incidents were not attributable to a single event or direct cause, but were the result of multiple factors that combined to create a condition ripe for an accident. In each case, human error was a critical factor contributing to the accident. Consequently, many authors have emphasized the need for greater appreciation of systematic factors and in particular, human activities. This paper discusses approaches used in hazard analysis of US nuclear weapons operations to assess risk associated with human factors.

  13. Contextual Influences on Superintendents' Time Usage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kim; Howley, Aimee

    2009-01-01

    Using data from a survey of superintendents in four states, this study explored how contextual factors and the real and perceived stringency of accountability measures influence the attention superintendents pay to the different roles comprising their work. A major concern was the extent to which stringent accountability was associated with…

  14. Space human factors publications: 1980-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickson, Katherine J.

    1991-01-01

    A 10 year cummulative bibliography of publications resulting from research supported by the NASA Space Human Factors Program of the Life Science Division is provided. The goal of this program is to understand the basic mechanisms underlying behavioral adaptation to space and to develop and validate system design requirements, protocols, and countermeasures to ensure the psychological well-being, safety, and productivity of crewmembers. Subjects encompassed by this bibliography include selection and training, group dynamics, psychophysiological interactions, habitability issues, human-machine interactions, psychological support measures, and anthropometric data. Principal Investigators whose research tasks resulted in publication are identified by asterisk.

  15. Critical Questions for Space Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, Barbara; Bagian, Tandi

    2000-01-01

    Traditional human factors contributions to NASA's crewed space programs have been rooted in the classic approaches to quantifying human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations in the environment of interest, and producing recommendations and standards for the selection or design of mission equipment. Crews then evaluate the interfaces, displays, or equipment, and with the assistance of human factors experts, improvements are made as funds, time, control documentation, and weight allow. We have come a long way from the early spaceflight days, where men with the ' right stuff were the solution to operating whatever equipment was given to them. The large and diverse Shuttle astronaut corps has impacted mission designs to accommodate a wide range of human capabilities and preferences. Yet with existing long duration experience, we have seen the need to address a different set of dynamics when designing for optimal crew performance: critical equipment and mission situations degrade, and human function changes with mission environment, situation, and duration. Strategies for quantifying the critical nature of human factors requirements are being worked by NASA. Any exploration-class mission will place new responsibilities on mission designers to provide the crew with the information and resources to accomplish the mission. The current duties of a Mission Control Center to monitor system status, detect degradation or malfunction, and provide a proven solution, will need to be incorporated into on-board systems to allow the crew autonomous decision-making. The current option to resupply and replace mission systems and resources, including both vehicle equipment and human operators, will be removed, so considerations of maintenance, onboard training, and proficiency assessment are critical to providing a self-sufficient crew. As we 'move in' to the International Space Station, there are tremendous opportunities to investigate our ability to design for autonomous

  16. Introduction to human factors considerations in system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapanis, A.

    1983-01-01

    A definition for human factors or ergonomics and its industrial and domestic application is presented. Human factors engineering, which discovers and applies information about human abilities, limitations, and other characteristics to the design of tools, machines, systems, tasks, jobs, and environments for safe, comfortable, and effective human use, is outlined. The origins of human factors and ergonomics, the philosophy of human factors, goals and objectives, systems development and design, are reviewed.

  17. Human factors in aircraft maintenance and inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, William T.

    1992-01-01

    The events which have led to the intensive study of aircraft structural problems have contributed in no less measure to the study of human factors which influence aircraft maintenance and inspection. Initial research emphasis on aging aircraft maintenance and inspection has since broadened to include all aircraft types. Technicians must be equally adept at repairing old and new aircraft. Their skills must include the ability to repair sheet metal and composite materials; control cable and fly-by-wire systems; round dials and glass cockpits. Their work performance is heavily influenced by others such as designers, technical writers, job card authors, schedulers, and trainers. This paper describes the activities concerning aircraft and maintenance human factors.

  18. The space station: Human factors and productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillan, D. J.; Burns, M. J.; Nicodemus, C. L.; Smith, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Human factor researchers and engineers are making inputs into the early stages of the design of the Space Station to improve both the quality of life and work on-orbit. Effective integration of the human factors information related to various Intravehicular Activity (IVA), Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and teletobotics systems during the Space Station design will result in increased productivity, increased flexibility of the Space Stations systems, lower cost of operations, improved reliability, and increased safety for the crew onboard the Space Station. The major features of productivity examined include the cognitive and physical effort involved in work, the accuracy of worker output and ability to maintain performance at a high level of accuracy, the speed and temporal efficiency with which a worker performs, crewmember satisfaction with their work environment, and the relation between performance and cost.

  19. Human factors by descent energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes some of the results of a human factors study of energy management during descent using standard aircraft displays. Discussions with pilots highlighted the practical constraints involved and the techniques (algorithms) used to accomplish the descent. The advantages and disadvantages of these algorithms are examined with respect to workload and their sensitivity to disturbances. Vertical navigation and flight performance computers are discussed in terms of the information needed for effective pilot monitoring and takeover

  20. Humanism as a common factor in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wampold, Bruce E

    2012-12-01

    There are many forms of psychotherapies, each distinctive in its own way. From the origins of psychotherapy, it has been suggested that psychotherapy is effective through factors that are common to all therapies. In this article, I suggest that the commonalities that are at the core of psychotherapy are related to evolved human characteristics, which include (a) making sense of the world, (b) influencing through social means, and (c) connectedness, expectation, and mastery. In this way, all psychotherapies are humanistic.

  1. Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-02-01

    AA NUREG -0711,Rev. 2 Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model 20081009191 I i m To] Bi U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Office of...Material As of November 1999, you may electronically access NUREG -series publications and other NRC records at NRC’s Public Electronic Reading Room at...http://www.nrc.qov/readinq-rm.html. Publicly released records include, to name a few, NUREG -series publications; Federal Register notices; applicant

  2. Human factors for a sustainable future.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, Andrew; Yeow, Paul H P

    2016-11-01

    Current human activities are seriously eroding the ability of natural and social systems to cope. Clearly we cannot continue along our current path without seriously damaging our own ability to survive as a species. This problem is usually framed as one of sustainability. As concerned professionals, citizens, and humans there is a strong collective will to address what we see as a failure to protect the natural and social environments that supports us. While acknowledging that we cannot do this alone, human factors and ergonomics needs to apply its relevant skills and knowledge to assist where it can in addressing the commonly identified problem areas. These problems include pollution, climate change, renewable energy, land transformation, and social unrest amongst numerous other emerging global problems. The issue of sustainability raises two fundamental questions for human factors and ergonomics: which system requires sustaining and what length of time is considered sustainable? In this paper we apply Wilson (2014) parent-sibling-child model to understanding what is required of an HFE sustainability response. This model is used to frame the papers that appear in this Special Issue.

  3. Space Station crew safety - Human factors model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.; Junge, M. K.

    1984-01-01

    A model of the various human factors issues and interactions that might affect crew safety is developed. The first step addressed systematically the central question: How is this Space Station different from all other spacecraft? A wide range of possible issue was identified and researched. Five major topics of human factors issues that interacted with crew safety resulted: Protocols, Critical Habitability, Work Related Issues, Crew Incapacitation and Personal Choice. Second, an interaction model was developed that would show some degree of cause and effect between objective environmental or operational conditions and the creation of potential safety hazards. The intermediary steps between these two extremes of causality were the effects on human performance and the results of degraded performance. The model contains three milestones: stressor, human performance (degraded) and safety hazard threshold. Between these milestones are two countermeasure intervention points. The first opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against stress. If this countermeasure fails, performance degrades. The second opportunity for intervention is the countermeasure against error. If this second countermeasure fails, the threshold of a potential safety hazard may be crossed.

  4. Contextual medical-image viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ramon A.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2004-04-01

    One of the greatest difficulties of dealing with medical images is their distinct characteristics, in terms of generation process and noise that requires different forms of treatment for visualization and processing. Besides that, medical images are only a compounding part of the patient"s history, which should be accessible for the user in an understandable way. Other factors that can be used to enhance the user capability and experience are: the computational power of the client machine; available knowledge about the case; if the access is local or remote and what kind of user is accessing the system (physician, nurse, administrator, etc...). These information compose the context of an application and should define its behavior during execution time. In this article, we present the architecture of a viewer that takes into account the contextual information that is present at the moment of execution. We also present a viewer of X-Ray Angiographic images that uses contextual information about the client's hardware and the kind of user to, if necessary, reduce the image size and hide demographic information of the patient. The proposed architecture is extensible, allowing the inclusion of new tools and viewers, being adaptive along time to the evolution of the medical systems.

  5. Contextuality under weak assumptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Andrew W.; Wallman, Joel J.; Pashayan, Hakop; Bartlett, Stephen D.; Rudolph, Terry

    2017-03-01

    The presence of contextuality in quantum theory was first highlighted by Bell, Kochen and Specker, who discovered that for quantum systems of three or more dimensions, measurements could not be viewed as deterministically revealing pre-existing properties of the system. More precisely, no model can assign deterministic outcomes to the projectors of a quantum measurement in a way that depends only on the projector and not the context (the full set of projectors) in which it appeared, despite the fact that the Born rule probabilities associated with projectors are independent of the context. A more general, operational definition of contextuality introduced by Spekkens, which we will term ‘probabilistic contextuality’, drops the assumption of determinism and allows for operations other than measurements to be considered contextual. Even two-dimensional quantum mechanics can be shown to be contextual under this generalised notion. Probabilistic noncontextuality represents the postulate that elements of an operational theory that cannot be distinguished from each other based on the statistics of arbitrarily many repeated experiments (they give rise to the same operational probabilities) are ontologically identical. In this paper, we introduce a framework that enables us to distinguish between different noncontextuality assumptions in terms of the relationships between the ontological representations of objects in the theory given a certain relation between their operational representations. This framework can be used to motivate and define a ‘possibilistic’ analogue, encapsulating the idea that elements of an operational theory that cannot be unambiguously distinguished operationally can also not be unambiguously distinguished ontologically. We then prove that possibilistic noncontextuality is equivalent to an alternative notion of noncontextuality proposed by Hardy. Finally, we demonstrate that these weaker noncontextuality assumptions are sufficient to prove

  6. Human Factors in Accidents Involving Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merlin, Peter William

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines human factors that contribute to RPA mishaps and provides analysis of lessons learned. RPA accident data from U.S. military and government agencies were reviewed and analyzed to identify human factors issues. Common contributors to RPA mishaps fell into several major categories: cognitive factors (pilot workload), physiological factors (fatigue and stress), environmental factors (situational awareness), staffing factors (training and crew coordination), and design factors (human machine interface).

  7. Improving Safety through Human Factors Engineering.

    PubMed

    Siewert, Bettina; Hochman, Mary G

    2015-10-01

    Human factors engineering (HFE) focuses on the design and analysis of interactive systems that involve people, technical equipment, and work environment. HFE is informed by knowledge of human characteristics. It complements existing patient safety efforts by specifically taking into consideration that, as humans, frontline staff will inevitably make mistakes. Therefore, the systems with which they interact should be designed for the anticipation and mitigation of human errors. The goal of HFE is to optimize the interaction of humans with their work environment and technical equipment to maximize safety and efficiency. Special safeguards include usability testing, standardization of processes, and use of checklists and forcing functions. However, the effectiveness of the safety program and resiliency of the organization depend on timely reporting of all safety events independent of patient harm, including perceived potential risks, bad outcomes that occur even when proper protocols have been followed, and episodes of "improvisation" when formal guidelines are found not to exist. Therefore, an institution must adopt a robust culture of safety, where the focus is shifted from blaming individuals for errors to preventing future errors, and where barriers to speaking up-including barriers introduced by steep authority gradients-are minimized. This requires creation of formal guidelines to address safety concerns, establishment of unified teams with open communication and shared responsibility for patient safety, and education of managers and senior physicians to perceive the reporting of safety concerns as a benefit rather than a threat.

  8. Human Factors Technologies: Past Promises, Future Issues. Final Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alluisi, Earl A.

    This discussion of the major issues confronting the human factors profession begins by pointing out that the concepts of systems and system design are central to the roles and functions of the human factors specialist. Three related disciplines--human factors engineering, ergonomics, and human skilled performance--are briefly described, and the…

  9. Human factors engineering program review model

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission is performing nuclear power plant design certification reviews based on a design process plan that describes the human factors engineering (HFE) program elements that are necessary and sufficient to develop an acceptable detailed design specification and an acceptable implemented design. There are two principal reasons for this approach. First, the initial design certification applications submitted for staff review did not include detailed design information. Second, since human performance literature and industry experiences have shown that many significant human factors issues arise early in the design process, review of the design process activities and results is important to the evaluation of an overall design. However, current regulations and guidance documents do not address the criteria for design process review. Therefore, the HFE Program Review Model (HFE PRM) was developed as a basis for performing design certification reviews that include design process evaluations as well as review of the final design. A central tenet of the HFE PRM is that the HFE aspects of the plant should be developed, designed, and evaluated on the basis of a structured top-down system analysis using accepted HFE principles. The HFE PRM consists of ten component elements. Each element in divided into four sections: Background, Objective, Applicant Submittals, and Review Criteria. This report describes the development of the HFE PRM and gives a detailed description of each HFE review element.

  10. “Such behaviors are not in my home village, I got them here”: A qualitative study of the influence of contextual factors on alcohol and HIV risk behaviors in a fishing community on Lake Victoria, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Sileo, KM; Kintu, M; Chanes-Mora, P; Kiene, SM

    2015-01-01

    In Uganda, elevated HIV prevalence in fishing communities along Lake Victoria have been attributed in part to heavy alcohol use, but qualitative research is needed to understand the contextual factors influencing alcohol and sexual risk. Eight focus group discussions were conducted (N=50; 23 male, 27 female) in Gerenge, Uganda with five occupational groups: fishermen, fishmongers, alcohol-sellers, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and restaurant owners. Data was analyzed using content analysis. Alcohol use was prevalent, and said to influence risky sex. Sex-related alcohol expectancies and occupational factors influenced individuals to drink during sex and structural factors related to the built environment, economy, and policy were identified as key contributors to both alcohol use and sexual risk in general. The findings highlight alcohol reduction as an important component of HIV/AIDS prevention, and suggest structural interventions should be prioritized in this context. PMID:25921303

  11. Human factors in primary care telemedicine encounters.

    PubMed

    Bulik, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Traditional delivery of primary care takes place in a face-to-face transaction between provider and patient. In telemedicine, however, the transaction is 'filtered' by the distance and technology. The potential problem of filtered communication in a telemedicine encounter was examined from a human factors perspective. Patients with and without experience of telemedicine, and providers who had experience of telemedicine, were asked about patient-provider relationships in interviews and focus groups. Seven themes emerged: initial impressions, style of questions, field of view, physical interaction, social talk, control of encounter and ancillary services. This suggests that communication can be improved and better patient-provider relationships can be developed in a primary care telemedicine encounter if attention is paid to four areas of the interaction: verbal, non-verbal, relational and actions/transactional. The human factors dimension of telemedicine is an important element in delivery of health care at a distance - and is one of few factors over which the provider has direct control.

  12. Architecture of human translation initiation factor 3.

    PubMed

    Querol-Audi, Jordi; Sun, Chaomin; Vogan, Jacob M; Smith, M Duane; Gu, Yu; Cate, Jamie H D; Nogales, Eva

    2013-06-04

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) plays a central role in protein synthesis by organizing the formation of the 43S preinitiation complex. Using genetic tag visualization by electron microscopy, we reveal the molecular organization of ten human eIF3 subunits, including an octameric core. The structure of eIF3 bears a close resemblance to that of the proteasome lid, with a conserved spatial organization of eight core subunits containing PCI and MPN domains that coordinate functional interactions in both complexes. We further show that eIF3 subunits a and c interact with initiation factors eIF1 and eIF1A, which control the stringency of start codon selection. Finally, we find that subunit j, which modulates messenger RNA interactions with the small ribosomal subunit, makes multiple independent interactions with the eIF3 octameric core. These results highlight the conserved architecture of eIF3 and how it scaffolds key factors that control translation initiation in higher eukaryotes, including humans.

  13. The impact of human-technology cooperation and distributed cognition in forensic science: biasing effects of AFIS contextual information on human experts.

    PubMed

    Dror, Itiel E; Wertheim, Kasey; Fraser-Mackenzie, Peter; Walajtys, Jeff

    2012-03-01

    Experts play a critical role in forensic decision making, even when cognition is offloaded and distributed between human and machine. In this paper, we investigated the impact of using Automated Fingerprint Identification Systems (AFIS) on human decision makers. We provided 3680 AFIS lists (a total of 55,200 comparisons) to 23 latent fingerprint examiners as part of their normal casework. We manipulated the position of the matching print in the AFIS list. The data showed that latent fingerprint examiners were affected by the position of the matching print in terms of false exclusions and false inconclusives. Furthermore, the data showed that false identification errors were more likely at the top of the list and that such errors occurred even when the correct match was present further down the list. These effects need to be studied and considered carefully, so as to optimize human decision making when using technologies such as AFIS.

  14. Space human factors discipline science plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this Discipline Science Plan is to provide a conceptual strategy for NASA's Life Sciences Division research and development activities in the comprehensive areas of behavior, performance, and human factors. This document summarizes the current status of the program, outlines available knowledge, establishes goals and objectives, defines critical questions in the subdiscipline areas, and identifies technological priorities. It covers the significant research areas critical to NASA's programmatic requirements for the Extended Duration Orbiter, Space Station Freedom, and Exploration mission science activities. These science activities include ground-based and flight; basic, applied and operational; and animal and human research and development. This document contains a general plan that will be used by both NASA Headquarters program offices and the field centers to review and plan basic, applied, and operational research and development activities, both intramural and extramural, in this area.

  15. Job performance aids: Human factoring maintenance procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Macris, A.C.; Fleming, S.T

    1991-11-01

    Job performance aids (JPAs) are human factors engineering techniques used to strengthen operating, maintenance, and engineering procedures. They are not a new concept, but one whose time has come. This paper focuses on the application of JPAs to maintenance procedures. Job performance aids research originates from US Department of Defense (DOD) efforts, primarily in maintenance-oriented tasks. While at Connecticut Yankee power plant, the authors, an instructional consultant, and the training manager were investigating ways to enhance training effectiveness. Based on historic research efforts, there is strong evidence that JPAs have the potential to improve human performance and realize additional benefits of reduced training time and should be incorporated into the training time and should be incorporated into the training curriculum.

  16. Diabetes technology and the human factor.

    PubMed

    Liberman, A; Buckingham, B; Phillip, M

    2011-02-01

    When developing new technologies for human use the developer should take into consideration not only the efficacy and safety of the technology but also the desire and capabilities of the potential user. Any chronic disease is a challenge for both the patient and his/her caregivers. This statement is especially true in the case of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) where adherence to therapy is crucial 24 hours a day 365 days a year. No vacation days are possible for the T1DM patient. It is therefore obvious why any new technology which is developed for helping patients cope with the disease should take into consideration the 'human factor' before, during and after the production process starts. There is no doubt that technology has changed the life of patients with T1DM in the last few decades, but despite the availability of new meters, new syringes, new sophisticated insulin pumps and continuous glucose sensors and communication tools, these technologies have not been well utilised by many patients. It is therefore important to understand why the technology is not always utilised and to find new ways to maximise use and benefits from the technology to as many patients as possible. The present chapter will review papers published in the last year where the patient's ability or willingness was an important factor in the success of the technology. We will try to understand why insulin pumps, glucose sensors and self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) are not used enough or appropriately, whether there is a specific group that finds it more difficult than others to adopt new technologies and what can be done to overcome that issue. For this chapter we chose articles from a Public Medicine review of the literature related to human factors affecting the outcome of studies and of user acceptance of continuous glucose monitoring, insulin infusion pump therapy. We also searched the literature in the field of psychology in order to accurately define the problems

  17. Human Factors Experimental Design and Analysis Reference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    and R2Adj – PRESS Statistic – Mallows C(p) A linear regression model that includes all predictors investigated may not be the best model in terms of...as the Adjusted Coefficient of Determination, R2Adj, the PRESS statistic, and Mallows C(p) value. Human Factors Experimental Design and Analysis...equations with highest R2 using R2Adj, PRESS, and Mallows C(p) • Evaluation – Cumbersome as number of X’s increase 10 X’s = (210-1) = 1,023 Regression

  18. Review of EPRI Nuclear Human Factors Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hanes, L.F.; O`Brien, J.F.

    1996-03-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Human Factors Program, which is part of the EPRI Nuclear Power Group, was established in 1975. Over the years, the Program has changed emphasis based on the shifting priorities and needs of the commercial nuclear power industry. The Program has produced many important products that provide significant safety and economic benefits for EPRI member utilities. This presentation will provide a brief history of the Program and products. Current projects and products that have been released recently will be mentioned.

