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Sample records for continental scientific drilling

  1. Fifteen years of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhiqin; Yang, Jingsui; Wang, Chengshan; An, Zhisheng; Li, Haibing; Wang, Qin; Su, Dechen

    2017-05-01

    Continental scientific drilling can be regarded as a telescope into the Earth's interior because it provides process insight and uncompromised samples of rocks, fluids, and even sampled from the deep biosphere from the Earth's surface to great depths. As one of the three founding members of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), ICDP China has made great achievements in many scientific drilling-related research fields. Based on the ICDP participation it attracted global attention of scientists and set up not only the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) Program in 2001 but also a growing number of ambitious drilling projects in the country. The 5158 m deep borehole of the CCSD project at Donghai County in the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic terrain demonstrates that large amounts of crustal rocks of the South China Block have been subducted to at least 120 km, followed by rapid uplift. After successful completion of drilling at Donghai, several continental scientific drilling projects were conducted with funding of the Chinese government and partially with support of ICDP, resulting in a total drilling depth of more than 35 000 m. These projects encompass the Continental Environmental Scientific Drilling Program of China, the Scientific Drilling Project of Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Zone, the Continental Scientific Drilling Project of Cretaceous Songliao Basin, and the Program of Selected Continental Scientific Drilling and Experiments. On the occasion of the 20th anniversary of the ICDP and the 15th anniversary of the CCSD Program, this paper reviews the history and major progress of the CCSD Program.

  2. Mineral resources: Research objectives for continental scientific drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The importance of a scientific drilling program to study mineralized hydrothermal systems has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. To some degree the present report, prepared by the Panel on Mineral Resources of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands upon earlier recommendations. The report of the Los Alamos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed a major emphasis on maximizing the industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Mineral Resources recognized that such opportunities are limited and thus focused on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. In the present report, the panel has developed a program that will provide answers to many scientific questions that have existed for almost 100 years concerning mineralized hydrothermal systems. The committee notes that research drilling may lead to results in addition to those anticipated, results that will provide new directions and ideas of equal or greater value that those basic ones originally posed. 58 refs.

  3. Data management for the US continental scientific drilling program

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, N.W.

    1984-01-01

    A special concern of the US Continental Scientific Drilling Committee (CSDC) was that opportunities for obtaining information from scientifically interesting holes drilled, or planned, might be lost. The Committee endorsed (1) piggyback experiments in holes of opportunity to maximize the information returned per drilling dollar, and (2) making maximum use of geologic information, geophysical and geotechnical data, and samples already obtained. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) established a database cataloging all DOE drilling information. This database was soon expanded to include all federal drilling, e.g., by the Department of the Interior's United States Geological Survey, and eventually to include all discoverable scientifically valuable holes proposed or drilled in the US. A network has been established of individuals sympathetic to the Committee's goals, especially State Geologists, to alert LLNL of these drill holes. Holes are selected and sorted from the database on one or more parameters including location, depth, purpose, information obtained, and principal investigator who may be contacted regarding the hole. Over 350 requests have been filled, and examples of these and the several piggyback experiments arranged in holes of opportunity are discussed, as is a study related to a national drill core repository. 1 reference, 4 figures.

  4. Workshop to develop deep-life continental scientific drilling projects

    SciTech Connect

    Kieft, T. L.; Onstott, T. C.; Ahonen, L.; Aloisi, V.; Colwell, F. S.; Engelen, B.; Fendrihan, S.; Gaidos, E.; Harms, U.; Head, I.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kiel Reese, B.; Lin, L.-H.; Long, P. E.; Moser, D. P.; Mills, H.; Sar, P.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Stan-Lotter, H.; Wagner, D.; Wang, P.-L.; Westall, F.; Wilkins, M. J.

    2015-05-29

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) has long espoused studies of deep subsurface life, and has targeted fundamental questions regarding subsurface life, including the following: "(1) What is the extent and diversity of deep microbial life and what are the factors limiting it? (2) What are the types of metabolism/carbon/energy sources and the rates of subsurface activity? (3) How is deep microbial life adapted to subsurface conditions? (4) How do subsurface microbial communities affect energy resources? And (5) how does the deep biosphere interact with the geosphere and atmosphere?" (Horsfield et al., 2014) Many ICDP-sponsored drilling projects have included a deep-life component; however, to date, not one project has been driven by deep-life goals, in part because geomicrobiologists have been slow to initiate deep biosphere-driven ICDP projects. Therefore, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) recently partnered with the ICDP to sponsor a workshop with the specific aim of gathering potential proponents for deep-life-driven ICDP projects and ideas for candidate drilling sites. Twenty-two participants from nine countries proposed projects and sites that included compressional and extensional tectonic environments, evaporites, hydrocarbon-rich shales, flood basalts, Precambrian shield rocks, subglacial and subpermafrost environments, active volcano–tectonic systems, megafan deltas, and serpentinizing ultramafic environments. The criteria and requirements for successful ICDP applications were presented. Deep-life-specific technical requirements were discussed and it was concluded that, while these procedures require adequate planning, they are entirely compatible with the sampling needs of other disciplines. As a result of this workshop, one drilling workshop proposal on the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (BRPP) has been submitted to the ICDP, and several other drilling project proponents plan to submit proposals for ICDP

  5. Workshop to develop deep-life continental scientific drilling projects

    DOE PAGES

    Kieft, T. L.; Onstott, T. C.; Ahonen, L.; ...

    2015-05-29

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) has long espoused studies of deep subsurface life, and has targeted fundamental questions regarding subsurface life, including the following: "(1) What is the extent and diversity of deep microbial life and what are the factors limiting it? (2) What are the types of metabolism/carbon/energy sources and the rates of subsurface activity? (3) How is deep microbial life adapted to subsurface conditions? (4) How do subsurface microbial communities affect energy resources? And (5) how does the deep biosphere interact with the geosphere and atmosphere?" (Horsfield et al., 2014) Many ICDP-sponsored drilling projects have includedmore » a deep-life component; however, to date, not one project has been driven by deep-life goals, in part because geomicrobiologists have been slow to initiate deep biosphere-driven ICDP projects. Therefore, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) recently partnered with the ICDP to sponsor a workshop with the specific aim of gathering potential proponents for deep-life-driven ICDP projects and ideas for candidate drilling sites. Twenty-two participants from nine countries proposed projects and sites that included compressional and extensional tectonic environments, evaporites, hydrocarbon-rich shales, flood basalts, Precambrian shield rocks, subglacial and subpermafrost environments, active volcano–tectonic systems, megafan deltas, and serpentinizing ultramafic environments. The criteria and requirements for successful ICDP applications were presented. Deep-life-specific technical requirements were discussed and it was concluded that, while these procedures require adequate planning, they are entirely compatible with the sampling needs of other disciplines. As a result of this workshop, one drilling workshop proposal on the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (BRPP) has been submitted to the ICDP, and several other drilling project proponents plan to submit proposals for ICDP

  6. Workshop to develop deep-life continental scientific drilling projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieft, T. L.; Onstott, T. C.; Ahonen, L.; Aloisi, V.; Colwell, F. S.; Engelen, B.; Fendrihan, S.; Gaidos, E.; Harms, U.; Head, I.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kiel Reese, B.; Lin, L.-H.; Long, P. E.; Moser, D. P.; Mills, H.; Sar, P.; Schulze-Makuch, D.; Stan-Lotter, H.; Wagner, D.; Wang, P.-L.; Westall, F.; Wilkins, M. J.

    2015-05-01

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) has long espoused studies of deep subsurface life, and has targeted fundamental questions regarding subsurface life, including the following: "(1) What is the extent and diversity of deep microbial life and what are the factors limiting it? (2) What are the types of metabolism/carbon/energy sources and the rates of subsurface activity? (3) How is deep microbial life adapted to subsurface conditions? (4) How do subsurface microbial communities affect energy resources? And (5) how does the deep biosphere interact with the geosphere and atmosphere?" (Horsfield et al., 2014) Many ICDP-sponsored drilling projects have included a deep-life component; however, to date, not one project has been driven by deep-life goals, in part because geomicrobiologists have been slow to initiate deep biosphere-driven ICDP projects. Therefore, the Deep Carbon Observatory (DCO) recently partnered with the ICDP to sponsor a workshop with the specific aim of gathering potential proponents for deep-life-driven ICDP projects and ideas for candidate drilling sites. Twenty-two participants from nine countries proposed projects and sites that included compressional and extensional tectonic environments, evaporites, hydrocarbon-rich shales, flood basalts, Precambrian shield rocks, subglacial and subpermafrost environments, active volcano-tectonic systems, megafan deltas, and serpentinizing ultramafic environments. The criteria and requirements for successful ICDP applications were presented. Deep-life-specific technical requirements were discussed and it was concluded that, while these procedures require adequate planning, they are entirely compatible with the sampling needs of other disciplines. As a result of this workshop, one drilling workshop proposal on the Basin and Range Physiographic Province (BRPP) has been submitted to the ICDP, and several other drilling project proponents plan to submit proposals for ICDP

  7. Continental Scientific Drilling Program: Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program attempts to develop a better understanding of the geologic and hydrologic mechanisms within the continental crust, under the auspices of an interagency group comprising the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Ten years of research and drilling in the Valles caldera of northern New Mexico has provided a new understanding of volcanism and geothermal systems within a large caldera. Situated at the intersection of the Rio Grande rift and the Jemez volcanic lineament, the Valles caldera and Toledo calderas were formed during two massive eruptions 1.1 and 1.5 M a that vented approximately 300 to 400 km{sup 3} of high-silica rhyolitic tephra. The research at the Valles/Toledo caldera has provided more than 3000 m of corehole samples, which are stored in a repository in Grand Junction, Colorado, and are accessible to the public. This research has also helped support theories of mineral deposition within hydrothermal systems-hot water circulating through breccias, leaching elements from the rocks, and later depositing veins of economically valuable materials.

  8. Recent Fluids in Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, L.; Sun, Q.; Zhan, X.; Tang, L.; He, H.; Rao, Z.

    2004-12-01

    The fluids and their origins in continental scientific drilling programs have widely been applied to the studies of crustal extension, fluid transportation paths and tectonization processes. The rare gases are good indicators of mantle fluids. The isotopes of carbon and hydrogen and the relationships between them can be used in revealing the fluid sources. And C/3He can provide more ambiguous distinguish between sources. The recent fluids in Chinese continental scientific drilling project (CCSD) have been analyzed and profiles were obtained. He, CO2, Ar, N2, O2, H2 and C1-C4 were determined by two on-line units, a mass spectrometer and a gas chromatograph. Cations and anions in mud samples were analyzed by an on-site high performance liquid chromatograph. Rare earth elements and other inorganic components were measured by ICP-AES and ICP-MS in our laboratory in Beijing. The isotopes of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and rare gases, especially helium, were analyzed by mass spectrometers in different laboratories. One key in studying the recent fluids in CCSD project is to identify whether the recent fluids were from the deep earth or not, even when their concentrations were higher than normal levels. Many disturbance components would usually be produced during drilling process. Such the disturbance includes many artifact gases from mud ferment, organic additive decomposition, bit erosion, etc. The analytical data of recent fluids could not be used in the investigation before removing the artifact components. It was found that the high contents of elements were related to the special rocks and minerals, such as sulfide and radiation ores. Carbon dioxide was related with carbonate. The high contents of gases were often found when the cracks or fissures occurred. The distribution of rare earth elements changed with the recent fluids. In some cases, a certain amount of helium gas was found with a high intensity of radiation detected. The high content of methane was once

  9. Priorities for a national program of continental drilling for scientific purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The two reports, Continental Drilling and Continental Scientific Drilling Program, form a basis for this report and provide comprehensive discussions of the subject of continental drilling for scientific purposes in a number of research areas. The purpose of this report is to present a specific recommendation of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee on where the first deep hole dedicated to scientific exploration of the continental crust in the United States should be located. The most accessible and feasible hypothesis to test is the one of thin-skinned tectonics; the southern Appalachians, where the thrusting of crystalline rocks of the Blue Ridge and Piedmont Provinces over early Paleozoic sedimentary rocks is postulated, represents the best location for this drilling project. This hypothesis is of fundamental importance to the understanding of the evolution of continents. 4 refs.

  10. Application program of CRUST-1 10km continental scientific drilling rig in SK-2 scientific drilling well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Youhong; Gao, Ke; Yu, Ping; Liu, Baochang; Guo, Wei; Ma, Yinlong; Yang, Yang

    2014-05-01

    SK-2 Well is located in DaQing city,where is site of the largest oil field in China,Heilongjiang province, north-east of China.The objective of SK-2 well is to obtain full cores of cretaceous formation in Song Liao basin,and to build the time tunnel of Cretaceous greenhouse climate change,and to clarify the causes,processes and results of the formations of DaQing oil field. This will ensure to achieve our ultimate goals,to test the CRUST-1 drilling rig and improve China's deep scientific drilling technology,to form the scientific drilling technology,method and system with independent intellectual property rights,and to provide technical knowledge and information for China's ten kilometers super-deep scientific drilling technical resources.SK-2 Well is at 6400 meter depth, where the drilling inclination is 90 degree and the continuous coring length is 3535 meter that from 2865 to 6400 meter,the recovery rate of the core is greater or equal to 95 percent with 100 millimeters core diameter and 3.9 degree per 100 meter geothermal gradient.The CRUST-1 rig is designated with special drilling equipment for continental scientific drilling combined to the oil drilling equipment ability with advanced geological drilling technology which is highly automatic and intelligent. CRUST-1 drilling ability is 10000 meter with the maximum hook load 700 tons, the total power is 4610 Kilowatt.CRUST-1 will be integrated with a complete set of automation equipment,including big torque hydraulic top drive,high accuracy automatic drilling rod feeding system, suspended automatic drill string discharge device,hydraulic intelligent iron roughneck,and hydraulic automatic catwalk to fully meet the drilling process requirements of SK-2.Designed with advanced drilling technique for 260 degree in the bottom of SK-2 well and hard rock,including the drilling tools of high temperature hydraulic hammer,high temperature resistance and high strength aluminum drill pipe,high temperature preparation of mud

  11. Continental Scientific Drilling Committee: comments on the Continental Scientific Drilling Program of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    This program, which provides support for geoscience research, including advanced technology and data/information services, concerning drilling in the continental crust of the United States for scientific purposes, is described. The curatorial needs and comparative site assessment projects are discussed. (MHR)

  12. Unique Microbial Community in Drilling Fluids from Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Xu, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Circulating drilling fluid is often regarded as a contamination source in investigations of subsurface microbiology. However, it also provides an opportunity to sample geological fluids at depth and to study contained microbial communities. During our study of deep subsurface microbiology of Chinese Continental Scientific Deep drilling project, we collected 6 drilling fluid samples from a borehole from 2290 to 5100 m below the ground surface. Microbial communities in these samples were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the bacterial clone sequences related to Firmicutes became progressively dominant with increased depth. Most sequences were related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. These habitats were consistent with the measured geochemical characteristics of the drilling fluids that have incorporated geological fluids and partly reflected the in-situ conditions. Several clone types were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus, and Anaerobranca gottschalkii, an anaerobic metal-reducer, an extreme thermophile, and an anaerobic chemoorganotroph, respectively. Their optimal growth temperature was between 50-85-aC. Anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(III) reducing bacterial isolates were obtained and they were capable of reducing Fe(III) in iron oxide and clay mineral to produce siderite and vivianite, and illite, respectively. Anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(II) oxidizing bacterial isolate was able to oxidize Fe(II) in clay structure. Biological iron redox cycles may be present in the deep subsurface. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to known cultivated species, but to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface marine environments. We infer that the detected microbes were derived from geological fluids at depth and their growth habitats reflected the deep subsurface

  13. Deep observation and sampling of the earth's continental crust (DOSECC): Continental scientific drilling workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    Research summaries are presented of ongoing or proposed deep drilling programs to explore hydrothermal systems, buried astroblemes, continental crust, magma systems, mountain belt tectonics, subduction zones, and volcanoes. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)

  14. Unique microbial community in drilling fluids from Chinese continental scientific drilling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, G.; Dong, H.; Jiang, H.; Xu, Z.; Eberl, D.D.

    2006-01-01

    Circulating drilling fluid is often regarded as a contamination source in investigations of subsurface microbiology. However, it also provides an opportunity to sample geological fluids at depth and to study contained microbial communities. During our study of deep subsurface microbiology of the Chinese Continental Scientific Deep drilling project, we collected 6 drilling fluid samples from a borehole from 2290 to 3350 m below the land surface. Microbial communities in these samples were characterized with cultivation-dependent and -independent techniques. Characterization of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the bacterial clone sequences related to Firmicutes became progressively dominant with increasing depth. Most sequences were related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. These habitats were consistent with the measured geochemical characteristics of the drilling fluids that have incorporated geological fluids and partly reflected the in-situ conditions. Several clone types were closely related to Thermoanaerobacter ethanolicus, Caldicellulosiruptor lactoaceticus, and Anaerobranca gottschalkii, an anaerobic metal-reducer, an extreme thermophile, and an anaerobic chemoorganotroph, respectively, with an optimal growth temperature of 50-68??C. Seven anaerobic, thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing bacterial isolates were obtained and they were capable of reducing iron oxide and clay minerals to produce siderite, vivianite, and illite. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to any known cultivated species, but rather to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface environments. We infer that the detected microbes were derived from geological fluids at depth and their growth habitats reflected the deep subsurface conditions. These findings have important implications for microbial survival and their ecological functions in the deep subsurface.

  15. The Lake El'gygytgyn Scientific Drilling Project - Conquering Arctic Challenges through Continental Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melles, M.; Brigham-Grette, J.; Minyuk, P.; Koeberl, C.; Andreev, A.; Cook, T.; Fedorov, G.; Gebhardt, C.; Haltia-Hovi, E.; Kukkonen, M.; Nowaczyk, N.; Schwamborn, G.; Wennrich, B.; El'gygytgyn Scientific Party, the

    2011-03-01

    Between October 2008 and May 2009, the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) co-sponsored a campaign at Lake Eĺgygytgyn, located in a 3.6-Ma-old meteorite impact crater in northeastern Siberia. Drilling targets included three holes in the center of the 170-m-deep lake, utilizing the lake ice cover as a drilling platform, plus one hole close to the shore in the western lake catchment. At the lake's center. the entire 315-m-thick lake sediment succession was penetrated. The sediments lack any hiatuses (i.e., no evidence of basin glaciation or desiccation), and their composition reflects the regional climatic and environmental history with great sensitivity. Hence, the record provides the first comprehensive and widely timecontinuous insights into the evolution of the terrestrial Arctic since mid-Pliocene times. This is particularly true for the lowermost 40 meters and uppermost 150 meters of the sequence, which were drilled with almost 100% recovery and likely reflect the initial lake stage during the Pliocene and the last ~2.9 Ma, respectively. Nearly 200 meters of underlying rock were also recovered; these cores consist of an almost complete section of the various types of impact breccias including broken and fractured volcanic basement rocks and associated melt clasts. The investigation of this core sequence promises new information concerning the Eĺgygytgyn impact event, including the composition and nature of the meteorite, the energy released, and the shock behavior of the volcanic basement rocks. Complementary information on the regional environmental history, including the permafrost history and lake-level fluctuations, is being developed from a 142-m-long drill core recovered from the permafrost deposits in the lake catchment. This core consists of gravelly and sandy alluvial fan deposits in ice-rich permafrost, presumably comprising a discontinuous record of both Quaternary and Pliocene deposits. doi:Continental Scientific Drilling (CSD): Technology Barriers to Deep Drilling Studies in Thermal Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Kolstad, George A.; Rowley, John C.

    1987-01-16

    This report is the proceedings of a workshop. The primary thrust of these discussion was to identify the major key technology barriers to the Department of Energy (DOE) supported Thermal Regimes CSD projects and to set priorities for research and development. The major technological challenge is the high temperature to be encountered at depth. Specific problems derived from this issue were widely recognized among the participants and are reflected in this summary. A major concern for the projected Thermal Regimes CSD boreholes was the technology required for continuous coring, in contrast to that required for drilling without core or spot coring. Current commercial technology bases for these two techniques are quite different. The DOE has successfully fielded projects that used both technologies, i.e, shallow continuous coring (Inyo Domes and Valles Caldera) and deeper drilling with spot cores (Imperial Valley-SSSDP). It was concluded that future scientific objectives may still require both approaches, but continuous coring is the most likely requirement in the near term. (DJE-2005)

  16. The ICDP Information Network and the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling CCSD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conze, R.; Su, D.

    2002-12-01

    ICDP is an international program investigating the 'System Earth' in multidisciplinary co-operation. Funded drilling projects are characterized by detailed fieldwork at world-class geological sites on the continents and by the global scope of research objectives. During project work, partnering researchers from all over the world work together at remote drill sites and in laboratories at their institutions. Researchers apply a range of highly diverse scientific methodologies, thereby acquiring huge data sets. Multinational co-operation and increasing amounts of scientific data require completely new concepts and practices for scientific work, and place heavy demands on information and communications management. This is achieved by means of the ICDP Information Network. Scientists working on ICDP related data need a central long-term data archive with powerful tools for navigation, data modeling and analysis. The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling CCSD is a national key scientific and engineering project of the PR China supported by ICDP. The current drill site of CCSD is located in Donghai, Jiangsu Province, the eastern part of the Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic belt, which possesses global geological significance. From the spud on June 25, 2001 to April 6, 2002, the 2000m pilot hole was finished with a total core recovery of 88.7% and an average inclination angle of 3-4 degrees. The pilot hole has been transformed to the main hole by hole opening. Deepening and coring of the CCSD-1 main hole is currently in progress. Most of the basic scientific documentation and measurements are done in a large field laboratory directly beside the drill rig, which was set up using the standard of the former German Continental Scientific Drilling (KTB). It includes a powerful infrastructure for computing and electronic communication as well as a comprehensive twofold data and information management: 1. The CCSD-DMIS is a special Data Management Information System for the chinese

  17. Salton Sea Geothermal Field, Imperial Valley, California as a site for continental scientific drilling. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.; Cohen, L.H.

    1983-03-01

    The Salton Trough, where seafloor spreading systems of the East Pacific Rise transition into the San Andreas transform fault system, is the site of such continental rifting and basin formation today. The largest thermal anomaly in the trough, the Salton Sea Geothermal Field (SSGF), is of interest to both thermal regimes and mineral resources investigators. At this site, temperatures >350/sup 0/C and metal-rich brines with 250,000 mg/L TDS have been encountered at <2 km depth. Republic Geothermal Inc. will drill a new well to 3.7 km in the SSGF early in 1983; we propose add-on experiments in it. If funded, we will obtain selective water and core samples and a large-diameter casing installed to 3.7 km will permit later deepening. In Phase 2, the well would be continuously cored to 5.5 km and be available for scientific studies until July 1985. The deepened well would encounter hydrothermal regimes of temperature and pressure never before sampled.

  18. The Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research in China: Results from Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Zhang, G.; Huang, L.; Dai, X.; Wang, Y.; Lu, G.; Dong, Z.; Dong, X.

    2009-12-01

    Microbial abundance and community structure from ultra-high pressure metamorphic rocks and deep fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling (CCSD) project were investigated by using geochemical and cultivation and molecular microbiology methods. The drilling site is located in the eastern part of the Dabie-Sulu ultra high-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) orogenic belt at the convergent plate boundary between the Sino-Korean and Yangtze Plates. This integrated approach conclusively demonstrates that microbes can survive in the deep continental subsurface (down to ~4500 m) and they play important roles in biogeochemical transformations of minerals and rocks. Direct cell counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis identified microbial life in rock samples taken from as deep as ~4500 m, where the temperature was estimated to be approximately 130oC. The subsurface distribution of microorganisms was continuous and the abundance of microbial cells was unrelated to the depth. However, analysis of 16S rDNA sequences derived from the rock DNA samples by PCR showed that the diversity of microorganisms decreased with increasing depth. The bacterial clone sequences shifted from a Proteobacteria-dominated community to a Firmicutes-dominated one with increased depth. From the ground surface to 2030 m, most clone sequences were related to nitrate reducers, with a saline, alkaline, and cold habitat. From 2290 to ~4500 m most clone sequences were closely related to anaerobic, thermophilic, halophilic or alkaliphilic bacteria. The archaeal diversity was low. Most archaeal sequences were not related to any known cultivated species, but to environmental clone sequences recovered from subsurface marine environments. A number of enrichments and isolates were obtained from the rocks and fluids, including thermophilic metal reducers and alkaliphiles. Thermophilic iron-reducing bacteria were incubated with lactate as the electron donor and structural Fe(III) in solid minerals as

  19. Continental Scientific Drilling and Exploration Act. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session, May 2, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the bill (H.R. 2737) is to implement section 323 of the joint resolution entitled Joint Resolution making continuing appropriations for the fiscal year 1985, and for other purposes, signed into law on October 12, 1984 (Public Law 98-473; 98 Stat. 1875). P.L. 98-473 supports and encourages the development of a national Continental Scientific Drilling Program. This research program has promise for yielding new knowledge of the geophysical processes of the Earth's crust. The bill requires that the participating Federal agencies develop a long-range plan for implementation of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program. This committee report explains committee amendments to H.R. 2737, provides sectional analysis, presents committee views, and discusses oversight activities. The bill requires submission to Congress of a report on the plan developed for implementation of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The report will include the policy objectives; projected schedules; resources and funding required; potential scientific, economic, technological, and social benefits of the program; international interactions and cooperation; and other related recommendations.

  1. Selected data fron continental scientific drilling core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, J.A.; Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr.; Counce, D.; Luedemann, G.; Garcia, S.; Dennis, B.; Hulen, J.B.; Janik, C.; Tomei, F.A.

    1989-02-01

    This report presents geochemical and isotopic data on rocks and water and wellbore geophysical data from the Continental Scientific Drilling Program core holes VC-1 and VC-2a, Valles Caldera, New Mexico. These core holes were drilled as a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental questions about magma, water/rock interactions, ore deposits, and volcanology. The data in this report will assist the interpretation of the hydrothermal system in the Jemez Mountains and will stimulate further research in magmatic processes, hydrothermal alteration, ore deposits, hydrology, structural geology, and hydrothermal solution chemistry. 37 refs., 36 figs., 28 tabs.

  2. Continental Scientific Drilling and Exploration Act. Introduced in the Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session, September 19, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The Senate Committee on Energy and Natural Resources report on S. 1026 recommends without amendment the bill which directs the Secretaries of the Interior and the National Science Foundation to cooperate in implementing the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). The purpose of the CSDP is to enhance the knowledge and understanding of the composition, structure, dynamics, and evolution of the continental crust, including how such processes affect natural phenomena. The report includes background and the need for the legislation and summarizes the four sections.

  3. Volatile transfer and recycling at UHP metamorphism; constraint from CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) eclogites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, K.; Iizuka, Y.; Jahn, B.; Tzeng-Fu, Y.; Xu, Z.

    2005-12-01

    Study of dehydration and decarbonation processes of subducting oceanic crust is important to understand the island arc volcanism and recycling of water and carbon to deep mantle. Recent UHP experiments in C-O-H fluid-bearing MORB system have revealed that phase change and fluid composition depend on oxygen fugacity (e.g. Molina and Poli, 2002; Crottini and Poli, 2004). If oxygen fugacities represented by the equilibrium NNO (Ni-NiO) or FMQ (fayalie-magnesite-quartz) are assumed to be the average condition of UHP metamorphism, then the phase assemblages of UHP rocks are expected to have graphite/diamond only, graphite/diamond +carbonates, or carbonates only depending on the bulk compositions (Poli and Fumagalli, 2004, EMU notes in miner. vol. 5). C-species are well described in Chinese UHP eclogites (e.g. Zhang and Kai, 1996). However, carbonates can be easily leached from outcrop. Therefore in the worst case, only graphite could be recognized from surface exposures although drilled core samples represent carbonates with graphite (e.g. Sanbagawa schist in Japan, Goto et al., 2000, Ann. Meet. Japan. Petrol. Miner. Mining Geol. Assoc.). From this point of view, CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) samples are probably the best for identification of C-species in UHP rocks. We investigated nine eclogites from various depths (170 to 2000 m). Two types of eclogite can be distinguished; dry- and phengite-eclogite. The phengite eclogite is associated with orthogneiss. Under the microscope, the dry eclogites contain relative coarse-grained (> 500 microns across) garnet, clinopyroxene and rutile with or without graphite, quartz, apatite, zircon, and pyrite. The phengite eclogites exhibit garnet, clinopyroxene, rutile, quartz, and phengite with or without graphite, pyrite, talc, apatite, zircon, and K-feldspar. Graphite is always recognized with pyrite, suggesting oxygen fugacity was low (NNO) at UHP stage. Estimated P, T conditions based on the assemblage garnet

  4. Quo Vadis ICDP? The Science Plan of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsfield, Brian

    2014-05-01

    The rocks and fluids of our ever-changing planet contain heat, energy, and life as well as archived records of what has gone before. These precious relicts and living systems need to be probed, collected, monitored and analyzed. The science results obtained cover the spectrum of the earth sciences from climate change, natural hazards and earth resources to the origins of life on Earth. The need to drill has never been greater, and this requires improved coordination between the marine, terrestrial and ice-coring communities and the research and private sector communities, effectively addressing the needs of our growing population for energy, sustenance, and quality of life. The ICDP is an infrastructure for scientific drilling that facilitates outstanding science. It is the only international platform for scientific research drilling in terrestrial environments. ICDP brings together scientists and stakeholders from 24 nations to work together at the highest scientific and technical niveaux. More than 30 drilling projects and 55 planning workshops have been supported to date. It is an efficient organisation, run according to the philosophy "lean and mean", with an average annual budget of about 5 million, and further third-party drilling expenditures that more than doubles this yearly investment. Here we report on ICDP's 2013 Science Conference "Imaging the Past to Imagine our Future", held November 11-14, 2013 in Potsdam whose goal was to set the new ICDP Science Plan in motion. New insights into geoprocesses and the identification of hot topics were high on the agenda, and debated in closed sessions, via posters and through oral presentations, and where appropriate dovetailed with socio-economic challenges. The conference was used to strengthen and expand our ties with member countries, and to debate incorporating industry into selected ICDP strategic activities where it makes sense to do so (ICDP remains science-driven). In addition, the conference paved the way

  5. The DIS, the CODD, IGSNs and DOIs: Tools you need to succeed with your ocean and continental scientific drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgas, Thomas; Conze, Ronald; Lorenz, Henning; Elger, Kirsten; Ulbricht, Damian; Wilkens, Roy; Lyle, Mitchell; Westerhold, Thomas; Drury, Anna Joy; Tian, Jun; Hahn, Annette

    2017-04-01

    Scientific ocean drilling over the past >40 years and corresponding efforts on land (by now for more than >20 years) has led to the accumulation of an enormous amount of valuable petrophysical, geochemical, biological and geophysical data obtained through laboratory and field experiments across a multitude of scale-and time dimensions. Such data can be utilized comprehensively in a holistic fashion, and thereby provide base toward an enhanced "Core-Log-Integration", modeling small-scale basin processes to large-scale Earth phenomena, while also storing and managing all relevant information in an "Open Access" fashion. Since the early 1990's members of our team have acquired and measured a large dataset of physical and geochemical properties representing both terrestrial and marine geological environments. This dataset cover a variety of both macro-to-microscale dimensions, and thereby allowing this type of interdisciplinary data examination. Over time, data management and processing tools have been developed and were recently merged with modern data publishing methods, which allow identifying and tracking data and associated publications in a trackable and concise manner. Our current presentation summarizes an important part of the value chain in geosciences, comprising: 1) The state-of-the-art in data management for continental and lake drilling projects performed with and through ICDP's Drilling Information System (DIS). 2) The CODD (Code for Ocean Drilling Data) as numerical-based, programmable data processing toolbox and applicable for both continental and marine drilling projects. 3) The implementation of Persistent Identifiers, such as the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) to identify and track sample material as part of Digital-Object-Identifier (DOI)-tagged operation reports and research publications. 4) A list of contacts provided for scientists with an interest in learning and applying methods and techniques we offer in form of basic and advanced

  6. Environmental sampling and mud sampling program of CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) core hole VC-2B, Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Meeker, K.; Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1990-03-01

    An environmental sampling and drilling mud sampling program was conducted during the drilling operations of Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole VC-2B, Valles caldera, New Mexico. A suite of four springs and creeks in the Sulphur Springs area were monitored on a regular basis to ensure that the VC-2B drilling program was having no environmental impact on water quality. In addition, a regional survey of springs in and around the Jemez Mountains was conducted to provide background data for the environmental monitoring. A drilling mud monitoring program was conducted during the operations to help identify major fluid entries in the core hole. 32 refs., 14 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. First CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program)/thermal regimes core hole project at Valles Caldera, New Mexico (VC-1): Drilling report

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, J.; Hawkins, W.; Gardner, J.

    1987-02-01

    This report is a review and summary of the core drilling operations of the first Valles Caldera research borehole (VC-1) under the Thermal Regimes element of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). The project is a portion of a broader program that seeks to answer fundamental scientific questions about magma, rock/water interactions, and volcanology through shallow (<1-km) core holes at Long Valley, California; Salton Sea, California; and the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The report emphasizes coring operations with reference to the stratigraphy of the core hole, core quality description, core rig specifications, and performance. It is intended to guide future research on the core and in the borehole, as well as have applications to other areas and scientific problems in the Valles Caldera. The primary objectives of this Valles Caldera coring effort were (1) to study the hydrogeochemistry of a subsurface geothermal outflow zone of the caldera near the source of convective upflow, (2) to obtain structural and stratigraphic information from intracaldera rock formations in the southern ring-fracture zone, and (3) to obtain continuous core samples through the youngest volcanic unit in Valles Caldera, the Banco Bonito rhyolite (approximately 0.1 Ma). All objectives were met. The high percentage of core recovery and the excellent quality of the samples are especially notable. New field sample (core) handling and documentation procedures were successfully utilized. The procedures were designed to provide consistent field handling of the samples and logs obtained through the national CSDP.

  8. Microbial diversity in ultra-high-pressure rocks and fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2005-06-01

    Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of approximately 0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 x 10(3) to 2.4 x 10(4) cells/g and 3.5 x 10(8) to 4.2 x 10(9) cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids.

  9. Microbial Diversity in Ultra-High-Pressure Rocks and Fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gengxin; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Zhiqin; Zhao, Donggao; Zhang, Chuanlun

    2005-01-01

    Microbial communities in ultra-high-pressure (UHP) rocks and drilling fluids from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project were characterized. The rocks had a porosity of 1 to 3.5% and a permeability of ∼0.5 mDarcy. Abundant fluid and gas inclusions were present in the minerals. The rocks contained significant amounts of Fe2O3, FeO, P2O5, and nitrate (3 to 16 ppm). Acridine orange direct counting and phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated that the total counts in the rocks and the fluids were 5.2 × 103 to 2.4 × 104 cells/g and 3.5 × 108 to 4.2 × 109 cells/g, respectively. Enrichment assays resulted in successful growth of thermophilic and alkaliphilic bacteria from the fluids, and some of these bacteria reduced Fe(III) to magnetite. 16S rRNA gene analyses indicated that the rocks were dominated by sequences similar to sequences of Proteobacteria and that most organisms were related to nitrate reducers from a saline, alkaline, cold habitat; however, some phylotypes were either members of a novel lineage or closely related to uncultured clones. The bacterial communities in the fluids were more diverse and included Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, gram-positive bacteria, Planctomycetes, and Candidatus taxa. The archaeal diversity was lower, and most sequences were not related to any known cultivated species. Some archaeal sequences were 90 to 95% similar to sequences recovered from ocean sediments or other subsurface environments. Some archaeal sequences from the drilling fluids were >93% similar to sequences of Sulfolobus solfataricus, and the thermophilic nature was consistent with the in situ temperature. We inferred that the microbes in the UHP rocks reside in fluid and gas inclusions, whereas those in the drilling fluids may be derived from subsurface fluids. PMID:15933024

  10. Project Hotspot - The Snake River Scientific Drilling Project - Investigating the Interactions of Mantle Plumes and Continental Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    The Yellowstone-Snake River Plain (YSRP) volcanic province is the world's best modern example of a time- transgressive hotspot track beneath continental crust. Recently, a 100 km wide thermal anomaly has been imaged by seismic tomography to depths of over 500 km beneath the Yellowstone Plateau. The Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field consists largely of rhyolite lavas and ignimbrites, with few mantle-derived basalts. In contrast, the Snake River Plain (SRP), which represents the track of the Yellowstone hotspot, consists of rhyolite caldera complexes that herald the onset of plume-related volcanism and basalts that are compositionally similar to ocean island basalts like Hawaii. The SRP preserves a record of volcanic activity that spans over 16 Ma and is still active today, with basalts as young as 200 ka in the west and 2 ka in the east. The SRP is unique because it is young and relatively undisturbed tectonically, and because it contains a complete record of volcanic activity associated with passage of the hotspot. This complete volcanic record can only be sampled by drilling. In addition, the western SRP rift basin preserves an unparalleled deep-water lacustrine archive of paleoclimate evolution in western North America during the late Neogene. The central question addressed by the Snake River Scientific Drilling Project is how do mantle hotspots interact with continental lithosphere, and how does this interaction affect the geochemical evolution of mantle-derived magmas and the continental lithosphere? Our hypothesis is that continental mantle lithosphere is constructed in part from the base up by the underplating of mantle plumes, which are compositionally distinct from cratonic lithosphere, and that plumes modify the impacted lithosphere by thermally and mechanically eroding cratonic mantle lithosphere, and by underplating depleted plume-source mantle. Addition of mafic magma to the crust represents a significant contribution to crustal growth, and densifies

  11. SALTON SEA SCIENTIFIC DRILLING PROJECT: SCIENTIFIC PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Elders, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, was spudded on 24 October 1985, and reached a total depth of 10,564 ft. (3. 2 km) on 17 March 1986. There followed a period of logging, a flow test, and downhole scientific measurements. The scientific goals were integrated smoothly with the engineering and economic objectives of the program and the ideal of 'science driving the drill' in continental scientific drilling projects was achieved in large measure. The principal scientific goals of the project were to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. To facilitate these studies, high priority was attached to four areas of sample and data collection, namely: (1) core and cuttings, (2) formation fluids, (3) geophysical logging, and (4) downhole physical measurements, particularly temperatures and pressures.

  12. Caldera processes and magma-hydrothermal systems continental scientific drilling program: thermal regimes, Valles caldera research, scientific and management plan

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Nielson, D.L.

    1986-05-01

    Long-range core-drilling operations and initial scientific investigations are described for four sites in the Valles caldera, New Mexico. The plan concentrates on the period 1986 to 1993 and has six primary objectives: (1) study the origin, evolution, physical/chemical dynamics of the vapor-dominated portion of the Valles geothermal system; (2) investigate the characteristics of caldera fill and mechanisms of caldera collapse and resurgence; (3) determine the physical/chemical conditions in the heat transfer zone between crystallizing plutons and the hydrothermal system; (4) study the mechanism of ore deposition in the caldera environment; (5) develop and test high-temperature drilling techniques and logging tools; and (6) evaluate the geothermal resource within a large silicic caldera. Core holes VC-2a (500 m) and VC-2b (2000 m) are planned in the Sulphur Springs area; these core holes will probe the vapor-dominated zone, the underlying hot-water-dominated zone, the boiling interface and probable ore deposition between the two zones, and the deep structure and stratigraphy along the western part of the Valles caldera fracture zone and resurgent dome. Core hole VC-3 will involve reopening existing well Baca number12 and deepening it from 3.2 km (present total depth) to 5.5 km, this core hole will penetrate the deep-crystallized silicic pluton, investigate conductive heat transfer in that zone, and study the evolution of the central resurgent dome. Core hole VC-4 is designed to penetrate deep into the presumably thick caldera fill in eastern Valles caldera and examine the relationship between caldera formation, sedimentation, tectonics, and volcanism. Core hole VC-5 is to test structure, stratigraphy, and magmatic evolution of pre-Valles caldera rocks, their relations to Valles caldera, and the influences of regional structure on volcanism and caldera formation.

  13. Initial results from VC-1, first Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole in Valles caldera, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Rowley, J.; Gardner, J.N.; Hawkins, W.; Goff, S.; Charles, R.; Wachs, D.; Maassen, L.; Heiken, G.

    1986-02-10

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphic information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, and to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  14. Initial results from VC-1, First Continental Scientific Drilling Program Core Hole in Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, Fraser; Rowley, John; Gardner, Jamie N.; Hawkins, Ward; Goff, Sue; Charles, Robert; Wachs, Daniel; Maassen, Larry; Heiken, Grant

    1986-02-01

    Valles Caldera 1 (VC-1) is the first Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP) core hole drilled in the Valles caldera and the first continuously cored well in the caldera region. The objectives of VC-1 were to penetrate a hydrothermal outflow plume near its source, to obtain structural and stratigraphie information near the intersection of the ring fracture zone and the precaldera Jemez fault zone, arid to core the youngest volcanic unit inside the caldera (Banco Bonito obsidian). Coring of the 856-m well took only 35 days to finish, during which all objectives were attained and core recovery exceeded 95%. VC-1 penetrates 298 m of moat volcanics and caldera fill ignimbrites, 35 m of precaldera volcaniclastic breccia, and 523 m of Paleozoic carbonates, sandstones, and shales. A previously unknown obsidian flow was encountered at 160 m depth underlying the Battleship Rock Tuff in the caldera moat zone. Hydrothermal alteration is concentrated in sheared, brecciated, and fractured zones from the volcaniclastic breccia to total depth with both the intensity and rank of alterations increasing with depth. Alteration assemblages consist primarily of clays, calcite, pyrite, quartz, and chlorite, but chalcopyrite and sphalerite have been identified as high as 450 m and molybdenite has been identified in a fractured zone at 847 m. Carbon 13 and oxygen 18 analyses of core show that the most intense zones of hydrothermal alteration occur in the Madera Limestone above 550 m and in the Madera and Sandia formations below 700 m. This corresponds with zones of most intense calcite and quartz veining. Thermal aquifers were penetrated at the 480-, 540-, and 845-m intervals. Although these intervals are associated with alteration, brecciation, and veining, they are also intervals where clastic layers occur in the Paleozoic sedimentary rocks.

  15. Continental Scientific Drilling Program thermal regimes: comparative site assessment geology of five magma-hydrothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Waters, A.C.

    1980-10-01

    The geology and salient aspects of geophysics and hydrogeochemistry of five high-grade geothermal systems in the USA are reviewed. On the basis of this information, a target location is suggested for a deep (5- to 8-km) borehole that will maximize the amount of scientific information to be learned at each of the five geothermal areas.

  16. Valles caldera region, New Mexico, and the emerging continental scientific drilling program

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Gardner, J.N.

    1988-06-10

    Valles caldera is best known in recent years as an excellent example of a resurgent caldera and as the site of a high-temperature geothermal system. However, Valles caldera and the surrounding Jemez Mountains volcanic field possess a rich history of geologic research that dates back to the late 1880s. Through the years, the research focus has changed as different economic and scientific factors have exerted their influence. Early work emphasized mining activity, while modern work has stressed volcanology and, later, geothermal development. Only in the last 5 years has it been possible to view the region as a dynamic, integrated magma-hydrothermal system having a complex evolution lasting more than 13 m.y.

  17. Preliminary study on the L ate Cretaceous ostracods from continental scientific drilling SK1 in the Songliao Basin, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Dangpeng; Qu, Haiying; Shi, Zhongye; Wan, Xiaoqiao

    2017-04-01

    Songliao Basin is one of the biggest lacustrine systems in Asia during Cretaceous age. Widespread deposits in the basin are mainly composed of clastic sediments which contain abundant fossils including gastropod, bivalves, ostracods, vertebrates and others. These well preserved ostracod fossils provide us valuable information about past climate changes and biotic responses in a greenhouse environment.The Cretaceous Continental Scientific Drilling in the Songliao Basin (SK1) offers a rare opportunity to study Late Cretaceous non-marine ostracod. The SK1 was drilled separately in two boreholes: the lower 959.55-meter-thick south core (SK1(s)), and the upper 1636.72-meter-thick north core (SK1 (n)), containing the Upper Quantou, Qingshankou, Yaojia, Nenjiang Formation, Sifangtai, Mingshui and lower Taikang formations. Here we establish high-resolution non-marine ostracod biostratigraphy based on SK1. 80 species belonging to 12 genera in the SK1(S) and 45 species assigned to 20 genera in the SK1(n) have been recovered. Nineteen ostracod assemblage zones have been recognized: 1. Mongolocypris longicaudata-Cypridea Assemblage Zone, 2.Triangulicypris torsuosus-Triangulicypris torsuosus. nota Assemblage Zone, 3. Cypridea dekhoinensis-Cypridea gibbosa Assemblage Zone, 4.Cypridea nota-Sunliavia tumida Assemblage Zone, 5.Cypridea edentula-Lycopterocypris grandis Assemblage Zone, 6.Cypridea fuyuensis-Triangulicypris symmetrica Assemblage Zone, 7.Triangulicypris vestilus-Triangulicypris fusiformis-Triangulicypris pumilis Assemblage Zone, 8.Cypridea panda-Mongolocypris obscura Assemblage Zone, 9. Cypridea exornata-Cypridea dongfangensis Assemblage Zone, 10.Cypridea favosa-Mongolocypris tabulata Assemblage Zone, 11.Cypridea formosa-Cypridea sunghuajiangensis Assemblage Zone, 12. Cypridea anonyma-Candona fabiforma Assemblage Zone, 13.Cypridea gracila-Cypridea gunsulinensis Assemblage Zone, 14.Mongolocypris magna-Mongolocypris heiluntszianensis Assemblage Zone, 15.Cypridea

  18. Continental Scientific Drilling Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-01

    Quaternary. A period of basaltic, andesitic , and dacitic volcan- ism 2.5 m.y. ago was followed by two major ash flow eruptions accompanied by caldera...the Alaskan Peninsula, and the Aleutian Islands are characterized by chains of andesitic stratovolcanoes. The complex internal structure and shallow...sedimentary rocks and Eocene andesitic sediments and lavas are underlain by a basement of Precambrian metamorphic rocks. However, intrusion of magma has cut

  19. Scientific drilling technologies for hostile environments

    SciTech Connect

    Traeger, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the current United States Department of Energy Continental Scientific Drilling Program for Thermal Regimes and the related technologies being developed for geothermal drilling. Plans for penetrating into a molten magma body at temperatures from 800 to 1000{degree}C are also reviewed. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) was the first large-scale drilling project undertaken by the U.S Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The objectives of the SSSDP were (1) to drill a deep well into the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in the Imperial Valley of California, (2) to retrieve a high percentage of core and cuttings along the entire depth of the well, (3) to obtain a comprehensive suite of geophysical logs, (4) to conduct flow tests at two depths  (and to take fluid samples therefrom), and (5) to carry out several downhole experiments. These activites enabled the U.S Geological Survey and cooperating agencies to study the physical and chemical processes involved in an active hydrothermal system driven by a molten-rock heat source. This program, orginally conceived by Wilfred A. Elders, professor of geology at the University of California at Riverside, was coordinated under an inter-agency accord among the Geological Survey, the U.S Department of Energy, and the National Science Foundation. 

  1. Exploring the deep continental crust by drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, Wilfred A.

    Although geology transcends national boundaries, geologists are not free of national influences. To the question “Is continental scientific drilling an idea whose time has come?,” answers might range from an enthusiastic “yes” in the Soviet Union and the Federal Republic of Germany, and a qualified “yes” in Sweden, to “We hope so” in Canada, France, Japan, the United Kingdom, and elsewhere, but most likely “We don't know” in the United States.In August 1988 at Jaroslavl in the U.S.S.R., Y. A. Kozlovsky, Minister of Geology, challenged participants in the international seminar Superdeep Continental Drilling and Deep Geophysical Research with his proposal for Project GLOBUS, a very-large-scale collaborative study of Earth's crust [Kozlovsky, 1988; Sass and Barber, 1989]. GLOBUS would investigate the crust of all of the world's continents and oceans by a network of geophysical transects, supported by up to 50 deep (5-10 km), to superdeep (>10 km), research boreholes, situated at the nodal points of the net to calibrate the geophysical interpretations and serve as permanent crustal observatories (Figure 1).

  2. The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, Wilfred A.; Sass, John H.

    1988-11-01

    In March 1986 a research borehole, called the "State 2-14," reached a depth of 3.22 km in the Salton Sea geothermal system of southern California. This was part of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP), the first major (i.e., multimillion dollar) research drilling project in the U.S. Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The principal goals of the project were to investigate the physical and chemical processes of a high-temperature, high-salinity, magmatically driven hydrothermal system. The borehole encountered temperatures of up to 355°C and produced metal-rich, alkali chloride brines containing 25 wt% of total dissolved solids. The rocks penetrated exhibit metamorphism and ore genesis in action. They show a progressive transition from unconsolidated lacustrine and deltaic sediments to hornfelses, with lower amphibolite facies mineralogy, accompanied by pervasive veins containing iron, copper, lead, and zinc ore minerals. The SSSDP included an intensive program of rock and fluid sampling, flow testing, and downhole logging and scientific measurement. The purpose of this paper is to introduce this special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research on the SSSDP, to describe briefly the background of the project and the drilling and testing of the borehole, to summarize the initial scientific results, and to discuss how the lessons learned are applicable to future scientific drilling projects.

  3. Application of geochemical logging for palaeoenvironmental research in the Late Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation from the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project-SK-2e, Songliao Basin, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Cheng; Zou, Changchun; Pan, Li; Niu, Yixiong

    2017-08-01

    The Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Project of the Cretaceous Songliao Basin (CCSD-SK) provides an excellent opportunity to understand the response of terrestrial environments to greenhouse climate change in the Cretaceous. We conducted a palaeoenvironmental study of the Late Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation (K2qn) based on geochemical log data from the SK-2 east borehole. According to the characteristic of Ti mainly from terrigenous minerals, the content of authigenic elements was calculated. Correlation space was proposed to study the variation of the correlation between two log curves along the depth. Palaeoenvironmental proxies were selected from log data to study the evolution of the climate and lake, productivity of the paleolake, and organic matter deposition. The results demonstrate that the productivity of the paleolake was driven by chemical weathering in K2qn, in which the first section of the Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1) has higher productivity than the second and third sections of the Qingshankou Formation (K2qn2+3). The high content of pyrite in several thin layers reveals lake water of high sulfate concentration. This may have been caused by acid rain related to large volcanic activity. In K2qn2+3, several periods of high productivity without the formation of source rocks and high organic matter content were identified. This may show that organic matter deposition was limited by low accommodation space or oxidation environment. Therefore, the preservation condition is suggested as the main controlling factor of organic matter deposition in K2qn.

  4. Hydrothermal brecciation in the Jemez Fault zone, Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Results from CSDP (Continental Scientific Drilling Program) corehole VC-1

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.; Nielson, D.L.

    1987-06-01

    Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks intersected deep in Continental Scientific Drilling Program corehole VC-1, adjacent to the late Cenozoic Valles caldera complex, have been disrupted to form a spectacular breccia sequence. The breccias are of both tectonic and hydrothermal origin, and probably formed in the Jemez fault zone, a major regional structure with only normal displacement since mid-Miocene. Tectonic breccias are contorted, crushed, sheared, and granulated; slickensides are commmon. Hydrothermal breccias, by contrast, lack these frictional textures, but arej commonly characterized by fluidized matrix foliation and prominent clast rounding. Fluid inclusions in the hydrothermal breccias are dominantly two-phase, liquid-rich at room temperature, principally secondary, and form two distinctly different compositional groups. Older inclusions, unrelated to brecciation, are highly saline and homogenize to the liquid phase in the temperature range 189 to 246/sup 0/C. Younger inclusions, in part of interbreccia origin, are low-salinity and homogenize (also to liquid) in the range 230 to 283/sup 0/C. Vapor-rich inclusions locally trapped along with these dilute liquid-rich inclusions document periodic boiling. These fluid-inclusion data, together with alteration assemblages and textures as well as the local geologic history, have been combined to model hydrothermal brecciation at the VC-1 site.

  5. Outreach, Diversity, and Education Supported by NSF Facilities LacCore and the Continental Scientific Drilling Coordination Office (CSDCO), University of Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myrbo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Climatic and environmental change are a powerful hook to engage students and the public with geoscience. Recent lake sediments often feature visual and compositional evidence of anthropogenic changes, which can pique curiosity and serve as a gateway for interest in more remote past changes. Cores provide an integrative, place-based geoscience education/outreach platform: lake dynamics incorporate principles of chemistry, physics, and biology; lake basin formation and sedimentary signals trace back to numerous geoscience subdisciplines. Lakes reflect local changes, and so are inherently place-based and relevant to both rural and urban populations. The esthetics of lakes in the landscape and sediments under the microscope spark the artistic sensibilities of those who do not consider themselves scientists: lakes are readymade for STEAM education. LacCore has exploited the magic of lake sediment cores in its 15 years as an NSF Facility, and now expands to additional environments as the NSF Continental Scientific Drilling Coordination Office. Part of scaling up is the formalization of major support for the Broader Impacts (BI) activities of Facility users. LacCore/CSDCO now musters its collaborative experiences in site REUs and other undergrad research projects, in-depth training of students, teachers, and faculty, a long list of informal education experiences, and common-good software development, to provide assistance to researchers seeking meaningful broader impacts and educators seeking extra- or co-curricular field and laboratory research experiences for their students. Outreach, diversity, and education support includes dissemination of best practices, as well as coordination, administration, and basic capacity for such activities in collaboration with project PIs and students, through no-cost support, or collaborative proposals or supplements from NSF where necessary for project scale. Community-driven research and broadening participation are central to the

  6. Noble gas composition and 40Ar/39Ar age in eclogites from the main hole of the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Jens; Schwarz, Winfried H.; Trieloff, Mario; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Hanel, Michael; Altherr, Rainer

    2016-10-01

    We present the first comprehensive noble gas study on eclogites. The four eclogite samples were recovered during the Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling and are from two distinct profile depth sections differing in their degree of interaction with meteoric water, based on their δ 18O-values (surface related and of mantle-type). Hence, noble gas analyses offer the potential to further discriminate between shallow (meteoric) and deep (mantle) fluid sources. Noble gas compositions reveal typical crustal fluid compositions, characterized by a variable mixture of atmospheric gases with significant contributions of nucleogenic neon, radiogenic 4He*, radiogenic 40Ar*, fissiogenic 131-136Xe, and presumably bariogenic 131Xe, but no significant addition of mantle gases. This signature can be also considered to represent one endmember component of eclogitic diamonds. Concentrations of non-radiogenic noble gases are rather low, with depletion of light relative to the heavier noble gases. Eclogites from lower depth which experienced a higher degree of interaction with meteoric water also showed higher contributions of atmospheric gas compared with eclogites recovered from greater depth. This is interpreted to result from interaction with high-salinity fluids during ultrahigh pressure (UH P). It demonstrates that the atmospheric noble gas abundance is a proxy for interaction with surface related fluids. 40Ar/39Ar (inverse) isochron ages of two phengite separates (241.2 ± 0.4 Ma and 275.0 ± 1.8 Ma, 1 σ-errors) predate the main phase of UH P metamorphism (ca. 220 Ma). Biotite yields an integrated age of about 1100 Ma. These age values are interpreted to reflect the likely addition of excess 40Ar without any chronological meaning.

  7. Hydrothermal brecciation in the Jemez fault zone, Valles Caldera, New Mexico: Results from continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole VC-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Nielson, Dennis L.

    1988-06-01

    An unusual breccia sequence penetrated in the lower 30 m of Continental Scientific Drilling Program core hole VC-1 (total depth 856 m) records a complex hydrothermal history culminating in hydraulic rock rupture and associated alteration at the edge of the Quaternary Valles caldera. The breccias, both tectonic and hydrothermal in origin, were formed in the Jemez fault zone, near the intersection of this major regional structure with the caldera's ring-fracture margin. Tectonic breccias in the sequence are contorted, crushed, and sheared. Coexisting hydrothermal breccias lack such frictional textures but display matrix flow foliation and prominent clast rounding, features characteristic of fluidization. These hydrothermal breccias were intensely altered, during at least five major stages, to quartz-illite-phengite-pyrite aggregates; traces of molybdenite occur locally. This assemblage indicates interaction with hydrothermal fluid at temperatures in excess of 200°C. The extrapolated present maximum temperature of 184°C in the breccia zone therefore represents considerable cooling since these phases were formed. Fluid inclusions in the breccias also preserve evidence of the prior passage of hotter fluids. The inclusions are principally two phase, liquid rich, secondary in origin, and concentrated in hydrothermal quartz. Older, high-salinity inclusions, unrelated to brecciation, homogenize in the temperature range 189°-246°C. Younger inclusions, in part of interbreccia origin, are low-salinity and homogenize in the temperature range 230°-283°C; locally coexisting liquid- and vapor-rich inclusions document periodic boiling of the dilute fluids. These fluid-inclusion data, along with the probable age of the hydrothermal breccias (<1.5 Ma), the assumed depth at which they developed (about 515 m), and the contemporaneous state of stress (extensional) can be combined to model hydrothermal brecciation at the VC-1 site. The minimum fluid pressure (Pfr) required to

  8. P, T conditions of the CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) eclogites; importance of ferric estimation based on Mössbauer and micro-XANES analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, K.; Jahn, B.; Yui, T.; Akasaka, M.; Xu, Z.

    2007-12-01

    Recent UHP experiments in C-O-H fluid-bearing MORB system have revealed that phase change and fluid composition depend on oxygen fugacity (e.g. Molina and Poli, 2000). If oxygen fugacities represented by the equilibrium NNO (Ni-NiO) or FMQ (fayalie-magnetite-quartz) are assumed to be the average condition of UHP metamorphism, then the phase assemblages of UHP rocks are expected to have graphite/diamond only, graphite/diamond +carbonates, or carbonates only depending on the bulk compositions (Poli and Fumagalli, 2004). CCSD (Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling) samples are probably the best for identification of C- species in UHP rocks. We investigated nine eclogites from various depths (170 to 2000 m). Under the microscope, the eclogites contain garnet, clinopyroxene. quartz and rutile with or without phengite, graphite, apatite, zircon, pyrite, talc, and K-feldspar. Graphite is always recognized with pyrite, suggesting oxygen fugacity was low (NNO) at UHP stage. The presence of graphite suggests that the eclogites released H2O-rich (CO2- poor) fluids and melt at UHP stage. The studied eclogites contain CaEs component in clinopyroxene. Therefore, Fe3+ content can not be calculated based on EPMA analysis. We estimated Fe3+/Fe2+ based on Mossbauer and micro-XANES analysis. With ignoring the Fe3+, P-T conditions based on the assemblage of phengite-garnet-cpx- (coesite) can be estimated as P=3-5 GPa, and T = 850-950 oC. However, the Fe3+ estimation from the clinopyroxenes based on Mössbauer and micro-XANES analysis corrects the P, T condition as 3-4 GPa, and 650 -780 oC. The geothermobarometry based on the kyanite-garnet-cpx- phengite-coesite assemblage (Ravna and Terry, 2004) is reliable because temperature estimation is independent from Fe3+ content in clinopyroxene. The estimation from one eclogite gives P=3.4 GPa, and T=750oC, quite consistent with the above estimation. The thermometry based on Zr concentration from rutile also gives estimated as 600 to 730 o

  9. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project: A summary of drilling and engineering activities and scientific results

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, H.P.; Forsgren, C.K.

    1992-04-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific g Project (SSSDP) completed the first major well in the United States Continental Scientific Drilling Program. The well (State 2-14) was drilled to 10,W ft (3,220 m) in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field in California's Imperial Valley, to permit scientific study of a deep, high-temperature portion of an active geothermal system. The program was designed to investigate, through drilling and testing, the subsurface thermal, chemical, and mineralogical environments of this geothermal area. Extensive samples and data, including cores, cuttings, geothermal fluids and gases, and geophysical logs, were collected for future scientific analysis, interpretation, and publication. Short duration flow tests were conducted on reservoirs at a depth of approximately 6,120 ft (1,865 m) and at 10,136 ft (3,089 m). This report summarizes all major activities of the SSSDP, from project inception in the fall of 1984 through brine-pond cleanup and site restoration, ending in February 1989. This report presents a balanced summary of drilling, coring, logging, and flow-test operations, and a brief summary of technical and scientific results. Frequent reference is made to original records, data, and publication of results. The report also reviews the proposed versus the final well design, and operational summaries, such as the bit record, the casing and cementing program, and the coring program. Summaries are and the results of three flow tests. Several teamed during the project.

  10. Continental Scientific Drilling and Exploration Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Natural Resources Development and Production of the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session on S. 1026, July 24, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The 21 witnesses who testified at a hearing on S. 1026 represented government agencies, universities and research institutes, and industries involved in drilling on the Continental Shelf. The legislation directs interagency cooperation in the effort of scientific drilling in the expectation that such cooperation will promote better techniques and lead to new knowledge and new energy supplies. The bill calls for work to expand knowledge of the earth's crust and the mechanics of fluid migration and earth movement. Implementation will involve the Departments of Energy and Interior and the National Science Foundation in a recommended course of interaction. The hearing record includes the text of S. 1026 as well as the prepared testimony and responses.

