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  1. Use of Continuous Transdermal Alcohol Monitoring during a Contingency Management Procedure to Reduce Excessive Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Hill-Kapturczak, Nathalie; Liang, Yuanyuan; Karns, Tara E.; Cates, Sharon E.; Lake, Sarah L.; Mullen, Jillian; Roache, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on contingency management to treat excessive alcohol use is limited due to feasibility issues with monitoring adherence. This study examined the effectiveness of using transdermal alcohol monitoring as a continuous measure of alcohol use to implement financial contingencies to reduce heavy drinking. Methods Twenty-six male and female drinkers (from 21–39 years old) were recruited from the community. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment sequences. Sequence 1 received 4 weeks of no financial contingency (i.e., $0) drinking followed by 4 weeks each of $25 and then $50 contingency management; Sequence 2 received 4 weeks of $25 contingency management followed by 4 weeks each of no contingency (i.e., $0) and then $50 contingency management. During the $25 and $50 contingency management conditions, participants were paid each week when the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitor (SCRAM-II™) identified no heavy drinking days. Results Participants in both contingency management conditions had fewer drinking episodes and reduced frequencies of heavy drinking compared to the $0 condition. Participants randomized to Sequence 2 (receiving $25 contingency before the $0 condition) exhibited less frequent drinking and less heavy drinking in the $0 condition compared to participants from Sequence 1. Conclusions Transdermal alcohol monitoring can be used to implement contingency management programs to reduce excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:25064019

  2. Contingency Management and Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Clara

    Some educators are turning to the process of contingency management within a classroom as a short term, immediate motivator which can work for virtually every student, regardless of his/her final grade in the course. Contingency management consists of providing a set of alternatives from which those chosen by the student reward the students in…

  3. Contingency Management Reduces Symptoms of Psychological and Emotional Distress among Homeless, Substance-dependent Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jesse B.; Shoptaw, Steven; Peck, James A.; Reback, Cathy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background This prospective analysis evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) intervention to improve the psychological health of non-treatment seeking, homeless, substance-dependent, men who have sex with men in Los Angeles. It was hypothesized that administration of CM would be associated with reductions in participants’ symptoms of psychological and emotional distress. Methods One hundred and thirty-one participants were randomized into either a voucher-based contingency management (CM; n = 64) condition reinforcing substance abstinence and prosocial/health-promoting behaviors, or to a control condition (n = 67). Participants’ symptoms of psychological and emotional distress were assessed at intake and at 12-months post-randomization. Results Participants randomized into the CM intervention exhibited significantly lower levels of psychological distress in all measured symptom domains up to one year post randomization, reductions not evidenced in the control arm. Omnibus tests resultant from seemingly unrelated regression analysis confirmed that CM was significantly associated with reductions in symptoms of psychological and emotional distress, even when controlling for biomarker-confirmed substance use outcomes (χ2(9) = 17.26; p < 0.05). Conclusions Findings demonstrate that a CM intervention reduced symptoms of psychological and emotional distress among a sample of non-treatment seeking, homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men. PMID:25364379

  4. Contingency management: perspectives of Australian service providers.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jacqui; Ritter, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Given the very positive and extensive research evidence demonstrating efficacy and effectiveness of contingency management, it is important that Australia explore whether contingency management has a role to play in our own treatment context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 experienced alcohol and drug practitioners, service managers and policy-makers in Victoria. Interviewees were selected to represent the range of drug treatment services types and included rural representation. A semi-structured interview schedule, covering their perceptions and practices of contingency management was used. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using N2 qualitative data analysis program. The majority of key informants were positively inclined toward contingency management, notwithstanding some concerns about the philosophical underpinnings. Concerns were raised in relation to the use of monetary rewards. Examples of the use of contingency management provided by key informants demonstrated an over-inclusive definition: all the examples did not adhere to the key principles of contingency management. This may create problems if a structured contingency management were to be introduced in Australia. Contingency management is an important adjunctive treatment intervention and its use in Australia has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes. No unmanageable barriers were identified in this study. PMID:17364854

  5. Contingency management: perspectives of Australian service providers.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jacqui; Ritter, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Given the very positive and extensive research evidence demonstrating efficacy and effectiveness of contingency management, it is important that Australia explore whether contingency management has a role to play in our own treatment context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 experienced alcohol and drug practitioners, service managers and policy-makers in Victoria. Interviewees were selected to represent the range of drug treatment services types and included rural representation. A semi-structured interview schedule, covering their perceptions and practices of contingency management was used. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using N2 qualitative data analysis program. The majority of key informants were positively inclined toward contingency management, notwithstanding some concerns about the philosophical underpinnings. Concerns were raised in relation to the use of monetary rewards. Examples of the use of contingency management provided by key informants demonstrated an over-inclusive definition: all the examples did not adhere to the key principles of contingency management. This may create problems if a structured contingency management were to be introduced in Australia. Contingency management is an important adjunctive treatment intervention and its use in Australia has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes. No unmanageable barriers were identified in this study.

  6. Participative management: a contingency approach.

    PubMed

    Callahan, C B; Wall, L L

    1987-09-01

    The participative management trend has been misinterpreted by staff to mean that they make all the decisions. To decrease the discrepancy between the management philosophy of participation and the subordinate interpretation of the system, the selection of appropriate decision participation procedures is essential. When the leaders communicate the degree of influence that subordinates will have, the staff learn to trust and support the participative management system. PMID:3655932

  7. [Contingency management in opioid substitution treatment].

    PubMed

    Specka, M; Böning, A; Scherbaum, N

    2011-07-01

    The majority of opiate-dependent patients in substitution treatment show additional substance-related disorders. Concomitant use of heroin, alcohol, benzodiazepines or cocaine compromises treatment success. Concomitant drug use may be treated by using contingency management (CM) which is based on learning theory. In CM, abstinence from drugs, as verified by drug screenings, is reinforced directly and contingently. Reinforcers used in CM studies with substituted patients were, amongst others, vouchers and take-home privileges. Studies in the USA show a medium average effect of CM on drug consumption rates and abstinence. The effects decrease markedly after the end of the intervention. We discuss whether CM is applicable within the German substitution treatment system and how it can be combined with other interventions such as selective detoxification treatments or cognitive-behavioural programmes.

  8. Procedures for Establishing a Contingency Managed Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westinghouse Learning Corp., Albuquerque, NM. Behavior Systems Div.

    This manual for classroom teachers is designed to teach the application of contingency contracting procedures in the typical instructional setting. A "contingency contract" is an agreement between teacher and student whereby the student, upon demonstration of specific task achievement, receives a reward: permission to participate in a "reinforcing…

  9. A prompt plus delayed contingency procedure for reducing bathroom graffiti.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, T S

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of posting signs for reducing graffiti in three men's restrooms on a college campus using a multiple baseline across settings design. During baseline, graffiti increased almost daily in each of the three settings. Immediately following the intervention, no marks were made on any of the three walls. Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. A possible explanation for the results is that the signs specified an altruistic contingency. PMID:8881353

  10. A prompt plus delayed contingency procedure for reducing bathroom graffiti.

    PubMed

    Watson, T S

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of posting signs for reducing graffiti in three men's restrooms on a college campus using a multiple baseline across settings design. During baseline, graffiti increased almost daily in each of the three settings. Immediately following the intervention, no marks were made on any of the three walls. Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. A possible explanation for the results is that the signs specified an altruistic contingency.

  11. Advances in Research on Contingency Management for Adolescent Substance Use.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Lansing, Amy Hughes; Budney, Alan J

    2016-10-01

    Multiple interventions for treating adolescents with substance use disorders have demonstrated efficacy, but a majority of teens do not show an enduring positive response to these treatments. Contingency management (CM)-based strategies provide a promising alternative, and clinical research focused on the development and testing of innovative CM models continues to grow. This article provides an updated review on the progress made in this area. It is important to continue to search for more effective models, focus on post-treatment maintenance (reduce relapse), and strive for high levels of integrity and fidelity during dissemination efforts to optimize outcomes. PMID:27613343

  12. INTERNET-BASED CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT TO PROMOTE SMOKING CESSATION: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Dallery, Jesse; R. Raiff, Bethany; Grabinski, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated an Internet-based contingency management intervention to promote smoking cessation. Participants in the contingent group (n = 39) earned vouchers contingent on video confirmation of breath carbon monoxide (CO) ≤ 4 parts per million (ppm). Earnings for participants in the noncontingent group (n = 38) were independent of CO levels. Goals and feedback about smoking status were provided on participants’ homepages. The median percentages of negative samples during the intervention in the noncontingent and contingent groups were 25% and 66.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences in absolute CO levels or abstinence at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Compared to baseline, however, participants in both groups reduced CO by an estimated 15.6 ppm during the intervention phases. The results suggest that the contingency for negative COs promoted higher rates of abstinence during treatment, and that other elements of the system, such as feedback, frequent monitoring, and goals, reduced smoking. PMID:24114862

  13. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    PubMed

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation. PMID:26082725

  14. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    PubMed

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  15. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Paul S.; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation. PMID:26082725

  16. Contingency Management Requirements Document: Preliminary Version. Revision F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Contingency Management (CM) Functional Requirements document. This document applies to HALE ROA operating within the National Airspace System (NAS) limited at this time to enroute operations above 43,000 feet (defined as Step 1 of the Access 5 project, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). A contingency is an unforeseen event requiring a response. The unforeseen event may be an emergency, an incident, a deviation, or an observation. Contingency Management (CM) is the process of evaluating the event, deciding on the proper course of action (a plan), and successfully executing the plan.

  17. Contingent reinforcement for reduced carbon monoxide levels in methadone maintenance patients.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, J M; Rhoades, H; Grabowski, J

    1995-01-01

    Five cigarette smoking methadone maintenance patients (MMP) participated in a within-subjects (A-B-A-B) study involving repeated application of carbon monoxide (CO)-contingent payments for reductions in smoke intake. To replicate and extend findings from an earlier study in non-drug-abusing smokers (Stitzer & Bigelow, 1982), we used the same contingent reinforcement procedure that involved the delivery of a monetary payment ($5) for CO readings which were 50% or less than the average value of readings obtained during the prior noncontingency period. Although four of the five subjects earned the contingent payment on at least three of the eight occasions, the overall effect of the intervention on CO level was nonsignificant. Daily smoking records revealed significantly lower rates during the first contingency intervention for the group as a whole. Significant correlations between CO and the time interval since smoking prior to CO measurement were found. The rather modest intervention effects suggest that important parameters be considered when designing contingency management procedures to reduce cigarette smoking in this difficult population of drug abusers.

  18. Reducing Contingency through Sampling at the Luckey FUSRAP Site - 13186

    SciTech Connect

    Frothingham, David; Barker, Michelle; Buechi, Steve; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Typically, the greatest risk in developing accurate cost estimates for the remediation of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste sites is the uncertainty in the estimated volume of contaminated media requiring remediation. Efforts to address this risk in the remediation cost estimate can result in large cost contingencies that are often considered unacceptable when budgeting for site cleanups. Such was the case for the Luckey Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site near Luckey, Ohio, which had significant uncertainty surrounding the estimated volume of site soils contaminated with radium, uranium, thorium, beryllium, and lead. Funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to conduct additional environmental sampling and analysis at the Luckey Site between November 2009 and April 2010, with the objective to further delineate the horizontal and vertical extent of contaminated soils in order to reduce the uncertainty in the soil volume estimate. Investigative work included radiological, geophysical, and topographic field surveys, subsurface borings, and soil sampling. Results from the investigative sampling were used in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory's Bayesian Approaches for Adaptive Spatial Sampling (BAASS) software to update the contaminated soil volume estimate for the site. This updated volume estimate was then used to update the project cost-to-complete estimate using the USACE Cost and Schedule Risk Analysis process, which develops cost contingencies based on project risks. An investment of $1.1 M of ARRA funds for additional investigative work resulted in a reduction of 135,000 in-situ cubic meters (177,000 in-situ cubic yards) in the estimated base volume estimate. This refinement of the estimated soil volume resulted in a $64.3 M reduction in the estimated project cost-to-complete, through a reduction in the uncertainty in the contaminated soil

  19. Contingency management in the people's republic of China

    PubMed Central

    Lamal, P. A.

    1984-01-01

    The behavioral contingencies that have been implemented in the attempt by the People's Republic of China to achieve two of its national goals are described. The goals are the modernization and increased productivity of industry and a significant decrease in the birth rate. Changes from past practices in the industrial sphere involving a shift from noncontingent to contingent consequences are outlined. The use of a variety of consequences as a means of reducing the birth rate is described. PMID:22478605

  20. School Management and Contingency Theory: An Emerging Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    An understanding of the "situational" characteristics of the organizational forces that influence the relationships between environmental, management, and performance variables is now coming to be seen as a key to understanding the management process itself. This paper is a synthesis of the contingency theory literature drawn from the public,…

  1. Management Styles Associated with Organizational, Task, Personal, and Interpersonal Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Bernard M.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Analyzes data from lengthy profile questionnaires completed by 78 managers and 407 of their subordinates and examines how five different management styles are related to various aspects of the contingent situation. (Available from Subscription Section, American Psychological Association, 1200 Seventeenth Street, N.W., Washington, D.C.; $30.00…

  2. School management and contingency theory: an emerging perspective.

    PubMed

    Hanson, E M

    1979-01-01

    In an article written for educational administrators, Hanson explains the assumptions, framework, and application of contingency theory. The author sees contingency theory as a way for organizations to adapt to uncertainty by developing a strategic plan with alternative scenarios. He urges school administrators to join businessmen and public managers in using a technique described as "the most powerful current sweeping over the organizational field." The theory assumes that: (1) a maze of goals govern the development of events; (2) different management approaches may be appropriate within the same organization; and (3) different leadership styles suit different situations. Contingency planning helps the organization to respond to uncertainty in the external environment by identifying possible events that may occur and by preparing alternative stratgies to deal with them. Hanson describes the purpose of this process as providing "a more effective match between an organization and its environment." He explains that contingency theory analyzes the internal adjustments of the organization (e.g., decision making process, structure, technology, instructional techniques) as it seeks to meet the shifting demands of its external or internal environments. According to the author, the intent of contingency theory is to establish an optimal "match" between environmental demands (and support) and the response capabilities of the organization including its structure, planning process, and leadership style.

  3. School management and contingency theory: an emerging perspective.

    PubMed

    Hanson, E M

    1979-01-01

    In an article written for educational administrators, Hanson explains the assumptions, framework, and application of contingency theory. The author sees contingency theory as a way for organizations to adapt to uncertainty by developing a strategic plan with alternative scenarios. He urges school administrators to join businessmen and public managers in using a technique described as "the most powerful current sweeping over the organizational field." The theory assumes that: (1) a maze of goals govern the development of events; (2) different management approaches may be appropriate within the same organization; and (3) different leadership styles suit different situations. Contingency planning helps the organization to respond to uncertainty in the external environment by identifying possible events that may occur and by preparing alternative stratgies to deal with them. Hanson describes the purpose of this process as providing "a more effective match between an organization and its environment." He explains that contingency theory analyzes the internal adjustments of the organization (e.g., decision making process, structure, technology, instructional techniques) as it seeks to meet the shifting demands of its external or internal environments. According to the author, the intent of contingency theory is to establish an optimal "match" between environmental demands (and support) and the response capabilities of the organization including its structure, planning process, and leadership style. PMID:10247889

  4. A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management Delivered by Community Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Ledgerwood, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) is an evidence-based treatment, but few clinicians deliver this intervention in community-based settings. Method: Twenty-three clinicians from 3 methadone maintenance clinics received training in CM. Following a didactics seminar and a training and supervision period in which clinicians delivered CM to pilot…

  5. A Web-Based Contingency Management Program with Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Brady; Dallery, Jesse; Shroff, Palak; Patak, Michele; Leraas, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    The present study evaluated a new 30-day Web-based contingency management program for smoking abstinence with 4 daily-smoking adolescents. Participants made 3 daily video recordings of themselves giving breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples at home that were sent electronically to study personnel. Using a reversal design, participants could earn…

  6. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  7. Effectiveness of a Group-Managed Interdependent Contingency System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salend, Spencer J.; Lamb, Elizabeth Allen

    1986-01-01

    An interdependent group-managed response-cost system mediated by free tokens was employed to decrease inappropriate verbalizations of two groups of elementary-level learning disabled children (N=9). Results indicated that this contingency system was a viable and effective method of decreasing inappropriate behavior. Peer pressure was credited for…

  8. Prize Reinforcement Contingency Management for Cocaine Dependence: Integration with Group Therapy in a Methadone Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Martin, Bonnie; Simcic, Francis

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated a low-cost contingency management (CM) procedure for reducing cocaine use and enhancing group therapy attendance in 77 cocaine-dependent methadone patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of standard treatment or standard treatment with CM, in which patients earned the opportunity to win prizes…

  9. A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management Delivered in the Context of Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Alessi, Sheila M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) is efficacious in reducing drug use. Typically, reinforcers are provided on an individual basis to patients for submitting drug-negative samples. However, most treatment is provided in a group context, and poor attendance is a substantial concern. This study evaluated whether adding CM to group-based…

  10. Using the Experience Sampling Method in the Context of Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husky, Mathilde M.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing substance use. This manuscript illustrates how the experience sampling method (ESM) can depict behavior and behavior change and can be used to explore CM treatment mechanisms. ESM characterizes idiosyncratic patterns of behavior and offers the potential to determine…

  11. Internet-based contingency management to promote smoking cessation: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Dallery, Jesse; Raiff, Bethany R; Grabinski, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated an Internet-based contingency management intervention to promote smoking cessation. Participants in the contingent group (n = 39) earned vouchers contingent on video confirmation of breath carbon monoxide (CO) ≤ 4 parts per million (ppm). Earnings for participants in the noncontingent group (n = 38) were independent of CO levels. Goals and feedback about smoking status were provided on participants' homepages. The median percentages of negative samples during the intervention in the noncontingent and contingent groups were 25% and 66.7%, respectively. There were no significant differences in absolute CO levels or abstinence at 3- and 6-month follow-ups. Compared to baseline, however, participants in both groups reduced CO by an estimated 15.6 ppm during the intervention phases. The results suggest that the contingency for negative COs promoted higher rates of abstinence during treatment, and that other elements of the system, such as feedback, frequent monitoring, and goals, reduced smoking.

  12. Resource Management and Contingencies in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpati, Gabe; Hyde, Tupper; Peabody, Hume; Garrison, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    significant concern in designing complex systems implementing new technologies is that while knowledge about the system is acquired incrementally, substantial financial commitments, even make-or-break decisions, must be made upfront, essentially in the unknown. One practice that helps in dealing with this dichotomy is the smart embedding of contingencies and margins in the design to serve as buffers against surprises. This issue presents itself in full force in the aerospace industry, where unprecedented systems are formulated and committed to as a matter of routine. As more and more aerospace mission concepts are generated by concurrent design laboratories, it is imperative that such laboratories apply well thought-out contingency and margin structures to their designs. The first part of this publication provides an overview of resource management techniques and standards used in the aerospace industry. That is followed by a thought provoking treatise on margin policies. The expose presents the actual flight telemetry data recorded by the thermal discipline during several recent NASA Goddard Space Flight Center missions. The margins actually achieved in flight are compared against pre-flight predictions, and the appropriateness and the ramifications of having designed with rigid margins to bounding stacked worst case conditions are assessed. The second half of the paper examines the particular issues associated with the application of contingencies and margins in the concurrent engineering environment. In closure, a discipline-by-discipline disclosure of the contingency and margin policies in use at the Integrated Design Center at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center is made.

  13. Clinical behavioral pharmacology: methods for evaluating medications and contingency management.

    PubMed Central

    Burgio, L D; Page, T J; Capriotti, R M

    1985-01-01

    We evaluated methods for comparing the effects of dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), thioridazine (Mellaril), and contingency management in the control of severe behavior problems. A reversal design was used in which medications were systematically titrated and assessed in unstructured as well as structured settings with three clients. Subsequently, behavioral procedures including timeout, differential reinforcement of other behavior, and visual screening, were used in a multiple-baseline design across settings. The assessment and design methods were useful in comparing the interventions. Dextroamphetamine decreased inappropriate behaviors and improved academic behaviors in one client, but no reliable effects were observed in the other two clients. Thioridazine was variable across clients, settings, behaviors, and dosages. Contingency management produced consistent decreases in inappropriate behaviors and small improvements in academic performance. PMID:3997697

  14. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Contingency Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Contingency Management. This was performed through a review of Contingency Management-related, HSI requirements documents, standards, and recommended practices. Technology concepts in use by the Contingency Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with HSI high-level functional requirements for Contingency Management, and Contingency Management technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of system failures and associated contingency procedures, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain system status and procedure information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Contingency Management technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Contingency Management operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Contingency Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Contingency Management are partitioned into four categories: (1) Health and Status and (2) Contingency Management. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  15. Consensus oriented fuzzified decision support for oil spill contingency management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W

    2006-06-30

    Studies on multi-group multi-criteria decision-making problems for oil spill contingency management are in their infancy. This paper presents a second-order fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) model to resolve decision-making problems in the area of contingency management after environmental disasters such as oil spills. To assess the performance of different oil combat strategies, second-order FCE allows for the utilization of lexical information, the consideration of ecological and socio-economic criteria and the involvement of a variety of stakeholders. On the other hand, the new approach can be validated by using internal and external checks, which refer to sensitivity tests regarding its internal setups and comparisons with other methods, respectively. Through a case study, the Pallas oil spill in the German Bight in 1998, it is demonstrated that this approach can help decision makers who search for an optimal strategy in multi-thread contingency problems and has a wider application potential in the field of integrated coastal zone management.

  16. Prize-based Contingency Management for the Treatment of Substance Abusers: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benishek, L. A.; Dugosh, K. L.; Kirby, K. C.; Matejkowski, J.; Clements, N. T.; Seymour, B. L.; Festinger, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To review randomized controlled trials to assess efficacy of a prize-based contingency management procedure in reducing substance use (where a drug-free breath or urine sample provides a chance of winning a prize). Methods A meta-analysis was conducted on articles published from January 2000 to February 2013 to determine the effect size of studies comparing prize-based contingency management to a treatment-as-usual control condition (k=19 studies). Parallel analyses evaluated the efficacy of both short- (k=9 studies) and long-term outcomes (k=6 studies) of prize-based contingency management . Results The average end-of-treatment effect size (Cohen's d) was .46 [95% CI=0.37,0.54). This effect size decreased at the short-term (≤ 3-month) post-intervention follow-up to .33 (95% CI=0.12,0.54) and at the 6-month follow-up time point there was no detectable effect (d=-.09 (95% CI=−0.28,0.10)). Conclusion Adding prize-based contingency management to behavioral support for substance use disorders can increase short-term abstinence but the effect does not appear to persist to 6 months. PMID:24750232

  17. Development of a Contingency Capillary Wastewater Management Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Personal Body .Attached Liquid Liquidator (PBALL) is conceived as a passive, capillary driven contingency wastewater disposal device. In this contingency scenario, the airflow system on the NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is assumed to have failed, leaving only passive hardware and vacuum vent to dispose of the wastewater. To meet these needs, the PBALL was conceived to rely on capillary action and urine wetting design considerations. The PBALL is designed to accommodate a range of wetting conditions, from 0deg < (theta)adv approx. 90deg, be adaptable for both male and female use, collect and retain up to a liter of urine, minimize splash-back, and allow continuous drain of the wastewater to vacuum while minimizing cabin air loss. A sub-scale PBALL test article was demonstrated on NASA's reduced gravity aircraft in April, 2010.

  18. Using the experience sampling method in the context of contingency management for substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Husky, Mathilde M; Mazure, Carolyn M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing substance use. This manuscript illustrates how the experience sampling method (ESM) can depict behavior and behavior change and can be used to explore CM treatment mechanisms. ESM characterizes idiosyncratic patterns of behavior and offers the potential to determine how behavioral patterns are affected by the operant conditioning principles that drive CM. It may also lead to the identification of new target behaviors for CM in the context of substance abuse treatment.

  19. Motivation and Contingency Management Treatments for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Walter, Kimberly N; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a highly efficacious psychosocial treatment for substance use disorders based on the principles of behavioral analysis. CM involves delivering a tangible positive reinforcer following objective evidence of submission of a drug-negative urine sample. Although CM interventions primarily involve applying extrinsic rewards, a patient's intrinsic motivation to change substance use behavior may also be impacted by CM. This chapter provides an introduction to CM interventions for substance use disorders and examines the impact of CM on intrinsic motivation . It also addresses applications of this intervention to other conditions and patient populations. PMID:25762429

  20. Motivation and Contingency Management Treatments for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Walter, Kimberly N; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a highly efficacious psychosocial treatment for substance use disorders based on the principles of behavioral analysis. CM involves delivering a tangible positive reinforcer following objective evidence of submission of a drug-negative urine sample. Although CM interventions primarily involve applying extrinsic rewards, a patient's intrinsic motivation to change substance use behavior may also be impacted by CM. This chapter provides an introduction to CM interventions for substance use disorders and examines the impact of CM on intrinsic motivation . It also addresses applications of this intervention to other conditions and patient populations.

  1. The effect of framing incentives as either losses or gains with contingency management for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R J

    2013-04-01

    Cumulative prospect theory predicts that losses motivate behavior more than equal gains. Contingency management procedures effectively reduce drug use by placing incentives in direct competition with the drug taking behavior. Therefore, framing incentives as losses, rather than gains should decrease drug use to a greater extent, given equivalent incentives. We examined whether contingent vouchers described as either losses or gains differentially affected smoking abstinence rates. Over 5 consecutive days, participants could either gain $75 per day for verified abstinence or lose $75 per day (initial endowment=$375) for continuing to smoke. As a result, loss-framed participants were more likely to achieve at least one day of abstinence. There was a trend towards loss-framed participants reducing the amount smoked more than gain-framed participants. However, participants in the gain-framed group were more likely to maintain abstinence, once initiated. The results partially support cumulative prospect theory and suggest additional ways to initiate behavior change using incentives, outside of using larger magnitude incentives in contingency management procedures. PMID:23403276

  2. The effect of framing incentives as either losses or gains with contingency management for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R J

    2013-04-01

    Cumulative prospect theory predicts that losses motivate behavior more than equal gains. Contingency management procedures effectively reduce drug use by placing incentives in direct competition with the drug taking behavior. Therefore, framing incentives as losses, rather than gains should decrease drug use to a greater extent, given equivalent incentives. We examined whether contingent vouchers described as either losses or gains differentially affected smoking abstinence rates. Over 5 consecutive days, participants could either gain $75 per day for verified abstinence or lose $75 per day (initial endowment=$375) for continuing to smoke. As a result, loss-framed participants were more likely to achieve at least one day of abstinence. There was a trend towards loss-framed participants reducing the amount smoked more than gain-framed participants. However, participants in the gain-framed group were more likely to maintain abstinence, once initiated. The results partially support cumulative prospect theory and suggest additional ways to initiate behavior change using incentives, outside of using larger magnitude incentives in contingency management procedures.

  3. Contingency Management to Increase Grade Point Average among Fraternity Members: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, Ryan A.; Irons, Jessica G.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an incentive-based intervention strategy that has been demonstrated to be effective for inducing behavior change among a variety of populations and for a variety of behaviors. The current study examined whether contingency management techniques can help students change behaviors in an effort to raise their grade point…

  4. Comments on contingency management and conditional cash transfers.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2010-10-01

    This essay discusses research on incentive-based interventions to promote healthy behavior change, contingency management (CM) and conditional cash transfers (CCT). The overarching point of the essay is that CM and CCT are often treated as distinct areas of inquiry when at their core they represent a common approach. Some potential bi-directional benefits of recognizing this commonality are discussed. Distinct intellectual traditions probably account for the separate paths of CM and CCT to date, with the former being rooted in behavioral psychology and the latter in microeconomics. It is concluded that the emerging field of behavioral economics, which is informed by and integrates principles of each of those disciplines, may provide the proper conceptual framework for integrating CM and CCT. PMID:19670269

  5. Comments on Contingency Management and Conditional Cash Transfers

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses research on incentive-based interventions to promote healthy behavior change, contingency management (CM) and conditional cash transfers (CCT). The overarching point of the essay is that CM and CCT are often treated as distinct areas of inquiry when at their core they represent a common approach. Some potential bi-directional benefits of recognizing this commonality are discussed. Distinct intellectual traditions probably account for the separate paths of CM and CCT to date, with the former being rooted in behavioral psychology and the latter in microeconomics. It is concluded that the emerging field of behavioral economics, which is informed by and integrates principles of each of those disciplines, may provide the proper conceptual framework for integrating CM and CCT. PMID:19670269

  6. A Randomized Trial Adapting Contingency Management Targets Based on Initial Abstinence Status of Cocaine-Dependent Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Barry, Danielle; Alessi, Sheila M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) reduces drug use, but questions remain regarding optimal targets and magnitudes of reinforcement. We evaluated the efficacy of CM reinforcing attendance in patients who initiated treatment with cocaine-negative samples, and of higher magnitude abstinence-based CM in patients who began treatment positive.…

  7. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  8. Interdependent Group Contingency Management for Cocaine-Dependent Methadone Maintenance Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Carpenedo, Carolyn M.; Rosenwasser, Beth J.; Gardner, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) for drug abstinence has been applied to individuals independently even when delivered in groups. We developed a group CM intervention in which the behavior of a single, randomly selected, anonymous individual determined reinforcement delivery for the entire group. We also compared contingencies placed only on cocaine…

  9. The Relative Contribution of Economic Valence to Contingency Management Efficacy: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.; Howard, Joni T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a contingency management (CM) procedure that deducted money from a grand total available at the end of the study compared to a procedure in which money accumulated with continued abstinence from cigarette smoking. Results suggested that the procedure in which money increased contingent on abstinence resulted in…

  10. Internet-based group contingency management to promote abstinence from cigarette smoking: A feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E.; Grabinski, Michael J.; Dallery, Jesse

    2011-01-01

    Background In contingency management (CM) interventions, monetary consequences are contingent on evidence of drug abstinence. Typically, these consequences are contingent on individual performance. Consequences contingent on group performance may promote social support (e.g., praise). Methods Thus, to combine social support with the monetary incentives of CM, we integrated independent and interdependent group contingencies of reinforcement into an Internet-based intervention to promote smoking abstinence. Breath carbon monoxide (CO) measures were compared between treatment conditions and a baseline control condition. Thirteen participants were divided into 5 groups or “teams” (n = 2–3 per team). Each participant submitted video recordings of CO measurement twice daily via the Internet. Teammates could monitor each other’s progress and communicate with one another through an online peer support forum. During a 4-day tapering condition, vouchers exchangeable for goods were contingent on gradual reductions in breath CO. During a 10-day abstinence induction condition, vouchers were contingent on abstinence (CO ≤4 ppm). In both treatment conditions, concurrent independent and interdependent group contingencies were arranged (i.e., a mixed contingency arrangement). Results Less than 1% of CO samples submitted during baseline were ≤4 ppm, compared to 57% submitted during abstinence induction. Sixty-five percent of participants’ comments on the online peer support forum were rated as positive by independent observers. Participants rated the intervention favorably on a treatment acceptability questionnaire. Conclusion The results suggest that the intervention is feasible and acceptable for promoting abstinence from cigarette smoking. PMID:21414733

  11. Prize Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Arfken, Cynthia L.; Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adjunctive behavioral smoking cessation treatments have the potential to improve outcomes beyond standard care. The present study had two aims: 1) compare standard care (SC) for smoking (four weeks of brief counseling and monitoring) to SC plus prize-based contingency management (CM), involving the chance to earn prizes on days with demonstrated smoking abstinence (carbon monoxide (CO) ≤6ppm); and 2) compare the relative efficacy of two prize reinforcement schedules - one a traditional CM schedule, and the second an early enhanced CM schedule providing greater reinforcement magnitude in the initial week of treatment but equal overall reinforcement. Methods Participants (N = 81 nicotine-dependent cigarette smokers) were randomly assigned to one of the three conditions. Results Prize CM resulted in significant reductions in cigarette smoking relative to SC. These reductions were not apparent at follow-up. We found no meaningful differences between the traditional and enhanced CM conditions. Conclusions Our findings reveal that prize CM leads to significant reductions in smoking during treatment relative to a control intervention, but the benefits did not extend long-term. PMID:24793364

  12. Contingency management for cocaine treatment: cash vs. vouchers.

    PubMed

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Kirby, Kimberly C; Seymour, Brittany L

    2014-08-01

    The efficacy of contingency management (CM) for treating drug abuse is well supported. The most widely used form of CM is voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT), where clients receive an escalating schedule of vouchers that can be redeemed for goods and services for meeting treatment goals. Though generally rejected due to concerns about potential harms to drug using participants, research suggests that cash may be a more effective reinforcer. This three-group randomized trial compared the efficacy of cash-based reinforcement therapy (CBRT) to VBRT and a non-CM condition on cocaine abstinence and treatment attendance; and examined whether CBRT resulted in greater levels of harm than VBRT. Findings indicated that the CBRT was as effective as VBRT when compared to the non-CM condition and that it did not increase rates of drug use, cravings, or high-risk behaviors. Future research should examine potential cost savings associated with a cash-based CM approach as this could have important implications for the wider adoption of the CM model.

  13. Contingency Management for Cocaine Treatment: Cash vs. Vouchers

    PubMed Central

    Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Seymour, Brittany L.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of contingency management (CM) for treating drug abuse is well supported. The most widely used form of CM is voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT), where clients receive an escalating schedule of vouchers that can be redeemed for goods and services for meeting treatment goals. Though generally rejected due to concerns about potential harms to drug using participants, research suggests that cash may be a more effective reinforcer. This three-group randomized trial compared the efficacy of cash-based reinforcement therapy (CBRT) to VBRT and a non-CM condition on cocaine abstinence and treatment attendance; and examined whether CBRT resulted in greater levels of harm than VBRT. Findings indicated that the CBRT was as effective as VBRT when compared to the non-CM condition and that it did not increase rates of drug use, cravings, or high-risk behaviors. Future research should examine potential cost savings associated with a cash-based CM approach as this could have important implications for the wider adoption of the CM model. PMID:24746956

  14. A developmental perspective on neuroeconomic mechanisms of contingency management.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J; Bickel, Warren K

    2013-06-01

    This paper provides a developmental overview of relevant theory and research on delay discounting and neuroeconomics, and their implications for contingency management (CM) approaches to treatment. Recent advances in the neuroscience of decision making have the potential to inform treatment development for adolescent substance use in general, and CM treatments in particular. CM interventions may be informed by research on delay discounting, a type of decision making that reflects how individuals value immediate versus delayed rewards. Delay discounting reliably distinguishes substance abusers from nonabusers and is a significant predictor of individual differences in response to substance use treatments. Discounting may also be important in predicting response to CM, as CM attempts to directly influence this decision-making process, shifting the preference from the immediate rewards of use to delayed rewards for choosing not to use. Multiple neural processes underlie decision making, and those processes have implications for adolescent substance abuse. There are significant neurodevelopmental processes that differentiate adolescents from adults. These processes are implicated in delay discounting, suggesting that adolescence may reflect a period of plasticity in temporal decision making. Understanding the neural mechanisms of delay discounting has led to promising working memory interventions directly targeting the executive functions that underlie individual choices. These interventions may be particularly helpful in combination with CM interventions that offer immediate rewards for brief periods of abstinence, and may show particular benefit in adolescence due to the heightened neural plasticity of systems that underlie temporal discounting in adolescence.

  15. A developmental perspective on neuroeconomic mechanisms of contingency management.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J; Bickel, Warren K

    2013-06-01

    This paper provides a developmental overview of relevant theory and research on delay discounting and neuroeconomics, and their implications for contingency management (CM) approaches to treatment. Recent advances in the neuroscience of decision making have the potential to inform treatment development for adolescent substance use in general, and CM treatments in particular. CM interventions may be informed by research on delay discounting, a type of decision making that reflects how individuals value immediate versus delayed rewards. Delay discounting reliably distinguishes substance abusers from nonabusers and is a significant predictor of individual differences in response to substance use treatments. Discounting may also be important in predicting response to CM, as CM attempts to directly influence this decision-making process, shifting the preference from the immediate rewards of use to delayed rewards for choosing not to use. Multiple neural processes underlie decision making, and those processes have implications for adolescent substance abuse. There are significant neurodevelopmental processes that differentiate adolescents from adults. These processes are implicated in delay discounting, suggesting that adolescence may reflect a period of plasticity in temporal decision making. Understanding the neural mechanisms of delay discounting has led to promising working memory interventions directly targeting the executive functions that underlie individual choices. These interventions may be particularly helpful in combination with CM interventions that offer immediate rewards for brief periods of abstinence, and may show particular benefit in adolescence due to the heightened neural plasticity of systems that underlie temporal discounting in adolescence. PMID:22663343

  16. Contingency Management Voucher Redemption as an Indicator of Delayed Gratification

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jesse B.; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri; Reback, Cathy J.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective analysis tested whether frequency of voucher redemptions during a contingency management (CM) substance use intervention was significantly associated with participants’ ongoing substance use. Homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men (N=131) were randomized into either a “full” or “lite” voucher-based CM intervention. All participants earned vouchers for attendance and participation; participants in the CM-full condition also received vouchers for substance abstinence and enactment of prosocial and/or health-promoting behaviors. Multivariate longitudinal negative binomial regression analyses (n = 118) assessed the association between substance use during the intervention and frequency of voucher redemptions. Participants who used methamphetamine (IRR = 0.66; 95% CI=0.44–0.99) and/or opiates (IRR=0.60; 95% CI=0.40–0.99) during the intervention exhibited less time between voucher redemptions than individuals who achieved abstinence from these substances. Voucher redemption logs can be cost-effective and unobtrusive tools for measuring study participants’ tendency to delay gratification. PMID:24674235

  17. Evaluating Training Methods for Transporting Contingency Management to Therapists

    PubMed Central

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Chapman, Jason E.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of three increasingly intensive training methods on therapist use, knowledge, and implementation adherence of contingency management (CM) with substance abusing adolescents were evaluated. Ten public sector substance abuse or mental health provider organizations were randomized to one of three training conditions: workshop and resources (WS+), WS+ and computer assisted training (WS+/CAT), or WS+/CAT and supervisory support (WS+/CAT/SS). Across conditions, 161 therapists participated in the training experiences, and measures were obtained at baseline and 2-month intervals for 12 months following workshop participation. Across training conditions, therapists reported increased CM use, knowledge, and implementation adherence through the 12-month follow-up. The findings show that community-based practitioners are amenable to the adoption of evidence-based treatments when provided access to useful resources. Moreover, high quality workshops in combination with resource access can increase knowledge of the evidence-based treatment and might enhance intervention adherence to a level needed to improve youth outcomes. PMID:23910392

  18. Contingency management voucher redemption as an indicator of delayed gratification.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jesse B; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri; Reback, Cathy J

    2014-07-01

    This prospective analysis tested whether frequency of voucher redemptions during a contingency management (CM) substance use intervention was significantly associated with participants' ongoing substance use. Homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men (N=131) were randomized into either a "full" or "lite" voucher-based CM intervention. All participants earned vouchers for attendance and participation; participants in the CM-full condition also received vouchers for substance abstinence and enactment of prosocial and/or health-promoting behaviors. Multivariate longitudinal negative binomial regression analyses (n=118) assessed the association between substance use during the intervention and frequency of voucher redemptions. Participants who used methamphetamine (IRR=0.66; 95% CI=0.44-0.99) and/or opiates (IRR=0.60; 95% CI=0.40-0.99) during the intervention exhibited less time between voucher redemptions than individuals who achieved abstinence from these substances. Voucher redemption logs can be cost-effective and unobtrusive tools for measuring study participants' tendency to delay gratification.

  19. Challenges in the transfer of contingency management techniques: comment on Silverman et al. (2001).

    PubMed

    Petry, N M

    2001-02-01

    This article critiques K. Silverman, D. Svikis, E. Robles, M. L. Stitzer, and G. E. Bigelow's (2001) study of a contingency management intervention for reinforcing development of job-related skills in substance abusing women. The strengths of Silverman et al.'s study include studying a patient population of major public health concern, expanding contingency management techniques to a vocational training setting, reinforcing gradual approximations, implementing the intervention for a long duration, and carefully designing and executing the experimental procedures. However, many of these strengths may also be interpreted as weaknesses if the ultimate goal is to apply contingency management techniques in self-sustaining, community-based settings. The need to evaluate long-term cost-effectiveness of these procedures is described, and the difficulties in transferring contingency management techniques to real-world settings is discussed.

  20. Contingency management for cigarette smokers with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; López-Núñez, Carla; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba

    2015-10-01

    Despite depressive symptoms being very common among smokers from the general population, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on smoking treatment outcomes, and even less research has been carried out in the context of contingency management (CM). The authors conducted a secondary analysis to assess the interrelation between treatment condition, depressive symptoms and treatment outcomes among treatment-seeking smokers. The sample was made up of 147 treatment-seeking smokers who were randomly allocated 2 treatment conditions: cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT; n = 74), or CBT + CM (n = 73). CBT was applied in 1-hr group-based sessions over 6 weeks. The CM protocol was voucher-based with maximum earnings of €300 (US$339). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Smoking abstinence was verified though cotinine and carbon monoxide. Several analyses were conducted to explore the effect of treatment condition and baseline depressive symptoms on treatment outcomes, as well as the effect of treatment condition and smoking status on depressive symptoms. The CBT + CM condition was more effective than CBT, independent of depressive symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms decreased the number of days of continuous smoking abstinence. Participants with a greater number of days of continuous smoking abstinence had fewer depressive symptoms than those with fewer days of continuous smoking abstinence. Findings suggest that health care providers should consider encouraging their patients with depressive symptoms to seek smoking cessation services that include both smoking cessation protocols and behavioral activation for mood management, thus maximizing both smoking and depressive outcomes.