  19. An International Survey of Maintenance Human Factors Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    maintenance and repair organizations. Questions focused on training, error management , fatigue management , and other human factors issues. An online link was... Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Fatgue... Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 human Factors Metrcs

  20. Human Factors of Remotely Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan Neville

    2014-01-01

    The civilian use of remotely piloted, or unmanned aircraft is expected to increase rapidly in the years ahead. Despite being referred to as unmanned some of the major challenges confronting this emerging sector relate to human factors. As unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are introduced into civil airspace, a failure to adequately consider human factors could result in preventable accidents that may not only result in loss of life, but may also undermine public confidence in remotely piloted operations. Key issues include pilot situational awareness, collision avoidance in the absence of an out-the-window view, the effects of time delays in communication and control systems, control handovers, the challenges of very long duration flights, and the design of the control station. Problems have included poor physical layout of controls, non-intuitive automation interfaces, an over-reliance on text displays, and complicated sequences of menu selection to perform routine tasks. Some of the interface problems may have been prevented had an existing regulation or cockpit design principle been applied. In other cases, the design problems may indicate a lack of suitable guidance material.

  1. Understanding contextual influences of community reintegration among injured servicemembers.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Brent L; McGuire, Francis A; Linder, Sandra M; Britt, Thomas W

    2015-01-01

    As part of a larger mixed-methods research project investigating the influence of contextual factors on community reintegration (CR), this qualitative study sought to understand the subjective experiences of injured servicemembers and their perception of how contextual factors influenced their CR. More specifically, this article addresses how the influences of contextual factors differ between injured servicemembers with different levels of CR. Using a phenomenological framework, semistructured interviews were conducted with nine injured, community-dwelling servicemembers with low, moderate, and high levels of CR (three per category). Participants provided in-depth descriptions of the contextual barriers and facilitators of CR. Thematic analysis indicated the importance of social support and personal factors (e.g., self-efficacy, personal motivation) as the primary means for being reintegrated into their homes and communities. Other themes indicated factors that had an indirect but important influence on CR, including adapted sports, recreation, and other social programs; rehabilitation programs and therapists; school, work, and volunteering; and organizations and policies in developing social supports and personal factors. Comparisons between servicemembers indicated participants with low CR described many more contextual barriers and far fewer contextual facilitators to reintegration than those with high CR. Those with moderate CR were unique in that they described many facilitators and barriers to reintegration.

  2. [Growth factors in human tooth development].

    PubMed

    Bellone, C; Barni, T; Pagni, L; Balboni, G C; Vannelli, G B

    1990-03-01

    Our research concerns the immunohistochemical localization of EGF and IGF-I receptors in the tooth germ, using monoclonal antibodies. The results show that in the early phases of human tooth development EGF and IGF-I receptors are present. At bud stage both receptors are localized at dental laminae level, in some epithelial cells of the tooth bud and in some mesenchymal cells. At cap stage the receptors are present in the outer and inner enamel epithelium, and in some cells of stellate reticulum. As far as concerns the mesenchymal cells, some cells of dental papilla in contact with enamel organ, are intensely positive. The immunopositivity is present also in some mesenchymal cells at follicular level. At late cap stage and at early bell stage receptors are not present at inner enamel epithelium level but they can be detectable in the mesenchyma of dental papilla and in some cells of the follicle. On the basis of these results it may be hypothesized that EGF and IGF-I can act as growth factors in the modulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation during the human tooth morphogenesis. Moreover, it is possible that these substances can play a role in the mesenchymal-epithelial interaction in the developing human tooth.

  3. Textual, Contextual, and Extra-Contextual Knowledge in ESL Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Heping

    Victor Raskin's taxonomy of knowledge, based on semantics theory, is adapted and applied to composition in English as a Second Language (ESL). Raskin's classification of knowledge as linguistic and encyclopedic is converted to a continuum from textual to extra-contextual, with contextual knowledge situated between the two. Textual knowledge is…

  4. Humanism Factors and Islam Viewpoint from Motahri's Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yousefi, Zargham; Yousefy, Alireza; Keshtiaray, Narges

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to criticize liberal humanism based on Islam viewpoint emphasizing Motahri's point of view. In this paper, the researchers tried to identify liberalism humanism factors with analytical look in order to present a new categorization called "main factor of liberal humanism". Then, each factor was studied and…

  5. Human factors in Spacelab - Crew training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junge, M. K.

    1983-01-01

    At NASA-Ames Research Center's Life Sciences Flight Experiments Project Office two payloads for the Shuttle Spacelab are currently in development. The first payload, Spacelab-3, will launch in November 1984. Unique life sciences hardware designed to support animals in 0-g will fly for the first time. Flight crew training sessions for the Spacelab-3 astronauts began in June 1982. Human factors involvement is extensive. A thorough understanding of both the 1-g and 0-g environments is necessary. The weightlessness of the space environment creates special conditions; e.g., the time required for a 1-g laboratory experiment significantly increases in 0-g. The transportation of objects in 0-g uses different techniques than on earth. These considerations, plus others, are incorporated into the design of the Spacelab-3 crew training program.

  6. Human Factors in Virtual Reality Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This half-day tutorial will provide an overview of basic perceptual functioning as it relates to the design of virtual environment systems. The tutorial consists of three parts. First, basic issues in visual perception will be presented, including discussions of the visual sensations of brightness and color, and the visual perception of depth relationships in three-dimensional space (with a special emphasis on motion -specified depth). The second section will discuss the importance of conducting human-factors user studies and evaluations. Examples and suggestions on how best to get help with user studies will be provided. Finally, we will discuss how, by drawing on their complementary competencies, perceptual psychologists and computer engineers can work as a team to develop optimal VR systems, technologies, and techniques.

  7. Medical error and human factors engineering: where are we now?

    PubMed

    Gawron, Valerie J; Drury, Colin G; Fairbanks, Rollin J; Berger, Roseanne C

    2006-01-01

    The goal of human factors engineering is to optimize the relationship between humans and systems by studying human behavior, abilities, and limitations and using this knowledge to design systems for safe and effective human use. With the assumption that the human component of any system will inevitably produce errors, human factors engineers design systems and human/machine interfaces that are robust enough to reduce error rates and the effect of the inevitable error within the system. In this article, we review the extent and nature of medical error and then discuss human factors engineering tools that have potential applicability. These tools include taxonomies of human and system error and error data collection and analysis methods. Finally, we describe studies that have examined medical error, and on the basis of these studies, present conclusions about how human factors engineering can significantly reduce medical errors and their effects.

  8. Dissemination strategies to improve implementation of the PHS smoking cessation guideline in MCH public health clinics: experimental evaluation results and contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Clara; Cho, Young Ik; Warnecke, Richard; Saunders, Stephen; Sullivan, Myrtis

    2011-04-01

    We report results from an experimental study that tested the effectiveness of dissemination interventions to improve implementation of smoking cessation guidelines in maternal and child public health clinics. We additionally examine individual clinic results for contextual explanations not apparent from the experimental findings alone. Twelve clinics in Illinois were randomized to three dissemination strategies: (i) core dissemination (provision of the 2000 Public Health System Clinical Practice Guideline and a tested smoking cessation program, including program supplies and training), (ii) core dissemination and access to telephone counseling and (iii) core dissemination, telephone counseling access and outreach visits to clinics. Implementation outcomes were post-dissemination improvements over baseline in the percent of smokers reporting receipt/exposure to (i) provider advice, (ii) self-help booklet, (iii) videos, (iv) posters and (v) an adjunct intervention. Results showed significant increases in the percent of smokers receiving a booklet (overall) and an adjunct intervention (Groups 2 and 3). There were no increases in smoker-reported provider advice or videos and poster exposure. Examination of individual clinic findings showed that seven clinics accounted for all the experimental effectiveness. Smoker-reported provider advice to quit also increased in these clinics. Type of clinic and the absence of disruptive events distinguished clinics with and without effective dissemination outcomes.

  9. Why Contextual Preference Reversals Maximize Expected Value

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Contextual preference reversals occur when a preference for one option over another is reversed by the addition of further options. It has been argued that the occurrence of preference reversals in human behavior shows that people violate the axioms of rational choice and that people are not, therefore, expected value maximizers. In contrast, we demonstrate that if a person is only able to make noisy calculations of expected value and noisy observations of the ordinal relations among option features, then the expected value maximizing choice is influenced by the addition of new options and does give rise to apparent preference reversals. We explore the implications of expected value maximizing choice, conditioned on noisy observations, for a range of contextual preference reversal types—including attraction, compromise, similarity, and phantom effects. These preference reversal types have played a key role in the development of models of human choice. We conclude that experiments demonstrating contextual preference reversals are not evidence for irrationality. They are, however, a consequence of expected value maximization given noisy observations. PMID:27337391

  10. Probabilistic simulation of the human factor in structural reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, Ashwin R.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1991-01-01

    Many structural failures have occasionally been attributed to human factors in engineering design, analyses maintenance, and fabrication processes. Every facet of the engineering process is heavily governed by human factors and the degree of uncertainty associated with them. Factors such as societal, physical, professional, psychological, and many others introduce uncertainties that significantly influence the reliability of human performance. Quantifying human factors and associated uncertainties in structural reliability require: (1) identification of the fundamental factors that influence human performance, and (2) models to describe the interaction of these factors. An approach is being developed to quantify the uncertainties associated with the human performance. This approach consists of a multi factor model in conjunction with direct Monte-Carlo simulation.

  11. Human Factors and Robotics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, H. McIlvaine; Kearsley, Greg P.

    The principal human factors engineering issue in robotics is the division of labor between automation (robots) and human beings. This issue reflects a prime human factors engineering consideration in systems design--what equipment should do and what operators and maintainers should do. Understanding of capabilities and limitations of robots and…

  12. The UKCAT-12 study: educational attainment, aptitude test performance, demographic and socio-economic contextual factors as predictors of first year outcome in a cross-sectional collaborative study of 12 UK medical schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most UK medical schools use aptitude tests during student selection, but large-scale studies of predictive validity are rare. This study assesses the United Kingdom Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT), and its four sub-scales, along with measures of educational attainment, individual and contextual socio-economic background factors, as predictors of performance in the first year of medical school training. Methods A prospective study of 4,811 students in 12 UK medical schools taking the UKCAT from 2006 to 2008 as a part of the medical school application, for whom first year medical school examination results were available in 2008 to 2010. Results UKCAT scores and educational attainment measures (General Certificate of Education (GCE): A-levels, and so on; or Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA): Scottish Highers, and so on) were significant predictors of outcome. UKCAT predicted outcome better in female students than male students, and better in mature than non-mature students. Incremental validity of UKCAT taking educational attainment into account was significant, but small. Medical school performance was also affected by sex (male students performing less well), ethnicity (non-White students performing less well), and a contextual measure of secondary schooling, students from secondary schools with greater average attainment at A-level (irrespective of public or private sector) performing less well. Multilevel modeling showed no differences between medical schools in predictive ability of the various measures. UKCAT sub-scales predicted similarly, except that Verbal Reasoning correlated positively with performance on Theory examinations, but negatively with Skills assessments. Conclusions This collaborative study in 12 medical schools shows the power of large-scale studies of medical education for answering previously unanswerable but important questions about medical student selection, education and training. UKCAT has predictive validity as a

  13. Information Presentation: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability, Space Human Factors Engineering Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kristina L.; Sandor, Aniko; Thompson, Shelby G.; Kaiser, Mary K.; McCann, Robert S.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Wenzel, E. M.; Godfroy, M.; Stone, L. S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers atJohnson Space Center and Ames Research Center. T

  14. Human Factors Aspects of Operating Small Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    OHara, J.M.; Higgins, J.; Deem, R.; Xing, J.; DAgostino, A.

    2010-11-07

    The nuclear-power community has reached the stage of proposing advanced reactor designs to support power generation for decades to come. They are considering small modular reactors (SMRs) as one approach to meet these energy needs. While the power output of individual reactor modules is relatively small, they can be grouped to produce reactor sites with different outputs. Also, they can be designed to generate hydrogen, or to process heat. Many characteristics of SMRs are quite different from those of current plants, and so may require a concept of operations (ConOps) that also is different. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has begun examining the human factors engineering- (HFE) and ConOps- aspects of SMRs; if needed, they will formulate guidance to support SMR licensing reviews. We developed a ConOps model, consisting of the following dimensions: Plant mission; roles and responsibilities of all agents; staffing, qualifications, and training; management of normal operations; management of off-normal conditions and emergencies; and, management of maintenance and modifications. We are reviewing information on SMR design to obtain data about each of these dimensions, and have identified several preliminary issues. In addition, we are obtaining operations-related information from other types of multi-module systems, such as refineries, to identify lessons learned from their experience. Here, we describe the project's methodology and our preliminary findings.

  15. Assessing the value of human factors initiatives.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Micky P; Knott, David S; Moss, Michael A; Clegg, Chris W; Horton, Robin P

    2008-05-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of human factors initiatives and addresses some difficulties reported in calculating the value of such interventions. Company representatives and researchers applied a novel probabilistic assessment tool to estimate the financial impact of two macro-ergonomic projects. Key benefits of the company intranet project include reduced administrative and operational costs compared to a paper-based system; time savings for users asking for, providing and receiving information; and improved system usability and higher levels of usage. The communities of practice project demonstrates value through more efficient distribution and retrieval of information; reduced duplication by re-using technical knowledge to solve similar problems and improved sharing of good working practices, lessons and resources. The strengths of the tool include transparency, being quick and easy to learn and the collaborative workshop format, involving researches and key representatives from the organization. It makes a useful contribution to the challenge of assessing the financial value of ergonomic interventions, and, by exploiting its diagnostic and planning capabilities, could be extended to other domains.

  16. Contextualizing immigrant access to health resources.

    PubMed

    Yang, Joshua S

    2010-06-01

    A vast majority of our understanding of immigrant health centers around traits of individuals and groups. While useful, current approaches to research on immigrant health decontextualize the experience of immigrants in the United States. This paper uses a historical case study of the Chinese community in San Francisco to develop a contextual framework to understand the levels of influence that impact the availability of health resources in immigrant communities. International, transnational, transcommunity, and enclave contexts have shaped health care access for Chinese immigrants in San Francisco. The conceptual framework provides a basis for future research, programmatic, and policy work that integrates individual and contextual factors in assessing and improving immigrant access to health resources.

  17. Contextual signaling in cancer.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Laura J; Anastasaki, Corina; Chen, Ran; Toonen, Joseph A; Williams, Sidney B; Gutmann, David H

    2016-10-01

    The formation and maintenance of an organism are highly dependent on the orderly control of cell growth, differentiation, death, and migration. These processes are tightly regulated by signaling cascades in which a limited number of molecules dictate these cellular events. While these signaling pathways are highly conserved across species and cell types, the functional outcomes that result from their engagement are specified by the context in which they are activated. Using the Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome as an illustrative platform, we discuss how NF1/RAS signaling can create functional diversity at multiple levels (molecular, cellular, tissue, and genetic/genomic). As such, the ability of related molecules (e.g., K-RAS, H-RAS) to activate distinct effectors, as well as cell type- and tissue-specific differences in molecular composition and effector engagement, generate numerous unique functional effects. These variations, coupled with a multitude of extracellular cues and genomic/genetic changes that each modify the innate signaling properties of the cell, enable precise control of cellular physiology in both health and disease. Understanding these contextual influences is important when trying to dissect the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of cancer relevant to molecularly-targeted therapeutics.

  18. Pharmacological Fingerprints of Contextual Uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Ruge, Diane; Stephan, Klaas E.

    2016-01-01

    Successful interaction with the environment requires flexible updating of our beliefs about the world. By estimating the likelihood of future events, it is possible to prepare appropriate actions in advance and execute fast, accurate motor responses. According to theoretical proposals, agents track the variability arising from changing environments by computing various forms of uncertainty. Several neuromodulators have been linked to uncertainty signalling, but comprehensive empirical characterisation of their relative contributions to perceptual belief updating, and to the selection of motor responses, is lacking. Here we assess the roles of noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and dopamine within a single, unified computational framework of uncertainty. Using pharmacological interventions in a sample of 128 healthy human volunteers and a hierarchical Bayesian learning model, we characterise the influences of noradrenergic, cholinergic, and dopaminergic receptor antagonism on individual computations of uncertainty during a probabilistic serial reaction time task. We propose that noradrenaline influences learning of uncertain events arising from unexpected changes in the environment. In contrast, acetylcholine balances attribution of uncertainty to chance fluctuations within an environmental context, defined by a stable set of probabilistic associations, or to gross environmental violations following a contextual switch. Dopamine supports the use of uncertainty representations to engender fast, adaptive responses. PMID:27846219

  19. Terminal Area Productivity Program: Dynamic Spacing Human Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic spacing human factors deals with the following human factors issues: define controller limits to incorporating dynamic changes in separation standards; identify timing, planning, and coordination strategies; and consider consistency with current practices, policies, and regulations. The AVOSS technologies will make it possible to reduce separation standards in the terminal area under certain meteorological conditions. This paper contains the following sections: Dynamic space human factors overview, Preliminary tests, and current research status & plans.

  20. Human Factors and Robotics: Current Status and Future Prospects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    lIII L 36 11111125 Ifl4 1111.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU f STANDARDS -163 A "___ /-un ~:R Human. Factors and Robotics ...TITLE (end Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVEREO HUMAN FACTORS AND ROBOTICS : CURRENT STATUS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER...19. KEY WORDS (Continu. a reverse side If neeesar and Identify by block number) Human Factors Automation Robots Robotics Artificial Intelligence 20

  1. Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Allen, Christopher S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Billman, Dorrit; Holden, Kritina L.

    2010-01-01

    As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities.

  2. Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Olivia; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-02-01

    This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, its variation, and its clinical relevance. The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules (eg, lactoferrin) are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. Human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, within feeds, by gestational age, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing.

  3. Street Workers and Internet Escorts: Contextual and Psychosocial Factors Surrounding HIV Risk Behavior among Men Who Engage in Sex Work with Other Men

    PubMed Central

    Reisner, Sari L.; Tinsley, Jake P.; Mayer, Kenneth H.; Safren, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Sex work has been associated with elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many settings. This mixed methods study examined sexual risk among MSM sex workers in Massachusetts, collecting formative data on HIV risk behavior by sex worker type in order to gain a better understanding of how to tailor prevention interventions to this unique and high-risk subgroup of MSM. Two groups of MSM sex workers were recruited between January and March 2008: street workers (n = 19) and internet escorts (n = 13). Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview and quantitative psychosocial assessment battery; interviews were conducted until redundancy in responses was achieved. Almost one third (31%) were HIV-infected. The majority of participants (69%) reported at least one episode of unprotected serodiscordant anal sex (either insertive or receptive) with a mean of 10.7 (SD = 42.2) male sex partners of an unknown or different HIV serostatus in the past 12 months. Salient findings included: (a) internet sex workers reported being paid substantially more for sex than street sex workers; (b) inconsistent condom use, high rates of unprotected sex, and low rates of HIV status disclosure with sex work partners for both internet and street workers; general perceptions of a lack of trust on the part of sex work partners (i.e., telling them what they want to hear), offers of more money for unprotected sex; (c) contextual differences in risk taking: internet sex workers reported that they are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking with noncommercial sex partners than sex partners who pay; (d) HIV status and STI history: two street workers became infected in the context of sex work, and 25% of the entire sample had never been tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI); and (e) motivations and reasons for doing sex work, such as the “lucrativeness” of sex work, as a means to obtain drugs, excitement, power, “why not

  4. Street workers and internet escorts: contextual and psychosocial factors surrounding HIV risk behavior among men who engage in sex work with other men.