  11. IODP workshop: developing scientific drilling proposals for the Argentina Passive Volcanic Continental Margin (APVCM) - basin evolution, deep biosphere, hydrates, sediment dynamics and ocean evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flood, Roger D.; Violante, Roberto A.; Gorgas, Thomas; Schwarz, Ernesto; Grützner, Jens; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Hernández-Molina, F. Javier; Biddle, Jennifer; St-Onge, Guillaume; Workshop Participants, Apvcm

    2017-05-01

    The Argentine margin contains important sedimentological, paleontological and chemical records of regional and local tectonic evolution, sea level, climate evolution and ocean circulation since the opening of the South Atlantic in the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous as well as the present-day results of post-depositional chemical and biological alteration. Despite its important location, which underlies the exchange of southern- and northern-sourced water masses, the Argentine margin has not been investigated in detail using scientific drilling techniques, perhaps because the margin has the reputation of being erosional. However, a number of papers published since 2009 have reported new high-resolution and/or multichannel seismic surveys, often combined with multi-beam bathymetric data, which show the common occurrence of layered sediments and prominent sediment drifts on the Argentine and adjacent Uruguayan margins. There has also been significant progress in studying the climatic records in surficial and near-surface sediments recovered in sediment cores from the Argentine margin. Encouraged by these recent results, our 3.5-day IODP (International Ocean Discovery Program) workshop in Buenos Aires (8-11 September 2015) focused on opportunities for scientific drilling on the Atlantic margin of Argentina, which lies beneath a key portion of the global ocean conveyor belt of thermohaline circulation. Significant opportunities exist to study the tectonic evolution, paleoceanography and stratigraphy, sedimentology, and biosphere and geochemistry of this margin.

  12. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  13. A Ship for Scientific Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, M. N. A.; MacTernan, F. C.

    1982-01-01

    Traces the history and development of the Deep Sea Drilling Project, focusing on the Glomar Challenger, drilling improvements, and international significance. Includes photographs, illustrations, and tables. (DC)

  14. Deep Scientific Drilling at Koyna, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. K.

    2011-12-01

    countries were held under the auspices of International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), Government of India, during March 21 through 26, 2011 to discuss all aspects of the proposed scientific drilling at Koyna. In addition to a pilot bore hole of about 2.5 km, 4 other bore holes penetrating the basalt cover of about 1 km thickness, are proposed to be drilled to conduct a suite of geophysical and hydro-geological experiments and measurements. Results of these investigations would be complementary to SAFOD experiment being conducted on the plate boundary.

  15. The Swedish Deep Drilling Program - an emerging scientific drilling program and new infrastructure.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Henning; Juhlin, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    Scientific drilling projects imply numerous aspects that are difficult to handle for individual research groups. Therefore, about three years ago a joint effort was launched in the Swedish geoscientific community to establish a national program for scientific drilling, the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP). Soon afterwards, several working groups established drilling proposals with Nordic and, also, international participation. With this serious interest in scientific drilling SDDP was able to successfully promote the Swedish membership in ICDP which commenced in 2008. Two SDDP projects achieved workshop grants from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) in 2009. In the same year the Swedish Research Council decided to support an application for a truck-mounted drill rig - a big success for the SDDP working group. Scientific Drilling infrastructure: SDDP envisages a mobile platform that is capable of core drilling to at least 2500 m depth. The procurement will be made during 2010 and first operations are planned for 2011. This drill rig is primarily intended for use in the SDDP drilling projects, but will be rented out to other scientific drilling projects or even commercial enterprises in the remaining time to cover maintenance and future upgrade costs. SDDP's drill rig will be unique in Europe and complementary to the deep drilling InnovaRig of the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences. Until now, drilling to 2000 - 3000 m implied the use of a full-sized drill rig like the InnovaRig or the mobilization of a core drill rig from another continent. This gap will now be filled by Sweden's upcoming scientific drilling infrastructure. Drilling projects and proposals: Presently, SDDP serves six projects: "Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides" (COSC; ICDP workshop spring 2010), the "Postglacial Fault Drilling Project" (PFDP; ICDP workshop autumn 2010), a "Deep Rock Laboratory" (DRL), "Palaeoproterozoic Mineralized Volcanic

  16. The Need for Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphris, Susan E.; deMenocal, Peter B.; Edwards, Katrina J.; Fisher, Andrew T.; Saffer, Demian

    2011-03-01

    Mark Twain once said, “I was seldom able to see an opportunity until it had ceased to be one.” The scientific community could soon miss an opportunity in ocean drilling. A recent article in Eos by D. K. Smith et al. (Ocean drilling: Forty years of international collaboration, Eos, 91(43), 393-394, 2010) summarized the history of scientific ocean drilling and presented an overview of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) as it currently operates. IODP will end in 2013, and an ambitious science plan is being developed to launch a new drilling program. Some people have asked, Given the program's past successes, why do we need more scientific ocean drilling?

  17. Future course of scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappel, E.

    Outlining important U.S. scientific problems that, to be properly addressed, must be investigated with a drilling ship was the objective of the U.S. COMmittee on POST-1998 Ocean Drilling (COMPOST), which met in Seattle October 14-15. Members of COMPOST were chosen specifically by the Joint Oceanographic Institutions-U.S. Science Advisory (JOI-USSAC) as representatives of major ongoing ocean sciences initiatives in the United States.The scientific rationale for drilling was examined and COMPOST summarized what the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has done and can do for the following initiatives: Marine Aspects of Earth System History (MESH)

  18. SEDIS - the Scientific Earth Drilling Information Service for IODP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Huber, R.; Schindler, U.; Wallrabe-Adams, H.-J.; Collier, J.

    2009-04-01

    To facilitate access to all data and information related to scientific ocean drilling, the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) is developing a web based information service (Scientific Earth Drilling Information Service, SEDIS). The three main data contributors to SEDIS currently are the IODP implementing organizations (IOs) from the United States (USIO), Japan (CDEX) and Europe with Canada (ESO). SEDIS integrates the data search of the IO databases by harvesting distributed metadata without the necessity to centralize the data storage. Presently SEDIS provides the metadata for data discovery and harvesting as supplied by the IOs (http://sedis.iodp.org). The access to publications, reports, minutes, citations and post expedition research is also implemented and the content of the database is continuously increasing. An expedition catalog completes the database. The next phase in developing SEDIS will include an advanced data search and visualization and mapping tools. In the future SEDIS will also be able to include other available scientific drilling data from continental or lake drilling. SEDIS is designed to integrate distributed scientific data via metadata by using international standards for metadata and data exchange and transfer and uses open source components.

  19. The Ocean Drilling Program: The next phase in scientific ocean drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, P.D.; Carlson, R.; Garrison, L.; Gartner, S.; Herrig, S.; Mazzollo, J.; Merrell, W.J.

    1984-05-01

    Texas AandM University has been designated as Science Operator for a new National Science Foundation sponsored program of scientific ocean drilling - the Ocean Drilling Program. The responsibilities of the Science Operator include implementing the science plans under the guidance of the Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling, providing logistical and technical support for a shipboard science team, managing post-cruise activities, the long term curation and distribution of core samples, and coordinating, editing and publication of the final research product. The scientific programs will be carried out with the drilling vessel SEDCO/BP 471, a dynamically positioned drillship capable of deploying 30,000 ft. of drill string and operating with a riser in 6000 ft. of water. The primary scientific objectives of the Ocean Drilling Program will be in studying the origin and evolution of the oceanic crust, the tectonic evolution of continental margins, the origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, studies of long term changes in the atmosphere, oceans, cryosphere, biosphere and magnetic field and development of new tools and technology for deep ocean exploration and drilling.

  20. IODP Scientific Earth Drilling Information Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallrabe-Adams, H.-J.; Diepenbroek, M.; Grobe, H.; Huber, R.; Schindler, U.; Collier, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) has set up a web-based information service (Scientific Earth Drilling Information Service, SEDIS, http://sedis.iodp.org), which integrates the data of the three IODP implementing organizations from the United States (USIO), Japan (CDEX) and Europe with Canada (ESO). The SEDIS portal provides information on ODP, DSDP and IODP expeditions, publications and data. Moreover, post-cruise data has been collected and published via the portal. A thesaurus supports information and data searches. Data sets can be downloaded as tab-delimited text files. SEDIS is also being prepared to include other IODP relevant scientific drilling data from terrestrial or lake drilling programs. The portal is designed to integrate available scientific data via metadata by employing international standards for metadata, data exchange and transfer.

  1. A new scientific drilling infrastructure in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, J.-E.; Lorenz, H.

    2012-04-01

    A new scientific drilling infrastructure is currently under commissioning at Lund University in southern Sweden and is intended primarily for Swedish scientific drilling projects. However, it will be available to the scientific community and even industry when not occupied. The drill rig, a crawler mounted Atlas Copco CT20, was funded by the Swedish Research Council (VR) after an application by the Swedish scientific drilling community under the lead of Prof. Leif Bjelm, Lund University. As a national resource it is, together with support of the Swedish Deep Drilling Program (SDDP) and the Swedish membership in ICDP, part of VR's commitment to scientific drilling. The Atlas Copco CT20 is a top modern, versatile diamond wireline core-drilling rig which can handle P, H and N sizes. It can operate on very small drill sites (500-800 m2) and, thus, leaves a minimal environmental footprint. The crawler makes the rig ideal for operations in remote locations. A total of only 3-4 truckloads is necessary for mobilization of the basic drilling equipment. Main technical specifications are: Depth capacity coring, based on vertical water filled hole: P-size to around 1050 m, hole size 123 mm and core size 85 mm. H-size to around 1600 m, hole size 96 mm and core size 63 mm. N-size to around 2500 m, hole size 76 mm and core size 48 mm. Weight: Complete rig including crawler, wet - 23500 kg Dimensions in (length, width, height) transport position: 11560 x 2500 x 3750 mm. Available in-hole equipment: Complete core retrieval system for PQ, HQ and NQ-sizes, including PHD, HRQ (V-Wall) and NRQ (V-Wall) drill rods covering the maximum drilling depth for each size (see rig depth capacity above). Both dual and triple tube for HQ and NQ-sizes. Casing advancers (PW, HW, NW and BW). Casing PWT, HWT, NW and BW. Bits and reamers. Additional equipment: Mud cleaning and mixing system. MWD-system (Measurements While Drilling). Cementing equipment. Fishing tools (Bowen Spear). Blow Out Preventer

  2. New Era of Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, N.; Toczko, S.; Sanada, Y.; Igarashi, C.; Kubo, Y.; Maeda, L.; Sawada, I.; Takase, K.; Kyo, N.

    2014-12-01

    The D/V Chikyu, committed to scientific ocean drilling since 2007, has completed thirteen IODP expeditions, and Chikyu's enhanced drilling technology gives us the means to reach deep targets, enhanced well logging, deep water riserless drilling, and state of the art laboratory. Chikyu recovered core samples from 2466 meters below sea floor (mbsf) in IODP Exp. 337, and drilled to 3058.5 mbsf in IODP Exp. 348, but these are still not the limit of Chikyu's capability. As deep as these depths are, they are just halfway to the 5200 mbsf plate boundary target for the NanTroSEIZE deep riser borehole. There are several active IODP proposals in the pipeline. Each has scientific targets requiring several thousand meters of penetration below the sea floor. Riser technology is the only way to collect samples and data from that depth. Well logging has been enhanced with the adoption of riser drilling, especially for logging-while-drilling (LWD). LWD has several advantages over wireline logging, and provides more opportunities for continuous measurements even in unstable boreholes. Because of the larger diameter of riser pipes and enhanced borehole stability, Chikyu can use several state-of-the-art downhole tools, e.g. fracture tester, fluid sampling tool, wider borehole imaging, and the latest sonic tools. These new technologies and tools can potentially expand the envelope of scientific ocean drilling. Chikyu gives us access to ultra-deep water riserless drilling. IODP Exp. 343/343T investigating the March 2011 Tohoku Oki Earthquake, explored the toe of the landward slope of the Japan Trench. This expedition reached the plate boundary fault target at more than 800 mbsf in water depths over 6900 m for logging-while-drilling, coring, and observatory installation. This deep-water drilling capability also expands the scientific ocean drilling envelope and provides access to previously unreachable targets. On top of these operational capabilities, Chikyu's onboard laboratory is

  3. Drilling informatics: data-driven challenges of scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yasuhiro; Kyaw, Moe; Saito, Sanny

    2017-04-01

    The primary aim of scientific drilling is to precisely understand the dynamic nature of the Earth. This is the reason why we investigate the subsurface materials (rock and fluid including microbial community) existing under particular environmental conditions. This requires sample collection and analytical data production from the samples, and in-situ data measurement at boreholes. Current available data comes from cores, cuttings, mud logging, geophysical logging, and exploration geophysics, but these datasets are difficult to be integrated because of their different kinds and scales. Now we are producing more useful datasets to fill the gap between the exiting data and extracting more information from such datasets and finally integrating the information. In particular, drilling parameters are very useful datasets as geomechanical properties. We believe such approach, 'drilling informatics', would be the most appropriate to obtain the comprehensive and dynamic picture of our scientific target, such as the seismogenic fault zone and the Moho discontinuity surface. This presentation introduces our initiative and current achievements of drilling informatics.

  4. Scientific Ocean Drilling to Assess Submarine Geohazards along European Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ask, M. V.; Camerlenghi, A.; Kopf, A.; Morgan, J. K.; Ocean DrillingSeismic Hazard, P. E.

    2008-12-01

    Submarine geohazards are some of the most devastating natural events in terms of lives lost and economic impact. Earthquakes pose a big threat to society and infrastructure, but the understanding of their episodic generation is incomplete. Tsunamis are known for their potential of striking coastlines world-wide. Other geohazards originating below the sea surface are equally dangerous for undersea structures and the coastal population: submarine landslides and volcanic islands collapse with little warning and devastating consequences. The European scientific community has a strong focus on geohazards along European and nearby continental margins, especially given their high population densities, and long historic and prehistoric record of hazardous events. For example, the Mediterranean is surrounded by very densely-populated coastline and is the World's leading holiday destination, receiving up 30% of global tourism. In addition, its seafloor is criss-crossed by hydrocarbon pipelines and telecommunication cables. However, the governing processes and recurrence intervals of geohazards are still poorly understood. Examples include, but are not limited to, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions along the active tectonic margins of the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara, landslides on both active and passive margins, and tsunamites and seismites in the sedimentary record that suggest a long history of similar events. The development of geophysical networks, drilling, sampling and long-term monitoring are crucial to the understanding of earthquake, landslide, and tsunami processes, and to mitigate the associated risks in densely populated and industrialized regions such as Europe. Scientific drilling, particularly in the submarine setting, offers a unique tool to obtain drill core samples, borehole measurements and long-term observations. Hence, it is a critical technology to investigate past, present, and possible future influences of hazardous processes in this area. The

  5. Addressing submarine geohazards through scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, A.

    2009-04-01

    Natural submarine geohazards (earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, volcanic island flank collapses) are geological phenomena originating at or below the seafloor leading to a situation of risk for off-shore and on-shore structures and the coastal population. Addressing submarine geohazards means understanding their spatial and temporal variability, the pre-conditioning factors, their triggers, and the physical processes that control their evolution. Such scientific endeavour is nowadays considered by a large sector of the international scientific community as an obligation in order to contribute to the mitigation of the potentially destructive societal effects of submarine geohazards. The study of submarine geohazards requires a multi-disciplinary scientific approach: geohazards must be studied through their geological record; active processes must be monitored; geohazard evolution must be modelled. Ultimately, the information must be used for the assessment of vulnerability, risk analysis, and development of mitigation strategies. In contrast with the terrestrial environment, the oceanic environment is rather hostile to widespread and fast application of high-resolution remote sensing techniques, accessibility for visual inspection, sampling and installation of monitoring stations. Scientific Drilling through the IODP (including the related pre site-survey investigations, sampling, logging and in situ measurements capability, and as a platform for deployment of long term observatories at the surface and down-hole) can be viewed as the centre of gravity of an international, coordinated, multi-disciplinary scientific approach to address submarine geohazards. The IODP Initial Science Plan expiring in 2013 does not address openly geohazards among the program scientific objectives. Hazards are referred to mainly in relation to earthquakes and initiatives towards the understanding of seismogenesis. Notably, the only drilling initiative presently under way is the

  6. Scientific drilling into the Midcontinent Rift System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Kelly, W. C.

    Geochemical and geophysical investigations over the past decade suggest a laterally as well as radially heterogeneous upper mantle. The sources of this variability are mantle dynamics and interactions with the crust. The opportunities to sample these variations directly are limited within continental regions. However, the basalts of the Midcontinent Rift (MCR) System of North America are particularly attractive for studying subcontinental mantle.The MCR is an 1100-Ma paleorift [Halls, 1978; Green, 1983; Van Schmus and Hinze, 1985] that extends for more than 2000 km across the North American midcontinent (Cover). Drill holes into the MCR to obtain samples of the basalt can be located to answer critical questions regarding the origin and evolution of this aborted Precambrian rift.

  7. Committee issues report, Recommendations for future of scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purdy, G. Michael; Arthur, Michael A.

    Scientific ocean drilling as we now know it is scheduled to end in 2003. The National Science Foundation (NSF) directed the Joint Oceanographic Institution's (JOI) U.S. Scientific Advisory Committee (USSAC) to assess U.S. interest in scientific ocean drilling beyond 2003. The Committee for Post 2003 Scientific Drilling (COMPOST-II) met at the University of Miami in February 1997 to address the following questions: What research objectives does the scientific ocean drilling community wish to pursue, and what facilities and funds will be required to achieve those objectives? Committee members were chosen carefully to represent as impartially as possible the U.S. Earth sciences community as a whole.

  8. IODP drilling in the South China Sea in 2017 will address the mechanism of continental breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Z.; Larsen, H. C.; Lin, J.; Pang, X.; McIntosh, K. D.; Stock, J. M.; Jian, Z.; Wang, P.; Li, C.

    2016-12-01

    Geophysical exploration and scientific drilling along the North Atlantic rifted continental margins suggested that passive continental margins can be classified into two end members: magma-rich and magma-poor. Bearing seaward-dipping reflector sequences (SDRS) and highly mafic underplated high velocity lower crust (HVLC), the magma-rich margin is thought to be related to large igneous provinces (LIP) or mantle plume activity. Magma-poor margins have been drilled offshore Iberia and Newfoundland, where brittle faults cut through the whole crust and reach the upper mantle. Following seawater infiltration, the mantle was serpentinized and exhumed in the continent-ocean transition zone (COT). Later geophysical exploration and modeling suggested that in magma-poor margins lithosphere may break up in different styles, including uniform breakup, lower crust exhumation, or upper mantle exhumed at the COT, etc. The northern continental margin of the South China Sea (SCS) between longitude 114.5º and 116.5º hosts features that might be similar to both of the two end-members defined in the North Atlantic. Wide-angle seismic studies suggest that below the inner margin, crustal underplating of high velocity material is present, while syn-rift as well as post-rift intrusive features are visible and have in places been verified by industry drilling. However, the profound volcanism and associated SDRS formation are entirely lacking, and thus classification as a volcanic rifted margin can be ruled out. Instead, the COT exhibits a profound thinning of the continental crust towards the ocean crust of the SCS, showing some similarity to the Iberia type margin. The crustal thinning is caused by low-angle faults that have stretched the upper continental crust. There are indications of lower crustal flow toward the SCS. Alternatively, these extensional faults may have reached the lithospheric mantle and generated serpentinized material in a similar fashion as seen off Iberia. It will

  9. Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project: Objectives, Successes, Surprises and Frustrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Depaolo, D. J.; Stolper, E.; Thomas, D. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) is a long-running project undertaken with the objective of studying a mantle plume by drilling an extended sequence of lavas from a single Hawaiian volcano. The project originated with a proposal to NSF in late 1986 with the idea of drilling to the Moho under Hilo; the target depth was estimated at 12km, commensurate with the depth reached by the drilling program then being pursued by the USSR and that proposed in the U.S. for the southern Appalachians, and in line with the aspirations of the nascent DOSECC program. Subsequently, due to limitations in funding and reorganization of the drilling program into what later became the NSF Continental Dynamics Program, HSDP was re-scoped with the objective of drilling deeply enough (ca. 4.5km) to recover most of the eruptive history of a single volcano. The project first went to a pilot stage, which resulted in coring to a depth of 1.1km in late 1993. The pilot stage was relatively inexpensive (1M including science) and productive. Funding was then obtained from NSF and ICDP in 1995 (ca. 12M) with the objective of drilling to 4.5km. Drilling was originally planned for a five-year period, in two campaigns. The first campaign, in 1999, resulted in efficient coring to a depth of 3.1km over a period of 6 months; it used about 40 percent of the funds and was also highly productive. Deepening the hole below 3.1km turned out to be both difficult and expensive, although for interesting reasons. To facilitate deeper drilling the hole needed to be reamed to a larger diameter; but when this was done the well unexpectedly started to flow. We now know that there are several deep pressurized aquifers, with varying salt content, but these hydrological phenomena were totally unanticipated. A key finding, also unanticipated, is that cold seawater circulates through the volcanic pile in volumes sufficient to refrigerate the entire section below 700m depth to temperatures about 25 degrees below a

  10. Accelerating Neoproterozoic Research through Scientific Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Condon, Daniel; Prave, Anthony; Boggiani, Paulo; Fike, David; Halverson, Galen; Kasemann, Simone; Knoll, Andrew; Zhu, Maoyan

    2014-05-01

    The Neoproterozoic Era (1.0 to 0.541 Ga) and earliest Cambrian (541 to ca. 520 Ma) records geologic changes unlike any other in Earth history: supercontinental tectonics of Rodinia followed by its breakup and dispersal into fragments that form the core of today's continents; a rise in oxygen that, perhaps for the first time in Earth history, resulted in the deep oceans becoming oxic; snowball Earth, which envisages a blanketing of global ice cover for millions of years; and, at the zenith of these combined biogeochemical changes, the evolutionary leap from eukaryotes to animals. Such a concentration of hallmark events in the evolution of our planet is unparalleled and many questions regarding Earth System evolution during times of profound climatic and geological changes remain to be answered. Neoproterozoic successions also offer insight into the genesis of a number of natural resources. These include banded-iron formation, organic-rich shale intervals (with demonstrated hydrocarbon source rocks already economically viable in some countries), base and precious metal ore deposits and REE occurrences, as well as industrial minerals and dimension stone. Developing our understanding of the Neoproterozoic Earth-system, combined with regional geology has the potential to impact the viability of these resources. Our understanding of the Neoproterozoic and early Cambrian, though, is overwhelmingly dependent on outcrop-based studies, which suffer from lack of continuity of outcrop and, in many instances, deep weathering profiles. A limited number of research projects study Precambrian strata have demonstrated the potential impact of scientific drilling to augment and complement ongoing outcrop based studies and advancing research. An ICDP and ECORD sponsored workshop, to be held in March 2014, has been convened to discuss the utility of scientific drilling for accelerating research of the Neoproterozoic through early Cambrian (ca. 0.9 to 0.52 Ga) rock record. The aim is to

  11. Contamination Control for Scientific Drilling Operations.

    PubMed

    Kallmeyer, J

    2017-01-01

    Drilling is an integral part of subsurface exploration. Because almost all drilling operations require the use of a drill fluid, contamination by infiltration of drill fluid into the recovered core material cannot be avoided. Because it is impossible to maintain sterile conditions during drilling the drill fluid will contain surface microbes and other contaminants. As contamination cannot be avoided, it has to be tracked to identify those parts of the drill core that were not infiltrated by the drill fluid. This is done by the addition of tracer compounds. A great variety of tracers is available, and the choice depends on many factors. This review will first explain the basic principles of drilling before presenting the most common tracers and discussing their strengths and weaknesses. The final part of this review presents a number of key questions that have to be addressed in order to find the right tracer for a particular drilling operation.

  12. Proposed scientific activities for the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) has been organized for the purpose of investigating a hydrothermal system at depths and temperatures greater than has been done before. Plans are to deepen an existing well or to drill a new well for research purposes for which temperatures of 300/sup 0/C will be reached at a depth of less than 3.7 km and then deepen that well a further 1.8 km. This report recounts the Congressional history of the appropriation to drill the hole and other history through March 1984, gives a review of the literature on the Salton Sea Geothermal Field and its relationship to other geothermal systems of the Salton Trough, and describes a comprehensive series of investigations that have been proposed either in the well or in conjunction with the SSSDP. Investigations in geophysics, geochemistry and petrology, tectonics and rock mechanics, and geohydrology are given. A tabulation is given of current commercial and state-of-the-art downhole tools and their pressure, temperature, and minimum hole size limitations.

  13. Hydrocarbon shows in the scientific ocean drilling programs

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, B.J. ); Emeis, K.C. )

    1990-05-01

    For more than 20 yr, two major programs, the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), have been coring the deep oceans for scientific purposes. For technological as well as financial reasons, drilling was and is performed without a riser. Precruise preparation, therefore, is aimed at preventing an accidental hydrocarbon discovery. During the course of drilling, at the more than 700 locations studied to date, numerous black shales of various ages were encountered. Many of these represent thermally immature hydrocarbon source rocks. Although these organic-rich rocks (up to 34 wt.% total organic carbon) by themselves did not pose a safety problem, hydrocarbon shows were detected on no less than ten legs. These shows represent heavy (C{sub 15+}), thermally generated hydrocarbons. Commonly, these shows can be attributed to migration through a porous and permeable network into the penetrated section. In these situations, migration commonly occurs over distances on the order of several tens of miles from a more mature, structurally deeper section (e.g., Challenger Knoll, DSDP Site 2). There are, however, instances where there is strong geochemical evidence for in-situ hydrocarbon generation. In-situ hydrocarbon generation appears to be the result of anomalous thermal conditions associated with high heat flow, igneous and/or hydrothermal activity (e.g., Tyrrhenian Sea, ODP Site 652). Such conditions are more commonly associated with young marginal basins. The distribution of these shows provides valuable information on the long-term exploratory potential of the deep oceans and continental margins.

  14. Scientific drilling and the evolution of the earth system: climate, biota, biogeochemistry and extreme systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soreghan, G. S.; Cohen, A. S.

    2013-11-01

    A US National Science Foundation-funded workshop occurred 17-19 May 2013 at the University of Oklahoma to stimulate research using continental scientific drilling to explore earth's sedimentary, paleobiological and biogeochemical record. Participants submitted 3-page "pre-proposals" to highlight projects that envisioned using drill-core studies to address scientific issues in paleobiology, paleoclimatology, stratigraphy and biogeochemistry, and to identify locations where key questions can best be addressed. The workshop was also intended to encourage US scientists to take advantage of the exceptional capacity of unweathered, continuous core records to answer important questions in the history of earth's sedimentary, biogeochemical and paleobiologic systems. Introductory talks on drilling and coring methods, plus best practices in core handling and curation, opened the workshop to enable all to understand the opportunities and challenges presented by scientific drilling. Participants worked in thematic breakout sessions to consider questions to be addressed using drill cores related to glacial-interglacial and icehouse-greenhouse transitions, records of evolutionary events and extinctions, records of major biogeochemical events in the oceans, reorganization of earth's atmosphere, Lagerstätte and exceptional fossil biota, records of vegetation-landscape change, and special sampling requirements, contamination, and coring tool concerns for paleobiology, geochemistry, geochronology, and stratigraphy-sedimentology studies. Closing discussions at the workshop focused on the role drilling can play in studying overarching science questions about the evolution of the earth system. The key theme, holding the most impact in terms of societal relevance, is understanding how climate transitions have driven biotic change, and the role of pristine, stratigraphically continuous cores in advancing our understanding of this linkage. Scientific drilling, and particularly drilling

  15. Scientific Drilling in the Samail Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Samail ophiolite in Oman, a block of oceanic crust and upper mantle that was thrusted onto the Arabian continent ~100 million years ago and subsequently tilted and eroded, is an excellent field laboratory to explore rock forming processes that occurred near the surface down to 20 km depth in the Earth's interior. The exposure of these rocks to surface conditions provides a large reservoir of chemical potential energy that drives rapid reactions, heat generation, expansion and cracking. The Oman Drilling Project will address long-standing questions regarding mantle melting, melt transport and crystallization of lavas at ocean spreading ridges to form ocean crust, determine the nature and extent of chemical interactions between the oceans and newly formed oceanic crust, improve our understanding of CO2 and H2O uptake via weathering to form hydrated minerals and carbonates including reaction-driven cracking mechanisms as well as explore serpentinite-hosted microbial ecosystem. With funding from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), U.S. NSF, NASA, IODP, Sloan Foundation and Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft in place, we will address these objectives via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid and microbiological sampling, and hydrological measurements in a series of newly drilled boreholes. Preliminary surveys showed that active low-T alteration of upper mantle rocks is an ongoing process. Dissolved hydrogen and methane concentrations in fluid samples collected in existing boreholes are up to 1.3 and 8 mmol/l, respectively [1]. Regarding the physical, chemical and biological processes related to near surface alteration of mantle rocks, a multi-borehole test site will be established in the southern massif of the Samail ophiolite. This test site will facilitate in-situ studies of water-rock-microbe interactions. Technical details and potential opportunities will be discussed. [1] Paukert A. PhD Thesis, Columbia University, New York

  16. Scientific Drilling in the Samail Ophiolite, Sultanate of Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, Juerg; Kelemen, Peter; Teagle, Damon; Coggon, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The Samail ophiolite in Oman, a block of oceanic crust and upper mantle that was thrusted onto the Arabian continent ~100 million years ago and subsequently tilted and eroded, is an excellent field laboratory to explore rock forming processes that occurred near the surface down to 20 km depth in the Earth's interior. The exposure of these rocks to surface conditions provides a large reservoir of chemical potential energy that drives rapid reactions, heat generation, expansion and cracking. The Oman Drilling Project will address long-standing questions regarding mantle melting, melt transport and crystallization of lavas at ocean spreading ridges to form ocean crust, determine the nature and extent of chemical interactions between the oceans and newly formed oceanic crust, improve our understanding of CO2 and H2O uptake via weathering to form hydrated minerals and carbonates including reaction-driven cracking mechanisms as well as explore serpentinite-hosted microbial ecosystem. With funding from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), U.S. NSF, NASA, IODP, Sloan Foundation and Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft in place, we will address these objectives via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid and microbiological sampling, and hydrological measurements in a series of newly drilled boreholes. Preliminary surveys showed that active low-T alteration of upper mantle rocks is an ongoing process. Dissolved hydrogen and methane concentrations in fluid samples collected in existing boreholes are up to 1.3 and 8 mmol/l, respectively [1]. Regarding the physical, chemical and biological processes related to near surface alteration of mantle rocks, a multi-borehole test site will be established in the southern massif of the Samail ophiolite. This test site will facilitate in-situ studies of water-rock-microbe interactions. Technical details and potential opportunities will be discussed.

  17. H. R. 2737 - the Continental Scientific Drilling and Exploration Act. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Science, Research and Technology of the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology and the Subcommittee on Mining and Natural Resources of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, US House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session, November 3, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This joint hearing focuses on the Federal role in support of the Continental Drilling Program. This program could yield insights into the geophysical processes of the Earth's crust which would enable the development of improved technologies for exploration and extraction of energy and mineral resources, and it could increase the basic knowledge about the use of geothermal energy as well as the ability to predict the probability of earthquakes and volcanic activity. H.R. 2737 proposes to raise the goals, priorities, and benefits of the current Continental Scientific Drilling Program to the stature of a comprehensive national program. The responsibility of administering the Program is under the jurisdiction of the Department of Energy, the Department of the Interior, and the National Science Foundation. The objective of the hearing is to find the best way of ensuring that three separate agencies, each of which has a unique and important mission, can carry out a program that is coordinated to the maximum extent possible. Testimony was heard from 7 witnesses.

  18. Open Core Data: Semantic driven data access and distribution for terrestrial and marine scientific drilling data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fils, D.; Noren, A. J.; Lehnert, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    Open Core Data (OCD) is a science-driven, innovative, efficient, and scalable infrastructure for data generated by scientific drilling and coring projects across all Earth sciences. It is designed to make make scientific drilling data semantically discoverable, persistent, citable, and approachable to maximize their utility to present and future geoscience researchers. Scientific drilling and coring is crucial for the advancement of the Earth Sciences, unlocking new frontiers in the geologic record. Open Core Data will utilize and link existing data systems, services, and expertise of the JOIDES Resolution Science Operator (JRSO), the Continental Scientific Drilling Coordination Office (CSDCO), the Interdisciplinary Earth Data Alliance (IEDA) data facility, and the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (OL). Open Core Data will leverage efforts currently taking place under the EarthCube GeoLink Building Block and other previous efforts in Linked Open Data around ocean drilling data coordinated by OL. The OCD architecture for data distribution blends Linked Data Platform approaches with web services and schema.org use. OCD will further enable integration and tool development by assigning and using vocabularies, provenance, and unique IDs (DOIs, IGSN, URIs) in scientific drilling resources. A significant focus of this effort is to enable large scale automated access to the data by domain specific communities such as MagIC and Neotoma. Providing them a process to integrate the facility data into their data models, workflows and tools. This aspect will encompass methods to maintain awareness of authority information enabling users to trace data back to the originating facility. Initial work on OCD is taking place under a supplemental awarded to IEDA. This talk gives an overview of that work to date and planned future directions for the distribution of scientific drilling data by this effort.

  19. Scientific drilling to study the roots of active hydrothermal systems related to young magmatic intrusions. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    Muffler, L.J.P.

    1983-03-01

    At present, hydrothermal-magma processes can be studied only inferentially, using observations on hot springs and volcanic rocks, data from shallow- and intermediate-depth drill holes, analogies with exhumed fossil systems, and extrapolation of laboratory investigations. The Thermal Regimes Panel of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee in a draft report concludes that an understanding of active hydrothermal-magma systems requires drill-hole investigations of deeper and hotter levels than have been drilled and studied to date. The Panel groups hydrothermal-magma systems in the United States into five classes: (1) dominantly andesitic centers, (2) spreading ridges, (3) basaltic fields, (4) evolved basaltic centers, and (5) silicic caldera complexes. Application of eight scientific criteria and three social criteria leads to the conclusion that silicic caldera complexes should be the first target of a focused drilling program to investigate the hydrothermal-magma interface at depths of 5 to 7 km. Primary targets are the three young, silicic caldera systems in the western conterminous United States: Yellowstone (Wyoming), Valles (New Mexico), and Long Valley (California). Scientific drilling of these active hydrothermal-magma systems complements scientific drilling proposed for fossil systems such as Creede (Colorado). In addition, the roots of the Salton Sea geothermal system (California) present an opportunity for add-on deep drilling and scientific experiments to supplement geothermal drilling by industry in this active spreading-ridge environment.

  20. 77 FR 39164 - Safety Zone; KULLUK, Outer Continental Shelf Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), Beaufort Sea, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), Beaufort Sea, AK AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... order to drill exploratory wells at various prospects located in the Beaufort Sea Outer Continental...; KULLUK, Outer Continental Shelf Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), Beaufort Sea, Alaska'' in the...

  1. The objectives for deep scientific drilling in Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The western area of the United Stated contains three young silicic calderas, all of which contain attractive targets for scientific drilling. Of the three, the Yellowstone caldera complex is the largest, has the most intense geothermal anomalies, and is the most seismically active. On the basis of scientific objectives alone. it is easily the first choice for investigating active hydrothermal processes. This report briefly reviews what is known about the geology of Yellowstone National Park and highlights unique information that could be acquired by research drilling only in Yellowstone. However, it is not the purpose of this report to recommend specific drill sites or to put forth a specific drilling proposal. 175 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Drilling Gas Hydrates on hydrate Ridge, Oregon continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trehu, A. M.; Bohrmann, G.; Leg 204 Science Party

    2002-12-01

    During Leg 204, we cored and logged 9 sites on the Oregon continental margin to determine the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates in an accretionary ridge and adjacent slope basin, investigate the mechanisms that transport methane and other gases into the gas hydrate stability zone (GHSZ), and obtain constraints on physical properties of hydrates in situ. A 3D seismic survey conducted in 2000 provided images of potential subsurface fluid conduits and indicated the position of the GHSZ throughout the survey region. After coring the first site, we acquired Logging-While-Drilling (LWD) data at all but one site to provide an overview of downhole physical properties. The LWD data confirmed the general position of key seismic stratigraphic horizons and yielded an initial estimate of hydrate concentration through the proxy of in situ electrical resistivity. These records proved to be of great value in planning subsequent coring. The second new hydrate proxy to be tested was infrared thermal imaging of cores on the catwalk as rapidly as possible after retrieval. The thermal images were used to identify hydrate samples and to estimate the distribution and texture of hydrate within the cores. Geochemical analyses of interstitial waters and of headspace and void gases provide additional information on the distribution and concentration of hydrate within the stability zone, the origin and pathway of fluids into and through the GHSZ, and the rates at which gas hydrate is forming. Bio- and lithostratigraphic description of cores, measurement of physical properties, and in situ pressure core sampling and thermal measurements complement the data set, providing ground-truth tests of inferred physical and sedimentological properties. Among the most interesting preliminary results are: 1) that gas hydrates are distributed through a broad depth range within the GHSZ and that different physical and chemical proxies for hydrate distribution and concentration give generally

  3. Future scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean: Key objectives, areas, and strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.; Mikkelsen, N.; O'Regan, M.; Ruppel, C.

    2012-04-01

    In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, our understanding of the short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history through late Mesozoic-Cenozoic times, as well as its plate-tectonic evolution, remains behind that from the other world's oceans. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the Arctic Coring Expedition - ACEX (or IODP Expedition 302), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within IODP, a new era in Arctic research began (Backman, Moran, Mayer, McInroy et al., 2006). ACEX proved that, with an intensive ice-management strategy, successful scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered central Arctic Ocean is possible. ACEX is certainly a milestone in Arctic Ocean research, but - of course - further drilling activities are needed in this poorly studied ocean. Furthermore, despite the success of ACEX fundamental questions related to the long- and short-term climate history of the Arctic Ocean during Mesozoic-Cenozoic times remain unanswered. This is partly due to poor core recovery during ACEX and, especially, because of a major mid-Cenozoic hiatus in this single record. Since ACEX, a series of workshops were held to develop a scientific drilling strategy for investigating the tectonic and paleoceanographic history of the Arctic Ocean and its role in influencing the global climate system: - "Arctic Ocean History: From Speculation to Reality" (Bremerhaven/Germany, November 2008); - "Overcoming barriers to Arctic Ocean scientific drilling: the site survey challenge" (Copenhagen/Denmark, November 2011); - Circum-Arctic shelf/upper continental slope scientific drilling workshop on "Catching Climate Change in Progress" (San Francisco/USA, December 2011); - "Coordinated Scientific Drilling in the Beaufort Sea: Addressing

  4. Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project Archival Reference, Final Draft

    SciTech Connect

    1991-03-13

    This report provides an archival reference to the scientific information and other pertinent documents and materials associated with the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSDP). This archiving process ensures that valuable technical data and information obtained during the life of the project can be retrieved, organized and maintained as a historical record for future reference. This paper describes the background of the project and the process used for archiving the materials. [DJE-2005

  5. Semantic Approaches Applied to Scientific Ocean Drilling Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fils, D.; Jenkins, C. J.; Arko, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The application of Linked Open Data methods to 40 years of data from scientific ocean drilling is providing users with several new methods for rich-content data search and discovery. Data from the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP), Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have been translated and placed in RDF triple stores to provide access via SPARQL, linked open data patterns, and by embedded structured data through schema.org / RDFa. Existing search services have been re-encoded in this environment which allows the new and established architectures to be contrasted. Vocabularies including computed semantic relations between concepts, allow separate but related data sets to be connected on their concepts and resources even when they are expressed somewhat differently. Scientific ocean drilling produces a wide range of data types and data sets: borehole logging file-based data, images, measurements, visual observations and the physical sample data. The steps involved in connecting these data to concepts using vocabularies will be presented, including the connection of data sets through Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets (VoID) and open entity collections such as Freebase and dbPedia. Demonstrated examples will include: (i) using RDF Schema for inferencing and in federated searches across NGDC and IODP data, (ii) using structured data in the data.oceandrilling.org web site, (iii) association through semantic methods of age models and depth recorded data to facilitate age based searches for data recorded by depth only.

  6. Overview of the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling (WFSD) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.; Hu, S.; Liu, T.; Fan, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project (WFSD) is one of the projects of the National Science and Technology Supporting Program. It aims to drill five boreholes along the May 12, 2008 Wenchuan earthquake zone in Sichuan province, China, more specifically along the Beichuan-Yingxiu fault belt and the Anxian-Guanxian fault belt, at the front of Longmenshan Range (with depths of 500 m, 1200 m, 2000 m and 3000 m). The sub-surface data will allow scientists to better understand the mechanism of the Wenchuan earthquake through scientific drilling. Long-term earthquake observation stations will be set up and the earthquake detection instruments will be installed in the boreholes to provide the critical and basic data for earthquake monitoring, forecasting and warning. At present, two boreholes have been completed, two more are being drilled, and the 3000 m-deep hole should be drilled in 2011. The drilling technical scheme has been conceived according to the Longmenshan fault zone's formation condition , which is highly fractured and the fault gouge very thick because of the repeated earthquakes. Based on the technical and economical evaluation on the existing coring methods, we have selected the top-drive and wireline coring method as the main drilling and coring method of the project. We have developed an hydraulic top-drive deep drill rig and a set of large diameter wireline coring tool. The drill rig has an electro-hydraulic proportional control, is easy to operate, and has a long feeding stroke. It can be used in coring, back and forth reaming. Its depth capacity is 3000 m for the 150 mm final diameter. We have used split barrel coring technology to solve the problem of coring in fractured formation. The core barrel is 4.5 m-long and the core diameter ranges from 85 to 100 mm. Over 92% core recovery is achieved with the cores being in good original state. Some extreme technical difficulties, such as hole gushing water, fractured formation, borehole

  7. The public's trust in scientific claims regarding offshore oil drilling.

    PubMed

    Carlisle, Juliet E; Feezell, Jessica T; Michaud, Kristy E H; Smith, Eric R A N; Smith, Leeanna

    2010-09-01

    Our study examines how individuals decide which scientific claims and experts to believe when faced with competing claims regarding a policy issue. Using an experiment in a public opinion survey, we test the source content and credibility hypotheses to assess how much confidence people have in reports about scientific studies of the safety of offshore oil drilling along the California coast. The results show that message content has a substantial impact. People tend to accept reports of scientific studies that support their values and prior beliefs, but not studies that contradict them. Previous studies have shown that core values influence message acceptance. We find that core values and prior beliefs have independent effects on message acceptance. We also find that the sources of the claims make little difference. Finally, the public leans toward believing reports that oil drilling is riskier than previously believed.

  8. Scientific Drilling in the Snake River Plain: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J. W.; Hanan, B. B.; Hughes, S. S.; Geist, D.; Vetter, S. K.

    2006-12-01

    in a mid-crustal sill complex that has been imaged seismically. Further, the chemical and isotopic systematics of these basalts require assimilation of consanguineous mafic material inferred to represent previously intruded sills. Major and trace element modeling suggest formation of the primary melts by melting of a source similar to E- MORB source. Trace element systematics document mixing between a plume-like source and a more depleted source that is not DMM. A similar more depleted source is inferred for Hawaii, suggesting that it is not continental lithosphere. Future scientific drilling in the SRP is the focus of Project HOTSPOT, a multi-disciplinary initiative that seeks to document time-space variations in the SRP-Yellowstone volcanic system. A workshop sponsored by the International Continental Drilling Program was held in May 2006 to develop a targeted program of scientific drilling that examines the entire plume-lithosphere system across a major lithospheric boundary, with holes targeting basalt, rhyolite, and sediments. These drill holes will complement geophysical studies of continental dynamics (e.g., Earthscope), as well as current studies centered on Yellowstone. Additional components of a targeted drilling program include studies of lacustrine sediments that document paleoclimate change in North America during the Pliocene—Pleistocene and fluid flow at deeper crustal levels.

  9. Mars scientific exploration roving vehicles and drilling equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saitou, Kenji; Kojima, Masaki; Kinkori, Shuuzou; Suzuki, Manji; Kawashima, Nobuki; Nakatani, Ichirou

    1991-07-01

    Running gears for the Mars scientific exploration roving vehicles and the drilling equipment for the vehicles used to conduct underground exploration are studied. Review results on moving, driving, and running system for the vehicle are presented. For the driving system, comparison between conventional wheel system and crawler system are shown in a comprehensive table, and measures for failures are suggested. As for the development of the drilling equipment, the following items are presented: (1) methods of underground exploration; (2) methods of drilling (core boring and auger boring); (3) specifications for and the results of trial production of the experimental boring machine; (4) results of experimental boring machine operation on a simulated Mars surface; and (5) excavating capability of the experimental boring machine.

  10. Keeping Research Data from the Continental Deep Drilling Programme (KTB) Accessible and Taking First Steps Towards Digital Preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Ulbricht, D.; Conze, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Continental Deep Drilling Programme (KTB) was a scientific drilling project from 1987 to 1995 near Windischeschenbach, Bavaria. The main super-deep borehole reached a depth of 9,101 meters into the Earth's continental crust. The project used the most current equipment for data capture and processing. After the end of the project key data were disseminated through the web portal of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The scientific reports were published as printed volumes. As similar projects have also experienced, it becomes increasingly difficult to maintain a data portal over a long time. Changes in software and underlying hardware make a migration of the entire system inevitable. Around 2009 the data presented on the ICDP web portal were migrated to the Scientific Drilling Database (SDDB) and published through DataCite using Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) as persistent identifiers. The SDDB portal used a relational database with a complex data model to store data and metadata. A PHP-based Content Management System with custom modifications made it possible to navigate and browse datasets using the metadata and then download datasets. The data repository software eSciDoc allows storing self-contained packages consistent with the OAIS reference model. Each package consists of binary data files and XML-metadata. Using a REST-API the packages can be stored in the eSciDoc repository and can be searched using the XML-metadata. During the last maintenance cycle of the SDDB the data and metadata were migrated into the eSciDoc repository. Discovery metadata was generated following the GCMD-DIF, ISO19115 and DataCite schemas. The eSciDoc repository allows to store an arbitrary number of XML-metadata records with each data object. In addition to descriptive metadata each data object may contain pointers to related materials, such as IGSN-metadata to link datasets to physical specimens, or identifiers of literature interpreting the data

  11. Drilling the Thuringian Syncline, Germany: core processing during the INFLUINS scientific deep drilling campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abratis, Michael; Methe, Pascal; Aehnelt, Michaela; Kunkel, Cindy; Beyer, Daniel; Kukowski, Nina; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2014-05-01

    Deep drilling of the central Thuringian Syncline was carried out in order to gather substantial knowledge of subsurface fluid dynamics and fluid rock interaction within a sedimentary basin. The final depth of the borehole was successfully reached at 1179 m, just a few meters above the Buntsandstein - Zechstein boundary. One of the aspects of the scientific drilling was obtaining sample material from different stratigraphic units for insights in genesis, rock properties and fluid-rock interactions. Parts of the section were cored whereas cuttings provide record of the remaining units. Coring was conducted in aquifers and their surrounding aquitards, i.e. parts of the Upper Muschelkalk (Trochitenkalk), the Middle Muschelkalk, the Upper Buntsandstein (Pelitrot and Salinarrot) and the Middle Buntsandstein. In advance and in cooperation with the GFZ Potsdam team "Scientific Drilling" core handling was discussed and a workflow was developed to ensure efficient and appropriate processing of the valuable core material and related data. Core curation including cleaning, fitting, marking, measuring, cutting, boxing, photographing and unrolled scanning using a DMT core scanner was carried out on the drilling site in Erfurt. Due care was exercised on samples for microbiological analyses. These delicate samples were immediately cut when leaving the core tube and stored within a cooling box at -78°C. Special software for data input was used developed by smartcube GmbH. Advantages of this drilling information system (DIS) are the compatibility with formats of international drilling projects from the IODP and ICDP drilling programs and thus options for exchanges with the international data bases. In a following step, the drill cores were brought to the national core repository of the BGR in Berlin Spandau where the cores were logged for their physical rock properties using a GeoTek multi sensor core logger (MSCL). After splitting the cores into a working and archive half, the

  12. X-ray Scanner for ODP Leg 204: Drilling Gas Hydrates on Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Continental Margin

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, Barry; Kneafsey, Tim; Pruess, Jacob; Reiter, Paul; Tomutsa, Liviu

    2002-08-08

    An x-ray scanner was designed and fabricated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to provide high speed acquisition of x-ray images of sediment cores collected on the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 204: Drilling Gas Hydrates On Hydrate Ridge, Cascadia Continental Margin. This report discusses the design and fabrication of the instrument, detailing novel features that help reduce the weight and increase the portability of the instrument. Sample x-ray images are included. The x-ray scanner was transferred to scientific drilling vessel, the JOIDES Resolution, by the resupply ship Mauna Loa, out of Coos Bay, Oregon on July 25. ODP technicians were trained in the instruments operation. The availability of the x-ray scanner at the drilling site allows real-time imaging of cores containing methane hydrate immediately after retrieval. Thus, imaging experiments on cores can yield information on the distribution and quantity of methane hydrates. Performing these measurements at the location of core collection eliminates the need for high pressures or low temperature core handling while the cores are stored and transported to a remote imaging laboratory.

  13. In Congress: Drilling resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The following is the text of the resolution on continental scientific drilling passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives and signed into law by President Reagan on October 12.“…That to express the sense of the Congress that the Continental Scientific Drilling Program is an important national scientific endeavor, benefiting the commerce of the Nation, which should be vigorously pursued by government and the private sector.

  14. Ocean Drilling Program Leg 178 (Antarctic Peninsula): Sedimentology of glacially influenced continental margin topsets and foresets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eyles, N.; Daniels, J.; Osterman, L.E.; Januszczak, N.

    2001-01-01

    Ocean Drilling Program Leg 178 (February-April 1998) drilled two sites (Sites 1097 and 1103) on the outer Antarctic Peninsula Pacific continental shelf. Recovered strata are no older than late Miocene or early Pliocene (<4.6 Ma). Recovery at shallow depths in loosely consolidated and iceberg-turbated bouldery sediment was poor but improved with increasing depth and consolidation to allow description of lithofacies and biofacies and interpretation of depositional environment. Site 1097 lies on the outer shelf within Marguerite Trough which is a major outlet for ice expanding seaward from the Antarctic Peninsula and reached a maximum depth drilled of 436.6 m below the sea floor (mbsf). Seismic stratigraphic data show flat-lying upper strata resting on strata that dip gently seaward. Uppermost strata, to a depth of 150 mbsf, were poorly recovered, but data suggest they consist of diamictites containing reworked and abraded marine microfauna. This interval is interpreted as having been deposited largely as till produced by subglacial cannibalization of marine sediments (deformation till) recording ice sheet expansion across the shelf. Underlying gently dipping strata show massive, stratified and graded diamictite facies with common bioturbation and slump stuctures that are interbedded with laminated and massive mudstones with dropstones. The succession contains a well-preserved in situ marine microfauna typical of open marine and proglacial marine environments. The lower gently dipping succession at Site 1097 is interpreted as a complex of sediment gravity flows formed of poorly sorted glacial debris. Site 1103 was drilled in that part of the continental margin that shows uppermost flat-lying continental shelf topsets overlying steeper dipping slope foresets seaward of a structural mid-shelf high. Drilling reached a depth of 363 mbsf with good recovery in steeply dipping continental slope foreset strata. Foreset strata are dominated by massive and chaotically

  15. Congress asks for drilling plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Robert S.

    The Interagency Coordinating Group on Continental Scientific Drilling develops policy to guide long-term drilling plans for the Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, and U.S. Geological Survey. ICG has already cooperated on several drilling projects, such as those at Salton Sea, Long Valley, and Cajon Pass in California, and Valles caldera in New Mexico.Congress will soon pass the Continental Scientific Drilling and Exploration Act, S. 52 and H.R. 2737. The bill requires ICG to prepare a report that outlines a national program of scientific drilling.

  16. Analyses of operational times and technical aspects of the Salton Sea scientific drilling project: (Final report)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    The Deep Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (DSSSDP) was conducted in Imperial County of California at the Southeastern edge of the Salton Sea. Emphasis was on the acquisition of scientific data for the evaluation of the geological environment encountered during the drilling of the well. The scientific data acquisition activities consisted of coring, running of numerous downhole logs and tools in support of defining the geologic environment and conducting two full scale flow tests primarily to obtain pristine fluid samples. In addition, drill cuttings, gases and drilling fluid chemistry measurements were obtained from the drilling fluid returns concurrent with drilling and coring operations. The well was drilled to 10,564 feet. This report describes the field portions of the project and presents an analysis of the time spent on the various activities associated with the normal drilling operations, scientific data gathering operations and the three major downhole problem activities - lost circulation, directional control and fishing.

  17. The Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP): Understanding the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic context of human origins through continental drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Campisano, Christopher; Asrat, Asfawossen; Arrowsmith, Ramon; Deino, Alan; Feibel, Craig; Hill, Andrew; Kingston, John; Lamb, Henry; Lowenstein, Tim; Olago, Daniel; Bernhart Owen, R.; Renaut, Robin; Schabitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The influence of climate and environmental history on human evolution is an existential question that continues to be hotly debated, in part because of the paucity of high resolution records collected in close proximity to the key fossil and archaeological evidence. To address this issue and transform the scientific debate, the HSPDP was developed to collect lacustrine sediment drill cores from basins in Kenya and Ethiopia that collectively encompass critical time intervals and locations for Plio-Quaternary human evolution in East Africa. After a 17 month campaign, drilling was completed in November, 2014, with over 1750m of core collected from 11 boreholes from five areas (1930m total drilling length, avg. 91% recovery). The sites, from oldest to youngest, include 1) N. Awash, Ethiopia (~3.5-2.9Ma core interval); 2) Baringo-Tugen Hills, Kenya (~3.3-2.5Ma); 3) West Turkana, Kenya (~1.9-1.4Ma); L. Magadi, Kenya (0.8-0Ma) and the Chew Bahir Basin, Ethiopia (~0.5-0Ma). Initial core description (ICD) and sampling for geochronology, geochemistry and paleoecology studies had been completed by mid2014, with the two remaining sites (Magadi and Chew Bahir) scheduled for ICD work in early 2015. Whereas the primary scientific targets were the lacustrine deposits from the hominin-bearing basin depocenters, many intervals of paleosols (representative of low lake stands and probable arid periods) were also encountered in drill cores. Preliminary analyses of drill core sedimentology and geochemistry show both long-term lake level changes and cyclic variability in lake levels, both of which may be indicative of climatic forcing events of interest to paleoanthropologists. Authors of this abstract also include the entire HSPDP field team.

  18. Exploring frontiers of the deep biosphere through scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inagaki, F.; D'Hondt, S.; Hinrichs, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Since the first deep biosphere-dedicated Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Leg 201 using the US drill ship JOIDES Resolution in 2002, scientific ocean drilling has offered unique opportunities to expand our knowledge of the nature and extent of the deep biosphere. The latest estimate of the global subseafloor microbial biomass is ~1029cells, accounting for 4 Gt of carbon and ~1% of the Earth's total living biomass. The subseafloor microbial communities are evolutionarily diverse and their metabolic rates are extraordinarily slow. Nevertheless, accumulating activity most likely plays a significant role in elemental cycles over geological time. In 2010, during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 329, the JOIDES Resolutionexplored the deep biosphere in the open-ocean South Pacific Gyre—the largest oligotrophic province on our planet. During Expedition 329, relatively high concentrations of dissolved oxygen and significantly low biomass of microbial populations were observed in the entire sediment column, indicating that (i) there is no limit to life in open-ocean sediment and (ii) a significant amount of oxygen reaches through the sediment to the upper oceanic crust. This "deep aerobic biosphere" inhabits the sediment throughout up to ~37 percent of the world's oceans. The remaining ~63 percent of the oceans is comprised of higher productivity areas that contain the "deep anaerobic biosphere". In 2012, during IODP Expedition 337, the Japanese drill ship Chikyu explored coal-bearing sediments down to 2,466 meters below the seafloor off the Shimokita Peninsula, Japan. Geochemical and microbiological analyses consistently showed the occurrence of methane-producing communities associated with the coal beds. Cell concentrations in deep sediments were notably lower than those expected from the global regression line, implying that the bottom of the deep biosphere is approached in these beds. Taxonomic composition of the deep coal-bearing communities profoundly

  19. Scientific proposals for a continuing scientific drilling program in the Valles-Toledo Caldera Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiken, Grant

    The Valles-Toledo caldera complex is famous as the site of early research on caldera formation and for its caldera-hosted, high-temperature geothermal system. Scientific drilling in the west half of the complex, sponsored by the Office of Basic Energy Services of the Department of Energy (DOE), is part of a long-term program to answer basic questions about caldera formation processes, silicic volcanism, high-temperature hydrothermal systems, and volcanogenic ore bodies.A DOE workshop to evaluate the drilling was held October 18-20, 1989, in Los Alamos, N. Mex.; about 50 scientists came. The purpose was to review the progress of research and to consider the scientific merit of continuing corehole drilling as proposed in the original scientific management plan [Goff and Nielson, 1986]. At the end of the first day, a long discussion was held to determine if results so far justified the expense of continuing the program. The answer was unequivocal: Yes. The next question was, Where should the next corehole be located?

  20. Drilling a Volcano: Scientific Experiment at Alban Hills, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariucci, M.; Montone, P.; Pierdominici, S.

    2005-12-01

    Only a few deep boreholes have been drilled for scientific purposes on active volcanoes in the whole world. Indeed, data collected from deep wells are fundamental to better model geophysical processes. Within the Italian research project INGV-DPC-V3.1 (funded by the Italian Civil Protection Department), we planned to drill a 400m hole with the main goal to define the orientation and magnitude of present stress field in the shallow crust in the Alban Hills. The Alban Hills are considered a quiescent volcanic district, belonging to the Quaternary volcanic belt of the Tyrrhenian coast. They are located in a densely populated area close to Rome, then an eruption would be a real risk, also considering the type of their past activity. Alban Hills have been fully studied by means of surface or very shallow observations and indirect methods: now we are going to start the first scientific program to investigate them directly at depth. We will perform some hydrofracturing tests at different depth in the drilling located in a key area, to compute, for the first time beneath a volcano, the absolute values of stress principal axes and reconstruct the stress path along depth. Analysis on core samples will allow to better understand the geomechanical characters of volcanic rocks and their underlying sedimentary basement. Coupling these studies with structural, geochronological and palaeomagnetic investigations will constrain the recent volcano-tectonic processes. The comparison of new data with the available stratigraphic logs will give insights on the occurrence of tectonic movements. Analysis of the anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility could provide information on the Middle Pleistocene strain to be compared with present-day data. These results will be integrated with new geodetic and seismological data obtained by other research units and will be used for physical and numerical modeling to understand the behavior of the whole volcanic complex. This experiment represent a

  1. The Cenozoic Arctic Ocean Unveiled through Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, L.; Moran, K.; Backman, J.

    2007-12-01

    In late summer 2004, the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) conducted one of the most transformational missions in the almost 40 year history of scientific ocean drilling: the Arctic Coring Expedition (ACEX). This technically-challenging expedition recovered the first Cenozoic sediment record from the Arctic Ocean-extending previous records from ~1.5 Ma to an unprecedented ~56 Ma. Glimpses of the breadth of this transformation were even seen during ACEX when the massulae from fresh water ferns were found and the presence of Apectodinium augustum confirmed that the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was unexpectedly recovered. Soon after the expedition, when the cores were opened and analyzed, ice-rafted debris was found to have occurred much earlier than previously thought-in the Eocene in an environment of high organic carbon content. The initial analyses also revealed an extensive hiatus that occurred between several of the most spectacular sediment cores in terms of color, e.g. turquoise, and structure, starkly contrasting black and white crossbedding that is now dubbed the "zebra" core. The exciting early results attracted other investigators that expanded the scientific investigating team to more than 40 people. This, in turn, extended the analyses to include new studies that revealed surprisingly high Arctic Ocean surface water temperatures and a hydrologically active system during the PETM. Although the hiatus is a lost window in time for the Arctic paleoclimate record, it spawned other studies that integrated the regional tectonic history with ACEX results revealing a major oceanographic reorganization at 17.5 Ma-ventilation of the Arctic Ocean to the North Atlantic through the Fram Strait. In this overview, recent results from the large ACEX scientific "family" are summarized and include: a new age model; detailed analyses of the middle Eocene that document a unique brackish water environment; sea ice and iceberg history reconstructions and

  2. Yellowstone National Park as an opportunity for deep continental drilling in thermal regions. [Abstract only

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, R.O.

    1983-03-01

    The Yellowstone caldera represnets the most intense magnatic and thermal anomaly within the conterminous United States. Voluminous rhyolite ash flows, accompanied by formation of huge calderas, occurred approximately 2.0, 1.3, and 0.6 My B.P. Although the last lava flow was about 70,000 B.P., much evidence suggests that magma may still be present at relatively shallow depth. The evidence from gravity and magnetic lows, magnetotelluric soundings, seismic wave velocities, maximum depths of earthquake foci, significant recent uplift of the caldera floor, and exceptionally high heat flux suggest that magmatic temperatures may be attained 5 to 10 km beneath much of the caldera. Most of the hot-spring and geyser activity occurs within the caldera and along a fault zone that trends north from the caldera rim through Norris Geyser Basin and Mammoth Hot Springs. The thermal waters and gases have been extensively sampled and analyzed over a period of 100 years. The chemical, isotopic, and hydrologic data obtained from natural discharges and from shallow wells drilled in thermal areas, enable formulation of models of the hydrothermal system. No previous intermediate-depth drilling has been conducted at Yellowstone to help select the best location for a deep drill hole, and because Yellowstone is a National Park, no commercial drilling will be available for add-on experiments. Also, a deep drill hole in Yellowstone would have to be sited with great regard to environmental and ecological considerations. Nevertheless, the large amount of existing data is sufficient to formulate testable models. The Yellowstone thermal anomaly is so extensive and scientifically interesting that almost any suitable drilling site there may be superior to the best drilling site in any other silicic caldera complex in the United States.