  1. Contingency management for cigarette smokers with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; López-Núñez, Carla; Weidberg, Sara; González-Roz, Alba

    2015-10-01

    Despite depressive symptoms being very common among smokers from the general population, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on smoking treatment outcomes, and even less research has been carried out in the context of contingency management (CM). The authors conducted a secondary analysis to assess the interrelation between treatment condition, depressive symptoms and treatment outcomes among treatment-seeking smokers. The sample was made up of 147 treatment-seeking smokers who were randomly allocated 2 treatment conditions: cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT; n = 74), or CBT + CM (n = 73). CBT was applied in 1-hr group-based sessions over 6 weeks. The CM protocol was voucher-based with maximum earnings of €300 (US$339). Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Smoking abstinence was verified though cotinine and carbon monoxide. Several analyses were conducted to explore the effect of treatment condition and baseline depressive symptoms on treatment outcomes, as well as the effect of treatment condition and smoking status on depressive symptoms. The CBT + CM condition was more effective than CBT, independent of depressive symptoms. The presence of depressive symptoms decreased the number of days of continuous smoking abstinence. Participants with a greater number of days of continuous smoking abstinence had fewer depressive symptoms than those with fewer days of continuous smoking abstinence. Findings suggest that health care providers should consider encouraging their patients with depressive symptoms to seek smoking cessation services that include both smoking cessation protocols and behavioral activation for mood management, thus maximizing both smoking and depressive outcomes. PMID:26280589

  2. Group Contingencies, Randomization of Reinforcers, and Criteria for Reinforcement, Self-Monitoring, and Peer Feedback on Reducing Inappropriate Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coogan, Brenda Anne; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has demonstrated the effectiveness of interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies on reducing inappropriate classroom behavior. Several investigators have focused on the addition of self-monitoring and peer feedback to these interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies in order to further improve…

  3. Statewide Adoption and Initial Implementation of Contingency Management for Substance Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Jason E.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Randall, Jeff; Shackelford, Jennifer; Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    Four hundred and thirty-two public sector therapists attended a workshop in contingency management and were interviewed monthly for the following 6 months to assess their adoption and initial implementation of contingency management to treat substance abusing adolescent clients. Results showed that 58% of the practitioners (n = 131) with at least one substance abusing adolescent client (n = 225) adopted contingency management. Rates of adoption varied with therapist service sector (mental health versus substance abuse), educational background, professional experience, and attitudes toward treatment manuals and evidence-based practices. Competing clinical priorities and client resistance were most often reported as barriers to adopting contingency management, whereas unfavorable attitudes toward and difficulty in implementing contingency management were rarely cited as barriers. The fidelity of initial contingency management implementation among adopters was predicted by organizational characteristics as well as by several demographic, professional experience, attitudinal, and service sector characteristics. Overall, the findings support the amenability of public sector practitioners to adopt evidence-based practices and suggest that the predictors of adoption and initial implementation are complex and multifaceted. PMID:18665685

  4. A randomized trial of contingency management delivered by community therapists

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Ledgerwood, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Contingency management (CM) is an evidence-based treatment, but few clinicians deliver this intervention in community-based settings. Method Twenty-three clinicians from three methadone maintenance clinics received training in CM. Following a didactics seminar and a training and supervision period in which clinicians delivered CM to pilot patients, a randomized trial evaluated the efficacy of CM when delivered entirely by clinicians. Sixteen clinicians treated 130 patients randomized to CM or standard care. In both conditions, urine and breath samples were collected twice weekly for 12 weeks. In the CM condition, patients earned the opportunity to win prizes ranging in value from $1 to $100 for submitting samples negative for cocaine and alcohol. Primary treatment outcomes were retention, longest continuous period of abstinence, and proportion of negative samples submitted. Results Patients randomized to CM remained in the study longer (9.5 ± 3.6 versus 6.7 ± 5.0 weeks), achieved greater durations of abstinence (4.7 ± 4.7 versus 1.7 ± 2.7 weeks), and submitted a higher proportion of negative samples (57.7% ± 40.0% versus 29.4% ± 33.3%) than those assigned to standard care. Conclusions These data indicate that, with appropriate training, community-based clinicians can effectively administer CM. This study suggests that resources ought to be directed toward training and supervising community-based providers in delivering CM, as patient outcomes can be significantly improved by integrating CM in methadone clinics. PMID:22250852

  5. A Developmental Perspective on Neuroeconomic Mechanisms of Contingency Management

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a developmental overview of relevant theory and research on delay discounting and neuroeconomics, and their implications for CM approaches to treatment. Recent advances in neuroscience, and in particular the neuroscience of decision making, have the potential to inform treatment development for adolescent substance use in general, and contingency management (CM) treatments in particular. CM utilizes abstinence-based reinforcement to enhance motivation to engage in treatment and engender abstinence. CM interventions may be informed by research on delay discounting, a type of decision making that reflects how individuals value immediate vs. delayed rewards. Delay discounting reliably distinguishes substance abusers from non abusers and is a significant predictor of individual differences in response to substance use treatments. Delay discounting is also of high potential importance in the development of substance use problems in adolescence. Discounting may also be important in predicting response to CM, as CM attempts to directly influence this decision making process, shifting the preference from the immediate rewards of use to delayed rewards for choosing not to use. Multiple neural processes underlie decision making, and those processes have implications for adolescent substance abuse. There are significant neurodevelopmental processes that differentiate adolescents from adults. These processes are implicated in delay discounting, suggesting that adolescence may reflect a period of plasticity in temporal decision making. Understanding the neural mechanisms of delay discounting has led to promising working memory interventions directly targeting the executive functions that underlie individual choices. These interventions may be particularly helpful in combination with CM interventions that offer immediate rewards for brief periods of abstinence, and may show particular benefit in adolescence due to the heightened neural plasticity of systems

  6. Evaluation of a modified contingency management intervention for consistent attendance in therapeutic workplace participants.

    PubMed

    Wong, Conrad J; Dillon, Erin M; Sylvest, Christine; Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-06-11

    In a therapeutic workplace business, drug abuse patients are hired as data entry operators and paid to perform data entry work contingent upon documented drug abstinence. Reliable attendance has been difficult to maintain despite the opportunity for operators to earn a living wage, 6 h per day, 5 days per week. A within-subject reversal design experiment evaluated a contingency management intervention that allowed for flexibility regarding when operators could arrive to work, yet maintained a contingency for reliable workplace attendance. Results from a within-subject reversal design experiment demonstrated the contingency management intervention to be effective in increasing the frequency of completed work shifts in four of five operators. Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests of grouped data showed that the contingency management intervention significantly (P < 0.05) increased the mean percent of days that operators completed work shifts (5% baseline; 63% contingency management; 7% baseline). This study demonstrates an effective procedure for maintaining attendance in therapeutic workplace participants.

  7. Internet-based group contingency management to promote smoking abstinence.

    PubMed

    Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Jarvis, Brantley; Nuzzo, Paul A

    2015-06-01

    Internet-based group contingencies have been shown to promote brief periods of abstinence from cigarette smoking. Under a group contingency, small teams of smokers must collectively meet abstinence goals to receive monetary consequences. The present study investigated 2 arrangements, 1 in which all team members had to meet group treatment goals to receive monetary consequences (full group), and 1 in which team members had to meet some group goals and some individual goals to receive these consequences (mixed group). Mo̅tiv8 Systems, an Internet-based remote monitoring platform, was used to collect video-recorded breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples. All team members could communicate with each other via an online discussion forum. During baseline conditions, only 3.3% of CO samples were negative for smoking, which suggests that self-monitoring and access to the online discussion forum were insufficient to initiate abstinence. When the group contingencies were instituted 41.3% of CO samples were negative. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 arrangements in the percentage of negative CO samples or point prevalence at the end of treatment or at the 3-month follow-up. Participants posted an average of 25 comments on the discussion forum, most of which were rated as positive by independent observers. The mean cost of vouchers per participant was lower in the full group ($33) relative to the mixed group ($190). The present results replicate and extend previous findings on group contingencies to promote abstinence and social support.

  8. Pinellas Plant contingency plan for the hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    Subpart D of Part 264 (264.50 through .56) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations require that each facility maintain a contingency plan detailing procedures to {open_quotes}minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.{close_quotes}

  9. Contingency management of reliable attendance of chronically unemployed substance abusers in a therapeutic workplace.

    PubMed

    Wong, Conrad J; Dillon, Erin M; Sylvest, Christine E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-02-01

    The Therapeutic Workplace is an effective drug abuse treatment that integrates abstinence reinforcement into a work setting by using a salary that drug abusers earn for work. Drug abuse patients are trained and hired to become data entry operators in a Therapeutic Workplace business. Despite the opportunity to earn a high wage, participants frequently arrive at work late and fail to work complete shifts. In the present study, a contingency management intervention to promote consistent and reliable attendance was evaluated in 4 participants. Participants were not allowed to work on days that they arrived late, and their pay was temporarily reduced each time they arrived late at work or failed to complete a work shift. A within-subject reversal design showed that the intervention increased the frequency with which participants arrived at work on time and completed work shifts.

  10. Low-cost contingency management for treating cocaine- and opioid-abusing methadone patients.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Martin, Bonnie

    2002-04-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a low-cost contingency management (CM) procedure in reducing concurrent cocaine and opioid use among methadone patients. Forty-two patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of standard treatment or standard treatment plus CM. CM patients eamed the opportunity to draw from a bowl and win prizes ranging from $1 to $ 100 in value for submitting samples negative for cocaine and opioids. Patients in the CM condition achieved longer durations of continuous abstinence than patients in the standard treatment condition, and these effects were maintained throughout a 6-month follow-up period. On average, patients in the CM condition earned $137 of prizes. These data suggest that this prize reinforcement procedure may be suitable for community-based settings.

  11. Contingency management in cocaine abusers: a dose-effect comparison of goods-based versus cash-based incentives.

    PubMed

    Vandrey, Ryan; Bigelow, George E; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2007-08-01

    Goods-based contingency management interventions (e.g., those using vouchers or prizes as incentives) have demonstrated efficacy in reducing cocaine use, but cost has limited dissemination to community clinics. Recent research suggests that development of a cash-based contingency management approach may improve treatment outcomes while reducing operational costs of the intervention. However, the clinical safety of providing cash-based incentives to substance abusers has been a concern. The present 16-week study compared the effects of goods-based versus cash-based incentives worth $0, $25, $50, and $100 on short-term cocaine abstinence in a small sample of cocaine-dependent methadone patients (N = 12). A within-subject design was used; a 9-day washout period separated each of 8 incentive conditions. Higher magnitude ($50 and $100) cash-based incentives (checks) produced greater cocaine abstinence compared with the control ($0) condition, but a magnitude effect was not seen for goods-based incentives (vouchers). A trend was observed for greater rates of abstinence in the cash-based versus goods-based incentives at the $50 and $100 magnitudes. Receipt of $100 checks did not increase subsequent rates of cocaine use above those seen in control conditions. The efficacy and safety data provided in this and other recent studies suggest that use of cash-based incentives deserves consideration for clinical applications of contingency management, but additional confirmation in research using larger samples and more prolonged periods of incentive delivery is needed.

  12. Expected Utility Theory as a Guide to Contingency (Allowance or Management Reserve) Allocation

    SciTech Connect

    Thibadeau, Barbara M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, I view a project from the perspective of utility theory. I suggest that, by determining an optimal percent contingency (relative to remaining work) and identifying and enforcing a required change in behavior, from one that is risk-seeking to one that is risk-averse, a project's contingency can be managed more effectively. I argue that early on in a project, risk-seeking behavior dominates. During this period, requests for contingency are less rigorously scrutinized. As the design evolves, more accurate information becomes available. Once the designs have been finalized, the project team must transition from a free-thinking, exploratory mode to an execution mode. If projects do not transition fast enough from a risk-seeking to a risk-averse organization, an inappropriate allocation of project contingency could occur (too much too early in the project). I show that the behavioral patterns used to characterize utility theory are those that exist in the project environment. I define a project's utility and thus, provide project managers with a metric against which all gambles (requests for contingency) can be evaluated. I discuss other research as it relates to utility and project management. From empirical data analysis, I demonstrate that there is a direct correlation between progress on a project's design activities and the rate at which project contingency is allocated and recommend a transition time frame during which the rate of allocation should decrease and the project should transition from risk-seeking to risk-averse. I show that these data are already available from a project's earned value management system and thus, inclusion of this information in the standard monthly reporting suite can enhance a project manager's decision making capability.

  13. Implementation of a Contingency Management-Based Intervention in a Community Supervision Setting: Clinical Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotman, Adria J.; Taxman, Faye S.

    2011-01-01

    A cognitive-behaviorally based substance abuse treatment program was implemented within a community supervision setting. This program included a goals group that used a contingency management component and included the probation agent as a part of the treatment. In this article, the authors describe the contingency management component of the…

  14. A feasibility study of home-based contingency management with adolescent smokers of rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted 3 video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT; n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT; n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until 6-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until posttreatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations.

  15. A feasibility study of home-based contingency management with adolescent smokers of rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted 3 video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT; n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT; n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until 6-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until posttreatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations. PMID:26280592

  16. A Feasibility Study of Home-Based Contingency Management with Adolescent Smokers of Rural Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A.; Shelton, Brent J.; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted three video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT: n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT: n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until six-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until post-treatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations. PMID:26280592

  17. The economic value of reducing environmental health risks: Contingent valuation estimates of the value of information

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, D.J.; Hoehn, J.P.

    1999-05-01

    Obtaining economically consistent values for changes in low probability health risks continues to be a challenge for contingent valuation (CV) as well as for other valuation methods. One of the cited condition for economic consistency is that estimated values be sensitive to the scope (differences in quantity or quality) of a good described in a CV application. The alleged limitations of CV pose a particular problem for environmental managers who must often make decisions that affect human health risks. This paper demonstrates that a well-designed CV application can elicit scope sensitive values even for programs that provide conceptually complex goods such as risk reduction. Specifically, it finds that the amount sport anglers are willing to pay for information about chemical residues in fish varies systematically with informativeness--a relationship suggested by the theory of information value.

  18. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  19. An Effectiveness Trial of Contingency Management in a Felony Preadjudication Drug Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Arabia, Patricia L.; Kirby, Kimberly C.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a contingency management (CM) program in a drug court. Gift certificates for compliance were delivered at 4- to 6-week intervals (total value = $390.00). Participants in one condition earned gift certificates that escalated by $5.00 increments. Participants in a second condition began earning higher magnitude gift…

  20. Statewide Adoption and Initial Implementation of Contingency Management for Substance-Abusing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Chapman, Jason E.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Randall, Jeff; Shackelford, Jennifer; Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    Four hundred thirty-two public sector therapists attended a workshop in contingency management (CM) and were interviewed monthly for the following 6 months to assess their adoption and initial implementation of CM to treat substance-abusing adolescent clients. Results showed that 58% (n = 131) of the practitioners with at least one…

  1. Vouchers Versus Prizes: Contingency Management Treatment of Substance Abusers in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Marx, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Tardif, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually use vouchers as reinforcers, but a new technique awards chances of winning prizes. This study compares these approaches. In community treatment centers, 142 cocaine- or heroin-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST with vouchers, or ST with prizes for 12 weeks.…

  2. Use of Self-Management with the CW-FIT Group Contingency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamps, Debra; Conklin, Carl; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of self-management as a tier two enhancement to the group contingency intervention, Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams Program (CW-FIT). Two classrooms, first and fourth grade, and two students in each of the classrooms participated in the intervention. The group contingency…

  3. Contingency Management for Attendance to Group Substance Abuse Treatment Administered by Clinicians in Community Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Godley, Mark D.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is effective in enhancing retention in therapy. After an 8-week baseline, four community-based substance abuse treatment clinics were exposed in random order to 16 weeks of standard care with CM followed by 16 weeks of standard care without CM or vice versa. In total, 75 outpatients participated. Patients who were…

  4. The Effect of Contingency Management Procedures on the Rate of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.; And Others

    Two different groups of subjects--incarcerated adult offenders and freshman nursing students--participated in an academic experiment which employed an individually prescribed learning system. The system featured programmed instructional materials and contingency management procedures to obtain stable cumulative records of learning performance.…

  5. The Use of Contingency Management to Affect Learning Performance in Adult Institutionalized Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    A description is given of the development and application of contingency management (CM) techniques to the educational performance of a broad cross section of adult, male prison inmates. By most standards, these inmates are judged to be at the lowest rung of the motivational ladder. Draper Correctional Center experimental and demonstration…

  6. Contingency Management Treatments: Reinforcing Abstinence Versus Adherence with Goal-Related Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Hanson, Tressa; MacKinnon, Stephen; Rounsaville, Bruce; Sierra, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually reinforce submission of drug-negative specimens, but they can also reinforce adherence with goal-related activities. This study compared the efficacy of the 2 approaches. Substance-abusing outpatients (N = 131) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 12-week treatments: standard treatment (ST), ST with CM…

  7. The relative contribution of economic valence to contingency management efficacy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Roll, John M; Howard, Joni T

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a contingency management (CM) procedure that deducted money from a grand total available at the end of the study compared to a procedure in which money accumulated with continued abstinence from cigarette smoking. Results suggested that the procedure in which money increased contingent on abstinence resulted in a significantly greater likelihood of obtaining a clinically relevant (i.e., 48-hr) period of abstinence. In terms of attendance, participants in the condition in which monetary reinforcement accrued with consecutive instances of abstinence were significantly less likely to miss consecutive appointments than those in which money was deducted for failure to abstain.

  8. Reducing and managing overtime.

    PubMed

    Sachs, L

    2001-01-01

    Overtime is undesirable for many reasons. It can deteriorate staff morale, reinforce and reward inefficiency, and reach deep into your practice's pockets, often without improving your bottom line. Many employers overuse overtime and hold many misconceptions about their legal obligations. This article explores specific practice management methods for reducing or eliminating the need for overtime. It dispels three popular misconceptions about employers' legal obligations when paying overtime. Finally, it summarizes the basic rules for paying overtime, including how to calculate an employee's regular rate of pay, how to structure a legitimate workweek, and when and how overtime payments should be made. PMID:11317579

  9. An Analysis of Organizational Behavior Management Research in Terms of the Three-Contingency Model of Performance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Nicholas L.; Malott, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    The three-contingency model of performance management (Malott, 1992, 1993, 1999) was used to analyze interventions in the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM)" from the years 1990 through 2005 (Volume 11[1]-Volume 25[4]). The current article extends previous reviews (Malott, Shimamune, & Malott, 1992; Otto & Malott, 2004) by…

  10. Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: Evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi

    2011-04-15

    This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling.

  11. Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Eating Disorders: The Use of Contingency Management Procedures to Manage Dialectical Dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise D

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have adapted and/or applied dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for populations with eating disorders. There is a growing body of research that indicates that DBT is an effective treatment option for this population, including those who have co-occurring Axis II disorders. The goal of the current paper is to summarize the research conducted in the area of DBT with those individuals who present with eating disorders only as well as those who present with both eating disorders and Axis II disorders. We also describe a dialectical dilemma, apparent compliance vs. active defiance, which is commonly observed in the group with comorbidities A DBT change strategy, contingency management, is discussed as an intervention to target apparent compliance and active defiance.

  12. The L-Type Calcium Channel Blocker Nifedipine Impairs Extinction, but Not Reduced Contingency Effects, in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jami, Shekib; Barad, Mark; Cain, Christopher K.; Godsil, Bill P.

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported that fear extinction, a form of inhibitory learning, is selectively blocked by systemic administration of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (LVGCC) antagonists, including nifedipine, in mice. We here replicate this finding and examine three reduced contingency effects after vehicle or nifedipine (40 mg/kg) administration.…

  13. Contingency Management among Homeless, Out-of-Treatment Men who have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Reback, Cathy J; Peck, James A; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri; Nuno, Miriam; Kamien, Jonathan B; Amass, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Homeless men who have sex with men (MSM) are a particularly vulnerable population with high rates of substance dependence, psychiatric disorders, and HIV prevalence. Most need strong incentives to engage with community-based prevention and treatment programs. Contingency Management (CM) was implemented in a community HIV prevention setting and targeted reduced substance use and increased health-promoting behaviors over a 24-week intervention period. Participants in the CM condition achieved greater reductions in stimulant and alcohol use (χ2 = 27.36, p<.01) and, in particular, methamphetamine use (χ2 = 21.78, p<.01), and greater increases in health-promoting behaviors (χ2 = 37.83, p<.01) during the intervention period than those in the control group. Reductions in substance use were maintained to 9- and 12-month follow-up evaluations. Findings indicate the utility of CM for this high-risk population and the feasibility of implementing the intervention in a community-based HIV prevention program. PMID:20667681

  14. Initial Abstinence Status and Contingency Management Treatment Outcomes: Does Race Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, LaTrice; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Limited research has evaluated African American substance users’ response to evidence-based treatments. This study examined the efficacy of contingency management (CM) in African American and White cocaine users. Method A secondary analysis evaluated effects of race, treatment condition, and baseline cocaine urine sample results on treatment outcomes of African American (n = 444) and White (n = 403) cocaine abusers participating in one of six randomized clinical trials comparing CM to standard care. Results African American and White patients who initiated treatment with a cocaine-negative urine sample remained in treatment for similar durations and submitted a comparable proportion of negative samples during treatment regardless of treatment type; CM was efficacious in both races in terms of engendering longer durations of abstinence in patients who began treatment abstinent. Whites who began treatment with a cocaine positive sample remained in treatment longer and submitted a higher proportion of negative samples when assigned to CM than standard care. African Americans who initiated treatment with a cocaine positive sample, however, did not remain in treatment longer with CM compared with standard care, and gains in terms of drug use outcomes were muted in nature relative to Whites. This interaction effect persisted through the 9-month follow-up period. Conclusions CM is not equally effective in reducing drug use among all subgroups, specifically African American patients who are using cocaine upon treatment entry. Future research on improving treatment outcomes in this population is needed. PMID:25798729

  15. Improving on-time counseling attendance in a methadone treatment program: a contingency management approach.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gary L; Saules, Karen K; Helmus, Todd C; Roll, John; Beshears, Renee S; Ledgerwood, David M; Schuster, Charles R

    2003-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to investigate the effectiveness of contingency management techniques in promoting punctual counseling attendance among methadone maintenance patients. In Study 1, 50 participants were recruited from an inner-city methadone maintenance program. Study 1 used an A-B-A design with baseline, intervention, and return-to-baseline phases. On-time attendance was reinforced during the intervention phase with a voucher that was redeemable for a draw out of a box containing 100 tokens with values varying from 0.00 dollars to 100.00 dollars. Methadone maintenance patients who exhibited poor attendance during baseline showed a significant positive response during the contingency management intervention phase. Study 2 used the same design as Study 1 except that the 52 participants were randomized into reinforcement groups that received either the variable rate of reinforcement as in Study 1 or a fixed value reinforcer of 3.25 dollars. As in Study 1, Poor Attenders significantly improved counseling attendance during the intervention. There were no differences between the variable and fixed reinforcement groups. Overall, results suggest that targeting Poor Attenders with contingency management techniques may be a cost-effective method of improving counseling attendance. Targeting Poor Attenders early in treatment may be especially important for improving treatment outcomes.

  16. Effects of Smoking Cessation with Voucher-Based Contingency Management on Birth Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.; Bernstein, Ira M.; Washio, Yukiko; Heil, Sarah H.; Badger, Gary J.; Skelly, Joan M.; Higgins, Tara M.; Solomon, Laura J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This study combined data from three controlled trials to examine whether smoking cessation using voucher-based contingency management (CM) improves birth outcomes. Methods Participants (N = 166) were pregnant women who participated in trials examining the efficacy of voucher-based CM for smoking cessation. Women were assigned to either a contingent condition wherein they earned vouchers exchangeable for retail items by abstaining from smoking or to a noncontingent condition where they received vouchers independent of smoking status. Birth outcomes were determined by review of hospital delivery records. Results Antepartum abstinence was greater in the contingent than noncontingent condition, with late-pregnancy abstinence being 34.1% vs. 7.4% (p < .001). Mean birth weight of infants born to mothers treated in the contingent condition was greater than infants born to mothers treated in the noncontingent condition (3295.6 ± 63.8 g vs. 3093.6 ± 67.0 g, p = .03) and the percent of low birth weight (< 2500g) deliveries was less (5.9% vs. 18.5%, p = .02). No significant treatment effects were observed across three other outcomes investigated although each was in the direction of improved outcomes in the contingent vs. the noncontingent condition: mean gestational age (39.1 ± 0.2 weeks vs. 38.5 ± 0.3 weeks, p = .06), percent of preterm deliveries (5.9 vs. 13.6, p = .09), and percent admissions to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (4.7% vs. 13.8%, p = .06). Conclusions These results provide evidence that smoking-cessation treatment with voucher-based CM may improve important birth outcomes. PMID:20840188

  17. Contingency management for behavior change: applications to promote brief smoking cessation among opioid-maintained patients.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kelly E; Saulsgiver, Kathryn A; Sigmon, Stacey C

    2011-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among patients who are being treated for opioid-dependence, yet there have been limited scientific efforts to promote smoking cessation in this population. Contingency management (CM) is a behavioral treatment that provides monetary incentives contingent upon biochemical evidence of drug abstinence. This paper discusses the results of two studies that utilized CM to promote brief smoking cessation among opioid-maintained patients. Participants in a pilot study were randomly assigned for a 2-week period to a Contingent group that earned monetary vouchers for providing biochemical samples that met criteria for smoking abstinence, or a Noncontingent group that earned monetary vouchers independent of smoking status (Dunn et al., 2008). Results showed Contingent participants provided significantly more smoking-negative samples than Noncontingent participants (55% vs. 5%, respectively). A second randomized trial that utilized the same 2-week intervention and provided access to the smoking cessation pharmacotherapy bupropion replicated the results of the pilot study (55% and 17% abstinence in Contingent and Noncontingent groups, respectively; Dunn et al, 2010). Relapse to illicit drug use was also evaluated prospectively and no association between smoking abstinence and relapse to illicit drug use was observed (Dunn et al., 2009). It will be important for future studies to evaluate participant characteristics that might predict better treatment outcome, to assess the contribution that pharmacotherapies might have alone or in combination with a CM intervention on smoking cessation and to evaluate methods for maintaining the abstinence that is achieved during this brief intervention for longer periods of time. PMID:21341920

  18. Contingency Management in the Treatment of Adolescent Alcohol Drinking Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham, Steven L.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Three case studies demonstrated excessive alcohol drinking in adolescents could be reduced by self-monitoring and extrinsic reinforcement procedures. Behavioral interventions resulted in complete abstinence for a male with 10 years of excessive alcohol abuse. However, alcohol abuse increased markedly for two females once intervention procedures…

  19. An effectiveness trial of contingency management in a felony preadjudication drug court.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Arabia, Patricia L; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a contingency management (CM) program in a drug court. Gift certificates for compliance were delivered at 4- to 6-week intervals (total value = $390.00). Participants in one condition earned gift certificates that escalated by $5.00 increments. Participants in a second condition began earning higher magnitude gift certificates, and the density of reinforcement was gradually decreased. No main effects of CM were detected, which appears to be attributable to a ceiling effect from the intensive contingencies already delivered in the drug court and the low density of reinforcement. Preplanned interaction analyses suggested that participants with more serious criminal backgrounds might have performed better in the CM conditions. This suggests that CM programs may be best suited for more incorrigible drug offenders.

  20. Interdependent Group Contingency Management for Cocaine-Dependent Methadone Maintenance Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Kimberly C; Kerwin, MaryLouise E; Carpenedo, Carolyn M; Rosenwasser, Beth J; Gardner, Robert S

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) for drug abstinence has been applied to individuals independently even when delivered in groups. We developed a group CM intervention in which the behavior of a single, randomly selected, anonymous individual determined reinforcement delivery for the entire group. We also compared contingencies placed only on cocaine abstinence (CA) versus one of four behaviors (CA, treatment attendance, group CM attendance, and methadone compliance) selected randomly at each drawing. Two groups were formed with 22 cocaine-dependent community-based methadone patients and exposed to both CA and multiple behavior (MB) conditions in a reversal design counterbalanced across groups for exposure order. The group CM intervention proved feasible and safe. The MB condition improved group CM meeting attendance relative to the CA condition. PMID:19192861

  1. "Our Mystery Hero!" A Group Contingency Intervention for Reducing Verbally Disrespectful Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Melissa; Boon, Richard T.; Fore, Cecil, III; Bender, William N.

    2008-01-01

    A reversal (ABAB) design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a group contingency intervention on the verbally disrespectful behaviors of seven middle school students with specific learning disabilities and attention deficit disorders (ADHD) in a special education resource classroom setting for reading instruction. During the intervention…

  2. Use of Self-Imposed Contingencies to Reduce the Frequency of Smoking Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexrod, Saul; And Others

    Two studies were done in which the subjects applied punishment contingencies to themselves for smoking cigarettes. After Baseline in Experiment I, the subject set a limit of 15 cigarettes for himself. If he exceeded the level, he was to tear a dollar bill into pieces for every additional cigarette he smoked. Every five days the criterion was…

  3. From the psychiatric hospital to the community: integrating conditional release and contingency management.

    PubMed

    Elbogen, E B; Tomkins, A J

    2000-01-01

    Psychiatric hospital recidivism has been and continues to be a persistent problem in treating individuals with chronic mental illness. Conditional release, a form of involuntary outpatient commitment, has been suggested as one possible solution. Guided by therapeutic jurisprudence, this article presents a proposal about conditional release that would maximize convergence of social values and would be empirically testable. Specifically, a scientifically validated treatment intervention for individuals with chronic mental illness, contingency management, is integrated with conditional release. From this proposal, a number of empirical hypotheses and legal questions about discharging psychiatric patients are generated and discussed.

  4. Behavioral Treatment for Marijuana Dependence: Randomized Trial of Contingency Management and Self-Efficacy Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to develop a treatment for marijuana dependence specifically designed to enhance self-efficacy. Method The participants were 215 marijuana-dependent men and women randomized to one of three 9-week outpatient treatments: a condition intended to enhance self-efficacy through successful completion of treatment-related tasks (Mot ivational Enhancement plus Cognitive-Behavioral treatment plus Contingency Management reinforcing completion of treatment homework; MET+CBT+CMHomework); a condition that controlled for all elements except for reinforcement of homework (MET+CBT + Contingency Management reinforcing drug abstinence ; MET+CBT+CMAbstinence); or a Case Management control condition (CaseM). Participants in the two MET+CBT conditions were also asked to complete interactive voice recordings three times per week during treatment to confirm homework completion. Results All patients showed modest improvements over time through 14 months, with few between-treatment effects on outcomes. Latent Class Growth Models, however, indicated that a subsample of patients did extremely well over time. This subsample was more likely to have been treated in the CMAbstinence condition. In turn, this treatment effects appears to have been accounted for by days of continuous abstinence accrued during treatment, and by pre-post increases in self-efficacy. Conclusions The most effective treatments may be those that elicit abstinence while increasing self-efficacy. PMID:23254227

  5. Moving toward a "third generation" of contingency management studies in the abuse treatment field: comment on Silverman et al. (2001).

    PubMed

    McLellan, A T

    2001-02-01

    The power of positively reinforced contingency management procedures has been definitively proven in the drug abuse field-even among the most severely affected clients. This study by K. Silverman, D. Svikis, E. Robles, M. L. Stitzer, and G. E. Bigelow (2001) and other studies like it have clearly moved the contingency management work out of controlled, contrived settings and into the real world. Suggestions are offered for moving the next generation of studies toward less complicated populations and using more robust reinforcements within the constraints of contemporary financial and administrative boundaries.

  6. Examining Maternal Weight Gain During Contingency-Management Treatment for Smoking Cessation Among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Washio, Yukiko; Higgins, Stephen T.; Heil, Sarah H.; Badger, Gary J.; Skelly, Joan; Bernstein, Ira M.; Solomon, Laura J.; Higgins, Tara M.; Lynch, Mary Ellen; Hanson, Jennifer D.

    2010-01-01

    Excessive maternal weight gain during pregnancy can result in serious adverse maternal and neonatal health consequences making it an important outcome to monitor in developing smoking-cessation interventions for pregnant women. Maternal weight gain was investigated in the present study with 154 pregnant participants in controlled trials investigating the efficacy of contingency management (CM) for smoking cessation. Women were assigned to either an abstinence-contingent condition wherein they earned vouchers exchangeable for retail items by abstaining from smoking or to a control condition where they received comparable vouchers independent of smoking status. Mean percent of negative smoking status tests throughout antepartum was greater in the incentive than control condition (45.2±4.6 vs. 15.5±2.4, p < .001) as was late-pregnancy point-prevalence abstinence (36% vs. 8%, p < .001) but maternal weight gain did not differ significantly between treatment conditions (15.0 ± 0.8 kg vs. 15.0 ± 0.9 kg, p = .97). In a comparison of women classified by smoking status rather than treatment condition, a greater percent of negative smoking status tests predicted significantly more weight gain (0.34 kg per 10% increase in negative tests), an effect that appeared to be attributable to women with greater abstinence having larger infants. This study shows no evidence of excessive maternal weight gain among pregnant women receiving a CM intervention for smoking cessation. PMID:20870365

  7. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems: Technical Level Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn R.; Patterson-Hines, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Contingency management is essential to the robust operation of complex systems such as spacecraft and Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Automatic contingency handling allows a faster response to unsafe scenarios with reduced human intervention on low-cost and extended missions. Results, applied to the Autonomous Rotorcraft Project and Mars Science Lab, pave the way to more resilient autonomous systems.

  8. Training workshops positively impact beliefs about contingency management in a nationwide dissemination effort.

    PubMed

    Rash, Carla J; Dephilippis, Dominick; McKay, James R; Drapkin, Michelle; Petry, Nancy M

    2013-09-01

    In 2011, the Veterans Administration called for nationwide implementation of contingency management (CM) in its intensive outpatient substance use disorders treatment programs, and this study evaluated the impact of the initial 1 and ½ day training workshops on knowledge and perceptions about CM among 159 clinical leaders from 113 clinics. Workshop attendance significantly increased CM-related knowledge (d=1.88) and changed attendees' perceptions of CM (ds=0.26-0.74). Endorsement of barriers to CM adoption decreased and positive impressions of CM increased. These perceptions about CM emerged as key correlates of post-training preparedness to implement CM. Results suggest that training workshops can be an effective avenue for increasing CM-related knowledge, as well as addressing persistent misperceptions about CM that may impede adoption efforts. Continued efforts to introduce educational materials and offer training and consultation opportunities may increase understanding about this evidence-based intervention among clinicians, thereby leading to improved patient outcomes.

  9. Contingency management is effective across cocaine-dependent outpatients with different socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Fernández, Gloria; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón

    2013-03-01

    Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy for treating cocaine dependence, but there is still some controversy with regard to its dissemination. Understanding how individual differences affect CM outcomes is important for detecting barriers to its dissemination. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of socioeconomic variables in cocaine-dependent outpatients on the effectiveness of CM in a community setting. Cocaine-dependent outpatients (N=118) were randomized to community reinforcement approach (CRA) treatment or a CRA plus vouchers program. The impact of baseline economic variables, alone and in combination with treatment conditions, on abstinence and retention outcomes after 6 months of treatment was assessed. Results showed that income had no effect on retention or abstinence outcomes after 6 months of treatment in either treatment condition. The addition of a CM component was beneficial for individuals with any socioeconomic status. These results support the generalizability of CM strategies with patients of different socioeconomic status in community settings.

  10. Give them prizes, and they will come: contingency management for treatment of alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Petry, N M; Martin, B; Cooney, J L; Kranzler, H R

    2000-04-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) procedure that provided opportunities to win prizes as reinforcers. At intake to outpatient treatment, 42 alcohol-dependent veterans were randomly assigned to receive standard treatment or standard treatment plus CM, in which they earned the chance to win prizes for submitting negative Breathalyzer samples and completing steps toward treatment goals. Eighty-four percent of the CM participants were retained in treatment for an 8-week period compared with 22% of the standard treatment participants (p < .001). By the end of the treatment period, 69% of those receiving CM were still abstinent, but 61% of those receiving standard treatment had used alcohol (p < .05). These results support the efficacy of this CM procedure. Participants earned an average of $200 in prizes. This CM procedure may be suitable for use in standard treatment settings because prizes can be solicited from the community. PMID:10780125

  11. Sex effects in cocaine using methadone patients randomized to contingency management interventions

    PubMed Central

    Burch, Ashley E.; Rash, Carla J.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is an effective treatment for promoting cocaine abstinence in patients receiving methadone maintenance. However, few studies have examined the effect of sex on treatment outcomes in this population. This study evaluated the impact of sex on longest duration of abstinence (LDA) and percent negative urine samples in 323 cocaine-using methadone patients from four randomized clinical trials comparing CM to standard methadone care. Overall, women had better treatment outcomes compared to men, demonstrated by an increase in both LDA and percentages of negative samples. Patients receiving CM also had significantly higher LDA and percentages of negative samples compared to patients receiving standard care, but sex by treatment condition effects were not significant. These data suggest that cocaine using methadone patients who are women have better substance use outcomes than men in interventions that regularly monitor cocaine use, and CM is equally efficacious regardless of sex. PMID:26237326

  12. Contingency management for smoking cessation: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Ledgerwood, David M

    2008-11-01

    Each year, smoking-related illnesses are among the leading causes of preventable death in the U.S. and in many other countries. Although recently there have been substantial developments in pharmaceutical and behavioral smoking cessation treatments, these interventions do not work for all individuals, necessitating development of a wider array of treatments. Despite demonstrated efficacy in several studies, contingency management (CM) is a behavioral intervention that is not widely used as a smoking cessation treatment. This review surveys the current research literature on the efficacy of CM for smoking reduction, and identifies some of the most prominent barriers to wider implementation of CM as a stop-smoking treatment. Suggestions are made for future research to design behavioral smoking cessation programs that may be applied as a treatment for smokers in the community. PMID:19630730

  13. Diffusion of contingency management and attitudes regarding its effectiveness and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Bride, Brian E; Abraham, Amanda J; Roman, Paul M

    2010-07-01

    Substance abuse counselors are critical as the key arbiters of clients' acceptance and use of innovative treatment techniques, with their potential support embedded in their knowledge of and attitudes towards particular innovations. In this analysis the authors examine the role of substance abuse counselors in the adoption of a psychosocial treatment innovation, contingency management (CM). Using data collected from 1140 counselors employed in a national sample of 318 public treatment centers, the authors examine theoretical predictors of counselors' knowledge of CM, and their attitudes regarding CM's effectiveness and acceptability. Findings suggest that lack of exposure to CM through program use and innovation-specific training is the most salient barrier to CM adoption and diffusion. The study also highlights the importance of social networks in the diffusion and acceptance of treatment innovations.

  14. Integrating contingency management with relapse prevention skills: comment on Silverman et al. (2001).

    PubMed

    Marlatt, G A

    2001-02-01

    The study by K. Silverman, D. Svikis, E. Robles, M. L. Stitzer, and G. E. Bigelow (2001) demonstrates the effectiveness of a voucher-based reinforcement intervention in the treatment of pregnant women in treatment for substance abuse. The effects of prolonged initial abstinence as a form of "sobriety sampling" may serve to enhance long-term recovery by providing patients with rewards for maintaining abstinence. Several limitations to the study are addressed, including selection of the treatment sample and the absence of any follow-up data on drug use or relapse following completion of the 24-week treatment program. Recommendations are made to enhance maintenance of abstinence by providing coping-skill training for relapse prevention as an addition to the contingency management approach.

  15. Organizational Factors Associated with the Use of Contingency Management in Publicly Funded Substance Abuse Treatment Centers

    PubMed Central

    Bride, Brian E.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Roman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    A promising area within technology transfer studies is the identification of organizational factors that influence the adoption of treatment innovations. While studies have identified organizational factors associated with the adoption of pharmacological innovations, few studies have examined organizational factors in the adoption of psychosocial innovations, among which contingency management (CM) is a significant practice. Using data from a sample (n = 318) drawn from the population of publicly funded treatment centers in the U.S., this study modeled organizational factors falling in the domains of structural characteristics, workforce variables, values and norms, and patient characteristics associated with the use of CM. Organizations were more likely to use CM if they: embrace a supportive therapeutic approach, are research-friendly, offer only outpatient levels of care, or serve drug-court patients. Implications for studying the diffusion and implementation of evidence-based psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:20850259

  16. Contingency Management in Community Programs Treating Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Therese K.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Waldrop, Angela E.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    PROBLEM Adolescent substance abuse remains a public health problem, and more effective treatment approaches are needed. PURPOSE The study aims to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of implementing a cost-effective contingency management (CM) intervention in community substance abuse treatment for adolescents with marijuana use disorders. METHODS Thirty-one adolescents with primary marijuana use disorder enrolled in a community treatment program were randomized. FINDINGS There were no significant group differences in percent negative UDS, sustained negative UDS, or retention in treatment. CONCLUSIONS CM was difficult to integrate into community treatment programs and did not seem to be an effective adjunct to standard community substance abuse treatment for adolescents with marijuana use disorders. Modifying the CM procedure for adolescents, changing staff attitudes toward CM, and/or combining CM with other evidence-based psychosocial treatment may improve outcomes. PMID:22299805

  17. Adapting the Helpful Responses Questionnaire to assess communication skills involved in delivering contingency management: Preliminary psychometrics

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues’ (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write ‘what they would say next.’ In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. PMID:25770870

  18. A Multi-Level Approach to Predicting Community Addiction Treatment Attitudes About Contingency Management

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan; Donovan, Dennis; Tillotson, Carrie; Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange; Doyle, Suzanne; McCarty, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Adoption of contingency management (CM) by the addiction treatment community is limited to date despite much evidence for its efficacy. This study examined systemic and idiographic staff predictors of CM adoption attitudes via archival data collected from treatment organizations affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Multilevel modeling analyses evaluated potential predictors from organizational, treatment unit, and workforce surveys. Among these were individual and shared perceptions of staff concerning aspects of their clinic culture and climate. Modeling analyses identified three systemic predictors (clinic provision of opiate agonist services, national accreditation, lesser shared perception of workplace stress) and five idiographic predictors (staff with a graduate degree, longer service tenure, managerial position, e-communication facility, and openness to change in clinical procedures). Findings are discussed as they relate to extant literature on CM attitudes and established implementation science constructs, and their practical implications are discussed. PMID:22138199

  19. Contingency management is efficacious in opioid-dependent outpatients not maintained on agonist pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2013-12-01

    Contingency management (CM) is an empirically supported intervention for substance dependence, but it has not been evaluated systematically in non maintained opioid-dependent patients. This retrospective analysis examined whether CM was effective in opioid-dependent patients initiating intensive outpatient psychosocial treatment. In the primary trial (Petry, N. M., Weinstock, J., & Alessi, S. M. [2011]. A randomized trial of contingency management delivered in the context of group counseling. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79, 686-696), substance-abusing patients (n = 239) at two community-based clinics were randomized to standard care (SC) or SC with CM for 12 weeks; in the CM condition, patients earned opportunities to win prizes for attending treatment and submitting drug-negative samples. For this analysis, patients were further classified as non-opioid-dependent (n = 159), opioid-dependent and not receiving maintenance therapy (n = 33), or opioid-dependent and on methadone or Suboxone maintenance therapy (n = 47). Main effects of opioid dependence/maintenance status, treatment condition, and their interaction were evaluated with respect to attendance and abstinence outcomes. Opioid-dependent patients receiving maintenance pharmacotherapy attended treatment on fewer days and achieved less abstinence than their opioid-dependent counterparts who were not on opioid agonist therapy, with Cohen's d effect sizes of 0.63 and 0.61 for attendance and abstinence outcomes, respectively. Nonmaintained opioid-dependent patients evidenced similar outcomes as substance abusing patients who were not opioid-dependent. CM also improved retention and abstinence (d = .26 and .40, respectively), with no interaction effects with opioid dependence/maintenance status noted. These data suggest that CM may be an effective psychosocial intervention potentially suitable for the growing population of opioid-dependent patients, including those not receiving maintenance

  20. A Group Contingency plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study.…

  1. Developing a Measure of Therapist Adherence to Contingency Management: An Application of the Many-Facet Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Jason E.; Sheidow, Ashli J.; Henggeler, Scott W.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.

    2008-01-01

    A unique application of the Many-Facet Rasch Model (MFRM) is introduced as the preferred method for evaluating the psychometric properties of a measure of therapist adherence to Contingency Management (CM) treatment of adolescent substance use. The utility of psychometric methods based in Classical Test Theory was limited by complexities of the…

  2. Meta-Analysis of Day Treatment and Contingency-Management Dismantling Research: Birmingham Homeless Cocaine Studies (1990-2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Joseph E.; Milby, Jesse B.; Wallace, Dennis; Meehan, Dawna-Cricket; Kertesz, Stefan; Vuchinich, Rudy; Dunning, Jonathan; Usdan, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Four successive randomized clinical trials studying contingency management (CM), involving various treatment arms of drug-abstinent housing and work therapy and day treatment (DT) with a behavioral component, were compared on common drug abstinence outcomes at 2 treatment completion points (2 and 6 months). The clinical trials were conducted from…

  3. Effect of Reinforcement Probability and Prize Size on Cocaine and Heroin Abstinence in Prize-Based Contingency Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2008-01-01

    Although treatment outcome in prize-based contingency management has been shown to depend on reinforcement schedule, the optimal schedule is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (Ghitza et al., 2007) to determine the effects of the probability of winning a prize (low vs. high) and…

  4. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  5. A Comparison of Five Reinforcement Schedules for Use in Contingency Management-Based Treatment of Methamphetamine Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.; Huber, Alice; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Chudzynski, Joy E.; Moynier, Eugene; Shoptaw, Steve

    2006-01-01

    One variation of contingency management involves providing vouchers with monetary value for the provision of a biological sample indicating no recent drug use. These vouchers can be exchanged for goods or services. The schedule with which the vouchers are disbursed has been studied and results suggest that those schedules that incorporate…

  6. Contingent observation: an effective and acceptable procedure for reducing disruptive behavior of young children in a group setting.