    PubMed

    Mimiaga, Matthew J; Reisner, Sari L; Tinsley, Jake P; Mayer, Kenneth H; Safren, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    Sex work has been associated with elevated risk for HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in many settings. This mixed methods study examined sexual risk among MSM sex workers in Massachusetts, collecting formative data on HIV risk behavior by sex worker type in order to gain a better understanding of how to tailor prevention interventions to this unique and high-risk subgroup of MSM. Two groups of MSM sex workers were recruited between January and March 2008: street workers (n=19) and internet escorts (n=13). Participants completed a semistructured qualitative interview and quantitative psychosocial assessment battery; interviews were conducted until redundancy in responses was achieved. Almost one third (31%) were HIV-infected. The majority of participants (69%) reported at least one episode of unprotected serodiscordant anal sex (either insertive or receptive) with a mean of 10.7 (SD=42.2) male sex partners of an unknown or different HIV serostatus in the past 12 months. Salient findings included: (a) internet sex workers reported being paid substantially more for sex than street sex workers; (b) inconsistent condom use, high rates of unprotected sex, and low rates of HIV status disclosure with sex work partners for both internet and street workers; general perceptions of a lack of trust on the part of sex work partners (i.e., telling them what they want to hear), offers of more money for unprotected sex; (c) contextual differences in risk taking: internet sex workers reported that they are more likely to engage in sexual risk-taking with noncommercial sex partners than sex partners who pay; (d) HIV status and STI history: two street workers became infected in the context of sex work, and 25% of the entire sample had never been tested for sexually transmitted infections (STI); and (e) motivations and reasons for doing sex work, such as the "lucrativeness" of sex work, as a means to obtain drugs, excitement, power, "why not?" attitude, and because

  5. Contextual information processing of brain in art appreciation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shigeko; Ejima, Yoshimichi

    2013-04-01

    A psycho-historical framework for the science of art appreciation will be an experimental discipline that may shed new light on the highest capacities of the human brain, yielding new scientific ways to talk about the art appreciation. The recent findings of the contextual information processing in the human brain make the concept of the art-historical context clear for empirical experimentation.

  6. Human factors in space station architecture 1: Space station program implications for human factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    The space station program is based on a set of premises on mission requirements and the operational capabilities of the space shuttle. These premises will influence the human behavioral factors and conditions on board the space station. These include: launch in the STS Orbiter payload bay, orbital characteristics, power supply, microgravity environment, autonomy from the ground, crew make-up and organization, distributed command control, safety, and logistics resupply. The most immediate design impacts of these premises will be upon the architectural organization and internal environment of the space station.

  7. Individual and Social-Contextual Factors Affecting the Learning and Use of ESL: A Case Study of a Visiting Korean Physician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Su-Ja

    2006-01-01

    This case study examined factors that affected a Korean physician's learning and use of ESL in an English-speaking country, using data from interviews, observations, notebook memos and e-mails. The findings indicated that individual factors-personality (perfectionism and extroversion), occupation, beliefs, and motivation--and social-contextual…

  8. Lunar microcosmos. [human factors of lunar habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, N.

    1974-01-01

    A human habitat on the lunar surface requires energy recycling metabolites based on the utilization of vegetative plants that are good photosynthesizers. Selection criteria involve reactions to fertilization by human excrements, suitability as food for man (with or without fractionation), physiological effects of prolonged ingestion of these plants, and technical methods for returning inedible portions back into the cycle.

  9. A Voice-Radio Method for Collecting Human Factors Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askren, William B.; And Others

    Available methods for collecting human factors data rely heavily on observations, interviews, and questionnaires. A need exists for other methods. The feasibility of using two-way voice-radio for this purpose was studied. The data collection methodology consisted of a human factors analyst talking from a radio base station with technicians wearing…

  10. WHO DOES WHAT IN HUMAN FACTORS/ERGONOMICS IN MALAYSIA?

    PubMed

    Ahasan, Rabiul

    2014-12-01

    Individuals' expertise in human factors and ergonomics in Malaysia was studied with a view to aiding in gauging the confusion and conjectures of the expertise in this area. The choices and preferences of individuals in dealing with the current issues of human factors and ergonomics were examined. The authors suggest the ways to meet ethical challenges in their work and professions.

  11. Some NASA contributions to human factors engineering: A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behan, R. A.; Wendhausen, H. W.

    1973-01-01

    This survey presents the NASA contributions to the state of the art of human factors engineering, and indicates that these contributions have a variety of applications to nonaerospace activities. Emphasis is placed on contributions relative to man's sensory, motor, decisionmaking, and cognitive behavior and on applications that advance human factors technology.

  12. Simulation for human factors research. A central question: Fidelity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, D.

    1985-01-01

    Generalized outlines are presented for simulation in human factors research. Recent trends in aeronautical simulation are given. Some criteria for effective training devices are also given. Full system/full mission simulation in aviation and in space human factors research is presented.

  13. Human factors and aviation safety: what the industry has, what the industry needs.

    PubMed

    Maurino, D E

    2000-07-01

    The use of statistical analyses to assert safety levels has persuasively been established within the aviation industry. Likewise, variations in regional statistics have led to generalizations about safety levels in different contexts. Caution is proposed when qualitatively linking statistics and aviation's resilience to hazards. Further caution is proposed when extending generalizations across contexts. Statistical analyses--the favoured diagnostic tool of aviation--show sequences of cause/effect relationships reflecting agreed categorizations prevalent in safety breakdowns. They do not, however, reveal the processes underlying such relationships. It is contended that the answers to the safety questions in contemporary aviation will not be found through the numbers, but through the understanding of the processes underpinning the numbers. These processes and their supporting beliefs are influenced by contextual constraints and cultural factors, which in turn influence individual and organizational performance. It is further contended that the contribution of human factors is fundamental in achieving this understanding. This paper, therefore (1) argues in favour of a macro view of aviation safety, (2) suggests the need to revise a long-standing safety paradigm that appears to have ceased to be effective, and (3) discusses the basic premises upon which a revised safety paradigm should build.

  14. NASA: Model development for human factors interfacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    The results of an intensive literature review in the general topics of human error analysis, stress and job performance, and accident and safety analysis revealed no usable techniques or approaches for analyzing human error in ground or space operations tasks. A task review model is described and proposed to be developed in order to reduce the degree of labor intensiveness in ground and space operations tasks. An extensive number of annotated references are provided.

  15. A Systematic Approach to Human Factors Measurement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    that system. Previous Verification tests (see Askren and Newton , 1969) have examined the following: a. Human design considerations relative to...process. In actual maintenance operationm4 there Is, of course, a performance standard which is usually defined as mecan -time-to-repair (HTTR). However...Askren, W. B. and Newton , R. R. Review and analysis of personnel subsystem test and evaluation literature (AFHRL-TR-68-7). Air Force Human Resources

  16. Human Reliability Analysis for Design: Using Reliability Methods for Human Factors Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald Laurids Boring

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews the application of human reliability analysis methods to human factors design issues. An application framework is sketched in which aspects of modeling typically found in human reliability analysis are used in a complementary fashion to the existing human factors phases of design and testing. The paper provides best achievable practices for design, testing, and modeling. Such best achievable practices may be used to evaluate and human system interface in the context of design safety certifications.

  17. Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 35th annual meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    These volumes cover the proceedings of the 35th annual meeting of the Human Factors Society. Topics include: designing for the future of nuclear power plants international perspectives on advanced control room design; human performance assessment in the nuclear power industry; validity of strength tests for predicting endurance of coal miners, psychosocial issues in hazard management and nuclear power plants; and human factors at the DOE's national laboratories.

  18. Space Human Factors Engineering Challenges in Long Duration Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garland, Daniel J.; Endsley, Mica R.; Ellison, June; Caldwell, Barrett S.; Mount, Frances E.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The focus of this panel is on identifying and discussing the critical human factors challenges facing long duration space flight. Living and working aboard the International Space Station (ISS) will build on the experience humans have had to date aboard the Shuttle and MIR. More extended missions, involving lunar and planetary missions to Mars are being planned. These missions will involve many human factors challenges regarding a number of issues on which more research is needed.

  19. Human factors aspects of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An important consideration in regards to the use of advanced instrumentation in the nuclear industry is the interface between the instrumentation system and the human. A survey, oriented towards identifying the human factors aspects of digital instrumentation, was conducted at a number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities. Human factors issues, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays, controls, organizational support, training, and related topics were identified. 20 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Human Factors in Command-and-Control System Procurement,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    requirement for the equipment designer to take account of the human operator in the design and development of systems. Accordingly, human factors...they fail to take account of software development and the flow of information between the human and the machine. There has been a growing awareness... account of the human operator in the design and development of systems. Meister and Rabideau (1965) indicated that the concern centred on the ability

  1. Recent Advances in Contextuality Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Jayne; Kurzyński, Paweł; Lee, Su-Yong; Soeda, Akihito; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2016-07-01

    Our everyday experiences support the hypothesis that physical systems exist independently of the act of observation. Concordant theories are characterized by the objective realism assumption whereby the act of measurement simply reveals preexisting well-defined elements of reality. In stark contrast quantum mechanics portrays a world in which reality loses its objectivity and is in fact created by observation. Quantum contextuality as first discovered by Bell [1] and Kochen-Specker [2] captures aspects of this philosophical clash between classical and quantum descriptions of the world. Here we briefly summarize some of the more recent advances in the field of quantum contextuality. We approach quantum contextuality through its close relation to Bell type nonlocal scenarios and highlight some of the rapidly developing tests and experimental implementations.

  2. Human Factors in Library Administration. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhard, Neil

    Intended for the beginning or inexperienced supervisor, this continuing education course syllabus presents basic information on the development of human relations skills, particularly in the areas of leadership, communication, conflict, and motivation. Role playing situations set in various types of medical libraries are also outlined to provide…

  3. Risk Factors for Relapse of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Hasanjani Roushan, Mohammad Reza; Moulana, Zahra; Afshar, Zeinab Mohseni; Ebrahimpour, Soheil

    2016-01-01

    Background & Propose: Brucellosis is serious disease around the world, especially in underdeveloped countries. Relapse is major problem in therapy of brucellosis. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors of relapse after treatment in patients. Methods: It is a descriptive-analytic study from 1990 to 2014, in Ayatolla Rohani hospital in Babol, Iran. We studied 980 patients with brucellosis. The studied community included patients infected with brucellosis and the required information was gathered based on their hospital files. The base for recognizing Malta fever were clinical symptoms and Para-clinical sign congruent with infection like as, titer SAT>1:320 and 2-ME>1:160. Patients with relapse and patients without relapse were placed separately in two groups. The data were statistically compared with Spss 16, by Chi-square and Cox–regression tests. Results: Based on this study, treatment regimen is a preventive factor (P=0.000). Moreover, Based on some statistical methods, regimens no. 3 and 4 were introduce preventive factors (P=0.001) and (P=0.004). It should also be noted that findings the same statistical model, factors like gender, age, residence, professional contacts, complications and delay in treatment were also analyzed but none of them are considered as preventive factors. Conclusion: Based our finding, we suggest aminoglycosides (gentamicin or streptomycin with doxycycline) are associated with lower rate of relapse in brucellosis. PMID:26925907

  4. Human Factors Engineering. Part 2. HEDGE (Human Factors Engineering Data Guide for Evaluation)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-30

    by color, sie Point%. provided. fibeled . 6 Jack. Toaist poinfts WWI d. sign advertising of trotanki othsn, lit I -s.. n Io,,-Ieho lin..a 6_ plosg. r.pfs...DATA r EmlL-sTo- I ’.712£ L C’ T 1y FIGURE 8.8.1 COUNTERS , FLAGS, PRINTERS, AND PLOTTERS ISAII AC~tMA84. o ~- -~1ACION LoY TVl 0T1l 11I.o 8IIOA 0.-. wo...IDRST-P70-0 Test Operations Procedure 1-2-610 AD I ," ( , HUMAN FACTORS ENG PAR I I ... ..... Reproduced From Best Available Copy . ,.frpbi ees;dsrbto

  5. Data-Driven Contextual Valence Shifter Quantification for Multi-Theme Sentiment Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongkun; Shang, Jingbo; Hsu, Meichun; Castellanos, Malú; Han, Jiawei

    2016-10-01

    Users often write reviews on different themes involving linguistic structures with complex sentiments. The sentiment polarity of a word can be different across themes. Moreover, contextual valence shifters may change sentiment polarity depending on the contexts that they appear in. Both challenges cannot be modeled effectively and explicitly in traditional sentiment analysis. Studying both phenomena requires multi-theme sentiment analysis at the word level, which is very interesting but significantly more challenging than overall polarity classification. To simultaneously resolve the multi-theme and sentiment shifting problems, we propose a data-driven framework to enable both capabilities: (1) polarity predictions of the same word in reviews of different themes, and (2) discovery and quantification of contextual valence shifters. The framework formulates multi-theme sentiment by factorizing the review sentiments with theme/word embeddings and then derives the shifter effect learning problem as a logistic regression. The improvement of sentiment polarity classification accuracy demonstrates not only the importance of multi-theme and sentiment shifting, but also effectiveness of our framework. Human evaluations and case studies further show the success of multi-theme word sentiment predictions and automatic effect quantification of contextual valence shifters.

  6. Data-Driven Contextual Valence Shifter Quantification for Multi-Theme Sentiment Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongkun; Shang, Jingbo; Hsu, Meichun; Castellanos, Malú; Han, Jiawei

    2017-01-01

    Users often write reviews on different themes involving linguistic structures with complex sentiments. The sentiment polarity of a word can be different across themes. Moreover, contextual valence shifters may change sentiment polarity depending on the contexts that they appear in. Both challenges cannot be modeled effectively and explicitly in traditional sentiment analysis. Studying both phenomena requires multi-theme sentiment analysis at the word level, which is very interesting but significantly more challenging than overall polarity classification. To simultaneously resolve the multi-theme and sentiment shifting problems, we propose a data-driven framework to enable both capabilities: (1) polarity predictions of the same word in reviews of different themes, and (2) discovery and quantification of contextual valence shifters. The framework formulates multi-theme sentiment by factorizing the review sentiments with theme/word embeddings and then derives the shifter effect learning problem as a logistic regression. The improvement of sentiment polarity classification accuracy demonstrates not only the importance of multi-theme and sentiment shifting, but also effectiveness of our framework. Human evaluations and case studies further show the success of multi-theme word sentiment predictions and automatic effect quantification of contextual valence shifters. PMID:28232874

  7. Human factors engineering approaches to patient identification armband design.

    PubMed

    Probst, C Adam; Wolf, Laurie; Bollini, Mara; Xiao, Yan

    2016-01-01

    The task of patient identification is performed many times each day by nurses and other members of the care team. Armbands are used for both direct verification and barcode scanning during patient identification. Armbands and information layout are critical to reducing patient identification errors and dangerous workarounds. We report the effort at two large, integrated healthcare systems that employed human factors engineering approaches to the information layout design of new patient identification armbands. The different methods used illustrate potential pathways to obtain standardized armbands across healthcare systems that incorporate human factors principles. By extension, how the designs have been adopted provides examples of how to incorporate human factors engineering into key clinical processes.

  8. Status of human factors engineering system design in Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, G. )

    1990-01-01

    A review of the European status of human factors engineering has been carried out covering a wide scope of activities which includes psychology, cognitive science, ergonomics, design, training, procedure writing, operating, artificial intelligence and expert systems. There is an increasing awareness of the part that human factors play in major nuclear power plant accidents. The emphasis of attention in human factors is changing. In some areas there are encouraging signs of progress and development, but in other areas there is still scope for improvement.

  9. Human factor design of habitable space facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1987-01-01

    Current fundamental and applied habitability research conducted as part of the U.S. space program is reviewed with emphasis on methods, findings, and applications of the results to the planning and design of the International Space Station. The discussion covers the following six concurrent directions of habitability research: operational simulation, functional interior decor research, space crew privacy requirements, interior layout and configuration analysis, human spatial habitability model, and analogous environments research.

  10. Recent technology products from Space Human Factors research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, James P.

    1991-01-01

    The goals of the NASA Space Human Factors program and the research carried out concerning human factors are discussed with emphasis given to the development of human performance models, data, and tools. The major products from this program are described, which include the Laser Anthropometric Mapping System; a model of the human body for evaluating the kinematics and dynamics of human motion and strength in microgravity environment; an operational experience data base for verifying and validating the data repository of manned space flights; the Operational Experience Database Taxonomy; and a human-computer interaction laboratory whose products are the display softaware and requirements and the guideline documents and standards for applications on human-computer interaction. Special attention is given to the 'Convoltron', a prototype version of a signal processor for synthesizing the head-related transfer functions.

  11. Europe. An analysis of changes in the consumption of alcoholic beverages: the interaction among consumption, related harms, contextual factors and alcoholic beverage control policies.

    PubMed

    Allamani, Allaman; Pepe, Pasquale; Baccini, Michela; Massini, Giulia; Voller, Fabio

    2014-10-01

    This AMPHORA study's aim was to investigate selected factors potentially affecting changes in consumption of alcoholic beverages in 12 European countries during the 1960s-2008 (an average increase in beer, decreases in wine and spirits, total alcohol drinking decrease). Both time series and artificial neural networks-based analyses were used. Results indicated that selected socio-demographic and economic factors showed an overall major impact on consumption changes; particularly urbanization, increased income, and older mothers' age at their childbirths were significantly associated with consumption increase or decrease, depending on the country. Alcoholic beverage control policies showed an overall minor impact on consumption changes: among them, permissive availability measures were significantly associated with consumption increases, while drinking and driving limits and availability restrictions were correlated with consumption decreases, and alcohol taxation and prices of the alcoholic beverages were not significantly correlated with consumption. Population ageing, older mother's age at childbirths, increased income and increases in female employment, as well as drink driving limitations were associated with the decrease of transport mortality. Study's limitations are noted.

  12. Human factors in resuscitation: Lessons learned from simulator studies

    PubMed Central

    Hunziker, S; Tschan, F; Semmer, N K; Howell, M D; Marsch, S

    2010-01-01

    Medical algorithms, technical skills, and repeated training are the classical cornerstones for successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Increasing evidence suggests that human factors, including team interaction, communication, and leadership, also influence the performance of CPR. Guidelines, however, do not yet include these human factors, partly because of the difficulties of their measurement in real-life cardiac arrest. Recently, clinical studies of cardiac arrest scenarios with high-fidelity video-assisted simulations have provided opportunities to better delineate the influence of human factors on resuscitation team performance. This review focuses on evidence from simulator studies that focus on human factors and their influence on the performance of resuscitation teams. Similar to studies in real patients, simulated cardiac arrest scenarios revealed many unnecessary interruptions of CPR as well as significant delays in defibrillation. These studies also showed that human factors play a major role in these shortcomings and that the medical performance depends on the quality of leadership and team-structuring. Moreover, simulated video-taped medical emergencies revealed that a substantial part of information transfer during communication is erroneous. Understanding the impact of human factors on the performance of a complex medical intervention like resuscitation requires detailed, second-by-second, analysis of factors involving the patient, resuscitative equipment such as the defibrillator, and all team members. Thus, high-fidelity simulator studies provide an important research method in this challenging field. PMID:21063563

  13. Usability: Human Research Program - Space Human Factors and Habitability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandor, Aniko; Holden, Kritina L.