  3. Sea Bed Drilling Technology MARUM-MeBo: Overview on recent scientific drilling campaigns and technical developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, Tim; Bergenthal, Markus; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Pape, Thomas; Kopf, Achim; Huhn-Frehers, Katrin; Gohl, Karsten; Wefer, Gerold

    2017-04-01

    The MARUM-MeBo (abbreviation for Meeresboden-Bohrgerät, the German expression for seafloor drill rig) is a robotic drilling system that is developed since 2004 at the MARUM Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen in close cooperation with Bauer Maschinen GmbH and other industry partners. The MARUM-MeBo drill rigs can be deployed from multipurpose research vessel like, RV MARIA S. MERIAN, RV METEOR, RV SONNE and RV POLARSTERN and are used for getting long cores both in soft sediments as well as hard rocks in the deep sea. The first generation drill rig, the MARUM-MeBo70 is dedicated for a drilling depth of more than 70 m (Freudenthal and Wefer, 2013). Between 2005 and 2016 it was deployed on 17 research expeditions and drilled about 3 km into different types of geology including carbonate and crystalline rocks, gas hydrates, glacial tills, sands and gravel, glacial till and hemipelagic mud with an average recovery rate of about 70 %. We used the development and operational experiences of MARUM-MeBo70 for the development of a second generation drill rig MARUM-MeBo200. This drill rig is dedicated for conducting core drilling down to 200 m below sea floor. After successful sea trials in the North Sea in October 2014 the MeBo200 was used on a scientific expedition on the research vessel RV SONNE (SO247) in March/April 2016. During 12 deployments we drilled altogether 514 m in hemipelagic sediments with volcanic ashes as well as in muddy and sandy slide deposits off New Zealand. The average core recovery was about 54%. The maximum drilling depth was 105 m below sea floor. Developments for the MeBo drilling technology include the development of a pressure core barrel that was successfully deployed on two research expeditions so far. Bore hole logging adds to the coring capacity. Several autonomous logging probes have been developed in the last years for a deployment with MeBo in the logging while tripping mode - a sonic probe measuring in

  4. 77 FR 27480 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary...: The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC) will meet at the Fess Parker's...

  5. 78 FR 25100 - Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee; Announcement of Plenary...: The Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC) will meet at the Marriott Downtown...

  6. Unzen Scientific Drilling Project: Challenging drilling operation into the magmatic conduit shortly after eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuma, S.; Nakada, S.; Uto, K.

    2004-12-01

    Drilling operation was aimed at penetration into the core of the volcano 8 years after eruption of Unzen, including directional drilling in high temperature and with high inclination. The project started with fixing drilling site. Scientists and drilling engineers agreed to settle it at the northern slope of Mt. Unzen at 840 m asl, and the drilling target was set at sea level. Drilling operation was started in Feb. 2003. In the shallow section, frequent lost circulation and accidental side-track occurred due to the unconsolidated zone, and caused_@many troubles. Although the drilling was delayed, we succeeded in drilling down to 396m with the inclination of 25 degree in 17-1/2 inch hole and 13-3/8 inch casing section. 12-1/4 inch hole was drilled using TDS, EM-MWD, and DHM. When the inclination was built up to 75 degree at 795 m, we changed the drilling mode of trajectory control to keep the angle. A large fracture of total loss was encountered at 807m, and serious cuttings bed occurred. The latter made the drilling impossible to continue. Then, we inserted 9-5/8 inch casing down to 796 m. Trajectory correction runs was completed in 8-5/8 inch hole, and 7 inch casing was set down to 1550m. In 6-1/4 inch hole, though EM-MWD and DHM were not used, drilling inclination and azimuth were stable. Spot coring was started at 1582 m, the levels of spot coring depth were chosen based on the data of temperature measurement and cuttings observation. Though the drilling exceeded 1800m, the original target depth, drilling was continued, because we could not encounter the high temperature conduit at that time. Finally, the well reached the 1995 m, and succeeded in taking cores highly probable of magmatic conduit in July 2004. We could carry out geophysical logging mostly throughout the whole sections. Spot coring were done at 16 times; its total length was 75m. Although the highest measured temperature was 155 deg. C, the formation temperature may reach at least 200 deg. C. The

  7. Probing the processes and products of an ancient continental crustal rupture: Scientific drillng into the Midcontinent Rift System

    SciTech Connect

    Hinz, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    Geochemical and geophysical investigations over the past decade suggest a laterally as well radially heterogeneous upper mantle. The sources of this variability are mantle dynamics and interactions with the crust. The opportunities to sample these variations directly are limited within continental regions. However, the basalts of the Midcontinent Rift (MCR) System of North America are particularly attractive for studying subcontinental mantle. The MCR is an 1100 Ma paleorift that extends for more than 2000 km across the North American midcontinent. Drill holes into the MCR to obtain samples of the basalt can be located to answer critical questions regarding the origin and evolution of this aborted Precambrian rift. Outcrops of the MCR rocks occur only in the Lake Superior region, and the rocks that crop out are restricted largely to the margins of the structure and the upper part of the stratigraphic section. Available drill holes are shallow and poorly distributed for scientific purposes and provide only limited samples for analysis. Many sites along the rift have been pinpointed where holes of 5 km or less in depth can be drilled to sample the Proterozoic (Keweenawan) igneous rocks of the rift. In September, 1987, approximately 90 geoscientists from North America and Europe met in Duluth, Minnesota, for a workshop. The goals of the workshop were to define the scientific objectives of drilling the MCR and to develop a plan for achieving these objectives. As a result of the workshop and subsequent deliberations, we proposed a multi-year, multi-hole program of drilling and related scientific investigation of the MCR utilizing shallow to intermediate depth holes. 18 refs. 5 figs.

  8. Petrogenesis of High-CaO Lavas Recovered from Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Mauna Kea tholeiitic lavas recovered from Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) can be divided into three groups based on their major element compositions: High-SiO2, Low-SiO2, and High-CaO groups. Detailed geochemical and isotopic studies have been focused on the High- and Low-SiO2 group lavas, and High-CaO lavas were not well studied because they were not included in the original reference suite samples. Here we report trace element compositions determined on a suite of High-CaO glasses, and use these data to constrain the petrogenesis of High-CaO lavas. When normalized to Low-SiO2 lavas, High-CaO lavas form a U-shaped trace element pattern. That is, High-CaO lavas are enriched in both the most (Nb, Th) and the least (Sc, V) incompatible elements. This trace element difference is best explained if High-CaO parental magma represents a mixture of low degree partial melt of the Low-SiO2 mantle source and a mafic cumulate component. This mafic cumulate must be clinopyroxene-rich, and it could be delaminated mafic cumulate formed under arcs during continent formation, lower continental crust, or lower oceanic crust.Mauna Kea tholeiitic lavas recovered from Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) can be divided into three groups based on their major element compositions: High-SiO2, Low-SiO2, and High-CaO groups. Detailed geochemical and isotopic studies have been focused on the High- and Low-SiO2 group lavas, and High-CaO lavas were not well studied because they were not included in the original reference suite samples. Here we report trace element compositions determined on a suite of High-CaO glasses, and use these data to constrain the petrogenesis of High-CaO lavas. When normalized to Low-SiO2 lavas, High-CaO lavas form a U-shaped trace element pattern. That is, High-CaO lavas are enriched in both the most (Nb, Th) and the least (Sc, V) incompatible elements. This trace element difference is best explained if High-CaO parental magma represents a mixture of

  9. Continental ultra-deep drilling locating research status and progress in the Jinchuan Ni-Cu ore-concentrated area,Western China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, H.; Tang, Z.; Yang, J.

    2010-12-01

    The abstract is the initial achievements of "Continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study in the Jinchuan nickel-copper ore-concentrated area,Western China". 1 Some scientific problems faced by Jinchuan scientific drilling 1.1 Tectonic research of plates convergent margins Jinchuan ore-concentrated area locate in intersection of the south China plate, the north China plate, the tarim plate and convergent orogenic belts. Carrying out deep drilling could obtain informations such as deep material composition, fluid composition, rock fabric, structural features of the special region,etc.Then we can discuss tectonic evolution of the area between the plates. 1.2 Metallogenic theory research Ore-forming material source and extension of the deep rock situation are the key of resolving and verifying metallogenic theory. Carrying out scientific drilling research which will make some issues, that reasons of the huge amount of metal accumulation, formation mechanism of Cu-Ni-PGE sulfide deposits, relationships of metals accumulation process and the crust-mantle interaction and geological background, in particular, fluid role in this process, be resolved. And we could research mantle-derived magmatism and mineralization. 1.3 Perfect Jinchuan metallogenic model Jinchuan deposit is typical for the world's "formation of large deposit in a small intrusion". That establishing the metallogenic model is predominant in international field of mafic-ultramafic magmatic sulfide deposits. Scientific deep drilling could obtain informations which will enrich the theory system. 2 New achievements of continental ultra-deep drilling locating pre-study (1) Previous studies shown that Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic strata,to south of Ore-bearing rock, are monoclines, but this research reveals that which are incomplete complex anticlines, which controlled and destructed by several major regional faults. And there are several ductile shear zones in Sinian strata that increased complexity

  10. Scientific Drilling of Impact Craters - Well Logging and Core Analyses Using Magnetic Methods (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.

    2013-12-01

    Drilling projects of impact structures provide data on the structure and stratigraphy of target, impact and post-impact lithologies, providing insight on the impact dynamics and cratering. Studies have successfully included magnetic well logging and analyses in core and cuttings, directed to characterize the subsurface stratigraphy and structure at depth. There are 170-180 impact craters documented in the terrestrial record, which is a small proportion compared to expectations derived from what is observed on the Moon, Mars and other bodies of the solar system. Knowledge of the internal 3-D deep structure of craters, critical for understanding impacts and crater formation, can best be studied by geophysics and drilling. On Earth, few craters have yet been investigated by drilling. Craters have been drilled as part of industry surveys and/or academic projects, including notably Chicxulub, Sudbury, Ries, Vredefort, Manson and many other craters. As part of the Continental ICDP program, drilling projects have been conducted on the Chicxulub, Bosumtwi, Chesapeake, Ries and El gygytgyn craters. Inclusion of continuous core recovery expanded the range of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic applications, with direct core laboratory measurements, which are part of the tools available in the ocean and continental drilling programs. Drilling studies are here briefly reviewed, with emphasis on the Chicxulub crater formed by an asteroid impact 66 Ma ago at the Cretaceous/Paleogene boundary. Chicxulub crater has no surface expression, covered by a kilometer of Cenozoic sediments, thus making drilling an essential tool. As part of our studies we have drilled eleven wells with continuous core recovery. Magnetic susceptibility logging, magnetostratigraphic, rock magnetic and fabric studies have been carried out and results used for lateral correlation, dating, formation evaluation, azimuthal core orientation and physical property contrasts. Contributions of magnetic studies on impact

  11. Crustal Magnetization and Magnetic Petrology in Basalts - What Can We Learn from Scientific Drillings?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Rock magnetic and magneto-mineralogical data from scientific drillings contribute to our understanding of the growth history and tectonic evolution of volcanic structures and allows for an improved interpretation of magnetic anomaly data. Such data are not only important for the magnetic structure of volcanic buildings and spreading ridges on Earth but may also provide basic data for the interpretation of extraterrestrial magnetic anomalies like on Mars. Crustal magnetization of basalts is well studied since decades and in general, the amplitude of magnetic anomalies is mainly related to the induced and remanent magnetization. Direct measurements of the magnetic field and measurements of magnetic properties of oceanic and continental crust have indicated that the crustal magnetization is very complex and depends on different factors like e.g. magma composition, cooling rate, age and hydrothermal alteration. Generally a high oxygen fugacity (above the NNO buffer) and a low Ti/(Ti+Fe) ratio of the basaltic melt are suggested as a precondition for high concentration of magnetic minerals and therefore high primary TRM. High temperature subsolidus reactions and hydrothermal alteration as e.g. observed in the strongly magnetic basalts from the Stardalur drill core, Iceland, seems to increase NRM intensity and magnetic susceptibility due to creation of small, secondary magnetite (Vahle et al. 2007). Probably the increase occurred after the extinction of the hydrothermal system because active high-temperature (>150 °C) geothermal areas like the Krafla caldera, NE-Iceland, often show distinct magnetic lows in aeromagnetic anomaly maps suggesting a destruction of magnetic minerals by hydrothermal activity (Oliva-Urcia et al. 2011). The destruction explains the significant magnetization loss, which is seen in many local magnetic anomaly lows within the oceanic crust and volcanic islands like Iceland or Hawaii. Borehole and core magnetic susceptibility measurements in

  12. Mountain building processes in the Scandinavian Caledonides studied by COSC scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Henning; Juhlin, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    across tectonostratigraphic boundaries. Microstructural investigations and age dating are ongoing. Results of the latter are presented by Glodny et al. (this session). Although COSC-1 research will continue for several years, planning of COSC-2 is already very advanced and the borehole will be drilled as soon as funding is secured. First, the continuously cored hole will sample the Lower Paleozoic sedimentary succession preserved in the Lower Allochthon. This will provide a unique distal section through the Baltica Shelf palaeoenvironment, which elsewhere is only known from proximal areas with high bioproductivity as they are exposed in the Baltic Sea region. The borehole will then sample a laterally extensive imbricate section of Cambrian and, most likely, Ordovician strata that developed above the main Caledonian décollement, i.e. the detachment horizon below the Caledonian allochthons that is hosted in the very organic-rich Alum shale. Finally, it will penetrate 1-1.5 km into the Baltican basement and sample the sources for several seismic basement reflections. Thus, COSC-2 will provide a unique opportunity to study in detail the deformation on and above the décollement and how the basement of the during collision underriding plate was affected by deformation. COSC-1 was supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the Swedish Research Council. All data are open and distributed under a Creative Common license (CC BY 4.0). More information on the project and the data are available at http://doi.org/10.1594/GFZ.SDDB.ICDP.5054.2015. Collaboration is welcome.

  13. Determining Scientific Projects for the Deep-Sea Drilling Vessel Chikyu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffin, Millard F.; Given, Holly K.; Eguchi, Nobuhisa

    2013-07-01

    An international, multidisciplinary community workshop convened to define scientific projects for the next decade of scientific ocean drilling utilizing unique capabilities afforded by the drilling vessel Chikyu ("Earth" in Japanese). The meeting, attended by 397 participants from 21 countries, featured 10 keynote lectures. Participants in working groups identified important projects that are fundamental to understanding the Earth system and that require deep penetration of the seafloor.

  14. PREFACE: Scientific and Technical Challenges in the Well Drilling Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-02-01

    The Conference "Advanced Engineering Problems in Drilling" was devoted to the 60th anniversary of the Drilling Department, Institute of Natural Resources. Today this Department is the "descendant" of two existing departments - Mining Exploration Technology and Oil and Gas Drilling. It should be mentioned that this remarkable date is associated with the first graduation class of mining engineers in "Mining Exploration Technologies", as well as the 30th anniversary of the Oil and Gas Well Drilling Department. Anniversary is an excellent occasion to remember one's historical past. At the beginning of the last century within the Tomsk Technological Institute n.a. Emperor Nikolai II the Mining Department was established which soon embraced the Obruchev-Usov Mining-Geological School. This School became the parent of mining-geological education in the Asian region of Russia, as well as the successor of mining-geological science. It was and is today one of the leading schools in the spheres of mineral resources exploration, surveying and mining. 1927 is the year of the establishment of the Department of Technology in Mineral Exploration. SibGeokom (Western-Siberia branch of the Geological Committee) under the supervision of M.A. Usov obtained the first Krelis rotary boring drill. Prior to that only the Keystone cable drilling rig was used in exploration. It was I.A. Molchanov who was responsible for the development and implementation of new technology in the field of exploration. In the yard of SibGeokom (now it is Building № 6, Usov St.) the first drilling rig was mounted. This was the beginning of the first training courses for Krelis drilling foremen under the supervision of I.A. Molchanov. In 1931 I.A. Molchanov headed the Department of Exploration which was located in Building № 6. In the outside territory of this building a drilling site was launched, including Keystone cable drilling rig, CAM-500 drilling rig and others. In the Building itself, i.e. in one study

  15. Scientific Drilling in the Arctic Ocean: A challenge for the next decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R.; Coakley, B.

    2009-04-01

    Although major progress in Arctic Ocean research has been made during the last decades, the knowledge of its short- and long-term paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic history as well as its plate-tectonic evolution is much behind that from the other world's oceans. That means - despite the importance of the Arctic in the climate system - the data base we have from this area is still very weak, and large parts of the climate history have not been recovered at all in sedimentary sections. This lack of knowledge is mainly caused by the major technological/ logistic problems in reaching this permanently ice-covered region with normal research vessels and in retrieving long and undisturbed sediment cores. With the successful completion of IODP Expedition 302 ("Arctic Coring Expedition" - ACEX), the first Mission Specific Platform (MSP) expedition within the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program - IODP, a new era in Arctic research has begun. For the first time, a scientific drilling in the permanently ice-covered Arctic Ocean was carried out, penetrating about 430 meters of Quaternary, Neogene, Paleogene and Campanian sediment on the crest of Lomonosov Ridge close to the North Pole. The success of ACEX has certainly opened the door for further scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, and will frame the next round of questions to be answered from new drill holes to be taken during the next decades. In order to discuss and plan the future of scientific drilling in the Arctic Ocean, an international workshop was held at the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) in Bremerhaven/Germany, (Nov 03-05, 2008; convenors: Bernard Coakley/University of Alaska Fairbanks and Ruediger Stein/AWI Bremerhaven). About 95 scientists from Europe, US, Canada, Russia, Japan, and Korea, and observers from oil companies participated in the workshop. Funding of the workshop was provided by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership (US), the European Science Foundation, the Arctic Ocean Sciences Board, and the

  16. Engineering for Deep Sea Drilling for Scientific Purposes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    controlled buoyancy requiren a design study that needs to be ultimately linked to obtaining reliable environmental data fcm the drilling area and site...advance understanding of the processes of earthquakes and volcanoes, as well as identify potential deposits of minerals and fossil fuels . Called the Ocean

  17. Integrated deep drilling, coring, downhole logging, and data management in the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (CSDP), Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth, Lothar; Bintakies, Eckhard; Kück, Jochem; Conze, Ronald; Harms, Ulrich

    2004-06-01

    Impact structures in the solar system are mainly recognized and explored through remote sensing and, on Earth, through geophysical deep sounding. To date, a continuous scientific sampling of large impact craters from cover rocks to target material has only seldom been performed. The first project to deep-drill and core into one of the largest and well-preserved terrestrial impact structures was executed in the winter of 2001/2002 in the 65 Myr-old Chicxulub crater in Mexico using integrated coring sampling and in situ measurements. The combined use of different techniques allows a three-dimensional insight and a better understanding of impact processes. Here, we report the integration of conventional rotary drilling techniques with wireline mining coring technology that was applied to drill the 1510 m-deep Yaxcopoil-1 (Yax-1) well about 40 km southwest of Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. During the course of the project, we recovered approximately 900 m of intact core samples including the transitions of reworked ejecta to post-impact sediments, and that one from large blocks of tilted target material to impact-generated rocks, i.e., impact melt breccias and suevites. Coring was complemented by wireline geophysical measurements to obtain a continuous set of in situ petrophysical data of the borehole walls. The data acquired is comprised of contents of a natural radioactive element, velocities of compressional sonic waves, and electrical resistivity values. All the digital data sets, including technical drilling parameters, initial scientific sample descriptions, and 360° core pictures, were distributed during the course of the operations via Internet and were stored in the ICDP Drilling Information System (http://www.icdp-online.org), serving the global community of cooperating scientists as a basic information service.

  18. The accurate location of the injection-induced microearthquakes in German Continental Deep Drilling Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Yi-Min; Chen, Yun-Tai

    2002-11-01

    From August 21, 2000 to October 20, 2000 a fluid injection-induced seismicity experiment has been carried out in the KTB (German Continental Deep Drilling Program). The KTB seismic network recorded more than 2 700 events. Among them 237 events were of high signal-to-noise ratio, and were processed and accurately located. When the events were located, non KTB events were weeded out by Wadati’s method. The standard deviation, mean and median were obtained by Jackknife’s technique, and finally the events were accurately located by Geiger’s method so that the mean error is about 0.1 km. No earthquakes with focal depth greater than 9.3 km, which is nearly at the bottom of the hole, were detected. One of the explanation is that at such depths the stress levels may not close to the rock’s frictional strength so that failure could not be induced by the relatively small perturbation in pore pressure. Or at these depths there may be no permeable, well-oriented faults. This depth may be in close proximity to the bottom of the hole to the brittle-ductile transition, even in this relatively stable interior of the interaplate. This phenomenon is explained by the experimental results and geothermal data from the superdeep borehole.

  19. Hawaii scientific drilling protect: Summary of preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DePaolo, D.; Stolper, E.; Thomas, D.; Albarede, F.; Chadwick, O.; Clague, D.; Feigenson, M.; Frey, F.; Garcia, M.; Hofmann, A.; Ingram, B.L.; Kennedy, B.M.; Kirschvink, J.; Kurz, M.; Laj, Carlo; Lockwood, J.; Ludwig, K.; McEvilly, T.; Moberly, R.; Moore, G.; Moore, J.; Morin, R.; Paillet, F.; Renne, P.; Rhodes, M.; Tatsumoto, M.; Taylor, H.; Walker, G.; Wilkins, R.

    1996-01-01

    Petrological, geochemical, geomagnetic, and volcanological characterization of the recovered core from a 1056-m-deep well into the flank of the Mauna Kea volcano in Hilo, Hawaii, and downhole logging and fluid sampling have provided a unique view of the evolution and internal structure of a major oceanic volcano unavailable from surface exposures. Core recovery was ???90%, yielding a time series of fresh, subaerial lavas extending back to ???400 ka. Results of this 1993 project provide a basis for a more ambitious project to core drill a well 4.5 km deep in a nearby location with the goal of recovering an extended, high-density stratigraphic sequence of lavas.

  20. A new approach to hydrologic testing during drilling of a deep borehole and its application to the Swedish scientific deep drilling COSC project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, C. F.; Rosberg, J. E.; Juhlin, C.; Niemi, A. P.; Doughty, C.; Dobson, P. F.; Birkholzer, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Drilling of a deep borehole does not normally allow for hydrogeologic testing during the drilling period. The only time hydraulic tests are performed is when drilling encounters a large-transmissivity zone as evidenced by a large loss (or high return) of drilling fluid. The present paper proposes a new approach, that of conducting Flowing Fluid Electric Conductivity (FFEC) logging during the drilling period, with negligible impact on drilling schedule, yet providing important and accurate information on depth locations of both high- and low-transmissivity zones and their in-situ hydraulic conductivities. The information can be used to guide downhole fluid sampling and post-drilling detailed testing of the borehole. The proposed method has been applied to the drilling of a 2500-m borehole at Åre, Northern Sweden, which was initiated on April 28 and completed on August 26, 2014, with 99% core recovery. This borehole, named COSC-1, was drilled as part of the Swedish Scientific Deep Drilling COSC project, where COSC stands for Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides. The project is a multidisciplinary project with the aim of gaining a deeper understanding of mountain belt dynamics in the Scandinavian Caledonides. Scientific investigations which include a range of topics from studies of ancient orogeny to the present-day hydrological cycle are conducted under six working groups: (1) tectonics, (2) geophysics, (3) geothermics, (4) hydrology, (5) microbiology and (6) drilling management and technology. In this talk, the new approach to hydrologic testing during the drilling period will be described and its application to the drilling of COSC-1 borehole presented. Results show that from 300 m to the borehole bottom at 2500 m, there are eight hydraulically active zones or fractures in COSC-1, with very low transmissivity values ranging over one order of magnitude.

  1. CHART: An Online Workshop About the Future of Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meth, C. E.; Ravelo, A. C.

    2009-12-01

    The CHART (Charting the Future Course of Scientific Ocean Drilling) workshop was a six-week on-line meeting that gathered input from the U.S. science community regarding future research directions for scientific ocean drilling. The CHART workshop was hosted and implemented by the Consortium for Ocean Leadership, under the U.S. Science Support Program associated with IODP. The online format allowed researchers who would normally not have the time or resources to travel to a physical meeting to participate in this discussion and allowed Ocean Leadership to archive, in written form, input from every participant, instead of just preserving popular or consensus views. The meeting had six discussion boards, each with initial questions intended to stimulate discussion on current emerging fields, unanswered research questions, implementation strategies, and potential future directions for scientific ocean drilling. The moderators read the posts on a daily basis, interjected comments or questions to stimulate more discussion, and wrote short weekly summaries. Interest in the CHART discussions increased over the course of the workshop and prompted the steering committee to extend the meeting to the final sixth week, allowing time for the participants to complete reading and responding to the new activity. In all, the CHART discussion boards were visited 2,242 times by 695 visitors and resulted in 535 posts. The visitors came to the site from 37 states, the District of Columbia, and 17 countries. The CHART workshop represented the first step in garnering input from U.S. scientists to plan for scientific ocean drilling beyond 2013. The resulting white paper became part of the planning process for the international meeting, INVEST, and will be used to write the science plan for the next scientific drilling program. The white paper also allowed U.S. participants at INVEST to better represent and express the collective vision of the their community.

  2. Scientific Use of the Sampler, Drill and Distribution Subsystem (SD2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armellin, R.; Di Lizia, P.; Crepaldi, M.; Bernelli-Zazzera, F.; Ercoli Finzi, A.

    Rosetta is the third cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency scientific program "Horizon 2000". Rosetta will be the first spacecraft to orbit around a comet nucleus. It was launched in March 2004 and will reach the comet 67P/ChurymovGerasimenko in 2014. A lander (Philae) will be released and land on the comet surface for in-situ investigation. One of the key subsystems of the lander Philae is the Sampler, Drill and Distribution (SD2) subsystem. SD2 provides in-situ operations devoted to soil drilling, samples collection, and their distribution to two evolved gas analyzers (COSAC and PTOLEMY) and one imaging instrument (ÇIVA). Recent studies have proven the existence of a correlation between the drill behavior during perforation and the mechanical characteristics of the cometary soil. This outlines the possibility of using SD2 not only as a tool to support other instruments, but also as a scientific instrument itself. In this paper the possibility of using the drill as a quasi-static penetrator is presented. Within this approach, laboratory tests on glass-foam specimens of different porosity show that the drill behaviour during penetration can be exploited for cometary soil characterization.

  3. Scientific drilling projects in ancient lakes: Integrating geological and biological histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Thomas; Wagner, Bernd; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Albrecht, Christian; Ariztegui, Daniel; Delicado, Diana; Francke, Alexander; Harzhauser, Mathias; Hauffe, Torsten; Holtvoeth, Jens; Just, Janna; Leng, Melanie J.; Levkov, Zlatko; Penkman, Kirsty; Sadori, Laura; Skinner, Alister; Stelbrink, Björn; Vogel, Hendrik; Wesselingh, Frank; Wonik, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Sedimentary sequences in ancient or long-lived lakes can reach several thousands of meters in thickness and often provide an unrivalled perspective of the lake's regional climatic, environmental, and biological history. Over the last few years, deep-drilling projects in ancient lakes became increasingly multi- and interdisciplinary, as, among others, seismological, sedimentological, biogeochemical, climatic, environmental, paleontological, and evolutionary information can be obtained from sediment cores. However, these multi- and interdisciplinary projects pose several challenges. The scientists involved typically approach problems from different scientific perspectives and backgrounds, and setting up the program requires clear communication and the alignment of interests. One of the most challenging tasks, besides the actual drilling operation, is to link diverse datasets with varying resolution, data quality, and age uncertainties to answer interdisciplinary questions synthetically and coherently. These problems are especially relevant when secondary data, i.e., datasets obtained independently of the drilling operation, are incorporated in analyses. Nonetheless, the inclusion of secondary information, such as isotopic data from fossils found in outcrops or genetic data from extant species, may help to achieve synthetic answers. Recent technological and methodological advances in paleolimnology are likely to increase the possibilities of integrating secondary information. Some of the new approaches have started to revolutionize scientific drilling in ancient lakes, but at the same time, they also add a new layer of complexity to the generation and analysis of sediment-core data. The enhanced opportunities presented by new scientific approaches to study the paleolimnological history of these lakes, therefore, come at the expense of higher logistic, communication, and analytical efforts. Here we review types of data that can be obtained in ancient lake drilling

  4. Hyaloclastites and the slope stability of Hawaiian volcanoes: Insights from the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project's 3-km drill core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, Peter; Watters, Robert J.; Thompson, Nick; Walton, Anthony W.

    2006-03-01

    Core samples recovered during the Hawaiian Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) drilling project reveal that the upper 1 km of the submarine flank of Mauna Kea is comprised mainly of hyaloclastites. Progressive, very low-temperature alteration of these hyaloclastites has been accompanied by systematic transformations in physical properties of these deposits. Hyaloclastite deposits which directly underlie ca. 1 km of subaerially-emplaced lavas are very poorly consolidated. But over a depth interval of ca. 500 m, compaction and, especially, precipitation of zeolitic, pore-filling cements associated with palagonitization of sideromelane, have eliminated porosity as well as promoted the consolidation of these hyaloclastites. The latter is reflected in unconfined compressive strengths which increase from mean values, respectively, of 2.5 and 4.6 MPa in weakly consolidated, smectite-rich hyaloclastites from the incipient (1080 to 1335 mbsl) and smectitic (1405-1573 mbsl) alteration zones, to a mean value of 10.0 MPa in the more highly consolidated hyaloclastites of the palagonitic zone of alteration (from 1573 mbsl to the bottom of the drill hole). Conversely, overlying, intercalated, and underlying lava flows are generally much less altered, and have mean compressive strengths which are 1 to 2 orders of magnitude greater then hyaloclastites at equivalent depths. The shear strengths of the hyaloclastites also increase with depth and grade of alteration, but are uniformly and substantially lower in the lavas. Those hyaloclastites exhibiting the highest grade of alteration (i.e., palagonitic) also exhibit the highest measured strengths, and thus the alteration of hyaloclastites appears to strengthen as opposed to weaken the flanks of the edifice. However, the contrast in strength between hyaloclastites and lavas may be a primary factor in localizing destabilization, and the zones of weak and poorly consolidated hyaloclastites may facilitate slumping by servings as hosts for

  5. Scientific Ocean Drilling: A Legacy of ODP Education and Community Engagement by JOI/USSSP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A.; Cortes, M.; Farrell, J. W.

    2003-12-01

    The U.S. Science Support Program (USSSP) was established in 1986 to support the participation of U.S. scientists in the international Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). Since inception, USSSP has been managed by Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), through a cooperative agreement with NSF, and guided by the U.S. Science Advisory Committee (USSAC). One of USSSP's primary goals has been to enhance the scientific contribution of ocean drilling and to maintain its vitality through a broad range of education and outreach activities. USSSP's first educational program, the Schlanger Ocean Drilling Fellowship, was established to encourage doctoral candidates to conduct research aboard the ODP drill ship, JOIDES Resolution. Since 1987, 74 fellowships have been awarded and the program has been expanded to include shorebased ODP-related research and Masters degree candidates. USSSP's second major educational activity is the Distinguished Lecturer Series. To date, 70 scientists have spoken about their ODP research at 334 institutions, effectively reaching new and diverse educational communities. In addition, USSSP has developed and distributed two interactive educational CD-ROMs (ODP: Mountains to Monsoons and Gateways to Glaciation) and an educational poster (Blast from the Past). All three items are popular supplements in classrooms from middle school to college because they present accessible scientific content, demonstrate the scientific method, and illustrate the collaborative and international nature of scientific research. USSSP's outreach efforts have included publishing the JOI/USSAC Newsletter since 1988 and ODP's Greatest Hits (abstracts written by U.S. scientists). The latter is broadly used because it communicates exciting scientific results in lay terms. USSSP has sponsored other educational efforts including a workshop to seek recommendations for educational activities to be associated with future scientific ocean drilling. NSF is currently considering the

  6. 76 FR 23331 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... status of the BOEMRE and its activities. There will be a presentation on Alternative Energy Programs... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and...

  7. 75 FR 10809 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee-Notice of Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Service (MMS), Interior. ACTION: Notice of renewal of the Outer Continental Shelf Scientific Committee. SUMMARY: Following consultation with the General Services Administration, notice is hereby given that the...

  8. Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology of the Southern Ocean: A Synthesis of Three Decades of Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnke, D. A.; Filippelli, G.; Flores, J.; Marchitto, T. M.

    2004-12-01

    A Workshop on " Paleoceanography and Paleoclimatology of the Southern Ocean: A Synthesis of Three Decades of Scientific Ocean Drilling" Jan. 21-23, 2005 Boulder, CO Co-Convenors: D. Warnke, G. Filippelli, J.-A. Flores, T. Marchitto One of the greatest successes of the Ocean Drilling Program has been the concerted drilling efforts and exciting results recovered from the Southern Ocean (SO), which has been the focus of ten DSDP/ODP drilling legs. The SO is a critical component in the development and persistence of Antarctic glaciation, is a sensitive mixing pool of global water masses, a locus of high biological sedimentation, and contains high resolution records of climate forcing and response. As such, it is one of the most important oceanographic regions in the world. It is now an important time to mine the rich results from scientific ocean drilling over the past several decades and develop a scientific framework for future ocean drilling in this region. The focus of this Synthesis Workshop will be on the biogeochemical history of the SO, including: · Productivity proxies, rates, records, variations, and role of climate · Sedimentary records of organic carbon, calcium, silica, nutrients, and biogenic proxies: The role of the SO as a biogeochemical sink · Development and dynamics of the APFZ · Thermal structure and evolution of the SO · The role of limiting nutrients The overall goal to integrate the various proxies into a coherent paleoceanographic picture. Such a goal will help to synthesize several decades of scientific ocean drilling in the SO, and will likely bring to the forefront the as-yet-unanswered questions about the biogeochemical history of this important oceanic system. With this goal in mind, workshop participants will submit of a short (~250 word) abstract as the Workshop application, commit to presenting a poster at the workshop based on this abstract, and contribute to one or more manuscripts that will be published after the workshop, likely

  9. San Andreas fault zone drilling project: scientific objectives and technological challenges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickman, S.H.; Younker, L.W.; Zoback, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    We are leading a new international initiative to conduct scientific drilling within the San Andreas fault zone at depths of up to 10 km. This project is motivated by the need to understand the physical and chemical processes operating within the fault zone and to answer fundamental questions about earthquake generation along major plate-boundary faults. Through a comprehensive program of coring, fluid sampling, downhole measurements, laboratory experimentation, and long-term monitoring, we hope to obtain critical information on the structure, composition, mechanical behavior and physical state of the San Andreas fault system at depths comparable to the nucleation zones of great earthquakes. The drilling, sampling and observational requirements needed to ensure the success of this project are stringent. These include: 1) drilling stable vertical holes to depths of about 9 km in fractured rock at temperatures of up to 300°C; 2) continuous coring and completion of inclined holes branched off these vertical boreholes to intersect the fault at depths of 3, 6, and 9 km; 3) conducting sophisticated borehole geophysical measurements and fluid/rock sampling at high temperatures and pressures; and 4) instrumenting some or all of these inclined core holes for continuous monitoring of earthquake activity, fluid pressure, deformation and other parameters for periods of up to several decades. For all of these tasks, because of the overpressured clay-rich formations anticipated within the fault zone at depth, we expect to encounter difficult drilling, coring and hole-completion conditions in the region of greatest scientific interest.

  10. Integrating multi-scale geophysical and drill-core data to improve hydraulic characterization of continental sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukowski, Nina; Methe, Pascal; Goepel, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Physical properties of rocks in the uppermost continental crust e.g. sedimentary basins are very heterogeneously distributed and anisotropic making it necessary to perform advanced post processing techniques on geophysical data. Whereas e.g. electrical resistivity or seismic tomography allow only for identifying physical properties' variability on a scale from roughly several tens of metres to several hundred metres, drill cores reveal physical heterogeneity on the cm-scale. To study the impact of small scale acoustic and hydraulic heterogeneity on fluid flow in a sedimentary basin we use combined data sets from the Thuringian Basin in Germany, a small southern extension of the North German Basin characterised by Permian to Triassic sediments. Our data sets consist of three reflection seismic lines acquired within the framework of the multidisciplinary project INFLUINS (INtegrated FLUid dynamics IN Sedimentary basins) and as site survey for deep drilling, geophysical logging data from a 1,179 m deep drill hole in the centre of the Thuringian Basin, and Multi Sensor Core Logger (MSCL) data of the cores recovered from this drill hole. Geophysical borehole logging was performed immediate after drilling on the highest vertical resolution (about 10 cm) possible using state of the art commercial logging tools. MSCL-data were acquired at an even higher resolution of about 1 to 2 cm , which enables both, calibrating logging data and zooming in the spatial heterogeneity of physical properties. These measurements are complemented with laboratory measurements of rock physical properties (e.g. thermal conductivity, permeability) using selected core samples. Here, we mainly focus on seismic (sonic velocity, density) and hydraulic (porosity, permeability) parameters. This multi-methodological approach allows us on the one hand to estimate improved local to regional average values for physical parameters but most importantly also to highlight the role of thin layers, the physical

  11. Geochemistry of pore waters from Shell Oil Company drill holes on the continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, F. T.; Bischoff, J.L.

    1969-01-01

    Pore waters were analyzed from 6 holes drilled from M.V. "Eureka" as a part of the Shell Oil Co. deeper offshore study. The holes were drilled in water depths of 600-3,000 ft. (approximately 180-550 m) and penetrated up to 1,000 ft. (300 m) of Pliocene-Recent clayey sediments. Salt and anhydrite caprock was encountered in one diapiric structure on the continental slope. Samples from holes drilled near diapiric structures showed systematic increases of pore-water salinity with depth, suggestive of salt diffusion from underlying salt plugs. Anomalous concentrations of K and Br indicate that at least one plug contains late-stage evaporite minerals. Salinities approaching halite saturation were observed. Samples from holes away from diapiric structures showed little change in pore-water chemistry, except for loss of SO4 and other variations attributable to early-stage diagenetic reactions with enclosing sediments. Thus, increased salt concentrations in even shallow sediments from this part of the Gulf appear to provide an indicator of salt masses at depth. ?? 1969.

  12. The Case for Scientific Drilling of Precambrian Sedimentary Sequences: A Mission to Early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buick, R.; Anbar, A. D.; Mojzsis, S. J.; Kaufman, A. J.; Kieft, T. L.; Lyons, T. W.; Humayun, M.

    2001-12-01

    Research into the emergence and early evolution of life, particularly in relation to environmental conditions, has intensified in the past decade. The field is energized by controversy (e.g., over the history of atmospheric composition, ocean redox, climate and biochemical pathways) and by the application of new biogeochemical tools (e.g., ion probe in situ stable isotope studies; improved geochronological techniques; non-mass-dependent stable isotope effects; stable metal isotope systematics; advances in organic geochemistry/biomarkers). The past decade has also seen improved understanding of old tools (notably, S isotopes), and new perspectives on evolution and on microbial interaction with the environment borne of the genomics revolution. Recent papers demonstrate the potential for innovative research when such developments are integrated, as well as the limitations of present knowledge. The chief limiting factor is not lack of scientists or advanced techniques, but availability of fresh samples from suitable successions. Where classic Precambrian stratigraphy exists, suitable rocks are rarely exposed due to interaction with the oxidizing atmosphere, occurrence of flat-lying strata or sedimentary cover. Available drill-cores are concentrated around ore bodies, and hence are inherently altered or not environmentally representative. Stratigraphic drilling using clean diamond drilling techniques, targeted in accord with scientific priorities, could provide samples of unmatched quality across the most interesting stratigraphic intervals. Diamond drilling is a proven, inexpensive technology for accessing subsurface material. The time is ripe to use this technology to secure the materials needed for further advances. The Mission to Early Earth (MtEE) Focus Group of the NASA Astrobiology Institute is developing a case for the acquisition, curation and distribution of suitable samples, with a special focus on diamond drilling. A communal activity is envisioned, modeled

  13. Ocean Drilling Program: Recent highlights and future expeditions

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, P.D. . Ocean Drilling Program)

    1994-04-01

    During the past year, exploration of the deep ocean floor through scientific ocean drilling has yielded important results with respect to evolution of ocean crust and continental margins and paleoceanography. This paper describes the Ocean Drilling Program's (ODP's) scientific and technical achievements during its ninth year of field operations and discusses areas of future study.

  14. Problems of deep drilling in abnormally pressured zones of the Kara Sea continental shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Simonov, V.I.

    1996-12-31

    There are discussed results of drilling operations in shelf hydrocarbon areas of the Far North of Tyumen Region (Kharassavieskaya, Bovanenkovskaya and Krusenshternskaya ones) and on the Bely Island. The author describes equipment and technologies used, problems arising in the process of operations and possible ways of solving them. Application of the results discussed in the report seems rather attractive in connection with possible realization of joint projects on development of the mentioned areas. Thus, Amoco Eurasia plans to participate in development of Bovanenkovskoye and Novoportovskoye fields. Well planning for Amoco has been done of specialists of ZapSibBurNIPI. Experience of Russian drilling companies in the Yamal area (Far North of Tyumen Region) has proved that well planning for shelf areas requires special attention as drilling-in both overpressured zones (Bovanenkovskoye field) and underpressured ones (Novoportovskoye field) is done actually in balance. Investigated are reasons for such drilling problems as kicks and lost circulation. Taking them into consideration will help to decrease considerably the cost of well drilling in shelf areas.

  15. Growth History Of Unzen Volcano, Kyushu, Japan _| Results of Two Flank Drillings of Unzen Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshizumi, H.; Uto, K.; Matsumoto, A.; Kurihara, A.

    2004-12-01

    Unzen volcano is an active volcano composed of lava domes, thick lava flows and pyroclastic deposits of hornblende andesite to dacite. Tectonically active Unzen graben dissects volcanic edifices of the volcano. During the phase I of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP), two drillings were conducted at the northeastern (USDP-1: 752 m depth) and eastern (USDP-2: 1463 m depth) flanks of the volcano, respectively, to fully recover accumulated deposits of the volcano hidden beneath the younger eruptives. Extensive K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar age determinations have also been conducted on both surface rocks and drilling cores. Unzen volcano starts to grow at 0.5 Ma above the Pre-Unzen pyroxene andesite (0.5-0.8 Ma). Unzen volcano has been divided into three volcanic stages, Early and Late stages of the Older Unzen and the Younger Unzen. The Early stage of the Older Unzen (0.3-0.5 Ma) products consist of pumice-rich pyroclastic flows, block and ash flows, associated volcaniclastic debris flows and thick lava flows. The north- and south-dipping fans spreading outside the graben are sharply cut by the faults. This suggests that Unzen volcano grew rapidly in the first 200,000 years of its history and formed a conical volcanic edifice. The Late stage of the Older Unzen (0.15-0.3 Ma) products mainly fill in the graben. In the western half of the deposits of this stage, thick lava flows cover widely inside the Unzen graben. On the other hand, thick alternated piles of pyroclastic deposits were recovered both from USDP-1 and -2 cores. In the USDP-2 core, phreatomagmatic deposits about 250 m thick with essentially abundant glass materials of ca. 0.3 Ma. These findings suggest that rapid subsidence of the Unzen graben at around 0.3-0.2 Ma led strong interaction between the magma and groundwater. Younger Unzen volcano (0-0.15Ma) is composed of four edifices, Nodake, Myokendake, Fugen-dake and Mayuyama volcanoes, all locate in the eastern half of Unzen volcano. Block-and-ash flow

  16. Using Deep-Sea Scientific Drilling to Enhance Ocean Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, Michael; Cooper, Sharon; Kurtz, Nicole; Burgio, Marion; Cicconi, Alessia

    2017-04-01

    Beginning with confirmation of sea floor spreading in Leg 3 of the Deep Sea Drilling Project in 1968, scientific ocean drilling has provided much of the evidence supporting modern understanding of the Earth System, global climate changes, and many other important concepts. But for more than three decades, results of discoveries were published primarily in scientific journals and cruise volumes. On occasion, science journalists would write articles for the general public, but organized educational outreach efforts were rare. Starting about a decade ago, educators were included in the scientific party aboard the JOIDES Resolution. These "teachers-at-sea" developed formats to translate the technical and scientific activities into language understandable to students, teachers, and the public. Several "Schools of Rock" have enabled groups of teachers and informal science educators to experience what happens aboard the JOIDES Resolution. Over the past few years, educational outreach efforts based on scientific drilling expanded to create a large body of resources that promote Ocean Science Literacy. Partnerships between scientists and educators have produced a searchable database of inquiry-centered classroom and informal science activities. These are available for free through the JOIDES Resolution website, joidesresolution.org. Activities are aligned with the Ocean Literacy Principles (http://oceanliteracy.wp2.coexploration.org/) and Science Education Standards. In addition to a suite of lessons based on the science behind scientific drilling, participants have developed a range of educational resources that include graphic novels ("Tales of the Resolution" (http://joidesresolution.org/node/263) ; children's books ("Uncovering Earth's Secrets" and "Where the Wild Microbes Grow" http://joidesresolution.org/node/2998); posters, videos, and other materials. Cooper and Kurtz are currently overseeing improvements and revisions to the JR education website pages. The

  17. A national drilling program to study the roots of active hydrothermal systems related to young magmatic intrusions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    The importance of studies of active hydrothermal-magma systems as part of a national continental scientific drilling program has been emphasized in numerous workshops and symposia. The present report, prepared by the Panel on Thermal Regimes of the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee, both reinforces and expands on earlier recommendations. The US Geodynamics Committee 1979 report of the Los Almos workshop, Continental Scientific Drilling Program, placed major emphasis on maximizing the scientific value of current and planned drilling by industry and government, supplementing these efforts with holes drilled solely for scientific purposes. Although the present report notes the importance of opportunities for scientific investigations that may be added on to current, mission-oriented drilling activities, the Panel on Thermal Regimes recognizes that such opportunities are limited and thus focused its study on holes dedicated to broad scientific objectives. 16 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. PROMESS 1: Past Global Changes Investigated by Drilling Mediterranean Continental Margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, S.

    2004-12-01

    Between June, 24th and July, 22nd, 2004, a team of European scientists embarked from Brindisi (Italy) to Barcelona (Spain) onboard the Russian vessel "Bavenit", operated by the Dutch geotechnical company FUGRO, for a drilling expedition in the Adriatic Sea and the NW Mediterranean Sea. The purpose of this cruise was to collect long sediment sections and in situ measurements from two deltaic margins where the history of global changes during the last ca. 400 kyr is particularly well preserved. In the Adriatic, two boreholes were drilled at site PRAD1 (water depth 184 m), where the objective was to study the record of the last 4 glacial cycles. A pilot hole was first drilled for assessing the risk of shallow gases, a downhole logging was carried out in this borehole. A second site allowed continuous coring to the targeted depth (71m below sea-floor) with excellent recovery (better than 95%). Very preliminary interpretation indicates that seismic sequences previously identified correspond to 100 kyr glacial cycles. Downhole logging and physical properties of cores allow to identify magnetic events, and tephras. Site PRAD2 was devoted to the study of the recent most sediments (last 12,000 yrs) near the coastline, at a water depth of 56m. The targeted depth was 32 m below sea floor, sufficient to obtain a good record for the last ca 12,000 years. All together, six boreholes were drilled at PRAD2, including a pilot hole, one for continuous sediment recovery, and additional holes for in situ geotechnical tests and sampling. One of the objectives of these tests is to determine whether the wavy features shaping the sedimentary sequences are caused by near-bottom currents or result from liquefaction of unstable sediments triggered by earthquakes or storms. Site PRGL1 in the Gulf of Lion is at 298 m water depth, and the targeted depth below sea floor was 300 m, allowing to reach an expected age of about 430 kyr BP. A pilot hole was drilled down to 310 mbsf, and logged. Two

  19. New roles of LWD and wireline logging in scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Y.; Kido, Y. N.; Moe, K.; Aoike, K.

    2014-12-01

    D/V Chikyu implemented by CDEX/JAMSTEC joined IODP from 2007. Various LWD (Logging While Drilling) and wireline logging have been carried out in many expeditions and for various purposes. Significant features of logging in Chikyu expeditions are many use of LWD than wireline logging, and riser dirlling. riser selected specific tools for each scientific target, and 3) carried out various borehole experiments. LWD has been more popular than wireline logging in Chikyu expeditions, because its advantages match theirs science targets. The advantages are followings. 1) LWD has more opportunities for measurement in unstable borehole, such as in the series of Nankai trough drilling expeditions. 2) LWD realtime data allows us to make realtime interpretation and operational decision. Realtime interpretation was required to set obsevartory at the properposition. 3) LWD before coring allows us to make a strategy of spot coring.We can design coring intervals for our interest and core length to improve core recovery.Riser drilling brings us merits for logging. One is hole stability (good hole condition) and the other is the use of large diameter tools. Controled drilling mud in riser drilling system prevent mud invasion to formation and mitigates collapse of borehole wall. They reduce the risk of tool stack and improve data quality. Large diameter of riser pipe enhances variation of tool seizes. A couple of new tools were used for new measurement and improvement of the data quality. For example, SonicScanner (trademark of Schulumberger) successfully measured compressional and share velocity in very low velocities at the soft sediment, where it has been difficult to measure them with conventional DSI tool (Exp319). The stress and pore pressure in the borehole were measured with the wireline logging tool, (Schlumberger MDT). The single probe tool enable to measure temporal formation fluid pressure. The double packer tool enable to fracture test by sealing and pumping in the

  20. Episodic uplifting, erosion and sedimentation of Taiwan, a possible target of scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.; Lin, A. T.; Liu, C. S.; Saito, S.

    2016-12-01

    Taiwan has been known as of high uplift rate and the uplifted mountain region provides huge amount of sediments that buries carbon in the surrounding oceanic basins. The uplifting process has been episodic, suggested by several evidences, and this may be associated with episodic accretion and collision process at the eastern and western margins offshore Taiwan. If the uplift is produced as a pop-up structure between these two convergent margins, strength of the two detachment zones may play a key role to determine the uplifting amount. We will introduce outline of our potential targets of offshore scientific drilling to examine such hypothesis, based on our interpretation of seismic profiles.

  1. Integrated core-log interpretation of Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project borehole 4 (WFSD-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konaté, Ahmed Amara; Pan, Heping; Ma, Huolin; Qin, Zhen; Traoré, Alhouseiny

    2017-07-01

    Understanding slip behavior of active fault is a fundamental problem in earthquake investigations. Well logs and cores data provide direct information of physical properties of the fault zones at depth. The geological exploration of the Wenchuan earthquake Scientific Fault drilling project (WFSD) targeted the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault and the Guanxian Anxian fault, respectively. Five boreholes (WFSD-1, WFSD-2, WFSD-3P WFSD-3 and WFSD-4) were drilled and logged with geophysical tools developed for the use in petroleum industry. WFSD-1, WFSD-2 and WFSD-3 in situ logging data have been reported and investigated by geoscientists. Here we present for the first time, the integrated core-log studies in the Northern segment of Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (WFSD-4) thereby characterizing the physical properties of the lithologies(original rocks), fault rocks and the presumed slip zone associated with the Wenchuan earthquake. We also present results from the comparison of WFSD-4 to those obtained from WFSD-1, WFSD-3 and other drilling hole in active faults. This study show that integrated core-log study would help in understanding the slip behavior of active fault.

  2. Constraining Crustal Anisotropy by Receiver Functions at the Deep Continental Drilling Site KTB in Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Irene; Qorbani, Ehsan; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    As one of the rare observational tools for studying deformation and stress within the Earth, seismic anisotropy has been one of the focuses of geophysical studies over the last decade. In order to unravel the anisotropic properties of the crust, the teleseismic receiver functions (RF) methodology has started to be widely applied recently. Such effects of anisotropy on RF were illustrated in theoretical studies, showing the strong backazimuthal dependence of RF on the 3D characteristics of the media sampled by the waves. The use of teleseismic RF has the advantage of not being affected by a heterogeneous depth distribution of local earthquakes, since teleseismic rays sample the entire crust beneath the stations. The application of this technique however, needs to be critically assessed using a suitable field test. To test the technique, we need a crustal block where the underground structure is reasonably well-known, e.g., where there is extensive knowledge from local seismic experiments and drilling. A field experiment has thus been carried out around the KTB (Kontinental Tiefbohrung) site in the Oberpfalz area in Southeastern Germany, in order to compare with previous results from deep drilling, and high-frequency seismic experiments around the drill site. The investigated region has been studied extensively by local geophysical experiments, and geological studies. The deep borehole was placed into gneiss rocks of the Zone Erbendorf-Vohenstrauss. The drilling activity lasted from 1987 to 1994, and descended down to a depth of 9101 meters, sampling an alternating sequence of paragneiss and amphibolite, with metamorphism of upper amphibolite facies conditions, and ductile deformation produced a strong foliation of the rocks. The application of the RFs reveals strong seismic anisotropy in the upper crust related to the so-called Erbendorf body. The SKS shear-wave splitting method has been applied as well, revealing coherent results for the whole region with exception

  3. International Collaboration in Data Management for Scientific Ocean Drilling: Preserving Legacy Data While Implementing New Requirements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, F. R.

    2005-12-01

    The Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP: 2003-2013 initial phase) is the successor to the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP: 1968-1983) and the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP: 1985-2003). These earlier scientific drilling programs amassed collections of sediment and rock cores (over 300 kilometers stored in four repositories) and data organized in distributed databases and in print or electronic publications. International members of the IODP have established, through memoranda, the right to have access to: (1) all data, samples, scientific and technical results, all engineering plans, data or other information produced under contract to the program; and, (2) all data from geophysical and other site surveys performed in support of the program which are used for drilling planning. The challenge that faces the individual platform operators and management of IODP is to find the right balance and appropriate synergies among the needs, expectations and requirements of stakeholders. The evolving model for IODP database services consists of the management and integration of data collected onboard the various IODP platforms (including downhole logging and syn-cruise site survey information), legacy data from DSDP and ODP, data derived from post-cruise research and publications, and other IODP-relevant information types, to form a common, program-wide IODP information system (e.g., IODP Portal) which will be accessible to both researchers and the public. The JANUS relational database of ODP was introduced in 1997 and the bulk of ODP shipboard data has been migrated into this system, which is comprised of a relational data model consisting of over 450 tables. The JANUS database includes paleontological, lithostratigraphic, chemical, physical, sedimentological, and geophysical data from a global distribution of sites. For ODP Legs 100 through 210, and including IODP Expeditions 301 through 308, JANUS has been used to store data from 233,835 meters of core recovered, which are

  4. Open Core Data: Connecting scientific drilling data to scientists and community data resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fils, D.; Noren, A. J.; Lehnert, K.; Diver, P.

    2016-12-01

    Open Core Data (OCD) is an innovative, efficient, and scalable infrastructure for data generated by scientific drilling and coring to improve discoverability, accessibility, citability, and preservation of data from the oceans and continents. OCD is building on existing community data resources that manage, store, publish, and preserve scientific drilling data, filling a critical void that currently prevents linkages between these and other data systems and tools to realize the full potential of data generated through drilling and coring. We are developing this functionality through Linked Open Data (LOD) and semantic patterns that enable data access through the use of community ontologies such as GeoLink (geolink.org, an EarthCube Building Block), a collection of protocols, formats and vocabularies from a set of participating geoscience repositories. Common shared concepts of classes such as cruise, dataset, person and others allow easier resolution of common references through shared resource IDs. These graphs are then made available via SPARQL as well as incorporated into web pages following schema.org approaches. Additionally the W3C PROV vocabulary is under evaluation for use for documentation of provenance. Further, the application of persistent identifiers for samples (IGSNs); datasets, expeditions, and projects (DOIs); and people (ORCIDs), combined with LOD approaches, provides methods to resolve and incorporate metadata and datasets. Application Program Interfaces (APIs) complement these semantic approaches to the OCD data holdings. APIs are exposed following the Swagger guidelines (swagger.io) and will be evolved into the OpenAPI (openapis.org) approach. Currently APIs are in development for the NSF funded Flyover Country mobile geoscience app (fc.umn.edu), the Neotoma Paleoecology Database (neotomadb.org), Magnetics Information Consortium (MagIC; earthref.org/MagIC), and other community tools and data systems, as well as for internal OCD use.

  5. Participation in the Creede Scientific Drilling Project as on-site Principal Investigator. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.

    1992-06-01

    Scientific questions addressed by the Creede Scientific Drilling Project were as follows (Bethke et al., 1992): (1) Did the lacustrine sedimentary sequence filling the moat of Creede caldera serve as reservoir for the moderately-saline aqueous fluids which scavenged and then transported silver and base metals to ore-depositional sites for the rich epithermal deposits of the Creede mining district (Fig. 1)?; (2) what were the chemical and isotopic compositions of these fluids prior to their entry into the Creede fracture (later vein) system; (3) how did these chemical and isotopic compositions evolve in transit to the ore-depositional site?; (4) how did the Creede caldera form and evolve?; (5) what is the present thermal regime in Creede caldera moat? {hor_ellipsis}the, paleothermal regime?; (5) what are the hydrologic transport properties of the moat sedimentary rocks?; (6) what diagenetic or hydrothermal veins disrupt the moat sedimentary sequence, and what do their paragenetic relationships, mineralogic compositions, fluid-inclusion characteristics, and stable-isotope systematics reveal about evolution of the Creede hydrothermal system? Two Creede caldera moat drill holes were completed for this project.

  6. Participation in the Creede Scientific Drilling Project as on-site Principal Investigator

    SciTech Connect

    Hulen, J.B.

    1992-06-01

    Scientific questions addressed by the Creede Scientific Drilling Project were as follows (Bethke et al., 1992): (1) Did the lacustrine sedimentary sequence filling the moat of Creede caldera serve as reservoir for the moderately-saline aqueous fluids which scavenged and then transported silver and base metals to ore-depositional sites for the rich epithermal deposits of the Creede mining district (Fig. 1) ; (2) what were the chemical and isotopic compositions of these fluids prior to their entry into the Creede fracture (later vein) system; (3) how did these chemical and isotopic compositions evolve in transit to the ore-depositional site ; (4) how did the Creede caldera form and evolve ; (5) what is the present thermal regime in Creede caldera moat [hor ellipsis]the, paleothermal regime ; (5) what are the hydrologic transport properties of the moat sedimentary rocks ; (6) what diagenetic or hydrothermal veins disrupt the moat sedimentary sequence, and what do their paragenetic relationships, mineralogic compositions, fluid-inclusion characteristics, and stable-isotope systematics reveal about evolution of the Creede hydrothermal system Two Creede caldera moat drill holes were completed for this project.

  7. Drilling's value stressed at hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A Senate subcommittee recently heard testimony from government, university, and industry geoscientists in support of a bill that would formalize the planning and coordination of continental scientific drilling. Among the reasons given in favor of the bill by the 13 witnesses at the July 24, 1986, hearing were the possible benefits of a continental drilling program for our understanding of the history of the earth's crust, the origins of mineral and energy resources, the mechanisms of earthquakes and volcanos, and the migration of toxic wastes. The hearing was held by the Subcommittee on Natural Resources Development and Production, chaired by Sen. John W. Warner (R-Va.).

  8. First Riser Logging in Scientific Ocean Drilling: Operational Planning and results/reality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Yoshinori; Kyaw Thu, Moe; Kido, Yukari; Kawamura, Yoshihisa; Hino, Ryota; Eguchi, Nabuhisa; Toczko, Sean; Takahashi, Kyoma; 319 Science Party, Iodp

    2010-05-01

    distribution. The 16 sets of the no planned 3-C geophone are clumped with 15m spacing at ~1300-1600mbsf in the cased C0009 hole by Chikyu. Eight OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer)s deployed at the seafloor. JAMSTEC R/V Kairei shot along 53km line (maximum offset from the hole is ~30km) and round 3.5km circle with 16-array tuned air-gun. Zero-offset VSP was conducted to measure velocity and create seismogram along the well as well. Using high resolution data obtained from the equipment, detailed structural interpretation, anisotropy analysis, and shear velocity analysis are being carried out. Riser drilling takes not only operational advantages such as deeper and safety hole, but also scientific advantage such as increasing measurement items which has never done in riserless drilling and improving data quality. It enlarge the options to approach new discovery and Science.

  9. Corganiser: a web-based software tool for planning time-sensitive sampling of whole rounds during scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, I. P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Corganiser is a software tool developed to simplify the process of preparing whole-round sampling plans for time-sensitive microbiology and geochemistry sampling during scientific drilling. It was developed during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 347, but is designed to work with a wide range of core and section configurations and can thus be used in future drilling projects. Corganiser is written in the Python programming language and is implemented both as a graphical web interface and command-line interface. It can be accessed online at http://130.226.247.137/.