    PubMed Central

    Porterfield, J K; Herbert-Jackson, E; Risley, T R

    1976-01-01

    Since a major task of childhood is learning to get along in a group without disrupting other children's activities, caregivers need explicit guidelines for gentle but effective procedures for dealing with disruptive behaviors in child-care settings. In a day-care center for normal 1- and 2-yr.-old children, an effort was made to develop a procedure that appeared sufficiently humane and educational to be acceptable to parents and day-care workers, and yet effective in reducing disruptive play behaviors. Caregivers used the occasion of disruptive behavior to instruct the child in appropriate alternatives, then had the child sit on the periphery and observe the appropriate social behavior of the other children "sit and watch", for a brief period before inviting him or her to rejoin the play activities. The effectiveness of this procedure was compared with a method commonly recommended for the use with young children: instructing the child, then distracting or redirecting the child to an alternative toy or activity. Contingent observation, combining instruction with a brief timeout (from being a participant in an activity to becoming an observer of the activity), proved considerably more effective in maintaining low levels of disruptions and was considered by caregivers and parents to be an appropriate and socially acceptable method of dealing with young children's disruptive behaviors. Therefore, contingent observation can be recommended for general use in day-care programs for young children. PMID:1254542

  7. Disseminating contingency management: Impacts of staff training and implementation at an opiate treatment program

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan; Jackson, T. Ron; Jones, Brinn E.; Beadnell, Blair; Calsyn, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    Guided by a comprehensive implementation model, this study examined training/implementation processes for a tailored contingency management (CM) intervention instituted at a Clinical Trials Network-affiliate opioid treatment program (OTP). Staff-level training outcomes (intervention delivery skill, knowledge, and adoption readiness) were assessed before and after a 16-hour training, and again following a 90-day trial implementation period. Management-level implementation outcomes (intervention cost, feasibility, and sustainability) were assessed at study conclusion in a qualitative interview with OTP management. Intervention effectiveness was also assessed via independent chart review of trial CM implementation vs. a historical control period. Results included: 1) robust, durable increases in delivery skill, knowledge, and adoption readiness among trained staff; 2) positive managerial perspectives of intervention cost, feasibility, and sustainability; and 3) significant clinical impacts on targeted patient indices. Collective results offer support for the study’s collaborative intervention design and the applied, skills-based focus of staff training processes. Implications for CM dissemination are discussed. PMID:24462242

  8. Implementing the Contingent Valuation Method for supporting decision making in the waste management sector.

    PubMed

    Gaglias, A; Mirasgedis, S; Tourkolias, C; Georgopoulou, E

    2016-07-01

    This study presents an application of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) for valuing the environmental impacts associated with the operation of landfills for residues following waste treatment and depicts how the results of the analysis can be used for decision making in the field of waste management. The survey was conducted in Ikaria, Greece, a medium-sized island in the northern Aegean Sea, with a view to estimate the amount of compensatory benefits that are socially acceptable to be attributed to the hosting community of a new landfill for residues. The results showed that the mean willingness to pay per household to create a fund for financing social and environmental programs in the community that will host the landfill in question was estimated at €6.5-6.7 per 2-month and household taking into account all households of the sample. This estimate is at the same order of magnitude but at the lower band compared to the results of other relevant studies showing that the public in Ikaria is aware for the relatively limited environmental burdens associated with the operation of landfills for residues following an integrated waste management treatment. PMID:27114113

  9. Contingency management improves outcomes in cocaine-dependent outpatients with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Gloria; Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio

    2013-12-01

    Despite depressive symptoms being very common among patients seeking treatment for cocaine dependence, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on cocaine outpatient treatment outcomes, and there is even less research in the context of Contingency Management (CM). The purpose of this study was to assess the main and interactive effects of co-occurring depressive symptoms on CM outcomes. Cocaine-dependent individuals (N = 108) were randomized to Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) or CRA plus CM in two outpatient community clinical settings. Participants were categorized according to depression symptoms, self-reported by means of the BDI at treatment entry. Outcome measures included treatment retention and documented cocaine abstinence over a 6-month treatment period. Depressive symptoms were more commonly found in females and in unemployed participants, and were associated with more drug-related, social, and psychiatric problems at treatment entry. Individuals with baseline depressive symptoms had poorer treatment outcomes than patients without depressive symptoms. The addition of CM to CRA made the program more effective than with CRA alone, regardless of depressive symptoms. CM was associated with better abstinence treatment outcomes, while the interaction between unemployment and depressive symptoms was associated with negative retention treatment outcomes. This study supports the efficacy of CM for cocaine-dependent outpatients with and without depressive symptoms, and highlights its importance for improving treatment for unemployed and depressed cocaine-dependent individuals.

  10. Lost in translation? Moving contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy into clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    In the treatment of addictions, the gap between the availability of evidence-based therapies and their limited implementation in practice has not yet been bridged. Two empirically validated behavioral therapies, contingency management (CM) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), exemplify this challenge. Both have a relatively strong level of empirical support but each has weak and uneven adoption in clinical practice. This review highlights examples of how barriers to their implementation in practice have been addressed systematically, using the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development as an organizing framework. For CM, barriers such as cost and ideology have been addressed through the development of lower-cost and other adaptations to make it more community-friendly. For CBT, barriers such as relative complexity, lack of trained providers and need for supervision have been addressed via conversion to standardized computer-assisted versions that can serve as clinician extenders. Although these and other modifications have rendered both interventions more disseminable, diffusion of innovation remains a complex, often unpredictable process. The existing specialty addiction treatment system may require significant reforms to fully implement CBT and CM, particularly greater focus on definable treatment goals and performance-based outcomes. PMID:25204847

  11. Contingency Management Treatments are Equally Efficacious for Both Sexes in Intensive Outpatient Settings

    PubMed Central

    Rash, Carla J.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Clear differences are present in men and women’s developmental course of substance use disorders. Whether these sex differences impact substance abuse treatment outcomes is less apparent. The present study investigated sex differences in demographic and intake characteristics and assessed sex, treatment condition, and interactive effects on three treatment outcomes: treatment retention, longest duration of abstinence (LDA), and percent negative samples submitted. Participants (N = 920) were randomized to contingency management (CM) for abstinence or standard care treatment in one of five clinical trials. In terms of pre-treatment characteristics, women reported lower educational achievement and more unemployment, were younger and more likely to submit a positive urine sample at intake, and experienced more problems in employment, drug, family, and psychiatric domains. Men reported more years of alcohol use and significantly higher alcohol and legal problem severity. Men and women stayed in treatment for similar durations of time and had similar abstinence outcomes. No significant sex by treatment condition interactions were present across the three outcomes. These results suggest treatment-seeking substance users in intensive-outpatient settings benefit equally well from CM interventions, regardless of sex. PMID:26167714

  12. Lost in translation? Moving contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Kathleen M

    2014-10-01

    In the treatment of addictions, the gap between the availability of evidence-based therapies and their limited implementation in practice has not yet been bridged. Two empirically validated behavioral therapies, contingency management (CM) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), exemplify this challenge. Both have a relatively strong level of empirical support but each has weak and uneven adoption in clinical practice. This review highlights examples of how barriers to their implementation in practice have been addressed systematically, using the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development as an organizing framework. For CM, barriers such as cost and ideology have been addressed through the development of lower-cost and other adaptations to make it more community friendly. For CBT, barriers such as relative complexity, lack of trained providers, and need for supervision have been addressed via conversion to standardized computer-assisted versions that can serve as clinician extenders. Although these and other modifications have rendered both interventions more disseminable, diffusion of innovation remains a complex, often unpredictable process. The existing specialty addiction-treatment system may require significant reforms to fully implement CBT and CM, particularly greater focus on definable treatment goals and performance-based outcomes.

  13. Is exposure to an effective contingency management intervention associated with more positive provider beliefs?

    PubMed

    Kirby, Kimberly C; Carpenedo, Carolyn M; Stitzer, Maxine L; Dugosh, Karen L; Petry, Nancy M; Roll, John M; Saladin, Michael E; Cohen, Allan J; Hamilton, John; Reese, Karen; Sillo, Gina R; Stabile, Patricia Quinn; Sterling, Robert C

    2012-06-01

    This study empirically examined opinions of treatment providers regarding contingency management (CM) programs while controlling for experience with a specific efficacious CM program. In addition to empirically describing provider opinions, we examined whether the opinions of providers at the sites that implemented the CM program were more positive than those of matched providers at sites that did not implement it. Participants from 7 CM treatment sites (n = 76) and 7 matched nonparticipating sites (n = 69) within the same nodes of the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network completed the Provider Survey of Incentives (PSI), which assesses positive and negative beliefs about incentive programs. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences in the PSI summary scores of providers in CM program versus matched sites, but correcting for experience with tangible incentives showed significant differences, with providers from CM sites reporting more positive opinions than those from matched sites. Some differences were found in opinions regarding costs of incentives, and these generally indicated that participants from CM sites were more likely to see the costs as worthwhile. The results from the study suggest that exposing community treatment providers to incentive programs may itself be an effective strategy in prompting the dissemination of CM interventions.

  14. Is Exposure to an Effective Contingency Management Intervention Associated with More Positive Provider Beliefs?

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Carpenedo, Carolyn M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Petry, Nancy M.; Roll, John M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Cohen, Allan J.; Hamilton, John; Reese, Karen; Sillo, Gina R.; Stabile, Patricia Quinn; Sterling, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically examined opinions of treatment providers regarding Contingency Management (CM) programs while controlling for experience with a specific efficacious CM program. In addition to empirically describing provider opinions, we examined whether the opinions of providers at the sites that implemented the CM program were more positive than those of matched providers at sites that did not implement it. Participants from 7 CM treatment sites (n = 76) and 7 matched non-participating sites (n = 69) within the same nodes of NIDA's Clinical Trials Network completed the Provider Survey of Incentives (PSI), which assesses positive and negative beliefs about incentive programs. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences in the PSI summary scores of providers in CM program vs. matched sites, but correcting for experience with tangible incentives showed significant differences, with providers from CM sites reporting more positive opinions than those from matched sites. Some differences were found in opinions regarding costs of incentives and these generally indicated that participants from CM sites were more likely to see the costs as worthwhile. The results from the study suggest that exposing community treatment providers to incentive programs may itself be an effective strategy in prompting the dissemination of CM interventions. PMID:22116009

  15. Amount of earnings during prize contingency management treatment is associated with posttreatment abstinence outcomes.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Roll, John M

    2011-12-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine-abusing methadone-maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self-reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence, such as pretreatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM.

  16. A Remotely-Delivered CBT and Contingency Management Therapy for Substance Using People with HIV.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brent A; Rosen, Marc I; Wang, Yan; Shen, Jie; Ablondi, Karen; Sullivan, Anna; Guerrero, Mario; Siqueiros, Lisa; Daar, Eric S; Liu, Honghu

    2015-06-01

    Substance using HIV patients are at risk for non-adherence, and most prior interventions in this population have had only modest effects on adherence. Contingency management (CM) is a promising intervention. The Centralized Off-site Adherence Enhancement (CARE) program involved 12 telephone-delivered substance and adherence-targeted cognitive behavior therapy sessions coupled with CM for adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and counseling participation. CM involved 6 weeks of escalating reinforcement for taking prescribed doses followed by 6 weeks of tapering variable rate reinforcement, and separate reinforcement for counseling ($806 possible). Participants' adherence was measured by devices which wirelessly provided real-time notification of device-opening. HIV infected patients on ART (N = 10) with recent stimulant or alcohol use completed 10.2 of 12 possible telephone sessions, spent 42.8 min/call, and rated the counseling 6.2 on a 1-7 scale. Medication adherence improved from 81 to 93 % (p = 0.04). CARE appears to be acceptable and engaging.

  17. Amount of earnings during prize contingency management treatment is associated with post-treatment abstinence outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Roll, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine abusing methadone maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence such as pre-treatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM. PMID:21707189

  18. Efficacy of contingency management for cocaine dependence treatment: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Schierenberg, Alwin; van Amsterdam, Jan; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anna E

    2012-12-01

    Cocaine dependence causes serious individual and social harm and a considerable proportion of substance related treatment capacity is devoted to cocaine dependent persons. In the absence of approved pharmacotherapies, other treatments for cocaine dependence should be explored. In this review, the efficacy of Contingency Management (CM), a promising behavior therapy using operant conditioning, is evaluated for the treatment of cocaine dependence. A systematic evaluation of 19 studies with a total of 1,664 patients showed that CM - in combination with standard cognitive behavioral or other psychological interventions - (1) increases cocaine abstinence, (2) improves treatment retention during and after group-based or individual psychological treatment, (3) is of benefit in pharmacotherapy trials, and (4) that CM may act synergistically with pharmacotherapy. This suggests that CM is a promising add-on intervention for cocaine dependence treatment. Therefore, it is advocated to include CM in standard treatment programs for cocaine dependence and future pharmacotherapy research. Future larger studies are deemed necessary to replicate these promising results, now often lacking statistical significance.

  19. Individual characteristics and response to Contingency Management treatment for cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Gloria; Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Alvarez-López, Heli; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio

    2011-02-01

    Voucher-based contingency management (CM) research has demonstrated efficacy for treating cocaine addiction, but few studies have examined associations between individual baseline characteristics and response to CM treatments. The aim of this study, involving 50 cocaine outpatients receiving CM for cocaine addiction, was to assess the impact of baseline characteristics on abstinence outcomes after six months of treatment. Patients who were abstinent after six months of treatment accounted for 58% of the sample. Patients with higher scores on the Alcohol area of the EuropASI and patients that were non-abstinent during the first month of treatment were less likely to achieve abstinence. These outcome predictors have implications both for treatment research and for clinical practice. Patients who do not respond early to treatment may need a more intensive intervention, and concomitant problematic alcohol use should be detected and treated. The remaining baseline variables examined were not statistically significant predictors of abstinence. This finding is important for the generalizability of CM across the range of individual characteristics of treatment-seeking cocaine abusers.

  20. Hypothetical intertemporal choice and real economic behavior: delay discounting predicts voucher redemptions during contingency-management procedures.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Warren K; Jones, Bryan A; Landes, Reid D; Christensen, Darren R; Jackson, Lisa; Mancino, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Delay discounting rates are predictive of drug use status, the likelihood of becoming abstinent, and a variety of health behaviors. Rates of delay discounting may also be related to other relevant behaviors associated with addiction, such as the frequency at which individuals redeem contingency management voucher earnings. This study examined the discounting rates of 152 participants in a buprenorphine treatment program for opioid abuse. Participants received up to 12 weeks of buprenorphine treatment combined with contingency management. Participant's drug use was measured via urine specimens submitted three times a week. Successive negative urine specimens were reinforced with increasing amounts of money. After each negative urine specimen, a participant could either redeem his or her earnings or accumulate it in an account. Analysis of the frequency of redemptions showed that participants with higher rates of delay discounting at study intake redeemed their earnings significantly more often than participants with lower rates of discounting. Age and income also predicted redemption rates. We suggest that delay discounting rates can be used to predict redemption behaviors in a contingency management treatment program and that these findings are consistent with the recent theory of the competing neurobehavioral decision systems.

  1. Hypothetical Intertemporal Choice and Real Economic Behavior: Delay Discounting Predicts Voucher Redemptions During Contingency-Management Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Warren K.; Jones, Bryan A.; Landes, Reid D.; Christensen, Darren R.; Jackson, Lisa; Mancino, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting rates are predictive of drug use status, the likelihood of becoming abstinent, and a variety of health behaviors. Rates of delay discounting may also be related to other relevant behaviors associated with addiction, such as the frequency at which individuals redeem contingency management voucher earnings. This study examined the discounting rates of 152 participants in a buprenorphine treatment program for opioid abuse. Participants received up to 12 weeks of buprenorphine treatment combined with contingency management. Participant’s drug use was measured via urine specimens submitted 3 times a week. Successive negative urine specimens were reinforced with increasing amounts of money. After each negative urine specimen, a participant could either redeem his or her earnings or accumulate it in an account. Analysis of the frequency of redemptions showed that participants with higher rates of delay discounting at study intake redeemed their earnings significantly more often than participants with lower rates of discounting. Age and income also predicted redemption rates. We suggest that delay discounting rates can be used to predict redemption behaviors in a contingency management treatment program and that these findings are consistent with the recent theory of the competing neurobehavioral decision systems. PMID:21186929

  2. Reducing Absenteeism and Rescheduling among Grocery Store Employees with Point-Contingent Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camden, Matt C.; Price, Virginia A.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a reward program designed to reduce absenteeism among staff (N = 38) at a grocery store. The intervention included public feedback and a credit reward system whereby participants got store dollars for attendance and authorized rescheduling of work assignments. Results showed that absenteeism decreased…

  3. Contingent Valuation and Pharmacists' Acceptable Levels of Compensation for Medication Therapy Management Services

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Hong, Song Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background Pharmacists' acceptable level of compensation for medication therapy management (MTM) services needs to be determined using various economic evaluation techniques. Objectives Using contingent valuation method, determine pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for MTM services. Methods A mailing survey was used to elicit Tennessee (US) pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for a 30-minute MTM session for a new patient with 2 medical conditions, 8 medications, and an annual drug cost of $2,000. Three versions of a series of double-bounded, closed-ended, binary discrete choice questions were asked of pharmacists for their willingness-to-accept (WTA) for an original monetary value ($30, $60, or $90) and then follow-up higher or lower value depending on their responses to the original value. A Kaplan-Meier approach was taken to analyze pharmacists' WTA, and Cox's proportional hazards model was used to examine the effects of pharmacist characteristics on their WTA. Results Three hundred and forty-eight pharmacists responded to the survey. Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session had a mean of $63.31 and median of $60. The proportions of pharmacists willing to accept $30, $60, and $90 for the given MTM session were 30.61%, 85.19%, and 91.01%, respectively. Pharmacists' characteristics had statistically significant association with their WTA rates. Conclusions Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session is higher than current Medicare MTM programs' compensation levels of $15 to $50 and patients' willingness-to-pay of less than $40. Besides advocating for higher MTM compensation levels by third-party payers, pharmacists also may need to charge patients to reach sufficient compensation levels for MTM services. PMID:22436583

  4. Contingency management in substance abuse treatment: A structured review of the evidence for its transportability

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan; Lash, Steve; Roll, John

    2011-01-01

    Aims Extant literature on contingency management (CM) transportability, or its transition from academia to community practice, is reviewed. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR; Damschroder et al., 2009) guides the examination of this material. Methods PsychInfo and Medline database searches identified 27 publications, with reviewed reference lists garnering 22 others. These 49 sources were examined according to CFIR domains of the intervention, outer setting, inner setting, clinicians, and implementation processes. Results Intervention characteristics were focal in 59% of the identified literature, with less frequent focus on clinicians (34%), inner setting (32%), implementation processes (18%), and outer setting (8%). As intervention characteristics, adaptability and trialability most facilitate transportability whereas non-clinical origin, perceived inefficacy or disadvantages, and costs are impediments. Clinicians with a managerial focus and greater clinic tenure and CM experience are candidates to curry organizational readiness for implementation, and combat staff disinterest or philosophical objection. A clinic’s technology comfort, staff continuity, and leadership advocacy are inner setting characteristics that prompt effective implementation. Implementation processes in successful demonstration projects include careful fiscal/logistical planning, role-specific staff engagement, practical adaptation in execution, and evaluation via fidelity-monitoring and cost-effectiveness analyses. Outer setting characteristics—like economic policies and inter-agency networking or competition—are salient, often unrecognized influences. Conclusions As most implementation constructs are still moving targets, CM transportability is in its infancy and warrants further scientific attention. More effective dissemination may necessitate that future research weight emphasis on external validity, and utilize models of implementation science. PMID

  5. A Randomized Investigation of Methadone Doses at or Over 100 mg/day, Combined with Contingency Management*

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ashley P.; Phillips, Karran A.; Epstein, David H.; Reamer, Dave; Schmittner, John; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Methadone maintenance for heroin dependence reduces illicit drug use, crime, HIV risk, and death. Typical dosages have increased over the past few years, based on strong experimental and clinical evidence that dosages under 60 mg/day are inadequate and that dosages closer to 100 mg/day produce better outcomes. However, there is little experimental evidence for the benefits of exceeding 100 mg/day, or for individualizing methadone dosages. We sought to provide such evidence. METHODS We combined individualized methadone dosages over 100 mg/day with voucher-based cocaine-targeted contingency management (CM) in 58 heroin- and cocaine-dependent outpatients. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a fixed dose increase from 70 mg/day to 100 mg/day, or to be eligible for further dose increases (up to 190 mg/day, based on withdrawal symptoms, craving, and continued heroin use). All dosing was double-blind. The main outcome measure was simultaneous abstinence from heroin and cocaine. RESULTS We stopped the study early due to slow accrual. Cocaine-targeted CM worked as expected to reduce cocaine use. Polydrug use (effect-size h = .30) and heroin craving (effect-size d = .87) were significantly greater in the flexible/high-dose condition than in the fixed-dose condition, with no trend toward lower heroin use in the flexible/high-dose participants. CONCLUSIONS Under double-blind conditions, dosages of methadone over 100 mg/day, even when prescribed based on specific signs and symptoms, were not better than 100 mg/day. This counterintuitive finding requires replication, but supports the need for additional controlled studies of high-dose methadone. PMID:23195924

  6. Multi-Component Smoking Cessation Treatment including Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation in Homeless Veteran Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Vickie L.; Hertzberg, Jeffrey S.; Kirby, Angela C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Moore, Scott D.; Dennis, Michelle F.; Dennis, Paul A.; Dedert, Eric A.; Hair, Lauren P.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking rates are 80% among persons who are homeless, and these smokers have decreased odds of quitting smoking. Little is known about relapse rates among homeless smokers, but the dearth of research indicates that more information regarding quit rates in this population is needed. Furthermore, innovative methods are needed to treat smoking cessation among homeless smokers. Web-based contingency management (CM) approaches have been found helpful in reducing smoking among other difficult-to-treat smoker populations but have been generally limited by the need for computers or frequent clinic based carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. This pilot study builds on a web-based CM approach by evaluating a smart phone based application for CM named mobile CM (mCM). Methods Following a one-week training period, 20 homeless veteran smokers participated in a multi-component smoking cessation intervention including 4 weeks of mCM. All smokers received 4 smoking cessation counseling sessions, nicotine replacement and bupropion (if medically eligible). Participants could earn up to $815 ($480 for mCM, $100 for CO readings showing abstinence at posttreatment and follow up, and $35 for equipment return). Mean compensation for the mCM component was $286 of a possible $480. Results Video transmission compliance was high during the one-week training (97%) and the four-week treatment period (87%). Bioverified 7-day point prevalence abstinence was 50% at four weeks. Follow up bioverified single assessment point prevalence abstinence was 65% at three months and 60% at six months. Conclusions mCM may be a useful adjunctive smoking cessation treatment component for reducing smoking among homeless smokers. PMID:25699616

  7. Temporal contingency.

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior.

  8. Temporal contingency.

    PubMed

    Gallistel, C R; Craig, Andrew R; Shahan, Timothy A

    2014-01-01

    Contingency, and more particularly temporal contingency, has often figured in thinking about the nature of learning. However, it has never been formally defined in such a way as to make it a measure that can be applied to most animal learning protocols. We use elementary information theory to define contingency in such a way as to make it a measurable property of almost any conditioning protocol. We discuss how making it a measurable construct enables the exploration of the role of different contingencies in the acquisition and performance of classically and operantly conditioned behavior. PMID:23994260

  9. Response Cost and Reinforcement Contingencies of Managing the Behavior of Distractible Children in Tutorial Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindelar, Paul T.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Investigated were the effects of differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO) and response cost (RC) on the attending behavior of a learning disabled (LD) 7-year-old and a behavior disordered 10-year-old. The differential effects of the DRO contingency in the two case studies were attributed to differences in the reinforcement schedules.…

  10. Resurgence of instrumental behavior after an abstinence contingency.

    PubMed

    Bouton, Mark E; Schepers, Scott T

    2014-06-01

    In resurgence, an extinguished instrumental behavior (R1) recovers when a behavior that has replaced it (R2) is also extinguished. The phenomenon may be relevant to understanding relapse that can occur after the termination of "contingency management" treatments, in which an unwanted behavior (e.g., substance abuse) is reduced by reinforcing an alternative behavior. When reinforcement is discontinued, the unwanted behavior might resurge. However, unlike most resurgence experiments, contingency management treatments also introduce a negative contingency, in which reinforcers are not delivered unless the client has abstained from the unwanted behavior. In two experiments with rats, we therefore examined the effects of adding a negative "abstinence" contingency to the resurgence design. During response elimination, R2 was not reinforced unless R1 had not been emitted for a minimum period of time (45, 90, or 135 s). In both experiments, adding such a contingency to simple R1 extinction reduced, but did not eliminate, resurgence. In Experiment 2, we found the same effect in a yoked group that could earn reinforcers for R2 at the same points in time as the negative-contingency group, but without the requirement to abstain from R1. Thus, the negative contingency per se did not contribute to the reduction in resurgence. These results suggest that the contingency reduced resurgence by making reinforcers more difficult to earn and more widely spaced in time. This could have allowed the animal to learn that R1 was extinguished in the "context" of infrequent reinforcement-a context more like that of resurgence testing. The results are thus consistent with a contextual (renewal) account of resurgence. The method might provide a better model of relapse after termination of a contingency management treatment. PMID:24366673

  11. A pilot study of low-cost contingency management to increase attendance in an adolescent substance abuse program.

    PubMed

    Branson, Christopher E; Barbuti, Anna Maria; Clemmey, Philip; Herman, Lisa; Bhutia, Phintso

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate the efficacy of contingency management (CM) for improving patient outcomes, yet it is rarely used in treatment settings due to the high cost of implementation. This quasi-experimental study (N = 52) examined the effect of a low-cost "Fishbowl" CM intervention on attendance/retention in an early intervention adolescent substance abuse program. The CM group attended significantly more sessions compared to the control group. Furthermore, the CM intervention costs $3.27 per patient per session. Our findings support the use of low-cost CM to improve adolescent attendance in clinical settings.

  12. Collegiate contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Lamal, P. A.; Rakos, Richard F.; Greenspoon, Joel

    2000-01-01

    We discuss contemporary trends and developments that affect colleges and universities and describe several central contingencies that have given rise to, maintain, and operate in response to these trends and developments. We identify the differential impacts of these contingencies on faculty, students, and administrators in various types of higher education institutions. These contingencies are sources of conflict between and among these three groups within the academy that, we argue, cause significant instability in contemporary academe. We discuss prominent domains of this dis-equilibrium and propose several general interventions to address the sources of the instability. PMID:22478348

  13. Lifetime Substance Use and HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors Predict Treatment Response to Contingency Management among Homeless, Substance-dependent MSM

    PubMed Central

    Reback, Cathy J; Peck, James A; Fletcher, Jesse B.; Nuno, Miriam; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri

    2016-01-01

    Homeless, substance-dependent MSM continue to suffer health disparities, including high rates of HIV. One-hundred and thirty one homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men (MSM) were randomized into a contingency management (CM) intervention to increase substance abstinence and health-promoting behaviors. Participants were recruited from a community-based, health education/risk reduction HIV prevention program and the research activities were also conducted at the community site. Secondary analyses were conducted to identify and characterize treatment responders (defined as participants in a contingency management intervention who scored at or above the median on three primary outcomes). Treatment responders were more likely to be Caucasian/white (p < .05); reported fewer years of lifetime methamphetamine, cocaine, and polysubstance use (p ≤ .05); and reported more recent sexual partners and high-risk sexual behaviors than non-responders (p < .05). The application of evidence-based interventions continues to be a public health priority, especially in the effort to implement effective interventions for use in community settings. The identification of both treatment responders and non-responders is important for intervention development tailored to specific populations, both in service programs and research studies, to optimize outcomes among highly impacted populations. PMID:22880545

  14. Lifetime substance use and HIV sexual risk behaviors predict treatment response to contingency management among homeless, substance-dependent MSM.

    PubMed

    Reback, Cathy J; Peck, James A; Fletcher, Jesse B; Nuno, Miriam; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri

    2012-01-01

    Homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to suffer health disparities, including high rates of HIV. One-hundred and thirty one homeless, substance-dependent MSM were randomized into a contingency management (CM) intervention to increase substance abstinence and health-promoting behaviors. Participants were recruited from a community-based, health education/risk reduction HIV prevention program and the research activities were also conducted at the community site. Secondary analyses were conducted to identify and characterize treatment responders (defined as participants in a contingency management intervention who scored at or above the median on three primary outcomes). Treatment responders were more likely to be Caucasian/White (p < .05), report fewer years of lifetime methamphetamine, cocaine, and polysubstance use (p < or = .05), and report more recent sexual partners and high-risk sexual behaviors than nonresponders (p < .05). The application of evidence-based interventions continues to be a public health priority, especially in the effort to implement effective interventions for use in community settings. The identification of both treatment responders and nonresponders is important for intervention development tailored to specific populations, both in service programs and research studies, to optimize outcomes among highly impacted populations.

  15. Reducing the risk, managing safety.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Fire safety in healthcare premises has always been a challenge to those that discharge this duty. Statutory compliance should be a matter of course, but in an ever increasingly challenged NHS, even this is not a given. While the NHS is driven by managing very complex risk to deliver cutting edge healthcare, providers cannot be risk averse. Which risk, however, takes priority? Here Peter Aldridge, fire and corporate services manager at Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, and Secretary to the National Association of Healthcare Fire Officers (NAHFO)--which will this month and next jointly stage fire safety seminars with IHEEM; see page 8--considers the key issues, with input from a fire officer at a leading mental health and community Trust. PMID:27017658

  16. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students’ Class-Work and Active Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students’ reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement. PMID:26617432

  17. RCRA hazardous waste contingency plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, T.P. )

    1991-10-01

    This paper reports that the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requires hazardous waste treatment, storage and disposal facilities (TSDFs) to prepare a contingency plan. The plan is a blueprint for emergency response, and must be designed to minimize health and environmental hazards resulting from fires, explosions or other unplanned hazardous releases. Hazardous waste contingency plans often are neglected and considered an unnecessary regulatory exercise by facility operators. However, an effective contingency plan is a valuable tool for reducing liability, protecting workers and the community, and avoiding costly shutdowns. The requirement under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) that regulated facilities report to EPA annually on releases to the environment has caused regulators to renew emphasis on the importance of RCRA contingency plans. However, regulatory agencies historically have provided insufficient information on the elements of an adequate contingency plan. Nevertheless, facility operators seriously should consider going beyond minimum regulatory requirements and create a comprehensive contingency plan.

  18. Analysis of integrated healthcare networks' performance: a contingency-strategic management perspective.

    PubMed

    Lin, B Y; Wan, T T

    1999-12-01

    Few empirical analyses have been done in the organizational researches of integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) or integrated healthcare delivery systems. Using a contingency derived contact-process-performance model, this study attempts to explore the relationships among an IHN's strategic direction, structural design, and performance. A cross-sectional analysis of 100 IHNs suggests that certain contextual factors such as market competition and network age and tax status have statistically significant effects on the implementation of an IHN's service differentiation strategy, which addresses coordination and control in the market. An IHN's service differentiation strategy is positively related to its integrated structural design, which is characterized as integration of administration, patient care, and information system across different settings. However, no evidence supports that the development of integrated structural design may benefit an IHN's performance in terms of clinical efficiency and financial viability.

  19. Contingency plan improvement for managing oil spills in the coastal waters of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2014-12-15

    The estimated risks of being impacted by oil spills in the coastal waters were used to improve the oil spill contingency plan of Thailand. Functional roles of local agencies are integrated into the plan. Intensive measures are suggested for the coastal provinces located in high-very high risk zones, whereas light and moderate measures are suggested for the coastal provinces located in low and moderate risk zones, respectively. The estimated percentage risks due to simulated oil slicks hitting the coast and/or important resources (PRoilspill) were used to guide the year-round water activities that should be carefully handled at a certain radius with a low-moderate PRoilspill, whereas they should be avoided at a certain radius with a high-very high PRoilspill. Important measures before, during, and post periods of an oil spill incident are suggested to prevent and monitor oil spill incidents and mitigate their impacts on the environment.

  20. Behavioral covariation in the treatment of delusional verbalization with contingency management.

    PubMed

    Burgio, L; Brown, K; Tice, L

    1985-06-01

    A 23-year-old female with the dual diagnosis of mild mental retardation and emotional disturbance was referred for treatment because of frequent disruptive outbursts. A brief inpatient behavior analysis suggested that delusional verbalization reliably preceded all other aberrant behaviors. Consequently treatment focused mainly on delusional verbalization; the additional aberrant behaviors were observed for behavioral covariation. The treatment package consisted of verbal instructions, modeling of appropriate eating behaviors, contingent verbal reprimand and a 2-min removal of food, and differential reinforcement of other behaviors. The design was a multiple baseline across settings. Results indicate a marked decrease in delusional verbalization in all settings, and, a correlated decrease for disruption, screaming, and out-of-seat behaviors.

  1. Community opioid treatment perspectives on contingency management: perceived feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability of social and financial incentives.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Bryan; Rabun, Carl

    2013-08-01

    Treatment community reluctance toward contingency management (CM) may be better understood by eliciting views of its feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability when social versus financial incentives are utilized. This mixed method study involved individual staff interviews representing three personnel tiers (an executive, clinical supervisor, and two front-line clinicians) at 16 opiate treatment programs. Interviews included Likert ratings of feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability of each incentive type, and content analysis of corresponding interviewee narrative. Multi-level modeling analyses indicated that social incentives were perceived more feasible, more effective, and more transportable than financial incentives, with results pervading personnel tier. Content analysis suggested that the more positive perception of social incentives was most often due to expected logistical advantages, positive impacts on patient quality-of-life, and philosophical congruence among staff. Weaker perception of financial incentives was most often influenced by concerns about costs, patient dissatisfaction, and staff philosophical incongruence. Implications for CM dissemination are discussed.

  2. Community opioid treatment perspectives on contingency management: Perceived feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability of social and financial incentives

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan; Rabun, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Treatment community reluctance toward contingency management (CM) may be better understood by eliciting views of its feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability when social vs. financial incentives are utilized. This mixed method study involved individual staff interviews representing three personnel tiers (an executive, clinical supervisor, and two front-line clinicians) at 16 opiate treatment programs. Interviews included Likert ratings of feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability of each incentive type, and content analysis of corresponding interviewee narrative. Multi-level modeling analyses indicated that social incentives were perceived more feasible, more effective, and more transportable than financial incentives, with results pervading personnel tier. Content analysis suggested the more positive perception of social incentives was most often due to expected logistical advantages, positive impacts on patient quality-of-life, and philosophical congruence among staff. Weaker perception of financial incentives was most often influenced by concerns about costs, patient dissatisfaction, and staff philosophical incongruence. Implications for CM dissemination are discussed. PMID:23506780

  3. Synthetic cannabinoids to avoid urine drug screens: Implications for contingency management and other treatments for drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Ninnemann, Andrew L; Lechner, William V; Borges, Allison; Lejuez, C W

    2016-12-01

    Contingency management (CM) is an effective treatment for substance use dependence. Within CM, rewards or vouchers promote continued abstinence by acting as alternative reinforcers to substance use. However, CM relies on the use of accurate biochemical verification methods, such as urinalysis, to verify abstinence. Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) pose a risk for CM treatment because they are not easily detected by common urinalysis techniques. Although SCs pose a risk, there is limited information regarding current rates of SC use within substance dependent populations as well as rates of substance use and psychiatric disorders among those who use SCs in treatment. We discuss emerging research on these topics and potential implications for CM treatments. Findings suggest CM researchers should test for and query SC use among those being treated for cannabis and cocaine use problems as well as among younger populations of substance users. Implications of other novel psychoactive substances for drug treatment and drug urinalysis are also discussed. PMID:27424166

  4. Impact of behavioral contingency management intervention on coping behaviors and PTSD symptom reduction in cocaine-addicted homeless.

    PubMed

    Lester, Kristin M; Milby, Jesse B; Schumacher, Joseph E; Vuchinich, Rudolph; Person, Sharina; Clay, Olivio J

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes in posttrauma symptoms among 118 homeless cocaine-dependent adults participating in a randomly controlled trial studying effective treatments for dually diagnosed homeless individuals. Among those with trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms, the group receiving more behaviorally intensive, contingency management treatment had significantly greater reductions in PTSD symptomatology than did the group receiving less-intensive treatment. Regression analyses revealed that greater positive distraction coping and lower negative avoidance coping at baseline, in addition to changes in avoidance coping over the 6-month study period, were significantly related to greater symptom and severity reductions. The study provides some initial evidence of important treatment outcomes other than abstinence in addiction-related interventions.

  5. Resurgence of instrumental behavior after an abstinence contingency

    PubMed Central

    Bouton, Mark E.; Schepers, Scott T.

    2014-01-01

    In resurgence, an extinguished instrumental behavior (R1) recovers when a behavior that replaced it (R2) is also extinguished. The phenomenon may be relevant to understanding relapse that can occur after the termination of “contingency management” treatments, in which unwanted behavior (e.g., substance abuse) is reduced by reinforcing alternative behavior. When reinforcement is discontinued, the unwanted behavior might resurge. However, unlike most resurgence experiments, contingency management treatments also introduce a negative contingency in which reinforcers are not delivered unless the client has abstained from the unwanted behavior. Two experiments with rats therefore examined the effects of adding a negative “abstinence” contingency to the resurgence design. During response elimination, R2 was not reinforced unless R1 had not been emitted for a minimum period of time (45, 90, or 135 s). In both experiments, adding such a contingency to simple R1 extinction reduced, but did not eliminate, resurgence. Experiment 2 found the same effect in a yoked group that could earn reinforcers for R2 at the same points in time, but without the requirement to abstain from R1. Thus, the negative contingency per se did not contribute. Results suggest that the contingency reduced resurgence by making reinforcers more difficult to earn and more widely spaced in time. This could have allowed the animal to learn that R1 was extinguished in the “context” of infrequent reinforcement—a context more like that of resurgence testing. The results are thus consistent with a contextual (renewal) account of resurgence. The method might provide a better model of relapse after termination of a contingency management treatment. PMID:24366673

  6. An experiment in contingent valuation: Willingness to pay for stormwater management. [Homeowners in Baltimore County

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The contingent valuation (CV) method is a technique used frequently in benefit-cost analysis to estimate the economic value of non-market goods such as environmental quality. In CV, surveys are used to ask people about their willingness to pay for a good in a hypothetical market situation. In this application, homeowners in Baltimore County were asked about their willingness to pay (WTP) for programs to control pollutants in urban stormwater runoff designed to achieve, respectively, 4% and 1% reductions in nutrient loadings to the Chesapeake Bay. The main variation comprised alternate descriptions of the payment vehicle. Tests show that the mean WTP by means of property taxes does not differ significantly from mean WTP via user charges. This result was somewhat surprising because of other evidence that the respondents believe strongly that user charges are fairer than property taxes. A best estimate of the benefits to homeowners in Baltimore County of controlling nutrient loads for urban stormwater is from $1.2 to $4.2 million annually, depending on the reduction objective.

  7. Efficacy of contingency management in improving retention and compliance to methadone maintenance treatment: a random controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Haifeng; Du, Jiang; Wu, Fei; Wang, Zhaowei; Fan, Shujun; Li, Zhibin; Hser, Yih-Ing; Zhao, Min

    2012-01-01

    Background Compliance with methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in China is poor. Objective To evaluate the effects of adjunctive contingency management (CM) on the efficacy of methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in patients with opioid dependence. Hypothesis A 12-week prize-based contingency management (CM) intervention can increase the retention and compliance of heroin abusers to standardized MMT programs in Shanghai. Methods 160 heroin-dependent patients from three voluntary MMT clinics in Shanghai were randomly assigned to a treatment as usual group (MMT, n=80) and an intervention group (MMT+CM, n=80). Daily use of methadone was recorded and urine drug tests were conducted weekly during the first 12 weeks and then at week 16, week 20 and week 24. Results The 12-week retention rates for the intervention (MMT+CM) and treatment-as-usual (MMT) groups were both quite high: 87.5% and 86.2%, respectively. The average durations of using methadone in the two groups were equal (70 days versus 71 days, respectively). There was a non-significant increase in the mean longest drug-free period (7.4 weeks versus 6.5 weeks) and in the mean number of negative urine tests (7.9 versus 7.6). Secondary analysis of the 24-week outcomes (12 weeks after termination of the adjunctive CM treatment) also found no significant differences between the groups. Among those who remained in the program the severity of addiction as assessed by the Addiction Severity Index decreased dramatically over the 24 weeks but, again, there were no significant differences in the addiction measures between those in the intervention group and those in the treatment-as-usual group. Conclusion Prize-based CM is not effective in improving the retention and compliance of heroin abusers to MMT in Shanghai. The main reasons for failure to replicate western studies were the unexpectedly high baseline rates of compliance in this sample (86%) and the relatively weak financial incentives provided by the CM program

  8. The role of avoidance and inflexibility in characterizing response to contingency management for cocaine use disorders: A secondary profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Stotts, Angela L; Vujanovic, Anka; Heads, Angela; Suchting, Robert; Green, Charles E; Schmitz, Joy M

    2015-06-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a reinforcement-based approach that provides tangible rewards for objectively verified drug abstinence. CM is the most effective available behavioral intervention for cocaine use disorders; however, response to CM is variable, with significant rates of nonresponse. In the present investigation, we conducted a secondary profile analysis to identify potentially modifiable cognitive-affective characteristics associated with CM response (abstinence vs. continued use) preceding a pharmacotherapy trial for cocaine dependence. Ninety-nine cocaine-dependent, treatment-seeking adults participated in a 4-week baseline CM procedure using high-value vouchers for submission of cocaine-negative urines. Separate profiles for responders and the nonresponders were established using standardized mean scores on relevant pretreatment measures of negative affect, experiential avoidance, cocaine withdrawal/craving, and impulsivity. Results indicated no differences between responder subgroups on baseline levels of negative affect, withdrawal/craving, or impulsivity; however, CM nonresponders, relative to responders, reported significantly higher levels of avoidance and behavioral inflexibility (p < .01) in the context of distressing cocaine-related thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations. These data suggest that emotion regulation skills may serve as a therapeutic strategy for enhancing response to CM for cocaine use disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  9. Interaction effect of contingency management and sex on delay-discounting changes among treatment-seeking smokers.

    PubMed

    Weidberg, Sara; Landes, Reid D; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Yoon, Jin H; Secades-Villa, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Despite the potential influence of sex on delay-discounting rates, there is no previous evidence with regard to the effect of this variable on the clinical interventions aimed at modifying delay-discounting rates. This study assessed the effect of sex on the association between the type of treatment received (either cognitive-behavioral treatment [CBT] alone or combined with contingency management [CM + CBT]) and delay-discounting changes at end of treatment and 6-month follow-up. This aim was addressed after controlling for the influence of baseline delay discounting. Treatment-seeking smokers (N = 116) were randomly assigned to either CM + CBT (n = 69) or CBT alone (n = 47). Participants completed delay-discounting assessments at intake, at end of treatment, and at 6-month follow-up. Results showed that there was a significant interaction effect of treatment type and sex, such that women who received CM decreased their discounting more than women who did not. However, this effect was not found among men. Participants who discounted most at intake showed the greatest delay-discounting decreases. Lastly, smoking abstinence did not affect changes in delay discounting. The current results suggest that CM intervention may have a differential effect on delay-discounting changes as a function of sex. This finding supports the relevance of considering the effect of individual variables when assessing changes in delay discounting due to clinical interventions.