    2009-01-01

    The Usability project addresses the need for research in the area of metrics and methodologies used in hardware and software usability testing in order to define quantifiable and verifiable usability requirements. A usability test is a human-in-the-loop evaluation where a participant works through a realistic set of representative tasks using the hardware/software under investigation. The purpose of this research is to define metrics and methodologies for measuring and verifying usability in the aerospace domain in accordance with FY09 focus on errors, consistency, and mobility/maneuverability. Usability metrics must be predictive of success with the interfaces, must be easy to obtain and/or calculate, and must meet the intent of current Human Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR). Methodologies must work within the constraints of the aerospace domain, be cost and time efficient, and be able to be applied without extensive specialized training.

  14. Control by Contextual Stimuli in Novel Second-Order Conditional Discriminations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez-Gonzalez, Luis Antonio; Martinez, Hector

    2007-01-01

    Eighteen undergraduates participated in studies designed to examine the factors that produce transfer of contextual functions to novel stimuli in second-order conditional discriminations. In Study 1, participants selected comparison B1 given sample A1 and comparison B2 given sample A2 in a matching-to-sample procedure. Contextual stimuli X1 or X2…

  15. Contextual Information and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teale, William H.

    Following a discussion of the differences between oral and written speech, this paper examines the act of reading written speech and the role that contextual information plays in reading comprehension. It notes the interaction that occurs between reader and text, points out the way in which written language makes demands upon readers'…

  16. Overview: Human Factors Issues in Space Station Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M. M.

    1985-01-01

    An overview is presented of human factors issues in space station architecture. The status of the space station program is given. Habitability concerns such as vibroacoustics, lighting systems, privacy and work stations are discussed in detail.

  17. Human factors survey of advanced instrumentation and controls

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    A survey oriented towards identifying the human factors issues in regard to the use of advanced instrumentation and controls (I C) in the nuclear industry was conducted. A number of United States (US) and Canadian nuclear vendors and utilities were participants in the survey. Human factors items, subsumed under the categories of computer-generated displays (CGD), controls, organizational support, training, and related topics, were discussed. The survey found the industry to be concerned about the human factors issues related to the implementation of advanced I C. Fifteen potential human factors problems were identified. They include: the need for an advanced I C guideline equivalent to NUREG-0700; a role change in the control room from operator to supervisor; information overload; adequacy of existing training technology for advanced I C; and operator acceptance and trust. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Contextualizing Reflective Dialogue in a Spoken Conversational Tutor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pon-Barry, Heather; Clark, Brady; Schultz, Karl; Bratt, Elizabeth Owen; Peters, Stanley; Haley, David

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we describe the ways that SCoT, a Spoken Conversational Tutor, uses flexible and adaptive planning as well as multimodal task modeling to support the contextualization of learning in reflective dialogues. Past research on human tutoring has shown reflective discussions (discussions occurring after problem-solving) to be effective in…

  19. Human factors engineering for designing the next in medicine.

    PubMed

    Lai, Fuji

    2007-01-01

    Good design of emerging medical technology in an increasingly complex clinical and technological environment requires an understanding of the context of use, workload, and environment as well as appreciation for ease of use, fit into clinical workflow, and the need for user feedback in the design process. This is where human factors engineering can come into play for good design. Human factors engineering involves the application of principles about human behaviors, abilities, and limitations to the design of tools, devices, environments, and training in order to optimize human performance and safety. The human factors engineering process should be an integral part of the emerging technology development process and needs to be included upfront. This can help ensure that the new product is safe, functional, natural to use, seamlessly integrated into existing clinical workflow, and embraced by users to be incorporated into practice for maximum benefit to patient safety and healthcare quality.

  20. A Spatial Classifier for Multispectral Data Using Contextual Information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Chih-Cheng; Fahsi, Ahmed; Coleman, Tommy

    1998-01-01

    Connectivity describes the spatial relationship among pixels. A spatial classifier which employs the sigma probability concept of the Gaussian distribution and a type of contextual information connectivity of the pixels, is studied in this paper. This spatial classifier attempts to replicate the kind of spatial synthesis done by the human analyst during visual interpretation or to capture the spatial relationships inherent in an aerial photograph. Several classification results of the Landsat TM data using this classifier with different window sizes for capturing the contextual information are illustrated and compared.

  1. Advanced automated glass cockpit certification: Being wary of human factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amalberti, Rene; Wilbaux, Florence

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some facets of the French experience with human factors in the process of certification of advanced automated cockpits. Three types of difficulties are described: first, the difficulties concerning the hotly debated concept of human error and its non-linear relationship to risk of accident; a typology of errors to be taken into account in the certification process is put forward to respond to this issue. Next, the difficulties connected to the basically gradual and evolving nature of pilot expertise on a given type of aircraft, which contrasts with the immediate and definitive style of certifying systems. The last difficulties to be considered are those related to the goals of certification itself on these new aircraft and the status of findings from human factor analyses (in particular, what should be done with disappointing results, how much can the changes induced by human factors investigation economically affect aircraft design, how many errors do we need to accumulate before we revise the system, what should be remedied when human factor problems are discovered at the certification stage: the machine? pilot training? the rules? or everything?). The growth of advanced-automated glass cockpits has forced the international aeronautical community to pay more attention to human factors during the design phase, the certification phase and pilot training. The recent creation of a human factor desk at the DGAC-SFACT (Official French services) is a direct consequence of this. The paper is divided into three parts. Part one debates human error and its relationship with system design and accident risk. Part two describes difficulties connected to the basically gradual and evolving nature of pilot expertise on a given type of aircraft, which contrasts with the immediate and definitive style of certifying systems. Part three focuses on concrete outcomes of human factors for certification purposes.

  2. A human factors evaluation using tools for automated knowledge engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomes, Marie E.; Lind, Stephanie

    1994-01-01

    A human factors evaluation of the MH-53J helicopter cockpit is described. This evaluation was an application and futher development of Tools for Automated Knowledge Engineering (TAKE). TAKE is used to acquire and analyze knowledge from domain experts (aircrew members, system designers, maintenance personnel, human factors engineers, or others). TAKE was successfully utilized for the purpose of recommending improvements for the man-machine interfaces (MMI) in the MH-53J cockpit.

  3. Surgical Technology Integration with Tools for Cognitive Human Factors (STITCH)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0761 TITLE: Surgical Technology Integration with Tools for Cognitive Human Factors (STITCH) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...23 JUL 2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Surgical Technology Integration with Tools for Cognitive Human Factors (STITCH) 5b. GRANT...Accomplishments 5 Reportable Outcomes 14 Conclusions 15 Appendices 17 References (appendix B) 18 Surgical Technology Integration with Tools for

  4. Kinetics of the Factor XIa catalyzed activation of human blood coagulation Factor IX

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, P.N.; Bradford, H.; Sinha, D.; Piperno, J.R.; Tuszynski, G.P.

    1984-05-01

    The kinetics of activation of human Factor IX by human Factor XIa was studied by measuring the release of a trichloroacetic acid-soluble tritium-labeled activation peptide from Factor IX. Initial rates of trichloroacetic acid-soluble /sup 3/H-release were linear over 10-30 min of incubation of Factor IX (88 nM) with CaCl/sub 2/ (5 mM) and with pure (greater than 98%) Factor XIa (0.06-1.3 nM), which was prepared by incubating human Factor XI with bovine Factor XIIa. Release of /sup 3/H preceded the appearance of Factor IXa activity, and the percentage of /sup 3/H released remained constant when the mole fraction of /sup 3/H-labeled and unlabeled Factor IX was varied and the total Factor IX concentration remained constant. A linear correlation (r greater than 0.98, P less than 0.001) was observed between initial rates of /sup 3/H-release and the concentration of Factor XIa, measured by chromogenic assay and by radioimmunoassay and added at a Factor IX:Factor XIa molar ratio of 70-5,600. Kinetic parameters, determined by Lineweaver-Burk analysis, include K/sub m/ (0.49 microM) of about five- to sixfold higher than the plasma Factor IX concentration, which could therefore regulate the reaction. The catalytic constant (k/sub cat/) (7.7/s) is approximately 20-50 times higher than that reported by Zur and Nemerson for Factor IX activation by Factor VIIa plus tissue factor. Therefore, depending on the relative amounts of Factor XIa and Factor VIIa generated in vivo and other factors which may influence reaction rates, these kinetic parameters provide part of the information required for assessing the relative contributions of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways to Factor IX activation, and suggest that the Factor XIa catalyzed reaction is physiologically significant.

  5. Contextual poverty, nutrition, and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in CKD outcomes. One of the strongest factors that affects nutrition is socioeconomic status as evidenced by the large body of epidemiologic data showing that income and education are directly associated with diet quality. Apart from individual-level markers of socioeconomic status such as income and education, contextual factors such as availability of and transportation to food outlets that provide healthy food options and the density of fast-food restaurants within particular regions markedly affect the ability of individuals to comply with nutrition recommendations. This is particularly true for nutrition guidelines most specific to individuals with CKD such as the consumption of protein, saturated fat, sodium, and phosphorus, all of which have been shown to affect CKD health and are influenced by the availability of healthy food options within individual neighborhood food environments. Because of the strong association of contextual poverty with the diet quality, any serious attempt to improve the diet of CKD patients must include a discussion of the environmental barriers that each individual faces in trying to access healthy foods, and health care providers should take account of these barriers when tailoring specific recommendations.

  6. Contextual Poverty, Nutrition and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition plays an important role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) outcomes. One of the strongest factors that impacts nutrition is socioeconomic status as evidenced by the large body of epidemiologic data showing that income and education are directly associated with diet quality. Apart from individual-level markers of socioeconomic status such as income and education, contextual factors such as availability of and transportation to food outlets that provide healthy food options and the density of fast food restaurants within particular regions markedly impact the ability of individuals to comply with nutrition recommendations. This is particularly true for nutrition guidelines most specific to individuals with CKD such as the consumption of protein, saturated fat, sodium and phosphorus, all of which have been shown to impact CKD health and are influenced by the availability of healthy food options within individual neighborhood food environments. Because of the strong association of contextual poverty with the diet quality, any serious attempt to improve the diet of CKD patients must include a discussion of the environmental barriers that each individual faces in trying to access healthy foods and health care providers should take account of these barriers when tailoring specific recommendations. PMID:25573510

  7. Research Directory for Manpower, Personnel, Training, and Human Factors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Design 89 * * * HUMAN FACTORS ENGINEERING (lIFE) * AIR FORCE Arnaiz J* Gentex Corp 717-282-3550 Support of the Evaluation of Night Vision Devices...Command 8 48 Armstrong R Mr Human Engineering Lab 10 76 Arnaiz J* Gentex Corp 10 90 Arnold D Office of the Chief of Naval Operations 6 41 Arnold L

  8. Human Factors In The Design Of Video Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1990-01-01

    Good designs take account of perceptual tendencies and conceptual biases in observers. Report presents overview of evolving knowledge of interactions between video displays and human observers. Discusses relative advantages and disadvantages of static and dynamic displays, with attention to human factors combining with characteristics of video-display medium to affect observer's percepts.

  9. Human Factors of Queuing: A Library Circulation Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Jerry W.

    1981-01-01

    Classical queuing theories and their accompanying service facilities totally disregard the human factors in the name of efficiency. As library managers we need to be more responsive to human needs in the design of service points and make every effort to minimize queuing and queue frustration. Five references are listed. (Author/RAA)

  10. Space Human Factors Engineering Gap Analysis Project Final Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudy, Cynthia; Woolford, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Humans perform critical functions throughout each phase of every space mission, beginning with the mission concept and continuing to post-mission analysis (Life Sciences Division, 1996). Space missions present humans with many challenges - the microgravity environment, relative isolation, and inherent dangers of the mission all present unique issues. As mission duration and distance from Earth increases, in-flight crew autonomy will increase along with increased complexity. As efforts for exploring the moon and Mars advance, there is a need for space human factors research and technology development to play a significant role in both on-orbit human-system interaction, as well as the development of mission requirements and needs before and after the mission. As part of the Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Project within the Human Research Program (HRP), a six-month Gap Analysis Project (GAP) was funded to identify any human factors research gaps or knowledge needs. The overall aim of the project was to review the current state of human factors topic areas and requirements to determine what data, processes, or tools are needed to aid in the planning and development of future exploration missions, and also to prioritize proposals for future research and technology development.

  11. Human Factors Throughout the Life Cycle: Lessons Learned from the Shuttle Program. [Human Factors in Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanki, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    With the ending of the Space Shuttle Program, it is critical that we not forget the Human Factors lessons we have learned over the years. At every phase of the life cycle, from manufacturing, processing and integrating vehicle and payload, to launch, flight operations, mission control and landing, hundreds of teams have worked together to achieve mission success in one of the most complex, high-risk socio-technical enterprises ever designed. Just as there was great diversity in the types of operations performed at every stage, there was a myriad of human factors that could further complicate these human systems. A single mishap or close call could point to issues at the individual level (perceptual or workload limitations, training, fatigue, human error susceptibilities), the task level (design of tools, procedures and aspects of the workplace), as well as the organizational level (appropriate resources, safety policies, information access and communication channels). While we have often had to learn through human mistakes and technological failures, we have also begun to understand how to design human systems in which individuals can excel, where tasks and procedures are not only safe but efficient, and how organizations can foster a proactive approach to managing risk and supporting human enterprises. Panelists will talk about their experiences as they relate human factors to a particular phase of the shuttle life cycle. They will conclude with a framework for tying together human factors lessons-learned into system-level risk management strategies.

  12. Contextual knowledge reduces demands on working memory during reading.

    PubMed

    Miller, Lisa M Soederberg; Cohen, Jason A; Wingfield, Arthur

    2006-09-01

    An experiment is reported in which young, middle-aged, and older adults read and recalled ambiguous texts either with or without the topic title that supplied contextual knowledge. Within each of the age groups, the participants were divided into those with high or low working memory (WM) spans, with available WM capacity further manipulated by the presence or absence of an auditory target detection task concurrent with the reading task. Differences in reading efficiency (reading time per proposition recalled) between low WM span and high WM span groups were greater among readers who had access to contextual knowledge relative to those who did not, suggesting that contextual knowledge reduces demands on WM capacity. This position was further supported by the finding that increased age and attentional demands, two factors associated with reduced WM capacity, exaggerated the benefits of contextual knowledge on reading efficiency. The relative strengths of additional potential predictors of reading efficiency (e.g., interest, effort, and memory beliefs), along with knowledge, WM span, and age, are reported. Findings showed that contextual knowledge was the strongest predictor of reading efficiency even after controlling for the effects of all of the other predictors.

  13. [Physical factors in human ecology and environmental hygiene].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, Iu A

    2009-01-01

    The paper considers the problem while studying various physical factors of the environment. It presents prospects for further investigations of the influence of physical factors on human health and the quality of the environment. The paper also gives a detailed description of advances and promising lines of studies in the area under discussion.

  14. Contextual Influences on Korean College Students' Vocational Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Bora; Kim, Dae Won; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2016-01-01

    This study observed the effect of contextual factors on vocational identity (VI) level in each VI status, originated by Marcia ("Handbook of adolescent psychology." Wiley, New York, 1980)'s identity status. This is an attempt to integrate status approach and dimension approach of VI development by finding within-status difference of…

  15. Psychological, Contextual, and Social Determinants of Safe Sex Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Anna V.; Iscoe, Ira; Holahan, Charles J.

    This paper reports on a study that developed a model of sexual risk-taking behavior that included psychological measures, as well as social or demographic factors, and contextual variables. The study seeks to contribute to the knowledge based used when designing health promotion or disease prevention programs that promote safer sexual practices…

  16. Robotics and human factors: current status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Mcilvaine Parsons, H.; Kearsley, G.P.

    1982-10-01

    From the perspective of human factors engineering, the most important question is the division of labor between robots and humans, who participate in robot systems in nine activities: surveillance, intervention, maintenance, backup, input, output, supervision, inspection, and synergy. Additional concerns include hardware and software design of interfaces with operators, procedure development, accident prevention, and training. There have been a few human factors studies but more are needed, drawing in part on research in artificial intelligence, to support robotics for industrial productivity and military requirements. 49 references.

  17. Individual, family background, and contextual explanations of racial and ethnic disparities in youths' exposure to violence.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F

    2013-03-01

    We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic-White gap (33%) and the Black-White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences.

  18. Individual, Family Background, and Contextual Explanations of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Youths’ Exposure to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic–White gap (33%) and the Black–White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences. PMID:23327266

  19. An overview of a nuclear reprocessing plant Human Factors programme.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Barry

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents a case study of a large Human Factors programme applied in the nuclear fuel reprocessing industry (1987-1991). The paper outlines the key Human Factors issues addressed, as well as the impacts achieved, and gives an indication of the resources utilised (approximately 15 person-years of effort). It also considers the starting point of the programme, in terms of the factors that led to the need for such an extensive programme. Some general lessons learned are given at the end of the paper.

  20. Probabilistic Simulation of the Human Factor in Structural Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, Christos C.; Singhal, Surendra N.

    1994-01-01

    The formal approach described herein computationally simulates the probable ranges of uncertainties for the human factor in probabilistic assessments of structural reliability. Human factors such as marital status, professional status, home life, job satisfaction, work load, and health are studied by using a multifactor interaction equation (MFIE) model to demonstrate the approach. Parametric studies in conjunction with judgment are used to select reasonable values for the participating factors (primitive variables). Subsequently performed probabilistic sensitivity studies assess the suitability of the MFIE as well as the validity of the whole approach. Results show that uncertainties range from 5 to 30 percent for the most optimistic case, assuming 100 percent for no error (perfect performance).

  1. Induction of nerve growth factor receptors on cultured human melanocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peacocke, M.; Yaar, M.; Mansur, C.P.; Chao, M.V.; Gilchrest, B.A. )

    1988-07-01

    Normal differentiation and malignant transformation of human melanocytes involve a complex series of interactions during which both genetic and environmental factors play roles. At present, the regulation of these processes is poorly understood. The authors have induced the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors on cultured human melanocytes with phorbol 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate and have correlated this event with the appearance of a more differentiated, dendritic morphology. Criteria for NGF receptor expression included protein accumulation and cell-surface immunofluorescent staining with a monoclonal antibody directed against the human receptor and induction of the messenger RNA species as determined by blot-hybridization studies. The presence of the receptor could also be induced by UV irradiation or growth factor deprivation. The NGF receptor is inducible in cultured human melanocytes, and they suggest that NGF may modulate the behavior of this neural crest-derived cell in the skin.

  2. Identification of human autoantibodies to transcription factor IIB.

    PubMed Central

    Abendroth, F D; Peterson, S R; Galman, M; Suwa, A; Hardin, J A; Dynan, W S

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized the ability of various human autoimmune sera to react with RNA polymerase II transcription factors. One serum, which strongly inhibited transcription in a cell-free system, was shown to contain antibodies directed against human TFIIB. The serum did not show reactivity against the other general transcription factors, including human TBP, TFIIE and TFIIF. The inhibition of transcription was directly attributable to depletion of TFIIB activity, as demonstrated by reconstitution of activity with recombinant TFIIB. It has long been recognized that components of the RNA processing machinery are major human autoantigens. The present results show that at least one general transcription factor required for messenger RNA synthesis is an autoantigen as well. Images PMID:7651839

  3. Design, Development, Testing, and Evaluation: Human Factors Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelstein, Bernard; Hobbs, Alan; OHara, John; Null, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    While human-system interaction occurs in all phases of system development and operation, this chapter on Human Factors in the DDT&E for Reliable Spacecraft Systems is restricted to the elements that involve "direct contact" with spacecraft systems. Such interactions will encompass all phases of human activity during the design, fabrication, testing, operation, and maintenance phases of the spacecraft lifespan. This section will therefore consider practices that would accommodate and promote effective, safe, reliable, and robust human interaction with spacecraft systems. By restricting this chapter to what the team terms "direct contact" with the spacecraft, "remote" factors not directly involved in the development and operation of the vehicle, such as management and organizational issues, have been purposely excluded. However, the design of vehicle elements that enable and promote ground control activities such as monitoring, feedback, correction and reversal (override) of on-board human and automation process are considered as per NPR8705.2A, Section 3.3.