  10. Real time drilling mud gas response to small-moderate earthquakes in Wenchuan earthquake Scientific Drilling Hole-1 in SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Zheng; Li, Haibing; Tang, Lijun; Lao, Changling; Zhang, Lei; Li, Li

    2017-05-01

    We investigated the real time drilling mud gas of the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Hole-1 and their responses to 3918 small-moderate aftershocks happened in the Longmenshan fault zone. Gas profiles for Ar, CH4, He, 222Rn, CO2, H2, N2, O2 are obtained. Seismic wave amplitude, energy density and static strain are calculated to evaluate their power of influence to the drilling site. Mud gases two hours before and after each earthquake are carefully analyzed. In total, 25 aftershocks have major mud gas response, the mud gas concentrations vary dramatically immediately or minutes after the earthquakes. Different gas species respond to earthquakes in different manners according to local lithology encountered during the drill. The gas variations are likely controlled by dynamic stress changes, rather than static stress changes. They have the seismic energy density between 10-5 and 1.0 J/m3 whereas the static strain are mostly less than 10-8. We suggest that the limitation of the gas sources and the high hydraulic diffusivity of the newly ruptured fault zone could have inhibited the drilling mud gas behaviors, they are only able to respond to a small portion of the aftershocks. This work is important for the understanding of earthquake related hydrological changes.

  11. Scientific results of the Second Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition in the Ulleung Basin (UBGH2)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryu, Byong-Jae; Collett, Timothy S.; Riedel, Michael; Kim, Gil-Young; Chun, Jong-Hwa; Bahk, Jang-Jun; Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Yoo, Dong-Geun

    2013-01-01

    As a part of Korean National Gas Hydrate Program, the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) was conducted from 9 July to 30 September, 2010 in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea, offshore Korea using the D/V Fugro Synergy. The UBGH2 was performed to understand the distribution of gas hydrates as required for a resource assessment and to find potential candidate sites suitable for a future offshore production test, especially targeting gas hydrate-bearing sand bodies in the basin. The UBGH2 sites were distributed across most of the basin and were selected to target mainly sand-rich turbidite deposits. The 84-day long expedition consisted of two phases. The first phase included logging-while-drilling/measurements-while-drilling (LWD/MWD) operations at 13 sites. During the second phase, sediment cores were collected from 18 holes at 10 of the 13 LWD/MWD sites. Wireline logging (WL) and vertical seismic profile (VSP) data were also acquired after coring operations at two of these 10 sites. In addition, seafloor visual observation, methane sensing, as well as push-coring and sampling using a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) were conducted during both phases of the expedition. Recovered gas hydrates occurred either as pore-filling medium associated with discrete turbidite sand layers, or as fracture-filling veins and nodules in muddy sediments. Gas analyses indicated that the methane within the sampled gas hydrates is primarily of biogenic origin. This paper provides a summary of the operational and scientific results of the UBGH2 expedition as described in 24 papers that make up this special issue of the Journal of Marine and Petroleum Geology.

  12. Groundmass crystallization in dacite dykes taken in Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP-4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Satoshi; Toramaru, Atsushi; Nakada, Setsuya

    2008-07-01

    Groundmass textural and compositional analyses of the drilled dacite dykes of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP-4) identify the feeder dyke of the 1990-1995 eruption and elucidate the crystallization process of dykes at depth. In the drilling depth range of 1582-1996 m ("conduit zone"), four dacite dykes were recognized. The groundmasses of all but one of these dykes have textures ranging from cryptocrystalline to microcrystalline aggregate of crystals < 10 µm across forming an equigranular mosaic of plagioclase, alkali feldspar, quartz, and pyrite. The samples include a small number of coarser-grained plagioclase microlites (20 µm to 0.3 mm long). The compositions of groundmass consisting only of grains < 10 µm plotted at the lower pressure (< 50 MPa) ternary minimum in the Qz'-Ab'-Or' system suggests that the crystallization of plagioclase, alkali feldspar, and quartz took place nearly simultaneously. The compositions of coarser plagioclase microlites and groundmass, the plagioclase microlite textures, and the phenocryst assemblages show significant differences from historical lavas exposed in the summit area. This implies the possibility that most of the dacite dykes are not feeder dykes for the lavas at the summit and remained beneath the surface, perhaps because of high viscosity associated with high SiO 2. One sample C14-1-1 collected 1977 m, has a texture, composition, and phenocryst assemblage nearly identical to that of the dome lava of the 1990-1995 eruption, differing only in the presence of hydrothermal alternation. At this time we cannot definitely conclude that C14-1-1 was the feeder dyke for the 1990-1995 eruption until we can elucidate the time scale and the conditions governing hydrothermal alternation.

  13. Thermal regime of the State 2-14 well, Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Priest, S.S.; Duda, L.E.; Carson, C.C.; Hendricks, J.D.; Robison, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Temperature logs were made repeatedly during breaks in drilling and both during and after flow tests in the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project well (State 2-14). The purpose of these logs was to assist in identifying zones of fluid loss or gain and to characterize reservoir temperatures. At the conclusion of the active phase of the project, a series of logs was begun in an attempt to establish the equilibrium temperature profile. Thermal gradients decrease from about 250 mK m-1 in the upper few hundred meters to just below 200 mK m-1 near the base of the conductive cap. Using one interpretation, thermal conductivities increase with depth (mainly because of decreasing porosity), resulting in component heat flows that agree reasonably well with the mean of about 450 mW m-2. This value agrees well with heat flow data from the shallow wells within the Salton Sea geothermal field. A second interpretation, in which measured temperature coefficients of quartz- and carbonate-rich rocks are used to correct thermal conductivity, results in lower mean conductivities that are roughly constant with depth and, consequently, systematically decreasing heat flux averaging about 350 mW m-2 below 300 m. This interpretation is consistent with the inference (from fluid inclusion studies) that the rocks in this part of the field were once several tens of degrees Celsius hotter than they are now. The age of this possible disturbance is estimated at a few thousand years. -from Authors

  14. Chemistry and geothermometry of brine produced from the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, J.M.; Fournier, R.O.

    1988-01-01

    The December 29-30, 1985, flow test of the State 2-14 well, also known as the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, produced fluid from a depth of 1865-1877 m at a reservoir temperature of 305????5??C. Samples were collected at five different flashing pressures. The brines are Na-Ca-K-Cl-type waters with very high metal and low SO4 and HCO3 contents. Compositions of the flashed brines were normalized relative to the 25??C densities of the solutions, and an ionic charge balance was achieved by adjusting the Na concentration. Calculated Na/K geothermometer temperatures, using equations suggested by different investigators, range from 326?? to 364??C. The Mg/K2 method gives a temperature of about 350??C, Mg/Li2 about 282??, and Na/Li 395??-418??C. -from Authors

  15. Borehole Gravity Measurements In The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program Well State 2-14

    SciTech Connect

    Kasameyer, P. W.; Hearst, J. R.

    1987-01-01

    Borehole gravity measurements over a depth range from 1737 to 1027 m, and the vertical gradient of gravity were measured at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program well State 2-14. The borehole gravimetric densities matched the well logs, but the surface gradient was found to be 0.0040 mgal/m higher than expected. When the borehole observations are corrected for the observed free air gradient above ground, they produce densities which are nearly uniformly higher than log densities by about 0.07 gm/cm{sup 3}. These measurements require densities in the depth range .5 to 3 km, for a radius of a few kilometers around State 2-14 to be as dense as those found in State 2-14. Combining the borehole gravity and calculated vertical gravity gradients on the surface, we find that this densified zone covers much of a broad thermal anomaly to the northeast of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field.

  16. Scientific Objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate JIP Leg II Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.; Latham, T.; McConnell, D.; Frye, M.; Hunt, J.; Shedd, W.; Shelander, D.; Boswell, R.M.; Rose, K.K.; Ruppel, C.; Hutchinson, D.; Collett, T.; Dugan, B.; Wood, W.

    2008-05-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Methane Hydrate Joint Industry Project (JIP) has been performing research on marine gas hydrates since 2001 and is sponsored by both the JIP members and the U.S. Department of Energy. In 2005, the JIP drilled the Atwater Valley and Keathley Canyon exploration blocks in the Gulf of Mexico to acquire downhole logs and recover cores in silt- and clay-dominated sediments interpreted to contain gas hydrate based on analysis of existing 3-D seismic data prior to drilling. The new 2007-2009 phase of logging and coring, which is described in this paper, will concentrate on gas hydrate-bearing sands in the Alaminos Canyon, Green Canyon, and Walker Ridge protraction areas. Locations were selected to target higher permeability, coarser-grained lithologies (e.g., sands) that have the potential for hosting high saturations of gas hydrate and to assist the U.S. Minerals Management Service with its assessment of gas hydrate resources in the Gulf of Mexico. This paper discusses the scientific objectives for drilling during the upcoming campaign and presents the results from analyzing existing seismic and well log data as part of the site selection process. Alaminos Canyon 818 has the most complete data set of the selected blocks, with both seismic data and comprehensive downhole log data consistent with the occurrence of gas hydrate-bearing sands. Preliminary analyses suggest that the Frio sandstone just above the base of the gas hydrate stability zone may have up to 80% of the available sediment pore space occupied by gas hydrate. The proposed sites in the Green Canyon and Walker Ridge areas are also interpreted to have gas hydrate-bearing sands near the base of the gas hydrate stability zone, but the choice of specific drill sites is not yet complete. The Green Canyon site coincides with a 4-way closure within a Pleistocene sand unit in an area of strong gas flux just south of the Sigsbee Escarpment. The Walker Ridge site is characterized by a sand

  17. Bacteria Community in the Terrestrial Deep Subsurface Microbiology Research of the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Xia, Y.; Dong, H.; Dong, X.; Yang, K.; Dong, Z.; Huang, L.

    2005-12-01

    Microbial communities in the deep drill cores from the Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling were analyzed with culture-independent and dependent techniques. Genomic DNA was extracted from two metamorphic rocks: S1 from 430 and S13 from 1033 meters below the ground surface. The 16S rRNA gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by cloning and sequencing. The total cell number was counted using the 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and biomass of two specific bacteria were quantified using real-time PCR. Enrichment was set up for a rock from 3911 meters below the surface in medium for authotrophic methanogens (i.e., CO2 + H2). The total cell number in S13 was 1.0 × 104 cells per gram of rock. 16S rRNA gene analysis indicated that low G + C Gram positive sequences were dominant (50 percent of all 54 clone sequenced) followed by the alpha-, beta, and gamma-Proteobacteria. Within the low G + C Gram positive bacteria, most clone sequences were similar to species of Bacillus from various natural environments (deserts, rivers etc.). Within the Proteobacteria, our clone sequences were similar to species of Acinetobacter, Acidovorax, and Aeromonas. The RT-RCP results showed that biomass of two particular clone sequences (CCSD1305, similar to Aeromonas caviae and CCSD1307, similar to Acidovorax facilis) was 95 and 1258 cells/g, respectively. A bacterial isolate was obtained from the 3911-m rock in methanogenic medium. It was Gram negative with no flagella, immobile, and facultative anaerobic, and grows optimally at 65oC. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that it was closely related to the genus of Bacillus. Physiological tests further revealed that it was a strain of Bacillus caldotenax.

  18. Deep observation and sampling of the earth's continental crust (DOSECC). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    The need to validate and refine concepts regarding the structure, properties, and dynamic processes of the earth's continental crust through the use of the drill was the subject of the workshop sponsored by DOSECC, Inc. and held April 29 through May 1, 1985 in Houston, Texas and attended by more than 145 scientists. Scientific objectives and targets for a program of research drilling as part of basic studies of the continental lithosphere were discussed, with over 30 scientific proposals presented. Individual drilling proposals were grouped under several themes; basement structures and deep continental basins, active fault zones, thermal regimes and fossil mineralized hydrothermal/magma systems.

  19. Scientific Deep Drilling to Study Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes at Koyna, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. K.; Sen, M.; Rao, P. N.; Dodla, S.; Kothamasu, M.; Roy, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Koyna region near the west coast of India is the premier site of Reservoir Triggered Seismicity (RTS), where triggered earthquakes have been occurring in a restricted area of 20x30 km2 since the impoundment of Shivajisagar Lake in 1962. These include the largest triggered earthquake of M~6.3 on Dec 10 1967, 22 earthquakes of M≥5, about 200 earthquakes of M~4, and several thousand smaller earthquakes. The RTS was further enhanced by impoundment of the nearby located Warna reservoir in 1985. The seismic zone is quite isolated with no other source of activity within 50 km of the Koyna dam. The seismicity distribution during the past ~5 years defines two seismic zones in the area, each about 10 km long, relatively narrow (~2 km) and shallow (6-8 km). The earthquake activity is governed by the annual water cycle, increasing in response to the rapid filling of the reservoirs during the monsoon rains as well as the post-monsoon unloading cycle. We plan to carry out scientific deep drilling in the seismic zone. A borehole penetrating the Deccan Traps cover and reaching the focal depths (~7 km) in the granitic basement is envisaged. This will provide a unique opportunity to directly measure the physical and mechanical properties of rocks, pore fluid pressure, hydrology, temperature, and other parameters of an intra-plate active fault zone in the "near-field" of earthquakes, before during and after their occurrence. Down hole measurements complemented by observations on cores and cuttings, analyses of fluid and gas samples, geophysical and geological characterization studies including fault zone monitoring would help answer questions related to the genesis of RTS. Precursory parameters obtained from continuous monitoring of deep, in-situ measurements may help in formulating a comprehensive earthquake model for RTS sites in general and the Koyna region in particular. A preparatory phase of investigations including compilation of existing datasets, acquisition of new

  20. From Arctic greenhouse to icehouse: the Cenozoic development of the West Greenland-Baffin Bay margin and the case for scientific drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutz, Paul; Gregersen, Ulrik; Hopper, John R.; Dybkjær, Karen; Nøhr-Hansen, Henrik; Sheldon, Emma; Huuse, Mads

    2016-04-01

    The long-term evolution of glaciated margins plays an essential role in understanding the driving forces and interactions that determine the build-up and decay of ice sheets. The Greenland continental margin towards Baffin Bay is densely covered by industry seismic data and several exploration wells have been drilled, providing a regional stratigraphic framework for the sedimentary successions. This presentation provides an overview of the major depositional units and stratigraphy of the mid-late Cenozoic (since mid-Eocene), with examples demonstrating the different processes that have formed this margin. A sedimentary succession up to 3.5 km thick, of mid-Eocene to mid-Miocene age (mega-unit D), infills the pronounced ridge-basin structures of the rifted and tectonically inverted margin. The lower part of this interval, presumably late Eocene-Oligocene in age, is interpreted as basin-floor fan deposits, while the upper section, of early-middle Miocene age, is mainly marine mudstone. The basin infilling strata are overlain by a late Miocene-Pliocene succession consisting of two mega-units (B and C), with typical thicknesses of 0.5-1 km. The units are characterised by upslope-climbing sediment waves and along-slope trending sedimentary prisms reminiscent of giant contourite drifts. The borehole data associates the prism accumulations with a deep shelf environment influenced by strong marine currents and nearby fluvial sources. On the slope and in the deep basin of Baffin Bay the late Neogene succession is strongly influenced by mass wasting correlated with erosional scars updip. The uppermost seismic mega-unit (A) is dominated by aggradational wedges and prograding fan deposits displaying depocentres >3 km thick, formed at the terminus of palaeo-ice streams. Borehole information associates this interval with deposition of primarily diamict sediments and suggests a late Pliocene onset of major shelf based glaciations on the NW Greenland margin. The southwest margin

  1. Seismic monitoring of the June, 1988 Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program flow/injection test

    SciTech Connect

    Jarpe, S.P.; Kasameyer, P.W.; Hutchings, L.J.; Hauk, T.F.

    1988-10-04

    The purpose of the seismic monitoring project was to characterize in detail the micro-seismic activity related to the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program (SSSDP) flow-injection test in the Salton Sea Geothermal Field. Our goal was to determine if any sources of seismic energy related to the test were observable at the surface. We deployed our recording stations so that we could detect and locate both impulsive microearthquakes and continuous seismic noise energy. Our network, which was sensitive enough to be triggered by magnitude 0.0 or larger events, found no impulsive microearthquakes in the vicinity of the flow test in the 8 month period before the test and only one event during the flow test. This event has provided the opportunity to compare the detection and location capabilities of small networks and arrays in a geothermal environment. At present, we are carefully scanning all of the data that we collected during the flow test for evidence of anomalous seismic noise sources and for impulsive events smaller than the network detection threshold (magnitude 0.0). 8 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Chemistry and Geothermometry of Brine Produced From the Salton Sea Scientific Drill Hole, Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, J. M.; Fournier, R. O.

    1988-11-01

    The December 29-30, 1985, flow test of the State 2-14 well, also known as the Salton Sea Scientific drill hole, produced fluid from a depth of 1865-1877 m at a reservoir temperature of 305° ± 5°C. Another flow test at a depth of 3170 m produced brine contaminated by drilling fluid and diesel oil. Therefore we focus on the first flow test. Samples were collected at five different flashing pressures. The brines are Na-Ca-K-Cl-type waters with very high metal and low SO4 and HCO3 contents. Compositions of the flashed brines were normalized relative to the 25°C densities of the solutions, and an ionic charge balance was achieved by adjusting the Na concentration. The composition of the preflashed reservoir fluid was calculated using enthalpy-chloride relations applied to the normalized and charge-balanced brines. The calculated total dissolved solids in the preflashed reservoir fluid ranges from about 24.8 wt %, assuming insignificant thermal losses from the erupting fluid before sampling, to 26.0 wt %, assuming a 10% enthalpy loss by conduction of thermal energy through casing and surface piping. The preferred total dissolved solids of the reservoir fluid is 25.05 wt %. The calculated specific density of the preflashed reservoir fluid at 305°C and 1870 m depth ranges from 0.9980 (no thermal loss prior to sampling) to 1.0107 ± 0.0023 g cm-3 (10% thermal loss). Of the various cation geothermometers that are now in common use, the Na-K-Ca method gives a temperature (310°C) closest to the measured temperature (305°C) in the production horizon. Calculated Na/K geothermometer temperatures, using equations suggested by different investigators, range from 326° to 364°C. The Mg/K2 method gives a temperature of about 350°C, Mg/Li2 about 282°, and Na/Li 395°-418°C.

  3. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  4. Deep Sea Drilling Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaneps, Ansis

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the goals of the ocean drilling under the International Phase of Ocean Drilling, which include sampling of the ocean crust at great depths and sampling of the sedimentary sequence of active and passive continental margins. (MLH)

  5. Preliminary report on geophysical well-logging activity on the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project, Imperial Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, R.H.; Hodges, H.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project has culminated in a 10,564-ft deep test well, State 2-14 well, in the Imperial Valley of southern California. A comprehensive scientific program of drilling, coring, and downhole measurements, which was conducted for about 5 months, has obtained much scientific information concerning the physical and chemical processes associated with an active hydrothermal system. This report primarily focuses on the geophysical logging activities at the State 2-14 well and provides early dissemination of geophysical data to other investigators working on complementary studies. Geophysical-log data were obtained by a commercial logging company and by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Most of the commercial logs were obtained during three visits to the site; only one commercial log was obtained below a depth of 6,000 ft. The commercial logs obtained were dual induction, natural gamma, compensated neutron formation density, caliper and sonic. The USGS logging effort consisted of four primary periods, with many logs extending below a depth of 6,000 ft. The USGS logs obtained were temperature, caliper, natural gamma, gamma spectral, epithermal neutron, acoustic velocity, full-waveform, and acoustic televiewer. Various problems occurred throughout the drilling phase of the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project that made successful logging difficult: (1) borehole constrictions, possibly resulting from mud coagulation, (2) maximum temperatures of about 300 C, and (3) borehole conditions unfavorable for logging because of numerous zones of fluid loss, cement plugs, and damage caused by repeated trips in and out of the hole. These factors hampered and compromised logging quality at several open-hole intervals. The quality of the logs was dependent on the degree of probe sophistication and sensitivity to borehole-wall conditions. Digitized logs presented were processed on site and are presented in increments of 1,000 ft. A summary of the numerous

  6. Scientific drilling into the San Andreas fault and site characterization research: Planning and coordination efforts. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Zoback, M.D.

    1998-08-30

    The fundamental scientific issue addressed in this proposal, obtaining an improved understanding of the physical and chemical processes responsible for earthquakes along major fault zones, is clearly of global scientific interest. By sampling the San Andreas fault zone and making direct measurements of fault zone properties to 4.0 km at Parkfield they will be studying an active plate-boundary fault at a depth where aseismic creep and small earthquakes occur and where a number of the scientific questions associated with deeper fault zone drilling can begin to be addressed. Also, the technological challenges associated with drilling, coring, downhole measurements and borehole instrumentation that may eventually have to be faced in deeper drilling can first be addressed at moderate depth and temperature in the Parkfield hole. Throughout the planning process leading to the development of this proposal they have invited participation by scientists from around the world. As a result, the workshops and meetings they have held for this project have involved about 350 scientists and engineers from about a dozen countries.

  7. Structure and stress state of Hawaiian island basalts penetrated by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project deep core hole

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morin, R.H.; Wilkens, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP), an exploratory hole was drilled in 1993 to a depth of 1056 meters below sea level (mbsl) and a deeper hole was drilled to 3098 mbsl in 1999. A set of geophysical well logs was obtained in the deeper hole that provides fundamental information regarding the structure and the state of stress that exist within a volcanic shield. The acoustic televiewer generates digital, magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall, and inspection of this log yields a continuous record of fracture orientation with depth and also with age to 540 ka. The data depict a clockwise rotation in fracture strike through the surficial Mauna Loa basalts that settles to a constant heading in the underlying Mauna Kea rocks. This behavior reflects the depositional slope directions of lavas and the locations of volcanic sources relative to the drill site. The deviation log delineates the trajectory of the well bore in three-dimensional space. This path closely follows changes in fracture orientation with depth as the drill bit is generally prodded perpendicular to fracture strike during the drilling process. Stress-induced breakouts observed in the televiewer log identify the orientations ot the maximum and minimum horizontal principal stresses to be north-south and east-west, respectively. This stress state is attributed to the combination of a sharp break in onshore-offshore slope that reduces stress east-west and the emergence of Kilauea that increases stress north-south. Breakouts are extensive and appear over approximately 30% of the open hole. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Physical rock properties in and around a conduit zone by well-logging in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project, Japan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikeda, R.; Kajiwara, T.; Omura, K.; Hickman, S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project (USDP) is not only to reveal the structure and eruption history of the Unzen volcano but also to clarify the ascent and degassing mechanisms of the magma conduit. Conduit drilling (USDP-4) was conducted in 2004, which targeted the magma conduit for the 1990-95 eruption. The total drilled length of USDP-4 was 1995.75??m. Geophysical well logging, including resistivity, gamma-ray, spontaneous potential, sonic-wave velocity, density, neutron porosity, and Fullbore Formation MicroImager (FMI), was conducted at each drilling stage. Variations in the physical properties of the rocks were revealed by the well-log data, which correlated with not only large-scale formation boundaries but also small-scale changes in lithology. Such variations were evident in the lava dike, pyroclastic rocks, and breccias over depth intervals ranging from 1 to 40??m. These data support previous models for structure of the lava conduit, in that they indicate the existence of alternating layers of high-resistivity and high P-wave velocity rocks corresponding to the lava dikes, in proximity to narrower zones exhibiting high porosity, low resistivity, and low P-wave velocity. These narrow, low-porosity zones are presumably higher in permeability than the adjacent rocks and may form preferential conduits for degassing during magma ascent. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  9. LITHOPROBE: a scientific update-new images of the continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clowes, Ron M.

    1990-02-01

    LITHOPROBE, Canada's national earth sciences research program which integrates geophysical, geological and geochemical investigations in a collaborative effort among scientists from universities, government and industry to extend and relate surface geology to structures at depth, is up and running. The Lithoprobe Secretariat is established at the University of British Columbia. The Lithoprobe Seismic Processing Facility (LSPF) for research reprocessing of Lithoprobe and related data is installed at the University of Calgary. Access by the Canadian research community will be available through remote site connections. All scientific aspects of the program are in operation and plans for the future are in hand. Some of the spectacular new images of continental crustal structures that have been obtained and their tectonic significance are highlighted in this summary. Individual contributions of specific studies by Lithoprobe scientists are included in this volume. Along the eastern portion of the Southern Cordillera Transect, 270 km of crustal reflection data acquired in 1985 and subsequent magnetotelluric results define the westward extent of autochthonous North American basement (truncated by the crustal scale east-dipping Slocan Lake fault zone), the thickening of Purcell Proterozoic supracrustal rocks by folding and thrusting and a major compressional shear zone underlying the Valhalla gneiss complex. In 1988, Seismic profiling was extended westward across the allochthonous terranes and plutonic complexes to the west coast. About 900 km of 60-fold, 18 s data were recorded by an industry contract crew; initial processing by contract is in progress. In our Appalachian transect, Lithoprobe East, more than 3000 km of marine crustal reflection data have been acquired around Newfoundland and in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Three deep crustal blocks, each of which exhibits a characteristic Seismic signature, can be traced through the region. Intracrustal reflectors on the

  10. Magnetic properties of cores from the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Hole-2 (WFSD-2), China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L., Jr.; Sun, Z.; Li, H.; Cao, Y.; Ye, X.; Wang, L.; Zhao, Y.; Han, S.

    2015-12-01

    During an earthquake, seismic slip and frictional heating may cause the physical and chemical alterations of magnetic minerals within the fault zone. Rock magnetism provides a method for understanding earthquake dynamics. The Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project (WFSD) started right after 2008 Mw7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, to investigate the earthquake faulting mechanism. Hole 2 (WFSD-2) is located in the Pengguan Complex in the Bajiaomiao village (Dujiangyan, Sichuan), and reached the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault (YBF). We measured the surface magnetic susceptibility of the cores in WFSD-2 from 500 m to 1530 m with an interval of 1 cm. Rocks at 500-599.31 m-depth and 1211.49-1530 m-depth are from the Neoproterozoic Pengguang Complex while the section from 599.31 m to 1211.49 m is composed of Late Triassic sediments. The magnetic susceptibility values of the first part of the Pengguan Complex range from 1 to 25 × 10-6 SI, while the second part ranges from 10 to 200 × 10-6 SI, which indicate that the two parts are not from the same rock units. The Late Triassic sedimentary rocks have a low magnetic susceptibility values, ranging from -5 to 20 × 10-6 SI. Most fault zones coincide with the high value of magnetic susceptibility in the WFSD-2 cores. Fault rocks, mainly fault breccia, cataclasite, gouge and pseudotachylite within the WFSD-2 cores, and mostly display a significantly higher magnetic susceptibility than host rocks (5:1 to 20:1). In particular, in the YBF zone of the WFSD-2 cores (from 600 to 960 m), dozens of stages with high values of magnetic susceptibility have been observed. The multi-layered fault rocks with high magnetic susceptibility values might indicate that the YBF is a long-term active fault. The magnetic susceptibility values change with different types of fault rocks. The gouge and pseudotachylite have higher values of magnetic susceptibility than other fault rocks. Other primary rock magnetism analyses were then performed to

  11. Geoscience Research Drilling Office Operations I: the North INYO Drilling Program, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P.

    1986-05-01

    The North Inyo Drilling Program was part of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program/Thermal Regimes and it was put forth by the Department of Energy/Office of Basic Energy Sciences to explore roots of a 600 year old volcanic system which is found in the north-west corner of Long Valley Caldera, California. The responsibility of the Geoscience Research Drilling Office was to provide logistical support to the scientific drilling team. This support consisted of obtaining the necessary permits, obtaining a drilling contract and providing field services involving logging and core handling/laboratory facilities. The first portion of this program was successful when hole RDO-2b traversed the conduit which fed Obsidian Dome; the second portion succeeded when RDO-3a traversed the dike underlying the Inyo Chain of volcanoes.

  12. Alteration of Basalt and Hyaloclastite in the Project Hotspot MHC-2 Core with Some Comparison to Hyaloclastites of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Program #2 (HSDP) Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, A. W.; Walker, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    Project Hotspot's 1821m coring operation at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho (MHC), sought to examine interaction of hotspot magmas with continental crust and evaluate geothermal resources. Subsurface temperature increased at a gradient of 76˚/km. Alteration was uniform and not intense over the upper part of the core and at the bottom, but differed markedly in an anomalous zone (AZ) from 1700 to 1800m. The MHC core contains diatomite, basalt lava and minor hyaloclastite. Olivine (Ol) in lavas is more-or-less altered to iddingsite. Plagioclase (Plag) has altered to smectite along cleavage planes and fractures except in the AZ, where it is intensely altered to corrensite. Clinopyroxene (CPX, pinkish in thin section) is little altered, as are apatite and opaque minerals (probably ilmenite with magnetite or pyrite in different samples). Interstitial material is converted to smectite or, in the AZ, to corrensite. Phyllosilicate lines vesicles, and calcite, zeolite and phyllosilicate fill them. Pore-lining phillipsite is common shallow in the core, with vesicle-filling analcime and heulandite at greater depth. A fibrous zeolite, probably stilbite, is also present. Hyaloclasts are altered to concentrically layered masses of smectite. MHC hyaloclastites do not display the microbial traces and palagonite ("gel-palagonite") alteration common in Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project #2 (HSDP) samples. HSDP samples do contain pore-lining phillipsite, but pore fillings are chabazite. Calcite is absent in HSDP hyaloclastites. Neither Ol nor Plag were altered in HSDP hyaloclastites. HSPD glasses are less silicic and Ti-rich than MHC lavas, containing Ol rather than CPX as a dominant mafic. However the differences in alteration of hyaloclastites probably reflect either the fact that the HSDP core was collected at temperatures equivalent to those at the top of the MHC-2 core or HSDP samples were from beds that were in modified marine pore water, rather than continental waters.

  13. The life cycle of continental rifting as a focus for U.S.-African scientific collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelsalam, Mohamed G.; Atekwana, Estella A.; Keller, G. Randy; Klemperer, Simon L.

    2004-11-01

    The East African Rift System (EARS) provides the unique opportunity found nowhere else on Earth, to investigate extensional processes from incipient rifting in the Okavango Delta, Botswana, to continental breakup and creation of proto-oceanic basins 3000 km to the north in the Afar Depression in Ethiopia, Eritrea, and Djibouti.The study of continental rifts is of great interest because they represent the initial stages of continental breakup and passive margin development, they are sites for large-scale sediment accumulation, and their geomorphology may have controlled human evolution in the past and localizes geologic hazards in the present. But there is little research that provides insights into the linkage between broad geodynamic processes and the life cycle of continental rifts: We do not know why some rifts evolve into mid-ocean ridges whereas others abort their evolution to become aulacogens. Numerous studies of the EARS and other continental rifts have significantly increased our understanding of rifting processes, but we particularly lack studies of the embryonic stages of rift creation and the last stages of extension when continental breakup occurs.

  14. Esmeralda Energy Company, Final Scientific Technical Report, January 2008. Emigrant Slimhole Drilling Project, DOE GRED III

    SciTech Connect

    Deymonaz, John; Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Nash, Gregory D.; Schriener, Alex

    2008-01-22

    The Emigrant Slimhole Drilling Project (ESDP) was a highly successful, phased resource evaluation program designed to evaluate the commercial geothermal potential of the eastern margin of the northern Fish Lake Valley pull-apart basin in west-central Nevada. The program involved three phases: (1) Resource evaluation; (2) Drilling and resource characterization; and (3) Resource testing and assessment. Efforts included detailed geologic mapping; 3-D modeling; compilation of a GIS database; and production of a conceptual geologic model followed by the successful drilling of the 2,938 foot deep 17-31 slimhole (core hole), which encountered commercial geothermal temperatures (327⁰ F) and exhibits an increasing, conductive, temperature gradient to total depth; completion of a short injection test; and compilation of a detailed geologic core log and revised geologic cross-sections. Results of the project greatly increased the understanding of the geologic model controlling the Emigrant geothermal resource. Information gained from the 17-31 core hole revealed the existence of commercial temperatures beneath the area in the Silver Peak Core Complex which is composed of formations that exhibit excellent reservoir characteristics. Knowledge gained from the ESDP may lead to the development of a new commercial geothermal field in Nevada. Completion of the 17-31 core hole also demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of deep core drilling as an exploration tool and the unequaled value of core in understanding the geology, mineralogy, evolutional history and structural aspects of a geothermal resource.

  15. Ocean drilling program: Recent results and future drilling plans

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Allan, J.F.; Heise, E.A.; Seymour, J.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 48 internationally-staffed expeditions of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the evolution of passive and active continental margins, evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. During the past year of drilling operations, ODP expeditions cored Cretaceous reef-bearing guyots of the Western Pacific, with the objective of using them as monitors of relative sea-level changes and thereby of the combined effects of the tectonic subsidence (and uplift) history of the seamounts and of global fluctuations of sea level (Legs 143 and 144); studied high-resolution variations of surface and deep-water circulation and chemistry during the Neogene, the late Cretaceous and Cenozoic history of atmospheric circulation, ocean chemistry, and continental climate, and the age and nature of the seafloor in the North Pacific (Leg 145); studied the relationship between fluid flow and tectonics in the accretionary wedge formed at the Cascadia convergent plate boundary off Vancouver and Oregon (Leg 146); drilled in Hess Deep to understand igneous, tectonic and metamorphic evolution of fast spreading oceanic crust and to understand the processes of rifting in young ocean crust (Leg 147); and continued efforts at Hole 504B at 2,000 mbsf, the deepest hole they have beneath seafloor (Leg 148). After Leg 148 (March 1993), the JOIDES Resolution will commence an Atlantic Ocean drilling campaign.

  16. Results of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project: Petrogenesis of Mauna Kea tholeiites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolper, E.; Baker, M. B.

    2003-04-01

    The Hawaii Scientific Drilling (HSDP) project recovered ~3 km of fresh basaltic rocks by coring into the flank of the Mauna Kea volcano at Hilo. Rocks recovered from deeper than 1 km were all deposited below sea level (pillow lavas, hyaloclastites, and massive lava flows; there are also minor shallow intrusives emplaced roughly contemporaneously with the submarine units). Because of the submarine deposition, there is considerable fresh glass in the recovered samples, providing a high-resolution record of petrogenesis over a several hundred thousand year interval of shield building of a major Hawaiian volcano. In contrast to what is observed in subaerially exposed Hawaiian shields, the tholeiites from the HSDP core span a significant range (~48-52.5%) in SiO2 contents at 7-8% MgO. Moreover, the SiO2 contents are bimodally distributed, with modes at ~48.5-49 and 51-52%. Al2O3, FeO, Na2O, H2O, and TiO2 contents of the high-SiO2 group are lower than those of the low-SiO2 group, but K2O and CaO contents of the two groups are essentially identical. The two groups are for the most part also distinguishable isotopically and in terms of their trace element contents. In addition to these major compositional groups, there is a more subtle grouping of glasses at 49-50% SiO2 with slightly elevated CaO, Al2O3, and TiO2 contents, one isolated occurrence of low-SiO2 glasses with significantly elevated K2O and CaO contents, and one 50 m zone in which the low-SiO2 group trends toward transitional compositions and elevated incompatible element concentrations. We propose the following model for the generation of the two major tholeiitic magma types in the HSDP core: The low-SiO2 magmas are produced by melting of a dominantly lherzolitic source, with segregation of the liquid from the residue at ~30 kbar. The high-SiO2 magmas are produced by thermal and chemical interaction between the low-SiO2 magmas and lherzolite as the low-SiO2 magmas ascend through overlying peridotites (these

  17. Spatial and Temporal Variations in the Geomagnetic Field Determined From the Paleomagnetism of Sediment Cores From Scientific Ocean Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acton, G.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the spatial and temporal variations of the main geomagnetic field at Earth's surface is important for understanding underlying geodynamo processes and conditions near the core-mantle boundary. Much of the geomagnetic variability, known as secular variation, occurs on timescales of tens of years to many thousands of years, requiring the use of paleomagnetic observations to derive continuous records of the ancient field, referred to as paleosecular variation (PSV) records. Marine depositional systems where thick sedimentary sections accumulate at high sedimentation rates provide some of the best locations for obtaining long continuous PSV records that can reveal both the short- and long-term changes in the field. Scientific ocean drilling has been successful at recovering many such sections and the paleomagnetic records from these reveal how the amplitude of PSV differs between sites and through time. In this study, several such records cored during Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), and other cruises from high, mid, and low latitudes will be used to quantify time intervals of low and high PSV, to examine time-average properties of the field, to map spatial variations in the angular dispersion of the virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP), and to assess whether the spatial variation in angular dispersion changes with time.

  18. Chemistry of Crustal Fluids in Continental Fault Systems: Results From Massive Fluid Production Test at KTB Drill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erzinger, J.; Kuempel, H.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    A new series of experiments at Germany's super deep drill site KTB is focusing on transport processes of energy and fluids in crystalline crust. The experiments continue to exploit the scientific potential of the 4.0 km deep pilot hole (VB) and the 9.1 km deep main hole (HB) (distance at surface is 200 m). Targets of particular interest are two major fault systems intersected by the boreholes at 3.9 km (both holes) and 7.2 km depths (HB). The first experimental phase was a long-term pump test in KTB-VB with production of 22,300 m3 of 119° C hot (bottom hole temperature) saline fluids from the metamorphic basement. The fault zone at 4 km depth has a bulk permeability of 2×10^{-15} m2 , at least. From fluid level observation in KTB- HB a weak hydraulic contact with KTB-VB is deduced. Seismic activity, recorded both at the surface and inside KTB-HB at depths down to 3.9 km, appears not to have increased by the pumping. Since the beginning of the pump test, the volume ratio of gas to water (surface conditions) varied between 0.95 and 1.05. The electrical conductivity of the Ca-Na-Cl fluid (63 gl-1 TDS) was rather constant at 86 mScm-1 as were the on-line values for pH (7.5) and Eh (-430 mV). Except forRn, concentrations of gases and dissolved constituents were constant throughout the production period of one year. The major portion of the formation gas phase is composed of nitrogen (66.2%vol) and methane (33%vol); He (0.59%vol), Ar (0.12%vol), and CO2 (0.03%vol) are present in trace quantities only. Furthermore, isotope ratios of helium (3He/4He = 6.2±0.3×10-7, R/RA = 0.47), neon (21Ne/20Ne = 0.0035), argon (40Ar/^{36}Ar = 945), CH4 (δ13C = -50‰), nitrogen (δ15N = +1.5‰), and strontium (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7094) were apparently constant during the pump test. However, ^{222}Rn activity varied between 3800 and 6000 Bqm-3 depending on the production rate. N2 originates most probably from the release of NH4-fixed N2 from paragneisses which have δ15N values of +6

  19. Scientific results from Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrates Joint Industry Project Leg 1 drilling: Introduction and overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, C.; Boswell, R.; Jones, E.

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrates Joint Industry Project (JIP) is a consortium of production and service companies and some government agencies formed to address the challenges that gas hydrates pose for deepwater exploration and production. In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy and with scientific assistance from the U.S. Geological Survey and academic partners, the JIP has focused on studies to assess hazards associated with drilling the fine-grained, hydrate-bearing sediments that dominate much of the shallow subseafloor in the deepwater (>500 m) Gulf of Mexico. In preparation for an initial drilling, logging, and coring program, the JIP sponsored a multi-year research effort that included: (a) the development of borehole stability models for hydrate-bearing sediments; (b) exhaustive laboratory measurements of the physical properties of hydrate-bearing sediments; (c) refinement of new techniques for processing industry-standard 3-D seismic data to constrain gas hydrate saturations; and (d) construction of instrumentation to measure the physical properties of sediment cores that had never been removed from in situ hydrostatic pressure conditions. Following review of potential drilling sites, the JIP launched a 35-day expedition in Spring 2005 to acquire well logs and sediment cores at sites in Atwater Valley lease blocks 13/14 and Keathley Canyon lease block 151 in the northern Gulf of Mexico minibasin province. The Keathley Canyon site has a bottom simulating reflection at ???392 m below the seafloor, while the Atwater Valley location is characterized by seafloor mounds with an underlying upwarped seismic reflection consistent with upward fluid migration and possible shoaling of the base of the gas hydrate stability (BGHS). No gas hydrate was recovered at the drill sites, but logging data, and to some extent cores, suggest the occurrence of gas hydrate in inferred coarser-grained beds and fractures, particularly between 220 and 330 m below the seafloor

  20. Application of scientific core drilling to geothermal exploration: Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala, Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Goff, F.E.; Heiken, G.H.; Duffield, W.A.; Janik, C.J.

    1994-04-01

    Our efforts in Honduras and Guatemala were part of the Central America Energy Resource Project (CAERP) funded by the United States Agency for International Development (AID). Exploration core drilling operations at the Platanares, Honduras and Tecuamburro Volcano, Guatemala sites were part of a geothermal assessment for the national utility companies of these countries to locate and evaluate their geothermal resources for electrical power generation. In Honduras, country-wide assessment of all thermal areas determined that Platanares was the site with the greatest geothermal potential. In late 1986 to middle 1987, three slim core holes were drilled at Platanares to a maximum depth of 680 m and a maximum temperature of 165{degree}C. The objectives were to obtain information on the geothermal gradient, hydrothermal alterations, fracturing, and possible inflows of hydrothermal fluids. Two holes produced copious amounts of water under artesian conditions and a total of 8 MW(t) of energy. Geothermal investigations in Guatemala focused on the Tecuamburro Volcano geothermal site. The results of surface geological, volcanological, hydrogeochemical, and geophysical studies at Tecuamburro Volcano indicated a substantial shallow heat source. In early 1990 we drilled one core hole, TCB-1, to 808 m depth. The measured bottom hole temperature was 238{degree}C. Although the borehole did not flow, in-situ samples indicate the hole is completed in a vapor-zone above a probable 300{degree}C geothermal reservoir.

  1. Overview of the extensive logging use in the scientific ocean drilling's most challenging project, Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyaw Thu, Moe; Sanada, Yoshinori; Kido, Yukari; Kawamura, Yoshihisa; Kuramoto, Shin'ichi; Matsuda, Shigemi

    2010-05-01

    First of its kind in scientific drilling history, NanTroSEIZE is complex drilling project with multiyear and multistage effort, aimed at drilling, coring, logging, and instrumenting the seismogenic zone of an active subduction margin, in a region thought to generate megathrust earthquakes of magnitude >8.0 on the moment-magnitude scale. Four stages are divided to realize ambitious scientific objectives using CHIKYU, most advanced floating laboratory in scientific drilling. Unlike the industry use of logging technology, expeditions in the scientific ocean drilling used logging data in much wider applications by working various software onboard Chikyu and laboratory measurements of core-cuttings throughout single or multiple expeditions, ranging from 40 to 56 days. Instead of traditional full coring, logging-while-drilling was made across the transect at the beginning to quickly access the geological and structural information from the formation. In line with changing tactic of heavy use on logging, four working groups were organized and worked on the logging data; lithologic characterization/lithostratigraphy, physical properties and hydrogeology, structural geology and geomechanics and cuttings/core-log-seismic integration (CLSI). During the Stage 1 with three expeditions, a transect of eight sites were drilled frontal thrust region, the midslope megasplay fault region, and the Kumano forearc basin region using full suite of MWD-LWD and made coring and downhole measurements. Stage 2 composed of two expeditions with the aims of building on the results of Stage 1 and preparing for later observatory installations for long-term monitoring of deformation at the updip limit of the seismogenic zone. Extensive logging program at riser site, first ever in scientific ocean drilling history, includes conventional wireline logging with long-awaited formation stress measurements and wide-angle walk-away VSP with longest-ever offset to have better

  2. A ~1.3Ma paleoecological record from scientific drilling at Lake Malawi, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Blome, Margaret; Ivory, Sarah; King, John; Cole, Julie; McGlue, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Long records of Quaternary ecological and climatic change are critical to understanding the range of potential responses of ecosystems to environmental forcing. Here we present an integrated lake and watershed paleoecological analysis from drill core records obtained by the Lake Malawi Drilling Project, documenting extraordinary fluctuations in climate, hydrology and ecosystem response for the southern tropics of Africa. High resolution lacustrine and terrestrial paleoecology and sedimentology data sets from these Early Pleistocene-Holocene drill cores provide the most complete record of this duration currently available from Africa. Time series analyses of these records demonstrate strong orbital forcing of regional hydroclimate that drives high-amplitude changes in Malawi ecosystems. Prior to ~600ka we also observe a secondary overprint of watershed processes involving river capture or diversion that may have a tectonic origin. We observe shifts between more arid conditions (shallow alkaline and well mixed lake, with discontinuous desert vegetation) and more humid environments (deep, stratified, freshwater lake with dense forest). These broadly synchronous changes in lake paleoecology, lake sedimentology, and watershed vegetation demonstrate the major role of climate in regulating this system. Transitions between these lake/watershed state extremes is often very abrupt, suggesting that the combined lake/watershed repeatedly passed through hydroclimate thresholds, with important implications for the evolution of the lake's endemic biodiversity and ecosystem. The tempo of lake/watershed state fluctuations changes at the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, altering from one of higher frequency/lower amplitude variability prior to 900ka to lower frequency/higher amplitude variability after that time.

  3. UNAM Scientific Drilling Program of Chicxulub Impact Structure-Evidence for a 300 kilometer crater diameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Marin, L.; Trejo-Garcia, A.

    As part of the UNAM drilling program at the Chicxulub structure, two 700 m deep continuously cored boreholes were completed between April and July, 1995. The Peto UNAM-6 and Tekax UNAM-7 drilling sites are ˜150 km and 125 km, respectively, SSE of Chicxulub Puerto, near the crater's center. Core samples from both sites show a sequence of post-crater carbonates on top of a thick impact breccia pile covering the disturbed Mesozoic platform rocks. At UNAM-7, two impact breccia units were encountered: (1) an upper breccia, mean magnetic susceptibility is high (˜55 × 10-6 SI units), indicating a large component of silicate basement has been incorporated into this breccia, and (2) an evaporite-rich, low susceptibility impact breccia similar in character to the evaporite-rich breccias observed at the PEMEX drill sites further out. The upper breccia was encountered at ˜226 m below the surface and is ˜125 m thick; the lower breccia is immediately subjacent and is >240 m thick. This two-breccia sequence is typical of the suevite-Bunte breccia sequence found within other well preserved impact craters. The suevitic upper unit is not present at UNAM-6. Instead, a >240 m thick evaporite-rich breccia unit, similar to the lower breccia at UNAM-7, was encountered at a depth of ˜280 m. The absence of an upper breccia equivalent at UNAM-6 suggests some portion of the breccia sequence has been removed by erosion. This is consistent with interpretations that place the high-standing crater rim at 130-150 km from the center. Consequently, the stratigraphic observations and magnetic susceptibiity records on the upper and lower breccias (depth and thickness) support a ˜300 km diameter crater model.

  4. "Probing Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes at Koyna, India through Scientific Deep Drilling"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, H. K.; Nayak, S.; Bansal, B.; Rao, P.; Roy, S.; Arora, K.

    2014-12-01

    The Koyna region, located in the ~65 Ma old Deccan Traps of India, is globally the most prominent site of artificial water reservoir triggered earthquakes (RTS). Triggered earthquakes are occurring since impoundment of the Koyna Dam in1962 including M 6.3 December 10, 1967; 22 M>5, and thousands of smaller earthquakes. Filling of the nearby Warna Reservoir gave a further impetus to triggered earthquakes. The entire earthquake activity is limited to an area of about 20 km x 30 km, with most focal depths being within 6 km. There is no other earthquakes source within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. An ICDP Workshop held at Hyderabad and Koyna in March 2011 found Koyna to be the most suitable site to investigate RTS through deep drilling. A preparatory phase of investigations was recommended. Studies carried out since 2011 in the preparatory phase were recently reviewed in the second ICDP Workshop held at Koyna from May 16 to 18, 2014. Results of detailed airborne magnetic and gravity-gradient surveys, MT surveys, drilling of 6 boreholes going to depths of ~ 1500 m and logging, heat flow measurements, seismological investigations including the deployment of two borehole seismometers, and LiDAR surveys were reviewed. Significant results include absence of sediments below the basalt cover, the thickness of the basalt column and its relation with the surface elevation, and almost flat topography of the basement. The temperatures at the depth of 5 km would be around 130 to 150 degrees Celsius, in confirmation of earlier estimates. To achieve desired accuracies of a few tens of meters in focal parameters, seismometers need to be placed below the basalt cover. This has led to the plan of putting eight borehole seismometers with good azimuthal coverage around the earthquake zone. Two of them have been already in operation and six more are likely to be installed in the months to come. The future plan of work include: Submitting a proposal to ICDP for the main boreholes by Jan 15, 2015

  5. Deep Scientific Drilling at Koyna, India to Investigate Reservoir Triggered Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Harsh; Nayak, Shailesh; Bansal, Brijesh; Roy, Sukanta; Purnachandra Rao, Nemalikanti; S, Satyanarayana H. V.; M, Tiwari V.; Arora, Kusumita; K, Patro B. P.; Dodla, Shashidhar; Kothamasu, Mallika

    2015-04-01

    The Koyna region, located in the ~65 Ma old Deccan Traps of India, is globally the most prominent site of artificial water reservoir triggered earthquakes (RTS). Triggered earthquakes are occurring since impoundment of the Koyna Dam in 1962 including M 6.3 December 10, 1967; 22 M>5, and thousands of smaller earthquakes. Filling of the nearby Warna Reservoir gave an impetus to triggered earthquakes. The entire earthquake activity is limited to an area of about 20 km x 30 km, with most focal depths being within 6 km. There is no other earthquakes source within 50 km of the Koyna Dam. An ICDP Workshop held at Hyderabad and Koyna in March 2011 found Koyna to be the most suitable site to investigate RTS through deep drilling. A preparatory phase of investigations was recommended. Studies carried out since 2011 in the preparatory phase were recently reviewed in the second ICDP Workshop held at Koyna from May 16 to 18, 2014. Results of detailed airborne magnetic and gravity-gradient surveys, MT surveys, drilling of 6 boreholes going to depths of ~ 1500 m and logging, heat flow measurements, seismological investigations including the deployment of two borehole seismometers, and LiDAR surveys were reviewed. Significant results include absence of sediments below the basalt cover, the thickness of the basalt column and its relation with the surface elevation, and almost flat topography of the basement. The temperatures at the depth of 5 km would be around 130 to 150 degrees Celsius, in confirmation of earlier estimates. To achieve desired accuracies of ~ 50 meters in focal parameters, seismometers need to be placed below the basalt cover. This has led to the plan of putting eight borehole seismometers with good azimuthal coverage around the earthquake zone. Four of them are already in operation and four more are likely to be installed in the months to come. The future plan of work includes: • Submitting a proposal to ICDP for two pilot boreholes by Jan 15, 2015.

  6. Impact of oil-based drill mud disposal on benthic foraminiferal assemblages on the continental margin off Angola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorissen, F. J.; Bicchi, E.; Duchemin, G.; Durrieu, J.; Galgani, F.; Cazes, L.; Gaultier, M.; Camps, R.

    2009-12-01

    In order to assess the possible environmental impact of oily cuttings discharged during oil exploration activities, we studied the benthic foraminiferal faunas in a five-station, 4-km-long sampling transect around a cuttings disposal site at about 670 m depth offshore Angola (W Africa), where drilling activities started 1.5 years before sampling. Living (Rose Bengal stained) and dead foraminiferal faunas were sampled in March 2006. The faunal patterns mirror the spatial distribution of hydrocarbons, which are dispersed into a southeastern direction. Four different areas can be distinguished on the basis of the investigated faunal parameters (density, diversity and species composition of the living fauna, and comparison with subrecent dead faunas). The fauna at station S31, 300 m SE of the oil cuttings disposal site, appears to be clearly impacted: the faunal density and diversity are maximal, but evenness is minimal. Taxa sensitive to organic enrichment, such as Uvigerina peregrina, Cancris auriculus and Cribrostomoides subglobosus, have largely disappeared, whereas the low-oxygen-resistant taxon Chilostomella oolina and opportunistic buliminids and bolivinids attain relatively high densities. At station S32, 500 m SE of the disposal site, environmental impact is still perceptible. The faunal density is slightly increased, and U. peregrina, apparently the most sensitive species, is still almost absent. The faunas found at 1 and 1.8 km SE of the disposal site are apparently no longer impacted by the drill mud disposal. Faunal density and diversity are low, and the faunal composition is typical for a mesotrophic to eutrophic upper slope environment. Finally, Station S35, 2 km NW of the disposal site, contains an intermediate fauna, where both the low-oxygen-resistant C. oolina and the more sensitive taxa ( U. peregrina, C. auriculus and C. subglobosus) are present. All taxa live close to the sediment-water interface here, indicating a reduced oxygen penetration into

  7. The Oman Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J.; Kelemen, P. B.; Teagle, D. A. H.

    2014-12-01

    With seed funds from the Sloan Foundation, the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) approved a proposal by 39 international proponents for scientific drilling in the Oman ophiolite. Via observations on core, geophysical logging, fluid sampling, hydrological measurements, and microbiological sampling in a series of boreholes, we will address long-standing, unresolved questions regarding melt and solid transport in the mantle beneath oceanic spreading ridges, igneous accretion of oceanic crust, mass transfer between the oceans and the crust via hydrothermal alteration, and recycling of volatile components in subduction zones. We will undertake frontier exploration of subsurface weathering processes in mantle peridotite, including natural mechanisms of carbon dioxide uptake from surface waters and the atmosphere, and the nature of the subsurface biosphere. Societally relevant aspects include involvement and training of university students, including numerous students from Sultan Qaboos University in Oman. Studies of natural mineral carbonation will contribute to design of engineered systems for geological carbon dioxide capture and storage. Studies of alteration will contribute to fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of reaction-driven cracking, which could enhance geothermal power generation and extraction of unconventional hydrocarbon resources. We hope to begin drilling in late 2015. Meanwhile, we are seeking an additional $2M to match the combined Sloan and ICDP funding from national and international funding agencies. Matching funds are needed for operational costs of drilling, geophysical logging, downhole fluid sampling, and core description. Information on becoming part of the named investigator pool is in Appendix 14 (page 70) of the ICDP proposal, available at https://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/gpg/projects/icdp-workshop-oman-drilling-project. This formal process should begin at about the time of the 2014 Fall AGU Meeting. Meanwhile, potential

  8. Natural constraints on exploring Antarctica's continental margin, existing geophysical and geological data basis, and proposed drilling program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, J.B.

    1987-05-01

    There have been a number of multichannel seismic reflection and seismic refraction surveys of the Antarctic continental shelf. While glacial erosion has left acoustic basement exposed on portions of the inner shelf, thick sedimentary sequences occur on the passive margin of east Antarctica. The thickness and age of these strata vary due to different breakup histories of the margin. Several sedimentary basins have been identified. Most are rift basins formed during the early stages of Antarctica's separation from other Gondwana continents and plateaus. The west Antarctic continental shelf is extensive, being approximately twice the size of the Gulf of Mexico shelf. It has been poorly surveyed to date, owing mainly to its perennial sea ice cover. Gradual subduction of the spreading center from south to north along the margin resulted in old active margin sequences being buried beneath passive margin sequences. The latter should increase in thickness from north to south along the margin although no data bear this out. Hydrocarbon potential on the northern portion of the west Antarctic margin is considered low due to a probable lack of reservoir rocks. Establishment of ice sheets on Antarctica caused destruction of land vegetation and greatly restricted siliciclastic sand-producing environments. So only sedimentary basins which contain pre-early Miocene deposits have good hydrocarbon prospectivity. The Antarctic continental shelf is the deepest in the world, averaging 500 m and in places being more than a kilometer deep. The shelf has been left rugged by glacial erosion and is therefore prone to sediment mass movement. Widespread sediment gravity flow deposits attest to this. The shelf is covered with sea ice most of the year and in a few areas throughout the year. Icebergs, drift freely in the deep waters of the shelf; drift speeds of 1 to 2.5 km/year are not uncommon.

  9. Orbital- versus glacial-mode forcing of tropical African climate: Results of scientific drilling in Lake Malawi, East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, C. A.; Cohen, A. S.; Johnson, T. C.; King, J. W.; Brown, E. T.; Lyons, R. P.; Stone, J. R.; Beuning, K. R.

    2007-12-01

    Lake Malawi extends from 9-14 degrees S within the East African Rift Valley, and at 700 m deep, contains more than 20 percent of the surface water on the African continent. In 2005 the Lake Malawi Scientific Drilling Project drilled 7 holes at two sites in the lake, recovering a continuous sediment record that samples much of the Quaternary. Detailed studies completed to date on sediments deposited during the past 145 ka indicate periods of severe aridity at precessional frequency between 135 and 75 ka, when the lake's water volume was periodically reduced by at least 95 percent. These dramatic drops in lake level (more than 550 m), signifying markedly arid conditions in the catchment, are documented in sediment lithology (decreased organic carbon content and increased authigenic carbonate content during severe lowstands), aquatic microfossils (appearance of a littoral ostracode fauna, and saline/alkaline lake diatom flora during extreme low lake stages), as well as in dramatic reductions in catchment pollen production. These intervals of pronounced tropical African aridity in the early late-Pleistocene were much more severe than the Last Glacial Maximum, and are consistent with sediment records from Lakes Tanganyika (East Africa) and Bosumtwi (West Africa). In all three lakes a major rise in water levels and a shift to more humid conditions is observed after ~70 ka. The transition to wetter, more stable conditions coincides with the relaxation of orbital eccentricity and a reduction in the amplitude of precession. The observed climate mode switch to decreased environmental variability is consistent with terrestrial and marine records from in and around tropical Africa, but these new drill cores provide evidence for dramatically drier conditions prior to 70 ka that have not as yet been detected in marine sediment records. Such climate change may have stimulated the expansion and migrations of early modern human populations.

  10. Drilling reorganizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    As the first in a proposed series of steps that would move scientific ocean drilling from its own niche within the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Astronomical, Atmospheric, Earth, and Ocean Sciences (AAEO) into the agency's Division of Ocean Sciences, Grant Gross, division director, has been appointed acting director of the Office of Scientific Ocean Drilling (OSOD). Gross will retain the directorship of the division, which also is part of AAEO. Allen M. Shinn, Jr., OSOD director for nearly 2 years, has been reassigned effective July 10 to a position in NSF's Office of Planning and Resource Management.The move aims to tie drilling operations more closely to the science with which it is associated, Gross said. This first step is an organizational response to the current leaning toward using a commercial drilling vessel as the drilling platform, he said. Before the market for such commercial drill ships opened (Eos, February 22, 1983, p . 73), other ship options for scientific ocean drilling included refurbishing the aging Glomar Challenger or renovating, at great expense, the Glomar Explorer. A possible next step in the reorganization is to make OSOD the third section within the Ocean Sciences Division. Currently, the division is divided into the Oceanographic Facilities and Support Section and the Ocean Sciences Research Section.

  11. Drilling update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    At its March 31 meeting the governing board of the Joint Oceanographic Institutions, Inc. (JOI), designated Texas A&M University to direct scientific operations for the new phase of scientific ocean drilling. William Merrell, associate dean of geosciences at Texas A&M, is leading an interim planning team in implementing the recommendations of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Ad Hoc Advisory Group on Crustal Studies (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). The ad hoc group, chaired by Charles Drake, recommended that scientific ocean drilling be pursued not with the Glomar Challenger or the Glomar Explorer, but with one of the roughly half-dozen commercial drilling ships that have become available with the slackening of the commercial drilling market.Foremost of the tasks facing the interim planning team is to write a request for proposals (RFP) for a drill ship and to define performance criteria for a commercial drilling platform. The RFP is expected to be issued by Texas A&M in 6-8 weeks, according to Philip Rabinowitz, acting project director and a professor in the university's oceanography department. Once those tasks are completed and a successful bidder is found, a formal proposal will be made to NSF through JOI. The proposal will be subject to the usual NSF peer review process. If the proposal is approved, Rabinowitz said that Texas A&M would expect actual drilling to begin in October 1984. In addition to Merrell and Rabinowitz, the interim planning team also includes acting chief scientist Stefan Gartner.

  12. Initial Assessment of the Excavation and Deposition of Impact Lithologies Exposed by the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project, Yaxcopoil, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, David A.; Horz, Friedrich; Zurcher, Lukas

    2003-01-01

    The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (www.icdp-online.de) recovered a continuous core from a depth of 404 m (in Tertiary cover) to 1511 m (in a megablock of Cretaceous target sediments), penetrating approx. 100 m of melt-bearing impactites between 794 and 895 m. The Yaxcopoil-1 (YAX-1) borehole is approx. 60-65 km from the center of the Chicxulub structure, which is approx. 15 km beyond the limit of the estimated approx. 50 km radius transient crater (excavation cavity), but within the rim of the estimated approx. 90 km radius final crater. In general, the impactite sequence is incredibly rich in impact melts of unusual textural variety and complexity, quite unlike melt-bearing impact formations from other terrestrial craters.

  13. Impact Lithologies and Post-Impact Hydrothermal Alteration Exposed by the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project, Yaxcopoil, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, David A.; Zurcher, Lukas; Horz, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project recovered a continuous core from the Yaxcopoil-1 (YAX-1) borehole, which is approx.60-65 km from the center of the Chicxulub structure, approx.15 km beyond the limit of the estimated approx.50 km radius transient crater (excavation cavity), but within the rim of the estimated approx.90 km radius final crater. Approximately approx.100 m of melt-bearing impactites were recoverd from a depth of 794 to 895 m, above approx.600 m of underlying megablocks of Cretaceous target sediments, before bottoming at 1511 m. Compared to lithologies at impact craters like the Ries, the YAX-1 impactite sequence is incredibly rich in impact melts of unusual textural variety and complexity. The impactite sequence has also been altered by hydrothermal activity that may have largely been produced by the impact event.