  10. Patients Undergoing Substance Abuse Treatment and Receiving Financial Assistance for a Physical Disability Respond Well to Contingency Management Treatment.

    PubMed

    Burch, Ashley E; Morasco, Benjamin J; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-11-01

    Physical illness and disability are common in individuals with substance use disorders, but little is known about the impact of physical disability status on substance use treatment outcomes. This study examined the main and interactive effects of physical disability payment status on substance use treatment. Participants (N = 1,013) were enrolled in one of six prior randomized clinical trials comparing contingency management (CM) to standard care; 79 (7.8%) participants reported receiving disability payments, CM improved all three primary substance use outcomes: treatment retention, percent negative samples and longest duration of abstinence. There was no significant main effect of physical disability payment status on treatment outcomes; however, a significant treatment condition by physical disability status interaction effect emerged in terms of retention in treatment and duration of abstinence achieved. Patients who were receiving physical disability payments responded particularly well to CM, and their time in treatment and durations of drug and alcohol abstinence increased even more markedly with CM than did that of their counterparts who were not receiving physical disability assistance. These findings suggest an objectively defined cohort of patients receiving substance use treatment who respond particularly well to CM.

  11. Lighting the darkness of addiction: can phototherapy enhance contingency-management-based treatment of substance-related and addictive disorders?

    PubMed

    Siporin, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    Maladaptive patterns of substance use are serious social problems. Both pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments are available, but nondrug options may be preferable because they avoid the expense and adverse side effects of psychotropic medication. Contingency management (CM) and nondrug social and recreational activities (NDSRAs) are based on operant conditioning principles and seek to decrease substance use by means of nondrug rewards. However, their efficacy may be hindered where brain reward circuitry is dysfunctional. Research shows that substance abuse biases neural reward systems in favor of drug-induced highs, while disrupting circadian-based rhythms. Circadian systems also have been found to influence human reward pathways. Possibly, a bidirectional relationship exists between circadian disturbance and substance abuse effects. If so, repair of abnormal circadian rhythms might help normalize reward response in substance abusers, with positive effects on CM or NDSRA treatment outcomes. Phototherapy has been effective in repairing circadian rhythms in persons with seasonal affective disorder and other chronobiological conditions. This article proposes that it similarly may repair circadian response in substance abusers, thereby normalizing brain reward systems. By doing so, it would enhance the efficacy of CM and NDSRA therapies and may also help prevent relapse. Given its low cost and ease of administration, phototherapy seems a promising avenue to pursue.

  12. Do PTSD Symptoms and Course Predict Continued Substance Use for Homeless Individuals in Contingency Management for Cocaine Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Michelle Nicole; Lehman, Kenneth A.; Milby, Jesse B.; Wallace, Dennis; Schumacher, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Homeless individuals (n = 187) entering contingency management (CM) for cocaine dependence were assessed for PTSD diagnosis, and a subset of 102 participants reporting traumatic exposure also periodically completed a self-report measure of PTSD symptoms. Patients with PTSD in full remission at 6 months (end of active treatment) and 12 months (end of aftercare) used substances much less frequently during aftercare than those with no PTSD diagnosis. Those whose PTSD diagnosis improved to full remission status during active treatment, and remained in full remission at 12 months, also had superior substance use outcomes. Severity of PTSD symptoms at 6 months, but not baseline or 2 months, was associated with substance use across treatment phases. Substance use during aftercare, however, was better predicted by changes in PTSD symptom severity. Patients whose PTSD symptoms improved more during active treatment fared better during aftercare than those with less improvement. Findings suggest homeless individuals with comorbid PTSD entering CM for cocaine dependence are not necessarily at increased risk for substance use compared to those without the comorbidity. However, course of PTSD does predict substance use, with the potential for CM to be unusually effective for those who respond with substantial, lasting improvements in PTSD. PMID:20363465

  13. Substance abuse treatment patients with early onset cocaine use respond as well to contingency management interventions as those with later onset cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Lindsay M; Petry, Nancy M

    2014-08-01

    Early onset drug use is associated with increased risk of developing substance use disorders, but relatively little is known about the correlates of early drug use among adults receiving treatment. A retrospective analysis of a randomized study of contingency management treatment compared cocaine-dependent patients who reported initial cocaine use at age 14 or younger (n = 41) to those who began using after age 14 (n = 387). Patients with early onset cocaine use had more legal and psychiatric problems than those who initiated cocaine use later. Patients with early-onset cocaine use also dropped out of treatment sooner and achieved less sustained abstinence than those who began using at older ages, but the interaction between age of first use and treatment condition was not significant. Early-onset cocaine use is associated with persistent psychosocial problems and an overall poor response to treatment. However, contingency management is efficacious in improving outcomes in early onset cocaine users.

  14. Who Needs Contingency Approaches and Guidelines in Order to Adapt Vague Management Ideas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortenblad, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to question the assumption that the general idea of the learning organisation needs to be adapted to the specific context before it can be put into practical use. It is suggested that there are lots of ways to use management ideas, other than implementing them in the practice of organisations. It is further…

  15. Wind Turbine Contingency Control Through Generator De-Rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai; Balas, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbines with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. The contingency control involves de-rating the generator operating point to achieve reduced loads on the wind turbine. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  16. Contingencies for change in complacent smokers.

    PubMed

    Lamb, R J; Morral, Andrew R; Kirby, Kimberly C; Javors, Martin A; Galbicka, Gregory; Iguchi, Martin

    2007-06-01

    The majority of smokers have no plans to quit in the near future. These complacent smokers are less likely to quit than other smokers, and few interventions are known to reduce smoking in this population. Although monetary incentives can reduce complacent smokers' breath carbon monoxide (BCO) levels, it is not clear whether these effects can be sustained beyond the several weeks that past studies have examined. The authors compared complacent smokers randomly assigned to receive incentives for BCO reductions (n=18) or noncontingent incentives (n=19) for 3 months. Contingent incentives were associated with (a) reduced BCO; (b) more BCO samples indicative of abstinence; (c) fewer cigarettes smoked and more days abstinent at study end; and (d) lower salivary cotinine. These behaviors can predict future cessation, and 2 of the 18 smokers (11%) receiving BCO-contingent incentives reported quitting as compared with none in the control group. Contingency management procedures, such as those used here, may effectively promote cessation among complacent smokers and provide a model for understanding the possible effects of some environmental interventions (like workplace smoking bans) on the behavior of complacent smokers.

  17. Counselor Attitudes Toward Contingency Management for Substance Use Disorder: Effectiveness, Acceptability, and Endorsement of Incentives for Treatment Attendance and Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Aletraris, Lydia; Shelton, Jeff S; Roman, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Despite research demonstrating its effectiveness, use of contingency management (CM) in substance use disorder treatment has been limited. Given the vital role that counselors play as arbiters in the use of therapies, examination of their attitudes can provide insight into how further use of CM might be effectively promoted. In this paper, we examine 731 counselors' attitudes toward the effectiveness and acceptability of CM in treatment, as well as their specific attitudes toward both unspecified and tangible incentives for treatment attendance and abstinence. Compared to cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, and community reinforcement approach, counselors rated CM as the least effective and least acceptable psychosocial intervention. Exposure through the use of CM in a counselor's employing organization was positively associated with perceptions of acceptability, agreement that incentives have a positive effect on the client-counselor relationship, and endorsement of tangible incentives for abstinence. Endorsement of tangible incentives for treatment attendance was significantly greater among counselors with more years in the treatment field, and counselors who held at least a master's degree. Counselors' adaptability or openness to innovations was also positively associated with attitudes toward CM. Further, female counselors and counselors with a greater 12-step philosophy were less likely to endorse the use of incentives. A highlight of our study is that it offers the first specific assessment of the impact of "Promoting Awareness of Motivational Incentives" (PAMI), a Web-based tool based on findings of CM protocols tested within the Clinical Trials Network (CTN), on counselors employed outside the CTN. We found that 10% of counselors had accessed PAMI, and those who had accessed PAMI were more likely to report a higher degree of perceived effectiveness of CM than those who had not. This study lays the groundwork for vital research on the

  18. Counselor attitudes toward contingency management for substance use disorder: effectiveness, acceptability, and endorsement of incentives for treatment attendance and abstinence☆

    PubMed Central

    Aletraris, Lydia; Shelton, Jeff S.; Roman, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite research demonstrating its effectiveness, use of contingency management (CM) in substance use disorder treatment has been limited. Given the vital role that counselors play as arbiters in the use of therapies, examination of their attitudes can provide insight into how further use of CM might be effectively promoted. In this paper, we examine 731 counselors' attitudes toward the effectiveness and acceptability of CM in treatment, as well as their specific attitudes toward both unspecified and tangible incentives for treatment attendance and abstinence. Compared to cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, and community reinforcement approach, counselors rated CM as the least effective and least acceptable psychosocial intervention. Exposure through the use of CM in a counselor's employing organization was positively associated with perceptions of acceptability, agreement that incentives have a positive effect on the client–counselor relationship, and endorsement of tangible incentives for abstinence. Endorsement of tangible incentives for treatment attendance was significantly greater among counselors with more years in the treatment field, and counselors who held at least a master's degree. Counselors' adaptability or openness to innovations was also positively associated with attitudes toward CM. Further, female counselors and counsellors with a greater 12-step philosophy were less likely to endorse the use of incentives. A highlight of our study is that it offers the first specific assessment of the impact of “Promoting Awareness of Motivational Incentives” (PAMI), a Web-based tool based on findings of CM protocols tested within the Clinical Trials Network (CTN), on counselors employed outside the CTN. We found that 10% of counselors had accessed PAMI, and those who had accessed PAMI were more likely to report a higher degree of perceived effectiveness of CM than those who had not. This study lays the groundwork for vital research on

  19. Community treatment adoption of contingency management: A conceptual profile of U.S. clinics based on innovativeness of executive staff

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan; Rabun, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Background Community adoption of contingency management (CM) varies considerably, and executive innovativeness may help explain variance due to its presumed influence on clinic decision-making. Methods Sixteen U.S. opioid treatment programs (OTPs) were visited, with ethnographic interviewing used in casual contacts with executives to inform their eventual classification by study investigators into one of Rogers’ (2003) five adopter categories. Audio-recorded interviews were also conducted individually with the executive and three staff members (N=64) wherein they reported reactions to clinic CM implementation during the prior year, from which study investigators later identified salient excerpts during interview transcript reviews. Results The executive sample was progressive, with 56% classified as innovators or early adopters. Implementation reports and corresponding staff reactions were generally consistent with what might be expected according to diffusion theory. Clinics led by innovators had durably implemented multiple CM applications, for which staff voiced support. Clinics led by early adopters reported CM exposure via research trial participation, with mixed reporting of sustained and discontinued applications and similarly mixed staff views. Clinics led by early majority adopters employed CM selectively for administrative purposes, with staff reticence about its expansion to therapeutic uses. Clinics led by late majority adopters had either deferred or discontinued CM adoption, with typically disenchanted staff views. Clinics led by a laggard executive evidenced no CM exposure and strongly dogmatic staff views against its use. Conclusion Study findings are consistent with diffusion theory precepts, and illustrate pervasive influences of executive innovativeness on clinic practices and staff impressions of implementation experiences. PMID:22940140

  20. Acceptability of an Internet-based contingency management intervention for smoking cessation: views of smokers, nonsmokers, and healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Raiff, Bethany R; Jarvis, Brantley P; Turturici, Marissa; Dallery, Jesse

    2013-06-01

    The acceptability of an Internet-based contingency management (CM) intervention for cigarette smoking was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 67 participants (46% female) completed an Internet-based CM intervention and then answered questions about the intervention. Experiment 2 assessed the acceptability of the intervention among potential treatment users who had never used the intervention, (smokers, n = 164, 52% female), nonsmokers (n = 166, 73% female), and health-care providers (n = 139, 63% female). Participants in Experiment 2 were randomly assigned to either watch a video describing the standard CM intervention (no-deposit group) or to watch a video about the standard intervention plus a deposit incentive (deposit group). Overall, results of both experiments indicated high acceptability across all dimensions of the intervention. In Experiment 1, 74% (n = 26 of participants in the treatment group) of participants said they would use it if they needed to quit, as well as 92% (n = 150 among smokers) of those in Experiment 2. Of the health-care providers, 81% (n = 113) reported that they would be very likely to recommend the intervention to patients. Participants in both experiments reported that monitoring their progress and earning vouchers were strengths of the intervention. The no-deposit group rated voucher earnings, cash earnings, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention higher than the deposit group. Health-care professionals did not differ in their ratings across video conditions. Overall, the results suggest that Internet-based CM is acceptable as a method to help people quit smoking.

  1. Examining Longitudinal Stimulant Use and Treatment Attendance as Parallel Outcomes in Two Contingency Management Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Sterling; Brooks, Olivia; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Lederhos, Crystal; Lamp, Amanda; Murphy, Sean; Layton, Matthew; Roll, John

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine stimulant use and longitudinal treatment attendance in one 'parallel outcomes' model in order to determine how these two outcomes are related to one another during treatment, and to quantify how the intervention impacts these two on- and off-target outcomes differently. Data came from two multi-site randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of contingency management (CM) that targeted stimulant use. We used parallel multilevel modeling to examine the impact of multiple pre-specified covariates, including selected Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores, age and sex, in addition to CM on concurrent attendance and stimulant use in two separate analyses, i.e., one per trial. In one trial, CM was positively associated with attending treatment throughout the trial (β=0.060, p<0.05). In the second trial, CM predicted negative urinalysis ((-)UA) over the 12-week treatment period (β=0.069, p<0.05). In both trials, there was a significant, positive relationship between attendance and (-)UA submission, but in the first trial a (-)UA at both baseline and over time was related to attendance over time (r=0.117; r=0.013, respectively) and in the second trial, a (-)UA submission at baseline was associated with increased attendance over time (r=0.055). These findings indicate that stimulant use and treatment attendance over time are related but distinct outcomes that, when analyzed simultaneously, portray a more informative picture of their predictors and the separate trajectories of each. This 'indirect reinforcement' between two clinically meaningful on-target (directly reinforced behavior) and off-target (indirectly reinforced behavior) outcomes is in need of further examination in order to fully exploit the potential clinical benefits that could be realized in substance use disorder treatment trials.

  2. Examining Longitudinal Stimulant Use and Treatment Attendance as Parallel Outcomes in Two Contingency Management Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Sterling; Brooks, Olivia; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Lederhos, Crystal; Lamp, Amanda; Murphy, Sean; Layton, Matthew; Roll, John

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine stimulant use and longitudinal treatment attendance in one 'parallel outcomes' model in order to determine how these two outcomes are related to one another during treatment, and to quantify how the intervention impacts these two on- and off-target outcomes differently. Data came from two multi-site randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of contingency management (CM) that targeted stimulant use. We used parallel multilevel modeling to examine the impact of multiple pre-specified covariates, including selected Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores, age and sex, in addition to CM on concurrent attendance and stimulant use in two separate analyses, i.e., one per trial. In one trial, CM was positively associated with attending treatment throughout the trial (β=0.060, p<0.05). In the second trial, CM predicted negative urinalysis ((-)UA) over the 12-week treatment period (β=0.069, p<0.05). In both trials, there was a significant, positive relationship between attendance and (-)UA submission, but in the first trial a (-)UA at both baseline and over time was related to attendance over time (r=0.117; r=0.013, respectively) and in the second trial, a (-)UA submission at baseline was associated with increased attendance over time (r=0.055). These findings indicate that stimulant use and treatment attendance over time are related but distinct outcomes that, when analyzed simultaneously, portray a more informative picture of their predictors and the separate trajectories of each. This 'indirect reinforcement' between two clinically meaningful on-target (directly reinforced behavior) and off-target (indirectly reinforced behavior) outcomes is in need of further examination in order to fully exploit the potential clinical benefits that could be realized in substance use disorder treatment trials. PMID:26456717

  3. Acceptability of an Internet-based contingency management intervention for smoking cessation: views of smokers, nonsmokers, and healthcare professionals.

    PubMed

    Raiff, Bethany R; Jarvis, Brantley P; Turturici, Marissa; Dallery, Jesse

    2013-06-01

    The acceptability of an Internet-based contingency management (CM) intervention for cigarette smoking was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 67 participants (46% female) completed an Internet-based CM intervention and then answered questions about the intervention. Experiment 2 assessed the acceptability of the intervention among potential treatment users who had never used the intervention, (smokers, n = 164, 52% female), nonsmokers (n = 166, 73% female), and health-care providers (n = 139, 63% female). Participants in Experiment 2 were randomly assigned to either watch a video describing the standard CM intervention (no-deposit group) or to watch a video about the standard intervention plus a deposit incentive (deposit group). Overall, results of both experiments indicated high acceptability across all dimensions of the intervention. In Experiment 1, 74% (n = 26 of participants in the treatment group) of participants said they would use it if they needed to quit, as well as 92% (n = 150 among smokers) of those in Experiment 2. Of the health-care providers, 81% (n = 113) reported that they would be very likely to recommend the intervention to patients. Participants in both experiments reported that monitoring their progress and earning vouchers were strengths of the intervention. The no-deposit group rated voucher earnings, cash earnings, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention higher than the deposit group. Health-care professionals did not differ in their ratings across video conditions. Overall, the results suggest that Internet-based CM is acceptable as a method to help people quit smoking. PMID:23750691

  4. An Evidence-based Approach to Developing a Management Strategy for Medical Contingencies on the Lunar Surface: The NASA/Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation at Devon Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chappell, S.; Rafiq, A.; Braham, S.; Hodgson, E.; Sullivan, P.; Wilkinson, N.; Bach, D.; Torney, S.

    2007-01-01

    The lunar architecture for future sortie and outpost missions will require humans to serve on the lunar surface considerably longer than the Apollo moon missions. Although the Apollo crewmembers sustained few injuries during their brief lunar surface activity, injuries did occur and are a concern for the longer lunar stays. Interestingly, lunar medical contingency plans were not developed during Apollo. In order to develop an evidence-base for handling a medical contingency on the lunar surface, a simulation using the moon-Mars analog environment at Devon Island, Nunavut, high Canadian Arctic was conducted. Objectives of this study included developing an effective management strategy for dealing with an incapacitated crewmember on the lunar surface, establishing audio/visual and biomedical data connectivity to multiple centers, testing rescue/extraction hardware and procedures, and evaluating in suit increased oxygen consumption. Methods: A review of the Apollo lunar surface activities and personal communications with Apollo lunar crewmembers provided the knowledge base of plausible scenarios that could potentially injure an astronaut during a lunar extravehicular activity (EVA). Objectives were established to demonstrate stabilization and transfer of an injured crewmember and communication with ground controllers at multiple mission control centers. Results: The project objectives were successfully achieved during the simulation. Among these objectives were extraction from a sloped terrain by a two-member crew in a 1 g analog environment, establishing real-time communication to multiple centers, providing biomedical data to flight controllers and crewmembers, and establishing a medical diagnosis and treatment plan from a remote site. Discussion: The simulation provided evidence for the types of equipment and methods for performing extraction of an injured crewmember from a sloped terrain. Additionally, the necessary communications infrastructure to connect

  5. Behavioral contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Mechner, Francis

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a formal symbolic language, with its own specialized vocabulary and grammar, for codifying any behavioral contingency, including the complex multiparty contingencies encountered in law, economics, business, public affairs, sociology, education, and psychotherapy. This language specifies the "if, then" and temporal relationships between acts and their consequences for the parties involved. It provides for the notation of the probabilities, magnitudes, positive or negative valences, or time delays of the consequences for the parties, and for the parties that would perceive, misperceive, not perceive, predict, mispredict, or not predict events. The language's fractal-like hierarchical and recursive grammar provides for the flexible combination and permutation of the modifiers of the language's four nouns: acts, consequences, time intervals, and agents of acts; and its four verbs: consequate, prevent, perceive, and predict-thereby giving the language the ability to describe and codify various nuances of such complex contingencies as fraud, betting, blackmail, various types of games, theft, crime and punishment, contracts, family dynamics, racing, competition, mutual deterrence, feuding, bargaining, deception, borrowing, insurance, elections, global warming, tipping for service, vigilance, sexual overtures, decision making, and mistaken identity. Applications to the management of practical situations and techniques for doing so, as well as applications in current behavior analysis research and neuroscience, are discussed. PMID:18329187

  6. Behavioral contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Mechner, Francis

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a formal symbolic language, with its own specialized vocabulary and grammar, for codifying any behavioral contingency, including the complex multiparty contingencies encountered in law, economics, business, public affairs, sociology, education, and psychotherapy. This language specifies the "if, then" and temporal relationships between acts and their consequences for the parties involved. It provides for the notation of the probabilities, magnitudes, positive or negative valences, or time delays of the consequences for the parties, and for the parties that would perceive, misperceive, not perceive, predict, mispredict, or not predict events. The language's fractal-like hierarchical and recursive grammar provides for the flexible combination and permutation of the modifiers of the language's four nouns: acts, consequences, time intervals, and agents of acts; and its four verbs: consequate, prevent, perceive, and predict-thereby giving the language the ability to describe and codify various nuances of such complex contingencies as fraud, betting, blackmail, various types of games, theft, crime and punishment, contracts, family dynamics, racing, competition, mutual deterrence, feuding, bargaining, deception, borrowing, insurance, elections, global warming, tipping for service, vigilance, sexual overtures, decision making, and mistaken identity. Applications to the management of practical situations and techniques for doing so, as well as applications in current behavior analysis research and neuroscience, are discussed.

  7. The Use of Contingency Management and Motivational/Skills-Building Therapy to Treat Young Adults with Marijuana Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Easton, Caroline J.; Nich, Charla; Hunkele, Karen A.; Neavins, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Ford, Haley L.; Vitolo, Sally A.; Doebrick, Cheryl A.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2006-01-01

    Marijuana-dependent young adults (N = 136), all referred by the criminal justice system, were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: a motivational/skills-building intervention (motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy; MET/CBT) plus incentives contingent on session attendance or submission of marijuana-free urine…

  8. Blowout contingency plans can cut firefighting and capping risks

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1995-05-01

    Prepared in advance of drilling, blowout contingency plans and immediate response plans can reduce firefighting, well capping, and possible relief well costs during a blowout. Regional and site-specific blowout contingency plans are especially beneficial for operators working world-wide, where logistics difficulties can easily bog down operations. This article is the first of an 8-part series on well control. Future articles will cover pressurized tree removal, well capping operations, techniques for killing wells after capping, snubbing operations, handling H{sub 2}S, shallow gas hazards, and project management. Because it is impossible to eliminate the potential for a blowout, the only logical and responsible position is to make plans to react before an accident occurs. Such a blowout contingency plan for operations should include information about the following: Immediate reaction plan (evacuations, internal and public notifications, and data collection); Blowout contingency plan (general logistic plans or site-specific plans with relief well details); Engineering modeling; Mobilization of resources to control the blowout (first wave of equipment and personnel); and Means for taking and verifying appropriate responses. The paper discusses immediate response plans, blowout contingency plans, regional and site specific plans, and recommends the absolute minimum requirements for a plan that should be created.

  9. Fisheries management to reduce contaminant consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, C.A.; Jackson, L.J.; Eby, L.A.

    1995-12-01

    Lake Michigan is a microcosm of global environmental issues. A history of problems has plagued the lake, arising from the wide range of human activities the basin supports. Much of Lake Michigan`s watershed is agriculturally developed, and the shoreline is dotted with major urban, industrial centers. The lake has supported important commercial shipping and fishing industries for more than a century. In the 1960s and 1970s eutrophication was a concern. More recently toxic contaminants, particularly PCBs, and invasions by exotic species, such as the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), have captured headlines. More than 200 years of development and exploitation have taken Lake Michigan far from a pristine state. The Lake Michigan fishery in intensively managed, and food web manipulation may more effectively reduce PCB exposure than cleanup activities do. Four management options are discussed in this article: trophic cascade; growth maximization; size of stocked fish; and selective species stocking. The most promising option, well supported by data is in many ways the simplist: selective stocking of species that accumulate contaminants at the lowest levels. 51 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Contingency and behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of contingency is central to theoretical discussions of learned behavior and in the application of learning research to problems of social significance. This paper reviews three aspects of the contingency concept as it has been developed by behavior analysts. The first is the empirical analysis of contingency through experimental studies of both human and nonhuman behavior. The second is the synthesis of experimental studies in theoretical and conceptual frameworks to yield a more general account of contingency and to integrate the concept with other behavioral processes. The third aspect is one of practical considerations in the application of the contingency concept in both laboratory and applied settings. PMID:22478219

  11. Computing contingency statistics in parallel.

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Janine Camille; Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Statistical analysis is typically used to reduce the dimensionality of and infer meaning from data. A key challenge of any statistical analysis package aimed at large-scale, distributed data is to address the orthogonal issues of parallel scalability and numerical stability. Many statistical techniques, e.g., descriptive statistics or principal component analysis, are based on moments and co-moments and, using robust online update formulas, can be computed in an embarrassingly parallel manner, amenable to a map-reduce style implementation. In this paper we focus on contingency tables, through which numerous derived statistics such as joint and marginal probability, point-wise mutual information, information entropy, and {chi}{sup 2} independence statistics can be directly obtained. However, contingency tables can become large as data size increases, requiring a correspondingly large amount of communication between processors. This potential increase in communication prevents optimal parallel speedup and is the main difference with moment-based statistics where the amount of inter-processor communication is independent of data size. Here we present the design trade-offs which we made to implement the computation of contingency tables in parallel.We also study the parallel speedup and scalability properties of our open source implementation. In particular, we observe optimal speed-up and scalability when the contingency statistics are used in their appropriate context, namely, when the data input is not quasi-diffuse.

  12. The Effects of Reduced Cigarette Smoking on Discounting Future Rewards: An Initial Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Richard; Johnson, Matthew W.; Giordano, Louis A.; Landes, Reid D.; Badger, Gary J.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether reduction of smoking via contingency management in dependent smokers would decrease the discounting of delayed reinforcers compared with smokers who did not reduce their smoking, moderate to heavy cigarette smokers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a contingency management condition and a control condition. In…

  13. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Wilfred M; Venterea, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as they relate to North America-wide budgeting and future projection of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Understanding the current magnitude and providing guidance on the future trajectories of atmospheric concentrations of these gases requires investigation of their (i) biogeochemical origins, (ii) response to climate feedbacks and other environmental factors, and (iii) susceptibility to management practices. This special issue provides a group of articles that present the current state of continental scale sources and sinks of biogenic GHGs and the potential to better manage them in the future.

  14. HAART adherence strategies for methadone clients who are HIV-positive: a treatment manual for implementing contingency management and medication coaching.

    PubMed

    Haug, Nancy A; Sorensen, James L; Gruber, Valerie A; Lollo, Nicole; Roth, Gregory

    2006-11-01

    Research demonstrates that injection drug users with HIV and/or AIDS have difficulty adhering to complex regimens of HIV medications. Because of the risk of increased viral resistance associated with irregular medication adherence, there is considerable clinical need to assist clients who abuse substances in taking their antiretroviral medications on time and as directed. This article outlines intervention strategies to improve medication adherence among clients who are in methadone maintenance. In this treatment manual, the authors delineate contingency management procedures, including voucher incentives and a fishbowl lottery prize system. They also describe intervention elements and adherence tools for medication coaching. The purpose of this manual is to describe the intervention procedures for clinicians and to serve as a resource for drug abuse treatment programs that serve clients who are HIV-positive.

  15. An Economic Evaluation of a Contingency-Management Intervention for Stimulant Use among Community Mental Health Patients with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sean M.; McDonell, Michael G.; McPherson, Sterling; Srebnik, Debra; Angelo, Frank; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines the cost-effectiveness of contingency-management (CM) for stimulant dependence among community mental health patients with serious mental illness (SMI). Methods Economic evaluation of a 12-week randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy of CM added to treatment-as-usual (CM+TAU), relative to TAU without CM, for treating stimulant dependence among patients with a SMI. The trial included 176 participants diagnosed with SMI and stimulant dependency who were receiving community mental health and addiction treatment at one community mental health center in Seattle, Washington. Participants were also assessed during a 12-week follow-up period. Positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores were used to calculate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for the primary economic outcome. The primary clinical outcome, the stimulant-free year (SFY) is a weighted measure of time free from stimulants. Two perspectives were adopted, those of the provider and the payer. Results At 12-weeks neither the provider ($2,652, p=.74) nor the payer ($2,611, p=.99) cost differentials were statistically significant. This was also true for the payer at 24-weeks (-$125, p=1.00). QALYs gained were similar across groups, resulting in small, insignificant differences (0.04, p=0.23 at 12-weeks; .01, p=0.70 at 24 weeks). CM+TAU experienced significantly more SFYs, 0.24 (p<0.001) at 12 weeks and 0.20 (p=0.002) at 24 weeks, resulting in at least an 85% chance of being considered cost-effective at a threshold of $200,000/SFY. Conclusion Contingency management appears to be a wise investment for both the provider and the payer with regard to the clinical outcome of time free from stimulants. PMID:26026494

  16. New system reduces sludge management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Roll, R.R. ); Koser, M.R. )

    1993-06-01

    This article describes a recently completed a $2.7-million project to upgrade the sludge dewatering and stabilizing system at a 48-mgd wastewater treatment facility in Niagara Fall, New York. The work was necessitated by the deteriorated condition of the plant's original vacuum filters and increasing costs to landfill the dewatered sludge. The new equipment has restored sludge production capacity while reducing the final material's moisture content. The Niagara Falls plant is one of the few municipal physical-chemical treatment plants built in this country, and is the largest still functioning. Constructed in the mid-1970s, it was designed to treat a combination of domestic sewage and industrial wastes. One third of the flow and one half of the solids are industrial in nature. The changes made reduced electrical power consumption and sanitary landfill costs.

  17. Contingent valuation study of the value of reducing fire hazards to old-growth forests in the Pacific northwest. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, J.B.; Gonzalez-Caban, A.; Gregory, R.

    1996-07-01

    A contingent valuation methodology was applied to old-growth forests and critical habitat units for the Northern Spotted Owl in Oregon to esimate the economic value to the public in knowing that rare and unique ecosystems will be protected from fire for current and future generations. Generalizing to the whole state, the total annual willingness-to-pay of Oregon residents ranges from $49.6 to $99 million. In terms of old-growth forests protected from fire, the value is $28 per acre.

  18. The economic value of conjoint local management in water resources: Results from a contingent valuation in the Boquerón aquifer (Albacete, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Rupérez-Moreno, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Julio; Senent-Aparicio, Javier; del Pilar Flores-Asenjo, Maria

    2015-11-01

    In the field of water resources management, the Water Framework Directive is the first directive to adopt an ecosystem approach, establishing principles and economic tools for an integrated management of water resources to protect, conserve and restore all water bodies. The incorporation of local authorities in this management involves quality benefits that are perceived by users in an effective and lasting way. The purpose of this paper is to present the economic value of the environmental recovery of the overexploited Boquerón aquifer in Hellín (Albacete, SE Spain) and all of its associated ecosystems. This aquifer operates as a regulating reservoir for the surface waters of the Hellín Canal. The contingent valuation method (CVM) applied in this environmental assessment of the aquifer showed that its non-use value was €147,470 per year, due to the high environmental awareness of the Hellín people, which is enough to ensure the survival of the ecosystems linked to the aquifer.

  19. Fisheries management to reduce contaminant consumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stow, Craig A.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Eby, Lisa A.; Jackson, Leland J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper concludes that contaminants in Lake Michigan fishes are likely to remain above detectable levels for some time. Some interest groups have called for measures ranging from additional effluent controls to a ban on the industrial use of chlorine. Such measures, however well intended, are likely to have little impact on many of the contaminants of primary concern. PCBs, in particular, are largely the legacy of past activities and are not likely to be substantially affected by additional regulation. The authors review several options for reducing human exposure to PCBs, using relatively simple fisheries manipulations, although they do not propose that these measures are the ultimate solution to the contaminant problem. Of the options presented, the most promising is the replacement of lake trout with less-contaminated species, such as rainbow trout.

  20. Investigating Group Contingencies to Promote Brief Abstinence from Cigarette Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E.; Dallery, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    In contingency management (CM), monetary incentives are contingent on evidence of drug abstinence. Typically, incentives (e.g., “vouchers” exchangeable for goods or services) are contingent on individual performance. We programmed vouchers contingent on group performance to investigate whether these contingencies would promote brief abstinence from cigarette smoking. Thirty-two participants were divided into small teams (n = 3 per team). During three 5-day within-subject experimental conditions, participants submitted video recordings of breath carbon monoxide (CO) measures twice daily via Mōtiv8 Systems™, an Internet-based remote monitoring application. During the interdependent contingency condition, participants earned vouchers each time they and their teammates submitted breath CO samples indicative of abstinence (i.e., negative samples). During the independent contingency condition, participants earned vouchers each time they submitted negative samples, regardless of their teammates' performance. During the no vouchers condition, no monetary incentives were contingent on abstinence. In addition, half of the participants (n = 16) could communicate with their teammates through an online peer support forum. Although forum access did not appear to promote smoking abstinence, monetary incentives did promote brief abstinence. Significantly more negative samples were submitted when vouchers were contingent on individual performance (56%) or team performance (53%) relative to when no vouchers were available (35%; F = 6.9, p = 0.002). The results show that interdependent contingencies can promote brief abstinence from cigarette smoking. Moreover, the results suggest that these contingencies may help lower treatment costs and promote social support. PMID:23421358

  1. Avoiding Repetitions Reduces ADHD Children's Management Problems in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapalka, George M.

    2005-01-01

    Students with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often exhibit non-compliance that presents a significant management problem for classroom teachers. Student behavior management training programs suggest that reducing repetitions of commands improves student compliance. To examine this claim, 86 teachers of ADHD students between the…

  2. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline. PMID:27611662

  3. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline.

  4. Detecting contingencies: an infomax approach.

    PubMed

    Butko, Nicholas J; Movellan, Javier R

    2010-01-01

    The ability to detect social contingencies plays an important role in the social and emotional development of infants. Analyzing this problem from a computational perspective may provide important clues for understanding social development, as well as for the synthesis of social behavior in robots. In this paper, we show that the turn-taking behaviors observed in infants during contingency detection situations are tuned to optimally gather information as to whether a person is responsive to them. We show that simple reinforcement learning mechanisms can explain how infants acquire these efficient contingency detection schemas. The key is to use the reduction of uncertainty (information gain) as a reward signal. The result is an interesting form of learning in which the learner rewards itself for conducting actions that help reduce its own sense of uncertainty. This paper illustrates the possibilities of an emerging area of computer science and engineering that focuses on the computational understanding of human behavior and on its synthesis in robots. We believe that the theory of stochastic optimal control will play a key role providing a formal mathematical foundation for this newly emerging discipline.

  5. The acceptability and feasibility of the Positive Reinforcement Opportunity Project, a community-based contingency management methamphetamine treatment program for gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Strona, Frank V; McCright, Jacque; Hjord, Hanna; Ahrens, Katherine; Tierney, Steven; Shoptaw, Steven; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2006-11-01

    The Positive Reinforcement Opportunity Project (PROP) was a pilot program developed to build on the efficacy of contingency management (CM) using positive reinforcement to address the treatment needs of gay and bisexual men currently using crystal methamphetamines (meth). It was hypothesized that a version of CM could be implemented in San Francisco that was less costly than traditional treatment methods and reached gay and other MSM using meth who also engaged in high-risk sexual activity. Of the 178 men who participated in PROPfrom December 2003 to December 2005, many self-reported behaviors for acquiring and spreading sexually transmitted diseases including HIV infection. During the initial intake, 73% reported high-risk sexual behavior in the prior three months, with 60% reporting anal receptive and/or insertive sex without condoms. This report describes the implementation of PROP and suggest both its limitations and potential strengths. Initial findings suggest that PROP was a useful and low cost substance use treatment option that resulted in a 35% 90-day completion rate, which is similar to graduation rates from traditional, more costly treatment options. Further evaluation of the limited data from three- and six-month follow-up of those who completed PROP is currently ongoing.

  6. NextGen Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-Based Operations (STBO): Contingency Holds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakowski, Deborah Lee; Hooey, Becky Lee; Foyle, David C.; Wolter, Cynthia A.; Cheng, Lara W. S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot-in-the-loop taxi simulation was to investigate a NextGen Surface Trajectory-Based Operations (STBO) concept called "contingency holds." The contingency-hold concept parses a taxi route into segments, allowing an air traffic control (ATC) surface traffic management (STM) system to hold an aircraft when necessary for safety. Under nominal conditions, if the intersection or active runway crossing is clear, the hold is removed, allowing the aircraft to continue taxiing without slowing, thus improving taxi efficiency, while minimizing the excessive brake use, fuel burn, and emissions associated with stop-and-go taxi. However, when a potential traffic conflict exists, the hold remains in place as a fail-safe mechanism. In this departure operations simulation, the taxi clearance included a required time of arrival (RTA) to a specified intersection. The flight deck was equipped with speed-guidance avionics to aid the pilot in safely meeting the RTA. On two trials, the contingency hold was not released, and pilots were required to stop. On two trials the contingency hold was released 15 sec prior to the RTA, and on two trials the contingency hold was released 30 sec prior to the RTA. When the hold remained in place, all pilots complied with the hold. Results also showed that when the hold was released at 15-sec or 30-sec prior to the RTA, the 30-sec release allowed pilots to maintain nominal taxi speed, thus supporting continuous traffic flow; whereas, the 15-sec release did not. The contingency-hold concept, with at least a 30-sec release, allows pilots to improve taxiing efficiency by reducing braking, slowing, and stopping, but still maintains safety in that no pilots "busted" the clearance holds. Overall, the evidence suggests that the contingency-hold concept is a viable concept for optimizing efficiency while maintaining safety.

  7. 40 CFR 265.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... incorporate hazardous waste management provisions that are sufficient to comply with the requirements of this.... EPA recommends that the plan be based on the National Response Team's Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance (“One Plan”). When modifications are made to non-RCRA provisions in an integrated contingency...

  8. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waste management provisions that are sufficient to comply with the requirements of this part. The owner... that the plan be based on the National Response Team's Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance (“One Plan”). When modifications are made to non-RCRA provisions in an integrated contingency plan, the changes...

  9. Reducing uncertainty about objective functions in adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends the uncertainty framework of adaptive management to include uncertainty about the objectives to be used in guiding decisions. Adaptive decision making typically assumes explicit and agreed-upon objectives for management, but allows for uncertainty as to the structure of the decision process that generates change through time. Yet it is not unusual for there to be uncertainty (or disagreement) about objectives, with different stakeholders expressing different views not only about resource responses to management but also about the appropriate management objectives. In this paper I extend the treatment of uncertainty in adaptive management, and describe a stochastic structure for the joint occurrence of uncertainty about objectives as well as models, and show how adaptive decision making and the assessment of post-decision monitoring data can be used to reduce uncertainties of both kinds. Different degrees of association between model and objective uncertainty lead to different patterns of learning about objectives. ?? 2011.

  10. Optimal Limited Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Smith, David E.

    2003-01-01

    For a given problem, the optimal Markov policy over a finite horizon is a conditional plan containing a potentially large number of branches. However, there are applications where it is desirable to strictly limit the number of decision points and branches in a plan. This raises the question of how one goes about finding optimal plans containing only a limited number of branches. In this paper, we present an any-time algorithm for optimal k-contingency planning. It is the first optimal algorithm for limited contingency planning that is not an explicit enumeration of possible contingent plans. By modelling the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process, it implements the Bellman optimality principle and prunes the solution space. We present experimental results of applying this algorithm to some simple test cases.

  11. Primacy effects in clinical judgments of contingency.

    PubMed

    Curley, S P; Young, M J; Kingry, M J; Yates, J F

    1988-01-01

    In contingency judgment a primacy effect exists when a conclusion about the relationship between clinical variables is inordinately influenced by cases seen earlier rather than later in a presentation sequence. In this study, medical and nursing trainees evidenced this behavior in a hypothetical clinical judgment situation. The behavior was tied to an attention decrement explanation, by which inattention to the later-presented cases leads to inaccurate recall of the relative frequencies of observed cases, which in turn induces a misjudgment of a disease-finding contingency. An explicit intervention based on this hypothesis, forcing attention to later cases by warning that recall of the case frequencies would be required, was effective in reducing primacy effects among medical students. A related, but less explicit, intervention was also tried. This intervention did not significantly reduce primacy effects among nursing students, but was somewhat effective among general undergraduate students performing a non-clinical contingency judgment task.

  12. Contingency contractor optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Jones, Katherine A.; Bandlow, Alisa; Durfee, Justin David.; Jones, Dean A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Detry, Richard Joseph; Nanco, Alan Stewart; Nozick, Linda Karen

    2013-10-01

    The goal of Phase 3 the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization (CCO) project is to create an engineering prototype of a tool for the contingency contractor element of total force planning during the Support for Strategic Analysis (SSA). An optimization model was developed to determine the optimal mix of military, Department of Defense (DoD) civilians, and contractors that accomplishes a set of user defined mission requirements at the lowest possible cost while honoring resource limitations and manpower use rules. An additional feature allows the model to understand the variability of the Total Force Mix when there is uncertainty in mission requirements.

  13. Contingency contractor optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Jones, Katherine A.; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Durfee, Justin David.; Jones, Dean A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Nanco, Alan Stewart; Nozick, Linda Karen

    2013-06-01

    The goal of Phase 3 the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization (CCO) project is to create an engineering prototype of a tool for the contingency contractor element of total force planning during the Support for Strategic Analysis (SSA). An optimization model was developed to determine the optimal mix of military, Department of Defense (DoD) civilians, and contractors that accomplishes a set of user defined mission requirements at the lowest possible cost while honoring resource limitations and manpower use rules. An additional feature allows the model to understand the variability of the Total Force Mix when there is uncertainty in mission requirements.

  14. 30 CFR 582.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contingency Plan. 582.26 Section 582.26 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER... necessary to reflect any new information concerning the nature, magnitude, and significance of...

  15. Beyond statins: lipid management to reduce cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Robert N; Mendys, Philip M; Simpson, Ross J

    2013-07-01

    The discovery that elevated total cholesterol levels and the subsequent understanding that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) has led to the development of lipid management strategies that seek to reduce the burden of CVD. Although substantive progress has been made in reducing death and cardiovascular events, questions remain regarding the optimal approach to further reduce CVD-associated death and disability. Based on current evidence, statins are the clear first-line agents for the management of hyperlipidemia in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events. However, due to the failure of recent clinical trials evaluating antihyperlipidemic drugs, the most appropriate lipid management strategy in patients who cannot tolerate statin therapy or who warrant antihyperlipidemic therapies in addition to statins is a major therapeutic controversy. In this review, we summarize the clinical trial evidence evaluating the efficacy of second-line antihyperlipidemic drug classes for reducing cardiovascular risk, provide recommendations for appropriate use of nonstatin lipid-altering drugs, and identify key areas of future research to support evidence-based lipid management. Given the complexity, magnitude, and burden of CVD, opportunities to improve processes of care and identify new therapeutic options clearly exist. PMID:23606278

  16. Advocate's disease management program reduces readmissions for CHF and asthma.

    PubMed

    2003-03-01

    Advocate's disease management program reduces readmissions for congestive heart failure (CHF) and asthma. Educating CHF and asthma patients while they are in the hospital, using standing orders that reflect national guidelines, and then providing nurse specialists to follow up with patients while they are in the outpatient setting is proving to be a winning combination for Advocate Health Care.

  17. Superior–subordinate dyads: Dependence of leader effectiveness on mutual reinforcement contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ram K.; Mawhinney, T. C.