  4. 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering Standing Review Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI), and NASA Headquarters on November 17, 2014 (list of participants is in Section XI of this report). The SRP reviewed the updated research plans for the Risk of Incompatible Vehicle/Habitat Design (HAB Risk) and the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Training Deficiencies (Train Risk). The SRP also received a status update on the Risk of Inadequate Critical Task Design (Task Risk), the Risk of Inadequate Design of Human and Automation/Robotic Integration (HARI Risk), and the Risk of Inadequate Human-Computer Interaction (HCI Risk).

  5. Cleavage and activation of human factor IX by serine proteases

    SciTech Connect

    Enfield, D.L.; Thompson, A.R.

    1984-10-01

    Human factor IX circulates as a single-chain glycoprotein. Upon activation in vitro, it is cleaved into disulfide-linked light and heavy chains and an activation peptide. After reduction of activated /sup 125/I-factor IX, the heavy and light chains are readily identified by gel electrophoresis. A direct, immunoradiometric assay for factor IXa was developed to assess activation of factor IX for proteases that cleaved it. The assay utilized radiolabeled antithrombin III with heparin to identify the active site and antibodies to distinguish factor IX. After cleavage of factor IX by factor XIa, factor VIIa-tissue thromboplastin complex, or the factor X-activating enzyme from Russell's viper venom, antithrombin III bound readily to factor IXa. Cleavage of /sup 125/I-factor IX by trypsin, chymotrypsin, and granulocyte elastase in the presence of calcium yielded major polypeptide fragments of the sizes of the factor XIa-generated light and heavy chains. When the immunoradiometric assay was used to assess trypsin-cleaved factor IX, the product bound antithrombin III, but not maximally. After digesting with insolubilized trypsin, clotting activity confirmed activation. In evaluating activation of factor IX, physical evidence of activation cleavages does not necessarily correlate with generation of an active site.

  6. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  7. 49 CFR 225.12 - Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement..., AND INVESTIGATIONS § 225.12 Rail Equipment Accident/Incident Reports alleging employee human factor as cause; Employee Human Factor Attachment; notice to employee; employee supplement. (a) Rail...

  8. Experimental contextuality in classical light

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Qiang; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-01-01

    The Klyachko, Can, Binicioglu, and Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality is an important contextuality inequality in three-level system, which has been demonstrated experimentally by using quantum states. Using the path and polarization degrees of freedom of classical optics fields, we have constructed the classical trit (cetrit), tested the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form (Wright’s inequality) in this work. The projection measurement has been implemented, the clear violations of the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form have been observed. This means that the contextuality inequality, which is commonly used in test of the conflict between quantum theory and noncontextual realism, may be used as a quantitative tool in classical optical coherence to describe correlation characteristics of the classical fields. PMID:28291227

  9. Experimental contextuality in classical light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Zeng, Qiang; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-03-01

    The Klyachko, Can, Binicioglu, and Shumovsky (KCBS) inequality is an important contextuality inequality in three-level system, which has been demonstrated experimentally by using quantum states. Using the path and polarization degrees of freedom of classical optics fields, we have constructed the classical trit (cetrit), tested the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form (Wright’s inequality) in this work. The projection measurement has been implemented, the clear violations of the KCBS inequality and its geometrical form have been observed. This means that the contextuality inequality, which is commonly used in test of the conflict between quantum theory and noncontextual realism, may be used as a quantitative tool in classical optical coherence to describe correlation characteristics of the classical fields.

  10. Human Factors Research for Space Exploration: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Allen, Christopher S.; Barshi, Immanuel; Billman, Dorrit; Holden, Kritina L.

    2010-01-01

    As part of NASA's Human Research Program, the Space Human Factors Engineering Project serves as the bridge between Human Factors research and Human Spaceflight applications. Our goal is to be responsive to the operational community while addressing issues at a sufficient level of abstraction to ensure that our tools and solutions generalize beyond the point design. In this panel, representatives from four of our research domains will discuss the challenges they face in solving current problems while also enabling future capabilities. Historically, engineering-dominated organizations have tended to view good Human Factors (HF) as a desire rather than a requirement in system design and development. Our field has made significant gains in the past decade, however; the Department of Defense, for example, now recognizes Human-System Integration (HSI), of which HF is a component, as an integral part of their divisions hardware acquisition processes. And our own agency was far more accepting of HF/HSI requirements during the most recent vehicle systems definition than in any prior cycle. Nonetheless, HF subject matter experts at NASA often find themselves in catch up mode... coping with legacy systems (hardware and software) and procedures that were designed with little regard for the human element, and too often with an attitude of we can deal with any operator issues during training. Our challenge, then, is to segregate the true knowledge gaps in Space Human Factors from the prior failures to incorporate best (or even good) HF design principles. Further, we strive to extract the overarching core HF issues from the point-design-specific concerns that capture the operators (and managers) attention. Generally, our approach embraces a 3M approach to Human Factors: Measurement, Modeling, and Mitigation. Our first step is to measure human performance, to move from subjective anecdotes to objective, quantified data. Next we model the phenomenon, using appropriate methods in

  11. Discovery of Insect and Human Dengue Virus Host Factors

    PubMed Central

    Sessions, October M.; Barrows, Nicholas J.; Souza-Neto, Jayme A.; Robinson, Timothy J.; Hershey, Christine L.; Rodgers, Mary A.; Ramirez, Jose L.; Dimopoulos, George; Yang, Priscilla L.; Pearson, James L.; Garcia-Blanco, Mariano A.

    2012-01-01

    Dengue fever (DF) is the most frequent arthropod-borne viral disease of humans, with almost half of the world's population at risk of infection1. The high prevalence, lack of an effective vaccine, and absence of specific treatment conspire to make DF a global public health threat1, 2. Given their compact genomes, dengue viruses (DENV 1-4) and other flaviviruses likely require an extensive number of host factors; however, only a limited number of human, and an even smaller number of insect host factors have been identified3-10. To discover insect host factors required for DENV-2 propagation, we carried out a genome-wide RNA interference screen in Drosophila melanogaster cells using a well-established 22,632 dsRNA library. This screen identified 116 candidate dengue virus host factors (DVHFs) (Supplementary Fig. 1). While some were previously associated with flaviviruses (e.g., V-ATPases and alpha-glucosidases)3-5, 7, 9, 10, most DVHFs were newly implicated in DENV propagation. The dipteran DVHFs had eighty-two readily recognizable human homologues and, using a targeted siRNA screen, we showed that forty-two of these are human DVHFs. This indicates remarkable conservation of required factors between dipteran and human hosts. This work suggests novel approaches to control infection in the insect vector and the mammalian host. PMID:19396146

  12. Applied human factors research at the NASA Johnson Space Center Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudisill, Marianne; Mckay, Timothy D.

    1990-01-01

    The applied human factors research program performed at the NASA Johnson Space Center's Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory is discussed. Research is conducted to advance knowledge in human interaction with computer systems during space crew tasks. In addition, the Laboratory is directly involved in the specification of the human-computer interface (HCI) for space systems in development (e.g., Space Station Freedom) and is providing guidelines and support for HCI design to current and future space missions.

  13. 77 FR 3500 - VTECH Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, OR; Amended Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ... Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, OR; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To... the subject firm should read VTech Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, Oregon... VTech Communications, Inc., Human Factors Department, Beaverton, Oregon. The intent of the...

  14. The clinical investigator-subject relationship: a contextual approach

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The nature of the relationship between a clinical investigator and a research subject has generated considerable debate because the investigator occupies two distinct roles: clinician and scientist. As a clinician, the investigator has duties to provide the patient with optimal care and undivided loyalty. As a scientist, the investigator has duties to follow the rules, procedures and methods described in the protocol. Results and conclusion In this article, I present a contextual approach to the investigator-subject relationship. The extent of the investigator's duty to provide the patient/subject with clinical care can vary from one situation to the next, as a function of several factors, including: the research design, benefits and risks of the research; the subject's reasonable expectations, motivations, and vulnerabilities; the investigator's ability to benefit the subject; and the investigator's prior relationship with the subject. These and other factors need to be considered when determining the clinical investigator's obligations to provide clinical care to human research subjects. In some research contexts, the investigator has extensive clinical obligations to the patient/subject; in others, the investigator has minimal ones. PMID:19958542

  15. Human factors of intelligent computer aided display design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Design concepts for a decision support system being studied at NASA Langley as an aid to visual display unit (VDU) designers are described. Ideally, human factors should be taken into account by VDU designers. In reality, although the human factors database on VDUs is small, such systems must be constantly developed. Human factors are therefore a secondary consideration. An expert system will thus serve mainly in an advisory capacity. Functions can include facilitating the design process by shortening the time to generate and alter drawings, enhancing the capability of breaking design requirements down into simpler functions, and providing visual displays equivalent to the final product. The VDU system could also discriminate, and display the difference, between designer decisions and machine inferences. The system could also aid in analyzing the effects of designer choices on future options and in ennunciating when there are data available on a design selections.

  16. Human factors dealing with the International Asteroid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Human factors encompass many concerns in the 2.83 year International Asteroid Mission (IAM) mission from the initial crew selection to the final readaptation to Earth environment. These factors include radiation, physical deconditioning, crew selection and interaction, psychosocial issues, and health maintenance. The main theme that runs throughout the group's work is the lack of current available research into the problem areas. This stems from the relatively short mission durations in the last 30 years of spaceflight and thus no heavy emphasis in the human factors area. In short, no one has been in space for 3 years and thus we do not know what the effects of a three year flight are. It will be one of the goals in the IAM mission to do some research that may contribute to the fundamental knowledge of preparing for how humans can live in space.

  17. A human factors methodology for real-time support applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, E. D.; Vanbalen, P. M.; Mitchell, C. M.

    1983-01-01

    A general approach to the human factors (HF) analysis of new or existing projects at NASA/Goddard is delineated. Because the methodology evolved from HF evaluations of the Mission Planning Terminal (MPT) and the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite Mission Operations Room (ERBS MOR), it is directed specifically to the HF analysis of real-time support applications. Major topics included for discussion are the process of establishing a working relationship between the Human Factors Group (HFG) and the project, orientation of HF analysts to the project, human factors analysis and review, and coordination with major cycles of system development. Sub-topics include specific areas for analysis and appropriate HF tools. Management support functions are outlined. References provide a guide to sources of further information.

  18. Addressing the human factors issues associated with control room modifications

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hara, J.; Stubler, W.; Kramer, J.

    1998-03-01

    Advanced human-system interface (HSI) technology is being integrated into existing nuclear plants as part of plant modifications and upgrades. The result of this trend is that hybrid HSIs are created, i.e., HSIs containing a mixture of conventional (analog) and advanced (digital) technology. The purpose of the present research is to define the potential effects of hybrid HSIs on personnel performance and plant safety and to develop human factors guidance for safety reviews of them where necessary. In support of this objective, human factors issues associated with hybrid HSIs were identified. The issues were evaluated for their potential significance to plant safety, i.e., their human performance concerns have the potential to compromise plant safety. The issues were then prioritized and a subset was selected for design review guidance development.

  19. Integrated contextual representation for objects' identities and their locations.

    PubMed

    Gronau, Nurit; Neta, Maital; Bar, Moshe

    2008-03-01

    Visual context plays a prominent role in everyday perception. Contextual information can facilitate recognition of objects within scenes by providing predictions about objects that are most likely to appear in a specific setting, along with the locations that are most likely to contain objects in the scene. Is such identity-related ("semantic") and location-related ("spatial") contextual knowledge represented separately or jointly as a bound representation? We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) priming experiment whereby semantic and spatial contextual relations between prime and target object pictures were independently manipulated. This method allowed us to determine whether the two contextual factors affect object recognition with or without interacting, supporting a unified versus independent representations, respectively. Results revealed a Semantic x Spatial interaction in reaction times for target object recognition. Namely, significant semantic priming was obtained when targets were positioned in expected (congruent), but not in unexpected (incongruent), locations. fMRI results showed corresponding interactive effects in brain regions associated with semantic processing (inferior prefrontal cortex), visual contextual processing (parahippocampal cortex), and object-related processing (lateral occipital complex). In addition, activation in fronto-parietal areas suggests that attention and memory-related processes might also contribute to the contextual effects observed. These findings indicate that object recognition benefits from associative representations that integrate information about objects' identities and their locations, and directly modulate activation in object-processing cortical regions. Such context frames are useful in maintaining a coherent and meaningful representation of the visual world, and in providing a platform from which predictions can be generated to facilitate perception and action.

  20. Human Factors and Habitability Challenges for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2015-01-01

    As NASA is planning to send humans deeper into space than ever before, adequate crew health and performance will be critical for mission success. Within the NASA Human Research Program (HRP), the Space Human Factors and Habitability (SHFH) team is responsible for characterizing the risks associated with human capabilities and limitations with respect to long-duration spaceflight, and for providing mitigations (e.g., guidelines, technologies, and tools) to promote safe, reliable and productive missions. SHFH research includes three domains: Advanced Environmental Health (AEH), Advanced Food Technology (AFT), and Space Human Factors Engineering (SHFE). The AEH portfolio focuses on understanding the risk of microbial contamination of the spacecraft and on the development of standards for exposure to potential toxins such as chemicals, bacteria, fungus, and lunar/Martian dust. The two risks that the environmental health project focuses on are adverse health effects due to changes in host-microbe interactions, and risks associated with exposure to dust in planetary surface habitats. This portfolio also proposes countermeasures to these risks by making recommendations that relate to requirements for environmental quality, foods, and crew health on spacecraft and space missions. The AFT portfolio focuses on reducing the mass, volume, and waste of the entire integrated food system to be used in exploration missions, and investigating processing methods to extend the shelf life of food items up to five years, while assuring that exploration crews will have nutritious and palatable foods. The portfolio also delivers improvements in both the food itself and the technologies for storing and preparing it. SHFE sponsors research to establish human factors and habitability standards and guidelines in five risk areas, and provides improved design concepts for advanced crew interfaces and habitability systems. These risk areas include: Incompatible vehicle/habitat design

  1. Human factors - Man-machine symbiosis in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Jeri W.

    1987-01-01

    The relation between man and machine in space is studied. Early spaceflight and the goal of establishing a permanent space presence are described. The need to consider the physiological, psychological, and social integration of humans for each space mission is examined. Human factors must also be considered in the design of spacecraft. The effective utilization of man and machine capabilities, and research in anthropometry and biomechanics aimed at determining the limitations of spacecrews are discussed.

  2. Human Health/Human Factors Considerations in Trans-Lunar Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. Cherice; Howard, Robert; Mendeck, Gavin

    2014-01-01

    The human factors insights of how they are incorporated into the vehicle are crucial towards designing and planning the internal designs necessary for future spacecraft and missions. The adjusted mission concept of supporting the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission will drive some human factors changes on how the Orion will be used and will be reassessed so as to best contribute to missions success. Recognizing what the human factors and health functional needs are early in the design process and how to integrate them will improve this and future generations of space vehicles to achieve mission success and continue to minimize risks.

  3. Human factors in the management of the critically ill patient.

    PubMed

    Bion, J F; Abrusci, T; Hibbert, P

    2010-07-01

    Unreliable delivery of best practice care is a major component of medical error. Critically ill patients are particularly susceptible to error and unreliable care. Human factors analysis, widely used in industry, provides insights into how interactions between organizations, tasks, and the individual worker impact on human behaviour and affect systems reliability. We adopt a human factors approach to examine determinants of clinical reliability in the management of critically ill patients. We conducted a narrative review based on a Medline search (1950-March 2010) combining intensive/critical care (units) with medical errors, patient safety, or delivery of healthcare; keyword and Internet search 'human factors' or 'ergonomics'. Critical illness represents a high-risk, complex system spanning speciality and geographical boundaries. Substantial opportunities exist for improving the safety and reliability of care of critically ill patients at the level of the task, the individual healthcare provider, and the organization or system. Task standardization (best practice guidelines) and simplification (bundling or checklists) should be implemented where scientific evidence is strong, or adopted subject to further research ('dynamic standardization'). Technical interventions should be embedded in everyday practice by the adjunctive use of non-technical (behavioural) interventions. These include executive 'adoption' of clinical areas, systematic methods for identifying hazards and reflective learning from error, and a range of techniques for improving teamworking and communication. Human factors analysis provides a useful framework for understanding and rectifying the causes of error and unreliability, particularly in complex systems such as critical care.

  4. A Human Factors Framework for Payload Display Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, Mariea C.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1998-01-01

    During missions to space, one charge of the astronaut crew is to conduct research experiments. These experiments, referred to as payloads, typically are controlled by computers. Crewmembers interact with payload computers by using visual interfaces or displays. To enhance the safety, productivity, and efficiency of crewmember interaction with payload displays, particular attention must be paid to the usability of these displays. Enhancing display usability requires adoption of a design process that incorporates human factors engineering principles at each stage. This paper presents a proposed framework for incorporating human factors engineering principles into the payload display design process.

  5. Human Factors Vehicle Displacement Analysis: Engineering In Motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atencio, Laura Ashley; Reynolds, David; Robertson, Clay

    2010-01-01

    While positioned on the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center, tall stacked launch vehicles are exposed to the natural environment. Varying directional winds and vortex shedding causes the vehicle to sway in an oscillating motion. The Human Factors team recognizes that vehicle sway may hinder ground crew operation, impact the ground system designs, and ultimately affect launch availability . The objective of this study is to physically simulate predicted oscillation envelopes identified by analysis. and conduct a Human Factors Analysis to assess the ability to carry out essential Upper Stage (US) ground operator tasks based on predicted vehicle motion.

  6. Genetic and environmental factors in experimental and human cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Takayama, S.; Takebe, H.; Gelboin, H.V.; MaChahon, B.; Matsushima, T.; Sugimura, T.

    1980-01-01

    Recently technological advances in assaying mutagenic principles have revealed that there are many mutagens in the environment, some of which might be carcinogenic to human beings. Other advances in genetics have shown that genetic factors might play an important role in the induction of cancer in human beings, e.g., the high incidence of skin cancers in patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. These proceedings deal with the relationships between genetic and environmental factors in carcinogenesis. The contributors cover mixed-function oxidases, pharmacogenetics, twin studies, DNA repair, immunology, and epidemiology.

  7. Patient safety - the role of human factors and systems engineering.

    PubMed

    Carayon, Pascale; Wood, Kenneth E

    2010-01-01

    Patient safety is a global challenge that requires knowledge and skills in multiple areas, including human factors and systems engineering. In this chapter, numerous conceptual approaches and methods for analyzing, preventing and mitigating medical errors are described. Given the complexity of healthcare work systems and processes, we emphasize the need for increasing partnerships between the health sciences and human factors and systems engineering to improve patient safety. Those partnerships will be able to develop and implement the system redesigns that are necessary to improve healthcare work systems and processes for patient safety.

  8. Human factors systems approach to healthcare quality and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Carayon, Pascale; Wetterneck, Tosha B.; Rivera-Rodriguez, A. Joy; Hundt, Ann Schoofs; Hoonakker, Peter; Holden, Richard; Gurses, Ayse P.

    2013-01-01

    Human factors systems approaches are critical for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. The SEIPS (Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety) model of work system and patient safety is a human factors systems approach that has been successfully applied in healthcare research and practice. Several research and practical applications of the SEIPS model are described. Important implications of the SEIPS model for healthcare system and process redesign are highlighted. Principles for redesigning healthcare systems using the SEIPS model are described. Balancing the work system and encouraging the active and adaptive role of workers are key principles for improving healthcare quality and patient safety. PMID:23845724

  9. Meeting Human Reliability Requirements through Human Factors Design, Testing, and Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Boring

    2007-06-01

    In the design of novel systems, it is important for the human factors engineer to work in parallel with the human reliability analyst to arrive at the safest achievable design that meets design team safety goals and certification or regulatory requirements. This paper introduces the System Development Safety Triptych, a checklist of considerations for the interplay of human factors and human reliability through design, testing, and modeling in product development. This paper also explores three phases of safe system development, corresponding to the conception, design, and implementation of a system.