  14. Impact Lithologies and Post-Impact Hydrothermal Alteration Exposed by the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project, Yaxcopoil, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, David A.; Zurcher, Lukas; Horz, Friedrich

    2003-01-01

    The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project recovered a continuous core from the Yaxcopoil-1 (YAX-1) borehole, which is approx.60-65 km from the center of the Chicxulub structure, approx.15 km beyond the limit of the estimated approx.50 km radius transient crater (excavation cavity), but within the rim of the estimated approx.90 km radius final crater. Approximately approx.100 m of melt-bearing impactites were recoverd from a depth of 794 to 895 m, above approx.600 m of underlying megablocks of Cretaceous target sediments, before bottoming at 1511 m. Compared to lithologies at impact craters like the Ries, the YAX-1 impactite sequence is incredibly rich in impact melts of unusual textural variety and complexity. The impactite sequence has also been altered by hydrothermal activity that may have largely been produced by the impact event.

  15. Initial Assessment of the Excavation and Deposition of Impact Lithologies Exposed by the Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project, Yaxcopoil, Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, David A.; Horz, Friedrich; Zurcher, Lukas

    2003-01-01

    The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Project (www.icdp-online.de) recovered a continuous core from a depth of 404 m (in Tertiary cover) to 1511 m (in a megablock of Cretaceous target sediments), penetrating approx. 100 m of melt-bearing impactites between 794 and 895 m. The Yaxcopoil-1 (YAX-1) borehole is approx. 60-65 km from the center of the Chicxulub structure, which is approx. 15 km beyond the limit of the estimated approx. 50 km radius transient crater (excavation cavity), but within the rim of the estimated approx. 90 km radius final crater. In general, the impactite sequence is incredibly rich in impact melts of unusual textural variety and complexity, quite unlike melt-bearing impact formations from other terrestrial craters.

  16. Ocean Drilling Program Leg 112, Peru continental margin: Part 2, Sedimentary history and diagenesis in a coastal upwelling environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, E.; von Huene, R.

    1988-10-01

    On the shelf and upper slope off Peru the signal of coastal upwelling productivity and bottom-water oxygen is well preserved in alternately laminated and bioturbated diatomaceous Quaternary sediments. Global sea-level fluctuations are the ultimate cause for these cyclic facies changes. During late Miocene time, coastal upwelling was about 100 km west of the present centers, along the edge of an emergent structure that subsequently subsided to form the modern slope. The sediments are rich in organic carbon, and intense microbially mediated decomposition of organic matter is evident in sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. These processes are accompanied by the formation of diagenetic carbonates, mostly Ca-rich dolomites and Mg-calcites. The downhole isotopic signatures of these carbonate cements display distinct successions that reflect the vertical evolution of the pore fluid environment. From the association of methane gas hydrates, burial depth, and low-chloride interstitial fluids, we suggest an additional process that could contribute to the characteristic chloride depletion in pore fluids of active margins: release of interlayer water from clays without a mineral phase change. The shelf sediments also contain a subsurface brine that stretches for more than 500 km from north to south over the area drilled. The source of the brine remains uncertain, although the composition of the oxygen isotopes suggests dissolution of evaporites by seawater.

  17. Scientific drilling into the San Andreas Fault Zone - an overview of SAFOD's first five years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zoback, Mark; Hickman, Stephen; Ellsworth, William; ,

    2011-01-01

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) was drilled to study the physical and chemical processes controlling faulting and earthquake generation along an active, plate-bounding fault at depth. SAFOD is located near Parkfield, California and penetrates a section of the fault that is moving due to a combination of repeating microearthquakes and fault creep. Geophysical logs define the San Andreas Fault Zone to be relatively broad (~200 m), containing several discrete zones only 2–3 m wide that exhibit very low P- and S-wave velocities and low resistivity. Two of these zones have progressively deformed the cemented casing at measured depths of 3192 m and 3302 m. Cores from both deforming zones contain a pervasively sheared, cohesionless, foliated fault gouge that coincides with casing deformation and explains the observed extremely low seismic velocities and resistivity. These cores are being now extensively tested in laboratories around the world, and their composition, deformation mechanisms, physical properties, and rheological behavior are studied. Downhole measurements show that within 200 m (maximum) of the active fault trace, the direction of maximum horizontal stress remains at a high angle to the San Andreas Fault, consistent with other measurements. The results from the SAFOD Main Hole, together with the stress state determined in the Pilot Hole, are consistent with a strong crust/weak fault model of the San Andreas. Seismic instrumentation has been deployed to study physics of faulting—earthquake nucleation, propagation, and arrest—in order to test how laboratory-derived concepts scale up to earthquakes occurring in nature.

  18. The ``Adopt A Microbe'' project: Web-based interactive education connected with scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orcutt, B. N.; Bowman, D.; Turner, A.; Inderbitzen, K. E.; Fisher, A. T.; Peart, L. W.; Iodp Expedition 327 Shipboard Party

    2010-12-01

    We launched the "Adopt a Microbe" project as part of Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 327 in Summer 2010. This eight-week-long education and outreach effort was run by shipboard scientists and educators from the research vessel JOIDES Resolution, using a web site (https://sites.google.com/site/adoptamicrobe) to engage students of all ages in an exploration of the deep biosphere inhabiting the upper ocean crust. Participants were initially introduced to a cast of microbes (residing within an ‘Adoption Center’ on the project website) that live in the dark ocean and asked to select and virtually ‘adopt’ a microbe. A new educational activity was offered each week to encourage learning about microbiology, using the adopted microbe as a focal point. Activities included reading information and asking questions about the adopted microbes (with subsequent responses from shipboard scientists), writing haiku about the adopted microbes, making balloon and fabric models of the adopted microbes, answering math questions related to the study of microbes in the ocean, growing cultures of microbes, and examining the gases produced by microbes. In addition, the website featured regular text, photo and video updates about the science of the expedition using a toy microbe as narrator, as well as stories written by shipboard scientists from the perspective of deep ocean microbes accompanied by watercolor illustrations prepared by a shipboard artist. Assessment methods for evaluating the effectiveness of the Adopt a Microbe project included participant feedback via email and online surveys, website traffic monitoring, and online video viewing rates. Quantitative metrics suggest that the “Adope A Microbe” project was successful in reaching target audiences and helping to encourage and maintain interest in topics related to IODP Expedition 327. The “Adopt A Microbe” project mdel can be adapted for future oceanographic expeditions to help connect the

  19. Towards a distributed infrastructure for research drilling in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mevel, C.; Gatliff, R.; Ludden, J.; Camoin, G.; Horsfield, B.; Kopf, A.

    2012-04-01

    The EC-funded project "Deep Sea and Sub-Seafloor Frontier" (DS3F) aims at developing seafloor and sub seafloor sampling strategies for enhanced understanding of deep-sea and sub seafloor processes by connecting marine research in life and geosciences, climate and environmental change, with socio-economic issues and policy building. DS3F has identified access to sub seafloor sampling and instrumentation as a key element of this approach. There is a strong expertise in Europe concerning direct access to the sub seafloor. Within the international program IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program), ECORD (European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling) has successfully developed the concept of mission specific platforms (MSPs), contracted on a project basis to drill in ice covered and shallow water areas. The ECORD Science Operator, lead by the British Geological Survey (BGS) has build a internationally recognized expertise in scientific ocean drilling, from coring in challenging environment, through down hole measurements and laboratory analysis to core curation and data management. MARUM, at the Bremen University in Germany, is one of the three IODP core repositories. Europe is also at the forefront of scientific seabed drills, with the MeBo developed by MARUM as well as the BGS seabed rocks drills. Europe also plays a important role in continental scientific drilling and the European component of ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) is strengthening, with the recent addition of France and foreseen addition of UK. Oceanic and continental drilling have very similar scientific objectives. Moreover, they share not only common technologies, but also common data handling systems. To develop an integrated approach to technology development and usage, a move towards a a distributed infrastructure for research drilling in Europe has been initiated by these different groups. Built on existing research & operational groups across Europe, it will

  20. 77 FR 4056 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Scientific Committee (SC); Announcement of Plenary Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ... meeting. SUMMARY: The OCS Scientific Committee will meet at the Sheraton Reston Hotel in Reston, Virginia..., from 8:30 to 5 p.m.; Thursday, February 9, 2012, from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. ADDRESSES: Reston Sheraton Hotel...

  1. Cenozoic global sea level, sequences, and the New Jersey transect: Results from coastal plain and continental slope drilling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, K.G.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Browning, J.V.; Kominz, M.; Sugarman, P.J.; Christie-Blick, N.; Katz, M.E.; Wright, J.D.

    1998-01-01

    The New Jersey Sea Level Transect was designed to evaluate the relationships among global sea level (eustatic) change, unconformity-bounded sequences, and variations in subsidence, sediment supply, and climate on a passive continental margin. By sampling and dating Cenozoic strata from coastal plain and continental slope locations, we show that sequence boundaries correlate (within ??0.5 myr) regionally (onshore-offshore) and interregionally (New Jersey-Alabama-Bahamas), implicating a global cause. Sequence boundaries correlate with ??18O increases for at least the past 42 myr, consistent with an ice volume (glacioeustatic) control, although a causal relationship is not required because of uncertainties in ages and correlations. Evidence for a causal connection is provided by preliminary Miocene data from slope Site 904 that directly link ??18O increases with sequence boundaries. We conclude that variation in the size of ice sheets has been a primary control on the formation of sequence boundaries since ~42 Ma. We speculate that prior to this, the growth and decay of small ice sheets caused small-amplitude sea level changes (<20 m) in this supposedly ice-free world because Eocene sequence boundaries also appear to correlate with minor ??18O increases. Subsidence estimates (backstripping) indicate amplitudes of short-term (million-year scale) lowerings that are consistent with estimates derived from ??18O studies (25-50 m in the Oligocene-middle Miocene and 10-20 m in the Eocene) and a long-term lowering of 150-200 m over the past 65 myr, consistent with estimates derived from volume changes on mid-ocean ridges. Although our results are consistent with the general number and timing of Paleocene to middle Miocene sequences published by workers at Exxon Production Research Company, our estimates of sea level amplitudes are substantially lower than theirs. Lithofacies patterns within sequences follow repetitive, predictable patterns: (1) coastal plain sequences consist

  2. Fault-rock Magnetism from Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) Implies the Different Slip Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, D.; Li, H.; Lee, T. Q.; Sun, Z.

    2015-12-01

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan Earthquake had caused great human and financial loss, and it had induced two major earthquake surface rupture zones, including the Yingxiu-Beichuan earthquake fault (Y-B F.) and Guanxian-Anxian earthquake fault (G-A F.) earthquake surface rupture zones. After main shock, the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD) was co-organized by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Ministry of Land and Resources and China Bureau of Seismology, and this project focused on earthquake fault mechanics, earthquake slip process, fault physical and chemical characteristics, mechanical behavior, fluid behavior, fracture energy, and so on. Fault-rocks magnetism is an effective method for the earthquake fault research, such as earthquake slip dynamics. In this study, the fault-rocks from the drilling-hole cores and close to the Wenchuan Earthquake surface rupture zone were used to do the rock-magnetism and discuss the earthquake slip dynamics. The measurement results of magnetic susceptibility (MS) show that the relative high or low MS values are corresponded to the fault-rocks from the Y-B F. and G-A F., respectively. Other rock-magnetism gives more evidence to the magnetic mineral assemblage of fault-rocks from the two earthquake fault zones. The relative high MS in the drilling-holes and trench along the Y-B F. was caused by the new-formed ferrimagnetic minerals during the high temperature and rapid speed earthquake slip process, such as magnetite and hematite, so the Y-B F. had experienced high temperature and rapid speed thermal pressurization earthquake slip mechanism. The relative low MS in the trench along the G-A F. was possible caused by high content of Fe-sulfides, and the G-A F. had possibly experienced the low temperature and slow speed mechanical lubrication earthquake slip mechanism. The different earthquake slip mechanism was possibly controlled by the deep structure of the two earthquake faults, such as the fault

  3. Deep-Sea Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stan M.

    1979-01-01

    Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

  4. Deep-Sea Drilling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stan M.

    1979-01-01

    Drilling during 1978 focused on three major geologic problems: the nature and origin of the oceanic crust, the nature and geologic history of the active continental margins, and the oceanic paleoenvironment. (Author/BB)

  5. CHAPHOLO (scientific drilling project): Paleolimnological Evaluation of Lake Chapala, western Mexico, During Holocene (CONACYT grant: CB2011-168685)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate, P. F.; Fritz, S. C.; Ramirez Sanchez, U.; Gomez Salazar, S.; Ceja Andrade, I.; Priyadarsi Debajyoti, R.; Brenner, M.

    2012-12-01

    CHAPHOLO ( CHAP: Chapala; HOLO: Holocene) has as goal to evaluate paleoenvironmental variations recorded in the sediment of neotectonic Lake Chapala (LCH), western Mexico (20°15.129'N, 103° 02.996'W). The lake lies about 1524 m asl. LCH is the largest lake in Mexico (1,100 kmyr2), but is shallow (zmax = 7.20 m). It is located in a basin belonging to the Citala Rift, the east-west branch of three continental rifts that join to form the so-called Jalisco triple junction. Our working hypothesis is that recent (Holocene) paleolimnological changes in LCH were caused by major climate variations and by minor regional/local processes (e.g. volcanism). We will drill a 40m long core from the lake depocenter, with the objective of recovering a full Holocene record, and likely more, assuming a mean sedimentation rate of 2 mm yr-1. Core chronology will be established using AMS 14C and 210Pb techniques and climate inferences will be made using geochemical, geophysical and micropaleontological proxies. Particularly, we pretend to identify the six "short" fluctuations of climate that characterized the Holocene (Mayewski et al., 2004) and the identification of Mediewal Warm Period and the droughts affected the mayan culture (Hodell et al., 1995). We will verify the application of Ti as a proxy to rainfall (Metcalfe et al., 2010). During the last 10,000 the fact about the dissolution of diatom in LCH sediments must be evaluated (Ryves et al., 2009). The working group is multidisciplinary (Geochemistry, Micropaleontology, Paleolimnology, Geophysics) and involves multiple institutions (Guadalajara University, Mexican National University-UNAM, University of Florida, University of Nebraska-Lincoln). CHAPHOLO is supported by funds from the Mexican government and from the Guadalajara University. The theme of CHAPHOLO is consistent with global environmental programs such as PAGES and CLIVAR. This project will be developed in stages over three years.

  6. Thermal regime of a continental permafrost associated gas hydrate occurrence a continuous temperature profile record after drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henninges, J.; Huenges, E.; Mallik Working Group

    2003-04-01

    Both the size and the distribution of natural methane hydrate occurrences, as well as the release of gaseous methane through the dissociation of methane hydrate, are affected by the subsurface pressure and temperature conditions. During a field experiment, which was carried out in the Mackenzie Delta, NWT, Canada, within the framework of the Mallik 2002 Production Research Well Program*, the variation of temperature within three 40 m spaced, 1200 m deep wells was measured deploying the Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology. An innovative experimental design for the monitoring of spatial and temporal variations of temperature along boreholes was developed and successfully applied under extreme arctic conditions. A special feature is the placement of the fibre-optic sensor cable inside the cement annulus between the casing and the wall of the borehole. Temperature profiles were recorded with a sampling interval of 0.25 m and 5 min, and temperatures can be determined with a resolution of 0.3 °C. The observed variation of temperature over time shows the decay of the thermal disturbances caused by the drilling and construction of the wells. An excellent indicator for the location of the base of the ice-bonded permafrost layer, which stands out as a result of the latent heat of the frozen pore fluid, is a sharp rise in temperature at 604 m depth during the period of equilibration. A similar effect can be detected in the depth interval between 1105 m and 1110 m, which is interpreted as an indicator for the depth to the base of the methane hydrate stability zone. Nine months after the completion of the wells the measured borehole temperatures are close to equilibrium. The mean temperature gradient rises from 9.4 K/km inside the permafrost to 25.4 K/km in the ice-free sediment layers underneath. The zone of the gas hydrate occurrences between 900 m and 1100 m shows distinct variations of the geothermal gradient, which locally rises up to 40 K/km. At the lower

  7. Geothermal modelling of faulted metamorphic crystalline crust: a new model of the Continental Deep Drilling Site KTB (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szalaiová, Eva; Rabbel, Wolfgang; Marquart, Gabriele; Vogt, Christian

    2015-11-01

    The area of the 9.1-km-deep Continental Deep Drillhole (KTB) in Germany is used as a case study for a geothermal reservoir situated in folded and faulted metamorphic crystalline crust. The presented approach is based on the analysis of 3-D seismic reflection data combined with borehole data and hydrothermal numerical modelling. The KTB location exemplarily contains all elements that make seismic prospecting in crystalline environment often more difficult than in sedimentary units, basically complicated tectonics and fracturing and low-coherent strata. In a first step major rock units including two known nearly parallel fault zones are identified down to a depth of 12 km. These units form the basis of a gridded 3-D numerical model for investigating temperature and fluid flow. Conductive and advective heat transport takes place mainly in a metamorphic block composed of gneisses and metabasites that show considerable differences in thermal conductivity and heat production. Therefore, in a second step, the structure of this unit is investigated by seismic waveform modelling. The third step of interpretation consists of applying wavenumber filtering and log-Gabor-filtering for locating fractures. Since fracture networks are the major fluid pathways in the crystalline, we associate the fracture density distribution with distributions of relative porosity and permeability that can be calibrated by logging data and forward modelling of the temperature field. The resulting permeability distribution shows values between 10-16 and 10-19 m2 and does not correlate with particular rock units. Once thermohydraulic rock properties are attributed to the numerical model, the differential equations for heat and fluid transport in porous media are solved numerically based on a finite difference approach. The hydraulic potential caused by topography and a heat flux of 54 mW m-2 were applied as boundary conditions at the top and bottom of the model. Fluid flow is generally slow and

  8. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J.; Evans, J.; Toy, V.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Clarke, A.; Eichelberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park City, Utah, in May 2013, was attended by 41 investigators from seven countries. Participants were asked to define compelling scientific justifications for examining problems that can be addressed by coordinated programs of continental scientific drilling and related site investigations. They were also asked to evaluate a wide range of proposed drilling projects, based on white papers submitted prior to the workshop. Participants working on faults and fault zone processes highlighted two overarching topics with exciting potential for future scientific drilling research: (1) the seismic cycle and (2) the mechanics and architecture of fault zones. Recommended projects target fundamental mechanical processes and controls on faulting, and range from induced earthquakes and earthquake initiation to investigations of detachment fault mechanics and fluid flow in fault zones. Participants working on active volcanism identified five themes: the volcano eruption cycle; eruption sustainability, near-field stresses, and system recovery; eruption hazards; verification of geophysical models; and interactions with other Earth systems. Recommended projects address problems that are transferrable to other volcanic systems, such as improved methods for identifying eruption history and constraining the rheological structure of shallow caldera regions. Participants working on chemical geodynamics identified four major themes: large igneous provinces (LIPs), ocean islands, continental hotspot tracks and rifts, and

  9. Downhole fluid sampling at the SSSDP (Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project) California State 2-14 well, Salton Sea, California

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Grigsby, C.O.; Dennis, B.

    1987-07-01

    In situ fluid sampling activities were conducted at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) well during late December 1985 and late March 1986 to obtain unflashed samples of Salton Sea brine. In late December, three sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 1800 m and temperatures of 300/sup 0/C. In late March, 10 sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 3150 m and temperatures of 350/sup 0/C. In brief, the Los Alamos tool obtained samples from four of eight runs; the Lawrence Berkeley tool obtained samples from one of one run; the Leutert Instruments, Inc., tool obtained samples from zero of three runs; and the USGS quartz crystal experiment was lost in the well. The most complete sample was obtained from run No. 11, using the Los Alamos sampler and Sandia battery pack/controller on a wireline. About 1635 ml of brine, two noble gas samples, and two bulk gas samples were collected from this run. Samples of brine and gas from productive runs have been distributed to about 15 researchers for various types of analyses. Chemical analyses by the Los Alamos and US Geological Survey analytical teams are presented in this report, although they are not corrected for flashing and precipitation.

  10. Hydrogeology of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project borehole KP-1 1. Hydraulic conditions adjacent to the well bore

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paillet, Frederick L.; Thomas, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Temperature and formation resistivity logs obtained in borehole KP-1 of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project indicate that the adjacent formation is characterized by several zones of distinctly different average temperature and water salinity. A series of hydraulic analyses and water sampling programs were conducted to rule out the possibility of local hydraulic effects associated with the presence of the borehole in the generation of these apparent groundwater zones. Hydraulic tests and sampling with the borehole cased to a depth of 710 m and open below that depth indicate that the deep aquifer contains seawater at a temperature nearly identical to that of the open ocean at the same depth. Various analyses give estimates of aquifer transmissivity of about 10-3 m2/s in the vicinity of the borehole. Isolation of this deeper aquifer from the overlying groundwater zones was investigated by perforating the casing at six locations and then measuring the changes in water level in the borehole, in the salinity of the fluid column, in the temperature profile of the fluid column, and in the rate of flow in the fluid column induced by the perforations. These results positively confirm that the zones of distinctly different formation properties indicated on the temperature and resistivity logs are not caused by flow in or around casing. Flow and fluid column salinity induced by the perforations also confirm significant differences between the hydraulic heads and geochemistry of the different groundwater zones inferred from the well logs.

  11. Geological and geochemical criteria for the continental nature of the Mendeleev Rise (the Arctic Ocean) from the data of drilling and dredging of seabed rock material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Andrey; Petrov, Oleg; Kremenetskiy, Alexander; Kashubin, Sergey; Rekant, Pavel; Gusev, Eugene; Shokalskiy, Sergey; Shevchenko, Sergey; Sergeev, Sergey; Artyushkov, Eugene

    2013-04-01

    The results are presented of geological and geophysical studies on the Mendeleev Rise at 10 test sites at 79°N to 83°N (expedition "Arktika-2012" in August-September 2012). During the expedition, for the first time, three boreholes were drilled in the bedrocks of the Mendeleev Rise basement at a depth of 1700-2600 m, and more than 20 thousand fragments of seabed rock material were dredged. Among them carbonate-bearing rocks including dolomite with relicts of trilobites and ostracoderms (D3-C) constitute up 65 %. Up to 20% are terrigenous rocks with a predominance of quartz sandstones. Magmatic rocks constitute 10-15% of the samples (including 8% of gabbro-dolerite and 2 % of granite) with 5% of metamorphic rocks. The boreholes revealed magmatic mafic rocks of basalt to basaltic andesite to trachyandesite series (SiO2-48-58% K2O+Na2O-3,4-9,2%) including epigenically altered volcanic breccias. All fragments of magmatic mafic rocks have a similar mineral and chemical composition and are grouped with gabbro dolerite (SiO2-49-51%, K2O+Na2O-2,5-3,0%). Preliminary results of mineralogic, geochemical and of isotopic geochemical (ICP-OEC, ICP-MS, RFA, Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, EPMA and others) analyses suggest the continental nature of the studied rocks and show a distinct difference from rocks of the Gakkel Ridge in the Eurasian part of the ocean, which are of the oceanic origin. U-Pb dating of zircons from the core rocks and seabed rock material (SIMS SHRIMP II) indicate a wide range of their formation age: 2940-995, 639-385 and 303-203 Ma and thus suggest that they belong to volcanogenic terrigeneous carbonate-bearing bed of the ancient platform composing the floor of Amerasian part of the Arctic Ocean.

  12. From field to database : a user-oriented approche to promote cyber-curating of scientific drilling cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pignol, C.; Arnaud, F.; Godinho, E.; Galabertier, B.; Caillo, A.; Billy, I.; Augustin, L.; Calzas, M.; Rousseau, D. D.; Crosta, X.

    2016-12-01

    Managing scientific data is probably one the most challenging issues in modern science. In plaeosciences the question is made even more sensitive with the need of preserving and managing high value fragile geological samples: cores. Large international scientific programs, such as IODP or ICDP led intense effort to solve this problem and proposed detailed high standard work- and dataflows thorough core handling and curating. However many paleoscience results derived from small-scale research programs in which data and sample management is too often managed only locally - when it is… In this paper we present a national effort leads in France to develop an integrated system to curate ice and sediment cores. Under the umbrella of the national excellence equipment program CLIMCOR, we launched a reflexion about core curating and the management of associated fieldwork data. Our aim was then to conserve all data from fieldwork in an integrated cyber-environment which will evolve toward laboratory-acquired data storage in a near future. To do so, our demarche was conducted through an intimate relationship with field operators as well laboratory core curators in order to propose user-oriented solutions. The national core curating initiative proposes a single web portal in which all teams can store their fieldwork data. This portal is used as a national hub to attribute IGSNs. For legacy samples, this requires the establishment of a dedicated core list with associated metadata. However, for forthcoming core data, we developed a mobile application to capture technical and scientific data directly on the field. This application is linked with a unique coring-tools library and is adapted to most coring devices (gravity, drilling, percussion etc.) including multiple sections and holes coring operations. Those field data can be uploaded automatically to the national portal, but also referenced through international standards (IGSN and INSPIRE) and displayed in international

  13. Effect of eight outer continental shelf drilling muds on the calcification rate and free amino acid pool of the coral Acropora cervicornis

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, E.N.; Kendall, J.J. Jr.; Connor, S.J.; Zastrow, C.E.; Bright, T.J.

    1984-09-01

    During most offshore drilling operations, drilling muds are routinely discharged into surrounding waters. Because corals are relatively sensitive to many environmental perturbations and can be adversely affected by offshore drilling operations, the effects of drilling muds on corals have received considerable attention. Because drilling muds are discharged intermittently, only periodic exposures of short duration should impact nearby coral reefs. To fully assess the impact of a drilling mud discharge on corals requires an assessment of the capacity for corals to recover from short-term exposure. The purpose of this study was to assess the relative toxicity of a number of muds that were slated for marine disposal for the coral Acropora cervicornis after a 48-hr recovery period. Calcification rate and free amino acid pool were investigated.

  14. Log response of ultrasonic imaging and its significance for deep mineral prospecting of scientific drilling borehole-2 in Nanling district, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Kun; Zou, Changchun; Xiang, Biao; Yue, Xuyuan; Zhou, Xinpeng; Li, Jianguo; Zhao, Bin

    2014-10-01

    The hole NLSD-2, one of the deepest scientific drilling projects in the metallic ore districts of China, is the second scientific drilling deep hole in the Nanling district. Its ultimate depth is 2012.12 m. This hole was created through the implementation of continuous coring, and the measuring of a variety of geophysical well logging methods was performed over the course of the drilling process. This paper analyzes the characteristic responses of the fracture and fractured zone by ultrasonic imaging log data, and characterizes various rules of fracture parameters which change according to drilling depth. It then discusses the denotative meaning of the log results of polymetallic mineralization layers. The formation fractures develop most readily in a depth of 100~200 m, 600~850 m and 1450~1550 m of the hole NLSD-2, and high angle fractures develop most prominently. The strike direction of the fractures is mainly NW-SE, reflecting the orientation of maximum horizontal principal stress. For the polymetallic mineralization layer that occurred in the fractured zone, the characteristic response of ultrasonic imaging log is a wide dark zone, and the characteristic responses of conventional logs displayed high polarizability, high density, high acoustic velocity and low resistivity. All the main polymetallic mineralization layers are developed in fractures or fractured zones, and the fractures and fractured zones can be identified by an ultrasonic imaging log, thus the log results indirectly indicate the occurrence of polymetallic mineralization layers. Additionally, the relationship between the dip direction of fractures and the well deviation provides guidance for straightening of the drilling hole.

  15. Age and geochemical characteristics of Paleogene basalts drilled from western Taiwan: Records of initial rifting at the southeastern Eurasian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Chung, S.; Lo, Y.; Lo, C.; Yang, H.; Shinjo, R.; Lee, T.; Wu, J.; Huang, S.

    2013-12-01

    The southeastern Eurasian continental margin has been characterized by formation of rift basins associated with intraplate basaltic volcanism since early Cenozoic time. In contrast to Paleogene volcanic rocks that occur sporadically in the basins, Neogene basalts are more widespread on land as lava flows and pyroclastics in the Taiwan Strait (Penghu Islands) and northwestern Taiwan. To better understand the tectonomagmatic evolution, in particular the initial rifting record, this study reports new age, major- and trace-elemental, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data of volcanic rocks drilled from several locations in the Taiwan Strait and western Taiwan. 40Ar/39Ar dating results show two main episodes of volcanic activities: ~56-38 Ma (Eocene) and ~11-8 Ma (late Miocene). The volcanic rocks are composed dominantly of basalts and basaltic andesites, and subordinately of dacites and rhyolites of Eocene age. The two episodes of basaltic volcanism have distinct geochemical characteristics. Comparatively, the Eocene basalts are more depleted in basaltic components such as Ca, Fe and Ti, but have higher Al content. They are also more enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), and show depletions in high field strength elements (HFSE). Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of the late Miocene basalts are relatively more uniform and unradiogenic (ɛNd = +6.0 to +3.8), similar to those of Miocene basalts from NW Taiwan and Penghu Islands, and broadly coeval OIB-type basalts from the South China Sea. However, the Eocene basalts have a wider range in isotope ratios (e.g., ɛNd(T) = +5.6 to -3.2) pointing towards an enriched mantle source. The overall geochemical characteristics suggest two distinct mantle sources: (1) a more refractory mantle source metasomatized by subduction-related processes to generate the Eocene basalts and (2) a fertile but isotopically depleted mantle source for the late Miocene basalts. These two source components are proposed

  16. Age and geochemical characteristics of Paleogene basalts drilled from western Taiwan: Records of initial rifting at the southeastern Eurasian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kuo-Lung; Chung, Sun-Lin; Lo, Yi-Ming; Lo, Ching-Hua; Yang, Huai-Jen; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Lee, Tung-Yi; Wu, Jong-Chang; Huang, Shiuh-Tsann

    2012-12-01

    The southeastern Eurasian continental margin has been characterized by formation of rift basins associated with intraplate basaltic volcanism since early Cenozoic time. In contrast to Paleogene volcanic rocks that occur sporadically in the basins, Neogene basalts are more widespread on land as lava flows and pyroclastics in the Taiwan Strait (Penghu Islands) and northwestern Taiwan. To better understand the tectonomagmatic evolution, in particular the initial rifting record, this study reports new age, major- and trace-elemental, and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope data of volcanic rocks drilled from several locations in the Taiwan Strait and western Taiwan. 40Ar/39Ar dating results show two main episodes of volcanic activities: ~ 56-38 Ma (Eocene) and ~ 11-8 Ma (late Miocene). The volcanic rocks are composed dominantly of basalts and basaltic andesites, and subordinately of dacites and rhyolites of Eocene age. The two episodes of basaltic volcanism have distinct geochemical characteristics. Comparatively, the Eocene basalts are more depleted in basaltic components such as Ca, Fe and Ti, but have higher Al content. They are also more enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and light rare earth elements (LREE), and show depletions in high field strength elements (HFSE). Sr-Nd-Pb isotope compositions of the late Miocene basalts are relatively more uniform and unradiogenic (ɛNd = + 6.0 to + 3.8), similar to those of Miocene basalts from NW Taiwan and Penghu Islands, and broadly coeval OIB-type basalts from the South China Sea. However, the Eocene basalts have a wider range in isotope ratios (e.g., ɛNd(T) = + 5.6 to -3.2) pointing towards an enriched mantle source. The overall geochemical characteristics suggest two distinct mantle sources: (1) a more refractory mantle source metasomatized by subduction-related processes to generate the Eocene basalts and (2) a fertile but isotopically depleted mantle source for the late Miocene basalts. These two source components are

  17. Drilling through the largest magma chamber on Earth: Bushveld Igneous Complex Drilling Project (BICDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbull, R. B.; Ashwal, L. D.; Webb, S. J.; Veksler, I. V.

    2015-05-01

    A scientific drilling project in the Bushveld Igneous Complex in South Africa has been proposed to contribute to the following scientific topics of the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP): large igneous provinces and mantle plumes, natural resources, volcanic systems and thermal regimes, and deep life. An interdisciplinary team of researchers from eight countries met in Johannesburg to exchange ideas about the scientific objectives and a drilling strategy to achieve them. The workshop identified drilling targets in each of the three main lobes of the Bushveld Complex, which will integrate existing drill cores with new boreholes to establish permanently curated and accessible reference profiles of the Bushveld Complex. Coordinated studies of this material will address fundamental questions related to the origin and evolution of parental Bushveld magma(s), the magma chamber processes that caused layering and ore formation, and the role of crust vs. mantle in the genesis of Bushveld granites and felsic volcanic units. Other objectives are to study geophysical and geodynamic aspects of the Bushveld intrusion, including crustal stresses and thermal gradient, and to determine the nature of deep groundwater systems and the biology of subsurface microbial communities.

  18. Isotopic evolution of Mauna Kea volcano: Results from the initial phase of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lassiter, J.C.; DePaolo, D.J.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopic compositions of Mauna Kea lavas recovered by the first drilling phase of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project. These lavas, which range in age from ???200 to 400 ka, provide a detailed record of chemical and isotopic changes in basalt composition during the shied/postshield transition and extend our record of Mauna Kea volcanism to a late-shield period roughly equivalent to the last ???100 ka of Mauna Loa activity. Stratigraphic variations in isotopic composition reveal a gradual shift over time toward a more depleted source composition (e.g., higher 143Nd/144Nd, lower 87Sr/86Sr, and lower 3He/4He). This gradual evolution is in sharp contrast with the abrupt appearance of alkalic lavas at ???240 ka recorded by the upper 50 m of Mauna Kea lavas from the core. Intercalated tholeiitic and alkalic lavas from the uppermost Mauna Kea section are isotopically indistinguishable. Combined with major element evidence (e.g., decreasing SiO2 and increasing FeO) that the depth of melt segregation increased during the transition from tholeiitic to alkalic volcanism, the isotopic similarity of tholeiitic and alkalic lavas argues against significant lithosphere involvement during melt generation. Instead, the depleted isotopic signatures found in late shield-stage lavas are best explained by increasing the proportion of melt generated from a depleted upper mantle component entrained and heated by the rising central plume. Direct comparison of Mauna Kea and Mauna Loa lavas erupted at equivalent stages in these volcanoes' life cycles reveals persistent chemical and isotopic differences independent of the temporal evolution of each volcano. The oldest lavas recovered from the drillcore are similar to modern Kilauea lavas, but are distinct from Mauna Loa lavas. Mauna Kea lavas have higher 143Nd/144Nd and 206Pb/204Pb and lower 87Sr/86Sr. Higher concentrations of incompatible trace elements in primary magmas, lower SiO2, and higher FeO also

  19. Reactive fluid transport in CO2 reservoir caprocks: constraints from scientific drilling of a natural CO2 reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampman, N.; Bickle, M. J.; Bertier, P.; Busch, A.; Chapman, H.; Evans, J. P.; Graham, C.; Harrington, J.; Maskell, A.

    2013-12-01

    The long-term performance of reservoir caprocks in geological CO2 storage sites remains uncertain due to the poorly constrained nature of field-scale fluid-mineral reaction kinetics and CO2 transport processes in low permeability rocks. Predicting the nature, rates and impacts of CO2 penetration into the caprocks from numerical modelling studies maybe undermined by their reliance on laboratory derived reaction kinetics from short-term experiments, and the complexity of the coupled reactive transport processes at the nano- and micro-scale. We report here on the early results from scientific drilling and laboratory analysis of the caprocks of a stacked sequence of natural CO2 reservoir at Green River, Utah. In summer 2012, diamond drilling to a depth of 325m, adjacent to a CO2 degassing normal fault recovered core from two major CO2 reservoirs in the Entrada and Navajo Sandstones and from the intervening Carmel Formation regional caprock. In-situ pH, CO2 concentrations and fluid element and isotope geochemistry were determined from wireline downhole sampling of pressurized fluids from the reservoirs. The fluid geochemistry provides important constraints on reservoir filling by flow of CO2-charged brines through the fault damage zone, macro-scale fluid flow in the reservoirs and the state of fluid-mineral thermodynamic disequilibrium from which the nature of the fluid-mineral reactions can be interpreted. Mineralogical, geochemical and petrophysical profiles through portions of the caprocks in contact with the CO2-charged reservoirs have been used to constrain the nature and penetration depths of the CO2-promoted fluid-mineral reaction fronts. The major reactions are the dissolution of diagenetic dolomite cements and hematite grain coatings which generate porosity in the caprocks. Analysis of the generated pore structure from a variety of analytical techniques will be discussed. Stable C- and O-isotopic shifts in the composition of the carbonate cements record their

  20. 33 CFR 146.125 - Emergency drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency drills. 146.125 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.125 Emergency drills. (a) Emergency drills shall be conducted at least once each month by the person in charge of the manned facility. The drill...

  1. 33 CFR 146.125 - Emergency drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emergency drills. 146.125 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.125 Emergency drills. (a) Emergency drills shall be conducted at least once each month by the person in charge of the manned facility. The drill...

  2. 33 CFR 146.125 - Emergency drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency drills. 146.125 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.125 Emergency drills. (a) Emergency drills shall be conducted at least once each month by the person in charge of the manned facility. The drill...

  3. 33 CFR 146.125 - Emergency drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emergency drills. 146.125 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.125 Emergency drills. (a) Emergency drills shall be conducted at least once each month by the person in charge of the manned facility. The drill...

  4. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  5. Drill, Baby, Drill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerkhoff, Todd

    2009-01-01

    School fire drills are quickly becoming insignificant and inconvenient to school administrators. When the time for the monthly fire drill rolls around, it is often performed with a "let's get this over with" attitude. Although all schools conduct fire drills, seldom do they effectively train students and staff members how to respond in a real…

  6. Active seismic monitoring of changes of the reflection response of a crystalline shear zone due to fluid injection in the crust at the Continental Deep Drilling Site, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beilecke, T.; Kurt, B.; Stefan, B.

    2005-12-01

    In theory and in the laboratory variations of the hydraulic pressure can be detected with seismic methods: A lowering of the hydraulic pressure leads to the closure of micro-cracks within the rock (increase of the differential or effective pressure). Subsequently, the seismic velocities increase. An increase of the hydraulic pressure leads to reverse seismic effects. Consequently, seismic impedance contrasts and associated reflection amplitudes vary in the case of a propagating fluid pressure front in a rock matrix with inhomogeneous permeability - as is the case at shear zones. The largest amplitude changes can be expected with vertical ray inclination on the impedance contrast. Generally, the expected effects are small however (Kaselow, 2004). The practical utilization of active seismics for the detection of pressure changes at large scale in hard rock is currently being studied at the Continental Deep Drilling Site (KTB). The injection of water (200 l/min) in a depth of about 4000 m into the so-called SE2 shear zone in the KTB pilot hole was monitored with active seismics between May 2004 and April 2005. The core of the experiment layout is a fixed 5-arm geophone array consisting of 24 3-component geophones, buried at about 70 cm depth. The source signal is a vertical vibrator sweep of 30 s length with the spectrum 30-120 Hz. The signal is sent into the ground 32 times during each cycle, detected with the array and recorded separately for each geophone channel, without prior correlation with the source signal. This allows maximum post-processing with seismic processing and analysis tools and especially permits the use of array properties to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. Critical parameters of the experiment are the repeatability of the source signal as well as the stability of the receiver properties. Another pivot is the hydraulic pressure and its distribution built up within the rock matrix. Estimations based on model calculations show that a change of

  7. Compositional variation within thick (>10 m) flow units of Mauna Kea Volcano cored by the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shichun; Vollinger, Michael J.; Frey, Frederick A.; Rhodes, J. Michael; Zhang, Qun

    2016-07-01

    Geochemical analyses of stratigraphic sequences of lava flows are necessary to understand how a volcano works. Typically one sample from each lava flow is collected and studied with the assumption that this sample is representative of the flow composition. This assumption may not be valid. The thickness of flows ranges from <1 to >100 m. Geochemical heterogeneity in thin flows may be created by interaction with the surficial environment whereas magmatic processes occurring during emplacement may create geochemical heterogeneities in thick flows. The Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) cored ∼3.3 km of basalt erupted at Mauna Kea Volcano. In order to determine geochemical heterogeneities in a flow, multiple samples from four thick (9.3-98.4 m) HSDP flow units were analyzed for major and trace elements. We found that major element abundances in three submarine flow units are controlled by the varying proportion of olivine, the primary phenocryst phase in these samples. Post-magmatic alteration of a subaerial flow led to loss of SiO2, CaO, Na2O, K2O and P2O5, and as a consequence, contents of immobile elements, such as Fe2O3 and Al2O3, increase. The mobility of SiO2 is important because Mauma Kea shield lavas divide into two groups that differ in SiO2 content. Post-magmatic mobility of SiO2 adds complexity to determining if these groups reflect differences in source or process. The most mobile elements during post-magmatic subaerial and submarine alteration are K and Rb, and Ba, Sr and U were also mobile, but their abundances are not highly correlated with K and Rb. The Ba/Th ratio has been used to document an important role for a plagioclase-rich source component for basalt from the Galapagos, Iceland and Hawaii. Although Ba/Th is anomalously high in Hawaiian basalt, variation in Ba abundance within a single flow shows that it is not a reliable indicator of a deep source component. In contrast, ratios involving elements that are typically immobile, such as La

  8. Olivine compositions from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project, Phase 2: Evidence for a peridotite mantle source region

    SciTech Connect

    Putirka, K D; Ryerson, F J

    2008-10-27

    To the extent that mantle plumes reflect whole mantle convection, Hawaii may provide the clearest window into Earth's lower mantle. Samples from the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) thus provide valuable tests for models of mantle mineralogy and composition. In this vein, it has been argued recently that Hawaiian olivines, especially those from the shield-building phase as sampled by HSDP, are so high in Ni (Sobolev et al., 2005, 2007), and that Hawaiian whole rocks are so low in CaO (Herzberg, 2006) and high in SiO{sub 2} (Hauri, 1996) that a peridotite mantle source cannot generate such compositions. The Hawaiian plume, so the argument goes, is thus supposedly rich in pyroxenite, and possibly olivine-free. However, comparisons of HSDP olivines to lherzolites, and HSDP whole rocks to lherzolites and partial melting experiments belie these premises. Testable predictions of the pyroxenite model also fail. New comparisons instead show that Hawaiian lavas can be produced from a peridotite source. First, it is unclear that the Hawaiian source is enriched in NiO. The NiO contents of olivines hosted by lherzolites (GEOROC) have the same range as olivines from the HSDP; indeed, the maximum NiO for olivines from lherzolites (0.6 wt.%) is as high as that reported for olivines from any oceanic volcano locality. There is a compositional separation between lherzolite- and HSDP-hosted olivines. But HSDP olivines are not NiO enriched so much as lherzolite olivines are higher in Fo at a given NiO. Lower Fo contents at Hawaii (at a given NiO) ensue because olivine compositions there follow a liquid line of descent, where both Ni and Mg decrease with differentiation. In contrast, subsolidus equilibria involving orthopyroxene enforce a higher and less variable Fo content for lherzolite-derived olivines. Moreover, the pyroxenite mantle model predicts that whole rocks with low CaO and high SiO{sub 2} should host olivines with high NiO. But in HSDP samples, neither correlation

  9. Use of spectral gamma ray as a lithology guide for fault rocks: A case study from the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project Borehole 4 (WFSD-4).

    PubMed

    Amara Konaté, Ahmed; Pan, Heping; Ma, Huolin; Qin, Zhen; Guo, Bo; Yevenyo Ziggah, Yao; Kounga, Claude Ernest Moussounda; Khan, Nasir; Tounkara, Fodé

    2017-10-01

    The main purpose of the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific drilling project (WFSD) was to produce an in-depth borehole into the Yingxiu-Beichuan (YBF) and Anxian-Guanxian faults in order to gain a much better understanding of the physical and chemical properties as well as the mechanical faulting involved. Five boreholes, namely WFSD-1, WFSD-2, WFSD-3P, WFSD-3 and WFSD-4, were drilled during the project entirety. This study, therefore, presents first-hand WFSD-4 data on the lithology (original rocks) and fault rocks that have been obtained from the WFSD project. In an attempt to determine the physical properties and the clay minerals of the lithology and fault rocks, this study analyzed the spectral gamma ray logs (Total gamma ray, Potassium, Thorium and Uranium) recorded in WFSD-4 borehole on the Northern segment of the YBF. The obtained results are presented as cross-plots and statistical multi log analysis. Both lithology and fault rocks show a variability of spectral gamma ray (SGR) logs responses and clay minerals. This study has shown the capabilities of the SGR logs for well-logging of earthquake faults and proves that SGR logs together with others logs in combination with drill hole core description is a useful method of lithology and fault rocks characterization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Submarine record of volcanic island construction and collapse in the Lesser Antilles arc: First scientific drilling of submarine volcanic island landslides by IODP Expedition 340

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Friant, A.; Ishizuka, O.; Boudon, G.; Palmer, M. R.; Talling, P. J.; Villemant, B.; Adachi, T.; Aljahdali, M.; Breitkreuz, C.; Brunet, M.; Caron, B.; Coussens, M.; Deplus, C.; Endo, D.; Feuillet, N.; Fraas, A. J.; Fujinawa, A.; Hart, M. B.; Hatfield, R. G.; Hornbach, M.; Jutzeler, M.; Kataoka, K. S.; Komorowski, J.-C.; Lebas, E.; Lafuerza, S.; Maeno, F.; Manga, M.; Martínez-Colón, M.; McCanta, M.; Morgan, S.; Saito, T.; Slagle, A.; Sparks, S.; Stinton, A.; Stroncik, N.; Subramanyam, K. S. V.; Tamura, Y.; Trofimovs, J.; Voight, B.; Wall-Palmer, D.; Wang, F.; Watt, S. F. L.

    2015-02-01

    IODP Expedition 340 successfully drilled a series of sites offshore Montserrat, Martinique and Dominica in the Lesser Antilles from March to April 2012. These are among the few drill sites gathered around volcanic islands, and the first scientific drilling of large and likely tsunamigenic volcanic island-arc landslide deposits. These cores provide evidence and tests of previous hypotheses for the composition and origin of those deposits. Sites U1394, U1399, and U1400 that penetrated landslide deposits recovered exclusively seafloor sediment, comprising mainly turbidites and hemipelagic deposits, and lacked debris avalanche deposits. This supports the concepts that i/ volcanic debris avalanches tend to stop at the slope break, and ii/ widespread and voluminous failures of preexisting low-gradient seafloor sediment can be triggered by initial emplacement of material from the volcano. Offshore Martinique (U1399 and 1400), the landslide deposits comprised blocks of parallel strata that were tilted or microfaulted, sometimes separated by intervals of homogenized sediment (intense shearing), while Site U1394 offshore Montserrat penetrated a flat-lying block of intact strata. The most likely mechanism for generating these large-scale seafloor sediment failures appears to be propagation of a decollement from proximal areas loaded and incised by a volcanic debris avalanche. These results have implications for the magnitude of tsunami generation. Under some conditions, volcanic island landslide deposits composed of mainly seafloor sediment will tend to form smaller magnitude tsunamis than equivalent volumes of subaerial block-rich mass flows rapidly entering water. Expedition 340 also successfully drilled sites to access the undisturbed record of eruption fallout layers intercalated with marine sediment which provide an outstanding high-resolution data set to analyze eruption and landslides cycles, improve understanding of magmatic evolution as well as offshore sedimentation

  11. Ocean Drilling Program: Results from tenth year of drilling operations

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinowitz, P.D.; Francis, T.J.G.; Baldauf, J.G.; Coyne, J.C.; McPherson, R.G.; Merrill, R.B.; Olivas, R.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) has completed 61 internationally staffed expeditions and ten years of scientific ocean drilling in search of answers relating to the tectonic evolution of passive and active continental margins, origin and evolution of oceanic crust, origin and evolution of marine sedimentary sequences, and paleoceanography. To address these problems, ODP has made numerous advances in technology for retrieval of continuous undisturbed cores under hostile environmental conditions. ODP curates over 198 km of cored material and associated scientific data bases and publishes results of the scientific expeditions in a continuous series of Proceedings volumes. During its tenth year, ODP continued its pioneering exploration in the Atlantic Ocean. This paper reviews the drilling activities associated with the Atlantic Leg of the project. It focuses on volcanic rifted margins and magma emplacement; the chemical composition and evolution of the lower crust and mantle; depth transect reconstruction for a variety of temporal resolutions; research on the Amazon deep-sea fan and associated paleoclimatology; temporal and spatial scales of fluid flow, the role of faults in fluid transport, and the relationships between mechanical state and seismicity in the northern Barbados accretionary prism; and the history of volcanic activity in the Canary Hotspot, the detailed evolution of large volcanic oceanic islands, the growth of volcanic aprons and the filling of the distal Madeira Abyssal Plain. Finally, Leg 158 investigated fluid flow, alteration and mineralization and associated geochemical fluxes, microbiological processes and the subsurface mixture of an active hydrothermal system on a slow spreading, sediment-free mid-ocean ridge (TAG area -- Mid Atlantic Ridge).

  12. Modeling pellet impact drilling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovalyov, A. V.; Ryabchikov, S. Ya; Isaev, Ye D.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2016-03-01

    The paper describes pellet impact drilling which could be used to increase the drilling speed and the rate of penetration when drilling hard rocks. Pellet impact drilling implies rock destruction by metal pellets with high kinetic energy in the immediate vicinity of the earth formation encountered. The pellets are circulated in the bottom hole by a high velocity fluid jet, which is the principle component of the ejector pellet impact drill bit. The experiments conducted has allowed modeling the process of pellet impact drilling, which creates the scientific and methodological basis for engineering design of drilling operations under different geo-technical conditions.

  13. Scientific Discoveries in the Central Arctic Ocean Based on Seafloor Mapping Carried out to Support Article 76 Extended Continental Shelf Claims (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Mayer, L. A.; Marcussen, C.

    2013-12-01

    Despite the last decades of diminishing sea-ice cover in the Arctic Ocean, ship operations are only possible in vast sectors of the central Arctic using the most capable polar-class icebreakers. There are less than a handful of these icebreakers outfitted with modern seafloor mapping equipment. This implies either fierce competition between those having an interest in using these icebreakers for investigations of the shape and properties of Arctic Ocean seafloor or, preferably, collaboration. In this presentation examples will be shown of scientific discoveries based on mapping data collected during Arctic Ocean icebreaker expeditions carried out for the purpose of substantiating claims for an extended continental shelf under United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) Article 76. Scientific results will be presented from the suite of Lomonosov Ridge off Greenland (LOMROG) expeditions (2007, 2009, and 2012), shedding new light on Arctic Ocean oceanography and glacial history. The Swedish icebreaker Oden was used in collaboration between Sweden and Denmark during LOMROG to map and sample portions of the central Arctic Ocean; specifically focused on the Lomonosov Ridge north of Greenland. While the main objective of the Danish participation was seafloor and sub-seabed mapping to substantiate their Article 76 claim, LOMROG also included several scientific components, with scientists from both countries involved. Other examples to be presented are based on data collected using US Coast Guard Cutter Healy, which for several years has carried out mapping in the western Arctic Ocean for the US continental shelf program. All bathymetric data collected with Oden and Healy have been contributed to the International Bathymetric Chart of the Arctic Ocean (IBCAO). This is also the case for bathymetric data collected by Canadian Coast Guard Ship Louis S. St-Laurent for Canada's extended continental shelf claim. Together, the bathymetric data collected during these

  14. 78 FR 48180 - Consolidation of Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection For Outer Continental Shelf Activities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... for all Mobile Offshore Drilling Units and Floating Outer Continental Shelf Facilities (as defined in... Commander. Vessels requiring Coast Guard inspection include Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs), Floating...

  15. 30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling requirements. 250.1605 Section 250... SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1605 Drilling requirements. (a) Lessees of OCS sulphur leases shall conduct drilling operations in accordance with §§ 250.1605 through...

  16. 33 CFR 146.125 - Emergency drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency drills. 146.125 Section... CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.125 Emergency drills. (a) Emergency drills shall be conducted at least once each month by the person in charge of the manned facility. The...

  17. The Towuti Drilling Project: paleoenvironments, biological evolution, and geomicrobiology of a tropical Pacific lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, James M.; Bijaksana, Satria; Vogel, Hendrik; Melles, Martin; Kallmeyer, Jens; Ariztegui, Daniel; Crowe, Sean; Fajar, Silvia; Hafidz, Abdul; Haffner, Doug; Hasberg, Ascelina; Ivory, Sarah; Kelly, Christopher; King, John; Kirana, Kartika; Morlock, Marina; Noren, Anders; O'Grady, Ryan; Ordonez, Luis; Stevenson, Janelle; von Rintelen, Thomas; Vuillemin, Aurele; Watkinson, Ian; Wattrus, Nigel; Wicaksono, Satrio; Wonik, Thomas; Bauer, Kohen; Deino, Alan; Friese, André; Henny, Cynthia; Imran; Marwoto, Ristiyanti; Ode Ngkoimani, La; Nomosatryo, Sulung; Ode Safiuddin, La; Simister, Rachel; Tamuntuan, Gerald

    2016-07-01

    The Towuti Drilling Project (TDP) is an international research program, whose goal is to understand long-term environmental and climatic change in the tropical western Pacific, the impacts of geological and environmental changes on the biological evolution of aquatic taxa, and the geomicrobiology and biogeochemistry of metal-rich, ultramafic-hosted lake sediments through the scientific drilling of Lake Towuti, southern Sulawesi, Indonesia. Lake Towuti is a large tectonic lake at the downstream end of the Malili lake system, a chain of five highly biodiverse lakes that are among the oldest lakes in Southeast Asia. In 2015 we carried out a scientific drilling program on Lake Towuti using the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) Deep Lakes Drilling System (DLDS). We recovered a total of ˜ 1018 m of core from 11 drilling sites with water depths ranging from 156 to 200 m. Recovery averaged 91.7 %, and the maximum drilling depth was 175 m below the lake floor, penetrating the entire sedimentary infill of the basin. Initial data from core and borehole logging indicate that these cores record the evolution of a highly dynamic tectonic and limnological system, with clear indications of orbital-scale climate variability during the mid- to late Pleistocene.

  18. Lithological and structural characterization of the Longmen Shan fault belt from the 3rd hole of the Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD-3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haibing; Wang, Huan; Yang, Guang; Xu, Zhiqin; Li, Tianfu; Si, Jialiang; Sun, Zhiming; Huang, Yao; Chevalier, Marie-Luce; Zhang, Wenjing; Zhang, Jiajia

    2016-11-01

    Drilling in an active fault quickly after a large earthquake is an effective way to study earthquake mechanisms. In order to better understand the mechanical, physical, and chemical characteristics of the faults that ruptured during the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9), six boreholes were drilled on the two main strands (Yingxiu-Beichuan and Guanxian-Anxian faults) by the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling project (WFSD). This paper focuses on the cores from the WFSD-3 borehole which drilled across the Guanxian-Anxian fault. A detailed petrological study shows that fault gouge and fault breccia are developed in the WFSD-3 cores in the Late Triassic Xujiahe Formation. The thicknesses of fault gouge range from 1 mm to 2.3 m. According to the characteristics of the fault rock combinations and their distribution, at least 22 subsidiary fault zones were recognized in the WFSD-3 cores. The Guanxian-Anxian fault zone is composed of fault rocks from 1192 to 1250.09 m depth, with a real thickness of 50 m ( 60 m thick in the WFSD-3 cores), and an actual damage zone of 160 m ( 980-1192 m depth in the WFSD-3 cores), and shows characteristics of multiple high-strain fault cores. The damage zone is only present in the hanging wall. The actual total thickness of the Guanxian-Anxian fault zone is 210 m. Based on the analyses of comprehensive logging data, characteristics of the fault gouge, and seismic fault structures, the principal slip zone for the Wenchuan earthquake is identified in the black fault gouge at 1249.95 m depth in the cores, which lies almost at the bottom of the Guanxian-Anxian fault zone, and is also confirmed by surface rupture zone observations. The slip plane of the Wenchuan earthquake is a low-angle thrust fault with a dip angle of 38° as estimated from the results of the WFSD-3 core analyses. The results from WFSD-1 showed that the Yingxiu-Beichuan segment is a high-angle thrust fault striking NW with a dip angle of 65°. These two fault

  19. Tidal control on gas flux from the Precambrian continental bedrock revealed by gas monitoring at the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Wiersberg, Thomas; Korhonen, Kimmo; Pullinen, Arto

    2017-04-01

    Deep groundwaters within Precambrian shields are characteristically enriched in non-atmospheric gases. High concentrations of methane are frequently observed especially in graphite bearing metasedimentary rocks and accumulation of hydrogen and noble gases due to water-rock interaction and radioactive decay within the U, Th and K containing bedrock takes place. These gases can migrate not only through fractures and faults, but also through tunnels and boreholes, thereby potentially mobilizing hazardous compounds for example from underground nuclear waste repositories. Better understanding on fluid migration may also provide tools to monitor changes in bedrock properties such as fracture density or deterioration and failure of engineered barriers. In order to study gas migration mechanisms and variations with time, we conducted a gas monitoring campaign in eastern Finland within the Precambrian Fennoscandian Shield. At the study site, the Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole (2516 m), spontaneous bubbling of gases at the well head has been on-going since the drilling was completed in 2005, i.e. over a decade. The drill hole is open below 39 m. In the experiment an inflatable packer was placed 15 cm above the water table inside the collar (Ø 32.4 cm), gas from below the packer was collected and the gas flow in the pipe line carefully assisted by pumping (130 ml/min). Composition of gas was monitored on-line for one month using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) with measurement interval of one minute. Changes in the hydraulic head and in situ temperature were simultaneously recorded with two pressure sensors which were placed 1 m apart from each other below the packer such that they remained above and below the water table. In addition, data was compared with atmospheric pressure data and theoretical effect of Earth tides at the study site. Methane was the dominant gas emanating from the bedrock, however, relative gas composition fluctuated with time. Subsurface derived gases

  20. Initial faulting age of the Longmen Shan thrust fault belt: Paleo-earthquake information from Scientific Drilling (WFSD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Li, H.; Sun, Z.; Si, J.; Huang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The Longmen Shan thrust fault belt has got much more attention after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, but there is still no accordant cognition about its formation age. The frequently fault activities of the Longmen Shan thrust fault belt have triggered several strong ancient seismic activities in the geological history, and induced unconsolidated soft-sediment deformed. Soft-sediment deformation structures formed during or shortly after deposition are important indicators of past seismic activity. These structures are a direct response to processes of fluid escape during liquefaction and fluidization related to past seismic activity in the area, suggest they could play an important role in analyzing the distribution and intensity of ancient tectonic activity. Many layers of conglomerate with peculiar shapes of breccias occur in the Xujiahe Formation sediments in the WFSD-1 drilling core. The peculiar conglomerate layers spaced at irregular intervals, which can be classified into 4 groups, from top to bottom, the depths are: 759.03-812.48 m, 932.8-978 m, 991.88-1025.25 m and 1097.4-1156.51 m. The breccias in the peculiar conglomerate are mostly black calcareous fine-grained siltstone, with the sizes varying from a few millimeters to dozens of centimeters, mostly are 1-5 cm. The cementing material is fine-grained quartz sandstone (particle diameter: 0.05-0.2 mm). The content of the calcareous siltstone breccia in sandstone is about 5-60%. The breccias vary in their morphology and pattern, such as embay structure, small irregular flame structure, liquefied droplet and homogeneous layer. Those are typical liquefied deformation features caused by earthquake without remote transport. The original rock is alternating layers of black calcium siltstone and yellow-grey fine-grained sandstone, formed below epicontinental sea wave base. Strong earthquake triggered the fine-grained sandstone liquefied, then traversed and flowed into the soft sedimentary siltstone layer made it

  1. Hydrogeology of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project borehole KP-1 -- 2. Groundwater geochemistry and regional flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.; Paillet, F.L.; Conrad, M.E.