    1991-01-01

    Task contingencies were modeled from bureaucratic organizations in which vague job descriptions provide incomplete contingency specifications. Response rates within dyads were examined using two nonsocial, two social, and two control contingencies. In the first social contingency, responses by the superior produced monetary reinforcement for a subordinate while the superior received no reinforcement from his subordinate. A second social contingency was identical to the first except that the subordinate's rate of responding determined the rate of reinforcement delivered to his superior. Within this contingency, mutual reinforcement occurred whenever rates of superior and subordinate responding were correlated. Two control contingencies were identical to the second social contingency except that either the superior or the subordinate received a rate of response-independent reinforcement virtually identical to the rate received during the second social contingency. Leadership, in this context, was the difference between rates of subordinate responding produced by a nonsocial contingency and rates produced by each of the two social contingencies. The two nonsocial contingencies supported almost no responding among subjects. The first social contingency produced minimal levels of leadership within every dyad. The second social contingency produced high levels of leadership. Response-independent reinforcement generally reduced or eliminated responding. PMID:16812640

  18. Prospects for managing turfgrass pests with reduced chemical inputs.

    PubMed

    Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Turfgrass culture, a multibillion dollar industry in the United States, poses unique challenges for integrated pest management. Why insect control on lawns, golf courses, and sport fields remains insecticide-driven, and how entomological research and extension can best support nascent initiatives in environmental golf and sustainable lawn care are explored. High standards for aesthetics and playability, prevailing business models, risk management-driven control decisions, and difficulty in predicting pest outbreaks fuel present reliance on preventive insecticides. New insights into pest biology, sampling methodology, microbial insecticides, plant resistance, and conservation biological control are reviewed. Those gains, and innovations in reduced-risk insecticides, should make it possible to begin constructing holistic management plans for key turfgrass pests. Nurturing the public's interest in wildlife habitat preservation, including beneficial insects, may be one means to change aesthetic perceptions and gain leeway for implementing integrated pest management practices that lend stability to turfgrass settings.

  19. Prospects for managing turfgrass pests with reduced chemical inputs.

    PubMed

    Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Turfgrass culture, a multibillion dollar industry in the United States, poses unique challenges for integrated pest management. Why insect control on lawns, golf courses, and sport fields remains insecticide-driven, and how entomological research and extension can best support nascent initiatives in environmental golf and sustainable lawn care are explored. High standards for aesthetics and playability, prevailing business models, risk management-driven control decisions, and difficulty in predicting pest outbreaks fuel present reliance on preventive insecticides. New insights into pest biology, sampling methodology, microbial insecticides, plant resistance, and conservation biological control are reviewed. Those gains, and innovations in reduced-risk insecticides, should make it possible to begin constructing holistic management plans for key turfgrass pests. Nurturing the public's interest in wildlife habitat preservation, including beneficial insects, may be one means to change aesthetic perceptions and gain leeway for implementing integrated pest management practices that lend stability to turfgrass settings. PMID:21910640

  20. Contingency Fee Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Chuck

    A contingency fee plan proposed for discussion and adoption by the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges is presented, followed by a detailed discussion of the plan and its implications. Both the plan and discussion cover: (1) a reaffirmation of the Board's opposition to tuition and general fees; (2) an emphasis on the need for…

  1. Hanford facility contingency plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, L.N.

    1996-07-01

    The Hanford Facility Contingency Plan, together with each TSD unit- specific contingency plan, meets the WAC 173-303 requirements for a contingency plan. Applicability of this plan to Hanford Facility activities is described in the Hanford Facility RCRA Permit, Dangerous Waste Portion, General Condition II.A. General Condition II.A applies to Part III TSD units, Part V TSD units, and to releases of hazardous substances which threaten human health or the environment. Additional information about the applicability of this document may also be found in the Hanford Facility RCRA Permit Handbook (DOE/RL-96-10). This plan includes descriptions of responses to a nonradiological hazardous substance spill or release at Hanford Facility locations not covered by TSD unit-specific contingency plans or building emergency plans. The term hazardous substances is defined in WAC 173-303-040 as: ``any liquid, solid, gas, or sludge, including any material, substance, product, commodity, or waste, regardless of quantity, that exhibits any of the physical, chemical or biological properties described in WAC 173-303-090 or 173-303-100.`` Whenever the term hazardous substances is used in this document, it will be used in the context of this definition. This plan includes descriptions of responses for spills or releases of hazardous substances occurring at areas between TSD units that may, or may not, threaten human health or the environment.

  2. Incremental Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David E.; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. However, this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the energy required, the data storage necessary, and its current position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  3. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  4. Transitional care management reimbursement to reduce COPD readmission.

    PubMed

    Kangovi, Shreya; Grande, David

    2014-01-01

    Reducing preventable readmissions for COPD is an important national health policy goal. Thus far, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) policies focused on incentivizing improvements in inpatient quality have had variable success. In its 2013 physician-payment rule, CMS announced new payments that reimburse ambulatory care providers for timely posthospital visits and transitional care management services. CMS hopes that posthospital transitional care and services will substitute for readmission, but the evidence supporting this hypothesis is mixed. In this article, we discuss ways for ambulatory pulmonologists to leverage transitional care management payments to enhance access for their patients with COPD while minimizing the risk of a paradoxic increase in readmission rates. PMID:24394826

  5. Can managed care reduce employers' retiree medical liability?

    PubMed

    Taylor, R S; Newton, B

    1991-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has forced U.S. companies to look squarely at their current retiree health obligations and their future commitments. Accounting Statement No. 106 (FAS 106) requires employers to accrue liabilities for retiree health benefits during employees' active service, rather than record the costs as benefits are paid. Employers are scrambling to find ways to reduce the statement's effect on corporate balance sheets. While managed health care has been increasingly employed to control benefit costs in active employee health plans, it has not been as popular in retiree plans. This article reviews important demographic and health trends in the retiree population and summarizes employers' early responses to FAS 106. It explores why managed health care has thus far played a limited role in reducing employers' postretirement medical liability, and offers insight into how that role could be increased in the future. PMID:10116958

  6. Visual Analytics for Power Grid Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Mackey, Patrick S.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-20

    Contingency analysis is the process of employing different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to remove the threats. This application paper focuses on a class of contingency analysis problems found in the power grid management system. A power grid is a geographically distributed interconnected transmission network that transmits and delivers electricity from generators to end users. The power grid contingency analysis problem is increasingly important because of both the growing size of the underlying raw data that need to be analyzed and the urgency to deliver working solutions in an aggressive timeframe. Failure to do so may bring significant financial, economic, and security impacts to all parties involved and the society at large. The paper presents a scalable visual analytics pipeline that transforms about 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form for grid operators to examine different scenarios and come up with preventive or mitigation strategies to address the problems in a predictive and timely manner. Great attention is given to the computational scalability, information scalability, visual scalability, and display scalability issues surrounding the data analytics pipeline. Most of the large-scale computation requirements of our work are conducted on a Cray XMT multi-threaded parallel computer. The paper demonstrates a number of examples using western North American power grid models and data.

  7. Forest management strategies for reducing carbon emissions, the French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Bellassen, Valentin; Vallet, Patrick; Martin, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    International agreements now recognize the role of forest in the mitigation of climate change through the levers of in-situ sequestration, storage in products and energy and product substitution. These three strategies of carbon management are often antagonistic and it is still not clear which strategy would have the most significant impact on atmospheric carbon concentrations. With a focus on France, this study compares several scenarios of forest management in terms of their effect on the overall carbon budget from trees to wood-products. We elaborated four scenarios of forest management that target different wood production objectives. One scenario is 'Business as usual' and reproduces the current forest management and wood production levels. Two scenarios target an increase in bioenergy wood production, with either long-term or short-term goals. One scenario aims at increasing the production of timber for construction. For this, an empirical regression model was developed building on the rich French inventory database. The model can project the current forest resource at a time horizon of 20 years for characteristic variables diameter, standing volume, above-ground biomass, stand age. A simplified life-cycle analysis provides a full carbon budget for each scenario from forest management to wood use and allows the identification of the scenario that most reduces carbon emissions.

  8. Do continence management strategies reduce falls? a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Frances A; Dow, Briony; Low, May-Ann

    2013-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is associated with increased fall risk, and fall prevention programs include recommendations to manage continence as one component of fall reduction. However, the evidence to support this recommendation is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify continence management interventions that are effective in decreasing falls. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Studies were included if they evaluated the effect of any type of continence management strategy on falls in older adults. The included studies were assessed for quality, and data relating to participants, interventions and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. Two studies were randomised controlled trials, one a retrospective cohort study and one an uncontrolled intervention study. Interventions included pharmacological agents, a toileting regime combined with physical activity and an individualised continence program. Only the study evaluating the combination of physical activity and prompted voiding found an effect on falls. It is surprising that there has been so little research into continence management interventions that include fall outcomes. A toileting regime combined with physical activity may reduce falls in residential care. There is a need for further studies investigating the impact of continence management on falls.

  9. Graphical Contingency Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-02

    GCA is a visual analytic tool for power grid contingency analysis to provide more decision support for power grid operations. GCA allows power grid operators to quickly gain situational awareness of power grid by converting large amounts of operational data to graphic domain with a color contoured map; identify system trend and foresee and discern emergencies by performing trending analysis; identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets by conducting clustering analysis; and identify the best action by interactively evaluate candidate actions.

  10. Some contingencies of spelling.

    PubMed

    Lee, V L; Sanderson, G M

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents some speculation about the contingencies that might select standard spellings. The speculation is based on a new development in the teaching of spelling-the process writing approach, which lets standard spellings emerge collateral to a high frequency of reading and writing. The paper discusses this approach, contrasts it with behavior-analytic research on spelling, and suggests some new directions for this latter research based on a behavioral interpretation of the process writing approach to spelling. PMID:22477529

  11. A new contingency selection approach to cyclic security analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Le Kim, H.; Hadjsaid, N.; Sabonnadiere, J.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents a new approach for contingency selection in cyclic security analysis. A fast selection algorithm based on information available in the contingency analysis results from previous cycles and on the local network solution concept applied to two levels of contingency selection is developed. In order to reduce both the number of calculations required for security analysis and the time spent for jacobian refactorization, a fast pre-screening process without load flow solution is designed at first. The PRESAF module (PRE-Selection Assistee par Filtre) proposed in this phase allows large sets of candidate contingencies to be processed very quickly. Then, a fast screening phase with the SAF module (Selection Assistee par Filtre) processes a small list of selected potentially severe contingencies. Tests on a 206 bus-299 branch 400 kV French model show that the proposed approach is fast and reliable for cyclic security analysis.

  12. Reputation management: evidence for ability but reduced propensity in autism.

    PubMed

    Cage, Eilidh; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Shah, Punit; Bird, Geoffrey

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has reported that autistic adults do not manage their reputation, purportedly due to problems with theory of mind [Izuma, Matsumoto, Camerer, & Adolphs]. The current study aimed to test alternative explanations for this apparent lack of reputation management. Twenty typical and 19 autistic adults donated to charity and to a person, both when alone and when observed. In an additional manipulation, for half of the participants, the observer was also the recipient of their donations, and participants were told that this observer would subsequently have the opportunity to donate to them (motivation condition). This manipulation was designed to encourage an expectation of a reciprocal "tit-for-tat" strategy in the participant, which may motivate participants to change their behavior to receive more donations. The remaining participants were told that the person watching was just observing the procedure (no motivation condition). Our results replicated Izuma et al.'s finding that autistic adults did not donate more to charity when observed. Yet, in the motivation condition, both typical and autistic adults donated significantly more to the observer when watched, although this effect was significantly attenuated in autistic individuals. Results indicate that, while individuals with autism may have the ability to think about reputation, a reduced expectation of reciprocal behavior from others may reduce the degree to which they engage in reputation management.

  13. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes.

    PubMed

    Krull, Cheryl R; Stanley, Margaret C; Burns, Bruce R; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return. PMID

  14. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Cheryl R.; Stanley, Margaret C.; Burns, Bruce R.; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return. PMID

  15. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes.

    PubMed

    Krull, Cheryl R; Stanley, Margaret C; Burns, Bruce R; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return.

  16. An analysis of behavioral contingencies in clinical teaching.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, R S; Heins, P J; Holbrook, W; Low, S B; Kramer, M

    1979-10-01

    Principles of a contingency management were applied in analyzing student reports on clinical instruction. In behavioral science, a contingency is a relationship between a behavior and its effect. The analysis identifies contingencies arranged by clinical instructors that unintentionally interfere with learning. The faculty responded to the findings by planing changes to overcome the problems identified. Prior to the study, many of the problems uncovered were not recognized by the faculty. Students are usually not open about such sensitives areas of feedback. If dental faculty members of other institutions do not feel that similar findings apply to their schools, the authors recommend that they conduct an analogous study. PMID:289681

  17. Management to reduce nitrogen losses in animal production.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A

    2004-01-01

    Reduction of nitrogen loss in animal production requires whole-farm management. Reduced loss from one farm component is easily negated in another if all components are not equally well managed. Animal excretion of manure N can be decreased by improving the balance of protein or amino acids fed to that required by individual animals or animal groups or by improving production efficiency. Management to increase milk, meat, or egg production normally improves efficiency by reducing the maintenance protein required per unit of production. Large losses of manure nitrogen occur through the ammonia and nitrous oxide that are emitted into the atmosphere and the nitrate leached into groundwater. Up to half of the excreted nitrogen is lost from the housing facility, but this loss can be decreased through frequent manure removal and by avoiding deep litter systems and feedlots. Techniques such as acid treatment of manure, scrubbing of ventilation air, and floor designs for separating feces and urine substantially reduce ammonia emissions, but these practices are often impractical or uneconomical for general use. Manure storage units improve nutrient utilization by allowing better timing of nutrient application with crop needs. At least 70% of the nitrogen entering anaerobic lagoons is typically lost, but a less than 10% loss can be maintained using slurry storage with a natural crust or other cover, or by drying poultry manure to at least 50% dry matter. Irrigation and surface spreading of manure without soil incorporation often ensures the loss of all remaining nonorganic nitrogen (typically, 20 to 40% of remaining nitrogen). Rapid incorporation and shallow injection methods decrease this loss by at least 50%, and deep injection into the soil essentially eliminates this loss. For grazing animals, excessive loss can be avoided by not overstocking pastures and avoiding late fall and winter grazing. Reducing emissions between the animal and the soil can lead to greater leaching

  18. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  19. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  20. Graphical Contingency Analysis Tool

    2010-03-02

    GCA is a visual analytic tool for power grid contingency analysis to provide more decision support for power grid operations. GCA allows power grid operators to quickly gain situational awareness of power grid by converting large amounts of operational data to graphic domain with a color contoured map; identify system trend and foresee and discern emergencies by performing trending analysis; identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets by conducting clustering analysis; and identifymore » the best action by interactively evaluate candidate actions.« less

  1. Rotorcraft contingency power study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschkron, R.; Haynes, J. F.; Goldstein, D. N.; Davis, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Twin helicopter engines are often sized by the power requirement of a safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, turbine cooling airflow modulation, throttle push, and a propellant auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter Direct Operating Cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine and a rubber aircraft scenario.

  2. Modeling and simulation of cascading contingencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    This dissertation proposes a new approach to model and study cascading contingencies in large power systems. The most important contribution of the work involves the development and validation of a heuristic analytic model to assess the likelihood of cascading contingencies, and the development and validation of a uniform search strategy. We model the probability of cascading contingencies as a function of power flow and power flow changes. Utilizing logistic regression, the proposed model is calibrated using real industry data. This dissertation analyzes random search strategies for Monte Carlo simulations and proposes a new uniform search strategy based on the Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm. The proposed search strategy is capable of selecting the most significant cascading contingencies, and it is capable of constructing an unbiased estimator to provide a measure of system security. This dissertation makes it possible to reasonably quantify system security and justify security operations when economic concerns conflict with reliability concerns in the new competitive power market environment. It can also provide guidance to system operators about actions that may be taken to reduce the risk of major system blackouts. Various applications can be developed to take advantage of the quantitative security measures provided in this dissertation.

  3. Reducing uncertainty in managing respiratory tract infections in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Naomi; Francis, Nick A; Butler, Chris C

    2010-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) remain the commonest reason for acute consultations in primary care in resource-rich countries. Their spectrum and severity has changed from the time that antibiotics were discovered, largely from improvements in the socioeconomic determinants of health as well as vaccination. The benefits from antibiotic treatment for common RTIs have been shown to be largely overstated. Nevertheless, serious infections do occur. Currently, no clinical features or diagnostic test, alone or in combination, adequately determine diagnosis, aetiology, prognosis, or response to treatment. This narrative review focuses on emerging evidence aimed at helping clinicians reduce and manage uncertainty in treating RTIs. Consultation rate and prescribing rate trends are described, evidence of increasing rates of complications are discussed, and studies and the association with antibiotic prescribing are examined. Methods of improving diagnosis and identifying those patients who are at increased risk of complications from RTIs, using clinical scoring systems, biomarkers, and point of care tests are also discussed. The evidence for alternative management options for RTIs are summarised and the methods for changing public and clinicians' beliefs about antibiotics, including ways in which we can improve clinician–patient communication skills for management of RTIs, are described. PMID:21144191

  4. Contingencies promote delay tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Mahshid; Hanley, Gregory P; Jessel, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of functional communication training as treatment for problem behavior depends on the extent to which treatment can be extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based progressive delay (TBPD) often results in the loss of acquired communication responses and the resurgence of problem behavior, whereas contingency-based progressive delay (CBPD) appears to be effective for increasing tolerance for delayed reinforcement. No direct comparison of TBPD and CBPD has, however, been conducted. We used single-subject designs to compare the relative efficacy of TBPD and CBPD. Four individuals who engaged in problem behavior (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury) participated. Results were consistent across all participants, and showed lower rates of problem behavior and collateral responses during CBPD than during TBPD. The generality of CBPD treatment effects, including optimal rates of communication and compliance with demands, was demonstrated across a small but heterogeneous group of participants, reinforcement contingencies, and contexts. PMID:27449401

  5. Use of Integrated Malaria Management Reduces Malaria in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Okech, Bernard A.; Mwobobia, Isaac K.; Kamau, Anthony; Muiruri, Samuel; Mutiso, Noah; Nyambura, Joyce; Mwatele, Cassian; Amano, Teruaki; Mwandawiro, Charles S.

    2008-01-01

    insecticide treated bed net and 81% reported buying the nets within the last 5 years. The community also used mosquito reduction measures including, in order of preference, environmental management (35%), mosquito repellent and smoke (31%) insecticide canister sprays (11%), and window and door screens (6%). These methods used by the community comprise an integrated malaria management (IMM) package. Over the last 4 years prior to this study, the malaria cases in the community hospital reduced from about 40% in 2000 to less than 10% by 2004 and by the year 2007 malaria cases decreased to zero. In addition, a one time cross-sectional malaria parasite survey detected no Plasmodium infection in 300 primary school children in the area. Mosquito vector populations were variable in the six villages but were generally lower in villages that did not engage in irrigation activities. The malaria risk as estimated by EIR remained low and varied by village and proximity to irrigation areas. The average EIR in the area was estimated at 0.011 infectious bites per person per day. Conclusions The usage of a combination of malaria control tools in an integrated fashion by residents of Mwea division might have influenced the decreased malaria cases in the district hospital and in the school children. A vigorous campaign emphasizing IMM should be adopted and expanded in Mwea division and in other areas with different eco-epidemiological patterns of malaria transmission. With sustained implementation and support from community members integrated malaria management can reduce malaria significantly in affected communities in Africa. PMID:19115000

  6. Alternative Forms of Fit in Contingency Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Robert; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the selection, interaction, and systems approaches to fit in structural contingency theory. The concepts of fit evaluated may be applied not only to structural contingency theory but to contingency theories in general. (MD)

  7. Contingent Attentional Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

  8. Academic response rate as a function of teacher- and self-imposed contingencies1

    PubMed Central

    Lovitt, Thomas C.; Curtiss, Karen A.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the contingency manager (teacher or pupil) on a pupil's academic response rate. The results of two such experiments disclosed that higher academic rates occurred when the pupil arranged the contingency requirements than when the teacher specified them. A third study manipulated only reinforcement magnitude to ascertain whether amount of reinforcement had interacted with pupil-specified contingencies to produce the increase in academic response rate. The latter findings revealed that the contingency manager, not reinforcement magnitude, accounted for this subject's gain in performance. PMID:16795202

  9. Reducing maladaptive weight management practices: developing a psychoeducational intervention program.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Karina M; LeBow, Michael D

    2007-04-01

    Previous research has addressed the issues of behavior change and eating disorder prevention among adolescents and young women. The current study was designed to evaluate: (a) whether an 8-week psychoeducational intervention can reduce maladaptive weight-management practices in women (University females, N=24) with sub-clinical levels of eating pathology; and (b) whether its implementation reduces the risk of developing more severe eating pathology across time. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (EX) group or a self-monitoring control (SMC) group. Statistically significant changes on measures of eating pathology, including the Eating Attitudes Test-26 [Garner, D. M., Olmsted, M. P., Bohr, Y., & Garfinkel, P. (1982). The Eating Attitudes Test: psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine, 12, 871-878]; Forbidden Food Survey [Ruggerio, L., Williamson, D. A., Davis, C. J., Schlundt, D. G., & Carey, M. P. (1988). Forbidden Food Survey: Measure of bulimic's anticipated emotional reactions to specific foods. Addictive Behaviors, 13, 267-274]; and Bulimia Test-Revised [Thelen, M. H., Farmer, J., Wonderlich, S., & Smith, M. (1991). A revision of the bulimia test: The BULIT-R. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3(1), 119-124] were observed, as were changes in body image, as measured by the Body Shape Questionnaire [Cooper, P. J., Taylor, M. J., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C. G. (1987). The development and validation of the body shape questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6(4), 485-494]. Additional significant between-group differences in eating behavior, as measured by daily meal records, were also seen. Participants in the EX group evidenced improvements in scores which were significantly different from those observed in the SMC group. Unfortunately, attrition limited the utility of follow up data. PMID:17336790

  10. Dengue Contingency Planning: From Research to Policy and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Kroeger, Axel; Olliaro, Piero; McCall, Philip J.; Sánchez Tejeda, Gustavo; Lloyd, Linda S.; Hakim, Lokman; Bowman, Leigh R.; Horstick, Olaf; Coelho, Giovanini

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is an increasingly incident disease across many parts of the world. In response, an evidence-based handbook to translate research into policy and practice was developed. This handbook facilitates contingency planning as well as the development and use of early warning and response systems for dengue fever epidemics, by identifying decision-making processes that contribute to the success or failure of dengue surveillance, as well as triggers that initiate effective responses to incipient outbreaks. Methodology/Principal findings Available evidence was evaluated using a step-wise process that included systematic literature reviews, policymaker and stakeholder interviews, a study to assess dengue contingency planning and outbreak management in 10 countries, and a retrospective logistic regression analysis to identify alarm signals for an outbreak warning system using datasets from five dengue endemic countries. Best practices for managing a dengue outbreak are provided for key elements of a dengue contingency plan including timely contingency planning, the importance of a detailed, context-specific dengue contingency plan that clearly distinguishes between routine and outbreak interventions, surveillance systems for outbreak preparedness, outbreak definitions, alert algorithms, managerial capacity, vector control capacity, and clinical management of large caseloads. Additionally, a computer-assisted early warning system, which enables countries to identify and respond to context-specific variables that predict forthcoming dengue outbreaks, has been developed. Conclusions/Significance Most countries do not have comprehensive, detailed contingency plans for dengue outbreaks. Countries tend to rely on intensified vector control as their outbreak response, with minimal focus on integrated management of clinical care, epidemiological, laboratory and vector surveillance, and risk communication. The Technical Handbook for Surveillance, Dengue Outbreak

  11. Order effects in contingency learning: the role of task complexity.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Jessecae K; Ahn, Woo-Kyoung

    2006-04-01

    Dennis and Ahn (2001) found that during contingency learning, initial evidence influences causal judgments more than does later evidence (a primacy effect), whereas López, Shanks, Almaraz, and Fernández (1998) found the opposite (a recency effect). We propose that in contingency learning, people use initial evidence to develop an anchoring hypothesis that tends to be underadjusted by later evidence, resulting in a primacy effect. Thus, factors interfering with initial hypothesis development, such as simultaneously learning too many contingencies, as in López et al., would reduce the primacy effect. Experiment 1 showed a primacy effect with learning contingencies involving only one outcome but no primacy effect with two outcomes. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the magnitude of the primacy effect correlated with participants' verbal working memory capacity. It is concluded that a critical moderator for exhibition of the primacy effect is task complexity, presumably because it interferes with initial hypothesis development.

  12. 12 CFR 741.12 - Liquidity and contingency funding plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... resolutions to obtain credit from a Federal Reserve Bank pursuant to 12 CFR part 201. (d) Contingency Funding.../liability policy, a funds management policy, or a business continuity policy. The CFP must address, at a...; (3) Policies to manage a range of stress environments, identification of some possible stress...

  13. 30 CFR 282.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contingency Plan. 282.26 Section 282.26 Mineral... § 282.26 Contingency Plan. (a) When required by the Director, a lessee shall include a Contingency Plan as part of its request for approval of a Delineation, Testing, or Mining Plan. The Contingency...

  14. Endoscopic surgery and telemedicine in microgravity: developing contingency procedures for exploratory class spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.; Johnston, S.; Campbell, M.; Miles, B.; Billica, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The risk of a urinary calculus during an extended duration mission into the reduced gravity environment of space is significant. For medical operations to develop a comprehensive strategy for the spaceflight stone risk, both preventive countermeasures and contingency management (CM) plans must be included. METHODS: A feasibility study was conducted to demonstrate the potential CM technique of endoscopic ureteral stenting with ultrasound guidance for the possible in-flight urinary calculus contingency. The procedure employed the International Space Station/Human Research Facility ultrasound unit for guide wire and stent localization, a flexible cystoscope for visual guidance, and banded, biocompatible soft ureteral stents to successfully stent porcine ureters bilaterally in zero gravity (0g). RESULTS: The study demonstrated that downlinked endoscopic surgical and ultrasound images obtained in 0g are comparable in quality to 1g images, and therefore are useful for diagnostic clinical utility via telemedicine transmission. CONCLUSIONS: In order to be successful, surgical procedures in 0g require excellent positional stability of the operating surgeon, assistant, and patient, relative to one another. The technological development of medical procedures for long-duration spaceflight contingencies may lead to improved terrestrial patient care methodology and subsequently reduced morbidity.

  15. Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of marijuana abstinence among individuals with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies by our group have used money given contingent on abstinence to reduce drug use by individuals with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of marijuana use by individuals with serious mental illness to voucher-based contingent reinforcement, which represents the first study to date investigating the efficacy of voucher incentives with this population. This within-subject reversal design consisted of three conditions: 4-week baseline, 12-week voucher intervention, and 4-week baseline. During baseline periods, subjects received 10 US dollars vouchers per urine specimen, independent of urinalysis results. During voucher intervention, only specimens testing negative for marijuana earned vouchers, with total possible earnings of 930 US dollars. Seven adults with schizophrenia or other serious mental illnesses participated in the study. The percentage of marijuana-negative specimens was significantly greater during voucher intervention than during baseline periods. These results provide evidence that marijuana use among individuals with serious mental illness is sensitive to voucher-based incentives and further support the potential feasibility of using voucher-based contingency management to reduce substance abuse in this challenging population.

  16. Spaceflight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the Decompression Sickness (DCS) Contingency Plan for manned spaceflight is shown. The topics include: 1) Approach; 2) DCS Contingency Plan Overview; 3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Cuff Classifications; 4) On-orbit Treatment Philosophy; 5) Long Form Malfunction Procedure (MAL); 6) Medical Checklist; 7) Flight Rules; 8) Crew Training; 9) Flight Surgeon / Biomedical Engineer (BME) Training; and 10) DCS Emergency Landing Site.

  17. Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phimister, James R. (Editor); Bier, Vicki M. (Editor); Kunreuther, Howard C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Almost every year there is at least one technological disaster that highlights the challenge of managing technological risk. On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia and her crew were lost during reentry into the atmosphere. In the summer of 2003, there was a blackout that left millions of people in the northeast United States without electricity. Forensic analyses, congressional hearings, investigations by scientific boards and panels, and journalistic and academic research have yielded a wealth of information about the events that led up to each disaster, and questions have arisen. Why were the events that led to the accident not recognized as harbingers? Why were risk-reducing steps not taken? This line of questioning is based on the assumption that signals before an accident can and should be recognized. To examine the validity of this assumption, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) undertook the Accident Precursors Project in February 2003. The project was overseen by a committee of experts from the safety and risk-sciences communities. Rather than examining a single accident or incident, the committee decided to investigate how different organizations anticipate and assess the likelihood of accidents from accident precursors. The project culminated in a workshop held in Washington, D.C., in July 2003. This report includes the papers presented at the workshop, as well as findings and recommendations based on the workshop results and committee discussions. The papers describe precursor strategies in aviation, the chemical industry, health care, nuclear power and security operations. In addition to current practices, they also address some areas for future research.

  18. Reducing environmental noise impacts: A USAREUR noise management program handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feather, Timothy D.; Shekell, Ted K.

    1991-06-01

    Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a noise management program. A successful noise management program will limit the impact of unavoidable noise on the populace. This report, a component of the noise management program, is a reference document for noise management planning. It contains guidelines and rules-of-thumb for noise management. This document contains procedures which operation and training level personnel can understand and apply in their day to day noise management planning. Noise mitigation tips are given. Basic technical information that will aid in understanding noise mitigation is provided along with noise management through land use planning. Noise management for specific components of the military community, (airfields, base operations, training areas, and housing and recreation areas) are addressed. The nature of noise generated, means of noise abatement at the source, path, and receiver (both physical and organizational/public relations methods), and a case study example are described.

  19. Reduce--recycle--reuse: guidelines for promoting perioperative waste management.

    PubMed

    Laustsen, Gary

    2007-04-01

    The perioperative environment generates large amounts of waste, which negatively affects local and global ecosystems. To manage this waste health care facility leaders must focus on identifying correctable issues, work with relevant stakeholders to promote solutions, and adopt systematic procedural changes. Nurses and managers can moderate negative environmental effects by promoting reduction, recycling, and reuse of materials in the perioperative setting.

  20. Contingency planning at the flotilla level in the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary: flotilla 81-a case study.

    PubMed

    Schooley, Shawn Erik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study of United States Coast Guard Auxiliary Flotilla 81. Flotilla 81 created its first formal, single agency contingency plan. The research question addressed is "How can a flotilla successfully develop a contingency plan?" Five emergent themes are identified. They are offered as suggested promising practices for other flotillas in need of creating a contingency plan. Findings suggest successful contingency planning is a result of effective collaboration with community partners. Network management theory is a key to an effective contingency planning process.

  1. Contingency planning at the flotilla level in the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary: flotilla 81-a case study.

    PubMed

    Schooley, Shawn Erik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study of United States Coast Guard Auxiliary Flotilla 81. Flotilla 81 created its first formal, single agency contingency plan. The research question addressed is "How can a flotilla successfully develop a contingency plan?" Five emergent themes are identified. They are offered as suggested promising practices for other flotillas in need of creating a contingency plan. Findings suggest successful contingency planning is a result of effective collaboration with community partners. Network management theory is a key to an effective contingency planning process. PMID:24340457

  2. The Efficacy of Contingency Models of Reinforcement on Group Expectations and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Valerie Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Social learning theory contends that group contingent reinforcement can be used as a means of shaping problematic behavior in both academic and nonacademic settings. Prior research has focused on contingent management of academic behaviors with older populations at the college level and younger students both with and without disabilities in the…

  3. Voucher-Based Contingent Reinforcement of Smoking Abstinence among Methadone-Maintained Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Kelly E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Thomas, Colleen S.; Heil, Sarah H.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) intervention to promote smoking cessation in methadone-maintained patients. Twenty participants, randomized into contingent (n = 10) or noncontingent (n = 10) experimental conditions, completed the 14-day study. Abstinence was determined using breath carbon monoxide and urine…

  4. Randomized Trial of Contingent Prizes versus Vouchers in Cocaine-Using Methadone Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Sierra, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions frequently utilize vouchers as reinforcers, but a prize-based system is also efficacious. This study compared these approaches. Seventy-four cocaine-dependent methadone outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST plus a maximum of $585 in contingent vouchers, or ST plus an expected…

  5. Task-Contingent Conscientiousness as a Unit of Personality at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minbashian, Amirali; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the viability of incorporating task-contingent units into the study of personality at work, using conscientiousness as an illustrative example. We used experience-sampling data from 123 managers to show that (a) momentary conscientiousness at work is contingent on the difficulty and urgency demands of the tasks people…

  6. Inevitability, contingency, and epistemic humility.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Ian James

    2016-02-01

    This paper offers an epistemological framework for the debate about whether the results of scientific enquiry are inevitable or contingent. I argue in Sections 2 and 3 that inevitabilist stances are doubly guilty of epistemic hubris--a lack of epistemic humility--and that the real question concerns the scope and strength of our contingentism. The latter stages of the paper-Sections 4 and 5-address some epistemological and historiographical worries and sketch some examples of deep contingencies to guide further debate. I conclude by affirming that the concept of epistemic humility can usefully inform critical reflection on the contingency of the sciences and the practice of history of science. PMID:26774064

  7. Management Can Reduce Contamination Potential of Beef Backgrounding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers who want to “background” beef cattle on karst landscapes face great challenges. This is because without proper management, manure-borne contaminants from backgrounding sites can quickly degrade water quality in karst regions. Western Kentucky University and USDA-ARS reported on three-year ...

  8. Can weight management programs in worksites reduce the obesity epidemic?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites can potentially be important locations for weight management programs that contribute to curbing the national obesity epidemic. In published studies, weight loss programs targeting overweight and obese employees have been relatively more effective for weight loss than programs for preventi...

  9. Management Science/Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Food Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Murray

    This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…

  10. Marine oil spill contingency planning.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Bing; Chu, Jia-cheng; Zhao, Ping; Yu, Yuan; Li, Yun

    2002-01-01

    According to the practice researching and formulating "The Oil Spill Contingency Plan of South Chinese Sea", this paper analyses and discusses the structure, functions and main contents of marine oil spill contingency planning, programs the organizing and commanding system and emergency response system, and advances the planning and researching method to coordinate comprehensively and to design practically the detailed emergency response steps until to formulate the ease operating programs for the plan implementation(PPI) and the PPI to apply high-techniques supporting emergency administrations and response.

  11. Contingency Theories of Leadership: A Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saha, Sunhir K.

    1979-01-01

    Some of the major contingency theories of leadership are reviewed; some results from the author's study of Fiedler's contingency model are reported; and some thoughts for the future of leadership research are provided. (Author/MLF)

  12. Contingency Planning for Planetary Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David; Washington, Rich; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. But this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the power required, the data storage necessary, along with its position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  13. Locally Contingent Categorization in Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overstreet, Maryann; Yule, George

    1997-01-01

    Investigates creation and interpretation of nonlexicalized categories within discourse, as indicated by the use of general extenders. Shows that such categories are locally contingent, depend on contextually salient features for identifying similarity among members, can be created through contrast or contiguity, and clearly depend on assumptions…

  14. The Contingency Theory of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnow, Wilma Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    Develops a conceptual framework for determining the appropriateness of various methodologies. Concludes that educators should stop switching from one to another and recognize that the best methodology is contingent upon the circumstances. (Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe, Nr Lewes, East Sussex, BN8 5DL, UK) (JOW)

  15. Contingent Faculty across the Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobe, Monica F.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a 1999 survey conducted by the Coalition on the Academic Workforce (CAW), a group of higher education and disciplinary associations concerned about the dramatic rise in contingent faculty, to examine the staffing practices across eleven humanities and social science disciplines. The comprehensive report showed…

  16. Contingency Teaching during Close Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    12 teachers were interviewed and observed as they engaged students in close reading. We analyzed their responses and instruction to determine the scaffolds that were used as well as the contingency teaching plans they implemented when students were unable to understand the text.

  17. 30 CFR 282.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contingency Plan. 282.26 Section 282.26 Mineral... Obligations and Responsibilities of Lessees § 282.26 Contingency Plan. (a) When required by the Director, a... Mining Plan. The Contingency Plan shall comply with the requirements of § 282.28(e) of this part. (b)...

  18. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  19. Comparison of Anxiety Management Training and Desensitization in Reducing Test and Other Anxieties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Shelton, John L.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of systematic desensitization and anxiety management training in reducing test anxiety and generalizing to other anxieties were compared. Both desensitization and anxiety management training produced significant reduction of text anxiety, but by follow-up, anxiety management training produced significantly more test-anxiety reduction on…

  20. Bayesian Full Rank Marginalization for Two-Way Contingency Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Tom; Novick, Melvin R.

    A general approach is proposed for modeling the structure of a two-way contingency table, and for drawing inferences about the marginal and interaction effects, cell parameters, and conditional probabilities. The prior distribution expresses uncertainty in a simple reduced model, in particular the independence model. The posterior estimates of the…

  1. Management strategies to reduce risk of postoperative infections

    PubMed Central

    Galor, Anat; Goldhardt, Raquel; Wellik, Sarah R.; Gregori, Ninel Z.; Flynn, Harry W.

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative infections, although rare, are still of great concern to the ophthalmologist. The incidence of post-cataract endophthalmitis is low, with a range of .28 per 1,000 to 2.99 per 1000. In addition to intraoperative considerations such as poor wound construction, vitreous loss, topical anesthesia, and prolonged surgical time, other risk factors include preoperative factors such as a diseased ocular surface and systemic immunosuppression. Potential methods of reducing risk of endophthalmitis after anterior segment surgery are discussed and available literature is summarized. PMID:24319649

  2. Waste management: how reducing partiality can promote efficient resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Choshen-Hillel, Shoham; Shaw, Alex; Caruso, Eugene M

    2015-08-01

    Two central principles that guide resource-allocation decisions are equity (providing equal pay for equal work) and efficiency (not wasting resources). When these two principles conflict with one another, people will often waste resources to avoid inequity. We suggest that people wish to avoid inequity not because they find it inherently unfair, but because they want to avoid the appearance of partiality associated with it. We explore one way to reduce waste by reducing the perceived partiality of inequitable allocations. Specifically, we hypothesize that people will be more likely to favor an efficient (albeit inequitable) allocation if it puts them in a disadvantaged position than if it puts others in a disadvantaged position. To test this hypothesis, we asked participants to choose between giving some extra resource to one person (thereby creating inequity between this person and equally deserving others) and not giving the resource to anyone (thereby wasting the resource). Six studies, using realistic scenarios and behavioral paradigms, provide robust evidence for a self-disadvantaging effect: Allocators were consistently more likely to create inequity to avoid wasting resources when the resulting inequity would put them at a relative disadvantage than when it would put others at a relative disadvantage. We further find that this self-disadvantaging effect is a direct result of people's concern about appearing partial. Our findings suggest the importance of impartiality even in distributive justice, thereby bridging a gap between the distributive and procedural justice literatures.

  3. Reducing cold-start emissions by catalytic converter thermal management

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, S D; Potter, T F; Keyser, M A; Brady, M J; Michaels, K F

    1995-01-01

    Vacuum insulation and phase-change thermal storage have been used to enhance the heat retention of a prototype catalytic converter. Storing heat in the converter between trips allows exhaust gases to be converted more quickly, significantly reducing cold-start emissions. Using a small metal hydride, the thermal conductance of the vacuum insulation can be varied continuously between 0.49 and 27 W/m{sup 2}K (R-12 to R-0.2 insulation) to prevent overheating of the catalyst. A prototype was installed in a Dodge Neon with a 2.0-liter engine. Following a standard preconditioning and a 23-hour cold soak, an FTP (Federal Test Procedure) emissions test was performed. Although exhaust temperatures during the preconditioning were not hot enough to melt the phase-change material, the vacuum insulation performed well, resulting in a converter temperature of 146{degrees}C after the 23-hour cold soak at 27{degrees}C. Compared to the same converter at ambient conditions, overall emissions of CO and HC were reduced by 52 % and 29 %, to 0.27 and 0.037 g/mile, respectively. The maximum converter temperature during the FTP cycle was 720{degrees}C. This limited testing was performed with a nearly-fresh palladium-only catalyst, but demonstrates the potential of this vacuum insulation approach for emissions reduction and thermal control. Further testing is ongoing. An initial assessment of several production issues is made, including high-volume fabrication challenges, durability, and cost.

  4. Reducing the cognitive workload: Trouble managing power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.; Liberman, Eugene M.; Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.

    1993-01-01

    The complexity of space-based systems makes monitoring them and diagnosing their faults taxing for human beings. Mission control operators are well-trained experts but they can not afford to have their attention diverted by extraneous information. During normal operating conditions monitoring the status of the components of a complex system alone is a big task. When a problem arises, immediate attention and quick resolution is mandatory. To aid humans in these endeavors we have developed an automated advisory system. Our advisory expert system, Trouble, incorporates the knowledge of the power system designers for Space Station Freedom. Trouble is designed to be a ground-based advisor for the mission controllers in the Control Center Complex at Johnson Space Center (JSC). It has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and tested in conjunction with prototype flight hardware contained in the Power Management and Distribution testbed and the Engineering Support Center, ESC, at LeRC. Our work will culminate with the adoption of these techniques by the mission controllers at JSC. This paper elucidates how we have captured power system failure knowledge, how we have built and tested our expert system, and what we believe are its potential uses.

  5. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Guss, Robert Augdahl, Bill Nickels, Cassandra Zellers

    2008-04-16

    This paper describes the contingency planning for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory scheduled for the 21-day window beginning on September 15, 2009. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTec’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. RSL is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment, sample collection and control, contaminated material release criteria, data management, reporting, recording, and even communications. The tools RSL has available to support these efforts will be reported. The data platform RSL will provide shall also be compatible with integration of assets and field data acquired with other DOE, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, state, and local resources, personnel, and equipment. This paper also outlines the organizational structure for response elements in radiological contingency planning.

  6. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Paul P. Guss

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the contingency planning for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory scheduled for the 21-day window beginning on September 15, 2009. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTec’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. RSL is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment, sample collection and control, contaminated material release criteria, data management, reporting, recording, and even communications. The tools RSL has available to support these efforts will be reported. The data platform RSL will provide shall also be compatible with integration of assets and field data acquired with other DOE, National Space and Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), state, and local resources, personnel, and equipment. This paper also outlines the organizational structure for response elements in radiological contingency planning.

  7. Contingent plan structures for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, M.; Currie, K.; Tate, A.

    1987-01-01

    Most current AI planners build partially ordered plan structures which delay decisions on action ordering. Such structures cannot easily represent contingent actions. A representation which can is presented. The representation has some other useful features: it provides a good account of the causal structure of a plan, can be used to describe disjunctive actions, and it offers a planner the opportunity of even less commitment than the classical partial order on actions. The use of this representation is demonstrated in an on-board spacecraft activity sequencing problem. Contingent plan execution in a spacecraft context highlights the requirements for a fully disjunctive representation, since communication delays often prohibit extensive ground-based accounting for remotely sensed information and replanning on execution failure.

  8. Parallel contingency statistics with Titan.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes existing statistical engines in VTK/Titan and presents the recently parallelized contingency statistics engine. It is a sequel to [PT08] and [BPRT09] which studied the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, and principal component analysis engines. The ease of use of this new parallel engines is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets. Furthermore, this report justifies the design of these engines with parallel scalability in mind; however, the very nature of contingency tables prevent this new engine from exhibiting optimal parallel speed-up as the aforementioned engines do. This report therefore discusses the design trade-offs we made and study performance with up to 200 processors.