  10. Improving the human-computer interface: a human factors engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Salvemini, A V

    1998-01-01

    Human factors engineering involves the application of information about human behavior and characteristics in the design and testing of products, systems, and environments. A computing system's interface is developed on the basis of potential users' capabilities and limitations, the users' tasks, and the environment in which those tasks are performed. When human factors engineers work with users, subject-matter experts, and developers to design and test a system, they analyze and document users' tasks and requirements and develop prototype designs. Usability studies are conducted and user errors are analyzed to identify problems and develop recommendations for improving the human-computer interface.

  11. NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holubec, Keith; Connolly, Janis

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the history, and development of NASA-STD-3001, NASA Space Flight Human-System Standard Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, and the related Human Integration Design Handbook. Currently being developed from NASA-STD-3000, this project standard currently in review will be available in two volumes, (i.e., Volume 1 -- VCrew Health and Volume 2 -- Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health) and the handbook will be both available as a pdf file and as a interactive website.

  12. Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Tiffaney Miller

    2017-01-01

    Research results have shown that more than half of aviation, aerospace and aeronautics mishaps incidents are attributed to human error. As a part of Quality within space exploration ground processing operations, the identification and or classification of underlying contributors and causes of human error must be identified, in order to manage human error.This presentation will provide a framework and methodology using the Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART) and Human Factor Analysis and Classification System (HFACS), as an analysis tool to identify contributing factors, their impact on human error events, and predict the Human Error probabilities (HEPs) of future occurrences. This research methodology was applied (retrospectively) to six (6) NASA ground processing operations scenarios and thirty (30) years of Launch Vehicle related mishap data. This modifiable framework can be used and followed by other space and similar complex operations.

  13. Human factors engineering report for the cold vacuum drying facility

    SciTech Connect

    IMKER, F.W.

    1999-06-30

    The purpose of this report is to present the results and findings of the final Human Factors Engineering (HFE) technical analysis and evaluation of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). Ergonomics issues are also addressed in this report, as appropriate. This report follows up and completes the preliminary work accomplished and reported by the Preliminary HFE Analysis report (SNF-2825, Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Human Factors Engineering Analysis: Results and Findings). This analysis avoids redundancy of effort except for ensuring that previously recommended HFE design changes have not affected other parts of the system. Changes in one part of the system may affect other parts of the system where those changes were not applied. The final HFE analysis and evaluation of the CVDF human-machine interactions (HMI) was expanded to include: the physical work environment, human-computer interface (HCI) including workstation and software, operator tasks, tools, maintainability, communications, staffing, training, and the overall ability of humans to accomplish their responsibilities, as appropriate. Key focal areas for this report are the process bay operations, process water conditioning (PWC) skid, tank room, and Central Control Room operations. These key areas contain the system safety-class components and are the foundation for the human factors design basis of the CVDF.

  14. Genetic and environmental factors influencing human diseases with telomere dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Hinh

    2009-01-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of serious and fatal forms of human blood disorder (acquired aplastic anemia, AA) and lung disease (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, IPF). We and other researchers have recently shown that naturally occurring mutations in genes encoding the telomere maintenance complex (telomerase) may predispose patients to the development of AA or IPF. Epidemiological data have shown that environmental factors can also cause and/or exacerbate the pathogenesis of these diseases. The exact mechanisms that these germ-line mutations in telomere maintenance genes coupled with environmental insults lead to ineffective hematopoiesis in AA and lung scarring in IPF are not well understood, however. In this article, we provide a summary of evidence for environmental and genetic factors influencing the diseases. These studies provide important insights into the interplay between environmental and genetic factors leading to human diseases with telomere dysfunction. PMID:19684885

  15. Probabilistic simulation of the human factor in structural reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamis, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    A formal approach is described in an attempt to computationally simulate the probable ranges of uncertainties of the human factor in structural probabilistic assessments. A multi-factor interaction equation (MFIE) model has been adopted for this purpose. Human factors such as marital status, professional status, home life, job satisfaction, work load and health, are considered to demonstrate the concept. Parametric studies in conjunction with judgment are used to select reasonable values for the participating factors (primitive variables). Suitability of the MFIE in the subsequently probabilistic sensitivity studies are performed to assess the validity of the whole approach. Results obtained show that the uncertainties for no error range from five to thirty percent for the most optimistic case.

  16. Human factors evaluation of teletherapy: Literature review. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Henriksen, K.; Kaye, R.D.; Jones, R.; Morisseau, D.S.; Serig, D.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of human factors evaluations were undertaken to better understand the contributing factors to human error in the teletherapy environment. Teletherapy is a multidisciplinary methodology for treating cancerous tissue through selective exposure to an external beam of ionizing radiation. A team of human factors specialists, assisted by a panel of radiation oncologists, medical physicists, and radiation therapists, conducted site visits to radiation oncology departments at community hospitals, university centers, and free-standing clinics. A function and task analysis was performed initially to guide subsequent evaluations in the areas of workplace environment, system-user interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices. To further acquire an in-depth and up-to-date understanding of the practice of teletherapy in support of these evaluations, a systematic literature review was conducted. Factors that have a potential impact on the accuracy of treatment delivery were of primary concern. The present volume is the literature review. The volume starts with an overview of the multiphased nature of teletherapy, and then examines the requirement for precision, the increasing role of quality assurance, current conceptualizations of human error, and the role of system factors such as the workplace environment, user-system interfaces, procedures, training, and organizational practices.

  17. Contextual diversity is a main determinant of word identification times in young readers.

    PubMed

    Perea, Manuel; Soares, Ana Paula; Comesaña, Montserrat

    2013-09-01

    Recent research with college-aged skilled readers by Adelman and colleagues revealed that contextual diversity (i.e., the number of contexts in which a word appears) is a more critical determinant of visual word recognition than mere repeated exposure (i.e., word frequency) (Psychological Science, 2006, Vol. 17, pp. 814-823). Given that contextual diversity has been claimed to be a relevant factor to word acquisition in developing readers, the effects of contextual diversity should also be a main determinant of word identification times in developing readers. A lexical decision experiment was conducted to examine the effects of contextual diversity and word frequency in young readers (children in fourth grade). Results revealed a sizable effect of contextual diversity, but not of word frequency, thereby generalizing Adelman and colleagues' data to a child population. These findings call for the implementation of dynamic developmental models of visual word recognition that go beyond a learning rule by mere exposure.

  18. Contextual Influences on Distress Intolerance: Priming Effects on Behavioral Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Szuhany, Kristin L.; Otto, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    Distress intolerance (DI), the inability to tolerate stressful experiences, has been linked to multiple psychiatric conditions and maladaptive coping patterns. Although DI is often considered a trait-like variable, evidence indicates that self-report and behavioral indices of DI can be manipulated by contextual factors. Understanding such contextual influences is important given evidence of unexpected variability in these presumed trait-like measures over brief intervals. The current study examined the influence of context (manipulated by priming concepts of “Interminability” and “Brevity”) in predicting behavioral persistence, in relation to self-reported DI. Results indicated that priming Brevity was associated with terminating a cold-pressor task more quickly. Self-reported DI was linked to earlier termination, but there was no interaction between self-reported DI and priming condition. Results indicate that contextual cues modulate performance on behavioral measures of DI. Hence, models of DI should consider both trait-like and contextual factors in understanding variability in DI measures. PMID:26366022

  19. Human factors issues in the use of night vision devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.; Foyle, David C.

    1991-01-01

    An account is given of the critical human factors that arise in field data on the differences between night vision displays and unaided day vision. Attention is given to the findings of empirical studies of performance on rotorcraft-flight-relevant perceptual tasks in which depth and distance perception are critical factors. Suggestions are made for man-machine-critical component design modifications in current night vision systems.

  20. Contextual Influences on Financial Behavior: A Proposed Model for Adult Financial Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Wendy L.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents an ecological model that highlights the importance of considering multiple contextual influences on behavior as well as other factors that may impact learning when designing research and practice aimed at enhancing financial capability.

  1. Human factors and productivity on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Brown, J. W.; Santy, P. A.

    1989-01-01

    Three main facets of man systems are investigated with reference to the Space Station Freedom program: specific hardware systems that focus on the human element; requirements definition for man-systems integration; and crew interface and operations analysis. Three key criteria have been identified for selecting individuals to constitute the human system or crew for Space Station Freedom missions: aptitude for mission specific skills, motivation, and sensitivity to self and others. Integration of the human system into the complex engineering and science systems planned on Space Station Freedom will require the close collaboration of engineers, physicians, psychologists, and human factors experts. Ground-based research and experiments on the KC-135 aircraft are providing information about how human systems will function on a space station and how to design other systems to interact with the crew. A laboratory for further research will be provided onboard Space Station Freedom.

  2. The importance of residues 195-206 of human blood clotting factor VII in the interaction of factor VII with tissue factor

    SciTech Connect

    Wildgoose, P.; Kisiel, W.; Kazim, A.L. )

    1990-09-01

    Previous studies indicated that human and bovine factor VII exhibit 71% amino acid sequence identity. In the present study, competition binding experiments revealed that the interaction of human factor VII with cell-surface human tissue factor was not inhibited by 100-fold molar excess of bovine factor VII. This finding indicated that bovine and human factor VII are not structurally homologous in the region(s) where human factor VII interacts with human tissue factor. On this premise, the authors synthesized three peptides corresponding to regions of human factor VII that exhibited marked structural dissimilarity to bovine factor VII; these regions of dissimilarity included residues 195-206, 263-274, and 314-326. Peptide 195-206 inhibited the interaction of factor VII with cell-surface tissue factor and the activation of factor X by a complex of factor VIIa and tissue factor half-maximally at concentrations of 1-2 mM. A structurally rearranged form of peptide 195-206 containing an aspartimide residue inhibited these reactions half-maximally at concentrations of 250-300 {mu}M. In contrast, neither peptide 263-274 nor peptide 314-326, at 2 mM concentration, significantly affected either factor VIIa interaction with tissue factor or factor VIIa-mediated activation of factor X. The data provide presumptive evidence that residues 195-206 of human factor VII are involved in the interaction of human factor VII with the extracellular domain of human tissue factor apoprotein.

  3. Human factors with nonhumans - Factors that affect computer-task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, David A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two general strategies that may be employed for 'doing human factors research with nonhuman animals'. First, one may use the methods of traditional human factors investigations to examine the nonhuman animal-to-machine interface. Alternatively, one might use performance by nonhuman animals as a surrogate for or model of performance by a human operator. Each of these approaches is illustrated with data in the present review. Chronic ambient noise was found to have a significant but inconsequential effect on computer-task performance by rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Additional data supported the generality of findings such as these to humans, showing that rhesus monkeys are appropriate models of human psychomotor performance. It is argued that ultimately the interface between comparative psychology and technology will depend on the coordinated use of both strategies of investigation.

  4. Human factors/ergonomics as a systems discipline? "The human use of human beings" revisited.

    PubMed

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of the possible future of Human factors/ergonomics (HFE) usually take the past for granted in the sense that the future of HFE is assumed to be more of the same. This paper argues that the nature of work in the early 2010s is so different from the nature of work when HFE was formulated 60-70 years ago that a critical reassessment of the basis for HFE is needed. If HFE should be a systems discipline, it should be a soft systems rather than a hard systems discipline. It is not enough for HFE to seek to improve performance and well-being through systems design, since any change to the work environment in principle alters the very basis for the change. Instead HFE should try to anticipate how the nature of work will change so that it can both foresee what work will be and propose what work should be.

  5. Dorsal hippocampal contributions to unimodal contextual conditioning.

    PubMed

    Otto, Tim; Poon, Patrick

    2006-06-14

    Although there is general consensus that the hippocampus is not critically involved in the acquisition of fear conditioned to an explicit conditioned stimulus (CS), the extent to which the hippocampus participates in contextual fear conditioning remains unclear. To further characterize the potential role of the hippocampus in contextual fear conditioning, the present experiments examined the effect of excitotoxic lesions of dorsal hippocampus on the acquisition of a novel contextual fear conditioning paradigm in which a unimodal (olfactory) cue served to disambiguate discrete "contexts" within a single behavioral training chamber. Selective lesions of dorsal hippocampus severely attenuated olfactory contextual conditioning without affecting conditioning to an explicit auditory or olfactory CS. Additional experiments indicate that these contextual conditioning deficits cannot be attributed to a lesion-induced decrement in olfactory perception, a preferential impairment of "weak" forms of conditioning, or hyperactivity. Thus, the hippocampus appears to contribute importantly to the acquisition of fear conditioned to explicitly nonspatial, unimodal, temporally, and spatially diffuse contextual stimuli.

  6. With eloquence and humanity? Human factors/ergonomics in sustainable human development.

    PubMed

    Moore, Dave; Barnard, Tim

    2012-12-01

    This article is based on a keynote presentation given at the 18th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association in Recife, Brazil, February 2012. It considers new, and not so new, approaches and practical roles for the emerging field of human factors/ergonomics (HFE) in sustainable development (SD).The material for this article was largely drawn from the literature in the fields of human development, sustainability, climate change mitigation and adaptation, and social/environmental impact assessment. Identifying the role of HFE in SD is not a simple one and from the outset is complicated by the widely differing ideas in the sustainability literature about what exactly it is we are hoping to sustain. Is it individual companies, business models, cultures, or the carrying capacity of our planet? Or combinations of these? For the purposes of this article, certain assumptions are made, and various emerging opportunities and responsibilities associated with our changing world of work are introduced. First, there are new versions of traditional tasks for us, such as working with the people and companies in the renewable energy sectors. Beyond this, however, it is suggested that there are emerging roles for HFE professionals in transdisciplinary work where we might play our part, for example, in tackling the twinned issues of climate change and human development in areas of significant poverty. In particular we have the tools and capabilities to help define and measure what groups have reason to value, and wish to sustain. It is suggested, that to do this effectively, however, will require a philosophical shift, or perhaps just a philosophical restatement at a collective level, regarding who and what we ultimately serve.

  7. Human Factors Engineering at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. C.; Hutchinson, Sonya L.

    1999-01-01

    The mission of NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is to develop, implement, and maintain systems for space transportation and microgravity research. Factors impacting the MSFC position as a leader in advancing science and technology include: (1) heightened emphasis on safety; (2) increased interest in effective resource utilization; and (3) growing importance of employing systems and procedures that pragmatically support mission science. In light of these factors, MSFC is integrating human factors engineering (HFE) into the systems engineering process. This paper describes the HFE program, applications of HFE in MSFC projects, and the future of HFE at MSFC.

  8. Biological characterization of human fibroblast-derived mitogenic factors for human melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Imokawa, G; Yada, Y; Morisaki, N; Kimura, M

    1998-01-01

    To clarify the paracrine linkage between human fibroblasts and melanocytes in cutaneous pigmentation, we studied the effects of human fibroblast-derived factors on the proliferation of human melanocytes. In medium conditioned for 4 days with human fibroblast culture, factors were produced that markedly stimulated DNA synthesis of human melanocytes. The stimulatory effect was higher in medium conditioned with fibroblasts from aged skin than in medium conditioned with fibroblasts from young skin, and was interrupted by inhibitors of tyrosine kinase, such as tyrphostin, genistein and herbimycin, but not by inhibitors of protein kinases C and A, such as H-7 and phloretin. The conditioned medium was also capable of activating mitogen-activated protein kinase of human melanocytes, with old fibroblasts being more effective than young ones. Analysis of factors released into the conditioned medium revealed that levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and stem cell factor (SCF) were increased in old-fibroblast-conditioned medium compared with young-fibroblast-conditioned medium. In contrast, levels of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were similar in both media. When the conditioned medium was treated with HGF antibody with or without SCF antibody, the increase in DNA synthesis by human melanocytes was decreased to 20% of the elevated level, whereas antibodies to bFGF had no effect. Analysis of the medium conditioned for 4 days after cytokine application demonstrated that, of the cytokines tested, interleukin 1alpha and tumour necrosis factor alpha are highly effective in stimulating HGF secretion by old fibroblasts. HGF and SCF, but not bFGF, were markedly increased in culture medium in the presence of IL-1alpha, and this stimulatory effect was confined to young human fibroblasts. These findings suggest that SCF and HGF derived from human fibroblasts may play a part in regulating cutaneous pigmentation during inflammation and aging. PMID:9494091

  9. Contextual dissonance effects: nature and causes.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M

    1977-08-01

    Contextual consonance or dissonance refers to the concordance of, or the discrepancy between, the individual's social characteristics and those of the population by which he is surrounded. Although a number of advantageous consequences have been shown to issue from contextual dissonance, self-esteem is not one of them. This article seeks to account for the deleterious effect of contextual dissonance on self-esteem by examining the nature of dissonant communications environments, dissonant cultural environments, and dissonant comparison reference groups.

  10. Facets of contextual realism in quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Alok Kumar; Home, Dipankar

    2011-09-23

    In recent times, there is an upsurge of interest in demonstrating the quantum contextuality. In this proceedings, we explore the two different forms of arguments that have been used for showing the contextual character of quantum mechanics. First line of study concerns the violations of the noncontextual realist models by quantum mechanics, where second line of study that is qualitatively distinct from the earlier one, demonstrates the contextuality within the formalism of quantum mechanics.

  11. The Human Factor: A Key to Excellence in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintzies, Paula; Hare, Isadora

    This document contends that efforts designed to determine how schools can educate children for the nation of tomorrow, by focusing primarily on curriculum issues, instruction, and teachers, may have overlooked the interpersonal factors which contribute to excellence and those human and social forces which may interfere with the attainment of…

  12. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  13. Some Human Factors Issues in Bringing Jobs to Confined Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overby, Charles

    This paper explores several human factors and other issues associated with taking jobs to disabled persons using computer-telecommunications technology and systems. General concepts of the transportation communications tradeoff are discussed. Legal and institutional dimensions of handicapped employments are addressed. A variety of research and…

  14. Implementing human factors training in technical operations and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Taggart, W R

    1995-01-01

    The author reports experience with design of human factors training for aircraft engineering operations and maintenance. The program was based on five principles: observable skills-based training; integration with policies, practices, and procedures; data-driven and performance focused material; training needs fit organizational and national cultures; and training must be useful and beneficial.

  15. Human Factor Management in a Region Under Industrialization - A Concept.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muszynski, Marek; Kowalewski, Andrzej

    Numerous studies conducted by the Committee for Studies on Regions under Industrialization of the Polish Academy of Sciences provide the basis for historical analysis and regional comparison relative to concept formation, program guidelines, and program implementation procedures for rational human factor management. The exhaustion of Poland's…

  16. Multi-Function Displays: A Guide for Human Factors Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    mental workload in rotary wing aircraft . Ergonomics , 36, 1121 - 40. Smith, S., & Mosier, J. (1984). Design guidelines for the user interface for...Monterey Technologies, Inc., except one designated by (*), who is from CAMI. 16. Abstract This guide is designed to assist aircraft ...section. 17. Key Words 18. Distribution Statement Multi-Function Displays, Display Design , Avionics, Human Factors Criteria, Aircraft

  17. A Virtual Campus Based on Human Factor Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yuting; Kang, Houliang

    2014-01-01

    Three Dimensional or 3D virtual reality has become increasingly popular in many areas, especially in building a digital campus. This paper introduces a virtual campus, which is based on a 3D model of The Tourism and Culture College of Yunnan University (TCYU). Production of the virtual campus was aided by Human Factor and Ergonomics (HF&E), an…

  18. Human Factors Engineering and School Furniture: A Circular Odyssey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kenneth E.; Richardson, Michael D.

    1993-01-01

    A search reveals only six articles that concern human-factors engineering as it relates to student furniture. Contacts with five school-furniture manufacturers disclose that designs were basically unaltered for years and are claimed to reflect what schools want in furniture. Proposes recommendations to design and secure furniture to meet students'…

  19. Some Human Factors Considerations for Designing Mixed Reality Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    the viewer’s eyes must converge at one distance, VSG , but must accommodate at another, fSG. Such a conflict causes the viewer to reconcile the two...the binocular fDV fSG p disparity vSG Right-eye View Left-eye View Some Human Factors Considerations for Designing Mixed Reality Interfaces RTO-MP

  20. Interviewer as Instrument: Accounting for Human Factors in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joel H.