    1995-11-01

    A series of downhole and surface water samples were taken from the I-km-deep KP-1 borehole located on the eastern flank of the island of Hawaii. Early samples from depths of more than 700 m showed salinities nearly equivalent to seawater but having anomalous cation concentrations that are attributed to ion exchange between formation fluids and residual drilling mud clays. Later deep samples found only minor variations from seawater cation chemistry that are consistent with low-temperature weathering of basalts; delta(18)O values are equivalent to seawater values and are consistent with this interpretation. Carbon 14 activities of dissolved inorganic carbonate indicate a water age ranging from 5890 to 7170 years B.P. and fluid transport rates of 1.8 to 2.2 m/yr. Fluid samples from perforations at 310 m in the borehole demonstrate that a freshwater aquifer is present at the Mauna Kea/Mauna Loa interface; borehole resistivity logs indicate that it is similar to 200 m thick. Although it ha s not yet been possible to obtain samples of the freshwater zone without contamination from the deep saline fluids, the chloride concentrations of the low-salinity zone are estimated using a mixing enthalpy calculation to be less than 100 mg/L. Light stable isotope data indicate that the fresh water at 320 m is derived from recharge entering the island at an average elevation of 2000 m. Inferred C-14 activities of the dissolved bicarbonate in the freshwater zone indicate an average calibrated age of 2200 years B.P. and an average fluid velocity of at least 14 m/yr. A regional water flow model is proposed that suggests that the fresh water found at the 320-m depth is derived from rainfall recharge from the middle elevations of Mauna Kea volcano. This rainfall is channeled beneath the Mauna Loa lavas by the thick soil layer separating the two volcanoes. A second shallow fresh-to-brackish water zone, derived from Mauna Loa recharge, is also inferred to exist below the carbonate

  2. Hydrogeology of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project borehole KP-1 2. Groundwater geochemistry and regional flow patterns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, D.M.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Conrad, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    A series of downhole and surface water samples were taken from the 1-km-deep KP-1 borehole located on the eastern flank of the island of Hawaii. Early samples from depths of more than 700 m showed salinities nearly equivalent to seawater but having anomalous cation concentrations that are attributed to ion exchange between formation fluids and residual drilling mud clays. Later deep samples found only minor variations from seawater cation chemistry that are consistent with low-temperature weathering of basalts; ??18O values are equivalent to seawater values and are consistent with this interpretation. Carbon 14 activities of dissolved inorganic carbonate indicate a water age ranging from 5890 to 7170 years B.P. and fluid transport rates of 1.8 to 2.2 m/yr. Fluid samples from perforations at 310 m in the borehole demonstrate that a freshwater aquifer is present at the Mauna Kea/Mauna Loa interface; borehole resistivity logs indicate that it is ???200 m thick. Although it has not yet been possible to obtain samples of the freshwater zone without contamination from the deep saline fluids, the chloride concentrations of the low-salinity zone are estimated using a mixing enthalpy calculation to be less than 100 mg/L. Light stable isotope data indicate that the fresh water at 320 m is derived from recharge entering the island at an average elevation of 2000 m. Inferred 14C activities of the dissolved bicarbonate in the freshwater zone indicate an average calibrated age of 2200 years B.P. and an average fluid velocity of at least 14 m/yr. A regional water flow model is proposed that suggests that the fresh water found at the 320-m depth is derived from rainfall recharge from the middle elevations of Mauna Kea volcano. This rainfall is channeled beneath the Mauna Loa lavas by the thick soil layer separating the two volcanoes. A second shallow fresh-to-brackish water zone, derived from Mauna Loa recharge, is also inferred to exist below the carbonate formation that

  3. Hydrogeology of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project borehole KP-1 -- 2. Groundwater geochemistry and regional flow patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.M.; Paillet, F.L.; Conrad, M.E.

    1995-11-01

    A series of downhole and surface water samples were taken from the I-km-deep KP-1 borehole located on the eastern flank of the island of Hawaii. Early samples from depths of more than 700 m showed salinities nearly equivalent to seawater but having anomalous cation concentrations that are attributed to ion exchange between formation fluids and residual drilling mud clays. Later deep samples found only minor variations from seawater cation chemistry that are consistent with low-temperature weathering of basalts; delta(18)O values are equivalent to seawater values and are consistent with this interpretation. Carbon 14 activities of dissolved inorganic carbonate indicate a water age ranging from 5890 to 7170 years B.P. and fluid transport rates of 1.8 to 2.2 m/yr. Fluid samples from perforations at 310 m in the borehole demonstrate that a freshwater aquifer is present at the Mauna Kea/Mauna Loa interface; borehole resistivity logs indicate that it is similar to 200 m thick. Although it ha s not yet been possible to obtain samples of the freshwater zone without contamination from the deep saline fluids, the chloride concentrations of the low-salinity zone are estimated using a mixing enthalpy calculation to be less than 100 mg/L. Light stable isotope data indicate that the fresh water at 320 m is derived from recharge entering the island at an average elevation of 2000 m. Inferred C-14 activities of the dissolved bicarbonate in the freshwater zone indicate an average calibrated age of 2200 years B.P. and an average fluid velocity of at least 14 m/yr. A regional water flow model is proposed that suggests that the fresh water found at the 320-m depth is derived from rainfall recharge from the middle elevations of Mauna Kea volcano. This rainfall is channeled beneath the Mauna Loa lavas by the thick soil layer separating the two volcanoes. A second shallow fresh-to-brackish water zone, derived from Mauna Loa recharge, is also inferred to exist below the carbonate

  4. Hydrogeology of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project borehole KP-1: 2. Groundwater geochemistry and regional flow patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Paillet, F. L.; Conrad, M. E.

    1996-05-01

    A series of downhole and surface water samples were taken from the 1-km-deep KP-1 borehole located on the eastern flank of the island of Hawaii. Early samples from depths of more than 700 m showed salinities nearly equivalent to seawater but having anomalous cation concentrations that are attributed to ion exchange between formation fluids and residual drilling mud clays. Later deep samples found only minor variations from seawater cation chemistry that are consistent with low-temperature weathering of basalts; δ18O values are equivalent to seawater values and are consistent with this interpretation. Carbon 14 activities of dissolved inorganic carbonate indicate a water age ranging from 5890 to 7170 years B.P. and fluid transport rates of 1.8 to 2.2 m/yr. Fluid samples from perforations at 310 m in the borehole demonstrate that a freshwater aquifer is present at the Mauna Kea/Mauna Loa interface; borehole resistivity logs indicate that it is ˜200 m thick. Although it has not yet been possible to obtain samples of the freshwater zone without contamination from the deep saline fluids, the chloride concentrations of the low-salinity zone are estimated using a mixing enthalpy calculation to be less than 100 mg/L. Light stable isotope data indicate that the fresh water at 320 m is derived from recharge entering the island at an average elevation of 2000 m. Inferred 14C activities of the dissolved bicarbonate in the freshwater zone indicate an average calibrated age of 2200 years B.P. and an average fluid velocity of at least 14 m/yr. A regional water flow model is proposed that suggests that the fresh water found at the 320-m depth is derived from rainfall recharge from the middle elevations of Mauna Kea volcano. This rainfall is channeled beneath the Mauna Loa lavas by the thick soil layer separating the two volcanoes. A second shallow fresh-to-brackish water zone, derived from Mauna Loa recharge, is also inferred to exist below the carbonate formation that underlies

  5. 30 CFR 250.463 - Who establishes field drilling rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Who establishes field drilling rules? 250.463... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.463 Who establishes field drilling rules? (a) The District...

  6. 30 CFR 250.463 - Who establishes field drilling rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Who establishes field drilling rules? 250.463... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.463 Who establishes field drilling rules? (a) The District...

  7. 30 CFR 250.463 - Who establishes field drilling rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who establishes field drilling rules? 250.463... INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.463 Who establishes field drilling rules? (a) The District...

  8. 30 CFR 250.463 - Who establishes field drilling rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Who establishes field drilling rules? 250.463... GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.463 Who establishes field drilling rules? (a) The District Manager...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1612 - Well-control drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Well-control drills. 250.1612 Section 250.1612... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur Operations § 250.1612 Well-control drills. Well-control drills shall be conducted for each drilling crew in accordance with the requirements set forth in §...

  10. Research drilling at Katmai, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, John C.; Hildreth, Wes

    1986-10-01

    Drilling observations made in a young igneous system following a single, recent, well-described volcanic event can greatly improve our understanding of magmatic and hydrothermal processes and of the rates at which these processes operate. A group of geoscientists (Table 1) has been working since May 1985 to formulate and advance a plan for research at the site of the historically important 1912 eruption at Katmai, Alaska, as part of the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP). The plan was presented at the June 12-13, 1986, CSDP Workshop, held in Rapid City, S.Dak., and has now entered a more formal proposal development stage for consideration by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, and U.S. Geological Survey as an interagency effort. This report is provided to inform the geoscience community of the rationale for CSDP research at Katmai and of the forthcoming opportunities for participation in this multidisciplinary effort in the field of magmatic processes.

  11. Paleomagnetic and Magnetostratigraphic Studies in Drilling Projects of Impact Craters - Recent Studies, Challenges and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Velasco-Villarreal, M.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.

    2013-05-01

    Paleomagnetic studies have long been successfully carried out in drilling projects, to characterize the borehole columns and to investigate the subsurface structure and stratigraphy. Magnetic susceptibility logging and magnetostratigraphic studies provide data for lateral correlation, formation evaluation, azimuthal core orientation, physical properties, etc., and are part of the tools available in the ocean and continental drilling programs. The inclusion of continuous core recovery in scientific drilling projects have greatly expanded the range of potential applications of paleomagnetic and rock magnetic studies, by allowing laboratory measurements on core samples. For this presentation, we concentrate on drilling studies of impact structures and their usefulness for documenting the structure, stratigraphy and physical properties at depth. There are about 170-180 impact craters documented in the terrestrial record, which is a small number compared to what is observed in the Moon, Mars, Venus and other bodies of the solar system. Of the terrestrial impact craters, only a few have been studied by drilling. Some craters have been drilled as part of industry exploration surveys and/or academic projects, including notably the Sudbury, Ries, Vredefort, Manson and many other craters. As part of the Continental ICDP program, drilling projects have been conducted on the Chicxulub, Bosumtwi, Chesapeake and El gygytgyn craters. Drilling of terrestrial craters has proved important in documenting the shallow stratigraphy and structure, providing insight on the cratering and impact dynamics. Questions include several that can only be addressed by retrieving core samples and laboratory analyses. Paleomagnetic, rock magnetic and fabric studies have been conducted in the various craters, which are here summarized with emphasis on the Chicxulub crater and Yucatan carbonate platform. Chicxulub is buried under a kilometer of younger sediments, making drilling an essential tool. Oil

  12. The DOE Thermal Regimes Drilling Program through 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    In response to strong endorsement from the scientific community, in the form of a report by the Continental Scientific Drilling Committee of the National Academy of Sciences (CSDC, 1984), the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the DOE undertook a program of investigations of young magmatic intrusions and their associated thermal systems. To date, the effort has encompassed the first phases of a program to investigate the roots of active hydrothermal systems and has also investigated the thermal, chemical, and mechanical behavior of geologically recent (less than 600 years) magmatic extrusions. Shallow to intermediate-depth holes have been drilled and cored into hydrothermal systems in the silicic Valles and Long Valley calderas and at the crustal spreading center of the Salton Trough. These projects are briefly summarized here and are covered in greater detail in the accompanying appendices.

  13. A key continental archive for the last 2 Ma of climatic history of the central Mediterranean region: A pilot drilling in the Fucino Basin, central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaccio, B.; Regattieri, E.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Galli, P.; Mannella, G.; Niespolo, E.; Peronace, E.; Renne, P. R.; Nomade, S.; Cavinato, G. P.; Messina, P.; Sposato, A.; Boschi, C.; Florindo, F.; Marra, F.; Sadori, L.

    2015-12-01

    An 82 m long sedimentary succession was retrieved from the Fucino Basin, the largest intermountain tectonic depression of the central Apennines. The basin hosts a succession of fine-grained lacustrine sediments (ca. 900 m-thick) possibly continuously spanning the last 2 Ma. A preliminary tephrostratigraphy study allows us to ascribe the drilled 82 m long record to the last 180 ka. Multi-proxy geochemical analyses (XRF scanning, total organic/inorganic carbon, nitrogen and sulfur, oxygen isotopes) reveal noticeable variations, which are interpreted as paleohydrological and paleoenvironmental expressions related to classical glacial-interglacial cycles from the marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 to present day. In light of the preliminary results, the Fucino sedimentary succession is likely to provide a long, continuous, sensitive, and independently dated paleoclimatic archive of the central Mediterranean area.

  14. Determination of three-dimensional in situ stresses by anelastic strain recovery in Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project Hole-1 (WFSD-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Junwen; Lin, Weiren; Wang, Lianjie; Gao, Lu; Huang, Yao; Wang, Wei; Sun, Dongsheng; Li, Zongfan; Zhou, Chunjing; Qian, Huashan; Peng, Hua; Xia, Kemei; Li, Ke

    2014-04-01

    The Wenchuan Earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project was implemented rapidly after the great 12 May 2008 earthquake (Mw 7.9) to better understand rupture mechanisms of the seismic faults. The first borehole of the project, WFSD-1 was located in Hongkou Township, Dujiangyan City, Sichuan Province, China on the hanging wall of the Yingxiu-Beichuan fault, which underwent large dextral and vertical displacement during the earthquake. The near-vertical borehole was 1201 m long. In-situ stresses were measured in rock samples from depths between 424 and 1173 m drilling depth by the anelastic strain recovery (ASR) method. The average trend of the maximum principal stress σ1 was N309° (ranging from N291° to N325°), rotated with increasing borehole depth from NW-SE to WNW-ESE. The magnitude of the in-situ maximum principal stress was estimated to be 35.3 MPa at the depth of 1173 m. The relations between horizontal and vertical stresses are vertical stress σv > maximum horizontal stress σH > minimum horizontal stress σh at depths above 424 m, σH > σh > σv at depths from 424 m to 800 m, and σH > σv > σh below the depth of 800 m. These indicate that the stress states are in a normal faulting stress regime above 424 m; a reverse faulting regime from 424 m to 800 m and a dextral strike-slip regime below 800 m. The stress measurements from WFSD-1 are consistent with the focal mechanism solution in which the mainshock was dominated by thrusting accompanied by dextral strike-slip motion. The orientations of σ1 are roughly consistent with the tectonic displacement direction of the Longmenshan area, which provides further evidence of NW-SE movements representing compression of the Songpan-Ganzi block toward the Sichuan basin.

  15. Drill Presses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelbrecht, Nancy; And Others

    These instructional materials provide an orientation to the drill press for use at the postsecondary level. The first of seven sections lists seven types of drill presses. The second section identifies 14 drill press parts. The third section lists 21 rules for safe use of drilling machines. The fourth section identifies the six procedures for…

  16. Ocean drilling ship chosen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    The Sedco/BP 471, owned jointly by Sedco, Inc., of Dallas, Tex., and British Petroleum, has been selected as the drill ship for the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). The contract, with a specified initial term of 4 years with 10 1-year options after that, is expected to be signed by mid March by Texas A&M University, the ODP science operator, and Sedco, Inc. Texas A&M will develop the design for scientific and laboratory spaces aboard the Sedco/BP 471 and will oversee the ship conversion. Testing and shakedown of the ship is scheduled for the coming autumn; the first scientific cruise is scheduled for next January.One year ago, the commercial drilling market sagged, opening up the option for leasing a commercial drill ship (Eos, February 22, 1983, p. 73). Previously, the ship of choice had been the Glomar Explorer; rehabilitating the former CIA salvage ship would have been extremely expensive, however.

  17. Deep drilling in the Chesapeake Bay impact structure - An overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, G.S.; Koeberl, C.; Miller, K.G.; Reimold, W.U.

    2009-01-01

    The late Eocene Chesapeake Bay impact structure lies buried at moderate depths below Chesapeake Bay and surrounding landmasses in southeastern Virginia, USA. Numerous characteristics made this impact structure an inviting target for scientific drilling, including the location of the impact on the Eocene continental shelf, its threelayer target structure, its large size (??85 km diameter), its status as the source of the North American tektite strewn field, its temporal association with other late Eocene terrestrial impacts, its documented effects on the regional groundwater system, and its previously unstudied effects on the deep microbial biosphere. The Chesapeake Bay Impact Structure Deep Drilling Project was designed to drill a deep, continuously cored test hole into the central part of the structure. A project workshop, funding proposals, and the acceptance of those proposals occurred during 2003-2005. Initial drilling funds were provided by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Supplementary funds were provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate, ICDP, and USGS. Field operations were conducted at Eyreville Farm, Northampton County, Virginia, by Drilling, Observation, and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC) and the project staff during September-December 2005, resulting in two continuously cored, deep holes. The USGS and Rutgers University cored a shallow hole to 140 m in April-May 2006 to complete the recovered section from land surface to 1766 m depth. The recovered section consists of 1322 m of crater materials and 444 m of overlying postimpact Eocene to Pleistocene sediments. The crater section consists of, from base to top: basement-derived blocks of crystalline rocks (215 m); a section of suevite, impact melt rock, lithic impact breccia, and cataclasites (154 m); a thin interval of quartz sand and lithic blocks (26 m); a

  18. Development of Autonomous Drills for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, G. L.; Mumm, E.; Kennedy, T.; Chu, P.; Davis, K.; Frader-Thompson, S.; Petrich, K.; Glass, B.

    2006-03-01

    Honeybee Robotics has developed science driven drill systems to allow scientific instruments direct access to the subsurface. Embedded drill segment electronics accommodate sensors and actuators for high rate data transmission to the surface.

  19. 30 CFR 250.414 - What must my drilling prognosis include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must my drilling prognosis include? 250... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Applying for A Permit to Drill § 250.414 What must my drilling prognosis include? Your drilling...

  20. Western USA groundwater drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasechko, S.; Perrone, D.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater in the western US supplies 40% of the water used for irrigated agriculture, and provides drinking water to individuals living in rural regions distal to perennial rivers. Unfortunately, current groundwater use is not sustainable in a number of key food producing regions. While substantial attention has been devoted to mapping groundwater depletion rates across the western US, the response of groundwater users via well drilling to changing land uses, water demands, pump and drilling technologies, pollution vulnerabilities, and economic conditions remains unknown. Here we analyze millions of recorded groundwater drilling events in the western US that span years 1850 to 2015. We show that groundwater wells are being drilled deeper in some, but not all, regions where groundwater levels are declining. Groundwater wells are generally deeper in arid and mountainous regions characterized by deep water tables (e.g., unconfined alluvial and fractured bedrock aquifers), and in regions that have productive aquifers with high water quality deep under the ground (e.g., confined sedimentary aquifers). Further, we relate water quality and groundwater drilling depths in 40 major aquifer systems across the western US. We show that there is substantial room for improvement to the existing 2-D continental-scale assessments of domestic well water vulnerability to pollution if one considers the depth that the domestic well is screened in addition to pollutant loading, surficial geology, and vertical groundwater flow rates. These new continental-scale maps can be used to (i) better assess economic, water quality, and water balance limitations to groundwater usage, (ii) steer domestic well drilling into productive strata bearing clean and protected groundwater resources, and (iii) assess groundwater management schemes across the western US.

  1. Drill report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-12-01

    North Slope drilling activity is described. As of November 14, 1984, four rigs were actively drilling in the Kuparuk River field with another two doing workovers. Only one rig was drilling in the Prudhoe Bay field, with another doing workovers and one on standby.

  2. Rationale for future Antarctic and Southern Ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, Laura; Gohl, Karsten; Larter, Rob; Escutia, Carlota; Ikehara, Minoru; Hong, JongKuk; Naish, Tim; Barrett, Peter; Rack, Frank; Wellner, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Valuable insights into future sensitivity of the Antarctic cryosphere to atmospheric and oceanic warming can be gained from the geologic record of past climatic warm intervals. Continental to deep ocean sediments provide records of contemporaneous changes in ice sheet extent and oceanographic conditions that extend back in time, including periods with atmospheric CO2 levels and temperatures similar to those likely to be reached in the next 100 years. The Circum-Antarctic region is under-sampled respect to scientific ocean drilling. However, recovery from glacially-influenced, continental shelf and rise sediments (expeditions ODP178, 188 and IODP 318), provided excellent records of Cenozoic climate and ice sheet evolution. The ANtarctic DRILLing program achieved >98% recovery on the Ross Sea shelf with a stable platform on fast ice with riser drilling technology. Newer technologies, such as the MeBo shallow drilling rig will further improve Antarctic margin drilling. Drilling around Antarctica in the past decades revealed cooling and regional ice growth during the Cenozoic, coupled with paleogeographic, CO2 atmosphere concentration and global temperature changes. Substantial progress has been made in dating sediments and in the interpretation of paleoclimate/paleoenvironmental proxies in Antarctic margin sediments (e.g. orbital scale variations in Antarctica's cryosphere during the Miocene and Pliocene). Holocene ultra-high resolution shelf sections recently recovered can be correlated to the ice core record, to detect local mechanisms versus inter-hemispheric connections. While the potential for reconstructing past ice sheet history has been demonstrated through a careful integration of geological and geophysical data with numerical ice sheet modelling, uncertainties remain high due to the sparse geographic distribution of the records and the regional variability in the ice sheet's response. Projects developed using a multi-leg, multi-platform approach (e

  3. Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole: Window to the Precambrian bedrock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, Suvi; Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo

    2017-04-01

    Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole is located in eastern Finland, at latitude 62°43'4'' N and longitude 29°3'43'' E. This 2516 m long and fully cored deep hole has been utilized as a geolaboratory open for researchers worldwide since it was drilled in 2004-2005. The 220 mm diameter drill hole is open without a casing (excluding the uppermost 40 m) and thus provides a direct access to in situ conditions to 2.5 km depth. There is a wide range of wire-line logs carried out by the drilling contractor and later by ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) in several logging sessions for geothermal, hydrogeological and deep biosphere studies. Lithology, metamorphism, fluid inclusions, density, magnetic properties, seismic velocities and thermal properties of the drill core have been studied by several international groups. The hole has kept open since the end of drilling enabling future studies to be conducted in it. The drill hole is situated in the southwestern part of the Outokumpu historical mining district famous for its Cu-Co-Zn sulfide deposits. These sulfide deposits are hosted by 1.96 Ga old ophiolitic rock types, known as the Outokumpu assemblage, also penetrated by the deep drill hole at 1314-1515 m depth. Laboratory and in situ petrophysical measurements have provided valuable information about physical properties of the typical rocks of the area that can be utilized in the mineral exploration efforts. The drill site of Outokumpu was chosen based on strong reflectivity observed in the high resolution seismic profiles acquired earlier in the area. Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole revealed that these reflections originate from the acoustic impedance variations caused by the ore hosting Outokumpu assemblage. In 2006, surface seismic reflection and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data were measured in the drill site, and these data show that not only is Outokumpu assemblage rocks reflective but also water bearing fracture at 965 m depth is observed as a

  4. CSDP: The seismology of continental thermal regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Aki, K.

    1990-05-01

    This is a progress report for the past one year of research (year 3 of 5-year project) under the project titled CSDP: Seismology of Continental Thermal Regime'', in which we proposed to develop seismological interpretation theory and methods applicable to complex structures encountered in continental geothermal areas and apply them to several candidate sites for the Continental Scientific Drilling Project. The past year has been extremely productive especially in the area of interpretation theory, including the following two major break-throughs. One is the derivation of an integral equation for time-dependent power spectra, which unified all the existing theories on seismic scattering (including the radiative transfer theory for total energy and single and multiple scattering theories based on the ray approach) and offers more complete and economical solutions to the problems of seismic scattering and attenuation. The other is the new formula for synthetic seismograms for layered media with irregular interfaces, combining the T-matrix method for an arbitrary shaped inclusion and the method of global generalized reflection/transmission coefficients for layered media. Both breakthroughs will enable us to deal with seismic observations in complex earth structures more efficiently and accurately. In the area of experimental studies, we discovered seismic guided waves trapped in the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, California. 54 refs., 14 figs.

  5. Drilling program investigates permafrost gas hydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallimore, Scott R.; Collett, Timothy S.; Weber, Michael; Uchida, Takahashi

    On 25 December 2001, fieldwork began on a new gas hydrate research well program at the northeastern edge of the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada (Figure 1, top). The Mallik research well program of 2001-2002 will drill a 1200-m deep main production research well, and, for the first time, two 1150-m-deep scientific observation wells offset 40 m from the main well (Figure 1, bottom) for geophysical monitoring of the main well. The science and engineering objectives are to assess the production properties of gas hydrates and determine the stability of continental gas hydrates both in terms of past climate warming events and in response to warming trends predicted by various climate change models.

  6. Ocean Drilling Simulation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telese, James A.; Jordan, Kathy

    The Ocean Drilling Project brings together scientists and governments from 20 countries to explore the earth's structure and history as it is revealed beneath the oceans' basins. Scientific expeditions examine rock and sediment cores obtained from the ocean floor to learn about the earth's basic processes. The series of activities in this…

  7. Scientific Drilling at Lake Tanganyika, Africa: A Transformative Record for Understanding Evolution in Isolation and the Biological History of the African Continent, University of Basel, 6-8 June 2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Andrew S.; Salzburger, Walter

    2017-05-01

    We report on the outcomes of a workshop held to discuss evolutionary biology, paleobiology and paleoecology questions that could be addressed by a scientific drilling project at Lake Tanganyika, the largest, deepest and oldest of the African Rift Valley lakes. Lake Tanganyika is of special significance to evolutionary biologists as it harbors one of the most spectacular endemic faunas of any lake on earth, with hundreds of unique species of fish, molluscs, crustaceans and other organisms that have evolved over the lake's long history. Most of these groups of organisms are known from fossils in short cores from the lake, raising the possibility that both body fossil and ancient DNA records might be recovered from long drill cores. The lake's sedimentary record could also provide a record of African terrestrial ecosystem history since the late Miocene. This 3-day workshop brought together biological and geological specialists on the lake and its surroundings to prioritize paleobiological, ecological and microbiological objectives that could ultimately be incorporated into an overall drilling plan for Lake Tanganyika and to consider how biological objectives can effectively be integrated into the paleoclimate and tectonics objectives of a Lake Tanganyika drilling project already considered in prior workshops.

  8. New Scientific Drilling in the Bering Sea--Results Imply Contribution of Thermogenic Methane to Beringian Margin BSR and Miocene Termination of Subduction Beneath Bowers Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholl, D. W.

    2011-12-01

    METHANE BENEATH THE BERINGIAN MARGIN: Based on an acoustically prominent BSR (~450 m), it has long been surmised that large volumes of methane gas and methane hydrate occur within the Cenozoic deposits that thickly (5-10 km) drape the Beringian continental margin. In 2009, IODP Exp. 323 drilled three sites along the margin to recover the late Cenozoic paleoceanographic history stored there. On deck, warming sediment cores vigorously released interstitial methane gas. Disassociation of pore-space methane hydrate was inferred, but hydrate was not visually seen. P/T conditions at the BSR (24 C at 360 bars) matched those of the expected phase transition from methane gas below to methane hydrate above. Reflection records below bright sectors of the BSR display gas-blanking effects traceable to subsurface depths of several km, at which the thermal gradient of 50-55 deg C/km implies thermogenic methane would be generated. Since at least the early Miocene, surface water overlying the Beringian margin has been a biologically productive garden spot. Large quantities of organic matter can be expected to have accumulated in the underlying slope deposits. Deep, glacial-age canyon cutting, normal faulting, and diagenetic fracturing of siliceous shale (opal-A to opal-CT) provide venting paths for deep-generated methane. It is posited that ascending thermogenic methane importantly nourishes the sub-margin hydrate BSR. END OF SUBDUCTION AND ARC VOLCANISM AT BOWERS RIDGE: Submarine Bowers Ridge, which is not volcanically active, projects oddly northward and curvingly westward into the Bering Sea Basin from the mid point of the Aleutian Arc. The ridge rises as high as 3500 m to flatten near 600 m at wave-planed platforms cut across basement rock. The ridge's magnetic, velocity, and gravity characteristics are typical of an arc massif. A sediment-filled, trench-shaped trough along the base of the ridge's northern flank implies a former subduction zone underthrust the ridge to the

  9. Proceedings of the symposium on the Long Valley Caldera: A pre-drilling data review

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, N.E.

    1987-09-01

    This proceedings volume contains papers or abstracts of papers presented at a two-day symposium held at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) on 17 and 18 March 1987. Speakers presented a large body of new scientific results and geologic-hydrogeoloic interpretations for the Long Valley caldera. The talks and the discussions that followed focused on concepts and models for the present-day magmatic-hydrothermal system. Speakers at the symposium also addressed the topic of where to site future scientific drill holes in the caldera. Deep scientific drilling projects such as those being contemplated by the DOE Division of Geothermal Technology (DGT), under the Magma Energy Program, and by the DOE Office of Energy Research, Division of Engineering and Geosciences (DEG), along with the USGS and NSE, under the Continental Scientific Drilling Program (CSDP), will be major and expensive national undertakings. DOE/DEG is sponsoring a program of relatively shallow coreholes in the caldera, and DOE/DGT is considering the initiation of a multiphase program to drill a deep hole for geophysical observations and sampling of the ''near magmatic'' environment as early as FY 1988, depending on the DOE budget. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers.

  10. Lockdown Drills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    As a result of House Bill 1215, introduced and passed during the 2011 North Dakota legislative session, every school building in North Dakota must conduct a lockdown drill. While no timeframe, tracking or penalty was identified in the state law, the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction (DPI) advocates annual drills, at a minimum, which…

  11. Disaster Drill.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1998-01-01

    Bus disaster drills have been held all over country for years. A drill in Blairsville, Pennsylvania, taught officials important lessons: (1) keep roster of students and stops in designated area on bus, and ensure emergency workers know where location; (2) send at least three school officials to accident scene; (3) provide school officials with…

  12. Plans for ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    The international ocean drilling community plans to meet in July 1987 to decide on some of the scientific goals of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) for the next 5 years. An all-day Union session is being held at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md., “to organize and energize the U.S. marine science community” in preparation for that meeting, according to session chairman Garrett Brass, of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science at the University of Miami (Miami, Fla.).

  13. Drilling systems for extraterrestrial subsurface exploration.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Bar-Cohen, Y; Brennan, M; Briggs, G; Cooper, G; Davis, K; Dolgin, B; Glaser, D; Glass, B; Gorevan, S; Guerrero, J; McKay, C; Paulsen, G; Stanley, S; Stoker, C

    2008-06-01

    Drilling consists of 2 processes: breaking the formation with a bit and removing the drilled cuttings. In rotary drilling, rotational speed and weight on bit are used to control drilling, and the optimization of these parameters can markedly improve drilling performance. Although fluids are used for cuttings removal in terrestrial drilling, most planetary drilling systems conduct dry drilling with an auger. Chip removal via water-ice sublimation (when excavating water-ice-bound formations at pressure below the triple point of water) and pneumatic systems are also possible. Pneumatic systems use the gas or vaporization products of a high-density liquid brought from Earth, gas provided by an in situ compressor, or combustion products of a monopropellant. Drill bits can be divided into coring bits, which excavate an annular shaped hole, and full-faced bits. While cylindrical cores are generally superior as scientific samples, and coring drills have better performance characteristics, full-faced bits are simpler systems because the handling of a core requires a very complex robotic mechanism. The greatest constraints to extraterrestrial drilling are (1) the extreme environmental conditions, such as temperature, dust, and pressure; (2) the light-time communications delay, which necessitates highly autonomous systems; and (3) the mission and science constraints, such as mass and power budgets and the types of drilled samples needed for scientific analysis. A classification scheme based on drilling depth is proposed. Each of the 4 depth categories (surface drills, 1-meter class drills, 10-meter class drills, and deep drills) has distinct technological profiles and scientific ramifications.

  14. The Future of Deep-Ocean Drilling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heirtzler, J. R.; Maxwell, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the scientific accomplishments of the International Program of Ocean Drilling (IPOD) during its first decade. Notable are the scientific contributions to understanding the sea floor. Critical decisions for the second decade include economic and social implications. (MA)

  15. The Future of Deep-Ocean Drilling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heirtzler, J. R.; Maxwell, A. E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the scientific accomplishments of the International Program of Ocean Drilling (IPOD) during its first decade. Notable are the scientific contributions to understanding the sea floor. Critical decisions for the second decade include economic and social implications. (MA)

  16. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) Drilling for Supercritical Hydrothermal Fluids is Underway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.

    2008-12-01

    production should follow in 2010. During 2009-19 two new wells, ~4 km deep, will be drilled at the Hengill and the Reykjanes geothermal fields in southern Iceland, and subsequently deepened into the supercritical zone. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system produces hydrothermally modified seawater on the Reykjanes peninsula, where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge comes on land. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be more similar to those responsible for black smokers on oceanic rift systems. Because of the considerable international scientific opportunities afforded by the IDDP, the US National Science Foundation and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program will jointly fund the coring and sampling for scientific studies. Research is underway on samples from existing wells in the targeted geothermal fields, and on active mid-ocean ridge systems that have conditions believed to be similar to those that will be encountered in deep drilling by the IDDP. Some of these initial scientific studies by US investigators are reported in the accompanying papers.

  17. Phase III Drilling Operations at the Long Valley Exploratory Well (LVF 51-20)

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1999-06-01

    During July-September, 1998, a jointly funded drilling operation deepened the Long Valley Exploratory Well from 7178 feet to 9832 feet. This was the third major drilling phase of a project that began in 1989, but had sporadic progress because of discontinuities in tiding. Support for Phase III came from the California Energy Commission (CEC), the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), the US Geological Survey (USGS), and DOE. Each of these agencies had a somewhat different agenda: the CEC wants to evaluate the energy potential (specifically energy extraction from magma) of Long Valley Caldera; the ICDP is studying the evolution and other characteristics of young, silicic calderas; the USGS will use this hole as an observatory in their Volcano Hazards program; and the DOE, through Sandia, has an opportunity to test new geothermal tools and techniques in a realistic field environment. This report gives a description of the equipment used in drilling and testing; a narrative of the drilling operations; compiled daily drilling reports; cost information on the project; and a brief summary of engineering results related to equipment performance and energy potential. Detailed description of the scientific results will appear in publications by the USGS and other researchers.

  18. 30 CFR 250.462 - What are the requirements for well-control drills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.462 What are the requirements for well...

  19. 30 CFR 250.409 - May I obtain departures from these drilling requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.409 May I obtain departures from these drilling...

  20. 30 CFR 250.462 - What are the requirements for well-control drills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.462 What are the requirements for well...

  1. 30 CFR 250.409 - May I obtain departures from these drilling requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.409 May I obtain departures from these drilling...

  2. 30 CFR 250.409 - May I obtain departures from these drilling requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.409 May I obtain departures from these drilling...

  3. 30 CFR 250.462 - What are the requirements for well-control drills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.462 What are the requirements for well...

  4. 30 CFR 551.7 - Test drilling activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test drilling activities under a permit. 551.7... GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 551.7 Test drilling activities under a permit. (a) Shallow test drilling. Before you begin shallow test drilling under a permit, the...

  5. 30 CFR 551.7 - Test drilling activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test drilling activities under a permit. 551.7... GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSCIAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 551.7 Test drilling activities under a permit. (a) Shallow test drilling. Before you begin shallow test drilling under a permit, the...

  6. 30 CFR 551.7 - Test drilling activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test drilling activities under a permit. 551.7... GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 551.7 Test drilling activities under a permit. (a) Shallow test drilling. Before you begin shallow test drilling under a permit, the...

  7. 30 CFR 250.458 - What quantities of drilling fluids are required?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What quantities of drilling fluids are required... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.458 What quantities of drilling fluids are required? (a) You must...

  8. 30 CFR 251.7 - Test drilling activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test drilling activities under a permit. 251.7... GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 251.7 Test drilling activities under a permit. (a) Shallow test drilling. Before you begin shallow test drilling under a permit,...

  9. Indian Ocean proposed drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curray, Joseph R.

    1984-04-01

    Tentative plans for the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) are for the drilling vessel SEDCO/BP 471 (Eos, March 13, 1984, p. 97) to work in the Indian Ocean during all or parts of 1987 and 1988. The Indian Ocean Advisory Panel of ODP solicits letters of intent or proposals for possible scientific ocean drilling during that period. All areas within the Indian Ocean and any important problems, including tectonics, nature of the lithosphere, paleoceanography, and sedimentary processes will be considered.Please send proposals, with appropriate charts and copies of pertinent data, in triplicate to the Office of Joint Oceanographic Institutions Deep Earth Sampling (JOIDES Office, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33149) and, if possible, also send one copy to the chairman or to any other members of the panel. Proposals and letters received before September 1 will be reviewed at the panel meeting scheduled for the first week of September.

  10. Drilling bit

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, F. M.

    1985-07-09

    A drilling bit comprising a drill body formed from a base portion and a crown portion having a plurality of cutting elements; the base and crown portions are interengaged by a connection portion. An external opening in the crown portion communicates with a core-receiving section in the connecting portion. A core milling assembly, comprising a pair of rotatable, frustum-shaped rotary members, is supported in the connecting section. Each rotary member carries a plurality of cutting elements. During drilling, a core is received in the core-receiving section, where it is milled by the rotation of the rotary members.

  11. Production drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This paper is actually a composite of two papers dealing with automation and computerized control of underground mining equipment. The paper primarily discusses drills, haulage equipment, and tunneling machines. It compares performance and cost benefits of conventional equipment to the new automated methods. The company involved are iron ore mining companies in Scandinavia. The papers also discusses the different equipment using air power, water power, hydraulic power, and computer power. The different drill rigs are compared for performance and cost.

  12. First time real-time mud gas monitoring during riser drilling in the Kumano Basin (IODP Exp 319)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiersberg, T.; Erzinger, J.; Horiguchi, K.; Saffer, D. M.; Byrne, T. B.; McNeill, L. C.; Araki, E.; Takahashi, K.; Eguchi, N. O.; Toczko, S.

    2009-12-01

    Chikyu Expedition 319 was the first cruise of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) where riser drilling was performed and real-time mud gas monitoring was conducted, because this technique requires drill-mud circulation. In contrast to conventional IODP drilling that uses drill water in combination with lost circulation, during riser drilling the drill mud returns back to the surface through a riser pipe which encases the drill pipe. The dissolved gas is extracted from returning drill mud, analyzed in real time and sampled for noble gas and stable isotopes studies. This technique has been applied in the past on scientific continental drilling projects of e.g. the International Continental Drilling Program. Expedition 319 is part of the NanTroSEIZE project, a multiexpedition, multistage IODP drilling program focused on understanding the mechanics of seismogenesis and ruptures propagation along the Nankai accretionary prism. Riser drilling was carried out on Hole C0009 that intersects the cover sediments of the Kumano Basin and probably penetrates into the accretionary prism below. Site NT2-11 is located approx. 60 km SE of the harbour of Shingu, Japan. Real-time mud gas monitoring was performed in Hole C0009 during drilling from 703 mbsf (meter below sea floor) down to 1594 mbsf and during hole enlargement from 703 mbsf to 1569 mbsf. Both datasets show similar gas distribution at depth. Gas was furthermore extracted, sampled and analyzed from drill cuttings. Drill mud gas is generally composed of air and gases that derive from the formation. The principal formation gas in drill mud from both drilling phases and in cuttings was methane. Up to 14 vol % CH4 was detected during drilling and up to 3 vol % during hole enlargement. Down to 800 mbsf and below 1280 mbsf, the methane concentration in drill mud is lower than in the surrounded interval, where methane peaks at several depths. At 1280 mbsf an unconformity is indicated from lihology, in seismic and

  13. The Marskhod Egyptian Drill Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaltout, M. A. M.

    We describe a possible participation of Egypt in a future Mars rover Mission. It was suggested that Egypt participate through involvement in the design, building and testing of a drill to obtain sub-surface samples. The Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IKI), formally invited the Egyptian Ministry of Scientific Research to study the concept for potential use on the Russian Mars 2001 Mission. As one of the objectives of the Marskhod mission was the analysis of sub-surface samples, a drilling mechanism in the payload would be essential. The Egyptian expertise in drill development is associated with the archaeological exploration of the Pyramids. A sophisticated drilling system perforated limestone to a depth of 2 m without the use of lubricants or cooling fluids that might have contaminated the Pit's environment. This experience could have been applied to a drill development Mars 2001 mission, which was unfortunately canceled due to economic problems.

  14. Investigation of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade volcanic arc: First phase of a program for scientific drilling in the Cascade Range

    SciTech Connect

    Priest, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    A phased, multihole drilling program with associated science is proposed as a means of furthering our understanding of the thermal regime and geologic history of the Cascade Range of Washington, Oregon, and northern California. The information obtained from drilling and ancillary geological and geophysical investigations will contribute to our knowledge in the following general areas: (1) the magnitude of the regional background heat flow of parts of the Quaternary volcanic belt dominated by the most abundant volcanic rock types, basalt and basaltic andesite; (2) the nature of the heat source responsible for the regional heat-flow anomaly; (3) the characteristics of the regional hydrothermal and cold-water circulation; the rates of volcanism for comparison with models for the rate and direction of plate convergence of the Cascades; (5) the history of deformation and volcanism in the volcanic arc that can be related to subduction; (6) the present-day stress regime of the volcanic arc and the relation of these stresses to plate interactions and possible large earthquakes; and the current geometry of the subducted oceanic plate below the Cascade Range and the relationship of the plate to the distribution of heat flow, Quaternary volcanism, and Quaternary deformation. Phase I research will be directed toward a detailed investigation of the Santiam Pass segment. In concert with the Santiam Pass research, a detailed study of the nearby Breitenbush Hot Springs area is also recommended as a component of Phase I. The object of the Breitenbush research is to study one of the hottest known Cascade hydrothermal systems, which coincidentally also has a good geological and geophysical data base. A coordinated program of drilling, sampling, subsurface measurements, and surface surveys will be associated with the drilling of several holes.

  15. Direct Observation of Rhyolite Magma by Drilling: The Proposed Krafla Magma Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, J. C.; Sigmundsson, F.; Papale, P.; Markusson, S.; Loughlin, S.

    2014-12-01

    populated calderas (e.g., Campi Flegrei, Italy). Experiments with the live system will aid in hazard assessment and eruption forecasting for this most difficult of volcano hazard problems. We will report on an International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop held to assess feasibility and to develop a plan for KMDP.

  16. Why deep drilling in the Colônia Basin (Brazil)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledru, M.-P.; Reimold, W. U.; Ariztegui, D.; Bard, E.; Crósta, A. P.; Riccomini, C.; Sawakuchi, A. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Colônia Deep Drilling Project held its first International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) workshop in September 2014 at the University of São Paulo (Brazil). Twenty-seven experts from six countries discussed the feasibility and the expectations of a deep drilling in the structure of Colônia located at the southwestern margin of the city of São Paulo. After presenting the studies performed at the site during the last decades, participants focused on the objectives, priorities and detailed planning for a full deep-drilling proposal. An excursion to the site and new auger coring showed the importance of the Colônia site for studying the evolution of a tropical rainforest and to evaluate the interplay between the South American summer monsoon, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and the southern Westerlies belt during the last 5 million years. In addition, deep drilling will eventually solve the still unresolved issue of the origin of the structure of Colônia as a result of meteorite impact or endogenous processes.

  17. CSDP: Seismology of continental thermal regime

    SciTech Connect

    Aki, K.

    1989-04-01

    This is a progress report for the past one year of research (year 2 of 5-year project) under the project titled CSDP: Seismology of Continental Thermal Regime'', in which we proposed to develop seismological interpretation theory and methods applicable to complex structures encountered in continental geothermal areas and apply them to several candidate sites for the Continental Scientific Drilling Project. During the past year, two Ph.D. thesis works were completed under the present project. One is a USC thesis on seismic wave propagation in anisotropic media with application to defining fractures in the earth. The other is a MIT thesis on seismic Q and velocity structure for the magma-hydrothermal system of the Valles Caldera, New Mexico. The P.I. co-organized the first International Workshop on Volcanic Seismology at Capri, Italy in October 1988, and presented the keynote paper on the state-of-art of volcanic seismology''. We presented another paper at the workshop on Assorted Seismic Signals from Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Another international meeting, namely, the Chapman Conference on seismic anisotropy in the earth's crust at Berkeley, California in May 1988, was co-organized by the co-P.I. (P.C.L), and we presented our work on seismic waves in heterogeneous and anisotropic media. Adding the publications and presentations made in the past year to the list for the preceding year, the following table lists 21 papers published, submitted or presented in the past two years of the present project. 65 refs., 334 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Drill report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has approved an industry proposal to conduct reflection seismic studies for oil and gas on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal plain. The plan submitted by Geophysical Services Inc. (GSI) was approved, subject to modifications aimed at safeguarding the environment. A listing of current drilling activities in Alaska is provided.

  19. Drilling Automation Tests At A Lunar/Mars Analog Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B.; Cannon, H.; Hanagud, S.; Lee, P.; Paulsen, G.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-situ lunar/martian resource utilization and characterization, as well as the scientific search for life on Mars, will require access to the subsurface and hence drilling. Drilling on Earth is hard - an art form more than an engineering discipline. The limited mass, energy and manpower in planetary drilling situations makes application of terrestrial drilling techniques problematic. The Drilling Automation for Mars Exploration (DAME) project is developing drilling automation and robotics for projected use in missions to the Moon and Mars in the 2011-15 period. This has been tested recently, drilling in permafrost at a lunar/martian analog site (Haughton Crater, Devon Island, Canada).

  20. Evaluation of commercial drilling and geological software for deep drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierdominici, Simona; Prevedel, Bernhard; Conze, Ronald; Tridec Team

    2013-04-01

    The avoidance of operational delays, financial losses and drilling hazards are key indicators for successful deep drilling operations. Real-time monitoring of drilling operation data as well as geological and petrophysical information obtained during drilling provide valuable knowledge that can be integrated into existing geological and mechanical models in order to improve the drilling performance. We have evaluated ten different geological and drilling software packages capable to integrate real-time drilling and planning data (e.g. torque, drag, well path, cementing, hydraulic data, casing design, well control, geo-steering, cost and time) as well as other scientific and technical data (i.e. from drilling core, geophysical downhole logging, production test) to build geological and geophysical models for planning of further deep drillings in a given geological environment. To reach this goal, the software has to be versatile to handle different data formats from disciplines such as geology, geophysics, petrophysics, seismology and drilling engineering as well as data from different drilling targets, such as geothermal fluids, oil/gas, water reservoirs, mining purpose, CO2 sequestration, or scientific goals. The software must be capable to analyze, evaluate and plan in real-time the next drilling steps in the best possible way and under safe conditions. A preliminary geological and geophysical model with the available data from site surveys and literature is built to address a first drilling plan, in which technical and scientific aspects are taken into consideration to perform the first drilling (wildcat well). During the drilling, the acquired scientific and technical data will be used to refine the previous geological-drilling model. The geological model hence becomes an interactive object strongly linked to the drilling procedure, and the software should allow to make rapid and informed decisions while drilling, to maximize productivity and minimize drilling

  1. The Deep-Sea and Sub-Seafloor Frontier initiative - a key to link EC research and international scientific ocean drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopf, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Deep-Sea and Sub-Seafloor Frontiers project, DS3F, represents the continuation of the DSF roadmap towards the sustainable management of oceanic resources on a European scale. It will develop strategies for sub-seafloor sampling to contribute to a better understanding of deep-sea and sub-seafloor processes by connecting marine research in life and geosciences, climate and environmental change, as well as socio-economic issues and policy building. We propose to establish a long-lived research approach that considers (i) the need for a sustainable management of the ocean, and particularly the deep sea with enhanced activity (fishery, hydrocarbon exploration), (ii) the necessity to unravel deep-seated geological processes that drive seafloor ecosystems, and (iii) the value of seabed archives for the reconstruction of paleo-environmental conditions and the improved prediction of future climate change. Sub-seafloor drilling and sampling can provide two key components in understanding how deep-sea ecosystems function at present, and how they will respond to global change: (a) an inventory of present subsurface processes and biospheres, and their links to surface ecosystems, including seafloor observation and baseline studies, and (b) a high resolution archive of past variations in environmental conditions and biodiversity. For both components, an international effort is needed to share knowledge, methods and technologies, including mission-specific platforms to increase the efficiency, coverage and accuracy of sub-seafloor sampling and exploration. The deep biosphere has been discovered only within the past two decades and comprises the last major frontier for biological exploration. We lack fundamental knowledge of composition, diversity, distribution and metabolism in sub-seafloor biological communities at Earth's extremes, and their repercussions on seafloor ecosystems and life in the deep sea. There is equally an emerging need to shed light on geodynamic processes

  2. 30 CFR 250.1605 - Drilling requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling requirements. 250.1605 Section 250.1605 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF...

  3. 30 CFR 256.71 - Directional drilling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Directional drilling. 256.71 Section 256.71 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Assignments,...

  4. Continental shelves

    SciTech Connect

    Postma, H.; Zijlstra

    1987-01-01

    Continental shelves form a relatively narrow fringe, of varying width, around the continents. Altogether they take up only about 7% of the ocean's surface and less than 0.2% if its volume. Nevertheless, their specific biological characteristics and economical importance justify a separate discussion in this series. Ecosystems of the World. The specific biological characteristics are due to the position of continental shelves between the land masses on one side and the oceans on the other, to their relative shallowness and variable sea-floor texture and to the fact that, besides residual currents, tidal streams exert a great influence on the movements of water bodies.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey core drilling on the Atlantic shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hathaway, J.C.; Poag, C.W.; Valentine, P.C.; Miller, R.E.; Schultz, D.M.; Manheim, F. T.; Kohout, F.A.; Bothner, Michael H.; Sangrey, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The first broad program of scientific shallow drilling on the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf has delineated rocks of Pleistocene to Late Cretaceous age, including phosphoritic Miocene strata, widespread Eocene carbonate deposits that serve as reflective seismic markers, and several regional unconformities. Two sites, off Maryland and New Jersey, showed light hydrocarbon gases having affinity to mature petroleum. Pore fluid studies showed that relatively fresh to brackish water occurs beneath much of the Atlantic continental shelf, whereas increases in salinity off Georgia and beneath the Florida-Hatteras slope suggest buried evaporitic strata. The sediment cores showed engineering properties that range from good foundation strength to a potential for severe loss of strength through interaction between sediments and man-made structures. 

  6. Revisiting elastic anisotropy of biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu scientific drill hole based on new texture measurements and texture-based velocity calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenk, H.-R.; Vasin, R. N.; Kern, H.; Matthies, S.; Vogel, S. C.; Ivankina, T. I.

    2012-10-01

    A sample of biotite gneiss from the Outokumpu deep drilling project in Finland was investigated by Kern et al. (2008) for crystal preferred orientation and elastic anisotropy. Considerable differences between measured acoustic velocities and velocities calculated on the basis of texture patterns were observed. Measured P-wave anisotropy was 15.1% versus a Voigt average yielding 7.9%. Here we investigate the same sample with different methods and using different averaging techniques. Analyzing time-of-flight neutron diffraction data from Dubna-SKAT and LANSCE-HIPPO diffractometers with the Rietveld technique, much stronger preferred orientation for biotite is determined, compared to conventional pole-figure analysis reported previously. The comparison reveals important differences: HIPPO has much better counting statistics but pole figure coverage is poor. SKAT has better angular resolution. Using the new preferred orientation data and applying a self-consistent averaging method that takes grain shapes into account, close agreement of calculated and measured P-wave velocities is observed (12.6%). This is further improved by adding 0.1 vol.% flat micropores parallel to the biotite platelets in the simulation (14.9%).

  7. Incorporating Cutting Edge Scientific Results from the Margins-Geoprisms Program into the Undergraduate Curriculum, Rupturing Continental Lithosphere Part I: Introducing Seismic Interpretation and Isostasy Principles Using Gulf of California Examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, M. A.; Cashman, S. M.; Dorsey, R. J.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Loveless, J. P.; Goodliffe, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate the significant findings from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. The Gulf of California (GOC) served as the focus site for the Rupturing Continental Lithosphere initiative, which addressed several scientific questions: What forces drive rift initiation, localization, propagation and evolution? How does deformation vary in time and space, and why? How does crust evolve, physically and chemically, as rifting proceeds to sea-floor spreading? What is the role of sedimentation and magmatism in continental extension? We developed two weeks of curriculum designed for an upper-division structural geology, tectonics or geophysics course. The curriculum includes lectures, labs, and in-class activities that can be used as a whole or individually. The first set of materials introduces the RCL initiative to students and has them analyze the bathymetry and oblique-rifting geometry of the GOC in an exercise using GeoMapApp. The second set of materials has two goals: (1) introduce students to fundamental concepts of interpreting seismic reflection data via lectures and in-class interpretation of strata, basement, and faults from recent GOC seismic data, and (2) encourage students to discover the structural geometry and rift evolution, including the east-to-west progression of faulting and transition from detachment to high-angle faulting in the northern GOC, and changes in deformation style from north to south. In the third set of materials, students investigate isostatic affects of sediment fill in GOC oblique rift basins. This activity consists of a problem set, introduced in a lecture, where students integrate their findings from the previous bathymetry- and seismic-interpretation exercises.

  8. Incorporating Cutting Edge Scientific Results from the Margins-Geoprisms Program into the Undergraduate Curriculum, Rupturing Continental Lithosphere Part II: Introducing Euler Poles Using Baja-North America Relative Plate Motion Across the Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveless, J. P.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Cashman, S. M.; Dorsey, R. J.; Goodliffe, A. M.; Lamb, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The NSF-MARGINS Program funded a decade of research on continental margin processes. The NSF-GeoPRISMS Mini-lesson Project, funded by NSF-TUES, is designed to integrate the significant findings from the MARGINS program into open-source college-level curriculum. The Gulf of California (GOC) served as the focus site for the Rupturing Continental Lithosphere (RCL) initiative, which addressed several scientific questions: What forces drive rift initiation, localization, propagation and evolution? How does deformation vary in time and space, and why? How does crust evolve, physically and chemically, as rifting proceeds to sea-floor spreading? What is the role of sedimentation and magmatism in continental extension? We developed two weeks of curriculum, including lectures, labs, and in-class activities that can be used as a whole or individually. This component of the curriculum introduces students to the Euler pole description of relative plate motion (RPM) by examining the tectonic interactions of the Baja California microplate and North American plate. The plate boundary varies in rift obliquity along strike, from highly oblique and strike-slip dominated in the south to slightly less oblique and with a larger extensional component in the north. This Google Earth-based exercise provides students with a visualization of RPM using small circle contours of the local direction and magnitude of Baja-North America movement on a spherical Earth. Students use RPM to calculate the fault slip rates on transform, normal, and oblique-slip faults and examine how the varying faulting styles combine to accommodate RPM. MARGINS results are integrated via comparison of rift obliquity with the structural style of rift-related faults around the GOC. We find this exercise to fit naturally into courses about plate tectonics, geophysics, and especially structural geology, given the similarity between Euler pole rotations and stereonet-based rotations of structural data.

  9. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and... drilling fluid-system monitoring equipment throughout subsequent drilling operations. This equipment must have the following indicators on the rig floor: (a) Pit level indicator to determine drilling fluid-pit...

  10. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and... drilling fluid-system monitoring equipment throughout subsequent drilling operations. This equipment must have the following indicators on the rig floor: (a) Pit level indicator to determine drilling fluid-pit...

  11. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and... drilling fluid-system monitoring equipment throughout subsequent drilling operations. This equipment must have the following indicators on the rig floor: (a) Pit level indicator to determine drilling fluid-pit...

  12. 30 CFR 250.462 - What are the requirements for well-control drills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drills? 250.462 Section 250.462 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Other Drilling Requirements § 250.462 What are the...

  13. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What...

  14. 30 CFR 250.457 - What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.457 What equipment is required to monitor drilling fluids? Once you... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What equipment is required to monitor...

  15. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the general requirements for...

  16. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the...

  17. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the...

  18. 30 CFR 250.455 - What are the general requirements for a drilling fluid program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drilling fluid program? 250.455 Section 250.455 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.455 What are the...

  19. 30 CFR 250.422 - When may I resume drilling after cementing?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may I resume drilling after cementing? 250... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Casing and Cementing Requirements § 250.422 When may I resume drilling after cementing? (a)...

  20. 30 CFR 250.403 - What drilling unit movements must I report?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What drilling unit movements must I report? 250... OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.403 What drilling unit movements must I report? (a) You must report...

  1. 77 FR 70172 - Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Lifesaving and Fire-Fighting Equipment, Training and Drills Onboard Offshore Facilities and Mobile Offshore Drilling Units (MODUs) Operating on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS... Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU) DEEPWATER HORIZON, in the Gulf of Mexico on April 20, 2010, with loss of...

  2. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  3. High Temperature Piezoelectric Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James; Boudreau, Kate; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Shrout, Tom; Zhang, Shujun

    2009-01-01

    The current NASA Decadal mission planning effort has identified Venus as a significant scientific target for a surface in-situ sampling/analyzing mission. The Venus environment represents several extremes including high temperature (460 deg C), high pressure (9 MPa), and potentially corrosive (condensed sulfuric acid droplets that adhere to surfaces during entry) environments. This technology challenge requires new rock sampling tools for these extreme conditions. Piezoelectric materials can potentially operate over a wide temperature range. Single crystals, like LiNbO3, have a Curie temperature that is higher than 1000 deg C and the piezoelectric ceramics Bismuth Titanate higher than 600 deg C. A study of the feasibility of producing piezoelectric drills that can operate in the temperature range up to 500 deg C was conducted. The study includes the high temperature properties investigations of engineering materials and piezoelectric ceramics with different formulas and doping. The drilling performances of a prototype Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corer (USDC) using high temperate piezoelectric ceramics and single crystal were tested at temperature up to 500 deg C. The detailed results of our study and a discussion of the future work on performance improvements are presented in this paper.

  4. Drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.A.; Patel, B.B.

    1987-11-03

    A drilling fluid additive mixture is described consisting essentially of a sulfoalkylated tannin in admixture with a non-sulfoalkylated alkali-solubilized lignite wherein the weight ratio of the sulfoalkylated tannin to the non-sulfoalkylated lignite is in the range from about 2:1 to about 1:1. The sulfoalkylated tannin has been sulfoalkylated with at least one -(C(R-)/sub 2/-SO/sub 3/M side chain, wherein each R is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen and alkyl radicals containing from 1 to about 5 carbon atoms, and M is selected from the group consisting of ammonium and the alkali metals.

  5. Project Hotspot: Temporal Compositional Variation in Basalts of the Kimama Core and Implications for Magma Source Evolution, Snake River Scientific Drilling Project, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, K. E.; Shervais, J. W.; Champion, D.; Duncan, R. A.; Christiansen, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    Project Hotspot produced continuous core from three drill sites in the Snake River plain, including 1912 m of core from the Kimama drill site on the axis of the plain. Ongoing major and trace element chemical characterization of the Kimama core and new 40Ar/39Ar and paleomagnetic age data demonstrate temporal variations in the evolution of Snake River Plain volcanism. Cyclic fluctuations in magma chemistry identify over a hundred chemically distinct basalt flow groups (comprising 550 individual lava flows) within 54 periods of volcanic activity, separated by hiatuses of decades to many millennia. From a surface age of 700 ka to a bottom-hole age of 6.5 Ma, the Kimama core records the presence of several nearly coeval but compositionally different lava flows, ranging from highly evolved lavas to non-evolved tholeiites. Determining whether Kimama lavas are genetically unrelated or extreme differentiates of a single magma batch relies upon a combination of detailed chemostratigraphy and absolute and relative age data. Age and geochemical data introduce new ideas on the role of multiple magma sources and/or differentiation processes in the development of central Snake River Plain volcanic systems. The relatively short gestation of evolved liquids is demonstrated throughout the Kimama core, with evidence for cyclic fractionation of mafic lavas at depths of 318 m, 350 m, 547 m, and 1078 m. Here, highly evolved lava flows (FeOT 16.0-18.4 wt %; TiO2 3.43-4.62 wt %) are stratigraphically bounded by more primitive tholeiitic basalts (FeOT 9.9-14.8 wt%; TiO2 1.22-3.56 wt%) within the same inclination range, suggesting that cyclic fractionation is a regular feature of shield volcano development on the central Snake River Plain. Between 1.60 ± 0.13 Ma (453.5 m depth) and 1.54 ± 0.15 Ma (320.0 m depth), Kimama lavas ranged in composition from primitive tholeiite (FeOT 11.7 wt %; TiO2 1.76 wt %) to evolved basalt (FeOT 16.0 wt %; TiO2 4.00 wt %). At depths of 1119 m and 1138 m

  6. WRITING ORAL DRILLS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NEY, JAMES W.

    ALL ORAL LANGUAGE DRILLS MAY BE SEPARATED INTO TWO TYPES--(1) MIM-MEM OR MIMICRY MEMORIZATION DRILLS OR (2) PATTERN PRACTICE DRILLS. THESE TWO LARGER CATEGORIES CAN BE SUB-DIVIDED INTO A NUMBER OF OTHER TYPES, SUCH AS TRANSFORMATION AND SUBSTITUTION DRILLS. THE USE OF ANY PARTICULAR TYPE DEPENDS ON THE PURPOSE TO WHICH THE DRILL IS PUT. IN ANY…

  7. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Douglas K.; Kuhns, Douglass J.; Wiersholm, Otto; Miller, Timothy A.

    1993-01-01

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  8. Drill string enclosure

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, D.K.; Kuhns, D.J.; Wiersholm, O.; Miller, T.A.

    1993-03-02

    The drill string enclosure consists of six component parts, including; a top bracket, an upper acrylic cylinder, an acrylic drill casing guide, a lower acrylic cylinder, a bottom bracket, and three flexible ducts. The upper acrylic cylinder is optional based upon the drill string length. The drill string enclosure allows for an efficient drill and sight operation at a hazardous waste site.

  9. Chuck for delicate drills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copeland, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Development of oil film technique to couple power between drive spindle and drill chuck for delicate drilling operations is discussed. Oil film permits application of sufficient pressure, but stops rotating when drill jams. Illustration of equipment is provided.

  10. Technology assessment of vertical and horizontal air drilling potential in the United States. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carden, R.S.