  9. Suited Contingency Ops Food - 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, J. W.; Leong, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

  10. Vision contingent auditory pitch aftereffects.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Wataru; Kobayashi, Maori; Hidaka, Souta; Sugita, Yoichi

    2013-08-01

    Visual motion aftereffects can occur contingent on arbitrary sounds. Two circles, placed side by side, were alternately presented, and the onsets were accompanied by tone bursts of high and low frequencies, respectively. After a few minutes of exposure to the visual apparent motion with the tones, a circle blinking at a fixed location was perceived as a lateral motion in the same direction as the previously exposed apparent motion (Teramoto et al. in PLoS One 5:e12255, 2010). In the present study, we attempted to reverse this contingency (pitch aftereffects contingent on visual information). Results showed that after prolonged exposure to the audio-visual stimuli, the apparent visual motion systematically affected the perceived pitch of the auditory stimuli. When the leftward apparent visual motion was paired with the high-low-frequency sequence during the adaptation phase, a test tone sequence was more frequently perceived as a high-low-pitch sequence when the leftward apparent visual motion was presented and vice versa. Furthermore, the effect was specific for the exposed visual field and did not transfer to the other side, thus ruling out an explanation in terms of simple response bias. These results suggest that new audiovisual associations can be established within a short time, and visual information processing and auditory processing can mutually influence each other. PMID:23727883

  11. Contingent post-closure plan, hazardous waste management units at selected maintenance facilities, US Army National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, is a US Army training installation that provides tactical experience for battalion/task forces and squadrons in a mid- to high-intensity combat scenario. Through joint exercises with US Air Force and other services, the NTC also provides a data source for improvements of training doctrines, organization, and equipment. To meet the training and operational needs of the NTC, several maintenance facilities provide general and direct support for mechanical devices, equipment, and vehicles. Maintenance products used at these facilities include fuels, petroleum-based oils, lubricating grease, various degreasing solvents, antifreeze (ethylene glycol), transmission fluid, brake fluid, and hydraulic oil. Used or spent petroleum-based products generated at the maintenance facilities are temporarily accumulated in underground storage tanks (USTs), collected by the NTC hazardous waste management contractor (HAZCO), and stored at the Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant (POL) Storage Facility, Building 630, until shipped off site to be recovered, reused, and/or reclaimed. Spent degreasing solvents and other hazardous wastes are containerized and stored on-base for up to 90 days at the NTC's Hazardous Waste Storage Facility, Building 703. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed an inspection and reviewed the hazardous waste management operations of the NTC. Inspections indicated that the NTC had violated one or more requirements of Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and as a result of these violations was issued a Notice of Noncompliance, Notice of Necessity for Conference, and Proposed Compliance Schedule (NON) dated October 13, 1989. The following post-closure plan is the compliance-based approach for the NTC to respond to the regulatory violations cited in the NON.

  12. Contingent post-closure plan, hazardous waste management units at selected maintenance facilities, US Army National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, is a US Army training installation that provides tactical experience for battalion/task forces and squadrons in a mid- to high-intensity combat scenario. Through joint exercises with US Air Force and other services, the NTC also provides a data source for improvements of training doctrines, organization, and equipment. To meet the training and operational needs of the NTC, several maintenance facilities provide general and direct support for mechanical devices, equipment, and vehicles. Maintenance products used at these facilities include fuels, petroleum-based oils, lubricating grease, various degreasing solvents, antifreeze (ethylene glycol), transmission fluid, brake fluid, and hydraulic oil. Used or spent petroleum-based products generated at the maintenance facilities are temporarily accumulated in underground storage tanks (USTs), collected by the NTC hazardous waste management contractor (HAZCO), and stored at the Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant (POL) Storage Facility, Building 630, until shipped off site to be recovered, reused, and/or reclaimed. Spent degreasing solvents and other hazardous wastes are containerized and stored on-base for up to 90 days at the NTC`s Hazardous Waste Storage Facility, Building 703. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed an inspection and reviewed the hazardous waste management operations of the NTC. Inspections indicated that the NTC had violated one or more requirements of Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and as a result of these violations was issued a Notice of Noncompliance, Notice of Necessity for Conference, and Proposed Compliance Schedule (NON) dated October 13, 1989. The following post-closure plan is the compliance-based approach for the NTC to respond to the regulatory violations cited in the NON.

  13. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  14. Municipal solid waste management in rural areas and small counties: an economic analysis using contingent valuation to estimate willingness to pay for Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2014-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a major challenge for local governments in rural China. One key issue is the low priority assigned by the local government which is faced with limited financing capacity. We conducted an economic analysis in Eryuan, a poor county in Yunnan, China, where the willingness- to- pay (WTP) for an improved solid waste collection and disposal service was valuated and compared with project cost. Similar to most previous studies in developing countries, this study found that the mean WTP is approximately 1% of the household income. The economic internal rate of return of the project is about 5%, which signifies the estimated social benefit to be already higher than the project cost. Moreover, we believe our estimation of social benefit to be a conservative one since our study only focuses on the local people who will be directly served by the project; wider positive externality of the project, such as CO2 emission reduction and groundwater pollution alleviation, etc., whose impact most probably surpass the frontier of Eryuan county, are not considered explicitly in our survey. The analysis also reveals that the poorest households are not only willing to pay more than the rich households in terms of percentage income but are also willing to pay no less than the rich in terms of absolute value in locations where solid waste services are unavailable. This result reveals the fact that the poorest households have stronger demands for public SWM services, whereas the rich may have the ability to employ private solutions.

  15. Municipal solid waste management in rural areas and small counties: an economic analysis using contingent valuation to estimate willingness to pay for Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2014-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a major challenge for local governments in rural China. One key issue is the low priority assigned by the local government which is faced with limited financing capacity. We conducted an economic analysis in Eryuan, a poor county in Yunnan, China, where the willingness- to- pay (WTP) for an improved solid waste collection and disposal service was valuated and compared with project cost. Similar to most previous studies in developing countries, this study found that the mean WTP is approximately 1% of the household income. The economic internal rate of return of the project is about 5%, which signifies the estimated social benefit to be already higher than the project cost. Moreover, we believe our estimation of social benefit to be a conservative one since our study only focuses on the local people who will be directly served by the project; wider positive externality of the project, such as CO2 emission reduction and groundwater pollution alleviation, etc., whose impact most probably surpass the frontier of Eryuan county, are not considered explicitly in our survey. The analysis also reveals that the poorest households are not only willing to pay more than the rich households in terms of percentage income but are also willing to pay no less than the rich in terms of absolute value in locations where solid waste services are unavailable. This result reveals the fact that the poorest households have stronger demands for public SWM services, whereas the rich may have the ability to employ private solutions. PMID:25023984

  16. The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation Contingency Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Warren F.; Richon, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation comprises NASA missions Aqua, Aura, CloudSat and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), the joint NASA/CNES mission CALIPSO and the CNES mission PARASOL. Both NASA and CNES offices are responsible for ensuring that contingency plans or other arrangements exist to cope with contingencies within their respective jurisdictions until the conclusion of all Afternoon Constellation operations. The Mission Operations Working Group, comprised of members from each of the missions, has developed the high-level procedures for maintaining the safety of this constellation. Each contingency situation requires detailed analyses before any decisions are made. This paper describes these procedures, and includes defining what constitutes a contingency situation, the pertinent parameters involved in the contingency analysis and guidelines for the actions required, based on the results of the contingency analyses.

  17. Cyber Contingency Analysis version 1.x

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-02

    Contingency analysis based approach for quantifying and examining the resiliency of a cyber system in respect to confidentiality, integrity and availability. A graph representing an organization's cyber system and related resources is used for the availability contingency analysis. The mission critical paths associated with an organization are used to determine the consequences of a potential contingency. A node (or combination of nodes) are removed from the graph to analyze a particular contingency. The value of all mission critical paths that are disrupted by that contingency are used to quantify its severity. A total severity score can be calculated based on the complete list of all these contingencies. A simple n1 analysis can be done in which only one node is removed at a time for the analysis. We can also compute nk analysis, where k is the number of nodes to simultaneously remove for analysis. A contingency risk score can also be computed, which takes the probability of the contingencies into account. In addition to availability, we can also quantify confidentiality and integrity scores for the system. These treat user accounts as potential contingencies. The amount (and type) of files that an account can read to is used to compute the confidentiality score. The amount (and type) of files that an account can write to is used to compute the integrity score. As with availability analysis, we can use this information to compute total severity scores in regards to confidentiality and integrity. We can also take probability into account to compute associated risk scores.

  18. Evolutionary contingency and SETI revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, Milan M.

    2014-07-01

    The well-known argument against the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) due to George Gaylord Simpson is re-analyzed almost half a century later, in the light of our improved understanding of preconditions for the emergence of life and intelligence brought about by the ongoing "astrobiological revolution". Simpson's argument has been enormously influential, in particular in biological circles, and it arguably fueled the most serious opposition to SETI programmes and their funding. I argue that both proponents and opponents of Simpson's argument have occasionally mispresented its core content. Proponents often oversimplify it as just another consequence of biological contingency, thus leaving their position open to general arguments limiting the scope of contingency in evolution (such as the recent argument of Geerat Vermeij based on selection effects in the fossil record). They also tend to neglect that the argument has been presented as essentially atemporal, while referring to entities and processes that are likely to change over time; this has become even less justifiable as our astrobiological knowledge increased in recent years. Opponents have failed to see that the weaknesses in Simpson's position could be removed by restructuring of the argument; I suggest one way of such restructuring, envisioned long ago in the fictional context by Stanislaw Lem. While no firm consensus has emerged on the validity of Simpson's argument so far, I suggest that, contrary to the original motivation, today it is less an anti-SETI argument, and more an astrobiological research programme. In this research programme, SETI could be generalized into a platform for testing some of the deepest assumptions about evolutionary continuity and the relative role of contingency versus convergence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales.

  19. Mechanisms of resurgence II: Response-contingent reinforcers can reinstate a second extinguished behavior

    PubMed Central

    Winterbauer, Neil E.; Bouton, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Three experiments with rat subjects examined resurgence of an extinguished instrumental response using the procedure introduced by Epstein (1983) with pigeons. There were three phases: (1) initial acquisition of pressing on a lever (L1) for pellet reward, (2) extinction of L1, and (3) a test session in which a second lever (L2) was inserted, briefly reinforced, and then extinguished. Experiment 1 confirmed that if pressing L2 delivered 20 pellets followed by extinction, rats would resume L1 responding in the final test. Experiment 2 compared the effects of response-contingent and non-contingent rewards delivered upon insertion of L2. Although insertion of L2 alone did not increase L1 responding, response-contingent and non-contingent rewards led to comparable increases in L1 responding. Experiment 3 found that the delivery of non-contingent pellets during extinction of L1, which would be expected to reduce the ability of pellets to set the occasion for the L1 response, also reduced the effects of both response-contingent and non-contingent rewards during the final test. The results indicate that in this method, the resurgence treatment leads to an increase in L1 pressing due to simple presentation of the pellet; delivering the reinforcer after extinction of L1 reinstates L1 responding by setting the occasion for the L1 response. PMID:21479120

  20. Graphical Contingency Analysis for the Nation's Electric Grid

    ScienceCinema

    Zhenyu (Henry) Huang

    2016-07-12

    PNNL has developed a new tool to manage the electric grid more effectively, helping prevent blackouts and brownouts--and possibly avoiding millions of dollars in fines for system violations. The Graphical Contingency Analysis tool monitors grid performance, shows prioritized lists of problems, provides visualizations of potential consequences, and helps operators identify the most effective courses of action. This technology yields faster, better decisions and a more stable and reliable power grid.

  1. Managing a subsidized predator population: Reducing common raven predation on desert tortoises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boarman, W.I.

    2003-01-01

    Human communities often are an inadvertent source of food, water, and other resources to native species of wildlife. Because these resources are more stable and predictable than those in a natural environment, animals that subsist on them are able to increase in numbers and expand their range, much to the detriment of their competitors and species they prey upon. In the Mojave Desert, common ravens (Corvus corax) have benefited from human-provided resources to increase in population size precipitously in recent years. This trend has caused concern because ravens prey on juvenile desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), a federally threatened species. In this paper, I discuss management strategies to reduce raven predation on desert tortoises. The recommendations fall into three categories: (1) managing raven populations by reducing access to anthropogenic resources; (2) removing offending ravens or other birds in specially targeted tortoise management zones; and (3) continuing research on raven ecology, raven behavior, and methods of reducing raven predation on tortoises. I also recommend approaching the problem within an adaptive management framework: management efforts should first be employed as scientific experiments - with replicates and controls - to yield an unbiased assessment of their effectiveness. Furthermore, these strategies should be implemented in concert with actions that reduce other causes of desert tortoise mortality to aid the long-term recovery of their populations. Overall, the approaches outlined in this paper are widely applicable to the management of subsidized predators, particularly where they present a threat to a declining species of prey.

  2. Contingency Management in a Correctional Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    1971-01-01

    The individually prescribed instruction (IPI) system in use at Draper Correctional Center was studied. The IPI system for basic education involves five operations: (1) establishing the learning objectives--basic literacy, educational skills prerequisite for occupational training, preparation for the GED high school equivalency examination, etc.,…

  3. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  4. A Primer on Improving Contingent Faculty Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Heidi; Untener, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Challenges associated with the increasing use of contingent faculty appointments in American higher education are mounting. The AAUP and other professional groups have identified several major problems: (1) unacceptable conditions and compensation for contingent faculty members; (2) poor learning outcomes for students; and (3) the potential…

  5. 48 CFR 31.205-7 - Contingencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingencies. 31.205-7 Section 31.205-7 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING... contingencies are generally unallowable for historical costing purposes because such costing deals with...

  6. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures § 1542.301... responsibilities and that all information contained in the plan is current. (b) TSA may approve alternative implementation measures, reviews, and exercises to the contingency plan which will provide an overall level...

  7. 9 CFR 2.134 - Contingency planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contingency planning. 2.134 Section 2.134 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.134 Contingency planning. (a) Dealers,...

  8. The Role of Contingency in Classical Conditioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Mauricio R.; Bitterman, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    Early experiments suggesting that classical conditioning depends on the contingency between conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US) are reconsidered along with later evidence that shows conditioning of the CS and its context in random training. CS-US contingency is neither necessary nor sufficient for conditioning. (SLD)

  9. Attenuation of the contingency detection effect in the extrastriate body area in autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yuko; Kitada, Ryo; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Hayashi, Masamichi J; Kochiyama, Takanori; Munesue, Toshio; Ishitobi, Makoto; Saito, Daisuke N; Yanaka, Hisakazu T; Omori, Masao; Wada, Yuji; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Morita, Tomoyo; Itakura, Shoji; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Sadato, Norihiro

    2014-10-01

    Detection of the contingency between one's own behavior and consequent social events is important for normal social development, and impaired contingency detection may be a cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To depict the neural underpinnings of this contingency effect, 19 adults with ASD and 22 control participants underwent functional MRI while imitating another's actions and their actions being imitated by the other. As the extrastriate body area (EBA) receives efference copies of one's own movements, we predicted that the EBA would show an atypical response during contingency detection in ASD. We manipulated two factors: the congruency of the executed and observed actions, and the order of action execution and observation. Both groups showed the congruency effect in the bilateral EBA during imitation. When action preceded observation, the left EBA of the control group showed the congruency effect, representing the response to being imitated, indicating contingency detection. The ASD group showed a reduced contingency effect in the left EBA. These results indicate that the function of the EBA in the contingency detection is altered in ASD. PMID:25066523

  10. Contingency bias in probability judgement may arise from ambiguity regarding additional causes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Chris J; Griffiths, Oren; More, Pranjal; Lovibond, Peter F

    2013-09-01

    In laboratory contingency learning tasks, people usually give accurate estimates of the degree of contingency between a cue and an outcome. However, if they are asked to estimate the probability of the outcome in the presence of the cue, they tend to be biased by the probability of the outcome in the absence of the cue. This bias is often attributed to an automatic contingency detection mechanism, which is said to act via an excitatory associative link to activate the outcome representation at the time of testing. We conducted 3 experiments to test alternative accounts of contingency bias. Participants were exposed to the same outcome probability in the presence of the cue, but different outcome probabilities in the absence of the cue. Phrasing the test question in terms of frequency rather than probability and clarifying the test instructions reduced but did not eliminate contingency bias. However, removal of ambiguity regarding the presence of additional causes during the test phase did eliminate contingency bias. We conclude that contingency bias may be due to ambiguity in the test question, and therefore it does not require postulation of a separate associative link-based mechanism.

  11. Historical Contingency in Controlled Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A basic question in evolution is dealing with the nature of an evolutionary memory. At thermodynamic equilibrium, at stable stationary states or other stable attractors the memory on the path leading to the long-time solution is erased, at least in part. Similar arguments hold for unique optima. Optimality in biology is discussed on the basis of microbial metabolism. Biology, on the other hand, is characterized by historical contingency, which has recently become accessible to experimental test in bacterial populations evolving under controlled conditions. Computer simulations give additional insight into the nature of the evolutionary memory, which is ultimately caused by the enormous space of possibilities that is so large that it escapes all attempts of visualization. In essence, this contribution is dealing with two questions of current evolutionary theory: (i) Are organisms operating at optimal performance? and (ii) How is the evolutionary memory built up in populations?

  12. Contingency contrast effects in discrimination conditioning.

    PubMed

    Grings, W W; Givens, M C; Carey, C A

    1979-09-01

    Three experiments observed differential electrodermal responding to signal stimuli (CSs) by contrasting positive, random, and negative contingencies between the signals and strong stimuli (UCSs). Experimentation began as a test of the proposition that electrodermal response to a random signal (or CSR) would lie between the response to a reinforced or excitatory stimulus (CS+) and that to a nonreinforced or inhibitory stimulus (CS- or CSI). A clear intermediate position for CSR did not result. Instead it appeared that CSR was operating as a mildly excitatory signal. This led to a second experiment where response to pairs of stimuli with different contingent relations could be compared in independent samples. The pairs were CS+ and CS-, CS+ and CSR, and CSR and CS-. Differential responding was observed in all pairs and response to CSR was significantly larger in the group receiving CSR with CS- than it was in the group receiving CSR with CS+. A contingency contrast effect was suggested. A third experiment explored the implications of a contingency contrast effect by varying overall UCS density, the duration of "safety intervals," and the presence or absence of instructions about contingencies. The UCS density and instruction variables influenced the differential performance to CSR and CS-, a result that was interpreted as further evidence for a perceptual contingency-contrast effect. Some theoretical implications of such a contrast phenomenon are examined, as they apply to autonomic learning. The CS is interpreted as a signal supplying contingency information that is dependent upon a complex of factors in the stimulation environment.

  13. Evaluation of vegetable production management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risks of pesticides was evaluated. Risk quotients, a mathematical description of the relationship between exposure and toxicity, and hazard ratings, a rank of potential risk of pesticides to aquatic environments, were calculat...

  14. Retaining Educational Fundraisers: Reducing Turnover by Investing in Human Capital Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Christy

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines an approach to reducing gift officer turnover during comprehensive campaigns by investing in the human capital management (HCM) program. While many universities have begun to create HCM programs, I suggest creating a position specifically focused on the retention of gift offices to ensure that universities and non-profits can…

  15. Best management practices for reducing nutrient loads in a sub-watershed of Chesapeake Bay area

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality improvement in the Chesapeake Bay is a grave concern. An initiative to reduce the nutrient loads to stream has been undertaken to attain a target total maximum daily load (TMDL) at Chesapeake Bay. A general guideline with a set of best management practices (BMPs) has been in place for ...

  16. Best management practices for reducing nutrient loads in a sub-watershed of Chesapeake Bay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water quality improvement in the Chesapeake Bay is a grave concern. An initiative to reduce the nutrient loads to stream has been undertaken to attain a target total maximum daily load (TMDL) at Chesapeake Bay. A general guideline with a set of best management practices (BMPs) has been in place for ...

  17. Reducing the Disruptive Behavior of Junior High School Students: A Classroom Self-Management Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Deborah, J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Four junior high aged students (three behaviorally disordered and one learning disabled) received self-management training, without the external control of a token program. The self-evaluation procedures reduced students' off-task and disruptive behaviors in the resource room, but there was little or no spontaneous generalization to the students'…

  18. A "Mental-Health-at-the-Workplace" Educational Workshop Reduces Managers' Stigma Toward Depression.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Reichhart, Tatjana; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Kissling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination are important factors hindering people with mental health conditions to stay employed or successfully make their careers. We surveyed 580 German managers before and after visiting a "mental-health-at-the-workplace" educational workshop using the Depression Stigma Scale. The workshop significantly reduced stigma toward depression. Managers at baseline already exhibited lower stigma toward depression compared with the general population. In addition, female gender and higher education predicted lower stigma, which is in line with findings from other studies. We conclude that an educational workshop giving practical guidance regarding "mental-health-at-the-workplace" reduces managers' stigma toward depression and improves knowledge regarding depression, its course, and its treatment. PMID:26704465

  19. Gaze-contingent multiresolutional displays: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Reingold, Eyal M; Loschky, Lester C; McConkie, George W; Stampe, David M

    2003-01-01

    Gaze-contingent multiresolutional displays (GCMRDs) center high-resolution information on the user's gaze position, matching the user's area of interest (AOI). Image resolution and details outside the AOI are reduced, lowering the requirements for processing resources and transmission bandwidth in demanding display and imaging applications. This review provides a general framework within which GCMRD research can be integrated, evaluated, and guided. GCMRDs (or "moving windows") are analyzed in terms of (a) the nature of their images (i.e., "multiresolution," "variable resolution," "space variant," or "level of detail"), and (b) the movement of the AOI (i.e., "gaze contingent," "foveated," or "eye slaved"). We also synthesize the known human factors research on GCMRDs and point out important questions for future research and development. Actual or potential applications of this research include flight, medical, and driving simulators; virtual reality; remote piloting and teleoperation; infrared and indirect vision; image transmission and retrieval; telemedicine; video teleconferencing; and artificial vision systems. PMID:14529201

  20. Crop residue management to reduce erosion and improve soil quality: Northwest. Conservation research report

    SciTech Connect

    Papendick, R.I.; Moldenhauer, W.C.

    1993-05-01

    Leaving crop residue on the soil surface during cropping has a number of clear advantages over tillage that leaves the soil surface bare. Most obvious is the greatly reduced erosion from wind and water. This advantage alone makes the change worthwhile. Mandated conservation compliance by 1995 is a further incentive to adopt surface-crop-residue management. Other advantages are increased yield due to water conserved by surface residue, lower soil temperatures, higher quality soil over time due to increased soil organic-matter levels, and in many cases, reduced input of time, labor, and fuel. The feasibility of farming while leaving residues on the surface is indicated by the rapid rate at which farmers are adopting these management practices. Success is due in large part to greater efferctiveness and reduced cost of herbicides and the improvement of planting equipment available on the market.

  1. Crop residue management to reduce erosion and improve soil quality: Appalachia and northeast. Conservation research report

    SciTech Connect

    Blevins, R.L.; Moldenhauer, W.C.

    1995-08-01

    Leaving crop residue on the soil surface has a number of clear advantages over tillage that leaves the soil surface bare. Most notable is the greatly reduced erosion; this advantage alone makes the change worthwhile. Mandated conservation compliance by 1995 is a further incentive to adopt surface-crop-residue management. Other advantages are increased yield due to water conserved by surface residue; lower soil temperatures; higher quality soil over time due to increased soil organic-matter levels; and in many cases, reduced input of time, labor, and fuel. The feasibility of surface-residue management has been proven by the increasing rate of acceptance and use by farm operators. Success is due in large part to the greater effectiveness and reduced cost of herbicides and the improvement of planting equipment available on the market.

  2. Does managed care reduce health care expenditure? Evidence from spatial panel data.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Andree; Oberschachtsiek, Dirk

    2014-09-01

    Similar to, for example, the US, Switzerland or Great Britain the German health care sector has recently undergone a series of reforms towards managed care. These measures are intended to yield both a higher quality of care and cost containment. In our study we ask whether managed care reduces health care expenditure at the market level. We apply a macroeconomic evaluation approach based on a regional panel data set which is as yet unique in the context of managed care. Econometrically, we account for both unobserved heterogeneity and spatial dependence, i.e. regional interrelations in health care. We discuss alternative model specifications and include a range of sensitivity analyses. Our results suggest that in contrast to public perception the share of managed care contracts has a positive impact on pharmaceutical spending, in particular through regional spillover effects.

  3. Does managed care reduce health care expenditure? Evidence from spatial panel data.

    PubMed

    Ehlert, Andree; Oberschachtsiek, Dirk

    2014-09-01

    Similar to, for example, the US, Switzerland or Great Britain the German health care sector has recently undergone a series of reforms towards managed care. These measures are intended to yield both a higher quality of care and cost containment. In our study we ask whether managed care reduces health care expenditure at the market level. We apply a macroeconomic evaluation approach based on a regional panel data set which is as yet unique in the context of managed care. Econometrically, we account for both unobserved heterogeneity and spatial dependence, i.e. regional interrelations in health care. We discuss alternative model specifications and include a range of sensitivity analyses. Our results suggest that in contrast to public perception the share of managed care contracts has a positive impact on pharmaceutical spending, in particular through regional spillover effects. PMID:24691774

  4. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator has already prepared a... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 264.52... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.52 Content of contingency plan. (a) The contingency plan...

  5. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator has already prepared a... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 264.52... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.52 Content of contingency plan. (a) The contingency plan...

  6. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator has already prepared a... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 264.52... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.52 Content of contingency plan. (a) The contingency plan...

  7. 40 CFR 264.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator has already prepared a... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 264.52... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.52 Content of contingency plan. (a) The contingency plan...

  8. 40 CFR 264.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 264.53 Section 264.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency...

  9. 18 CFR 367.15 - Contingent assets and liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contingent assets and... ACT General Instructions § 367.15 Contingent assets and liabilities. Contingent assets represent a possible source of value to the service company contingent upon the fulfillment of conditions regarded...

  10. Management Options for Reducing the Release of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes to the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pruden, Amy; Amézquita, Alejandro; Collignon, Peter; Brandt, Kristian K.; Graham, David W.; Lazorchak, James M.; Suzuki, Satoru; Silley, Peter; Snape, Jason R.; Topp, Edward; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objective: Our aim in this study was to identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance determinants via environmental pathways, with the ultimate goal of extending the useful life span of antibiotics. We also examined incentives and disincentives for action. Methods: We focused on management options with respect to limiting agricultural sources; treatment of domestic, hospital, and industrial wastewater; and aquaculture. Discussion: We identified several options, such as nutrient management, runoff control, and infrastructure upgrades. Where appropriate, a cross-section of examples from various regions of the world is provided. The importance of monitoring and validating effectiveness of management strategies is also highlighted. Finally, we describe a case study in Sweden that illustrates the critical role of communication to engage stakeholders and promote action. Conclusions: Environmental releases of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can in many cases be reduced at little or no cost. Some management options are synergistic with existing policies and goals. The anticipated benefit is an extended useful life span for current and future antibiotics. Although risk reductions are often difficult to quantify, the severity of accelerating worldwide morbidity and mortality rates associated with antibiotic resistance strongly indicate the need for action. PMID:23735422

  11. 12 CFR 380.39 - Contingent claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contingent obligation would become fixed and the probable magnitude thereof. (b) If the receiver repudiates a... would become fixed and the probable magnitude thereof. (c) The Corporation as receiver shall...

  12. Crop residue management to reduce erosion and improve soil quality: North central. Conservation research report

    SciTech Connect

    Moldenhauer, W.C.; Mielke, L.N.

    1995-11-01

    Leaving crop residue on the soil surface has a number of clear advantages over tillage that leaves the soil surface bare. Most notable is the greatly reduced erosion from wind and water. Mandated conservation compliance by 1995 is an additional incentive for farmers to adopt crop residue management. This is one of six regional publications that assemble research results and experience for use by farmers and their advisers as they consider the factors involved in changing from tillage to a system of crop residue management.

  13. Contingency and the order of nature.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Nancy

    2016-08-01

    Many profess faith in the universal rule of deterministic law. I urge remaining agnostic, putting into nature only what we need to account for what we know to be the case: order where, and to the extent that, we see it. Powers and mechanisms can do that job. Embracing contingency and deriving order from powers and mechanisms reduces three kinds of problems: ontological, theological, and epistemological. Ontologically, there is no puzzle about why models from various branches of natural and social science, daily life, and engineering serve us in good stead if all that's happening is physics laws playing themselves out. Also, when universal laws are replaced with a power/mechanism ontology, nothing is set irredeemably by the Big Bang or at some hyper-surface in space-time. What happens can depend on how we arrange things to exploit the powers of their parts. That may be put to significant theological advantage. The epistemological problem comes from philosopher of physics, Erhard Scheibe. Given what we take physics to teach about the universality of interaction, there is just one very large object - the entire universe - to be governed by laws of nature. How then do we ever learn those laws?

  14. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  15. Contingency and the order of nature.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Nancy

    2016-08-01

    Many profess faith in the universal rule of deterministic law. I urge remaining agnostic, putting into nature only what we need to account for what we know to be the case: order where, and to the extent that, we see it. Powers and mechanisms can do that job. Embracing contingency and deriving order from powers and mechanisms reduces three kinds of problems: ontological, theological, and epistemological. Ontologically, there is no puzzle about why models from various branches of natural and social science, daily life, and engineering serve us in good stead if all that's happening is physics laws playing themselves out. Also, when universal laws are replaced with a power/mechanism ontology, nothing is set irredeemably by the Big Bang or at some hyper-surface in space-time. What happens can depend on how we arrange things to exploit the powers of their parts. That may be put to significant theological advantage. The epistemological problem comes from philosopher of physics, Erhard Scheibe. Given what we take physics to teach about the universality of interaction, there is just one very large object - the entire universe - to be governed by laws of nature. How then do we ever learn those laws? PMID:26762897

  16. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part II: Issues under federal employment and labor legislation.

    PubMed

    Koen, Clifford M; Mitchell, Michael S; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal land mines that await the unsuspecting employer. This article, the second part of a 3-part examination of contingent employment, addresses the effects of several key pieces of employment and labor legislation on the employment of contingent workers. PMID:20436333

  17. Working to reduce the effects of discrimination: Identity management strategies in organizations.

    PubMed

    Shih, Margaret; Young, Maia J; Bucher, Amy

    2013-04-01

    Despite efforts to dispel discrimination, workplace discrimination still occurs. We introduce two classes of identity management strategies individuals use to mitigate the negative consequences of discrimination: identity switching (i.e., deemphasizing target identities and recategorizing to a more positively valued identity) and identity redefinition (i.e., stereotype reassociation and regeneration). Organizations adopting a color-blind approach may make it more difficult for individuals to use identity switching because the policies deemphasize differences in social identities. In contrast, organizations adopting a multicultural approach may make it more difficult for individuals to use identity redefinition. Multicultural approaches, applied superficially, may celebrate group differences that might actually reinforce culturally dominant stereotypes. We explore the likelihood that individuals will adopt each strategy given these organizational approaches to diversity. We outline steps organizations can take to reduce the need for identity management strategies and to facilitate identity management when necessary. PMID:23586490

  18. Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

    Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

  19. Working to reduce the effects of discrimination: Identity management strategies in organizations.

    PubMed

    Shih, Margaret; Young, Maia J; Bucher, Amy

    2013-04-01

    Despite efforts to dispel discrimination, workplace discrimination still occurs. We introduce two classes of identity management strategies individuals use to mitigate the negative consequences of discrimination: identity switching (i.e., deemphasizing target identities and recategorizing to a more positively valued identity) and identity redefinition (i.e., stereotype reassociation and regeneration). Organizations adopting a color-blind approach may make it more difficult for individuals to use identity switching because the policies deemphasize differences in social identities. In contrast, organizations adopting a multicultural approach may make it more difficult for individuals to use identity redefinition. Multicultural approaches, applied superficially, may celebrate group differences that might actually reinforce culturally dominant stereotypes. We explore the likelihood that individuals will adopt each strategy given these organizational approaches to diversity. We outline steps organizations can take to reduce the need for identity management strategies and to facilitate identity management when necessary.

  20. Do self-management plans reduce morbidity in patients with asthma?

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, G; Neville, R G; Smith, B; Clark, R A

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-management plans may help patients with asthma intervene when symptoms deteriorate, thus preventing asthma attacks. AIM: A study set out to test whether a self-management plan tailored to the circumstances of the individual reduces morbidity from asthma. METHOD: General practitioners who had participated in a national audit of asthma attacks were randomized into intervention and control groups. Six months after the intervention group had issued self-management plans to patients with asthma, both groups of practitioners completed morbidity questionnaires on patients. Morbidity outcomes were compared for the 6-month periods before and after the issue of the plans. RESULTS: In the 6 months before the study, the 376 patients enrolled by the intervention group experienced higher levels of morbidity than the 530 patients for whom details were recorded by the control group. In the 6 months after the issue of the plans, control group patients showed little change in levels of morbidity, but intervention group patients showed significant reductions in hospital admissions, consultations for asthma symptoms, asthma review consultations, courses of oral steroids and use of emergency nebulized bronchodilators. CONCLUSION: General practitioners appeared to operate enthusiast bias' and issued more self-management plans to patients with uncontrolled asthma. The reduction in morbidity in this group is probably a result of the use of the plans, but the verdict on whether plans reduce morbidity must be deemed 'not proven'. PMID:8731624

  1. Passive, Collapsible Contingency Urinal for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenson, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Fluid transport systems for spacecraft face acute challenges because of the persistently unfamiliar and unforgiving low-gravity environment. IRPI, LLC, has developed a contingency wastewater collection and processing device that provides passive liquid collation, containment, bubble separation, and droplet coalescence functions. The lightweight, low-volume, low-cost, and potentially disposable device may be used for subsequent sampling, metering, storage, disposal, and/or reuse. The approach includes a fractal wetting design that incorporates smart capillary fluidics. This work could have a broad impact on capillary-based fluid management on spacecraft and on Earth.

  2. Can a pain management programme approach reduce healthcare use? Stopping the revolving door.

    PubMed

    Clare, Ajay; Andiappan, Manoharan; MacNeil, Sarah; Bunton, Tamzin; Jarrett, Stephanie

    2013-08-01

    Patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain are frequent users of healthcare. Whilst evidence suggests that a multidisciplinary pain management programme (PMP) approach is effective in reducing patients' levels of distress and disability, there is little research examining the cost-effectiveness of such an approach. The present study sought to address this by examining the impact a PMP had on patients' pain-related secondary care healthcare use. A 90.5% reduction in healthcare use was found 12 months after the PMP, compared with 12 months before the PMP. The cost of the pain-related healthcare use 12 months before the PMP was £35,700. Twelve months after the PMP, the cost of healthcare use had reduced to £3879. The findings suggest that a PMP approach could reduce pain-related healthcare use.

  3. Increasing value and reducing waste in biomedical research regulation and management

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Beller, Elaine; Kagan, Jonathan; Hemminki, Elina; Phillips, Robert S; Savulescu, Julian; Macleod, Malcolm; Wisely, Janet; Chalmers, Iain

    2014-01-01

    After identification of an important research question and selection of an appropriate study design, waste can arise from the regulation, governance, and management of biomedical research. Obtaining regulatory and governance approval has become increasingly burdensome and disproportionate to the conceivable risks to research participants. Regulation and governance involve interventions that are assumed to be justified in the interests of patients and the public, but they can actually compromise these interests. Inefficient management of the procedural conduct of research is wasteful, especially if it results in poor recruitment and retention of participants in well designed studies addressing important questions. These sources of waste can be minimised if the following four recommendations are addressed. First, regulators should use their influence to reduce other causes of waste and inefficiency in research. Second, regulators and policy makers should work with researchers, patients, and health professionals to streamline and harmonise the laws, regulations, guidelines, and processes that govern whether and how research can be done, and ensure that they are proportionate to the plausible risks associated with the research. Third, researchers and research managers should increase the efficiency of recruitment, retention, data monitoring, and data sharing in research through use of research designs known to reduce inefficiencies, and further research should be done to learn how efficiency can be increased. Finally, everyone, particularly those responsible for health-care systems, should promote integration of research into everyday clinical practice. Regulators and researchers should monitor adherence to each of these recommendations and publish metrics. PMID:24411646

  4. Evaluation of management strategies for reducing nitrogen loadings to four US estuaries.

    PubMed

    Whitall, D; Castro, M; Driscoll, C

    2004-10-15

    In this study we used the Watershed Assessment Tool for Evaluating Reduction Strategies for Nitrogen (WATERSN) model to evaluate a variety of management strategies for reducing nitrogen (N) loads to four US east coast estuaries: Casco Bay, Long Island Sound, Chesapeake Bay and Pamlico Sound. These management strategies encompass reductions in atmospheric emissions and deposition of N from sources including, fossil fuel burning utility emissions and mobile NO(x) emissions, N treatment in wastewater and controls on agricultural N inputs. We find that in primarily urban watersheds biological removal of N in wastewater treatment produces the greatest reduction in N loading (32-57% reductions), while in less urban watersheds, reductions in agricultural loading are more effective (5-56% reductions) in decreasing N loads to coastal ecosystems. Because anthropogenic N inputs are derived from a variety of sources, we also examined an integrated scenario targeting all major N sources; this resulted in 35-58% reductions in N loading. Nitrogen pollution originates from multiple sources and is transported through several media (air, soil, water); a major challenge of the development of N management strategies will be the control of multiple sources to effectively reduce N loads to estuaries. PMID:15364517

  5. A case study in evolutionary contingency.

    PubMed

    Blount, Zachary D

    2016-08-01

    Biological evolution is a fundamentally historical phenomenon in which intertwined stochastic and deterministic processes shape lineages with long, continuous histories that exist in a changing world that has a history of its own. The degree to which these characteristics render evolution historically contingent, and evolutionary outcomes thereby unpredictably sensitive to history has been the subject of considerable debate in recent decades. Microbial evolution experiments have proven among the most fruitful means of empirically investigating the issue of historical contingency in evolution. One such experiment is the Escherichia coli Long-Term Evolution Experiment (LTEE), in which twelve populations founded from the same clone of E. coli have evolved in parallel under identical conditions. Aerobic growth on citrate (Cit(+)), a novel trait for E. coli, evolved in one of these populations after more than 30,000 generations. Experimental replays of this population's evolution from various points in its history showed that the Cit(+) trait was historically contingent upon earlier mutations that potentiated the trait by rendering it mutationally accessible. Here I review this case of evolutionary contingency and discuss what it implies about the importance of historical contingency arising from the core processes of evolution. PMID:26787098

  6. A case study in evolutionary contingency.

    PubMed

    Blount, Zachary D

    2016-08-01

    Biological evolution is a fundamentally historical phenomenon in which intertwined stochastic and deterministic processes shape lineages with long, continuous histories that exist in a changing world that has a history of its own. The degree to which these characteristics render evolution historically contingent, and evolutionary outcomes thereby unpredictably sensitive to history has been the subject of considerable debate in recent decades. Microbial evolution experiments have proven among the most fruitful means of empirically investigating the issue of historical contingency in evolution. One such experiment is the Escherichia coli Long-Term Evolution Experiment (LTEE), in which twelve populations founded from the same clone of E. coli have evolved in parallel under identical conditions. Aerobic growth on citrate (Cit(+)), a novel trait for E. coli, evolved in one of these populations after more than 30,000 generations. Experimental replays of this population's evolution from various points in its history showed that the Cit(+) trait was historically contingent upon earlier mutations that potentiated the trait by rendering it mutationally accessible. Here I review this case of evolutionary contingency and discuss what it implies about the importance of historical contingency arising from the core processes of evolution.

  7. Tension between reducing sea-level rise and global warming through solar-radiation management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, P. J.; Sriver, R. L.; Keller, K.

    2012-02-01

    Geoengineering using solar-radiation management (SRM) is gaining interest as a potential strategy to reduce future climate change impacts. Basic physics and past observations suggest that reducing insolation will, on average, cool the Earth. It is uncertain, however, whether SRM can reduce climate change stressors such as sea-level rise or rates of surface air temperature change. Here we use an Earth system model of intermediate complexity to quantify the possible response of sea levels and surface air temperatures to projected climate forcings and SRM strategies. We find that SRM strategies introduce a potentially strong tension between the objectives to reduce (1) the rate of temperature change and (2) sea-level rise. This tension arises primarily because surface air temperatures respond faster to radiative forcings than sea levels. Our results show that the forcing required to stop sea-level rise could cause a rapid cooling with a rate similar to the peak business-as-usual warming rate. Furthermore, termination of SRM was found to produce warming rates up to five times greater than the maximum rates under the business-as-usual CO2 scenario, whereas sea-level rise rates were only 30% higher. Reducing these risks requires a slow phase-out of many decades and thus commits future generations.

  8. Reducing job insecurity and increasing performance ratings: does impression management matter?

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-hua; Zhao, Helen Hailin; Niu, Xiong-ying; Ashford, Susan J; Lee, Cynthia

    2013-09-01

    Prior research on job insecurity has demonstrated its detrimental effects on both employees and the organization, yet no research has detailed how people actively deal with it. Drawing from proactivity research, this article argues that job insecurity prompts a proactive use of impression management tactics in the workplace. The effectiveness of these tactics depends on the level of supervisory liking for the employee and the attributions supervisors make regarding the employee's motives for the impression management behaviors (i.e., for the good of the organization or for self-interest). A 3-wave survey study of 271 Chinese employees and their supervisors showed that employees experiencing job insecurity in Time 1 reported using a variety of tactics to impress their supervisors at Time 2 and that these tactics curbed the affect associated with job insecurity and enhanced supervisor rated performance, through supervisor's liking and attributed motives. The relationship between impression management and increased supervisor-rated performance was moderated by supervisor attributions; the relationship between impression management and reduced affective job insecurity depended on supervisor liking. PMID:23731028

  9. A multidisciplinary team case management approach reduces the burden of frequent asthma admissions

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Hannah; Davis, Jenny; Evans, Sian; Flower, Laura; Tan, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Up to 10% of asthmatics have “difficult asthma”; however, they account for 80% of asthma-related expenditure and run the highest risk of acute severe exacerbations. An estimated 75% of admissions for asthma are avoidable. Guidelines advise that these patients be managed by an experienced specialist multidisciplinary team (MDT). We aimed to assess the impact of a case management strategy delivered via specialist MDTs on acute healthcare utilisation of patients with frequent asthma admissions. An MDT (consultant, specialist nurse, physiotherapist and psychologist) case management strategy was introduced in 2010 at University Hospital Southampton Foundation Trust (Southampton, UK) to support patients with frequent asthma admissions during admission and then in clinic. To assess efficacy, we systematically searched the hospital database for patients acutely admitted for asthma on two or more occasions in 2010, 2011 and 2012. Data were collected retrospectively covering patient demographics, admission details, asthma severity and comorbidity. From 2010 to 2012, 84 patients were admitted on two or more occasions per year (80% female, mean body mass index 31 kg·m−2 and 55% psychological comorbidity). After introducing an MDT approach repeat asthma admissions fell by 33% from 127 in 2010 to 84 in 2012 (p=0.0004). In addition, bed days fell by 52% from 895 in 2010 to 430 in 2010 (p=0.015). An MDT case management approach significantly reduces hospitalisation in difficult asthma patients with prior frequent admission. PMID:27730207

  10. Waste management options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from paper in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickin, J. G.; Yuen, S. T. S.; Hennings, H.

    A lifecycle assessment to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in Australia from the paper cycle is summarised. The greenhouse gas emissions from paper in Australia in 1999/2000 were estimated to be 12.1 million tonnes (Mt) of CO 2 equivalent. Nearly half of this amount consisted of CH 4 emissions from landfilled waste paper. Various waste management options were modelled to investigate the greenhouse impact of a tonne of paper over its whole lifecycle. Options that keep paper out of landfills significantly reduce greenhouse emissions, waste-to-energy recovery being most effective. Recycling is also beneficial, and is of particular interest from a management perspective because it can be controlled by the pulp and paper industry. These findings can be extended to other wood-based and organic wastes.