    2006-01-01

    This methodological study examines an original data collection model designed to incorporate human factors and enhance data richness in qualitative and evaluation research. Evidence supporting this model is drawn from in-depth youth and adult interviews in one of the largest policy/program evaluations undertaken in the United States, the Drug,…

  1. Investigation of Multiple Human Factors in Personalized Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Sherry Y.; Huang, Pei-Ren; Shih, Yu-Cheng; Chang, Li-Ping

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, a number of personalized learning systems have been developed and they mainly focus on learners' prior knowledge. On the other hand, previous research suggested that gender differences and cognitive styles have great effects on student learning. To this end, this study examines how human factors, especially gender differences…

  2. Surgical Technology Integration with Tools for Cognitive Human Factors (STITCH)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-24

    Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0761 TITLE: Surgical Technology Integration with Tools for Cognitive Human Factors (STITCH) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: W...COVERED (From - To) 25 Sep 2007 - 24 Sep 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Surgical Technology Integration with Tools for Cognitive

  3. Graph-theoretic strengths of contextuality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Silva, Nadish

    2017-03-01

    Cabello-Severini-Winter and Abramsky-Hardy (building on the framework of Abramsky-Brandenburger) both provide classes of Bell and contextuality inequalities for very general experimental scenarios using vastly different mathematical techniques. We review both approaches, carefully detail the links between them, and give simple, graph-theoretic methods for finding inequality-free proofs of nonlocality and contextuality and for finding states exhibiting strong nonlocality and/or contextuality. Finally, we apply these methods to concrete examples in stabilizer quantum mechanics relevant to understanding contextuality as a resource in quantum computation.

  4. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore: (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  5. Perspectives on contextual vulnerability in discourses of climate conflict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okpara, U. T.; Stringer, L. C.; Dougill, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    The science of climate security and conflict is replete with controversies. Yet the increasing vulnerability of politically fragile countries to the security consequences of climate change is widely acknowledged. Although climate conflict reflects a continuum of conditional forces that coalesce around the notion of vulnerability, how different portrayals of vulnerability influence the discursive formation of climate conflict relations remains an exceptional but under-researched issue. This paper combines a systematic discourse analysis with a vulnerability interpretation diagnostic tool to explore (i) how discourses of climate conflict are constructed and represented, (ii) how vulnerability is communicated across discourse lines, and (iii) the strength of contextual vulnerability against a deterministic narrative of scarcity-induced conflict, such as that pertaining to land. Systematically characterising climate conflict discourses based on the central issues constructed, assumptions about mechanistic relationships, implicit normative judgements and vulnerability portrayals, provides a useful way of understanding where discourses differ. While discourses show a wide range of opinions "for" and "against" climate conflict relations, engagement with vulnerability has been less pronounced - except for the dominant context centrism discourse concerned about human security (particularly in Africa). In exploring this discourse, we observe an increasing sense of contextual vulnerability that is oriented towards a concern for complexity rather than predictability. The article concludes by illustrating that a turn towards contextual vulnerability thinking will help advance a constructivist theory-informed climate conflict scholarship that recognises historicity, specificity, and variability as crucial elements of contextual totalities of any area affected by climate conflict.

  6. Serum factors involved in human microvascular endothelial cell morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Kevin; Siddiqui, Rafat A; Sliva, Daniel; Garcia, Joe G N; English, Denis

    2002-09-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that lipid and protein angiogenic factors operate in tandem to induce optimal angiogenic responses in vivo. This study was undertaken to clarify the nature of the substances in human serum that are responsible for its remarkable ability to promote capillary morphogenesis in vitro. The ability of dilute (2%) human serum to promote the morphogenic differentiation of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells on Matrigel supports was depleted by more than 50% by treatment of the serum with activated charcoal, a procedure that effectively removes biologically active lipid growth factors. The remainder of the activity within serum was lost on heating to 60 degrees C for 60 minutes, indicating the involvement of a protein in the response. The ability of charcoal-treated serum to promote capillary morphogenesis was completely restored by the addition of sphingosine 1-phosphate (SPP, 500 nmol/L), but other lipids thought to be released into serum during clotting were ineffective. In addition, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) effectively restored the ability of heat-treated serum to promote endothelial cell morphogenesis, but other protein growth factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor, were ineffective. Together, SPP and bFGF were as effective as whole serum in promoting capillary morphogenesis. Responses to purified SPP were entirely sensitive to the effects of preexposure of the cells to pertussis toxin, whereas responses to bFGF were entirely pertussis toxin-resistant. Consistent with our hypothesis that two distinct factors in serum play a role in promoting capillary morphogenesis, responses induced by serum were inhibited approximately 50% by preexposure of endothelial cells to pertussis toxin. We conclude that platelet-released SPP acts in conjunction with circulating bFGF to promote capillary formation by microvascular endothelial cells. Lipid and protein growth factors

  7. An Illumination Modeling System for Human Factors Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huynh, Thong; Maida, James C.; Bond, Robert L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Seeing is critical to human performance. Lighting is critical for seeing. Therefore, lighting is critical to human performance. This is common sense, and here on earth, it is easily taken for granted. However, on orbit, because the sun will rise or set every 45 minutes on average, humans working in space must cope with extremely dynamic lighting conditions. Contrast conditions of harsh shadowing and glare is also severe. The prediction of lighting conditions for critical operations is essential. Crew training can factor lighting into the lesson plans when necessary. Mission planners can determine whether low-light video cameras are required or whether additional luminaires need to be flown. The optimization of the quantity and quality of light is needed because of the effects on crew safety, on electrical power and on equipment maintainability. To address all of these issues, an illumination modeling system has been developed by the Graphics Research and Analyses Facility (GRAF) and Lighting Environment Test Facility (LETF) in the Space Human Factors Laboratory at NASA Johnson Space Center. The system uses physically based ray tracing software (Radiance) developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratories, a human factors oriented geometric modeling system (PLAID) and an extensive database of humans and environments. Material reflectivity properties of major surfaces and critical surfaces are measured using a gonio-reflectometer. Luminaires (lights) are measured for beam spread distribution, color and intensity. Video camera performances are measured for color and light sensitivity. 3D geometric models of humans and the environment are combined with the material and light models to form a system capable of predicting lighting conditions and visibility conditions in space.

  8. Radioimmunoassay of factor V in human plasma and platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Tracy, P.B.; Eide, L.L.; Bowie, E.J.W.; Mann, K.G.

    1982-07-01

    Homogeneous, single-chain human factor V was used to develop a double antibody competition radioimmunoassay to measure factor V concentrations in plasma and platelets. Standard curves were constructed that allow for the detection of as little as 20 ng factor V/ml of plasma. Normal factor V concentrations range from 4 to 14 ..mu..g/ml of plasma with an average value of 7.0 +/- 2.0 ..mu..g/ml (n = 64). No correlation was observed between antigen levels and age or sex. The radioimmunoassay data are consistent with factor V clotting assays, providing freshly drawn plasma is used in the bioassay. Radioimmunoassay of washed platelets indicate that 0.63-1.93 ..mu..g of factor V is present per 2.5 X 10/sup 8/ platelets (6412-14128 molecules of factor V per platelet). When normalized to individual hematocrits and platelet count, the data indicated that platelets contribute approximately 18%-25% of the factor V found in whole blood. In addition, two individuals with functionally deficient factor V were examined and found to be deficient in both antigen and activity.

  9. Multiscale factors affecting human attitudes toward snow leopards and wolves.

    PubMed

    Suryawanshi, Kulbhushansingh R; Bhatia, Saloni; Bhatnagar, Yash Veer; Redpath, Stephen; Mishra, Charudutt

    2014-12-01

    The threat posed by large carnivores to livestock and humans makes peaceful coexistence between them difficult. Effective implementation of conservation laws and policies depends on the attitudes of local residents toward the target species. There are many known correlates of human attitudes toward carnivores, but they have only been assessed at the scale of the individual. Because human societies are organized hierarchically, attitudes are presumably influenced by different factors at different scales of social organization, but this scale dependence has not been examined. We used structured interview surveys to quantitatively assess the attitudes of a Buddhist pastoral community toward snow leopards (Panthera uncia) and wolves (Canis lupus). We interviewed 381 individuals from 24 villages within 6 study sites across the high-elevation Spiti Valley in the Indian Trans-Himalaya. We gathered information on key explanatory variables that together captured variation in individual and village-level socioeconomic factors. We used hierarchical linear models to examine how the effect of these factors on human attitudes changed with the scale of analysis from the individual to the community. Factors significant at the individual level were gender, education, and age of the respondent (for wolves and snow leopards), number of income sources in the family (wolves), agricultural production, and large-bodied livestock holdings (snow leopards). At the community level, the significant factors included the number of smaller-bodied herded livestock killed by wolves and mean agricultural production (wolves) and village size and large livestock holdings (snow leopards). Our results show that scaling up from the individual to higher levels of social organization can highlight important factors that influence attitudes of people toward wildlife and toward formal conservation efforts in general. Such scale-specific information can help managers apply conservation measures at

  10. Contextualization of HIV and HPV risk and prevention among Pacific Islander young adults in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    DiStefano, Anthony S.; Hui, Brian; Barrera-Ng, Angelica; Quitugua, Lourdes F.; Peters, Ruth; Dimaculangan, Jeany; Vunileva, Isileli; Tui’one, Vanessa; Takahashi, Lois M.; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2012-01-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with each other and with the development of comorbid cancer. Current epidemiology indicates that among Pacific Islanders in the United States, young adults are at highest risk of HIV and HPV. In our inductive community based participatory research study, we used focus groups and key informant interviews (March – August 2010) with young adults, parents, community leaders, and providers (n = 95) to identify and contextualize factors that shape HIV and HPV risk and prevention among young adults in Chamorro and Tongan communities in Southern California. We identified nine themes that incorporated the following principal factors: misinformation and otherization; dominant concerns regarding premarital pregnancy; restricted intergenerational communication; family shame and privacy; gendered manifestations of religio-cultural norms; barriers impeding access to sexual health resources; parents’ role in prevention; community vs. individual responsibility; and family and ethnic pride. Our thematic findings fit well with Rhodes’ “risk and enabling environment” heuristic (2009), which we used to contextualize risk and prevention at micro and macro levels of physical, social, economic, and policy environments. We propose the addition of a separate cultural environment to the heuristic and conclude that a focus on applying individual and community agency at the micro-level would be an approachable starting point for intervention for our local Pacific Islander communities and groups in similar ecological contexts globally. Enhanced community-led education programs and engagement of religious and other community leaders to facilitate intergenerational communication could counteract taboos that obstruct prevention. PMID:22647562

  11. Contextualization of HIV and HPV risk and prevention among Pacific Islander young adults in Southern California.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Anthony S; Hui, Brian; Barrera-Ng, Angelica; Quitugua, Lourdes F; Peters, Ruth; Dimaculangan, Jeany; Vunileva, Isileli; Tui'one, Vanessa; Takahashi, Lois M; Tanjasiri, Sora Park

    2012-08-01

    HIV and sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) are associated with each other and with the development of comorbid cancer. Current epidemiology indicates that among Pacific Islanders in the United States, young adults are at highest risk of HIV and HPV. In our inductive community based participatory research study, we used focus groups and key informant interviews (March-August 2010) with young adults, parents, community leaders, and providers (n = 95) to identify and contextualize factors that shape HIV and HPV risk and prevention among young adults in Chamorro and Tongan communities in Southern California. We identified nine themes that incorporated the following principal factors: misinformation and otherization; dominant concerns regarding premarital pregnancy; restricted intergenerational communication; family shame and privacy; gendered manifestations of religio-cultural norms; barriers impeding access to sexual health resources; parents' role in prevention; community vs. individual responsibility; and family and ethnic pride. Our thematic findings fit well with Rhodes' "risk and enabling environment" heuristic (2009), which we used to contextualize risk and prevention at micro and macro levels of physical, social, economic, and policy environments. We propose the addition of a separate cultural environment to the heuristic and conclude that a focus on applying individual and community agency at the micro-level would be an approachable starting point for intervention for our local Pacific Islander communities and groups in similar ecological contexts globally. Enhanced community-led education programs and engagement of religious and other community leaders to facilitate intergenerational communication could counteract taboos that obstruct prevention.

  12. Memory consolidation and contextual interference effects with computer games.

    PubMed

    Shewokis, Patricia A

    2003-10-01

    Some investigators of the contextual interference effect contend that there is a direct relation between the amount of practice and the contextual interference effect based on the prediction that the improvement in learning tasks in a random practice schedule, compared to a blocked practice schedule, increases in magnitude as the amount of practice during acquisition on the tasks increases. Research using computer games in contextual interference studies has yielded a large effect (f = .50) with a random practice schedule advantage during transfer. These investigations had a total of 36 and 72 acquisition trials, respectively. The present study tested this prediction by having 72 college students, who were randomly assigned to a blocked or random practice schedule, practice 102 trials of three computer-game tasks across three days. After a 24-hr. interval, 6 retention and 5 transfer trials were performed. Dependent variables were time to complete an event in seconds and number of errors. No significant differences were found for retention and transfer. These results are discussed in terms of how the amount of practice, task-related factors, and memory consolidation mediate the contextual interference effect.

  13. Violations of transitivity: Implications for a theory of contextual choice

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Randolph C.

    1993-01-01

    Violations of strong stochastic transitivity in concurrent-chains choice were first reported by Navarick and Fantino. In a series of articles, Navarick and Fantino concluded that neither a unidimensional model capable of predicting exact choice probabilities nor a fixed-variable equivalence rule was possible for the concurrent-chains procedure. I show that when choice is modeled contextually (i.e., when preference for a schedule is affected by factors other than the schedule itself, e.g., aspects of the alternative schedule), a unidimensional, exact-choice probability model is possible that both predicts the intransitivities reported by Navarick and Fantino and provides a fixed-variable equivalence rule for the concurrent-chains procedure. The contextual model is an extension of the generalized matching law and violates a key assumption underlying traditional choice models—simple scalability—because of (a) schedule interdependence and (b) bias from procedural contingencies. Therefore, strong stochastic transitivity cannot be expected to hold. Contextual scalability is analyzed to reveal a hierarchy of context effects in choice. Navarick and Fantino's intransitivities can be satisfactorily explained by bias. If attribute sensitivity is context dependent, however, and if there are similarity structures among choice alternatives, the contextual model is shown to be able to predict violations of ordinal preference. Therefore, it may be possible to formulate a deterministic, general psychophysical model of choice as a behavioral alternative to probabilistic, multidimensional choice theories. PMID:16812697

  14. National plan to enhance aviation safety through human factors improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foushee, Clay

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this section of the plan is to establish a development and implementation strategy plan for improving safety and efficiency in the Air Traffic Control (ATC) system. These improvements will be achieved through the proper applications of human factors considerations to the present and future systems. The program will have four basic goals: (1) prepare for the future system through proper hiring and training; (2) develop a controller work station team concept (managing human errors); (3) understand and address the human factors implications of negative system results; and (4) define the proper division of responsibilities and interactions between the human and the machine in ATC systems. This plan addresses six program elements which together address the overall purpose. The six program elements are: (1) determine principles of human-centered automation that will enhance aviation safety and the efficiency of the air traffic controller; (2) provide new and/or enhanced methods and techniques to measure, assess, and improve human performance in the ATC environment; (3) determine system needs and methods for information transfer between and within controller teams and between controller teams and the cockpit; (4) determine how new controller work station technology can optimally be applied and integrated to enhance safety and efficiency; (5) assess training needs and develop improved techniques and strategies for selection, training, and evaluation of controllers; and (6) develop standards, methods, and procedures for the certification and validation of human engineering in the design, testing, and implementation of any hardware or software system element which affects information flow to or from the human.

  15. Human factors engineering checklists for application in the SAR process

    SciTech Connect

    Overlin, T.K.; Romero, H.A.; Ryan, T.G.

    1995-03-01

    This technical report was produced to assist the preparers and reviewers of the human factors portions of the SAR in completing their assigned tasks regarding analysis and/or review of completed analyses. The checklists, which are the main body of the report, and the subsequent tables, were developed to assist analysts in generating the needed analysis data to complete the human engineering analysis for the SAR. The technical report provides a series of 19 human factors engineering (HFE) checklists which support the safety analyses of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) reactor and nonreactor facilities and activities. The results generated using these checklists and in the preparation of the concluding analyses provide the technical basis for preparing the human factors chapter, and subsequent inputs to other chapters, required by DOE as a part of the safety analysis reports (SARs). This document is divided into four main sections. The first part explains the origin of the checklists, the sources utilized, and other information pertaining to the purpose and scope of the report. The second part, subdivided into 19 sections, is the checklists themselves. The third section is the glossary which defines terms that could either be unfamiliar or have specific meanings within the context of these checklists. The final section is the subject index in which the glossary terms are referenced back to the specific checklist and page the term is encountered.

  16. Human Factors Engineering: Current and Emerging Dual-Use Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandlee, G. O.; Goldsberry, B. S.

    1994-01-01

    Human Factors Engineering is a multidisciplinary endeavor in which information pertaining to human characteristics is used in the development of systems and machines. Six representatives considered to be experts from the public and private sectors were surveyed in an effort to identify the potential dual-use of human factors technology. Each individual was asked to provide a rating as to the dual-use of 85 identified NASA technologies. Results of the survey were as follows: nearly 75 percent of the technologies were identified at least once as high dual-use by one of the six survey respondents, and nearly 25 percent of the identified NASA technologies were identified as high dual-use technologies by a majority of the respondents. The perceived level of dual-use appeared to be independent of the technology category. Successful identification of dual-use technology requires expanded input from industry. As an adjunct, cost-benefit analysis should be conducted to identify the feasibility of the dual-use technology. Concurrent with this effort should be an examination of precedents established by other technologies in other industrial settings. Advances in human factors and systems engineering are critical to reduce risk in any workplace and to enhance industrial competitiveness.

  17. Human Factors Issues For Multi-Modular Reactor Units

    SciTech Connect

    Tuan Q Tran; Humberto E. Garcia; Ronald L. Boring; Jeffrey C. Joe; Bruce P. Hallbert

    2007-08-01

    Smaller and multi-modular reactor (MMR) will be highly technologically-advanced systems allowing more system flexibility to reactors configurations (e.g., addition/deletion of reactor units). While the technical and financial advantages of systems may be numerous, MMR presents many human factors challenges that may pose vulnerability to plant safety. An important human factors challenge in MMR operation and performance is the monitoring of data from multiple plants from centralized control rooms where human operators are responsible for interpreting, assessing, and responding to different system’s states and failures (e.g., simultaneously monitoring refueling at one plant while keeping an eye on another plant’s normal operating state). Furthermore, the operational, safety, and performance requirements for MMR can seriously change current staffing models and roles, the mode in which information is displayed, procedures and training to support and guide operators, and risk analysis. For these reasons, addressing human factors concerns in MMR are essential in reducing plant risk.