    1993-08-18

    The objective of the research was to assess the potential for vertical, directional and horizontal air drilling in the United States and to evaluate the current technology used in air drilling. To accomplish the task, the continental United States was divided into drilling regions and provinces. The map in Appendix A shows the divisions. Air drilling data were accumulated for as many provinces as possible. The data were used to define the potential problems associated with air drilling, to determine the limitations of air drilling and to analyze the relative economics of drilling with air versus drilling mud. While gathering the drilling data, operators, drilling contractors, air drilling contractors, and service companies were contacted. Their opinion as to the advantages and limitations of air drilling were discussed. Each was specifically asked if they thought air drilling could be expanded within the continental United States and where that expansion could take place. The well data were collected and placed in a data base. Over 165 records were collected. Once in the data base, the information was analyzed to determine the economics of air drilling and to determine the limiting factors associated with air drilling.

  11. Methane Hydrate Field Program: Development of a Scientific Plan for a Methane Hydrate-Focused Marine Drilling, Logging and Coring Program

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-02-01

    This final report document summarizes the activities undertaken and the output from three primary deliverables generated during this project. This fifteen month effort comprised numerous key steps including the creation of an international methane hydrate science team, determining and reporting the current state of marine methane hydrate research, convening an international workshop to collect the ideas needed to write a comprehensive Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan and the development and publication of that plan. The following documents represent the primary deliverables of this project and are discussed in summary level detail in this final report: Historical Methane Hydrate Project Review Report; Methane Hydrate Workshop Report; Topical Report: Marine Methane Hydrate Field Research Plan; and Final Scientific/Technical Report.

  12. Drilling equipment to shrink

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, S.

    2000-01-01

    Drilling systems under development will take significant costs out of the well construction process. From small coiled tubing (CT) drilling rigs for North Sea wells to microrigs for exploration wells in ultra-deepwater, development projects under way will radically cut the cost of exploratory holes. The paper describes an inexpensive offshore system, reeled systems drilling vessel, subsea drilling rig, cheap exploration drilling, laser drilling project, and high-pressure water jets.

  13. Drill user's manual. [drilling machine automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, E. A.

    1976-01-01

    Instructions are given for using the DRILL computer program which converts data contained in an Interactive Computer Graphics System (IGDS) design file to production of a paper tape for driving a numerically controlled drilling machine.

  14. > Exploring the Scandinavian Mountain Belt by Deep Drilling (COSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhlin, C.; Gee, D. G.; Lorenz, H.; Pascal, C.; Pedersen, K.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2012-04-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) project proposes to drill two fully cored scientific boreholes, both to c. 2.5 km depth, in the Swedish Caledonides, one near the town of Åre (COSC 1) and the other further east (COSC 2). Together they will provide a c. 5 km deep high-resolution mid-crustal section through this major mid-Palaeozoic orogen. Main project objectives include (i) improved understanding of mountain building processes (orogeny), (ii) investigation of the geothermal gradient and its response to palaeoclimatic influences, (iii) the hydrogeological-hydrochemical state of the mountain belt, (iv) the deep biosphere in the metamorphic rocks and crystalline basement, and (v) calibration of surface geophysics and geology. The Caledonide Orogen is comparable in size and many other respects to today's Himalayan mountain belt. Silurian collision with underthrusting of the paleo-continent Baltica below Laurentia resulted in widespread formation of eclogite. Major allochthons were transported many hundreds of kilometers onto the Baltoscandian Platform, including high-grade metamorphic rocks and migmatites which were generated during continental margin subduction and emplaced ductilely at mid-crustal levels. COSC will provide detailed insight into mid-Palaeozoic mountain building processes and further our understanding of past, present and future orogen dynamics. Located in a key-area for Caledonian geology, it is close to a major geophysical transect across the mountain belt which has been complemented recently with high-resolution reflection seismics and aerogeophysics for site-selection. The COSC research program is being developed by five working groups, geology, geophysics, geothermics, hydrogeology and microbiology. It has direct relevance for society by improving our understanding of mountain building processes, hydrological-hydrochemical regimes in mountain areas and Precambrian shields, deep subsurface conditions for underground

  15. Gains in efficiency and scientific potential of continental climate reconstruction provided by the LRC LacCore Facility, University of Minnesota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noren, A.; Brady, K.; Myrbo, A.; Ito, E.

    2007-12-01

    Lacustrine sediment cores comprise an integral archive for the determination of continental paleoclimate, for their potentially high temporal resolution and for their ability to resolve spatial variability in climate across vast sections of the globe. Researchers studying these archives now have a large, nationally-funded, public facility dedicated to the support of their efforts. The LRC LacCore Facility, funded by NSF and the University of Minnesota, provides free or low-cost assistance to any portion of research projects, depending on the specific needs of the project. A large collection of field equipment (site survey equipment, coring devices, boats/platforms, water sampling devices) for nearly any lacustrine setting is available for rental, and Livingstone-type corers and drive rods may be purchased. LacCore staff can accompany field expeditions to operate these devices and curate samples, or provide training prior to device rental. The Facility maintains strong connections to experienced shipping agents and customs brokers, which vastly improves transport and importation of samples. In the lab, high-end instrumentation (e.g., multisensor loggers, high-resolution digital linescan cameras) provides a baseline of fundamental analyses before any sample material is consumed. LacCore staff provide support and training in lithological description, including smear-slide, XRD, and SEM analyses. The LRC botanical macrofossil reference collection is a valuable resource for both core description and detailed macrofossil analysis. Dedicated equipment and space for various subsample analyses streamlines these endeavors; subsamples for several analyses may be submitted for preparation or analysis by Facility technicians for a fee (e.g., carbon and sulfur coulometry, grain size, pollen sample preparation and analysis, charcoal, biogenic silica, LOI, freeze drying). The National Lacustrine Core Repository now curates ~9km of sediment cores from expeditions around the world

  16. Drilling to Supercritical Conditions: the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Saito, S.

    2001-05-01

    Geothermal wells produce mixtures of water and steam in the range 200-350 C, however the high cost of drilling and completing these wells relative to the cost of oil and gas wells is a hindrance to the geothermal industry worldwide. Rather than trying only to reduce this cost, the Icelandic Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) is trying the approach of increasing the power output per well. Funded by a consortium of energy companies in Iceland, the IDDP plans to drill a series of boreholes, to depths greater than 4 to 5 km. The aim is to produce hydrothermal fluids systems at temperatures of 400-500 C, and to investigate the technical and economic aspects of producing supercritical fluids for use in power generation and other energy intensive processes, such as mineral recovery. The first phase feasibility and site selection study began in March 2001 and drilling of the first deep well is expected to begin in 2003. The IDDP faces difficult technical challenges to drill, complete, sample and maintain wells under hot, and potentially acid, conditions. However the IDDP also presents the opportunity to investigate very high-temperature hydrothermal regimes that have rarely been available for direct study. It will address important scientific issues, ranging from the coupling of magmatic and hydrothermal systems, supercritical phenomena, the transition from brittle to ductile behavior at relatively shallow depths, to land based analogues of submarine hot springs, the black smokers of the mid-ocean ridges. Fortunately, the IDDP industrial consortium is willing, or even anxious, to integrate its engineering activities with scientific investigations. The consortium will seek international participation by scientists and engineers to formulate a strategy to achieve both the engineering and scientific goals of the IDDP.

  17. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Judzis, Arnis; Black, Alan D; Green, Sidney J; Robertson, Homer A; Bland, Ronald G; Curry, David Alexander; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  18. Quantification of subsurface pore pressure through IODP drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffer, D. M.; Flemings, P. B.

    2010-12-01

    It is critical to understand the magnitude and distribution of subsurface pore fluid pressure: it controls effective stress and thus mechanical strength, slope stability, and sediment compaction. Elevated pore pressures also drive fluid flows that serve as agents of mass, solute, and heat fluxes. The Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) and Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) have provided important avenues to quantify pore pressure in a range of geologic and tectonic settings. These approaches include 1) analysis of continuous downhole logs and shipboard physical properties data to infer compaction state and in situ pressure and stress, 2) laboratory consolidation testing of core samples collected by drilling, 3) direct downhole measurements using pore pressure probes, 3) pore pressure and stress measurements using downhole tools that can be deployed in wide diameter pipe recently acquired for riser drilling, and 4) long-term monitoring of formation pore pressure in sealed boreholes within hydraulically isolated intervals. Here, we summarize key advances in quantification of subsurface pore pressure rooted in scientific drilling, highlighting with examples from subduction zones, the Gulf of Mexico, and the New Jersey continental shelf. At the Nankai, Costa Rican, and Barbados subduction zones, consolidation testing of cores samples, combined with analysis of physical properties data, indicates that even within a few km landward of the trench, pore pressures in and below plate boundary décollement zones reach a significant fraction of the lithostatic load (λ*=0.25-0.91). These results document a viable and quantifiable mechanism to explain the mechanical weakness of subduction décollements, and are corroborated by a small number of direct measurements in sealed boreholes and by inferences from seismic reflection data. Recent downhole measurements conducted during riser drilling using the modular formation dynamics tester wireline tool (MDT) in a forearc basin ~50

  19. Oil and gas developments in Atlantic Coastal Plain and Outer Continental Shelf in 1985 and 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Amato, R.V.

    1987-10-01

    Drilling activity for 1985 was not reported previously due to the low level of activity. No exploratory drilling took place on the Atlantic outer continental shelf in 1985 or 1986. One shallow well was drilled onshore in Georgia on the Atlantic coastal plan in 1985, and 2 wells were completed in Georgia in 1986. Texaco drilled 6 core holes on the Virginia coastal plain in 1986. 2 tables.

  20. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  1. Optically Aligned Drill Press

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adderholdt, Bruce M.

    1994-01-01

    Precise drill press equipped with rotary-indexing microscope. Microscope and drill exchange places when turret rotated. Microscope axis first aligned over future hole, then rotated out of way so drill axis assumes its precise position. New procedure takes less time to locate drilling positions and produces more accurate results. Apparatus adapted to such other machine tools as milling and measuring machines.

  2. Project DAFNE - Drilling Active Faults in Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukkonen, I. T.; Ask, M. S. V.; Olesen, O.

    2012-04-01

    We are currently developing a new ICDP project 'Drillling Active Faults in Northern Europe' (DAFNE) which aims at investigating, via scientific drilling, the tectonic and structural characteristics of postglacial (PG) faults in northern Fennoscandia, including their hydrogeology and associated deep biosphere [1, 2]. During the last stages of the Weichselian glaciation (ca. 9,000 - 15,000 years B.P.), reduced ice load and glacially affected stress field resulted in active faulting in Fennoscandia with fault scarps up to 160 km long and 30 m high. These postglacial (PG) faults are usually SE dipping, SW-NE oriented thrusts, and represent reactivated, pre-existing crustal discontinuities. Postglacial faulting indicates that the glacio-isostatic compensation is not only a gradual viscoelastic phenomenon, but includes also unexpected violent earthquakes, suggestively larger than other known earthquakes in stable continental regions. The research is anticipated to advance science in neotectonics, hydrogeology and deep biosphere studies, and provide important information for nuclear waste and CO2 disposal, petroleum exploration on the Norwegian continental shelf and studies of mineral resources in PG fault areas. We expect that multidisciplinary research applying shallow and deep drilling of postglacial faults would provide significant scientific results through generating new data and models, namely: (1) Understanding PG fault genesis and controls of their locations; (2) Deep structure and depth extent of PG faults; (3) Textural, mineralogical and physical alteration of rocks in the PG faults; (4) State of stress and estimates of paleostress of PG faults; (5) Hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and hydraulic properties of PG faults; (6) Dating of tectonic reactivation(s) and temporal evolution of tectonic systems hosting PG faults; (7) Existence/non-existence of deep biosphere in PG faults; (8) Data useful for planning radioactive waste disposal in crystalline bedrock; (9) Data

  3. Rotary blasthole drilling update

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2008-02-15

    Blasthole drilling rigs are the unsung heroes of open-pit mining. Recently manufacturers have announced new tools. Original equipment manufactures (OEMs) are making safer and more efficient drills. Technology and GPS navigation systems are increasing drilling accuracy. The article describes features of new pieces of equipment: Sandvik's DR460 rotary blasthole drill, P & H's C-Series drills and Atlas Copco's Pit Viper PV275 multiphase rotary blasthole drill rig. DrillNav Plus is a blasthole navigation system developed by Leica Geosystems. 5 photos.

  4. Advanced Drilling through Diagnostics-White-Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    FINGER,JOHN T.; GLOWKA,DAVID ANTHONY; LIVESAY,BILLY JOE; MANSURE,ARTHUR J.; PRAIRIE,MICHAEL R.

    1999-10-07

    A high-speed data link that would provide dramatically faster communication from downhole instruments to the surface and back again has the potential to revolutionize deep drilling for geothermal resources through Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD). Many aspects of the drilling process would significantly improve if downhole and surface data were acquired and processed in real-time at the surface, and used to guide the drilling operation. Such a closed-loop, driller-in-the-loop DWD system, would complete the loop between information and control, and greatly improve the performance of drilling systems. The main focus of this program is to demonstrate the value of real-time data for improving drilling. While high-rate transfer of down-hole data to the surface has been accomplished before, insufficient emphasis has been placed on utilization of the data to tune the drilling process to demonstrate the true merit of the concept. Consequently, there has been a lack of incentive on the part of industry to develop a simple, low-cost, effective high-speed data link. Demonstration of the benefits of DWD based on a high-speed data link will convince the drilling industry and stimulate the flow of private resources into the development of an economical high-speed data link for geothermal drilling applications. Such a downhole communication system would then make possible the development of surface data acquisition and expert systems that would greatly enhance drilling operations. Further, it would foster the development of downhole equipment that could be controlled from the surface to improve hole trajectory and drilling performance. Real-time data that would benefit drilling performance include: bit accelerations for use in controlling bit bounce and improving rock penetration rates and bit life; downhole fluid pressures for use in the management of drilling hydraulics and improved diagnosis of lost circulation and gas kicks; hole trajectory for use in reducing directional

  5. Influence of drilling operations on drilling mud gas monitoring during IODP Exp. 338 and 348

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschmidt, Sebastian; Toczko, Sean; Kubo, Yusuke; Wiersberg, Thomas; Fuchida, Shigeshi; Kopf, Achim; Hirose, Takehiro; Saffer, Demian; Tobin, Harold; Expedition 348 Scientists, the

    2014-05-01

    The history of scientific ocean drilling has developed some new techniques and technologies for drilling science, dynamic positioning being one of the most famous. However, while industry has developed newer tools and techniques, only some of these have been used in scientific ocean drilling. The introduction of riser-drilling, which recirculates the drilling mud and returns to the platform solids and gases from the formation, to the International Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) through the launch of the Japan Agency of Marine Earth-Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) riser-drilling vessel D/V Chikyu, has made some of these techniques available to science. IODP Expedition 319 (NanTroSEIZE Stage 2: riser/riserless observatory) was the first such attempt, and among the tools and techniques used was drilling mud gas analysis. While industry regularly conducts drilling mud gas logging for safety concerns and reservoir evaluation, science is more interested in other components (e.g He, 222Rn) that are beyond the scope of typical mud logging services. Drilling mud gas logging simply examines the gases released into the drilling mud as part of the drilling process; the bit breaks and grinds the formation, releasing any trapped gases. These then circulate within the "closed circuit" mud-flow back to the drilling rig, where a degasser extracts these gases and passes them on to a dedicated mud gas logging unit. The unit contains gas chromatographs, mass spectrometers, spectral analyzers, radon gas analyzers, and a methane carbon isotope analyzer. Data are collected and stored in a database, together with several drilling parameters (rate of penetration, mud density, etc.). This initial attempt was further refined during IODP Expeditions 337 (Deep Coalbed Biosphere off Shimokita), 338 (NanTroSEIZE Stage 3: NanTroSEIZE Plate Boundary Deep Riser 2) and finally 348 (NanTroSEIZE Stage 3: NanTroSEIZE Plate Boundary Deep Riser 3). Although still in its development stage for scientific

  6. Scientific Coring in the Lake Tahoe Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verosub, Kenneth L.

    2006-01-01

    Lake Tahoe ranks among the largest, oldest, and deepest lakes in North America. In addition, the lake is located at a major tectonic boundary. These factors make the Lake Tahoe basin an exciting natural laboratory for studying the interaction between tectonics and climate in a high-altitude temperate setting. A recent meeting to explore the potential benefits of a comprehensive program of scientific coring in the Lake Tahoe basin attracted 67 researchers from 28 institutions. The meeting was supported by a grant from the Drilling, Observations, and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust (DOSECC) consortium with additional funding provided by the John Muir Institute for the Environment and the Tahoe Environmental Research Center at the University of California, Davis, the Institute for Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the University of California, San Diego, the Desert Research Institute in Reo, Nev., the Academy for the Environment of the University of Nevada, Reno, and the U.S. Geological Survey.

  7. Low-cost drilling system characterizing marine gas hydrate accumulations

    SciTech Connect

    Kolle, J.J.

    1994-12-31

    Natural gas hydrates are encountered in the marine sediments of continental margins worldwide, but the nature and distribution of these accumulation is poorly understood. This project involves the development of a low-cost system designed for drilling and characterizing accumulations of gas hydrates on continental margins. A high-pressure, hydraulically powered drill is deployed with a flexible 25-mm-diameter hose into the seafloor in water depths of up to 1,000 m. A 38-mm-diameter hose will return the drilling fluid, cuttings, and any gas encountered to the surface for continuous analysis. The system will be capable of mapping gas concentrations in the sediment to a total depth of up to 1,500 m. Drilling logs and mud logs will be combined to map the distribution of natural gas hydrates.

  8. Drill wear monitoring in cortical bone drilling.

    PubMed

    Staroveski, Tomislav; Brezak, Danko; Udiljak, Toma

    2015-06-01

    Medical drills are subject to intensive wear due to mechanical factors which occur during the bone drilling process, and potential thermal and chemical factors related to the sterilisation process. Intensive wear increases friction between the drill and the surrounding bone tissue, resulting in higher drilling temperatures and cutting forces. Therefore, the goal of this experimental research was to develop a drill wear classification model based on multi-sensor approach and artificial neural network algorithm. A required set of tool wear features were extracted from the following three types of signals: cutting forces, servomotor drive currents and acoustic emission. Their capacity to classify precisely one of three predefined drill wear levels has been established using a pattern recognition type of the Radial Basis Function Neural Network algorithm. Experiments were performed on a custom-made test bed system using fresh bovine bones and standard medical drills. Results have shown high classification success rate, together with the model robustness and insensitivity to variations of bone mechanical properties. Features extracted from acoustic emission and servomotor drive signals achieved the highest precision in drill wear level classification (92.8%), thus indicating their potential in the design of a new type of medical drilling machine with process monitoring capabilities. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 75 FR 26091 - Safety Zone; Riser for DEEPWATER HORIZON at Mississippi Canyon 252 Outer Continental Shelf MODU...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ... HORIZON, a Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), at Mississippi Canyon 252 in the Outer Continental Shelf... Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit (MODU), which has sunk in the deepwater area of the Gulf of Mexico near....T08-849 DEEPWATER HORIZON Mobile Offshore Drilling Unit Safety Zone. (a) Location. All areas within...

  10. Hydraulic properties of samples retrieved from the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling Project Hole-1 (WFSD-1) and the surface rupture zone: Implications for coseismic slip weakening and fault healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianye; Yang, Xiaosong; Ma, Shengli; Yang, Tao; Niemeijer, André

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report the hydraulic properties of samples recovered from the first borehole of the Wenchuan earthquake Fault Scientific Drilling and from outcrops associated with the surface rupture zone of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Compositional and microstructural analyses have also been performed on selected samples. Using the pore pressure oscillation method, the permeability measurements show that (1) fault gouge samples have low permeabilities, decreasing from 2 × 10-18 m2 at an effective pressure (Pe) of 10 MPa (equivalent to an in situ depth of 600 m) to 9 × 10-21 m2 at 155 MPa. (2) Intact and cemented samples are impermeable with permeabilities less than 2 × 10-20 m2 at 10 MPa. (3) Fractured samples have variable permeabilities, ranging from 3 × 10-15 to 1 × 10-20 m2 at 10 MPa, and are most insensitive to changes in the effective pressure. (4) Granitic cataclasites have a moderate permeability at low pressure (i.e., 10-16 to 10-17 m2 at 10 MPa); which decreases rapidly with increasing Pe. Hydraulic conduction of the fault is believed to be influenced by the permeability of the fractures developed, which is controlled by the density, aperture, and/or connectivity of the fractures. Microstructural and compositional analyses of the samples indicate that the fault zone heals through chemically mediated fracture closure related to mineral precipitation, possibly assisted by pressure solution of stressed fracture asperities. Although other weakening mechanisms remain possible, our laboratory measurements combined with numerical modeling reveal that thermal/thermochemical pressurization, perhaps leading to gouge fluidization, played an important role in the dynamic weakening of the Wenchuan earthquake, at least in the study area.

  11. First drilling in Norwegian sea off Norway yields encouraging results

    SciTech Connect

    Bergsager, E.

    1981-06-08

    Three exploratory wells drilled in the Norwegian Sea penetrated Jurassic sandstones with excellent reservoir qualities, rich source rock, and some evidence of hydrocarbons. Constituting the first wells drilled north of the 62nd parallel off Norway, they produced encouraging evidence of prospective structures. The Norwegian continental shelf north of the North Sea contains areas of thick sedimentary basins having an areal extent 8-9 times that of the Norwegian North Sea.

  12. Robotic Planetary Drill Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, Brian J.; Thompson, S.; Paulsen, G.

    2010-01-01

    Several proposed or planned planetary science missions to Mars and other Solar System bodies over the next decade require subsurface access by drilling. This paper discusses the problems of remote robotic drilling, an automation and control architecture based loosely on observed human behaviors in drilling on Earth, and an overview of robotic drilling field test results using this architecture since 2005. Both rotary-drag and rotary-percussive drills are targeted. A hybrid diagnostic approach incorporates heuristics, model-based reasoning and vibration monitoring with neural nets. Ongoing work leads to flight-ready drilling software.

  13. Introduction to drilling technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellor, Malcom

    1989-12-01

    Terrestrial drilling technology is reviewed. The general requirements for a drilling system are given and conventional drilling techniques (rotary drag-bit, rotary roller-bit, percussive, rotary percussive) are described. Unconventional techniques for penetrating solids are outlined, including thermal drilling (spalling or melting), projectile penetration, high pressure liquid jets, explosive jets, erosion by projectile streams, and chemical penetration. Special attention is given to drilling in ice and frozen soils, performance data are given, including values for penetration rate and specific energy consumption. The principles, theory and equipment relating to each drilling technique are indicated by means of diagrams.

  14. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, Edward L.; Lundin, Ralph L.

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation.

  15. Ultrasonic drilling apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Duran, E.L.; Lundin, R.L.

    1988-06-20

    Apparatus attachable to an ultrasonic drilling machine for drilling deep holes in very hard materials, such as boron carbide, is provided. The apparatus utilizes a hollow spindle attached to the output horn of the ultrasonic drilling machine. The spindle has a hollow drill bit attached at the opposite end. A housing surrounds the spindle, forming a cavity for holding slurry. In operation, slurry is provided into the housing, and into the spindle through inlets while the spindle is rotating and ultrasonically reciprocating. Slurry flows through the spindle and through the hollow drill bit to cleanse the cutting edge of the bit during a drilling operation. 3 figs.

  16. The COSC-1 drill core - a geological sample through a hot allochthon and the underlying thrust zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Henning; Almqvist, Bjarne; Berthet, Théo; Klonowska, Iwona

    2015-04-01

    The ICDP (International Continental Scientific Drilling Program) supported Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) scientific drilling project has the aim to study mountain building processes in a major Paleozoic orogen. COSC-1, drilled in 2014 near Åre (Sweden), was planned to sample a section from the hot allochthon of the Lower Seve Nappe through the thrust zone and into the underlying less metamorphic rocks of the Särv and/or Jämtlandian nappes. Diamond core drilling operations resulted in 2396.0 m of drill core with only about 2.5 m documented core loss (technical failure of the core catcher). Down to about 1800 m, the COSC-1 drill hole penetrated a succession that is dominated by gneisses of varying compositions (felsic, amphibole, calc-silicate gneisses, and more), often garnet and diopside bearing. Meta-gabbros and amphibolites are common and apparently correlate well with seismic reflectors between 500 and 1000 m depth. Also marbles, pegmatite dykes and minor mylonites occur. These rocks are highly strained. Small scale structures (e.g. isoclinal folding) are occasionally discernible in the narrow section provided by the drill cores. (Young) Fractures are sparse. Only a set of very steep fractures results in fluid conduction zones at several levels throughout the drill hole. At 175 m and between 1200 and 1300 m, this results in the dissolution of calcite-rich bands in the gneisses to form "micro-karst". First signs of the thrust zone below the Seve Nappe appear just below 1700 m in form of narrow deformation bands and thin mylonites. The mylonites increase in thickness and reach a thickness of around 1 m between 1900 and 2000 m. Below c. 2100 m, mylonites are dominating and garnets become common (but are not present in all mylonites). The deepest rock of mafic origin (possibly amphibolite in the Seve Nappe) was identified at 2314 m, a transition from gneiss into lower grade metasedimentary rocks occurs between 2345 and 2360 m. The

  17. A 600,000 year long continental pollen record from Lake Van, eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, T.; Pickarski, N.; Heumann, G.

    2014-12-01

    Lake Van is the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (38.5°N, 43 °E, volume 607 km3, area 3570 km2, maximum water depth 460 m), extending for 130 km WSW-ENE on the Eastern Anatolian High Plateau, Turkey. The sedimentary record of Lake Van, partly laminated, obtains a long and continuous continental sequence that covers multiple interglacial-glacial cycles. Promoted by the potential of the sedimentary sequence for reconstructing the paleoecological and paleoclimate development of the Near East, a deep drilling operation was carried out in 2010 supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The 119 m long continental record is based on a well-dated composite profile drilled on the so-called Ahlat Ridge in water depth of 360 m encompassing the last 600,000 years. It contains the longest continuous continental pollen record of the Quaternary in the entire Near East and central Asia obtained to date. It documents glacial and interglacial stages as well as pronounced interstadials encompassing the entire 600 ka of the sedimentary record. The cold-adapted vegetation in the Lake Van region during glacial stages and stadial substages can be described as dwarf-shrub steppe and desert steppe very similar to each other. The climax vegetation of the interglacial stages in the Lake Van region is characterized by an oak steppe-forest with pistachio and juniper. It is interesting to note that, in contrast to the atmospheric CO2 concentration from Antarctic ice cores or marine isotope values based on benthic foraminifera, there is no clear subdivision in the Lake Van pollen record between low-amplitude interglacials (cooler cycles) prior the mid-Brunhes event (MBE) at 430 ka and high-amplitude, post MBE interglacials. Lower CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere might be compensated by stronger insolation forcing during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 13a and 15a. A similar pattern can be observed during the triplicate interglacial complex MIS 7

  18. 30 CFR 250.424 - What are the requirements for prolonged drilling operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Casing and Cementing Requirements § 250.424 What are the...

  19. 30 CFR 250.408 - May I use alternative procedures or equipment during drilling operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.408 May I use alternative procedures or...

  20. 30 CFR 250.424 - What are the requirements for prolonged drilling operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Casing and Cementing Requirements § 250.424 What are the...

  1. 30 CFR 250.424 - What are the requirements for prolonged drilling operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Casing and Cementing Requirements § 250.424 What are the...

  2. 30 CFR 250.408 - May I use alternative procedures or equipment during drilling operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.408 May I use alternative procedures or...

  3. 30 CFR 250.408 - May I use alternative procedures or equipment during drilling operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.408 May I use alternative procedures or equipment...

  4. 30 CFR 250.408 - May I use alternative procedures or equipment during drilling operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.408 May I use alternative procedures or...

  5. Scientific networking to address the causes, timing, emplacement mechanisms, and consequences of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camerlenghi, Angelo; Lofi, Johanna; Aloisi, Vanni; Flecker, Rachel

    2017-04-01

    The origin of the Mediterranean salt giant is linked to an extraordinary event in the geological history of the Mediterranean region, commonly referred to as the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC). After 45 years of intense yet disunited research efforts, the international scientific community at large faces a unique opportunity to access the deep and marginal basins Messinian depositional successions in the Mediterranean through scientific drilling, namely through the Integrated Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) and the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP). Scientific activity to promote scientific drilling offshore and onshore is in progress under the broad umbrella of the Uncovering a Salt Giant' IODP Multi-Platform Drilling proposal, that has generated the Deep-Sea Records of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (DREAM) site-specific pre-proposal for riserless drilling on Messinian marginal basins and the related ICDP-IODP amphibious initiative Investigating Miocene Mediterranean- Atlantic gateway exchange (IMMAGE). Scientific networking has begun to establish a broad cross-disciplinary research community embracing geology, geophysics, geochemistry, microbiology, and paleoclimatology. Formal networking activities represent an opportunity for the scientific community to share objectives, data, expertise and tools with industry since there is considerable interest in oil and gas exploration, and consequent hazards, targeting the Mediterranean's deep salt deposits. With the acronym MEDSALT, we have established two networks working in close cooperation: (1) COST Action CA15103 Uncovering the Mediterranean salt giant (MEDSALT) (https://medsalt.eu/) is a 4-year long network established in May 2016 comprising scientific institutions from 28 states. This COST Action will provide an opportunity to develop further our knowledge of salt rock formation addressing four overarching scientific questions: a) What are the causes, timing and emplacement mechanisms of the

  6. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) A New Era in Geothermal Development?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Reed, M. H.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.

    2007-12-01

    the Reykjanes geothermal fields during 2009-2010, and subsequently deepened. In contrast to the fresh water systems at Krafla and Hengill, the Reykjanes geothermal system produces hydrothermally modified seawater on the Reykjanes peninsula, in southern Iceland, where the Mid-Atlantic Ridge comes on land in southern Iceland. Processes at depth at Reykjanes should be similar to those responsible for black smokers on ocean spreading centers. The IDDP has engendered considerable international scientific interest. The US National Science Foundation and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program will jointly fund the coring and sampling for scientific studies. In preparation for studying the data and samples that will be recovered by deep drilling research is underway on samples from existing wells in the target geothermal fields, and on exposed "fossil" geothermal systems and active mid-ocean ridge systems that have conditions believed to be similar to those that will be encountered in deep drilling by the IDDP. Some of these initial scientific studies by US investigators are reported in the accompanying papers.

  7. MSP Drilling through a complete Pliocene series : the case of the Gulf of Lion (GOLD-2 project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabineau, Marina; Popescu, Speranta; Lofi, Johanna; Participants, International

    2010-05-01

    Borehole transects across passive continental margins are required to understand the history of eustasy versus subsidence/sediment supply changes. In this context, the Gulf of Lion is a unique natural laboratory to study surficial processes at the scale of the last 5Ma. Here, we present, the main objectives for GOLD 2 Mission Specific Platform drilling project on the continental shelf (30 - 120 m water depth) where the sedimentary column consist of very well developed prograding Pliocene clinoforms. On the shelf we record the full and very high resolution history of earth history since 5 Ma within 0.6 to 2 km of sedimentary archives. Over the last 5 m.y., global climate has evolved from being warm with only small Northern Hemisphere glaciers to being cold with major Northern Hemisphere glaciations every 100-40 k.y. The Gulf of Lion receives most sediments from the Alps by the Rhône River. We infer that the amount of sediment will vary significantly according to the existence or not of ice sheet and glaciers. We thus believe that a drilling transect through these deposits give an opportunity to address the following scientific targets: (1) estimate the amplitudes, rates and mechanisms of sea-level change during the last "great global warming", culminating at ~3 Ma during the mid-Pliocene climate optimum, and presenting analogies with a condition that we may eventually achieve in the near future even if CO2 emissions are stabilized; (2) Date and characterize the impact of the initiation and the change in glacioeustatic cyclicities on alpine glacier and ultimately on sedimentation on the shelf; (3) study the distribution and dynamics of freshwater within continental shelf sediments, which have important implications for microbial processes and long-term fluxes of carbon and nitrogen and other nutrients to the global ocean. This drilling project and the GOLD I project (Rabineau et al., this congress, session CL 4.9/SSP 1.7) have the objectives of recovering a unique

  8. Investigating Curiosity Drill Area

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-09

    NASA Mars rover Curiosity used its Mast Camera Mastcam to take the images combined into this mosaic of the drill area, called John Klein, where the rover ultimately performed its first sample drilling.

  9. Hydromechanical drilling device

    DOEpatents

    Summers, David A.

    1978-01-01

    A hydromechanical drilling tool which combines a high pressure water jet drill with a conventional roller cone type of drilling bit. The high pressure jet serves as a tap drill for cutting a relatively small diameter hole in advance of the conventional bit. Auxiliary laterally projecting jets also serve to partially cut rock and to remove debris from in front of the bit teeth thereby reducing significantly the thrust loading for driving the bit.

  10. 75 FR 10501 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... injury by reason of imports from China of drill pipe and drill collars, provided for in subheadings 7304... Commission and Commerce by VAM Drilling USA Inc., Houston, TX; Rotary Drilling Tools, Beasley, TX;...

  11. 75 FR 54912 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... retarded, by reason of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of drill pipe and drill... defined the subject merchandise as steel drill pipe, and steel drill collars, whether or not conforming...

  12. Drilling technique for crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, T.; Miyagawa, I.

    1977-01-01

    Hole-drilling technique uses special crystal driller in which drill bit rotates at fixed position at speed of 30 rpm while crystal slowly advances toward drill. Technique has been successfully applied to crystal of Rochell salt, Triglycine sulfate, and N-acetyglycine. Technique limits heat buildup and reduces strain on crystal.

  13. HydroPulse Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    J.J. Kolle

    2004-04-01

    Tempress HydroPulse{trademark} tool increases overbalanced drilling rates by generating intense suction pulses at the drill bit. This report describes the operation of the tool; results of pressure drilling tests, wear tests and downhole drilling tests; and the business case for field applications. The HydroPulse{trademark} tool is designed to operate on weighted drilling mud at conventional flow rates and pressures. Pressure drilling tests confirm that the HydroPulse{trademark} tool provides 33% to 200% increased rate of penetration. Field tests demonstrated conventional rotary and mud motor drilling operations. The tool has been operated continuous for 50 hours on weighted mud in a wear test stand. This level of reliability is the threshold for commercial application. A seismic-while-drilling version of the tool was also developed and tested. This tool was used to demonstrate reverse vertical seismic profiling while drilling an inclined test well with a PDC bit. The primary applications for the HydroPulse{trademark} tool are deep onshore and offshore drilling where rate of penetration drives costs. The application of the seismic tool is vertical seismic profiling-while-drilling and look-ahead seismic imaging while drilling.

  14. Drilling at Advanced Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Doug

    1977-01-01

    Instances where drilling is useful for advanced language are discussed. Several types of drills are recommended, with the philosophy that advanced level drills should have a lighter style and be regarded as a useful, occasional means of practicing individual new items. (CHK)

  15. Tutorial: The EarthScope Investigation of Continental Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, E.

    2005-12-01

    EarthScope is an integrated investigation of continents that uses the U.S. as the study region. Why the U.S.? It is one of the most fruitful subjects for study and it is our country. EarthScope is drilling the San Andreas Fault, geodetically measuring deformation in the tectonically active western U.S., and seismically imaging continental lithosphere across the U.S. The goal is to understand the processes that create and shape continents, and an emphasis on earthquakes and volcanoes recognizes the scientific and social need to understand the underlying physics; these events are the fundamental agents in making continents and they pose genuine risk to society. Making significant progress toward these goals has proven elusive. In response, EarthScope has challenged our community to observe continental structure and earthquake and volcanic cycles on continuous and wide spatial and temporal scales, and to bridge across disciplines to provide an intellectually broad and continuous understanding. As EarthScope begins its study of the western U.S., the following overview provides a framework for consideration; however, we are just on the verge of understanding how this marvelous system works. The western U.S. is one of Earth's major orogenic plateaus. Unlike most regions, deformation is distributed over a broad area. The origins of the distinctive western U.S. tectonic provinces can be traced back to continental rifting 0.5 billion years ago, which created a continental margin upon which tectonic and magmatic activity constructed a coherently heterogeneous land. Aftermaths of the Laramide (Rocky Mountain) event include the current weakness and high elevations of the western U.S. These, combined with applied plate-tectonic loads at the plate margin and a protecting effect of the strong Canadian craton, result in extension of the continental interior (especially the very weak Basin and Range province), shear deformation across the westernmost swath of continent, and

  16. An international and multidisciplinary drilling project into a young complex impact structure: The 2004 ICDP Bosumtwi Crater Drilling Project—An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Milkereit, Bernd; Overpeck, Jonathan T.; Scholz, Christopher A.; Amoako, Philip Y. O.; Boamah, Daniel; Danuor, Sylvester; Karp, Tobias; Kueck, Jochem; Hecky, Robert E.; King, John W.; Peck, John A.

    The Bosumtwi impact crater in Ghana, arguably the best-preserved complex young impact structure known on Earth, displays a pronounced rim and is almost completely filled by Lake Bosumtwi, a hydrologically closed basin. It is the source crater of the Ivory Coast tektites. The structure was excavated in 2.1-2.2 Gyr old metasediments and metavolcanics of the Birimian Supergroup. A drilling project was conceived that would combine two major scientific interests in this crater: 1) to obtain a complete paleoenvironmental record from the time of crater formation about one million years ago, at a near-equatorial location in Africa for which very few data are available so far, and 2) to obtain a complete record of impactites at the central uplift and in the crater moat, for ground truthing and comparison with other structures. Within the framework of an international and multidisciplinary drilling project led by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), 16 drill cores were obtained from June to October 2004 at six locations within Lake Bosumtwi, which is 8.5 km in diameter. The 14 sediment cores are currently being investigated for paleoenvironmental indicators. The two impactite cores LB-07A and LB-08A were drilled into the deepest section of the annular moat (540 m) and the flank of the central uplift (450 m), respectively. They are the main subject of this special issue of Meteoritics & Planetary Science, which represents the first detailed presentations of results from the deep drilling into the Bosumtwi impactite sequence. Drilling progressed in both cases through the impact breccia layer into fractured bedrock. LB-07A comprises lithic (in the uppermost part) and suevitic impact breccias with appreciable amounts of impact melt fragments. The lithic clast content is dominated by graywacke, besides various metapelites, quartzite, and a carbonate target component. Shock deformation in the form of quartz grains with planar microdeformations is

  17. Impacts of gas drilling on human and animal health.

    PubMed

    Bamberger, Michelle; Oswald, Robert E

    2012-01-01

    Environmental concerns surrounding drilling for gas are intense due to expansion of shale gas drilling operations. Controversy surrounding the impact of drilling on air and water quality has pitted industry and lease-holders against individuals and groups concerned with environmental protection and public health. Because animals often are exposed continually to air, soil, and groundwater and have more frequent reproductive cycles, animals can be used as sentinels to monitor impacts to human health. This study involved interviews with animal owners who live near gas drilling operations. The findings illustrate which aspects of the drilling process may lead to health problems and suggest modifications that would lessen but not eliminate impacts. Complete evidence regarding health impacts of gas drilling cannot be obtained due to incomplete testing and disclosure of chemicals, and nondisclosure agreements. Without rigorous scientific studies, the gas drilling boom sweeping the world will remain an uncontrolled health experiment on an enormous scale.

  18. Drilling gas hydrates with the sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freudenthal, Tim; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Wefer, Gerold

    2015-04-01

    Large amounts of methane are bound in marine gas hydrate deposits. Local conditions like pressure, temperature, gas and pore water compositions define the boundaries of gas hydrate stability within the ocean sediments. Depending on those conditions gas hydrates can occur within marine sediments at depth down to several hundreds of meters up to sea floor. These oceanic methane deposits are widespread along continental margins. By forming cement in otherwise soft sediments gas hydrates are stabilizing the seafloor on continental slopes. Drilling operations are required for understanding the distribution of gas hydrates as well as for sampling them to study the composition, microstructure and its geomechanical and geophysical properties. The sea floor drill rig MARUM-MeBo200 has the capability to drill down to 200 m below sea floor well within the depth of major gas hydrate occurrences at continental margins. This drill rig is a transportable sea floor drill rig that can be deployed from a variety of multi-purpose research vessels. It is deployed on the sea bed and controlled from the vessel. It is the second generation MeBo (Freudenthal and Wefer, 2013) and was developed from 2011 to 2014 by MARUM in cooperation with BAUER Maschinen GmbH. Long term experiences with the first generation MeBo70 that was operated since 2005 on 15 research expeditions largely contributed to the development of MeBo200. It was first tested in October 2014 from the research vessel RV SONNE in the North Sea. In this presentation the suitability of MARUM-MeBo for drilling marine gas hydrates is discussed. We report on experiences drilling gas hydrates on two research expeditions with MeBo70. A research expedition for sampling gas hydrates in the Danube Paleodelta with MeBo200 as well as technical developments for improving the suitability of MeBo for gas hydrate exploration works are planned within the project SUGAR3 funded by the Federal Government for Economy and Energy (BMWi). Freudenthal

  19. The Continental Crust: A Geophysical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Nikolas I.

    Nearly 80 years ago, Yugoslavian seismologist Andrija Mohorovicic recognized, while studying a Balkan earthquake, that velocities of seismic waves increase abruptly at a few tens of kilometers depth , giving rise to the seismological definition of the crust. Since that discovery, many studies concerned with the nature of both the continental and oceanic crusts have appeared in the geophysical literature.Recently, interest in the continental crust has cascaded. This is largely because of an infusion of new data obtained from major reflection programs such as the Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP) and British Institutions Reflection Profiling Syndicate (BIRPS) and increased resolution of refraction studies. In addition, deep continental drilling programs are n ow in fashion. The Continental Crust: A Geophysical Approach is a summary of present knowledge of the continental crust. Meissner has succeeded in writing a book suited to many different readers, from the interested undergraduate to the professional. The book is well documented , with pertinent figures and a complete and up-to-date reference list.

  20. 30 CFR 250.408 - May I use alternative procedures or equipment during drilling operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... during drilling operations? 250.408 Section 250.408 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.408 May I...

  1. 30 CFR 250.424 - What are the requirements for prolonged drilling operations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drilling operations? 250.424 Section 250.424 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Casing and Cementing Requirements § 250.424...

  2. 30 CFR 250.409 - May I obtain departures from these drilling requirements?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I obtain departures from these drilling requirements? 250.409 Section 250.409 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations...

  3. 30 CFR 250.462 - What are the requirements for well-control drills?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for well-control drills? 250.462 Section 250.462 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations...

  4. 30 CFR 256.70 - Extension of lease by drilling or well reworking operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Assignments, Transfers, and Extensions § 256.70 Extension of lease by drilling or well reworking operations... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Extension of lease by drilling or...

  5. 30 CFR 256.70 - Extension of lease by drilling or well reworking operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Assignments, Transfers, and Extensions § 256.70 Extension of lease by drilling or well reworking operations... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Extension of lease by drilling or...

  6. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the safety requirements for...

  7. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the safety requirements for...

  8. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety requirements for... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the safety requirements for...

  9. 30 CFR 250.459 - What are the safety requirements for drilling fluid-handling areas?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Drilling Fluid Requirements § 250.459 What are the safety... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the safety requirements for...

  10. 30 CFR 256.70 - Extension of lease by drilling or well reworking operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Assignments, Transfers, and Extensions § 256.70 Extension of lease by drilling or well reworking operations... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Extension of lease by drilling or...

  11. 30 CFR 256.70 - Extension of lease by drilling or well reworking operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Assignments, Transfers, and Extensions § 256.70 Extension of lease by drilling or well reworking operations. The term of a... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Extension of lease by drilling or...

  12. Rock melting technology and geothermal drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowley, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    National awareness of the potential future shortages in energy resources has heightened interest in exploration and utilization of a variety of geothermal energy (GTE) reservoirs. The status of conventional drilling of GTE wells is reviewed briefly and problem areas which lead to higher drilling costs are identified and R and D directions toward solution are suggested. In the immediate future, an expanded program of drilling in GTE formations can benefit from improvements in drilling equipment and technology normally associated with oil or gas wells. Over a longer time period, the new rock-melting drill bits being developed as a part of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's Subterrene Program offer new solutions to a number of problems which frequently hamper GTE drilling, including the most basic problem - high temperature. Two of the most favorable characteristics of rock-melting penetrators are their ability to operate effectively in hot rock and produce glass linings around the hole as an integral part of the drilling process. The technical advantages to be gained by use of rock-melting penetrators are discussed in relation to the basic needs for GTE wells.

  13. Attenuation of sound waves in drill strings

    SciTech Connect

    Drumheller, D.S. )

    1993-10-01

    During drilling of deep wells, digital data are often transmitted from sensors located near the drill bit to the surface. Development of a new communication system with increased data capacity is of paramount importance to the drilling industry. Since steel drill strings are used, transmission of these data by elastic carrier waves traveling within the drill pipe is possible, but the potential communication range is uncertain. The problem is complicated by the presence of heavy-threaded tool joints every 10 m, which form a periodic structure and produce classical patterns of passbands and stop bands in the wave spectra. In this article, field measurements of the attenuation characteristics of a drill string in the Long Valley Scientific Well in Mammoth Lakes, California are presented. Wave propagation distances approach 2 km. A theoretical model is discussed which predicts the location, width, and attenuation of the passbands. Mode conversion between extensional and bending waves, and spurious reflections due to deviations in the periodic spacings of the tool joints are believed to be the sources of this attenuation. It is estimated that attenuation levels can be dramatically reduced by rearranging the individual pipes in the drill string according to length. 7 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Managing drilling operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, K.; Peden, J.; Kenworth, A.

    1991-01-01

    Oil and gas well drilling operations requires the management of a great variety of operations, equipment, people, finances, legal aspects and safety procedures. A thorough understanding of the drilling process and the technologies involved is required to complete a project successfully, on time and within budget. This book presents guidance on the whole sequence of this process from field evaluation and well planning to drilling and optimization for both on- and off-shore projects. There are step-by-step guidelines and checklist which the practitioner can use directly, or with their own modifications. The author has refined these guidelines from his nineteen years of experience managing drilling operations around the world. Graduates in petroleum engineering and economic geology, as well as drilling engineers and drilling operations managers will welcome this handbook for its comprehensive and clear treatment of all the management issue and technologies required for a safe, efficient and economic drilling operation.

  15. 30 CFR 251.7 - Test drilling activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Test drilling activities under a permit. 251.7... OFFSHORE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 251.7 Test drilling... Regional Director, at the address in 30 CFR 551.5(d) for BOEM or 30 CFR 254.7 for BSEE, a drilling plan...

  16. 30 CFR 251.7 - Test drilling activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Test drilling activities under a permit. 251.7... OFFSHORE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 251.7 Test drilling... Regional Director, at the address in 30 CFR 551.5(d) for BOEM or 30 CFR 254.7 for BSEE, a drilling plan...

  17. 30 CFR 251.7 - Test drilling activities under a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Test drilling activities under a permit. 251.7... OFFSHORE GEOLOGICAL AND GEOPHYSICAL (G&G) EXPLORATIONS OF THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF § 251.7 Test drilling... Regional Director, at the address in 30 CFR 551.5(d) for BOEM or 30 CFR 254.7 for BSEE, a drilling plan...

  18. Gas Drilling, North Dakota

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-27

    Northwestern North Dakota is one of the least-densely populated parts of the United States. Cities and people are scarce, but satellite imagery shows the area has been aglow at night in recent years. The reason: the area is home to the Bakken shale formation, a site where oil production is booming. Companies hoping to extract oil from the Bakken formation have drilled hundreds of new wells in the last few years; natural gas often bubbles up to the surface as part of the process. Lacking the infrastructure to pipe the gas away, many drillers simply burn it in a practice known as flaring. On November 12, 2012, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on the Suomi NPP satellite captured this nighttime view of widespread gas flaring throughout the area. Many of the specks of light are evidence of gas flaring, though others may be the lights around drilling equipment. Some of the brighter areas correspond to towns and cities including Williston, Minot, and Dickinson. The image was captured by the VIIRS “day-night band,” which detects light in a range of wavelengths from green to near-infrared and uses filtering techniques to observe signals such as gas flares, auroras, wildfires, city lights, and reflected moonlight. When VIIRS acquired the image, the moon was in its waning crescent phase, meaning it was reflecting only a small amount of light. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration, natural gas production from the Bakken shale has increased more than 20-fold between 2007 and 2010. Gas production averaged over 485 million cubic feet per day in September 2011, compared to the 2005 average of about 160 million cubic feet per day. Due to the lack of gas pipeline and processing facilities in the region, about 29 percent of that gas is flared. NASA Earth Observatory image by Jesse Allen and Robert Simmon, using VIIRS Day-Night Band data from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership. Suomi NPP is the result of a partnership between NASA

  19. Facility for testing ice drills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Dennis L.; Delahunty, Chris; Goodge, John W.; Severinghaus, Jeffery P.

    2017-05-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) is designed for subsurface scientific investigations in Antarctica. Its objectives are to drill rapidly through ice, to core samples of the transition zone and bedrock, and to leave behind a borehole observatory. These objectives required the engineering and fabrication of an entirely new drilling system that included a modified mining-style coring rig, a unique fluid circulation system, a rod skid, a power unit, and a workshop with areas for the storage of supplies and consumables. An important milestone in fabrication of the RAID was the construction of a North American Test (NAT) facility where we were able to test drilling and fluid processing functions in an environment that is as close as possible to that expected in Antarctica. Our criteria for site selection was that the area should be cold during the winter months, be located in an area of low heat flow, and be at relatively high elevation. We selected a site for the facility near Bear Lake, Utah, USA. The general design of the NAT well (NAT-1) started with a 27.3 cm (10.75 in.) outer casing cemented in a 152 m deep hole. Within that casing, we hung a 14 cm (5.5 in.) casing string, and, within that casing, a column of ice was formed. The annulus between the 14 and 27.3 cm casings provided the path for circulation of a refrigerant. After in-depth study, we chose to use liquid CO2 to cool the hole. In order to minimize the likelihood of the casing splitting due to the volume increase associated with freezing water, the hole was first cooled and then ice was formed in increments from the bottom upward. First, ice cubes were placed in the inner liner and then water was added. Using this method, a column of ice was incrementally prepared for drilling tests. The drilling tests successfully demonstrated the functioning of the RAID system. Reproducing such a facility for testing of other ice drilling systems could be advantageous to other research programs in the future.

  20. Age and compositional data of zircon from sepiolite drilling mud to identify contamination of ocean drilling samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Graham D. M.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Busby, Cathy J.; Brown, Sarah R.; Blum, Peter; Harvey, Janet. C.

    2016-08-01

    Zircon extracted from drilled oceanic rocks is increasingly used to answer geologic questions related to igneous and sedimentary sequences. Recent zircon studies using samples obtained from marine drill cores revealed that drilling muds used in the coring process may contaminate the samples. The JOIDES Resolution Science Operator of the International Ocean Discovery Program has been using two types of clays, sepiolite and attapulgite, which both have salt water viscosifier properties able to create a gel-like slurry that carries drill cuttings out of the holes several hundred meters deep. The dominantly used drilling mud is sepiolite originating from southwestern Nevada, USA. This sepiolite contains abundant zircon crystals with U-Pb ages ranging from 1.89 to 2889 Ma and continental trace element, δ18O, and ɛHf isotopic compositions. A dominant population of 11-16 Ma zircons in sepiolite drilling mud makes identification of contamination in drilled Neogene successions particularly challenging. Interpretation of zircon analyses related to ocean drilling should be cautious of zircon ages in violation of independently constrained age models and that have age populations overlapping those in the sepiolite. Because individual geochronologic and geochemical characteristics lack absolute discriminatory power, it is recommended to comprehensively analyze all dated zircon crystals from cores exposed to drill mud for trace element, δ18O, and ɛHf isotopic compositions. Zircon analyzed in situ (i.e., in petrographic sections) are assumed to be trustworthy.

  1. COSC-1 - drilling of a subduction-related allochthon in the Palaeozoic Caledonide orogen of Scandinavia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, H.; Rosberg, J.-E.; Juhlin, C.; Bjelm, L.; Almqvist, B. S. G.; Berthet, T.; Conze, R.; Gee, D. G.; Klonowska, I.; Pascal, C.; Pedersen, K.; Roberts, N. M. W.; Tsang, C.-F.

    2015-05-01

    The Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides (COSC) scientific drilling project focuses on mountain building processes in a major mid-Palaeozoic orogen in western Scandinavia and its comparison with modern analogues. The project investigates the subduction-generated Seve Nape Complex. These in part under ultra-high-pressure conditions metamorphosed outer continental margin and continent-ocean transition zone assemblages were emplaced onto the Baltoscandian platform and there influenced the underlying allochthons and the basement. COSC-1 is the first of two ca. 2.5 km deep, fully cored drill holes located in the vicinity of the abandoned Fröå mine, close to the town of Åre in Jämtland, central Sweden. It sampled a thick section of the lower part of the Seve Complex and was planned to penetrate its basal thrust zone into the underlying lower-grade metamorphosed allochthon. The drill hole reached a depth of 2495.8 m and nearly 100 % core recovery was achieved. Although planning was based on existing geological mapping and new high-resolution seismic surveys, the drilling resulted in some surprises: the Lower Seve Nappe proved to be composed of rather homogenous gneisses, with only subordinate mafic bodies, and its basal thrust zone was unexpectedly thick (> 800 m). The drill hole did not penetrate the bottom of the thrust zone. However, lower-grade metasedimentary rocks were encountered in the lowermost part of the drill hole together with garnetiferous mylonites tens of metres thick. The tectonostratigraphic position is still unclear, and geological and geophysical interpretations are under revision. The compact gneisses host only eight fluid conducting zones of limited transmissivity between 300 m and total depth. Downhole measurements suggest an uncorrected average geothermal gradient of ~ 20 °C km-1. This paper summarizes the operations and preliminary results from COSC-1 (ICDP 5054-1-A), drilled from early May to late August 2014, and is

  2. 30 CFR 250.463 - Who establishes field drilling rules?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Who establishes field drilling rules? 250.463 Section 250.463 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil...

  3. 30 CFR 250.1612 - Well-control drills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Well-control drills. 250.1612 Section 250.1612 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Sulphur...

  4. Initial report on drilling into seismogenic zones of M2.0 - M5.5 earthquakes from deep South African gold mines (DSeis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogasawara, Hiroshi; Durrheim, Raymond; Yabe, Yasuo; Ito, Takatoshi; van Aswegen, Gerrie; Grobbelaar, Michelle; Funato, Akio; Ishida, Akimasa; Ogasawara, Hiroyuki; Mngadi, Siyanda; Manzi, Musa; Ziegler, Martin; Ward, Tony; Moyer, Pamela; Boettcher, Margaret; Ellsworth, Bill; Liebenberg, Bennie; Wechsler, Neta; Onstott, Tullis; Berset, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    The International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) approved our proposal (Ogasawara et al., EGU 2016) to drill into and around seismogenic zones where critically stressed faults initiated ruptures at depth. The drilling targets include four ruptures equivalent to M2.0, 2.8, 3.5, and 5.5 that dynamically and quasi-statically evolved in 2.9 Ga hard rock in the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa. Major advantages of our drilling locations are the large quantity and high-quality of existing data from dense seismic arrays both on surface and near-field underground in three deep South African gold mines. Additionally, the great depths (1.0 to 3.3 km from surface) to collar holes reduce drilling costs significantly and enable a larger number of holes to be drilled. Flexibility in drilling direction will also allow us to minimize damage in borehole or drilled cores. With the ICDP funds, we will conduct full-core drilling of 16 holes with drilling ranges from 50 to 750 m to recover both materials and fractures in and around the seismogenic zones, followed by core and borehole logging. Additional in-hole monitoring at close proximity will be supported by co-mingled funds and will follow the ICDP drilling. Expected magnitudes of maximum shear stress are several tens of MPa. We have established an overcoring procedure to measure 3D-stress state for adverse underground working conditions so as not to interfere with mining operations. This procedure was optimized based on the Compact Conic-ended Borehole Overcoring (CCBO) technique (ISRM suggested; Sugawara and Obara, 1999). Funato and Ito (2016 IJRMMS) developed a diametrical core deformation analysis (DCDA) method to measure differential stress using only drilled core by assuming diametrical change with roll angles caused by elastic in-axisymmetrical expansion during drilling. A gold mine has already drilled a hole to intersect the hypocenter of a 2016 M3.5 earthquake and carried out the CCBO stress measurement in

  5. 76 FR 11812 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars From China Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... of imports of drill pipe and drill collars from China, provided for in subheadings 7304.22, 7304.23... receipt of a petition filed with the Commission and Commerce by VAM Drilling USA Inc., Houston, TX;...

  6. 78 FR 59972 - Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe and Drill Collars from China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... phase investigation of the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on drill pipe and drill collars... remanding certain aspects of the Commission's affirmative threat determination in Drill Pipe and...

  7. Method of deep drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S. A.

    1984-11-20

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  8. Method of deep drilling

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, Stirling A.

    1984-01-01

    Deep drilling is facilitated by the following steps practiced separately or in any combination: (1) Periodically and sequentially fracturing zones adjacent the bottom of the bore hole with a thixotropic fastsetting fluid that is accepted into the fracture to overstress the zone, such fracturing and injection being periodic as a function of the progression of the drill. (2) Casing the bore hole with ductile, pre-annealed casing sections, each of which is run down through the previously set casing and swaged in situ to a diameter large enough to allow the next section to run down through it. (3) Drilling the bore hole using a drill string of a low density alloy and a high density drilling mud so that the drill string is partially floated.

  9. Mars Science Laboratory Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okon, Avi B.

    2010-01-01

    The Drill for the Mars Science Laboratory mission is a rotary-percussive sample acquisition device with an emphasis on toughness and robustness to handle the harsh environment on Mars. The unique challenges associated with autonomous drilling from a mobile robot are addressed. A highly compressed development schedule dictated a modular design architecture that satisfies the functional and load requirements while allowing independent development and testing of the Drill subassemblies. The Drill consists of four actuated mechanisms: a spindle that rotates the bit, a chuck that releases and engages bits, a novel voice-coil-based percussion mechanism that hammers the bit, and a linear translation mechanism. The Drill has three passive mechanisms: a replaceable bit assembly that acquires and collects sample, a contact sensor / stabilizer mechanism, and, lastly a flex harness service loop. This paper describes the various mechanisms that makeup the Drill and discusses the solutions to their unique design and development challenges.

  10. Exploring the Geological Structure of the Continental Crust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Jack

    1983-01-01

    Discusses exploration and mapping of the continental basement using the seismic reflection profiling technique as well as drilling methods. Also discusses computer analysis of gravity and magnetic fields. Points out the need for data that can be correlated to surface information. (JM)

  11. Exploring the Geological Structure of the Continental Crust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Jack

    1983-01-01

    Discusses exploration and mapping of the continental basement using the seismic reflection profiling technique as well as drilling methods. Also discusses computer analysis of gravity and magnetic fields. Points out the need for data that can be correlated to surface information. (JM)

  12. The Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP): (I) Status and Future Plans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elders, W. A.; Fridleifsson, G. O.; Bird, D. K.; Schiffman, P.; Zierenberg, R.; Reed, M. H.

    2006-12-01

    drilling. The industrial consortium will fund the >20 million USD cost of drilling and the US National Science Foundation and the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program will jointly fund the coring and sampling for scientific studies. Research by a team of approximately 50 scientists from seven countries is underway; the US investigators are reporting some initial studies at Reykjanes and Krafla in a series of accompanying papers. In the coming decade the IDDP will drill a series of deep holes in Icelandic geothermal fields, including a return to the seawater system at Reykjanes. In addition to exploring for new sources of energy, this project will provide the first opportunity worldwide to investigate the coupling of hydrothermal and magmatic processes in volcanic systems on a mid-ocean ridge. This will allow a broad array of scientific studies involving water/rock reactions at high temperatures. Supercritical fluids have greatly enhanced rates of mass transfer and chemical reaction. Active processes in such deep high-temperature reaction zones that control fluid compositions on mid-ocean ridges have never before been available for such comprehensive direct sampling and study.

  13. Drilling cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Capuano, L.E. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Louis E. Capuano, Jr., President, ThermaSource, Inc., discusses cost-cutting in the drilling phase of geothermal energy exploration and production. All aspects of a geothermal project including the drilling must be streamlined to make it viable and commercial. If production could be maximized from each well, there would be a reduction in drilling costs. This could be achieved in several ways, including big hole and multi-hole completion, directional drilling, better knowledge of the resource and where to penetrate, etc.

  14. Horizontal drilling developments

    SciTech Connect

    Gust, D.

    1997-05-01

    The advantages of horizontal drilling are discussed. Use of horizontal drilling has climbed in the past half decade as technology and familiarity offset higher costs with higher production rates and greater recoveries from new and existing wells. In essence, all types of horizontal wells expose a larger section of the reservoir to the wellbore with a resulting increase in flow rates. (A horizontal well may also be drilled to provide coning control or to intersect vertical fractures.) Thus, drilling horizontally, both onshore and offshore, reduces the number of wells necessary to develop a field.

  15. Physical properties of the Yaxcopoil-1 deep drill core, Chicxulub impact structure, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elbra, Tiiu; Pesonen, Lauri J.