  11. Nursing students' time management, reducing stress and gaining satisfaction: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Rafii, Forough

    2012-03-01

    In the course of their studies, nursing students must learn many skills and acquire the knowledge required for their future profession. This study investigates how Iranian nursing students manage their time according to the circumstances and obstacles of their academic field. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Twenty-one nursing students were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the method suggested by Corbin and Strauss. One of the three processes that the nursing students used was "unidirectional time management." This pattern consists of accepting the nursing field, overcoming uncertainty, assessing conditions, feeling stress, and trying to reduce stress and create satisfaction. It was found that students allotted most of their time to academic tasks in an attempt to overcome their stress. The findings of this study indicate the need for these students to have time for the extra-curricular activities and responsibilities that are appropriate to their age.

  12. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management

    PubMed Central

    Bodner, Danielle; LaDeau, Shannon L.; Biehler, Dawn; Kirchoff, Nicole; Leisnham, Paul T.

    2016-01-01

    Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120) received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI) design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010) containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals. PMID:27171195

  13. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Danielle; LaDeau, Shannon L; Biehler, Dawn; Kirchoff, Nicole; Leisnham, Paul T

    2016-01-01

    Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120) received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI) design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010) containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals.

  14. Effectiveness of Print Education at Reducing Urban Mosquito Infestation through Improved Resident-Based Management.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Danielle; LaDeau, Shannon L; Biehler, Dawn; Kirchoff, Nicole; Leisnham, Paul T

    2016-01-01

    Improving resident-based management and knowledge of mosquitoes is often an integral component of integrated mosquito management, especially in urban landscapes with considerable mosquito habitat on privately owned lands. This study tested the effectiveness of print education materials at reducing urban mosquito exposure through improving resident knowledge of, and attitudes towards, mosquitoes and mosquito management in Washington DC, USA. There was a specific focus on the removal of water-filled containers that are utilized by the developmental stages of the two most common vector species in the region, Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens. Households in six neighborhoods that varied in socio-economic status were administered knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) surveys in 2010 and 2012, and had their yards surveyed for container habitats and immature mosquitoes (larvae and pupae) in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Half the households (intervention, n = 120) received education materials in 2011 and 2012 to yield a before-after control-intervention (BACI) design. Unexpectedly, residents in intervention households were more likely to show decreased concern for mosquito-borne illnesses than residents in control households, which did not receive materials. Moreover, there was a greater probability that control households reduced containers in 2012 than intervention households, particularly when they had low numbers of baseline (2010) containers. Irrespective of control, reductions in containers were associated with decreased abundances of immature mosquitoes. Overall, our findings suggest that print education materials may have unintended negative effects on resident attitudes and household management of mosquito production. We recommend that mosquito control agencies need to carefully consider their content of print messages and the effectiveness of strategies that passively convey information with little or no engagement with control professionals. PMID:27171195

  15. Reducing the barriers to pain management in Albania: results from an educational seminar with family doctors.

    PubMed

    Xhixha, Ali; Rama, Rudina; Radbruch, Lukas

    2013-07-01

    Palliative care (PC) services are a very limited service in Albania and are provided mainly from the nonprofit sector (nongovernmental organizations [NGOs]) that cover about 30% of the demand. There are very few doctors and nurses qualified in PC and pain management. Training and education programs on opioid treatment do not exist and patients cannot access opioids easily. This study evaluated the attitudes of family doctors on pain assessment, management, and opioid usage before and after seminars on opioid pain management. The Barriers Questionnaire II (BQ-II) was used to evaluate attitudes towards pain management in 227 family doctors (general practitioners) working in the state primary health care system in both urban and rural areas. Data was collected before and after one-day seminars on opioids conducted in six cities located in all the major regions of the country. The response rate was 83.3%. Barriers were measured to be high in the participating physicians, with mean scores of 3 out of 5 or above for 10 of 27 items. The danger of addiction to pain medicines as well as the fear that many people with cancer would get addicted to pain medicine received the highest scores. At the end of the seminar barriers were significantly lower, with the total mean scores (with standard deviation) reduced from 2.4±0.6 to 1.6±0.7. High barriers to the use of opioids in family physicians in Albania were reduced significantly following a one-day training, demonstrating the effectiveness of the intervention. However, more research on the sustainability of the training effect is needed.

  16. Modeling watershed-scale effectiveness of agricultural best management practices to reduce phosphorus loading.

    PubMed

    Rao, Nalini S; Easton, Zachary M; Schneiderman, Elliot M; Zion, Mark S; Lee, David R; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2009-03-01

    Planners advocate best management practices (BMPs) to reduce loss of sediment and nutrients in agricultural areas. However, the scientific community lacks tools that use readily available data to investigate the relationships between BMPs and their spatial locations and water quality. In rural, humid regions where runoff is associated with saturation-excess processes from variable source areas (VSAs), BMPs are potentially most effective when they are located in areas that produce the majority of the runoff. Thus, two critical elements necessary to predict the water quality impact of BMPs include correct identification of VSAs and accurate predictions of nutrient reduction due to particular BMPs. The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of BMPs using the Variable Source Loading Function (VSLF) model, which captures the spatial and temporal evolutions of VSAs in the landscape. Data from a long-term monitoring campaign on a 164-ha farm in the New York City source watersheds in the Catskills Mountains of New York state were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a range of BMPs. The data spanned an 11-year period over which a suite of BMPs, including a nutrient management plan, riparian buffers, filter strips and fencing, was installed to reduce phosphorus (P) loading. Despite its simplicity, VSLF predicted the spatial distribution of runoff producing areas well. Dissolved P reductions were simulated well by using calibrated reduction factors for various BMPs in the VSLF model. Total P losses decreased only after cattle crossings were installed in the creek. The results demonstrated that BMPs, when sited with respect to VSAs, reduce P loss from agricultural watersheds, providing useful information for targeted water quality management.

  17. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    PubMed

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  18. Color and Contingency in Robert Boyle's Works.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tawrin

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationship between color and contingency in Robert Boyle's Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664) and his essays on the unsuccessfulness of experiments in Certain Physiological Essays (1661). In these two works Boyle wrestles with a difficult practical and philosophical problem with experiments, which he calls the problem of contingency. In Touching Colours, the problem of contingency is magnified by the much-debated issue of whether color had any deep epistemic importance. His limited theoretical principle guiding him in Touching Colours, that color is but modified light, further exacerbated the problem. Rather than theory, Boyle often relied on craftsmen, whose mastery of color phenomena was, Boyle mentions, brought about by economic forces, to determine when colors were indicators of important 'inward' properties of substances, and thus to secure a solid foundation for his experimental history of color.

  19. Color and Contingency in Robert Boyle's Works.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tawrin

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationship between color and contingency in Robert Boyle's Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664) and his essays on the unsuccessfulness of experiments in Certain Physiological Essays (1661). In these two works Boyle wrestles with a difficult practical and philosophical problem with experiments, which he calls the problem of contingency. In Touching Colours, the problem of contingency is magnified by the much-debated issue of whether color had any deep epistemic importance. His limited theoretical principle guiding him in Touching Colours, that color is but modified light, further exacerbated the problem. Rather than theory, Boyle often relied on craftsmen, whose mastery of color phenomena was, Boyle mentions, brought about by economic forces, to determine when colors were indicators of important 'inward' properties of substances, and thus to secure a solid foundation for his experimental history of color. PMID:26856050

  20. Damage-reducing measures to manage flood risks in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Bubeck, Philip; Van Vliet, Mathijs; De Moel, Hans

    2014-05-01

    Damage due to floods has increased during the last few decades, and further increases are expected in several regions due to climate change and a growing vulnerability. To address the projected increase in flood risk, a combination of structural and non-structural flood risk mitigation measures is considered as a promising adaptation strategy. Such a combination takes into account that flood defence systems may fail, and prepare for unexpected crisis situations via land-use planning, building construction, evacuation and disaster response. Non-structural flood risk mitigation measures like shielding with water shutters or sand bags, building fortification or safeguarding of hazardous substances are often voluntary: they demand self-dependent action by the population at risk (Bubeck et al. 2012; 2013). It is believed that these measures are especially effective in areas with frequent flood events and low flood water levels, but some types of measures showed a significant damage-reducing effect also during extreme flood events, such as the Elbe River flood in August 2002 in Germany (Kreibich et al. 2005; 2011). Despite the growing importance of damage-reducing measures, information is still scarce about factors that motivate people to undertake such measures, the state of implementation of various non-structural measures in different countries and their damage reducing effects. Thus, we collected information and undertook an international review about this topic in the framework of the Dutch KfC project "Climate proof flood risk management". The contribution will present an overview about the available information on damage-reducing measures and draw conclusions for practical flood risk management in a changing climate. References: Bubeck, P., Botzen, W. J. W., Suu, L. T. T., Aerts, J. C. J. H. (2012): Do flood risk perceptions provide useful insights for flood risk management? Findings from central Vietnam. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 5, 4, 295-302 Bubeck, P

  1. Wind erosion reduces soil organic carbon sequestration falsely indicating ineffective management practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappell, Adrian; Baldock, Jeffrey A.

    2016-09-01

    Improved management of agricultural land has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and to reduce atmospheric CO2 via soil carbon sequestration. However, SOC stocks are reduced by soil erosion which is commonly omitted from calculations of crop production, C cycling, C sequestration and C accounting. We used fields from the wind eroded dryland cropping region of Western Australia to demonstrate the global implications for C sequestration and C accounting of omitting soil erosion. For the fields we previously estimated mean net (1950s-1990) soil erosion of 1.2 ± 1.0 t ha-1 y-1. The mean net (1990-2013) soil erosion increased by nearly four times to 4.4 ± 2.1 t ha-1 y-1. Conservation agriculture has evidently not reduced wind erosion in this region. The mean net (1990-2013) SOC erosion was up to 0.2 t C ha-1 y-1 across all sampled fields and similar to measured sequestration rates in the region (up to 0.5 t C ha-1 y-1; 10 years) for many management practices recommended for building SOC stocks. The minimum detectable change (MDC; 10 years) of SOC without erosion was up to 0.2 t C ha-1 y-1 whilst the MDC of SOC with erosion was up to 0.4 t C ha-1 y-1. These results illustrate the generally applicable outcome: (i) if SOC erosion is equal to (or greater than) the increase in SOC due to management practices, the change will not be detectable (or a loss will be evident); (ii) without including soil erosion in SOC sequestration calculations, the monitoring of SOC stocks will lead to, at best the inability to detect change and, at worst the false impression that management practices have failed to store SOC. Furthermore, continued omission of soil erosion in crop production, C accounting and C sequestration will most likely undermine confidence in policy designed to encourage adoption of C farming and the attendant benefits for soil stewardship and food security.

  2. Is there a role for stress management in reducing hypertension in African Americans?

    PubMed

    Kondwani, K A; Lollis, C M

    2001-01-01

    When stress is considered as any demand placed on the body, the focus is shifted away from the stressor to how the body responds to the stress. There are psychological, physiological, and behavioral responses to excessive stress. Left unaddressed, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular diseases may occur. The goal of meditation is to decrease mental activity while simultaneously resting and rejuvenating the body. There are internal and external approaches to meditation. The most researched internal form of meditation is the Transcendental Meditation technique, which has been found to reduce stress, depression, anxiety, and blood pressure in hypertensive African Americans. Clinical use of stress management approaches, particularly Transcendental Meditation to reduce hypertension, is supported by randomized clinical trials. Studies with larger numbers of participants and more diverse ethnic groups should continue.

  3. Incentivizing the public to support invasive species management: eurasian milfoil reduces lakefront property values.

    PubMed

    Olden, Julian D; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995-2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management. PMID:25333619

  4. Incentivizing the Public to Support Invasive Species Management: Eurasian Milfoil Reduces Lakefront Property Values

    PubMed Central

    Olden, Julian D.; Tamayo, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Economic evaluations of invasive species are essential for providing comprehensive assessments of the benefits and costs of publicly-funded management activities, yet many previous investigations have focused narrowly on expenditures to control spread and infestation. We use hedonic modeling to evaluate the economic effects of Eurasian milfoil (Myriophyllum spicatum) invasions on lakefront property values of single-family homes in an urban-suburban landscape. Milfoil often forms dense canopies at the water surface, diminishing the value of ecosystem services (e.g., recreation, fishing) and necessitating expensive control and management efforts. We compare 1,258 lakeshore property sale transactions (1995–2006) in 17 lakes with milfoil and 24 un-invaded lakes in King County, Washington (USA). After accounting for structural (e.g., house size), locational (e.g., boat launch), and environmental characteristics (e.g., water clarity) of lakes, we found that milfoil has a significant negative effect on property sales price ($94,385 USD lower price), corresponding to a 19% decline in mean property values. The aggregate cost of milfoil invading one additional lake in the study area is, on average, $377,542 USD per year. Our study illustrates that invasive aquatic plants can significantly impact property values (and associated losses in property taxes that reduce local government revenue), justifying the need for management strategies that prevent and control invasions. We recommend coordinated efforts across Lake Management Districts to focus institutional support, funding, and outreach to prevent the introduction and spread of milfoil. This effort will limit opportunities for re-introduction from neighboring lakes and incentivize private landowners and natural resource agencies to commit time and funding to invasive species management. PMID:25333619

  5. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part I: employment status and Fair Labor Standards Act issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal landmines that await the unsuspecting employer. The purpose of this article was to familiarize health care employers with some of the rapidly evolving legal issues that surround the use of contingent workers.

  6. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part I: employment status and fair labor standards act issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal landmines that await the unsuspecting employer. The purpose of this article was to familiarize health care employers with some of the rapidly evolving legal issues that surround the use of contingent workers.

  7. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part I: employment status and fair labor standards act issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal landmines that await the unsuspecting employer. The purpose of this article was to familiarize health care employers with some of the rapidly evolving legal issues that surround the use of contingent workers. PMID:20145467

  8. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part I: employment status and Fair Labor Standards Act issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal landmines that await the unsuspecting employer. The purpose of this article was to familiarize health care employers with some of the rapidly evolving legal issues that surround the use of contingent workers. PMID:20733412

  9. Reducing nitrogen loss with managed drainage and polymer-coated urea.

    PubMed

    Nash, Patrick; Nelson, Kelly; Motavalli, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Continuous corn ( L.) production during dry years combined with high N fertilizer rates can have a high potential for NO-N loss through tile drainage water. Claypan soils can further increase the potential for NO-N loss through tile drainage water due to the claypan layer that restricts N leaching below the tile drains. The objective of this 4-yr study was to determine whether use of managed subsurface drainage (MD) in combination with a controlled-release N fertilizer could reduce the annual amount of NO-N loss through tile drainage water compared with free subsurface tile drainage (FD) with a noncoated urea application. Due to dry conditions over the summer and fall months, MD reduced the annual amount of water drained by at least 73% compared with FD in two of the four crop years. Low N loss and reduced corn N uptake possibly resulted in carry-over N and high soil N concentrations throughout the study, which may have limited the effect of N fertilizer source on annual NO-N loss in the tile drainage water. Use of MD reduced annual NO-N loss in the tile drainage water by 78 to 85% in two of the four years. High NO-N loss reduction with MD compared with FD was largely due to dry growing season conditions in combination with wet conditions over the noncropping period. PMID:25602341

  10. Reducing nitrogen loss with managed drainage and polymer-coated urea.

    PubMed

    Nash, Patrick; Nelson, Kelly; Motavalli, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Continuous corn ( L.) production during dry years combined with high N fertilizer rates can have a high potential for NO-N loss through tile drainage water. Claypan soils can further increase the potential for NO-N loss through tile drainage water due to the claypan layer that restricts N leaching below the tile drains. The objective of this 4-yr study was to determine whether use of managed subsurface drainage (MD) in combination with a controlled-release N fertilizer could reduce the annual amount of NO-N loss through tile drainage water compared with free subsurface tile drainage (FD) with a noncoated urea application. Due to dry conditions over the summer and fall months, MD reduced the annual amount of water drained by at least 73% compared with FD in two of the four crop years. Low N loss and reduced corn N uptake possibly resulted in carry-over N and high soil N concentrations throughout the study, which may have limited the effect of N fertilizer source on annual NO-N loss in the tile drainage water. Use of MD reduced annual NO-N loss in the tile drainage water by 78 to 85% in two of the four years. High NO-N loss reduction with MD compared with FD was largely due to dry growing season conditions in combination with wet conditions over the noncropping period.

  11. Group-Based Randomized Trial of Contingencies for Health and Abstinence in HIV Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Alessi, Sheila M.; Lewis, Marilyn W.; Dieckhaus, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) treatments are usually applied individually for drug abstinence, but CM can also be targeted toward health behaviors and implemented in groups. This study evaluated effects of a group-based CM intervention that focused on reinforcing health behaviors. Method: HIV-positive patients with cocaine or opioid use…

  12. Training Paraeducators to Implement a Group Contingency Protocol: Direct and Collateral Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggin, Daniel M.; Fallon, Lindsay M.; Sanetti, Lisa M. Hagermoser; Ruberto, Laura M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of an intensive training protocol on levels of paraeducator fidelity to a group contingency intervention used to manage the classroom behavior of students with EBD. A multiple baseline design across classrooms was used to determine whether the training was associated with initial and sustained increases…

  13. Designing and Implementing Group Contingencies in the Classroom: A Teacher's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Jason C.; Gilmour, Allison F.

    2016-01-01

    Group contingencies are a positive, proactive classroom management technique that works well as Tier 1 of a multi-tiered system of behavior support. These programs are adaptable to student and classroom needs and work well to support the behavior of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Off-the-shelf programs exist, but…

  14. Waste Management Strategy for Dismantling Waste to Reduce Costs for Power Plant Decommissioning - 13543

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Arne; Lidar, Per; Bergh, Niklas; Hedin, Gunnar

    2013-07-01

    -necks in the process causes increased space requirements and will have negative impact on the project schedule, which increases not only the cost but also the dose exposure to personnel. For these reasons it is critical to create a process that transfers material into conditioned waste ready for disposal as quickly as possible. To a certain extent the decommissioning program should be led by the waste management process. With the objective to reduce time for handling of dismantled material at site and to efficiently and environmental-friendly use waste management methods (clearance for re-use followed by clearance for recycling), the costs for the plant decommissioning could be reduced as well as time needed for performing the decommissioning project. Also, risks for delays would be reduced with a well-defined handling scheme which limits surprises. Delays are a major cost driver for decommissioning projects. (authors)

  15. Effectiveness of managed gene flow in reducing genetic divergence associated with captive breeding.

    PubMed

    Waters, Charles D; Hard, Jeffrey J; Brieuc, Marine S O; Fast, David E; Warheit, Kenneth I; Waples, Robin S; Knudsen, Curtis M; Bosch, William J; Naish, Kerry A

    2015-12-01

    Captive breeding has the potential to rebuild depressed populations. However, associated genetic changes may decrease restoration success and negatively affect the adaptive potential of the entire population. Thus, approaches that minimize genetic risks should be tested in a comparative framework over multiple generations. Genetic diversity in two captive-reared lines of a species of conservation interest, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), was surveyed across three generations using genome-wide approaches. Genetic divergence from the source population was minimal in an integrated line, which implemented managed gene flow by using only naturally-born adults as captive broodstock, but significant in a segregated line, which bred only captive-origin individuals. Estimates of effective number of breeders revealed that the rapid divergence observed in the latter was largely attributable to genetic drift. Three independent tests for signatures of adaptive divergence also identified temporal change within the segregated line, possibly indicating domestication selection. The results empirically demonstrate that using managed gene flow for propagating a captive-reared population reduces genetic divergence over the short term compared to one that relies solely on captive-origin parents. These findings complement existing studies of captive breeding, which typically focus on a single management strategy and examine the fitness of one or two generations. PMID:26640521

  16. Managing Overweight and Obesity in Adults to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Elrashidi, Muhamad Y.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death and disability worldwide. Obesity increases the risk for clinically identifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as a host of other metabolic, sleep, and orthopedic disorders. Coordinated and systematic interventions are needed to manage obesity and reduce these risks. The Obesity 2 Expert Panel updated previous guidelines and produced the “Guideline for the Management of Overweight and Obesity in Adults.” The Panel used data from publications from years 1999 to 2011 to address five critical questions, provide evidence statements, and recommend creation of a treatment algorithm to guide decision making about clinical care. The current review discusses the evidence statements pertaining to CVD risk in the assessment and management of patients who are overweight and obese. We summarize the FDA-approved medications for the treatment of overweight and obesity and their impact on CVD risk and risk factors, as well as ongoing clinical trials which will further inform clinical practice. PMID:25092581

  17. Effectiveness of managed gene flow in reducing genetic divergence associated with captive breeding

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Charles D; Hard, Jeffrey J; Brieuc, Marine S O; Fast, David E; Warheit, Kenneth I; Waples, Robin S; Knudsen, Curtis M; Bosch, William J; Naish, Kerry A

    2015-01-01

    Captive breeding has the potential to rebuild depressed populations. However, associated genetic changes may decrease restoration success and negatively affect the adaptive potential of the entire population. Thus, approaches that minimize genetic risks should be tested in a comparative framework over multiple generations. Genetic diversity in two captive-reared lines of a species of conservation interest, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), was surveyed across three generations using genome-wide approaches. Genetic divergence from the source population was minimal in an integrated line, which implemented managed gene flow by using only naturally-born adults as captive broodstock, but significant in a segregated line, which bred only captive-origin individuals. Estimates of effective number of breeders revealed that the rapid divergence observed in the latter was largely attributable to genetic drift. Three independent tests for signatures of adaptive divergence also identified temporal change within the segregated line, possibly indicating domestication selection. The results empirically demonstrate that using managed gene flow for propagating a captive-reared population reduces genetic divergence over the short term compared to one that relies solely on captive-origin parents. These findings complement existing studies of captive breeding, which typically focus on a single management strategy and examine the fitness of one or two generations. PMID:26640521

  18. Contingencies of self-worth and social-networking-site behavior.

    PubMed

    Stefanone, Michael A; Lackaff, Derek; Rosen, Devan

    2011-01-01

    Social-networking sites like Facebook enable people to share a range of personal information with expansive groups of "friends." With the growing popularity of media sharing online, many questions remain regarding antecedent conditions for this behavior. Contingencies of self-worth afford a more nuanced approach to variable traits that affect self-esteem, and may help explain online behavior. A total of 311 participants completed an online survey measuring such contingencies and typical behaviors on Facebook. First, exploratory factor analyses revealed an underlying structure to the seven dimensions of self-worth. Public-based contingencies explained online photo sharing (β = 0.158, p < 0.01), while private-based contingencies demonstrated a negative relationship with time online (β = -0.186, p < 0.001). Finally, the appearance contingency for self-worth had the strongest relationship with the intensity of online photo sharing (β = 0.242), although no relationship was evident for time spent managing profiles. PMID:21329442

  19. Task-contingent conscientiousness as a unit of personality at work.

    PubMed

    Minbashian, Amirali; Wood, Robert E; Beckmann, Nadin

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined the viability of incorporating task-contingent units into the study of personality at work, using conscientiousness as an illustrative example. We used experience-sampling data from 123 managers to show that (a) momentary conscientiousness at work is contingent on the difficulty and urgency demands of the tasks people are engaged in, (b) there are significant and stable differences between people in the extent to which their conscientiousness behaviors are contingent on task demands, and (c) individual differences in task-contingent conscientiousness are related to, though distinct from, individual differences in trait conscientiousness. We also provide evidence in relation to (a) need for cognition as a possible antecedent of task-contingent conscientiousness and (b) adaptive performance on a cognitive task as a possible consequence of it. We discuss the theoretical implications of our findings for the cognitive nature of personality and the way in which conscientiousness is expressed at work. Practical implications in relation to the predictive function of personality and applications that focus on behavioral change are also discussed. PMID:20718521

  20. Contingencies of self-worth and social-networking-site behavior.

    PubMed

    Stefanone, Michael A; Lackaff, Derek; Rosen, Devan

    2011-01-01

    Social-networking sites like Facebook enable people to share a range of personal information with expansive groups of "friends." With the growing popularity of media sharing online, many questions remain regarding antecedent conditions for this behavior. Contingencies of self-worth afford a more nuanced approach to variable traits that affect self-esteem, and may help explain online behavior. A total of 311 participants completed an online survey measuring such contingencies and typical behaviors on Facebook. First, exploratory factor analyses revealed an underlying structure to the seven dimensions of self-worth. Public-based contingencies explained online photo sharing (β = 0.158, p < 0.01), while private-based contingencies demonstrated a negative relationship with time online (β = -0.186, p < 0.001). Finally, the appearance contingency for self-worth had the strongest relationship with the intensity of online photo sharing (β = 0.242), although no relationship was evident for time spent managing profiles.

  1. Identification and Prioritization of Management Practices to Reduce Methylmercury Exports from Wetlands and Irrigated Agricultural Lands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, Stephen A.; Heim, Wesley A.

    2015-03-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's (Delta) beneficial uses for humans and wildlife are impaired by elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish. MeHg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation plan aimed at reducing MeHg in Delta fish obligates dischargers to conduct MeHg control studies. Over 150 stakeholders collaborated to identify 24 management practices (MPs) addressing MeHg nonpoint sources (NPS) in three categories: biogeochemistry (6), hydrology (14), and soil/vegetation (4). Land uses were divided into six categories: permanently and seasonally flooded wetlands, flooded and irrigated agricultural lands, floodplains, and brackish-fresh tidal marshes. Stakeholders scored MPs based on seven criteria: scientific certainty, costs, MeHg reduction potential, spatial applicability, technical capacity to implement, negative impacts to beneficial uses, and conflicting requirements. Semi-quantitative scoring for MPs applicable to each land use (totaling >400 individual scores) led to consensus-based prioritization. This process relied on practical experience from diverse and accomplished NPS stakeholders and synthesis of 17 previous studies. Results provide a comprehensive, stakeholder-driven prioritization of MPs for wetland and irrigated agricultural land managers. Final prioritization highlights the most promising MPs for practical application and control study, and a secondary set of MPs warranting further evaluation. MPs that address hydrology and soil/vegetation were prioritized because experiences were positive and implementation appeared more feasible. MeHg control studies will need to address the TMDL conundrum that MPs effective at reducing MeHg exports could both exacerbate MeHg exposure and contend with other management objectives on site.

  2. Identification and prioritization of management practices to reduce methylmercury exports from wetlands and irrigated agricultural lands.

    PubMed

    McCord, Stephen A; Heim, Wesley A

    2015-03-01

    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's (Delta) beneficial uses for humans and wildlife are impaired by elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish. MeHg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation plan aimed at reducing MeHg in Delta fish obligates dischargers to conduct MeHg control studies. Over 150 stakeholders collaborated to identify 24 management practices (MPs) addressing MeHg nonpoint sources (NPS) in three categories: biogeochemistry (6), hydrology (14), and soil/vegetation (4). Land uses were divided into six categories: permanently and seasonally flooded wetlands, flooded and irrigated agricultural lands, floodplains, and brackish-fresh tidal marshes. Stakeholders scored MPs based on seven criteria: scientific certainty, costs, MeHg reduction potential, spatial applicability, technical capacity to implement, negative impacts to beneficial uses, and conflicting requirements. Semi-quantitative scoring for MPs applicable to each land use (totaling >400 individual scores) led to consensus-based prioritization. This process relied on practical experience from diverse and accomplished NPS stakeholders and synthesis of 17 previous studies. Results provide a comprehensive, stakeholder-driven prioritization of MPs for wetland and irrigated agricultural land managers. Final prioritization highlights the most promising MPs for practical application and control study, and a secondary set of MPs warranting further evaluation. MPs that address hydrology and soil/vegetation were prioritized because experiences were positive and implementation appeared more feasible. MeHg control studies will need to address the TMDL conundrum that MPs effective at reducing MeHg exports could both exacerbate MeHg exposure and contend with other management objectives on site. PMID:25566831

  3. Your workers may be contingent but your liability for them is certain: Part III: other employment issues.

    PubMed

    Koen, Clifford M; Mitchell, Michael S; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal land mines that await the unsuspecting employer. This article, the concluding part of a 3-part examination of contingent employment, addresses additional issues including benefits, tax implications, workers' compensation, contract considerations, and the screening of potential staffing partners. PMID:20686392

  4. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    PubMed

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils.

  5. Real-time laboratory exercises to test contingency plans for classical swine fever: experiences from two national laboratories.

    PubMed

    Koenen, F; Uttenthal, A; Meindl-Böhmer, A

    2007-12-01

    In order to adequately and efficiently handle outbreaks of contagious diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza, competent authorities and the laboratories involved have to be well prepared and must be in possession of functioning contingency plans. These plans should ensure that in the event of an outbreak access to facilities, equipment, resources, trained personnel, and all other facilities needed for the rapid and efficient eradication of the outbreak is guaranteed, and that the procedures to follow are well rehearsed. It is essential that these plans are established during 'peace-time' and are reviewed regularly. This paper provides suggestions on how to perform laboratory exercises to test preparedness and describes the experiences of two national reference laboratories for CSF. The major lesson learnt was the importance of a well-documented laboratory contingency plan. The major pitfalls encountered were shortage of space, difficulties in guaranteeing biosecurity and sufficient supplies of sterile equipment and consumables. The need for a standardised laboratory information management system, that is used by all those involved in order to reduce the administrative load, is also discussed.

  6. Real-time laboratory exercises to test contingency plans for classical swine fever: experiences from two national laboratories.

    PubMed

    Koenen, F; Uttenthal, A; Meindl-Böhmer, A

    2007-12-01

    In order to adequately and efficiently handle outbreaks of contagious diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza, competent authorities and the laboratories involved have to be well prepared and must be in possession of functioning contingency plans. These plans should ensure that in the event of an outbreak access to facilities, equipment, resources, trained personnel, and all other facilities needed for the rapid and efficient eradication of the outbreak is guaranteed, and that the procedures to follow are well rehearsed. It is essential that these plans are established during 'peace-time' and are reviewed regularly. This paper provides suggestions on how to perform laboratory exercises to test preparedness and describes the experiences of two national reference laboratories for CSF. The major lesson learnt was the importance of a well-documented laboratory contingency plan. The major pitfalls encountered were shortage of space, difficulties in guaranteeing biosecurity and sufficient supplies of sterile equipment and consumables. The need for a standardised laboratory information management system, that is used by all those involved in order to reduce the administrative load, is also discussed. PMID:18293611

  7. Region VIII area contingency plan, Denver, CO

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this Area Contingency Plan (ACP) is to provide an action plan to respond to a release and to promote timely and effective coordination among the entire spill community, including federal, state, tribal, local, and private entities in response to a discharge or substantial threat of discharge.

  8. Neural Events in the Reinforcement Contingency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo; Goncalves, Fabio Leyser; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    When neural events are analyzed as stimuli and responses, functional relations among them and among overt stimuli and responses can be unveiled. The integration of neuroscience and the experimental analysis of behavior is beginning to provide empirical evidence of involvement of neural events in the three-term contingency relating discriminative…

  9. Triggers of Contingency in Mathematics Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, Tim; Thwaites, Anne; Jared, Libby

    2015-01-01

    Our research in the last decade has been into classroom situations that we perceive to make demands on mathematics teachers' disciplinary knowledge of content and pedagogy. Amongst the most visible of such situations are those that we describe as "contingent", in which a teacher is faced with some unexpected event, and challenged to…

  10. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18.201 Section 18.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201...

  11. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  12. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  13. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  14. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18.201 Section 18.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201...

  15. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18.201 Section 18.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201...

  16. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  17. 48 CFR 1318.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency operation. 1318.201 Section 1318.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 1318.201...

  18. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18.201 Section 18.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201...

  19. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency operation. 18.201 Section 18.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES EMERGENCY ACQUISITIONS Emergency Acquisition Flexibilities 18.201...

  20. Area contingency plan Chicago area. (COTP Chicago)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Chicago Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Chicago Coastal Zone.

  1. Area contingency plan: Cleveland. (COTP Cleveland)

    SciTech Connect

    1993-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Cleveland Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Cleveland Coastal Zone.

  2. Area contingency plan Wisconsin area. (COTP Milwaukee)

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-30

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Eastern Wisconsin Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Milwaukee Coastal Zone.

  3. If -Then Contingencies in Children's Sibling Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Michal; Ross, Hildy S.

    2005-01-01

    Two-step (if -then) behavioral contingencies in the naturally occurring conflicts of 2- and 4-year-old siblings were identified and described. Children's crying, compliance, ignoring, opposition, power, and reasoning strategies were examined to determine how they were used immediately following opposition, power, and reasoning from siblings and…

  4. The Contingent Valuation Method in Public Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Hye-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to present a new model measuring the economic value of public libraries, combining the dissonance minimizing (DM) and information bias minimizing (IBM) format in the contingent valuation (CV) surveys. The possible biases which are tied to the conventional CV surveys are reviewed. An empirical study is presented to compare the model…

  5. An Exploratory Contingency Model for Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whorton, David M.

    In an application of contingency theory, data from 45 Arizona schools were analyzed to determine the relationships between three sets of independent variables (organizational structure, leadership style, and environmental characteristics) and the dependent variable (organizational effectiveness as perceived by principals and teachers). Contingency…

  6. 48 CFR 31.205-7 - Contingencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contingency factor may be recognized when it is applicable to a past period to give recognition to minor unsettled factors in the interest of expediting settlement. (c) In connection with estimates of future costs..., the effects of which are foreseeable within reasonable limits of accuracy; e.g., anticipated costs...

  7. Toward a Contingency Theory of Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, C. John; Hoy, Wayne K.

    1998-01-01

    There is no single best decision-making approach. This article reviews and compares six contemporary models (classical, administrative, incremental, mixed-scanning, garbage-can, and political) and develops a framework and 10 propositions to match strategies with circumstances. A contingency approach suggests that administrators use satisficing (a…

  8. Water Flux and Temperature Management for Plant Habitats at Reduced Pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rygalov, V.; Fowler, P.; Wheeler, R.; Bucklin, R.; Gravatt, L.; Dixon, M.

    An experimental system and mathematical model have been developed for describing and testing key environmental parameters (temperature, relative humidity, and pressure) for plant production in bioregenerative life support systems. An atmospheric pressure factor was included for analyzing systems that might operate at reduced (< 100 kPa) pressures to reduce system gas leakage and structural mass costs (e.g., inflatable greenhouses for Mars). Data obtained showed the expected close relationship between temperature and relative humidity, along with the importance of the heat exchanger (cold coil) temperature and air circulation rates. The presence of plants in these closed (or semi-closed) habitats will result in increased water flux through the system, which in turn will limit the range of environmental control capability. Changes in system pressure will affect gas diffusion rates and surface boundary layers, and which in turn will affect convective transfer capabilities and water evaporation rates. One of the most consistent observations from studies with plants at reduced pressures are increased evapo-transpiration rates, even at constant vapor pressure deficits. This suggests that plant water status will be a critical consideration for managing low-pressure production systems. The model should help space mission planners design artificial climate approaches for different cropping scenarios and help minimize system costs.

  9. 40 CFR 51.1012 - Requirement for contingency measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirement for contingency measures... Implementation of PM2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standards § 51.1012 Requirement for contingency measures... contingency measures to be undertaken if the area fails to make reasonable further progress, or fails...

  10. 40 CFR 265.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 265.52... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.52 Content of contingency plan. (a)...

  11. 40 CFR 265.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 265.52... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.52 Content of contingency plan. (a)...

  12. 40 CFR 265.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 265.52... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.52 Content of contingency plan. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 265.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water at the facility. (b) If the owner or operator... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Content of contingency plan. 265.52... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.52 Content of contingency plan. (a)...

  14. The Effects of Non-Contingent Reinforcement on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramill, James L.; Kleinhammer, P. Jeannie

    Typical learned helplessness research has involved the presentation of non-contingent, aversive events followed by measures of performance on subsequent tasks; recent investigations have focused on the effect of non-contingent rewards. To examine the effects of non-contingent rewards on children, two studies were conducted, in which children were…

  15. 40 CFR 264.227 - Emergency repairs; contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency repairs; contingency plans... FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.227 Emergency repairs; contingency plans. (a) A surface impoundment... days after detecting the problem. (c) As part of the contingency plan required in subpart D of...

  16. 30 CFR 1218.152 - Fishermen's Contingency Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fishermen's Contingency Fund. 1218.152 Section..., Gas and Sulfur, Offshore § 1218.152 Fishermen's Contingency Fund. Upon the establishment of the Fishermen's Contingency Fund, any holder of a lease issued or maintained under the Outer Continental...

  17. 40 CFR 265.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 265.53 Section 265.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.53 Copies of contingency plan. A...

  18. 30 CFR 1218.152 - Fishermen's Contingency Fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fishermen's Contingency Fund. 1218.152 Section... Oil, Gas and Sulfur, Offshore § 1218.152 Fishermen's Contingency Fund. Upon the establishment of the Fishermen's Contingency Fund, any holder of a lease issued or maintained under the Outer Continental...

  19. 47 CFR 32.25 - Unusual items and contingent liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unusual items and contingent liabilities. 32.25 Section 32.25 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... contingent liabilities. Extraordinary items, prior period adjustments, and contingent liabilities may...

  20. 7 CFR 1488.18 - Covenant against contingent fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covenant against contingent fees. 1488.18 Section... Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Miscellaneous Provisions § 1488.18 Covenant against contingent fees..., or contingent fee, except bona fide employees or bona fide established commercial or selling...

  1. Effects of negative punishment contingencies on cocaine self-administration by rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Nader, M A; Morgan, D

    2001-04-01

    Although punishment contingencies are widely used with human drug users, basic research on the effectiveness of these procedures is limited. The present study evaluated the effects of a negative punishment contingency, response-contingent timeout (TO) presentation, on cocaine-maintained responding. Rhesus monkeys were trained under a multiple fixed-interval (FI) 5-min cocaine, conjoint FI 5-min cocaine, variable-interval (VI) 30-sec TO schedule. TO values were either 0 (baseline), 10, 30, or 60s in length. During the TO periods, the FI clock continued to operate but the discriminative stimuli signaling cocaine availability were removed, and responding had no scheduled consequence. Cocaine maintained responding in all monkeys and the dose-effect curve was characterized as an inverted U-shaped function. The response-contingent TO presentations reduced response rates maintained by cocaine in all monkeys compared to baseline. The magnitude of the reduction in response rates was not a function of the length of the TO period (i.e. intensity of the punisher), and the punishment effect was enhanced by increases in cocaine dose. When responding was punished, response rates in the unpunished components either also decreased (i.e. response induction; approximately 30% of the cases) or were not affected (approximately 60%). These results demonstrate that cocaine-maintained behavior can be decreased by environmental manipulations involving negative punishment contingencies. PMID:11396521

  2. Hebbian Learning is about contingency, not contiguity, and explains the emergence of predictive mirror neurons.

    PubMed

    Keysers, Christian; Perrett, David I; Gazzola, Valeria

    2014-04-01

    Hebbian Learning should not be reduced to contiguity, as it detects contingency and causality. Hebbian Learning accounts of mirror neurons make predictions that differ from associative learning: Through Hebbian Learning, mirror neurons become dynamic networks that calculate predictions and prediction errors and relate to ideomotor theories. The social force of imitation is important for mirror neuron emergence and suggests canalization.

  3. A Comparison of Punishment and Positive Reinforcement Group Contingencies in the Modification of Inappropriate Classroom Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonewille, Jack; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Measures the relative effectiveness of a short-term punishment versus a snort-term positive reinforcement contingency system for reducing the frequency of specific inappropriate behaviors of a group of senior elementary students. Students were directly involved in identifying the different types of discipline so that they might help determine the…

  4. Contingent Take-Home Incentive: Effects on Drug Use of Methadone Maintenance Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzer, Maxine L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined contingent methadone take-home privileges for effectiveness in reducing supplemental drug use of methadone maintenance patients. Assigned 53 new intakes to begin receiving take-home privileges after 2 consecutive weeks of drug-free urines or to noncontingent procedure in which take-homes were delivered independently of urine results.…

  5. Reducing Overheating-Induced Failures Via Performance-Aware CPU Power Management.

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, C.-H.; Feng, W. C.

    2005-01-01

    Cluster end-users and administrators have become more cognizant of the fact that large-scale commodity clusters fail quite frequently, and the main source of these failures is hardware (e.g., processors) with the primary cause being heat. This situation is expected to worsen with even larger-scale clusters powered by faster (and/or multicore) processors. In this paper, we propose a power-management algorithm that addresses heat-related reliability for processors by controlling their clock speeds in a performance-aware manner. This approach is complementary to existing approaches such as exotic cooling and fault-tolerant technologies in that it proactively deals with power and cooling issues before they become a problem. Our preliminary experimental work demonstrates that our approach can easily be applied commodity processors and can reduce heat generation by 30% on average with minimal effect on performance when running the SPEC benchmarks.

  6. Accounting protesting and warm glow bidding in Contingent Valuation surveys considering the management of environmental goods--an empirical case study assessing the value of protecting a Natura 2000 wetland area in Greece.

    PubMed

    Grammatikopoulou, Ioanna; Olsen, Søren Bøye

    2013-11-30

    Based on a Contingent Valuation survey aiming to reveal the willingness to pay (WTP) for conservation of a wetland area in Greece, we show how protest and warm glow motives can be taken into account when modeling WTP. In a sample of more than 300 respondents, we find that 54% of the positive bids are rooted to some extent in warm glow reasoning while 29% of the zero bids can be classified as expressions of protest rather than preferences. In previous studies, warm glow bidders are only rarely identified while protesters are typically identified and excluded from further analysis. We test for selection bias associated with simple removal of both protesters and warm glow bidders in our data. Our findings show that removal of warm glow bidders does not significantly distort WTP whereas we find strong evidence of selection bias associated with removal of protesters. We show how to correct for such selection bias by using a sample selection model. In our empirical sample, using the typical approach of removing protesters from the analysis, the value of protecting the wetland is significantly underestimated by as much as 46% unless correcting for selection bias.

  7. Reduced Transfusion During OLT by POC Coagulation Management and TEG Functional Fibrinogen: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    De Pietri, Lesley; Ragusa, Francesca; Deleuterio, Annalisa; Begliomini, Bruno; Serra, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation are at high risk of bleeding complications. Several Authors have shown that thromboelastography (TEG)-based coagulation management and the administration of fibrinogen concentrate reduce the need for blood transfusion. Methods We conducted a single-center, retrospective cohort observational study (Modena Polyclinic, Italy) on 386 consecutive patients undergoing liver transplantation. We assessed the impact on resource consumption and patient survival after the introduction of a new TEG-based transfusion algorithm, requiring also the introduction of the fibrinogen functional thromboelastography test and a maximum amplitude of functional fibrinogen thromboelastography transfusion cutoff (7 mm) to direct in administering fibrinogen (2012-2014, n = 118) compared with a purely TEG-based algorithm previously used (2005-2011, n = 268). Results After 2012, there was a significant decrease in the use of homologous blood (1502 ± 1376 vs 794 ± 717 mL, P < 0.001), fresh frozen plasma (537 ± 798 vs 98 ± 375 mL, P < 0.001), and platelets (158 ± 280 vs 75 ± 148 mL, P < 0.005), whereas the use of fibrinogen increased (0.1 ± 0.5 vs 1.4 ± 1.8 g, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in 30-day and 6-month survival between the 2 groups. Conclusions The implementation of a new coagulation management method featuring the addition of the fibrinogen functional thromboelastography test to the TEG test according to an algorithm which provides for the administration of fibrinogen has helped in reducing the need for transfusion in patients undergoing liver transplantation with no impact on their survival. PMID:27500243

  8. Improving Learning Results and Reducing Cognitive Load through 3D Courseware on Color Management and Inspection Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Liang-Yuan; Lai, Mu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    This study intends to solve the problem that schools in Taiwan lack of the equipment for color management and inspection instruction and seek ways to improve learning results and reduce cognitive load. The researchers developed 3D courseware for color management and inspection through a research and development process. To further scrutinize the…

  9. Can arbuscular mycorrhiza and fertilizer management reduce phosphorus runoff from paddy fields?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujuan; Wang, Li; Ma, Fang; Zhang, Xue; Li, Zhe; Li, Shiyang; Jiang, Xiaofeng

    2015-07-01

    Our study sought to assess how much phosphorus (P) runoff from paddy fields could be cut down by fertilizer management and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. A field experiment was conducted in Lalin River basin, in the northeast China: six nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer levels were provided (0, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100% of the recommended fertilizer supply), with or without inoculation with Glomus mosseae. The volume and concentrations of particle P (PP) and dissolved P (DP) were measured for each runoff during the rice growing season. It was found that the seasonal P runoff, including DP and PP, under the local fertilization was 3.7 kg/ha, with PP, rather than DP, being the main form of P in runoff water. Additionally, the seasonal P runoff dropped only by 8.9% when fertilization decreased by 20%; rice yields decreased with declining fertilization. We also found that inoculation increased rice yields and decreased P runoff at each fertilizer level and these effects were lower under higher fertilization. Conclusively, while rice yields were guaranteed arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and fertilizer management would play a key role in reducing P runoff from paddy fields.