  18. Human factors for the Moon: the gap in anthropometric data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Foing, Bernard H.; Rittweger, Joern; Masali, Melchiorre; Stevenin, Hervé

    2016-07-01

    Since the space era began, we learned first to survive and then to live in space. In the state of the art, we know how important human factors research and development is to guarantee maximum safety and performance for human missions. With the extension of the duration of space missions, we also need to learn how habitability and comfort factors are closely related to safety and performance. Humanities disciplines such as design, architecture, anthropometry, and anthropology are now involved in mission design from the start. Actual plans for building a simulated Moon village in order to simulate and test Moon missions are now being carried out using a holistic approach, involving multidisciplinary experts cooperating concurrently with regard to the interactions among humans, technology, and the environment. However, in order to implement such plans, we need basic anthropometrical data, which is still missing. In other words: to optimize performance, we need to create doors and ceilings with dimensions that support a natural human movement in the reduced gravity environment of the Moon, but we are lacking detailed anthropometrical data on human movement on the Moon. In the Apollo missions more than 50 years ago, no anthropometrical studies were carried in hypogravity out as far as we know. The necessity to collect data is very consistent with state-of-the-art research. We still have little knowledge of how people will interact with the Moon environment. Specifically, it is not known exactly which posture, which kind of walking and running motions astronauts will use both inside and outside a Moon station. Considering recent plans for a Moon mission where humans will spend extensive time in reduced gravity conditions, the need for anthropometric, biomechanics and kinematics field data is a priority in order to be able to design the right architecture, infrastructure, and interfaces. Objective of this paper: Bring knowledge on the relevance of anthropometrical and

  19. Human Factors Guidelines for UAS in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan; Shively, R. Jay

    2013-01-01

    The ground control stations (GCS) of some UAS have been characterized by less-than-adequate human-system interfaces. In some cases this may reflect a failure to apply an existing regulation or human factors standard. In other cases, the problem may indicate a lack of suitable guidance material. NASA is leading a community effort to develop recommendations for human factors guidelines for GCS to support routine beyond-line-of-sight UAS operations in the national airspace system (NAS). In contrast to regulations, guidelines are not mandatory requirements. However, by encapsulating solutions to identified problems or areas of risk, guidelines can provide assistance to system developers, users and regulatory agencies. To be effective, guidelines must be relevant to a wide range of systems, must not be overly prescriptive, and must not impose premature standardization on evolving technologies. By assuming that a pilot will be responsible for each UAS operating in the NAS, and that the aircraft will be required to operate in a manner comparable to conventionally piloted aircraft, it is possible to identify a generic set of pilot tasks and the information, control and communication requirements needed to support these tasks. Areas where guidelines will be useful can then be identified, utilizing information from simulations, operational experience and the human factors literature. In developing guidelines, we recognize that existing regulatory and guidance material will, at times, provide adequate coverage of an area. In other cases suitable guidelines may be found in existing military or industry human factors standards. In cases where appropriate existing standards cannot be identified, original guidelines will be proposed.

  20. Capturing the Value: Earth Applications of Space Human Factors Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This paper details how the Space Human Factors/Life Sciences program at Ames Research Center (ARC) has provided, and continues to provide, a variety of Earth-based benefits. These benefits will be considered under five categories: aeronautics, space-like environments, general applications, human/automation interaction, and methodology. The human factors work at ARC includes a range of activities whose products serve the aerospace community. Some areas of research focus specifically on aeronautical requirements; others are driven by space needs. However, the symbiosis between these two domains allows a sharing of resources, and the insights and experimental results gathered in one domain can often be applied in the other. Aeronautics is an industry whose survival is generally viewed as critical to American competitiveness, and where benefits can result in a very high payoff. The ability to apply space-initiated research to aeronautical requirements represents one example of bringing space benefits down to Earth. The second-order value of space human factors research goes well beyond the aerospace community. Spaceflight shares with a number of other activities certain environmental characteristics that drive human factors engineering design and procedural specification. Spaceflight is an isolated activity, conducted under severely confined conditions, with a high level of risk, and where provisions are restricted and opportunities for outside help are limited. A number of Earth-based activities including submarines and other naval vessels, oil rigs, remote weather stations, and scientific and polar expeditions, share many of these characteristics. These activities serve as testbeds for space-related research and, in turn, space-related research provides beneficial insight to the conduct of these activities.

  1. My 20 years of experience in the human factors field

    SciTech Connect

    Carnino, A. )

    1992-01-01

    My first encounter with human factors happened in early 1973: I was performing a reliability assessment of the safety injection system of the Fessenheim reactor, and I found that the operators had to switch to the recirculation phase manually and had only 6 min between the low and low-low level alarm indicating that the water tank was empty. It of course led us to replace this manual action by an automatic positioning for the recirculation phase. In July of the same year, I attended a North Atlantic Treaty Organization workshop in Liverpool on reliability assessment, and I met Alan Swain from the United States and Jens Rasmussen from Denmark. During the long rainy evenings of the seminar, we had time to discuss human errors and human factors, and that was the beginning of a very fruitful collaboration between us. I realized then the complexity of the problem. Quantification needs were obvious for reliability and risk assessment studies, but, at the same time, there were needs for better understanding of human behavior and the mechanisms that could lead to human errors. Knowledge of the man-machine interface also seemed very poor, although some basic ergonomic rules were available and could be applied. But a major problem was the lack of data.

  2. Characterization of a human antigen specific helper factor

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, B.

    1986-03-01

    While antigen (Ag) specific helper factors have been characterized in mice, similar molecules have not been identified in humans. To characterize human antigen specific helper molecules, an IL-2 dependent tetanus toxoid (T.T.) reactive T cell line was fused with a 6-thioguanine resistant CEM line, and hybrids selected in medium containing hypoxanthine and azaserine. Hybrids were screened by culturing the cells with /sup 35/S-Met then reacting the supernatants with T.T. or hepatitis vaccine immobilized on nitrocellulose. One hybrid, TT6BA-O, was identified which secreted a Met-containing molecule which bound T.T. but not hepatitis vaccine. Supernatants from TT6BA-O, but not the parent CEM line, when added to autologous peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC's) stimulated secretion of T.T. specific antibodies (Abs). Specificity controls demonstrated that TT6BA-O supernatant did not induce antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, hepatitis vaccine or pneumococcal polysaccharide, and total immunoglobulin (lg) synthesis was minimally increased. In contrast, pokeweed mitogen stimulated significant lg synthesis as well as Ab's to pneumococcal polysaccharide and T.T. TT6BA-O supernatant induced anti-T.T.Ab's in autologous PBMC's but not PBMC's from 3 unrelated donors, suggesting that the activity of the helper factor is restricted, possibly by the MHC. The molecular weight of the helper factor was estimated at 100,000-150,000 by Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. Finally, the helper factor could be demonstrated to bind and elute from sephorose-immobilized T.T. and anti-DR antisera, but not anti-lg antisera or the T40/25 monoclonal antibody, which binds a nonpolymorphic determinant on the human T cell receptor. These results demonstrate that human Ag specific helper factors exist, bind antigen and bear class II MHC determinants.

  3. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    SciTech Connect

    Tandon, L.; Iyengar, G.V.

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  4. Inhibitory action of amyloid precursor protein against human Hageman factor (factor XII).

    PubMed

    Niwano, H; Embury, P B; Greenberg, B D; Ratnoff, O D

    1995-02-01

    Amyloid precursor protein forms that contain Kunitz protease inhibitor domains are released from activated platelets, T-lymphocytes, and leukocytes and inhibit trypsin, plasmin, and activated factor XI. We investigated the effects of amyloid precursor protein isoforms on activated Hageman factor (factor XII), activated factor X (Stuart factor), and thrombin. Recombinant amyloid precursor proteins with or without the Kunitz domain, 770 and 695 amino acids, respectively, were produced in insect cells by Baculovirus expression (BAC770 and BAC695). Neither BAC695 nor BAC770 inhibited human alpha-thrombin or activated factor X. The partial thromboplastin time was prolonged by both amyloid precursor proteins, only one of which, BAC770, contains the Kunitz protease inhibitor domain. Both forms of amyloid precursor proteins inhibited ellagic acid-induced activation of Hageman factor but did not inhibit activated Hageman factor. Bismuth subgallate, which is an insoluble analog of ellagic acid, lost its ability to activate Hageman factor on being exposed to BAC770. Inhibition of ellagic acid-induced activation of Hageman factor by both forms of amyloid precursor protein was enhanced by heparin. These findings suggested that the heparin-binding domain of amyloid precursor proteins is not in the Kunitz domain. This heparin-binding domain may block the activation of Hageman factor by negatively charged agents. Thus, amyloid precursor proteins may be involved in the control of hemostasis, properties not all dependent on the Kunitz domain.

  5. Identifying contextual influences of community reintegration among injured servicemembers.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Brent L; McGuire, Francis A; Britt, Thomas W; Linder, Sandra M

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that community reintegration (CR) after injury and rehabilitation is difficult for many injured servicemembers. However, little is known about the influence of the contextual factors, both personal and environmental, that influence CR. Framed within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Social Cognitive Theory, the quantitative portion of a larger mixed-methods study of 51 injured, community-dwelling servicemembers compared the relative contribution of contextual factors between groups of servicemembers with different levels of CR. Cluster analysis indicated three groups of servicemembers showing low, moderate, and high levels of CR. Statistical analyses identified contextual factors (e.g., personal and environmental factors) that significantly discriminated between CR clusters. Multivariate analysis of variance and discriminant analysis indicated significant contributions of general self-efficacy, services and assistance barriers, physical and structural barriers, attitudes and support barriers, perceived level of disability and/or handicap, work and school barriers, and policy barriers on CR scores. Overall, analyses indicated that injured servicemembers with lower CR scores had lower general self-efficacy scores, reported more difficulty with environmental barriers, and reported their injuries as more disabling.

  6. Formation of tissue factor activity following incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein with plasma lipoproteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, T.; Kisiel, W. )

    1990-11-01

    Incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein (Apo-TF) with human plasma decreased the recalcified clotting time of this plasma in a time-and dose-dependent manner suggesting relipidation of the Apo-TF by plasma lipoproteins. Incubation of Apo-TF with purified preparations of human very low density, low density and high density lipoproteins resulted in tissue factor activity in a clotting assay. The order of effectiveness was VLDL greater than LDL much greater than HDL. Tissue factor activity generated by incubation of a fixed amount of Apo-TF with plasma lipoproteins was lipoprotein concentration-dependent and saturable. The association of Apo-TF with lipoprotein particles was supported by gel filtration studies in which {sup 125}I-Apo-TF coeluted with the plasma lipoprotein in the void volume of a Superose 6 column in the presence and absence of calcium ions. In addition, void-volume Apo-TF-lipoprotein fractions exhibited tissue factor activity. These results suggest that the factor VIII-bypassing activity of bovine Apo-TF observed in a canine hemophilic model may be due, in part, to its association with plasma lipoproteins and expression of functional tissue factor activity.

  7. Humanized birth in high risk pregnancy: barriers and facilitating factors.

    PubMed

    Behruzi, Roxana; Hatem, Marie; Goulet, Lise; Fraser, William; Leduc, Nicole; Misago, Chizuru

    2010-02-01

    The medical model of childbearing assumes that a pregnancy always has the potential to turn into a risky procedure. In order to advocate humanized birth in high risk pregnancy, an important step involves the enlightenment of the professional's preconceptions on humanized birth in such a situation. The goal of this paper is to identify the professionals' perception of the potential obstacles and facilitating factors for the implementation of humanized care in high risk pregnancies. Twenty-one midwives, obstetricians, and health administrator professionals from the clinical and academic fields were interviewed in nine different sites in Japan from June through August 2008. The interviews were audio taped, and transcribed with the participants' consent. Data was subsequently analyzed using content analysis qualitative methods. Professionals concurred with the concept that humanized birth is a changing and promising process, and can often bring normality to the midst of a high obstetric risk situation. No practice guidelines can be theoretically defined for humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy, as there is no conflict between humanized birth and medical intervention in such a situation. Barriers encountered in providing humanized birth in a high risk pregnancy include factors such as: the pressure of being responsible for the safety of the mother and the fetus, lack of the women's active involvement in the decision making process and the heavy burden of responsibility on the physician's shoulders, potential legal issues, and finally, the lack of midwifery authority in providing care at high risk pregnancy. The factors that facilitate humanized birth in a high risk include: the sharing of decision making and other various responsibilities between the physicians and the women; being caring; stress management, and the fact that the evolution of a better relationship and communication between the health professional and the patient will lead to a stress

  8. Space Flight Human System Standards (SFHSS). Volume 2; Human Factors, Habitability and Environmental Factors" and Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey R.; Fitts, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the standards for space flight hardware based on human capabilities and limitations. The contents include: 1) Scope; 2) Applicable documents; 3) General; 4) Human Physical Characteristics and Capabilities; 5) Human Performance and Cognition; 6) Natural and Induced Environments; 7) Habitability Functions; 8) Architecture; 9) Hardware and Equipment; 10) Crew Interfaces; 11) Spacesuits; 12) Operatons: Reserved; 13) Ground Maintenance and Assembly: Reserved; 14) Appendix A-Reference Documents; 15) Appendix N-Acronyms and 16) Appendix C-Definition. Volume 2 is supported by the Human Integration Design Handbook (HIDH)s.

  9. Contextual Cueing Effects across the Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Edward C.; Conners, Frances A.; Roskos, Beverly; Klinger, Mark R.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated age-related variations in contextual cueing, which reflects the extent to which visuospatial regularities can facilitate search for a target. Previous research produced inconsistent results regarding contextual cueing effects in young children and in older adults, and no study has investigated the phenomenon across the life…

  10. Active site amino acid sequence of human factor D.

    PubMed

    Davis, A E

    1980-08-01

    Factor D was isolated from human plasma by chromatography on CM-Sephadex C50, Sephadex G-75, and hydroxylapatite. Digestion of reduced, S-carboxymethylated factor D with cyanogen bromide resulted in three peptides which were isolated by chromatography on Sephadex G-75 (superfine) equilibrated in 20% formic acid. NH2-Terminal sequences were determined by automated Edman degradation with a Beckman 890C sequencer using a 0.1 M Quadrol program. The smallest peptide (CNBr III) consisted of the NH2-terminal 14 amino acids. The other two peptides had molecular weights of 17,000 (CNBr I) and 7000 (CNBr II). Overlap of the NH2-terminal sequence of factor D with the NH2-terminal sequence of CNBr I established the order of the peptides. The NH2-terminal 53 residues of factor D are somewhat more homologous with the group-specific protease of rat intestine than with other serine proteases. The NH2-terminal sequence of CNBr II revealed the active site serine of factor D. The typical serine protease active site sequence (Gly-Asp-Ser-Gly-Gly-Pro was found at residues 12-17. The region surrounding the active site serine does not appear to be more highly homologous with any one of the other serine proteases. The structural data obtained point out the similarities between factor D and the other proteases. However, complete definition of the degree of relationship between factor D and other proteases will require determination of the remainder of the primary structure.

  11. Cognitive Factors Affecting Freeze-like Behavior in Humans.

    PubMed

    Alban, Michael W; Pocknell, Victoria

    2017-01-01

    Contemporary research on survival-related defensive behaviors has identified physiological markers of freeze/flight/fight. Our research focused on cognitive factors associated with freeze-like behavior in humans. Study 1 tested if an explicit decision to freeze is associated with the psychophysiological state of freezing. Heart rate deceleration occurred when participants chose to freeze. Study 2 varied the efficacy of freezing relative to other defense options and found "freeze" was responsive to variations in the perceived effectiveness of alternative actions. Study 3 tested if individual differences in motivational orientation affect preference for a "freeze" option when the efficacy of options is held constant. A trend in the predicted direction suggested that naturally occurring cognitions led loss-avoiders to select "freeze" more often than reward-seekers. In combination, our attention to the cognitive factors affecting freeze-like behavior in humans represents a preliminary step in addressing an important but neglected research area.

  12. Collaborating with human factors when designing an electronic textbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ratner, J.A.; Zadoks, R.I.; Attaway, S.W.

    1996-04-01

    The development of on-line engineering textbooks presents new challenges to authors to effectively integrate text and tools in an electronic environment. By incorporating human factors principles of interface design and cognitive psychology early in the design process, a team at Sandia National Laboratories was able to make the end product more usable and shorten the prototyping and editing phases. A critical issue was simultaneous development of paper and on-line versions of the textbook. In addition, interface consistency presented difficulties with distinct goals and limitations for each media. Many of these problems were resolved swiftly with human factors input using templates, style guides and iterative usability testing of both paper and on-line versions. Writing style continuity was also problematic with numerous authors contributing to the text.

  13. Human Factors Considerations for Performance-Based Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhydt, Richard; Adams, Catherine A.

    2006-01-01

    A transition toward a performance-based navigation system is currently underway in both the United States and around the world. Performance-based navigation incorporates Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation Performance (RNP) procedures that do not rely on the location of ground-based navigation aids. These procedures offer significant benefits to both operators and air traffic managers. Under sponsorship from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has undertaken a project to document human factors issues that have emerged during RNAV and RNP operations and propose areas for further consideration. Issues were found to include aspects of air traffic control and airline procedures, aircraft systems, and procedure design. Major findings suggest the need for human factors-specific instrument procedure design guidelines. Ongoing industry and government activities to address air-ground communication terminology, procedure design improvements, and chart-database commonality are strongly encouraged.

  14. Purification of human platelet-derived growth factor.

    PubMed Central

    Antoniades, H N; Scher, C D; Stiles, C D

    1979-01-01

    Human platelets contain a polypeptide growth factor that stimulates the proliferation of connective tissue cells. Purification of this platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was accomplished by heat (100 degrees C) treatment of washed platelets and subsequent ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration in 1 M acetic acid, isoelectric focusing, and preparative sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. PDGF has an isoelectric point of 9.8 and a molecular weight ranging from 13,000 to 16,000 as judged by gel filtration in 1 M acetic acid or analytical sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. The specific activity of the purified PDGF is 20 million times greater than that found in unfractionated human serum. Purified PDGF stimulates replicative DNA synthesis and cell proliferation in quiescent density-arrested cultures of BALB/c 3T3 cells at concentrations of 1 ng/ml (0.1 nM). Images PMID:287022

  15. Human Factors Evaluations of Two-Dimensional Spacecraft Conceptual Layouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toups, Larry D.; Rudisill, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Much of the human factors work done in support of the NASA Constellation lunar program has been with low fidelity mockups. These volumetric replicas of the future lunar spacecraft allow researchers to insert test subjects from the engineering and astronaut population and evaluate the vehicle design as the test subjects perform simulations of various operational tasks. However, lunar outpost designs must be evaluated without the use of mockups, creating a need for evaluation tools that can be performed on two-dimension conceptual spacecraft layouts, such as floor plans. A tool based on the Cooper- Harper scale was developed and applied to one lunar scenario, enabling engineers to select between two competing floor plan layouts. Keywords: Constellation, human factors, tools, processes, habitat, outpost, Net Habitable Volume, Cooper-Harper.

  16. Human factors: should your medical devices require intensive care?

    PubMed

    Hyman, William A

    2010-06-01

    The design of a medical device should include active consideration of the way in which real users will actually use the device in the real environment of use. This consideration must include making the way in which the user interfaces with the device, for example, the buttons, the displays, the connections, such that the user can complete their tasks without error and without undue burden. This consideration of realistic user needs is addressed by the discipline of human factors.

  17. The development of human factors research objectives for civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Post, T. J.

    1970-01-01

    Human factors research programs which would support civil aviation and be suitable for accomplishment by NASA research centers are identified. Aviation problems formed the basis for the research program recommendations and, accordingly, problems were identified, ranked and briefly defined in an informal report to the project monitor and other cognizant NASA personnel. The sources for this problem foundation were literature reviews and extensive interviews with NASA and non-NASA personnel. An overview of these findings is presented.

  18. Birds of Prey: Training Solutions to Human Factors Issues

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-01

    Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation, and Education Conference (I/ITSEC) 2007 2007 Paper No. 7133 Page 1 of 12 Birds of Prey: Training...2007 2. REPORT TYPE Conference Proceedings 3. DATES COVERED 01-01-2006 to 30-11-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Birds of Prey: Training Solutions...ITSEC) 2007 2007 Paper No. 7133 Page 3 of 12 Birds of Prey: Training Solutions to Human Factors Issues Robert T. Nullmeyer Air Force Research

  19. Mobile Augmented Reality: Applications and Human Factors Evaluations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    increased the difficulty in acquiring and maintaining situation awareness (SA). Augmented reality (AR) has the potential to meet some of these new...intuitive and unambiguous. In the training applications, the virtual OPFOR must appear and behave realistically. We discuss the development of our augmented ... reality system and the human factors testing we have performed. We apply the system to two military needs: situation awareness during operations and training.

  20. The Human Factors of Graphic Interaction: Tasks and Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    adjectives, adverbs , prepositions) of the language. The commands are the semantics of the input language, while the collection of information...presentation is to bring out some of the human factors issues which are germane to the design of the techniques, and to discuss any experiments which are...anecdotal reports of draftsmen and designers using light pens for hours without problems. We have found no germane experiments. Learning of hand-eye