    2011-11-01

    The Chicxulub structure in Mexico, one of the largest impact structures on Earth, was formed 65 Ma by a hypervelocity impact that led to the large mass extinction at the K-Pg boundary. The Chicxulub impact structure is well preserved, but is buried beneath a sequence of carbonate sediments and, thus, requires drilling to obtain subsurface information. The Chicxulub Scientific Drilling Program was carried out at Hacienda Yaxcopoil in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program in 2001-2002. The structure was cored from 404 m down to 1511 m, through three intervals: 794 m of postimpact Tertiary sediments, a 100 m thick impactite sequence, and 616 m of preimpact Cretaceous rocks thought to represent a suite of megablocks. Physical property investigations show that the various lithologies, including the impactite units and the K-Pg boundary layer, can be characterized by their physical properties, which depend on either changes in fabric or on mineralogical variations. The magnetic properties show mostly dia- or paramagnetic behavior, with the exception of the impactite units that indicate the presence of ferromagnetic, probably hydrothermally deposited magnetite and pyrrhotite. The magnetic fraction contributes mainly to enhanced magnetization in the impactite lithologies and, in this way, to the observed magnetic anomalies. The shape and orientation of the magnetic grains are varied and reflect inhomogeneous fabric development and the influence of impact-related redeposition and hydrothermal activity. The Chicxulub impact occurred at the time of the reverse polarity geomagnetic chron 29R, and this finding is consistent with the age of the K-Pg boundary.

  16. Drilling a crater at the Equator-insides from ICDP DeepCHALLA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Inka; Van Daele, Maarten; Tanghe, Niels; Eloy, Jonas; Verschuren, Dirk; De Batist, Marc

    2017-04-01

    Long and continuous sediment records from equatorial Africa are rare, resulting in a so far fragmentary understanding of the effects of a warming atmosphere on the tropical hydrological cycle at the regional scale. Serve and recurrent droughts is the principle weather-related hazard throughout sub-Saharan Africa, and the quality of long-term weather prediction a principle bottleneck hampering drought mitigation and adaptation. The impact of 21st-century anthropogenic climate change on the African rainfall is highly uncertain, implying unforeseeable effects on freshwater resources. During the "CHALLACEA" project (2005-2008) detailed investigations of Lake Challa, a relatively small and deep crater lake on the border between Kenya and Tanzania, revealed the lake is a key site for reconstructing the climate and environmental history of equatorial East Africa. Various biological, bio-geochemical and sedimentological investigations of the 22 long CHALLACEA-core helped to understand the systematics of Lake Challa under present-day conditions as well as to reconstruct environmental changes over the past 25,000 years. Due to the good quality of the Lake Challa sediment and the high scientific outcome of the record, a new International Continental Scientific Drilling Programme (ICDP) project "DeepCHALLA" was established to drill a longer sediment record, going further back in time. During the drilling campaign in November 2016 a 215 m long sediment sequence was obtained which will provide unique information about environmental changes in low-latitudes over a complete glacial - interglacial cycle. Therefore, the record opens new opportunities to study East African environmental changes and paleo-hydrological conditions much further back in time, encompassing the entire known existence of modern humans (Homo sapiens) in East Africa. Here we present a compilation of the environmental reconstructions based on the CHALLACEA sediment sequence and will give an outline of future

  17. Linking downhole logging data with geology and drilling /coring operations - Example from Chicxulub Expedition 364.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofi, Johanna; Smith, Dave; Delahunty, Chris; Le Ber, Erwan; Mellet, Claire; Brun, Laurent; Henry, Gilles; Paris, Jehanne

    2017-04-01

    Expedition 364 was a joint IODP/ICDP mission specific platform expedition to explore the Chicxulub impact crater buried below the Yucatán continental shelf. In April and May 2016, our Expedition drilled a single borehole at Site M0077A into the crater's peak ring. It allowed recovering 303 excellent quality cores from 505.7 to 1334.7 meters below sea floor and acquiring more than 5.8 km of high resolution open hole logs. Downhole logs are rapidly collected, continuous with depth, and measured in situ; these data are classically interpreted in terms of stratigraphy, lithology, porosity, fluid content, geochemical composition and structure of the formation drilled. Downhole logs also allow assessing borehole quality (eg. shape and trajectory), and can provide assistance for decision support during drilling operations. In this work, Expedition 364 downhole logs are used to improve our understanding of the drilling/coring operation history. Differentiating between natural geological features and borehole artifacts are also critical for data quality assessment. The set of downhole geophysical tools used during Expedition 364 was constrained by the scientific objectives, drilling/coring technique, hole conditions and temperature at the drill site. Wireline logging data were acquired with slimline tools in three logging phases at intervals 0-503, 506-699 and 700-1334 mbsf. Logs were recorded either with standalone logging tools or, for the first time in IODP, with stackable slimline tools. Log data included total gamma radiation, sonic velocity, acoustic and optical borehole images, resistivity, conductivity, magnetic susceptibility, caliper and borehole fluid parameters. The majority of measurements were performed in open borehole conditions. During the drilling operations some problems were encountered directly linked to the geology of the drilled formation. For example, two zones of mud circulation losses correlate in depth with the presence of karst cavities or open

  18. Curiosity Drill After Drilling at Telegraph Peak

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-06

    This view from the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on NASA's Curiosity Mars rover shows the rover's drill just after finishing a drilling operation at a target rock called "Telegraph Peak" on Feb. 24, 2015, the 908th Martian day, or sol, of the rover's work on Mars. Three sols later, a fault-protection action by the rover halted a process of transferring sample powder that was collected during this drilling. The image is in raw color, as recorded directly by the camera, and has not been white-balanced. The fault-protection event, triggered by an irregularity in electrical current, led to engineering tests in subsequent days to diagnose the underlying cause. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19145

  19. 8. annual international energy week conference and exhibition: Conference papers. Book 3: Drilling and production operations

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The three volumes within this book are subdivided as follows: (1) Drilling Technology -- underbalanced drilling; field and laboratory testing; drilling systems and dynamics; advances in drill bits; coiled tubing and tubulars; advances in drilling fluids; novel/scientific drilling; and drillstrings; (2) Petroleum Production Technology -- environmental health and safety issues; production technology for deepwater; disposal methods for production waste; and offshore facility abandonment; and (3) Offshore Engineering and Operations -- floating production systems; strategic service alliance; offshore facility abandonment; offshore development economics; heavy construction, transportation, and installation for offshore fields; and subsea technology. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Lunar deep drill apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Jill (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    A self contained, mobile drilling and coring system was designed to operate on the Lunar surface and be controlled remotely from earth. The system uses SKITTER (Spatial Kinematic Inertial Translatory Tripod Extremity Robot) as its foundation and produces Lunar core samples two meters long and fifty millimeters in diameter. The drill bit used for this is composed of 30 per carat diamonds in a sintered tungsten carbide matrix. To drill up to 50 m depths, the bit assembly will be attached to a drill string made from 2 m rods which will be carried in racks on SKITTER. Rotary power for drilling will be supplied by a Curvo-Synchronous motor. SKITTER is to support this system through a hexagonal shaped structure which will contain the drill motor and the power supply. A micro-coring drill will be used to remove a preliminary sample 5 mm in diameter and 20 mm long from the side of the core. This whole system is to be controlled from earth. This is carried out by a continuously monitoring PLC onboard the drill rig. A touch screen control console allows the operator on earth to monitor the progress of the operation and intervene if necessary.

  1. Reverse laser drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anthony, Thomas R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a method for laser drilling small diameter, closely-spaced, and accurately located holes in a body of material which is transparent or substantially transparent to the laser radiation employed whereby the holes are drilled through the thickness of the body from the surface opposite to that on which the laser beam impinges to the surface of laser beam impingement.

  2. Ultrasonic Drilling and Coring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    1998-01-01

    A novel drilling and coring device, driven by a combination, of sonic and ultrasonic vibration, was developed. The device is applicable to soft and hard objects using low axial load and potentially operational under extreme conditions. The device has numerous potential planetary applications. Significant potential for commercialization in construction, demining, drilling and medical technologies.

  3. Drilling Square Holes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Scott G.

    1993-01-01

    A Reuleaux triangle is constructed by drawing an arc connecting each pair of vertices of an equilateral triangle with radius equal to the side of the triangle. Investigates the application of drilling a square hole using a drill bit in the shape of a Reuleaux triangle. (MDH)

  4. Drill-motor holding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

  5. Drill-motor holding fixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.; Culp, L. N.

    1980-01-01

    Guide improves accuracy and reduces likelihood of bit breakage in drilling large work pieces. Drill motor is mounted on pipe that slides on furniture clamp. Drill is driven into work piece by turning furniture-clamp handle.

  6. French Extended Continental Shelf Mapping: example of new continental margin understanding offshore French Guiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, Walter; Loubrieu, Benoit; Loncke, Lies; Basile, Christophe; Graindorge, David; Shipboard Party, Guyaplac

    2017-04-01

    Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Coastal States can extend sovereign rights over the natural resources of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (M) if they can demonstrate that their continental margin extends beyond this distance from the coast. Article 76 of the Convention defines the continental shelf and includes geomorphological and geological criteria to claim such a shelf beyond 200 M. Since 2006, France has filed 7 submissions for a total of 10 distinct geographic regions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf that was established by the Convention to examine those claims, and make recommendations with respect to the justification of the outer limits of the continental shelf. To support the French submissions, a significant effort was employed in acquiring new marine geophysical and geological data and compiling existing data along the deep water parts of the continental margins offshore all the French overseas territories. In this presentation, we will discuss the example of French Guiana, where the data collected for the purpose of fulfilling the obligation under the Convention to submit data and information to the Commission within a 10 year time frame have led to new understanding of the transform continental margin and the Demerara Plateau located to the north of French Guiana and Surinam. In addition, the data collected for this purpose have led to new scientific questions and have encouraged new and enhanced scientific collaboration between French government organizations and the academic community. Follow up research and scientific cruises that will be presented in separate communications have addressed sedimentary processes including contourites, giant comet tail like depressions probably associated with the strong bottom currents observed along the continental slope and potentially related to pockmarks, as well as giant submarine landslides. Most recently, multichannel reflection and wide angle

  7. The ICDP-Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP): new data from the Chew Bahir site in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Melanie; Dean, Jonathan; Asrat, Asfawossen; Cohen, Andrew; Foerster, Verena; Just, Janna; Klasen, Nicole; Lamb, Henry; Schäbitz, Frank; Trauth, Martin; Viehberg, Finn; Wagner, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    There are currently few long, continuous, Pleistocene records from East Africa, meaning it has been difficult to establish the relative influence of low- versus high-latitude forcing on East African climate and climatic conditions at the time of anatomically modern human origin and subsequent dispersal. We have been attempting to address these gaps in our knowledge by analysing lake sediments taken from Chew Bahir, an area of playa mudflats in southern Ethiopia close to the site of the oldest-known anatomically modern human fossils at Omo-Kibish. In March 2014, Chew Bahir was cored to a depth of ~40 metres, and the resulting sediment sequence is estimated to cover the last ~115ka. In December 2014, a nearby site was drilled to a depth of ~280 metres as part of the International Continental scientific Drilling Programme - Hominin Sites and Paleolakes Drilling Project (HSPDP). The oxygen and carbon isotope composition of endogenic calcite and other data from these cores will be presented. The data show some significant changes in water balance variability, the period prior to 70ka appears very unstable with some significant periods of drought and flood. Between 70-20ka the lake was stable and evaporative. The last 20ka years was wetter.

  8. Disposal of drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Bryson, W.R.

    1983-06-01

    Prior to 1974 the disposal of drilling fluids was not considered to be much of an environmental problem. In the past, disposal of drilling fluids was accomplished in various ways such as spreading on oil field lease roads to stabilize the road surface and control dust, spreading in the base of depressions of sandy land areas to increase water retention, and leaving the fluid in the reserve pit to be covered on closure of the pit. In recent years, some states have become concerned over the indescriminate dumping of drilling fluids into pits or unauthorized locations and have developed specific regulations to alleviate the perceived deterioration of environmental and groundwater quality from uncontrolled disposal practices. The disposal of drilling fluids in Kansas is discussed along with a newer method or treatment in drilling fluid disposal.

  9. Advanced drilling systems study.

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, Kenneth G.; Livesay, Billy Joe; Finger, John Travis

    1996-05-01

    This report documents the results of a study of advanced drilling concepts conducted jointly for the Natural Gas Technology Branch and the Geothermal Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. A number of alternative rock cutting concepts and drilling systems are examined. The systems cover the range from current technology, through ongoing efforts in drilling research, to highly speculative concepts. Cutting mechanisms that induce stress mechanically, hydraulically, and thermally are included. All functions necessary to drill and case a well are considered. Capital and operating costs are estimated and performance requirements, based on comparisons of the costs for alternative systems to conventional drilling technology, are developed. A number of problems common to several alternatives and to current technology are identified and discussed.

  10. Distributed downhole drilling network

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  11. Drill drive mechanism

    DOEpatents

    Dressel, Michael O.

    1979-01-01

    A drill drive mechanism is especially adapted to provide both rotational drive and axial feed for a drill of substantial diameter such as may be used for drilling holes for roof bolts in mine shafts. The drill shaft is made with a helical pattern of scroll-like projections on its surface for removal of cuttings. The drill drive mechanism includes a plurality of sprockets carrying two chains of drive links which are arranged to interlock around the drill shaft with each drive link having depressions which mate with the scroll-like projections. As the chain links move upwardly or downwardly the surfaces of the depressions in the links mate with the scroll projections to move the shaft axially. Tangs on the drive links mate with notch surfaces between scroll projections to provide a means for rotating the shaft. Projections on the drive links mate together at the center to hold the drive links tightly around the drill shaft. The entire chain drive mechanism is rotated around the drill shaft axis by means of a hydraulic motor and gear drive to cause rotation of the drill shaft. This gear drive also connects with a differential gearset which is interconnected with a second gear. A second motor is connected to the spider shaft of the differential gearset to produce differential movement (speeds) at the output gears of the differential gearset. This differential in speed is utilized to drive said second gear at a speed different from the speed of said gear drive, this speed differential being utilized to drive said sprockets for axial movement of said drill shaft.

  12. Technology Development and Field Trials of EGS Drilling Systems at Chocolate Mountain

    DOE Data Explorer

    Steven Knudsen

    2012-01-01

    Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bits are routinely used in the oil and gas industry for drilling medium to hard rock but have not been adopted for geothermal drilling, largely due to past reliability issues and higher purchase costs. The Sandia Geothermal Research Department has recently completed a field demonstration of the applicability of advanced synthetic diamond drill bits for production geothermal drilling. Two commercially-available PDC bits were tested in a geothermal drilling program in the Chocolate Mountains in Southern California. These bits drilled the granitic formations with significantly better Rate of Penetration (ROP) and bit life than the roller cone bit they are compared with. Drilling records and bit performance data along with associated drilling cost savings are presented herein. The drilling trials have demonstrated PDC bit drilling technology has matured for applicability and improvements to geothermal drilling. This will be especially beneficial for development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems whereby resources can be accessed anywhere within the continental US by drilling to deep, hot resources in hard, basement rock formations.

  13. Study on Earthquake Emergency Evacuation Drill Trainer Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ChangJiang, L.

    2016-12-01

    With the improvement of China's urbanization, to ensure people survive the earthquake needs scientific routine emergency evacuation drills. Drawing on cellular automaton, shortest path algorithm and collision avoidance, we designed a model of earthquake emergency evacuation drill for school scenes. Based on this model, we made simulation software for earthquake emergency evacuation drill. The software is able to perform the simulation of earthquake emergency evacuation drill by building spatial structural model and selecting the information of people's location grounds on actual conditions of constructions. Based on the data of simulation, we can operate drilling in the same building. RFID technology could be used here for drill data collection which read personal information and send it to the evacuation simulation software via WIFI. Then the simulation software would contrast simulative data with the information of actual evacuation process, such as evacuation time, evacuation path, congestion nodes and so on. In the end, it would provide a contrastive analysis report to report assessment result and optimum proposal. We hope the earthquake emergency evacuation drill software and trainer can provide overall process disposal concept for earthquake emergency evacuation drill in assembly occupancies. The trainer can make the earthquake emergency evacuation more orderly, efficient, reasonable and scientific to fulfill the increase in coping capacity of urban hazard.

  14. Measurement Space Drill Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-30

    TRAC-M-TR-15-026 30 AUG 2015 Measurement Space Drill Support TRADOC Analysis Center 700 Dyer Road Monterey, California 93943-0692 This study cost the...Space Drill Support LTC Michael D. Teter MAJ Adam Haupt TRADOC Analysis Center 700 Dyer Road Monterey, California 93943-0692 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT...include area code) Standard Form 298 (Re . 8-98)v Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 08-30-2015 Technical Report AUG 14 - MAY 15 Measurement Space Drill

  15. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  16. Modified drill permits one-step drilling operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Libertone, C.

    1966-01-01

    Drill with modified cutting faces permits one-step drilling operation without chatter upon contact and premature wear. The modification of the drill, which has the same diameter as that of the desired hole, consists of a groove across the bottom of each of the cutting faces of the drill flutes.

  17. 30 CFR 250.445 - What are the requirements for kelly valves, inside BOPs, and drill-string safety valves?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., inside BOPs, and drill-string safety valves? 250.445 Section 250.445 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Blowout Preventer...

  18. 30 CFR 250.405 - What are the safety requirements for diesel engines used on a drilling rig?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... engines used on a drilling rig? 250.405 Section 250.405 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations General Requirements § 250.405...

  19. 30 CFR 250.417 - What must I provide if I plan to use a mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... offshore drilling unit (MODU)? 250.417 Section 250.417 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and... a mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU)? If you plan to use a MODU, you must provide: (a)...

  20. Physical oceanography of continental shelves

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.S.; Beardlsey, R.C.; Blanton, J.O.; Boicourt, W.C.; Butman, B.; Coachman, L.K.; Huyer, A.; Kinder, T.H.; Royer, T.C.; Schumacher, J.D.

    1983-06-01

    Knowledge of the physical oceanography of continental shelves has increased tremendously in recent years, primarily as a result of new current and hydrographic measurements made in locations where no comparable measurements existed previously. In general, observations from geographically distinct continental shelves have shown that the nature of the flow may vary considerably from region to region. Although some characteristics, such as the response of currents to wind forcing, are common to many shelves, the relative importance of various physical processes in influencing the shelf flow field frequently is different. In the last several years, the scientific literature on shelf studies has expanded rapidly, with that for separate regions, to some extent, developing independently because of the variable role played by different physical effects. Consequently, it seems that a simultaneous review of progress in physical oceanographic research in different shelf regions would be especially useful at this time in order to help assess the overall progress in the field. This multi-author report has been compiled as a result. Included are sections on the physical oceanography of continental shelves, in or off of, the eastern Bering Sea, northern Gulf of Alaska, Pacific Northwest, southern California, west Florida, southeastern US, Middle Atlantic Bight, Georges Bank and Peru. These discussions clearly point to the diverse nature of the dominant physics in several of the regions, as well as to some of the dynamical features they share in common. 390 references, 23 figures.

  1. Gas hydrates of outer continental margins

    SciTech Connect

    Kvenvolden, K.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline substances in which a rigid framework of water molecules traps molecules of gas, mainly methane. Gas-hydrate deposits are common in continental margin sediment in all major oceans at water depths greater than about 300 m. Thirty-three localities with evidence for gas-hydrate occurrence have been described worldwide. The presence of these gas hydrates has been inferred mainly from anomalous lacoustic reflectors seen on marine seismic records. Naturally occurring marine gas hydrates have been sampled and analyzed at about tensites in several regions including continental slope and rise sediment of the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Except for some Gulf of Mexico gas hydrate occurrences, the analyzed gas hydrates are composed almost exclusively of microbial methane. Evidence for the microbial origin of methane in gas hydrates includes (1) the inverse relation between methane occurence and sulfate concentration in the sediment, (2) the subparallel depth trends in carbon isotopic compositions of methane and bicarbonate in the interstitial water, and (3) the general range of {sup 13}C depletion ({delta}{sub PDB}{sup 13}C = {minus}90 to {minus}60 {per thousand}) in the methane. Analyses of gas hydrates from the Peruvian outer continental margin in particular illustrate this evidence for microbially generated methane. The total amount of methane in gas hydrates of continental margins is not known, but estimates of about 10{sup 16} m{sup 3} seem reasonable. Although this amount of methane is large, it is not yet clear whether methane hydrates of outer continental margins will ever be a significant energy resource; however, these gas hydrates will probably constitute a drilling hazard when outer continental margins are explored in the future.

  2. Overview of the Barberton Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arndt, Nicholas T.; Wilson, Allan; Mason, Paul; Hofmann, Axel; Lowe, Don

    2013-04-01

    The Barberton Greenstone Belt in South Africa is one of the best-preserved successions of mid- Archean (3.5-3.2 Ga) supracrustal rocks in the world, and, as such, a remarkable natural laboratory where conditions and processes at the surface of the Archean Earth can be studied in detail. Volcanic and sedimentary sequences in the belt provide information on the environment in which life emerged and evolved. A drilling project, sponsored by the International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP), and many national funding agencies, was completed in May 2012. More than 3000 m of core from 5 holes at four sites were recovered. At the Tjakastad site, two ca. 300 m holes were drilling through sequences of komatiites and komatiitic basalts. The other three holes targeted sedimentary rocks: the Buck Reef hole sampled over 700m of mainly banded black and white cherts; the Mid Fig Tree hole sampled a sequence of ferruginous charts and mudstones; and the Barite Valley hole samples a more varied sequence including sandstone, shale, cherts and volcaniclastic rocks. The core is stored and has been logged in facilities of the University of the Wirwatersrand. Core logs can be found at tp://www.peeringintobarberton.com/Sites.html . An open call for proposals to work on the core, sent out in November 2012, was answered by over 50 scientists from 12 countries who plan to study the core using techniques ranging from petrography, through major and trace-element analysis, to sophisticated isotopic analysis. A workshop to discuss the drilling project and to view the core is planned at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg from Mon 18th to Wed the 21st February 2013, followed by a short trip to the Barberton belt to visit the drilling sites.

  3. Drilling Productivity Report

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Energy Information Administration’s (EIA) new Drilling Productivity Report (DPR) takes a fresh look at oil and natural gas production, starting with an assessment of how and where drilling for hydrocarbons is taking place. The DPR uses recent data on the total number of drilling rigs in operation along with estimates of drilling productivity and estimated changes in production from existing oil and natural gas wells to provide estimated changes in oil and natural gas production for six key fields. EIA's approach does not distinguish between oil-directed rigs and gas-directed rigs because once a well is completed it may produce both oil and gas; more than half of the wells produce both.

  4. Sub-Ocean Drilling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) initialized a new phase of exploration last year, a 10 year effort jointly funded by NSF and several major oil companies, known as the Ocean Margin Drilling Program (OMDP). The OMDP requires a ship with capabilities beyond existing drill ships; it must drill in 13,000 feet of water to a depth 20,000 feet below the ocean floor. To meet requirements, NSF is considering the conversion of the government-owned mining ship Glomar Explorer to a deep ocean drilling and coring vessel. Feasibility study performed by Donhaiser Marine, Inc. analyzed the ship's characteristics for suitability and evaluated conversion requirement. DMI utilized COSMIC's Ship Motion and Sea Load Computer program to perform analysis which could not be accomplished by other means. If approved for conversion, Glomar Explorer is expected to begin operations as a drillship in 1984.

  5. Drilling into Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-02-20

    This frame from an animation of NASA Curiosity rover shows the complicated suite of operations involved in conducting the rover first rock sample drilling on Mars and transferring the sample to the rover scoop for inspection.

  6. Subsurface drill string

    DOEpatents

    Casper, William L.; Clark, Don T.; Grover, Blair K.; Mathewson, Rodney O.; Seymour, Craig A.

    2008-10-07

    A drill string comprises a first drill string member having a male end; and a second drill string member having a female end configured to be joined to the male end of the first drill string member, the male end having a threaded portion including generally square threads, the male end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the threaded portion, and the male end further having a bearing surface, the female end having a female threaded portion having corresponding female threads, the female end having a non-threaded extension portion coaxial with the female threaded portion, and the female end having a bearing surface. Installation methods, including methods of installing instrumented probes are also provided.

  7. Drill pipe protector development

    SciTech Connect

    Thomerson, C.; Kenne, R.; Wemple, R.P.

    1996-03-01

    The Geothermal Drilling Organization (GDO), formed in the early 1980s by the geothermal industry and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Geothermal Division, sponsors specific development projects to advance the technologies used in geothermal exploration, drilling, and production phases. Individual GDO member companies can choose to participate in specific projects that are most beneficial to their industry segment. Sandia National Laboratories is the technical interface and contracting office for the DOE in these projects. Typical projects sponsored in the past have included a high temperature borehole televiewer, drill bits, muds/polymers, rotary head seals, and this project for drill pipe protectors. This report documents the development work of Regal International for high temperature geothermal pipe protectors.

  8. Drilling fluid filter

    DOEpatents

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  9. Drilling fluid disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Nesbitt, L.E.; Sander, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This paper attempts to review the effect of the regulatory process on the selection and handling of drilling fluids for proper disposal. It is shown that a maze of regulations and regulatory agencies coupled with uncertainty in interpretation of environmental data and an evolving system of disposal engineering will require industry action to monitor the area and derive a solid engineering basis for disposal of spent drilling fluid. 16 refs.

  10. Directional drilling pipelay

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, C.G.

    1987-10-20

    A method is described for laying a pipeline beneath a seabottom subject to ice gouging, comprising: forming a borehole with drilling means; gripping the inside of the borehole with at least one tractor; applying thrust from at least one tractor to propel the drilling means forward until a deep arcuate borehole is formed beneath the seabottom sufficiently deep to avoid ice gouging and inserting a pipeline into the borehole.

  11. Update on slimhole drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories manages the US Department of Energy program for slimhole drilling. The principal objective of this program is to expand proven geothermal reserves through increased exploration made possible by lower-cost slimhole drilling. For this to be a valid exploration method, however, it is necessary to demonstrate that slimholes yield enough data to evaluate a geothermal reservoir, and that is the focus of Sandia`s current research.

  12. Micro borehole drilling platform

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This study by CTES, L.C. meets two main objectives. First, evaluate the feasibility of using coiled tubing (CT) to drill 1.0 inches-2.5 inches diameter directional holes in hard rocks. Second, develop a conceptual design for a micro borehole drilling platform (MBDP) meeting specific size, weight, and performance requirements. The Statement of Work (SOW) in Appendix A contains detailed specifications for the feasibility study and conceptual design.

  13. Reaching 1 m deep on Mars: the Icebreaker drill.

    PubMed

    Zacny, K; Paulsen, G; McKay, C P; Glass, B; Davé, A; Davila, A F; Marinova, M; Mellerowicz, B; Heldmann, J; Stoker, C; Cabrol, N; Hedlund, M; Craft, J

    2013-12-01

    The future exploration of Mars will require access to the subsurface, along with acquisition of samples for scientific analysis and ground-truthing of water ice and mineral reserves for in situ resource utilization. The Icebreaker drill is an integral part of the Icebreaker mission concept to search for life in ice-rich regions on Mars. Since the mission targets Mars Special Regions as defined by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), the drill has to meet the appropriate cleanliness standards as requested by NASA's Planetary Protection Office. In addition, the Icebreaker mission carries life-detection instruments; and in turn, the drill and sample delivery system have to meet stringent contamination requirements to prevent false positives. This paper reports on the development and testing of the Icebreaker drill, a 1 m class rotary-percussive drill and triple redundant sample delivery system. The drill acquires subsurface samples in short, approximately 10 cm bites, which makes the sampling system robust and prevents thawing and phase changes in the target materials. Autonomous drilling, sample acquisition, and sample transfer have been successfully demonstrated in Mars analog environments in the Arctic and the Antarctic Dry Valleys, as well as in a Mars environmental chamber. In all environments, the drill has been shown to perform at the "1-1-100-100" level; that is, it drilled to 1 m depth in approximately 1 hour with less than 100 N weight on bit and approximately 100 W of power. The drilled substrate varied and included pure ice, ice-rich regolith with and without rocks and with and without 2% perchlorate, and whole rocks. The drill is currently at a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. The next-generation Icebreaker drill weighs 10 kg, which is representative of the flightlike model at TRL 5/6.

  14. MACHINERY RESONANCE AND DRILLING

    SciTech Connect

    Leishear, R.; Fowley, M.

    2010-01-23

    New developments in vibration analysis better explain machinery resonance, through an example of drill bit chattering during machining of rusted steel. The vibration of an operating drill motor was measured, the natural frequency of an attached spring was measured, and the two frequencies were compared to show that the system was resonant. For resonance to occur, one of the natural frequencies of a structural component must be excited by a cyclic force of the same frequency. In this case, the frequency of drill bit chattering due to motor rotation equaled the spring frequency (cycles per second), and the system was unstable. A soft rust coating on the steel to be drilled permitted chattering to start at the drill bit tip, and the bit oscillated on and off of the surface, which increased the wear rate of the drill bit. This resonant condition is typically referred to as a motor critical speed. The analysis presented here quantifies the vibration associated with this particular critical speed problem, using novel techniques to describe resonance.

  15. While drilling system and method

    DOEpatents

    Mayes, James C.; Araya, Mario A.; Thorp, Richard Edward

    2007-02-20

    A while drilling system and method for determining downhole parameters is provided. The system includes a retrievable while drilling tool positionable in a downhole drilling tool, a sensor chassis and at least one sensor. The while drilling tool is positionable in the downhole drilling tool and has a first communication coupler at an end thereof. The sensor chassis is supported in the drilling tool. The sensor chassis has a second communication coupler at an end thereof for operative connection with the first communication coupler. The sensor is positioned in the chassis and is adapted to measure internal and/or external parameters of the drilling tool. The sensor is operatively connected to the while drilling tool via the communication coupler for communication therebetween. The sensor may be positioned in the while drilling tool and retrievable with the drilling tool. Preferably, the system is operable in high temperature and high pressure conditions.

  16. Workshop on Marine Research Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spezzaferri, Silvia

    2009-06-01

    Cold-Water Carbonate Reservoir Systems in Deep Environments (COCARDE): A Pilot Industry-Academia Partnership in Marine Research Drilling; Fribourg, Switzerland, 21-24 January 2009; Cold-water carbonate mounds supporting cold-water coral ecosystems, often dominated by Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata, are widespread along the Atlantic margins from Norway to Mauritania. During the past 10 years, the scientific community has accumulated new insights on their occurrence and development and identified their potential role in reservoir formation, thus establishing a framework for collaboration with the hydrocarbon industry. A Magellan workshop, sponsored by the European Science Foundation (ESF; http://www.esf.org/), was held in Switzerland in January. The workshop gathered 35 scientists from 10 European and two extra-European countries (Canada and Morocco), representing 20 research teams, including members of two Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) proposals. Some of the participants were also involved with two ESF European Collaborative Research (EUROCORES) projects [Microbial Diversity and Functionality in Cold-Water Coral Reef Ecosystems (MiCROSYSTEMS) and Mid-Latitude Carbonate Systems: Complete Sequences From Cold-Water Coral Carbonate Mounds in the Northeast Atlantic (CARBONATE)], and the European Union Framework Program 6 integrated project Hotspot Ecosystem Research on the Margins of European Seas (HERMES).

  17. Freshly brewed continental crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gazel, E.; Hayes, J. L.; Caddick, M. J.; Madrigal, P.

    2015-12-01

    Earth's crust is the life-sustaining interface between our planet's deep interior and surface. Basaltic crusts similar to Earth's oceanic crust characterize terrestrial planets in the solar system while the continental masses, areas of buoyant, thick silicic crust, are a unique characteristic of Earth. Therefore, understanding the processes responsible for the formation of continents is fundamental to reconstructing the evolution of our planet. We use geochemical and geophysical data to reconstruct the evolution of the Central American Land Bridge (Costa Rica and Panama) over the last 70 Ma. We also include new preliminary data from a key turning point (~12-6 Ma) from the evolution from an oceanic arc depleted in incompatible elements to a juvenile continental mass in order to evaluate current models of continental crust formation. We also discovered that seismic P-waves (body waves) travel through the crust at velocities closer to the ones observed in continental crust worldwide. Based on global statistical analyses of all magmas produced today in oceanic arcs compared to the global average composition of continental crust we developed a continental index. Our goal was to quantitatively correlate geochemical composition with the average P-wave velocity of arc crust. We suggest that although the formation and evolution of continents may involve many processes, melting enriched oceanic crust within a subduction zone, a process probably more common in the Achaean where most continental landmasses formed, can produce the starting material necessary for juvenile continental crust formation.

  18. COSC-1 technical operations: drilling and borehole completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosberg, Jan-Erik; Bjelm, Leif; Larsson, Stellan; Juhlin, Christopher; Lorenz, Henning; Almqvist, Bjarne

    2015-04-01

    COSC-1, the first out of the two planned fully cored boreholes within the COSC-project, was completed in late August 2014. Drilling was performed using the national scientific drilling infrastructure, the so called Riksriggen, operated by Lund University, and resulted in a 2495.8 m deep borehole with almost 100 % core recovery. The rig is an Atlas Copco CT20C diamond core-drill rig, a rig type commonly used for mineral exploration. A major advantage with this type of drill rig compared to conventional rotary rigs is that it can operate on very small drill sites. Thus, it leaves a small environmental footprint, in this case around 1000 m2. The rig was operated by 3 persons over 12 hour shifts. Before the core drilling started a local drilling company installed a conductor casing down to 103 m, which was required for the installation of a Blow Out Preventer (BOP). The core drilling operation started using H-size and a triple tube core barrel (HQ3), resulting in a hole diameter of 96 mm and a core diameter of 61.1 mm down to 1616 m. In general, the drilling using HQ3 was successful with 100 % core recovery and core was acquired at rate on the order 30-60 m/day when the drilling wasn't interrupted by other activities, such as bit change, servicing or testing. The HRQ-drill string was installed as a temporary casing from surface down to 1616 m. Subsequently, drilling was conducted down to 1709 m with N-size and a triple tube core barrel (NQ3), resulting in a hole diameter of 75.7 mm and a core diameter of 45 mm. At 1709 m the coring assembly was changed to N-size double tube core barrel (NQ), resulting in a hole diameter of 75.7 mm and a core diameter of 47.6 mm and the core barrel extended to 6 m. In this way precious time was saved and the good rock quality ensured high core recovery even with the double tube. In general, the drilling using NQ3 and NQ was successful with 100 % core recovery at around 36 m/day by the end of the drilling operation. The main problem

  19. Energy week `96: Conference papers. Book 3: Drilling and production economics

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The papers of Section 1, Drilling Technology, relate to advanced materials for downhole tools, underbalanced drilling, horizontal drilling technology/new trajectory control device, horizontal drilling HP/HT well control, advances in drill bits, slim-hole drill bits and tubulars, novel/scientific drilling, and coiled tubing/slim-hole drilling/short radius. The topics of Section 2, Ocean Engineering, include marine pollution and diving equipment. Section 3, Petroleum Production Technology, relate to what`s new in regulations and standards in petroleum production. Papers in Section 4, Offshore and Arctic Operations, cover offshore platforms, floating production systems, offshore pipelines, offshore construction and installation, offshore facilities, and environmental and safety issues. Most papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  20. Continental drift under the Third Reich.

    PubMed

    Buffetaut, Eric

    2003-12-01

    Contrary to what happened in many other countries in the 1930s and 1940s, Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift was not generally rejected in Nazi Germany, although several leading German geologists of the time did not accept it. It was actually presented as the modern view of Earth history in books and magazine articles aimed at the general public. Although outlandish geological theories such as Hörbiger's Welteislehre were favoured by some Nazi dignitaries, they were not widely accepted in scientific circles. On the other hand, continental drift received official support under the Third Reich, at a time when it was ignored or ridiculed by most earth scientists outside Germany.

  1. Borehole data to model caldera unrest: the example of Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; De Natale, G.; Somma, R.; Troise, C.; Kilburn, C.; Tramelli, A.; Troiano, A.; Di Guiseppe, M.; Piochi, M.

    2013-12-01

    To understand the genesis and the physics governing the volcanic area of Campi Flegrei (Southern Italy) a drilling project started on July 2012, in the framework of the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). The Campi Flegrei Deep Drilling Project (CFDDP) schedules two phases: a pilot well, 500 m deep (I phase), and a 3.5 km deeper well (II planned phase), both located within the active resurgent caldera of Campi Flegrei, west to the city of Naples. In this framework new filed data from pilot borehole have been recorded by using a novel procedure of Leak Off Test (LOT). The test has been performed in order to obtain, before the onset of rock failure (which furnishes indication of the minimum principal stress value), a reliable value of in situ permeability. These new data, particularly the actual permeability, are fundamental to calibrate the caldera unrest model at Campi Flegrei and to advance in the quantitative analysis of volcanoes behavior for the assessment of possible future eruptive scenarios. Calderas worldwide are, in fact, characterized by frequent episodes of unrest which, only in few cases, culminate with eruption. This behavior is generally explained in terms of magma intrusion and/or disturbance of geothermal fluids in the shallow crust, which are both source of ground deformations and seismicity. A major goal is, thus, to determine the relative contribution of each process, because the potential for eruptions significantly enhanced if magma movements emerges as the primary component. Here we report the new results of the LOT and its implication in the modeling of Campi Flegrei caldera unrest.

  2. HYDRATE CORE DRILLING TESTS

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Cohen; Thomas E. Williams; Ali G. Kadaster; Bill V. Liddell

    2002-11-01

    The ''Methane Hydrate Production from Alaskan Permafrost'' project is a three-year endeavor being conducted by Maurer Technology Inc. (MTI), Noble, and Anadarko Petroleum, in partnership with the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). The project's goal is to build on previous and ongoing R&D in the area of onshore hydrate deposition. The project team plans to design and implement a program to safely and economically drill, core and produce gas from arctic hydrates. The current work scope includes drilling and coring one well on Anadarko leases in FY 2003 during the winter drilling season. A specially built on-site core analysis laboratory will be used to determine some of the physical characteristics of the hydrates and surrounding rock. Prior to going to the field, the project team designed and conducted a controlled series of coring tests for simulating coring of hydrate formations. A variety of equipment and procedures were tested and modified to develop a practical solution for this special application. This Topical Report summarizes these coring tests. A special facility was designed and installed at MTI's Drilling Research Center (DRC) in Houston and used to conduct coring tests. Equipment and procedures were tested by cutting cores from frozen mixtures of sand and water supported by casing and designed to simulate hydrate formations. Tests were conducted with chilled drilling fluids. Tests showed that frozen core can be washed out and reduced in size by the action of the drilling fluid. Washing of the core by the drilling fluid caused a reduction in core diameter, making core recovery very difficult (if not impossible). One successful solution was to drill the last 6 inches of core dry (without fluid circulation). These tests demonstrated that it will be difficult to capture core when drilling in permafrost or hydrates without implementing certain safeguards. Among the coring tests was a simulated hydrate formation comprised of coarse, large

  3. Research drilling in young silicic volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Eichelberger, J.C.

    1989-06-30

    Magmatic activity, and particularly silicic magmatic activity, is the fundamental process by which continental crust forms and evolves. The transport of magma from deep crustal reservoirs to the surface is a neglected but important aspect of magmatic phenomena. It encompasses problems of eruptive behavior, hydrothermal circulation, and ore deposition, and must be understood in order to properly interpret deeper processes. Drilling provides a means for determining the relationship of shallow intrusive processes to eruption processes at young volcanoes where eruptions are best understood. Drilling also provides a means for directly observing the processes of heat and mass transfer by which recently emplaced intrusions approach equilibrium with their new environment. Drilling in the Inyo Chain, a 600-year-old chain of volcanic vents in California, has shown the close relationship of silicic eruption to shallow dike emplacement, the control of eruptive style by shallow porous-flow degassing, the origin of obsidian by welding, the development of igneous zonation by viscosity segregation, and the character and size of conduits in relation to well-understood magmatic and phreatic eruptions. 36 refs., 9 figs.

  4. Precision Positioning for Shallow Water Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chayes, D. N.; Schmidt, V. E.

    2002-12-01

    The science-driven requirement for sediment cores on continental shelves has led to the Active Heave Compensation (AHC) upgrade Global LAke Drilling (GLAD)-800 drilling system. The AHC-GLAD800 drill rig was developed for installation on the largest vessels in the UNOLS fleet and was tested in the November 2001 on the R/V Knorr. Evaluation of the results of that test cruise pointed out the need for a significant increase in the accuracy and repeatability of the real-time navigation input to the vessel?s dynamic positioning (DP) system. An shore-based evaluation of different Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers including P-Code, US Coast Guard broadcast differential GPS (DGPS) and commercial satellite distributed DGPS was used to develop an approach for real-time system that flags and excludes outliers in order to maintain the tight input requirements for the DP system. Analysis of the data collected from the shore-based experiments and the at-sea field program will be presented.

  5. Cenozoic prograding sequences of the Antarctic continental margin: a record of glacio-eustatic and tectonic events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, A. K.; Barrett, P.J.; Hinz, K.; Traube, V.; Letichenkov, G.; Stagg, H.M.J.

    1991-01-01

    times, like today, by little or no clastic sedimentation on the continental shelf other than beneath retreated ice shelves lying far from the continental sheld edge. Ice streams carve broad depressions across the shelf and carry abundant basal sediments directly to the continental shelf edge, thereby creating troughmouth fans and sheet-like prograding sequences (i.e. type IA sequences). Numerous acoustic unconformities and multiple overcompacted layers within the prograding sequences suggest major fluctuations of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. The available drilling and seismic interpretations provide the following history: (1) Cenozoic ice sheets have existed in places near the continental shelf since middle to late Eocene time. (2) A grounded Antarctic ice sheet first expanded to the continental shelf edge, with probable overdeepening of the outer shelf, in late Eucene to early Oligocene time in Prydz Bay, possibly in early Miocene time in the Ross Sea, and at least by middle Miocene time in the Weddell Sea. (3) The relative amounts of shelf prograding and inferred ice-volume variations (and related sea-level changes) have increased since middle to late Miocene time in the eastern Ross Sea, Prydz Bay, and possibly Weddell Sea. Our analysis is preliminary. Further acoustic surveys and scientific drilling are needed to resolve the proximal Antarctic record of glacio-eustatic, climatic, and tectonic events recorded by the prograding sequences. ?? 1991.

  6. The single steel drilling caisson: A new arctic drilling system

    SciTech Connect

    Hippman, A.; Kelly, W.; Merritt, C.

    1983-10-01

    Dome's experience with a new mobile drilling unit - the Single Steel Drilling Caisson (SSDC) - is described. The SSDC was designed to enable offshore drilling operations in the Beaufort Sea to continue beyond the short open-water season during which drillships are capable of working. The operator's requirements for storage facilities and rig equipment are discussed with reference to the SSDC, which proved to be well suited to offshore arctic operations. The drilling and testing of the first well are described to illustrate the successful operation of this innovative drilling unit. Problems associated with Beaufort Sea operations are discussed with specific reference to ice management and drilling problems.

  7. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  8. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  9. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  10. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  11. 30 CFR 56.7009 - Drill helpers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drill helpers. 56.7009 Section 56.7009 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7009 Drill helpers. If a drill helper assists the drill operator during movement of a drill...

  12. Optimizing rotary drill performance

    SciTech Connect

    Schivley, G.P. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Data is presented showing Penetration Rate (PR) versus Force-on-the-Bit (FB) and Bit Angular Speed (N). Using this data, it is shown how FB and N each uniquely contribute to the PR for any particular drilling situation. This data represents many mining situations; including coal, copper, gold, iron ore and limestone quarrying. The important relationship between Penetration per Revolution (P/R) and the height of the cutting elements of the bit (CH) is discussed. Drill performance is then reviewed, considering the effect of FB and N on bit life. All this leads to recommendations for the operating values of FB and N for drilling situations where the rock is not highly abrasive and bit replacements are because of catastrophic failure of the bit cone bearings. The contribution of compressed air to the drilling process is discussed. It is suggested that if the air issuing from the bit jets is supersonic that may enhance the sweeping of the hole bottom. Also, it is shown that not just uphole air velocity is enough to provide adequate transport of the rock cuttings up the annulus of a drilled hole. In addition, air volume flow rate must be considered to assure there is adequate particle spacing so the mechanism of aerodynamic drag can effectively lift the cuttings up and out of the hole annulus.

  13. Drilling cuttings on the sea bed: The options

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    The paper considers the options available to operators for the treatment of drilling cuttings on the seabed under and around the offshore installations on the UKCS (UK Continental Shelf). The options range from leaving in place to removal or bioremediation. There are a number of practical problems to be overcome and not enough is known about the environmental effects of disturbing the cuttings. Further research and development is suggested.

  14. Compact drilling and sample system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis-Smith, Greg R.; Petercsak, Doug

    1998-01-01

    The Compact Drilling and Sample System (CDSS) was developed to drill into terrestrial, cometary, and asteroid material in a cryogenic, vacuum environment in order to acquire subsurface samples. Although drills were used by the Apollo astronauts some 20 years ago, this drill is a fraction of the mass and power and operates completely autonomously, able to drill, acquire, transport, dock, and release sample containers in science instruments. The CDSS has incorporated into its control system the ability to gather science data about the material being drilled by measuring drilling rate per force applied and torque. This drill will be able to optimize rotation and thrust in order to achieve the highest drilling rate possible in any given sample. The drill can be commanded to drill at a specified force, so that force imparted on the rover or lander is limited. This paper will discuss the cryo dc brush motors, carbide gears, cryogenic lubrication, quick-release interchangeable sampling drill bits, percussion drilling and the control system developed to achieve autonomous, cryogenic, vacuum, lightweight drilling.

  15. Impacts on seafloor geology of drilling disturbance in shallow waters.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Iran C S; Toldo, Elírio E; Toledo, Felipe A L

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the effects of drilling disturbance on the seafloor of the upper continental slope of the Campos Basin, Brazil, as a result of the project Environmental Monitoring of Offshore Drilling for Petroleum Exploration--MAPEM. Field sampling was carried out surrounding wells, operated by the company PETROBRAS, to compare sediment properties of the seafloor, including grain-size distribution, total organic carbon, and clay mineral composition, prior to drilling with samples obtained 3 and 22 months after drilling. The sampling grid used had 74 stations, 68 of which were located along 7 radials from the well up to a distance of 500 m. The other 6 stations were used as reference, and were located 2,500 m from the well. The results show no significant sedimentological variation in the area affected by drilling activity. The observed sedimentological changes include a fining of grain size, increase in total organic carbon, an increase in gibbsite, illite, and smectite, and a decrease in kaolinite after drilling took place.

  16. Novel drilling technology and reduction in drilling costs

    SciTech Connect

    Enger, T.; Torvund, T.; Mikkelsen, J.

    1995-12-31

    Historically offshore drilling costs represent a large part of Norsk Hydro`s E and P investments. Thus a reduction in drilling costs is a major issue. Consequently an aggressive approach to drilling has taken place focusing upon: (1) Reduction in conventional drilling costs, both in exploration and production drilling. An ambitious program to reduce drilling costs by 50% has been introduced. The main improvement potentials include rapid drilling, improved contracts and more selective data gathering. (2) Drilling of long reach wells up to approximately 9 km to reduce the number of subsea wells and fixed platforms, and thus improving the total field economy. Norsk Hydro has also been aggressive in pursuing drilling techniques which could improve the total oil recovery. Horizontal drilling has made possible the development of the giant Troll oil field, even though the oil leg is only 0--26 m thick. Oil reserves in the order of up to 650 mill bbl will be recovered solely due to introduction of horizontal wells. Recently, offshore tests of techniques such as coiled tubing drilling and conventional slim hole drilling have been carried out. The aim is to qualify a concept which could enable them to use a light vessel for exploration drilling, and not the large semi submersible rigs presently used. Potential future savings could be substantial.

  17. Recent Developments and Adaptations in Diamond Wireline Core Drilling Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Nielson, D. L.; Howell, B. B.; Pardey, M.

    2001-05-01

    Scientific drilling using diamond wireline technology is presently undergoing a significant expansion and extension of activities that has allowed us to recover geologic samples that have heretofore been technically or financially unattainable. Under the direction and management of DOSECC, a high-capacity hybrid core drilling system was designed and fabricated for the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP) in 1998. This system, the DOSECC Hybrid Coring System (DHCS), has the capacity to recover H-sized core from depths of more than 6 km. In 1999, the DHCS completed the first phase of the HSDP to a depth of 3100 m at a substantially lower cost per foot than any previous scientific borehole to comparable depths and, in the process, established a new depth record for recovery of H-sized wireline core. This system has been offered for use in the Unzen Scientific Drilling Project, the Chicxulub (impact crater) Scientific Drilling Project, and the Geysers Deep Geothermal Reservoir Project. More recently, DOSECC has developed a smaller barge-mounted wireline core drilling system, the GLAD800, that is capable of recovering P-sized sediment core to depths of up to 800 m. The GLAD800 has been successfully deployed on Great Salt Lake and Bear Lake in Utah and is presently being mobilized to Lake Titicaca in South America for an extensive core recovery effort there. The coring capabilities of the GLAD800 system will be available to the global lakes drilling community for acquisition of sediment cores from many of the world's deep lakes for use in calibrating and refining global climate models. Presently under development by DOSECC is a heave-compensation system that will allow us to expand the capabilities of the moderate depth coring system to allow us to collect sediment and bottom core from the shallow marine environment. The design and capabilities of these coring systems will be presented along with a discussion of their potential applications for addressing a range of

  18. Mars Drilling Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, Humboldt, C., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the current status of work to explore Mars beneath the surface of planet. One of the objective of this work is to enable further exploration of Mars by humans. One of the requirements for this is to find water on Mars. The presences of water is critical for Human Exploration and a permanent presence on Mars. If water is present beneath the surface it is the best chance of finding life on Mars. The presentation includes a timeline showing the robotic missions, those that have already been on Mars, and planned missions, an explanation of why do we want to drill on Mars, and some of the challenges, Also include are reviews of a missions that would drill 200 and 4,000 to 6,000 meters into the Martian bedrock, and a overview description of the drill. There is a view of some places where we have hopes of finding water.

  19. Drilling technology/GDO

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    The Geothermal Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring two programs related to drilling technology. The first is aimed at development of technology that will lead to reduced costs of drilling, completion, and logging of geothermal wells. This program has the official title ''Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics.'' The second program is intended to share with private industry the cost of development of technology that will result in solutions to the near term geothermal well problems. This program is referred to as the ''Geothermal Drilling Organization''. The Hard Rock Penetration Mechanics Program was funded at $2.65M in FY85 and the GDO was funded at $1.0M in FY85. This paper details the past year's activities and accomplishments and projects the plans for FY86 for these two programs.

  20. Ocean drilling surveys planned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    As a continuation of the International Phase of Ocean Drilling (IPOD), the Glomar Challenger is slated to drill in the Pacific and North Atlantic oceans during 1982-83. In preparation for the drilling, the Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI), Inc. will manage the site survey program during 1981-82. These site surveys will be focused to support four programs: a hydrogeology study on the equatorial East Pacific Rise flank; a study of Mesozoic sediments in the western Pacific; a study in sedimentation of the equatorial Pacific basin; and a study of the geochemistry of the North Atlantic ocean crust.JOI has issued a request for proposals for the United States site survey program. Proposal deadline is March 5. For additional information, contact JOI, Inc., 2600 Virginia Avenue, N.W., Suite 512, Washington, D.C. 20037.

  1. Proper planning improves flow drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, G.J. )

    1994-10-01

    Underbalanced operations reduce formation damage, especially in horizontal wells where zones are exposed to mud for longer time periods. Benefits, risks, well control concerns, equipment and issues associated with these operations are addressed in this paper. Flow drilling raises many concerns, but little has been published on horizontal well control and flow drilling operations. This article covers planning considerations for flow drilling, but does not address horizontal ''overbalanced'' drilling because considerations and equipment are the same as in vertical overbalanced drilling and many references address that subject. The difference in well control between vertical and horizontal overbalanced drilling is fluid influx behavior and how that behavior affects kill operations.

  2. 13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. RADIAL DRILL, ENGINE LATHE, DRILL PRESS, AND GRINDER (L TO R)-LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - W. A. Young & Sons Foundry & Machine Shop, On Water Street along Monongahela River, Rices Landing, Greene County, PA

  3. Drill pipe corrosion control using an inert drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Caskey, B.C.; Copass, K.S.

    1981-01-01

    The results of a geothermal drill pipe corrosion field test are presented. When a low-density drilling fluid was required for drilling a geothermal well because of an underpressured, fractured formation, two drilling fluids were alternately used to compare drill pipe corrosion rates. The first fluid was an air-water mist with corrosion control chemicals. The other fluid was a nitrogen-water mist without added chemicals. The test was conducted during November 1980 at the Baca Location in northern New Mexico. Data from corrosion rings, corrosion probes, fluid samples and flow line instrumentation are plotted for the ten day test period. It is shown that the inert drilling fluid, nitrogen, reduced corrosion rates by more than an order of magnitude. Test setup and procedures are also discussed. Development of an onsite inert gas generator could reduce the cost of drilling geothermal wells by extending drill pipe life and reducing corrosion control chemical costs.

  4. Underbalanced drilling: Issues of producing oil and gas while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Axford, A.

    1997-07-01

    Advances in engineering and technology have developed new blowout preventers, specialized surface fluids control equipment and well control techniques for under balanced drilling. The new technology makes under balanced drilling faster, safer and less expensive. These devices and techniques reduce the risk of blowouts, when drilling with air, gas or gas cut drilling fluids while producing the zone of interest. Improved penetration rates, increased bit life, drilling cost reduction and the prevention of formation damage are benefits of drilling under balanced and specially designed BOP stacks and well control products are necessary to ensure success. The following outlines the content of this paper: History and Development of Rotating Well Control for Under Balanced Drilling; Rotating BOP and Under Balanced Drilling BOP Stack, including Land Based Operations and Offshore Operations; Design and Technical Review; Safety; Operating Considerations; Field History, An Operator`s Perspective; and Advantages.

  5. Drilling mud proposal

    SciTech Connect

    Steed, W.

    1981-12-01

    A discussion of the disposal of drilling fluids from Texas oil fields was presented. The most common is the transport of the drilling mud to approved landfills. This requires that the waste be fresh waste base mud only, contained in the pit, and be maintained oil free. Other approved methods of disposal include treatment with discharge of effluent to surface streams, land application on farm land (with owner's permission), and subsurface disposal. Some common illegal disposal methods included dumping on roadsides or private property (without owner's permission).

  6. Cenozoic prograding sequences of the Antarctic continental margin - What balance between structural and eustatic control

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, A.K. ); Barrett, P. ); Hinz, K. ); Stagg, H. ); Traube, V. )

    1990-05-01

    Multichannel seismic reflection profiles across the Antarctic continental margin commonly reveal prograding sedimentary sequences that are bounded by unconformities. These sequences are as much as 5 km thick and, where sampled, are composed entirely of late Eocene( )-early Oligocene and younger glacial rocks. On nonpolar margins, prograding sequences generally are attributed to relative changes in sea level, sediment supply, and tectonism. Around Antarctica, ice sheets have also been important in controlling the geometry and location of prograding sequences. The Antarctic sequences may provide a proximal record of major Cenozoic ice volume changes and related sea level changes not obtainable from low-latitude continental shelves. Presently, the Antarctic record is poorly known because of limited core data. Two categories of prograding (P) and aggrading (A) sigmoidal sequences are observed around Antarctica: (1) P sequences that build principally outward (common) and (2) AP sequences that build largely upward and outward (less common). P sequences may result principally from grounded ice sheets, and AP sequences from open-marine basinal processes. Major rift embayments of Antarctica (e.g., eastern Ross Sea eastern Weddell Sea Lambert graben Wilkes basin) are also pathways for major ice movement. In general, most areas with P sequences lie within or adjacent to Mesozoic or older rift embayment, whereas the primary area with AP sequences (eastern Ross Sea) lies within a likely Cenozoic rift embayment. The Pacific side of the Antarctic Peninsula where Cenozoic ice sheets and Cenozoic tectonism have been active, is also marked by a P sequence. Scientific drilling on the Antarctic continental shelf has recovered openwater glacial deposits (Ross Sea) as well as glacial diamicts that were deposited beneath and in front of grounded glacier ice (Ross Sea and Prydz Bay).

  7. 31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF DRILL HALL FROM NORTH END OF DRILL FLOOR FACING SOUTH. SHOWS EAST AND WEST BALCONIES, VEHICLE ENTRANCE AT THE SOUTHWEST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR, THE CONCESSION STAND IN THE SOUTHEAST CORNER OF THE DRILL FLOOR AND THE FOUR WINDOWS IN THE SOUTH TRUSS SPACE. NOTE CRACKS IN THE UPPER RIGHT CORNER (WEST) OF THE SOUTH WALL. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  8. Continental drift before 1900.

    PubMed

    Rupke, N A

    1970-07-25

    The idea that Francis Bacon and other seventeenth and eighteenth century thinkers first conceived the notion of continental drift does not stand up to close scrutiny. The few authors who expressed the idea viewed the process as a catastrophic event.

  9. Conquering Alaska's arctic drilling problems - 2. Drilling procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D.

    1981-06-01

    A discussion is presented of ARCO's solutions to the drilling problems an oil company faces in developing an arctic oil and gas field. Outlined are the following topics: surface casing hole; direcitonal drilling; Fondu cement; intermediate casing; downsqueeze procedure; and, drilling to TD.

  10. Intelligent Detection of Drill Wear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. I.; Chen, W. Y.; Anatharaman, K. S.

    1998-11-01

    Backpropagation neural networks (BPNs) were used for on-line detection of drill wear. The neural network consisted of three layers: input, hidden, and output. The input vector comprised drill size, feed rate, spindle speed, and eight features obtained by processing the thrust and torque signals. The output was the drill wear state which either usable or failure. Drilling experiments with various drill sizes, feed rates and spindle speeds were carried out. The learning process was performed effectively by utilising backpropagation with smoothing and an activation function slope. The on-line detection of drill wear states using BPNs achieved 100% reliability even when the drill size, feed rate and spindle speed were changed. In other words, the developed on-line drill wear detection systems have very high robustness and hence can be used in very complex production environments, such as flexible manufacturing systems.

  11. Stroke Drills for Swimming Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Peter J.

    1982-01-01

    Stroke drills to be used by swimming instructors to teach four competitive swim strokes are described. The drills include: one arm swims; (2) alternative kicks; (3) fist swims; and (4) catch-up strokes. (JN)

  12. Reaching Water: Planetary Deep Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, B.; Bergman, D.; Davis, R.; Hoftun, C.; Lee, P.; Johansen, B.

    2017-02-01

    Deeper drilling to 100m depths is easy on Earth, but an extreme challenge on other solar system bodies. Deeper planetary subsurface access into ocean worlds or to the Mars cryosphere is possible with new drilling concepts.

  13. Stroke Drills for Swimming Instructors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Peter J.

    1982-01-01

    Stroke drills to be used by swimming instructors to teach four competitive swim strokes are described. The drills include: one arm swims; (2) alternative kicks; (3) fist swims; and (4) catch-up strokes. (JN)

  14. Combination drilling and skiving tool

    DOEpatents

    Stone, William J.

    1989-01-01

    A combination drilling and skiving tool including a longitudinally extending hollow skiving sleeve slidably and concentrically mounted on a right-handed twist drill. Dogs or pawls provided on the internal periphery of the skiving sleeve engage with the helical grooves of the drill. During a clockwise rotation of the tool, the drill moves downwardly and the sleeve translates upwardly, so that the drill performs a drilling operation on a workpiece. On the other hand, the drill moves upwardly and the sleeve translates downwardly, when the tool is rotated in a counter-clockwise direction, and the sleeve performs a skiving operation. The drilling and skiving operations are separate, independent and exclusive of each other.

  15. Proposed Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Proposed drill sites for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or deep resource confirmation wells. Temperature gradient contours based on shallow TG program and faults interpreted from seismic reflection survey are shown, as are two faults interpreted by seismic contractor Optim but not by Oski Energy, LLC.

  16. Emergency Simulation Drill

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-04

    ISS038-E-011708 (4 Dec. 2013) --- In the International Space Station?s Zvezda Service Module, Russian cosmonaut Sergey Ryazanskiy, Expedition 38 flight engineer, reads a procedures checklist during an emergency simulation drill with participation from flight controllers on the ground. During the exercise, the crew practiced emergency communication and procedures in response to a predetermined scenario such as pressure leak.

  17. Drilling fluid thinner

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, B.

    1989-06-27

    A drilling fluid additive is described comprising a mixture of: (a) a sulfoalkylated tannin and (b) chromium acetate selected from the group consisting of chromium (III) acetate and chromium (II) acetate, wherein the chromium acetate is present in a weight ratio of the chromium acetate to the sulfoalkylated tannin in the range of from about 1:20 to about 1:1.

  18. Additive for drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, A.E.

    1983-09-13

    A water-based gas or oil well drilling fluid is disclosed comprising an aqueous clay dispersion containing as a thinner and water loss control agent, the essentially water-soluble product obtained by heating together quebracho, lignite, gilsonite and sulfonating, methylating and causticizing agents.

  19. New generation drill rigs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six new drilling rigs, all designed for use under arctic conditions, are described briefly as to use, proposed location, construction company, and state of completion. Better ideas for all phases of arctic operations have been incorporated into design of these rigs. Some of the rigs are adaptable for Beaufort Sea offshore operations. (BLM)

  20. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.