  10. Surveillance Recommendations in Reducing Risk of and Optimally Managing Breast Cancer-Related Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Ostby, Pamela L.; Armer, Jane M.; Dale, Paul S.; Van Loo, Margaret J.; Wilbanks, Cassie L.; Stewart, Bob R.

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer survivors are at increased risk for the development of breast cancer-related lymphedema (BCRL), a chronic, debilitating, and disfiguring condition that is progressive and requires lifelong self-management of symptoms. It has been reported that over 40% of the 2.5 million breast cancer survivors in the United States may meet the criteria for BCRL during their lifetimes. Ongoing surveillance, beginning with pre-operative assessment, has been effective in identifying subclinical lymphedema (LE). A prospective model for surveillance is necessary in order to detect BCRL at an early stage when there is the best chance to reduce risk or slow progression. Physical methods for monitoring and assessment, such as circumferential arm measures, perometry, bioimpedance; exercise programs; prophylactic and early-intervention compression garments; and referral for complete decongestive therapy are all interventions to consider in the development of a BCRL surveillance program. In addition, supportive-educative programs and interactive engagement for symptom self-management should also be implemented. The importance of interdisciplinary collaboration is integral to the success of an effective personalized medicine program in breast cancer-related lymphedema surveillance. PMID:25563360

  11. Are we puppets on a string? Comparing the impact of contingency and validity on implicit and explicit evaluations.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kurt R; Gawronski, Bertram

    2011-04-01

    Research has demonstrated that implicit and explicit evaluations of the same object can diverge. Explanations of such dissociations frequently appeal to dual-process theories, such that implicit evaluations are assumed to reflect object-valence contingencies independent of their perceived validity, whereas explicit evaluations reflect the perceived validity of object-valence contingencies. Although there is evidence supporting these assumptions, it remains unclear if dissociations can arise in situations in which object-valence contingencies are judged to be true or false during the learning of these contingencies. Challenging dual-process accounts that propose a simultaneous operation of two parallel learning mechanisms, results from three experiments showed that the perceived validity of evaluative information about social targets qualified both explicit and implicit evaluations when validity information was available immediately after the encoding of the valence information; however, delaying the presentation of validity information reduced its qualifying impact for implicit, but not explicit, evaluations.

  12. Water cycle and its management for plant habitats at reduced pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rygalov, Vadim Y.; Fowler, Philip A.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Bucklin, Ray A.

    2004-01-01

    Experimental and mathematical models were developed for describing and testing temperature and humidity parameters for plant production in bioregenerative life support systems. A factor was included for analyzing systems operating at low (10-101.3 kPa) pressure to reduce gas leakage and structural mass (e.g., inflatable greenhouses for space application). The expected close relationship between temperature and relative humidity was observed, along with the importance of heat exchanger coil temperature and air circulation rate. The presence of plants in closed habitats results in increased water flux through the system. Changes in pressure affect gas diffusion rates and surface boundary layers, and change convective transfer capabilities and water evaporation rates. A consistent observation from studies with plants at reduced pressures is increased evapotranspiration rates, even at constant vapor pressure deficits. This suggests that plant water status is a critical factor for managing low-pressure production systems. The approach suggested should help space mission planners design artificial environments in closed habitats.

  13. Improving water management practices to reduce nutrient export from rice paddy fields.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Jian; Yao, Ju-Xiang; Wang, Zhao-De; Xu, Xin; Lin, Xian-Yong; Czapar, George F; Zhang, Jian-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) loss from rice paddy fields represents a significant threat to water quality in China. In this project, three irrigation-drainage regimes were compared, including one conventional irrigation-drainage regime, i.e. continuous submergence regime (CSR), and two improved regimes, i.e. the alternating submergence-nonsubmergence regime (ASNR) and the zero-drainage irrigation technology (ZDIT), to seek cost-effective practices for reducing nutrient loss. The data from these comparisons showed that, excluding the nutrient input from irrigation, the net exports of total N and total P via surface field drainage ranged from -3.93 to 2.39 kg ha and 0.17 to 0.95 g ha(-1) under the CSR operation, respectively, while N loss was -2.46 to -2.23 kg ha(-1) and P export was -0.65 to 0.31 kg ha(-1) under the improved regimes. The intensity of P export was positively correlated to the rate of P application. Reducing the draining frequency or postponing the draining operation would shift the ecological role of the paddy field from a nutrient export source to an interception sink when ASNR or the zero-drainage water management was used. In addition, since the rice yields are being guaranteed at no additional cost, the improved irrigation-drainage operations would have economic as well as environmental benefits.

  14. Reduced biological control and enhanced chemical pest management in the evolution of fungus farming in ants.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Marín, Hermógenes; Zimmerman, Jess K; Nash, David R; Boomsma, Jacobus J; Wcislo, William T

    2009-06-22

    To combat disease, most fungus-growing ants (Attini) use antibiotics from mutualistic bacteria (Pseudonocardia) that are cultured on the ants' exoskeletons and chemical cocktails from exocrine glands, especially the metapleural glands (MG). Previous work has hypothesized that (i) Pseudonocardia antibiotics are narrow-spectrum and control a fungus (Escovopsis) that parasitizes the ants' fungal symbiont, and (ii) MG secretions have broad-spectrum activity and protect ants and brood. We assessed the relative importance of these lines of defence, and their activity spectra, by scoring abundance of visible Pseudonocardia for nine species from five genera and measuring rates of MG grooming after challenging ants with disease agents of differing virulence. Atta and Sericomyrmex have lost or greatly reduced the abundance of visible bacteria. When challenged with diverse disease agents, including Escovopsis, they significantly increased MG grooming rates and expanded the range of targets. By contrast, species of Acromyrmex and Trachymyrmex maintain abundant Pseudonocardia. When challenged, these species had lower MG grooming rates, targeted primarily to brood. More elaborate MG defences and reduced reliance on mutualistic Pseudonocardia are correlated with larger colony size among attine genera, raising questions about the efficacy of managing disease in large societies with chemical cocktails versus bacterial antimicrobial metabolites.

  15. Outcomes from an orientation model to reduce attrition in paediatric weight management.

    PubMed

    Zenlea, I S; Milliren, C; Herel, S; Thomaseo Burton, E; Askins, N; Ludwig, D S; Rhodes, E T

    2016-10-01

    We aimed to reduce attrition of newly referred patients in a paediatric weight management programme by implementing an orientation to address families' expectations and screen for and support behavioural and mental health problems and psychosocial stressors at programme outset. Orientation impact was monitored with run charts with percentages of scheduled encounters completed. Long-term impact was assessed by comparing patients in the initial 6 months of the orientation to a baseline group of referred patients during the same 6-month time interval in the prior year (Pre-Orientation Group). The outcome measure was programme attrition within 15 months. Groups were compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression modelling. Patients in the Orientation Group had a 23% increased odds of attrition compared to patients in the Pre-Orientation group (adjusted Hazard ratio, aHR 1.23; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01, 1.51) and shorter median duration of follow-up (2.0 vs. 2.9 months, P = 0.004). An increase in body mass index z-score of 1 unit resulted in a nearly fivefold increased odds of attrition (aHR 5.24; 95% CI: 2.95, 9.3). An orientation for new patients did not reduce attrition within 15 months. We suggest that ongoing retention strategies should be embedded into the treatment phase of the programme. PMID:27487780

  16. Reducing soil erosion and nutrient loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management system.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fangling; Xie, Deti; Wei, Chaofu; Ni, Jiupai; Yang, John; Tang, Zhenya; Zhou, Chuan

    2015-09-01

    Sloping croplands could result in soil erosion, which leads to non-point source pollution of the aquatic system in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Mulberry, a commonly grown cash plant in the region, is traditionally planted in contour hedgerows as an effective management practice to control soil erosion and non-point source pollution. In this field study, surface runoff and soil N and P loss on sloping land under crop-mulberry management were investigated. The experiments consisted of six crop-mulberry treatments: Control (no mulberry hedgerow with mustard-corn rotation); T1 (two-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T2 (three-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T3 (border mulberry and one-row contour mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T4 (border mulberry with mustard-corn rotation); T5 (two-row longitudinal mulberry with mustard). The results indicated that crop-mulberry systems could effectively reduce surface runoff and soil and nutrient loss from arable slope land. Surface runoff from T1 (342.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T2 (260.6 m(3) hm(-2)), T3 (113.13 m(3) hm(-2)), T4 (114 m(3) hm(-2)), and T5 (129 m(3) hm(-2)) was reduced by 15.4, 35.6, 72.0, 71.8, and 68.1%, respectively, while soil loss from T1 (0.21 t hm(-2)), T2 (0.13 t hm(-2)), T3 (0.08 t hm(-2)), T4 (0.11 t hm(-2)), and T5 (0.12 t hm(-2)) was reduced by 52.3, 70.5, 81.8, 75.0, and 72.7%, respectively, as compared with the control. Crop-mulberry ecosystem would also elevate soil N by 22.3% and soil P by 57.4%, and soil nutrient status was contour-line dependent.

  17. Better Off Jobless? Scarring Effects of Contingent Employment in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2011-01-01

    Previous research fails to address whether contingent employment benefits individuals’ careers more than the alternative they often face: being without a job. Using work history data from Japan, this study shows that accepting a contingent job delays individuals’ transition to standard employment more than remaining jobless. Moreover, having a contingent job, rather than having no job, leads Japanese men to have lower occupational status after they transition back to standard employment. I argue that in a highly segmented labor market like Japan’s, the strict separation of labor pools for standard and contingent jobs makes being labeled as a contingent worker particularly detrimental. Meanwhile, the legacy of Japan’s welfare corporatism alleviates the stigma of unemployment, making individuals better off jobless than having a contingent job. This research thus demonstrates the importance of labor-market contexts in shaping the scarring effects of contingent work arrangements. PMID:22859864

  18. Implications of chronic wasting disease, cougar predation, and reduced recruitment for elk management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sargeant, G.A.; Weber, D.C.; Roddy, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Emerging diseases and expanding carnivore populations may have profound implications for ungulate harvest management and population regulation. To better understand effects of chronic wasting disease (CWD) and cougar (Puma concolor) predation, we studied mortality and recruitment of elk (Cervus elaphus) at Wind Cave National Park (WICA) during 2005-2009. We marked 202 elk (83 subadult M and 119 subadult and ad F) with Global Positioning System (GPS) collars, observed 28 deaths during 74,220 days of monitoring, and investigated 42 additional deaths of unmarked elk found dead. Survival rates were similar for males and females and averaged 0.863 (SE = 0.025) annually. Leading causes of mortality included hunting (0.065, SE = 0.019), CWD (0.034, SE = 0.012), and cougar predation (0.029, SE = 0.012). Marked elk killed by hunters and cougars typically were in good physical condition and not infected with CWD. Effects of mortality on population growth were exacerbated by low rates of pregnancy (subadults = 9.5%, SE = 6.6%; ad = 76.9%, SE = 4.2%) and perinatal survival (0.49, SE = 0.085 from 1 Feb to 1 Sep). Chronic wasting disease, increased predation, and reduced recruitment reduced the rate of increase for elk at WICA to approximately ?? = 1.00 (SE = 0.027) during the past decade. Lower rates of increase are mitigating effects of elk on park vegetation, other wildlife, and neighboring lands and will facilitate population control, but may reduce opportunities for elk hunting outside the park. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  19. Expected Utility Distributions for Flexible, Contingent Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Washington, Richard

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method for using expected utility distributions in the execution of flexible, contingent plans. A utility distribution maps the possible start times of an action to the expected utility of the plan suffix starting with that action. The contingent plan encodes a tree of possible courses of action and includes flexible temporal constraints and resource constraints. When execution reaches a branch point, the eligible option with the highest expected utility at that point in time is selected. The utility distributions make this selection sensitive to the runtime context, yet still efficient. Our approach uses predictions of action duration uncertainty as well as expectations of resource usage and availability to determine when an action can execute and with what probability. Execution windows and probabilities inevitably change as execution proceeds, but such changes do not invalidate the cached utility distributions, thus, dynamic updating of utility information is minimized.

  20. Oil, biological communities and contingency planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.; Frink, Lynne; Ball-Weir, Katherine; Smith, Charlotte

    1995-01-01

    The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 mandates the inclusion of a fish and wildlife response plan in the National Contingency Plan (NCP) and the creation of Area Committees that must develop an Area Contingency Plan (ACP). Area Contingency Plans must include a detailed annex containing a Fish and Wildlife and Sensitive Environments Plan. Tank vessels, offshore facilities, and certain onshore facilities must have response plans consistent with the requirements of the NCP and the ACP. New regulations to supersede the Type A and B procedures of the Natural Resources Damage Assessment Regulations are being developed for oil spills. Currently, four assessment methods have been proposed: (1) Type A, (2) comprehensive (Type B), (3) intermediate (between types A and B), and (4) compensation tables. The Oil Spill Liability Trust Fund is approaching its ceiling of $1 billion, but only $50 million has been appropriated. Effective biological contingency planning requires extensive knowledge of (1) the environmental fate of petroleum, (2) the effects of petroleum on organisms, (3) the existing biological resources, and (4) the establishment of a system of biological priorities. The characteristics and fate of petroleum and the biological effects of petroleum are reviewed. Assessment of biological resources includes plant and animal distributions, important habitat, endangered or threatened species, and economic considerations. The establishment by Area Committees of priorities for environmental protection, injury assessment, and restoration will promote efficient spill response. Three special issues are discussed: (1) improving our ability to restore natural resources, (2) the potential role of biological diversity in spill response planning, and (3) planning for animal rehabilitation.

  1. Sound-contingent visual motion aftereffect

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background After a prolonged exposure to a paired presentation of different types of signals (e.g., color and motion), one of the signals (color) becomes a driver for the other signal (motion). This phenomenon, which is known as contingent motion aftereffect, indicates that the brain can establish new neural representations even in the adult's brain. However, contingent motion aftereffect has been reported only in visual or auditory domain. Here, we demonstrate that a visual motion aftereffect can be contingent on a specific sound. Results Dynamic random dots moving in an alternating right or left direction were presented to the participants. Each direction of motion was accompanied by an auditory tone of a unique and specific frequency. After a 3-minutes exposure, the tones began to exert marked influence on the visual motion perception, and the percentage of dots required to trigger motion perception systematically changed depending on the tones. Furthermore, this effect lasted for at least 2 days. Conclusions These results indicate that a new neural representation can be rapidly established between auditory and visual modalities. PMID:21569617

  2. Health management with reduced antibiotic use - the U.S. experience.

    PubMed

    Baker, Rodney

    2006-01-01

    Since World War II the use of antimicrobial products associated with food animal production has increased. Antimicrobials along with evolving production practices have significantly increased throughput, animal welfare, and improved health. Concerns surrounding the growing significance of emerging and in some cases rapidly disseminating antibiotic (antimicrobial) resistant bacterial pathogens among human and livestock populations has stimulated a reassessment of this application. The negative publicity has led many consumers and activist groups to believe that protein derived from food animals grown in the absence of those drugs is safer than products derived from the conventionally reared. There is a general fear that antimicrobial usage in agriculture threatens the sustainability of human therapeutic agents and the public wellbeing. The issue has gradually emerged from "fringe group paranoia" to mainstream - finally impacting consumer choices. Antimicrobial resistance concerns have stimulated a significant reaction by the US animal agriculture industry. Numerous pig production entities, large and small, have attempted to create additional pork product value by developing niche marketing opportunities. Thus far most of the subtherapeutic in-feed antimicrobial reduction has been voluntary in the US. Two production areas have developed where reduced usage occurs. First is the growth of antibiotic free production (ABF) and second is an increased use of treatment levels which avoids subtherapeutic criticism. The bulk of this article is directed at new production practices, pig health management, disease elimination, and biosecurity efforts that result from early industry attempts at reduced or excluded antimicrobial pig production. Raising antimicrobial (antibiotic) free (ABF) pork from birth is challenging for a variety of reasons. Some of these challenges can be cost effectively dealt with while others are difficult if not impossible to control in modern production

  3. Reduced-Order Models for Load Management in the Power Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizadeh, Mahnoosh

    In recent years, considerable research efforts have been directed towards designing control schemes that can leverage the inherent flexibility of electricity demand that is not tapped into in today's electricity markets. It is expected that these control schemes will be carried out by for-profit entities referred to as aggregators that operate at the edge of the power grid network. While the aggregator control problem is receiving much attention, more high-level questions of how these aggregators should plan their market participation, interact with the main grid and with each other, remain rather understudied. Answering these questions requires a large-scale model for the aggregate flexibility that can be harnessed from the a population of customers, particularly for residences and small businesses. The contribution of this thesis towards this goal is divided into three parts: In Chapter 3, a reduced-order model for a large population of heterogeneous appliances is provided by clustering load profiles that share similar degrees of freedom together. The use of such reduced-order model for system planning and optimal market decision making requires a foresighted approximation of the number of appliances that will join each cluster. Thus, Chapter 4 provides a systematic framework to generate such forecasts for the case of Electric Vehicles, based on real-world battery charging data. While these two chapters set aside the economic side that is naturally involved with participation in demand response programs and mainly focus on the control problem, Chapter 5 is dedicated to the study of optimal pricing mechanisms in order to recruit heterogeneous customers in a demand response program in which an aggregator can directly manage their appliances' load under their specified preferences. Prices are proportional to the wholesale market savings that can result from each recruitment event.

  4. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Guss

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides technical support to the requesting federal agency such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Department of Defense, the National Space and Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), or a state agency to address the radiological consequences of an event. These activities include measures to alleviate damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused by the incident; protect public health and safety; restore essential government services; and provide emergency assistance to those affected. Scheduled to launch in the fall of 2009, Mars Science Laboratory is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, a long-term effort of robotic exploration of the red planet. Mars Science Laboratory is a rover that will assess whether Mars ever was, or is still today, an environment able to support microbial life. In other words, its mission is to determine the planet's "habitability." The Mars Science Laboratory rover will carry a radioisotope power system that generates electricity from the heat of plutonium's radioactive decay. This power source gives the mission an operating lifespan on Mars' surface of a full Martian year (687 Earth days) or more, while also providing significantly greater mobility and operational flexibility, enhanced science payload capability, and exploration of a much larger range of latitudes and altitudes than was possible on previous missions to Mars. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the DOE in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTec is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. NSTec is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment

  5. Possible land management uses of common cypress to reduce wildfire initiation risk: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Della Rocca, G; Hernando, C; Madrigal, J; Danti, R; Moya, J; Guijarro, M; Pecchioli, A; Moya, B

    2015-08-15

    Accurate determination of flammability is required in order to improve knowledge about vegetation fire risk. Study of the flammability of different plant species is essential for the Mediterranean area, where most ecosystems are adapted to natural fire but vulnerable to recurrent human-induced fires, which are the main cause of forest degradation. However, the methods used to evaluate vegetation flammability have not yet been standardized. Cupressus sempervirens is a native or naturalized forest tree species in the Mediterranean area that is able to tolerate prolonged drought and high temperatures. The aim of this study was to characterize the flammability of C. sempervirens var. horizontalis at particle level by using different bench-scale calorimetry techniques (mass loss calorimeter, epiradiator and oxygen bomb) to determine the main flammability descriptors (ignitability, sustainability, combustibility and consumability) in live crown and litter samples. Our findings indicate that this variety of cypress is relatively resistant to ignition because of the high ash content, the high critical heat flux, the high time to ignition displayed by both crown and litter samples and the ability of the leaves to maintain a high water content during the summer. We also discuss the possibility of exploiting some morphological, functional and ecological traits of the species to construct a barrier system (with selected varieties of cypress) as a promising complementary land management tool to reduce the fire spread and intensity in a Mediterranean context. PMID:26046989

  6. Interactions between reducing CO2 emissions, CO2 removal and solar radiation management.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Naomi E; Lenton, Timothy M

    2012-09-13

    We use a simple carbon cycle-climate model to investigate the interactions between a selection of idealized scenarios of mitigated carbon dioxide emissions, carbon dioxide removal (CDR) and solar radiation management (SRM). Two CO(2) emissions trajectories differ by a 15-year delay in the start of mitigation activity. SRM is modelled as a reduction in incoming solar radiation that fully compensates the radiative forcing due to changes in atmospheric CO(2) concentration. Two CDR scenarios remove 300 PgC by afforestation (added to vegetation and soil) or 1000 PgC by bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (removed from system). Our results show that delaying the start of mitigation activity could be very costly in terms of the CDR activity needed later to limit atmospheric CO(2) concentration (and corresponding global warming) to a given level. Avoiding a 15-year delay in the start of mitigation activity is more effective at reducing atmospheric CO(2) concentrations than all but the maximum type of CDR interventions. The effects of applying SRM and CDR together are additive, and this shows most clearly for atmospheric CO(2) concentration. SRM causes a significant reduction in atmospheric CO(2) concentration due to increased carbon storage by the terrestrial biosphere, especially soils. However, SRM has to be maintained for many centuries to avoid rapid increases in temperature and corresponding increases in atmospheric CO(2) concentration due to loss of carbon from the land.

  7. Possible land management uses of common cypress to reduce wildfire initiation risk: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Della Rocca, G; Hernando, C; Madrigal, J; Danti, R; Moya, J; Guijarro, M; Pecchioli, A; Moya, B

    2015-08-15

    Accurate determination of flammability is required in order to improve knowledge about vegetation fire risk. Study of the flammability of different plant species is essential for the Mediterranean area, where most ecosystems are adapted to natural fire but vulnerable to recurrent human-induced fires, which are the main cause of forest degradation. However, the methods used to evaluate vegetation flammability have not yet been standardized. Cupressus sempervirens is a native or naturalized forest tree species in the Mediterranean area that is able to tolerate prolonged drought and high temperatures. The aim of this study was to characterize the flammability of C. sempervirens var. horizontalis at particle level by using different bench-scale calorimetry techniques (mass loss calorimeter, epiradiator and oxygen bomb) to determine the main flammability descriptors (ignitability, sustainability, combustibility and consumability) in live crown and litter samples. Our findings indicate that this variety of cypress is relatively resistant to ignition because of the high ash content, the high critical heat flux, the high time to ignition displayed by both crown and litter samples and the ability of the leaves to maintain a high water content during the summer. We also discuss the possibility of exploiting some morphological, functional and ecological traits of the species to construct a barrier system (with selected varieties of cypress) as a promising complementary land management tool to reduce the fire spread and intensity in a Mediterranean context.

  8. Integrated nutrient management (INM) for sustaining crop productivity and reducing environmental impact: a review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Baoluo

    2015-04-15

    The increasing food demands of a growing human population and the need for an environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agricultural development require significant attention when addressing the issue of enhancing crop productivity. Here we discuss the role of integrated nutrient management (INM) in resolving these concerns, which has been proposed as a promising strategy for addressing such challenges. INM has multifaceted potential for the improvement of plant performance and resource efficiency while also enabling the protection of the environment and resource quality. This review examines the concepts, objectives, procedures and principles of INM. A comprehensive literature search revealed that INM enhances crop yields by 8-150% compared with conventional practices, increases water-use efficiency, and the economic returns to farmers, while improving grain quality and soil health and sustainability. Model simulation and fate assessment further reveal that reactive nitrogen (N) losses and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are reduced substantially under advanced INM practices. Lower inputs of chemical fertilizer and therefore lower human and environmental costs (such as intensity of land use, N use, reactive N losses and GHG emissions) were achieved under advanced INM practices without compromising crop yields. Various approaches and perspectives for further development of INM in the near future are also proposed and discussed. Strong and convincing evidence indicates that INM practice could be an innovative and environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agriculture worldwide. PMID:25644838

  9. Integrated nutrient management (INM) for sustaining crop productivity and reducing environmental impact: a review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Baoluo

    2015-04-15

    The increasing food demands of a growing human population and the need for an environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agricultural development require significant attention when addressing the issue of enhancing crop productivity. Here we discuss the role of integrated nutrient management (INM) in resolving these concerns, which has been proposed as a promising strategy for addressing such challenges. INM has multifaceted potential for the improvement of plant performance and resource efficiency while also enabling the protection of the environment and resource quality. This review examines the concepts, objectives, procedures and principles of INM. A comprehensive literature search revealed that INM enhances crop yields by 8-150% compared with conventional practices, increases water-use efficiency, and the economic returns to farmers, while improving grain quality and soil health and sustainability. Model simulation and fate assessment further reveal that reactive nitrogen (N) losses and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions are reduced substantially under advanced INM practices. Lower inputs of chemical fertilizer and therefore lower human and environmental costs (such as intensity of land use, N use, reactive N losses and GHG emissions) were achieved under advanced INM practices without compromising crop yields. Various approaches and perspectives for further development of INM in the near future are also proposed and discussed. Strong and convincing evidence indicates that INM practice could be an innovative and environmentally friendly strategy for sustainable agriculture worldwide.

  10. Contingent workers: Workers' compensation data analysis strategies and limitations.

    PubMed

    Foley, Michael; Ruser, John; Shor, Glenn; Shuford, Harry; Sygnatur, Eric

    2014-07-01

    The growth of the contingent workforce presents many challenges in the occupational safety and health arena. State and federal laws impose obligations and rights on employees and employers, but contingent work raises issues regarding responsibilities to maintain a safe workplace and difficulties in collecting and reporting data on injuries and illnesses. Contingent work may involve uncertainty about the length of employment, control over the labor process, degree of regulatory, or statutory protections, and access to benefits under workers' compensation. The paper highlights differences in regulatory protections and benefits among various types of contingent workers and how these different arrangements affect safety incentives. It discusses challenges caused by contingent work for accurate data reporting in existing injury and illness surveillance and benefit programs, differences between categories of contingent work in their coverage in various data sources, and opportunities for overcoming obstacles to effectively using workers' compensation data.

  11. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program Schedule Contingency Evaluation Report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This report represents the schedule contingency evaluation done on the FY-93 Major System Acquisition (MSA) Baseline for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory`s (INEL) Environmental Restoration Program (EPP). A Schedule Contingency Evaluation Team (SCET) was established to evaluate schedule contingency on the MSA Baseline for the INEL ERP associated with completing work within milestones established in the baseline. Baseline schedules had been established considering enforceable deadlines contained in the Federal Facilities Agreement/Consent Order (FFA/CO), the agreement signed in 1992, by the State of Idaho, Department of Health & Welfare, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 10, and the U.S. Department of Energy, Idaho Operations Office. The evaluation was based upon the application of standard schedule risk management techniques to the specific problems of the INEL ERP. The schedule contingency evaluation was designed to provided early visibility for potential schedule delays impacting enforceable deadlines. The focus of the analysis was on the duration of time needed to accomplish all required activities to achieve completion of the milestones in the baseline corresponding to the enforceable deadlines. Additionally, the analysis was designed to identify control of high-probability, high-impact schedule risk factors.

  12. Reducing stillbirths: prevention and management of medical disorders and infections during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Menezes, Esme V; Yakoob, Mohammad Yawar; Soomro, Tanya; Haws, Rachel A; Darmstadt, Gary L; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2009-01-01

    Background An estimated two-thirds of the world's 3.2 million stillbirths occur antenatally, prior to labour, and are often overlooked in policy and programs. Poorly recognised, untreated or inadequately treated maternal infections such as syphilis and malaria, and maternal conditions including hypertensive disorders, are known risk factors for stillbirth. Methods We undertook a systematic review of the evidence for 16 antenatal interventions with the potential to prevent stillbirths. We searched a range of sources including PubMed and the Cochrane Library. For interventions with prior Cochrane reviews, we conducted additional meta-analyses including eligible newer randomised controlled trials following the Cochrane protocol. We focused on interventions deliverable at the community level in low-/middle-income countries, where the burden of stillbirths is greatest. Results Few of the studies we included reported stillbirth as an outcome; most that did were underpowered to assess this outcome. While Cochrane reviews or meta-analyses were available for many interventions, few focused on stillbirth or perinatal mortality as outcomes, and evidence was frequently conflicting. Several interventions showed clear evidence of impact on stillbirths, including heparin therapy for certain maternal indications; syphilis screening and treatment; and insecticide-treated bed nets for prevention of malaria. Other interventions, such as management of obstetric intrahepatic cholestasis, maternal anti-helminthic treatment, and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria, showed promising impact on stillbirth rates but require confirmatory studies. Several interventions reduced known risk factors for stillbirth (e.g., anti-hypertensive drugs for chronic hypertension), yet failed to show statistically significant impact on stillbirth or perinatal mortality rates. Periodontal disease emerged as a clear risk factor for stillbirth but no interventions have reduced stillbirth rates

  13. Self-management support and other alternatives to reduce the burden of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Reddel, H K; Jenkins, C R; Partridge, M R

    2014-12-01

    While pharmacotherapy is important in the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, it is also important to consider additional interventions that can further reduce the burden of ill health for patients, their families and the health care system. In this review, the evidence in favour of self-management support that leads to successful self-care by the patient is reviewed, and the key components of successful strategies are outlined; areas where more research is needed are identified. In addition to self-management support, other methods of delivering care, such as telemonitoring, admission avoidance, assisted discharge schemes and use of lay educators, are reviewed.

  14. Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures

    PubMed Central

    Dalin, Peter; Kindvall, Oskar; Björkman, Christer

    2009-01-01

    Background There is a general belief that insect outbreak risk is higher in plant monocultures than in natural and more diverse habitats, although empirical studies investigating this relationship are lacking. In this study, using density data collected over seven years at 40 study sites, we compare the temporal population variability of the leaf beetle Phratora vulgatissima between willow plantations and natural willow habitats. Methodology/Principal Findings The study was conducted in 1999–2005. The density of adult P. vulgatissima was estimated in the spring every year by a knock-down sampling technique. We used two measures of population variability, CV and PV, to compare temporal variations in leaf beetle density between plantation and natural habitat. Relationships between density and variability were also analyzed to discern potential underlying processes behind stability in the two systems. The results showed that the leaf beetle P. vulgatissima had a greater temporal population variability and outbreak risk in willow plantations than in natural willow habitats. We hypothesize that the greater population stability observed in the natural habitat was due to two separate processes operating at different levels of beetle density. First, stable low population equilibrium can be achieved by the relatively high density of generalist predators observed in natural stands. Second, stable equilibrium can also be imposed at higher beetle density due to competition, which occurs through depletion of resources (plant foliage) in the natural habitat. In willow plantations, competition is reduced mainly because plants grow close enough for beetle larvae to move to another plant when foliage is consumed. Conclusion/Significance To our knowledge, this is the first empirical study confirming that insect pest outbreak risk is higher in monocultures. The study suggests that comparative studies of insect population dynamics in different habitats may improve our ability to

  15. Evaluation of reduced-tillering (tin) wheat lines in managed, terminal water deficit environments.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J H; Rebetzke, G J; Chapman, S C; Fukai, S

    2013-08-01

    Small or shrivelled wheat kernels (screenings) that reduce crop value are commonly produced in terminal drought environments. The aim of this study was to establish whether the incorporation of the tiller inhibition (tin) gene would contribute to maintenance of kernel weight and reductions in screenings under terminal water deficit. Five Silverstar near-isogenic lines contrasting in high and low tiller potential and their recurrent Silverstar parent were established at two plant densities under managed terminal water deficit (mild and severe) and irrigated conditions. With irrigation (grain yield of 5.6 t ha(-1)), kernels of all lines weighed ~31 mg, with restricted-tillering (R-tin) lines producing an average 15% lower grain yield. Under both mild and severe terminal water deficit (4.1 t ha(-1) and 2.8 t ha(-1)), free-tillering lines had relatively high screenings ranging from 11.9% to 16.2%. Compared with free-tillering lines, R-tin lines maintained large kernel weight (~29 mg kernel(-1)) and had 29% and 51% fewer screenings under the two stresses, and a significantly greater (+11%) grain yield under mild stress. Higher kernel weights in tin lines were realized even with the greater kernel number per spike. The higher kernel weight of the R-tin lines under stress conditions was associated with greater anthesis biomass and increased stem water-soluble carbohydrates, ensuring more assimilate for later translocation to filling grain. The incorporation of the tin gene into genetic material adapted to the target environments provides scope for improvement in both grain yield and kernel weight, and a reduction in screenings in terminal water deficit environments.

  16. Synergi and E&P forum HSE management system helps companies improve HSE performance and reduce losses

    SciTech Connect

    Grundt, H.J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the use of information on accidents and near-misses to improve HSE performance and reduce losses in Exploration and Production activities. Incidents are considered a result of management system failure. To avoid incidents and recurrence of incidents, companies should adopt an integrated HSE Management System and software especially designed for recording, analyzing and following up events. The E&P Forum has issued guidelines to support current company HSE Management systems and practices. Concurrently, the Synergi Project has been established to facilitate experience transfer and effective handling of incidents as part of an integrated HSE Management System. The paper describes how important it is to learn from past mistakes, to have a management system which facilitates the implementation of the required corrective action, and that tools for improved loss control are available.

  17. Contingent methadone delivery: effects on illicit-opiate use.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S T; Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1986-07-01

    This study examined the effects of contingent vs. non-contingent delivery of a methadone dose supplement on relapse to illicit opiate use in the context of a methadone outpatient detoxification program. Following a 3-week methadone stabilization period on 30 mg, patients (N = 39) were randomly assigned to a contingent, a non-contingent, or a control treatment group. All patients received identical gradual reductions in their assigned methadone dose. During the dose reduction period (weeks 4-11), members of the contingent (N = 13) and non-contingent groups (N = 13) could obtain daily methadone-dose supplements up to 20 mg, but contingent group members could obtain supplements only if their most recent urinalysis results were opiate negative. Control subjects (N = 13) did not have dose increases available. The contingent group presented significantly lower opiate-positive urines during weeks 8-11 (14% positive) of the detox than the non-contingent (38% positive) or control (50% positive) groups. Additionally, the availability of extra methadone improved treatment retention and increased clinic attendance above levels observed in the control group. The potential for further use of methadone's reinforcing properties in the treatment of opiate dependence is discussed.

  18. Alleviating Contingency Violations through Visual Analytics and Suggested Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Mark J.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Allwardt, Craig H.; Mackey, Patrick S.

    2013-07-21

    Contingency analysis (CA) is essential in maintaining a stable and secure power grid. It is required by operating standards that contingency violations need to be alleviated within 30 minutes. In today’s practice, operators normally make decisions based on the information they have with limited support. This paper presents a new feature of user suggested actions integrated in the graphical contingency analysis (GCA) tool, developed by the authors to help the operator’s decision making process. This paper provides a few examples on showing how the decision support element of the GCA tool is further enhanced by this new feature to alleviate contingency violations for better grid reliability.

  19. Contingent methadone delivery: effects on illicit-opiate use.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S T; Stitzer, M L; Bigelow, G E; Liebson, I A

    1986-07-01

    This study examined the effects of contingent vs. non-contingent delivery of a methadone dose supplement on relapse to illicit opiate use in the context of a methadone outpatient detoxification program. Following a 3-week methadone stabilization period on 30 mg, patients (N = 39) were randomly assigned to a contingent, a non-contingent, or a control treatment group. All patients received identical gradual reductions in their assigned methadone dose. During the dose reduction period (weeks 4-11), members of the contingent (N = 13) and non-contingent groups (N = 13) could obtain daily methadone-dose supplements up to 20 mg, but contingent group members could obtain supplements only if their most recent urinalysis results were opiate negative. Control subjects (N = 13) did not have dose increases available. The contingent group presented significantly lower opiate-positive urines during weeks 8-11 (14% positive) of the detox than the non-contingent (38% positive) or control (50% positive) groups. Additionally, the availability of extra methadone improved treatment retention and increased clinic attendance above levels observed in the control group. The potential for further use of methadone's reinforcing properties in the treatment of opiate dependence is discussed. PMID:3757767

  20. Rethinking Reinforcement: Allocation, Induction, and Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior—behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between “operant” activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are “selected” only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the “selecting.” PMID:22287807

  1. Tethered Satellite System Contingency Investigation Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-46) on July 31, 1992. During the attempted on-orbit operations, the Tethered Satellite System failed to deploy successfully beyond 256 meters. The satellite was retrieved successfully and was returned on August 6, 1992. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Associate Administrator for Space Flight formed the Tethered Satellite System (TSS-1) Contingency Investigation Board on August 12, 1992. The TSS-1 Contingency Investigation Board was asked to review the anomalies which occurred, to determine the probable cause, and to recommend corrective measures to prevent recurrence. The board was supported by the TSS Systems Working group as identified in MSFC-TSS-11-90, 'Tethered Satellite System (TSS) Contingency Plan'. The board identified five anomalies for investigation: initial failure to retract the U2 umbilical; initial failure to flyaway; unplanned tether deployment stop at 179 meters; unplanned tether deployment stop at 256 meters; and failure to move tether in either direction at 224 meters. Initial observations of the returned flight hardware revealed evidence of mechanical interference by a bolt with the level wind mechanism travel as well as a helical shaped wrap of tether which indicated that the tether had been unwound from the reel beyond the travel by the level wind mechanism. Examination of the detailed mission events from flight data and mission logs related to the initial failure to flyaway and the failure to move in either direction at 224 meters, together with known preflight concerns regarding slack tether, focused the assessment of these anomalies on the upper tether control mechanism. After the second meeting, the board requested the working group to complete and validate a detailed integrated mission sequence to focus the fault tree analysis on a stuck U2 umbilical, level wind mechanical interference, and slack tether in upper tether

  2. Rethinking reinforcement: allocation, induction, and contingency.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior-behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between "operant" activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are "selected" only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the "selecting." PMID:22287807

  3. Rethinking reinforcement: allocation, induction, and contingency.

    PubMed

    Baum, William M

    2012-01-01

    The concept of reinforcement is at least incomplete and almost certainly incorrect. An alternative way of organizing our understanding of behavior may be built around three concepts: allocation, induction, and correlation. Allocation is the measure of behavior and captures the centrality of choice: All behavior entails choice and consists of choice. Allocation changes as a result of induction and correlation. The term induction covers phenomena such as adjunctive, interim, and terminal behavior-behavior induced in a situation by occurrence of food or another Phylogenetically Important Event (PIE) in that situation. Induction resembles stimulus control in that no one-to-one relation exists between induced behavior and the inducing event. If one allowed that some stimulus control were the result of phylogeny, then induction and stimulus control would be identical, and a PIE would resemble a discriminative stimulus. Much evidence supports the idea that a PIE induces all PIE-related activities. Research also supports the idea that stimuli correlated with PIEs become PIE-related conditional inducers. Contingencies create correlations between "operant" activity (e.g., lever pressing) and PIEs (e.g., food). Once an activity has become PIE-related, the PIE induces it along with other PIE-related activities. Contingencies also constrain possible performances. These constraints specify feedback functions, which explain phenomena such as the higher response rates on ratio schedules in comparison with interval schedules. Allocations that include a lot of operant activity are "selected" only in the sense that they generate more frequent occurrence of the PIE within the constraints of the situation; contingency and induction do the "selecting."

  4. Contingency power concepts for helicopter turboshaft engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschkron, R.; Davis, R. H.; Goldstein, D. N.; Haynes, J. F.; Gauntner, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Twin helicopter engines are often sized by power requirement of safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 minute Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, cooling flow modulation, throttle push and an auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military life cycle cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter direct operating cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine/rubber aircraft scenario.

  5. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

    2004-02-01

    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  6. Hedging contingent claims on defaultable assets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beumee, Johan G. B.

    2001-02-01

    Following the JLT model (Jarrow, Lando and Turnbull), this paper represents a defaultable asset as a continuous stochastic process plus a Poisson jump modelling the bankruptcy event. It is shown that if the recovery condition is known beforehand, a contingent claim can be hedged by a position in the defaultable asset and a risk-free instrument. In addition, the claim must satisfy a jump-diffusion equation and a risk-neutral representation is obtained using this equation. Examples include the price of a risky zero-coupon bond with a fixed recovery value and the prices of risky Call/Put options on corporate instruments (instrument terminates upon default).

  7. Resource Contingency Program : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-02-01

    In 1990, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) embarked upon the Resource Contingency Program (RCP) to fulfill its statutory responsibilities to supply electrical power to its utility, industrial and other customers in the Pacific Northwest. Instead of buying or building generating plants now, BPA has purchased options to acquire power later if needed. Three option development agreements were signed in September 1993 with three proposed natural gas-fired, combined cycle combustion turbine CT projects near Chehalis and Satsop Washington and near Hermiston, Oregon. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options. This environmental impact statement addresses the environmental consequences of purchasing power from these options.

  8. Dissociating Contingency Awareness and Conditioned Attitudes: Evidence of Contingency-Unaware Evaluative Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutter, Mandy; Sweldens, Steven; Stahl, Christoph; Unkelbach, Christian; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Whether human evaluative conditioning can occur without contingency awareness has been the subject of an intense and ongoing debate for decades, troubled by a wide array of methodological difficulties. Following recent methodological innovations, the available evidence currently points to the conclusion that evaluative conditioning effects do not…

  9. Contributions of contingencies in modern societies to "privacy" in the behavioral relations of cognition and emotion.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Emmanuel Zagury; Borba, Aécio; Vichi, Christian; Leite, Felipe Lustosa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine specific features of modern individualistic societies that contribute to "emotions" and "cognitions" becoming a matter of privacy. Although some behavior analysts identify emotions and cognitions as "private events," we argue with Skinner (1945) that cognitions and emotions are relations among events and that their origin is in public events in the contingencies of reinforcement maintained by other people. Guided by Elias (1939/1996), we suggest that the shift from feudal economies to market economies involved the increasing individualization of society's members. This individualizing process includes the socially maintained contingencies that bring some verbal responses under control of private stimulation and reduce the magnitude of some verbal responses to a covert level. Behavioral relations in which either stimuli or responses (or both) cannot be observed by others set the stage for a concept of "privacy." Changes in societal contingencies that gave rise to individualization and the attribution of privacy to cognitions and emotions are suggested to include the following: (a) increasing frequency of individual consequences that have no apparent or direct relevance to the group; (b) increasing numbers of concurrent contingencies and choice requirements; (c) conflicts between immediate and delayed consequences for the individual; and (d) conflicts between consequences for the individual and for the group. PMID:22532738

  10. Religious behaviors as strategies for organizing groups of people: A social contingency analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1998-01-01

    A social contingency analysis of religion is presented, arguing that individual religious behaviors are principally maintained by the many powerful benefits of participating in social groups rather than by any immediate or obvious consequences of the religious behaviors. Six common strategies are outlined that can shape the behaviors of large groups of people. More specifically, religious behavior is shaped and maintained by making already-existing contingencies contingent upon low-probability, but socially beneficial, group behaviors. Many specific examples of religious themes are then analyzed in terms of these common strategies for social shaping, including taboos, rituals, totems, personal religious crises, and symbolic expression. For example, a common view is that people are anxious about life, death, and the unknown, and that the direct function of religious behaviors is to provide escape from such anxiety. Such an explanation is instead reversed—that any such anxiety is utilized or created by groups through having escape contingent upon members performing less probable behaviors that nonetheless provide important benefits to most individual group members. These generalized beneficial outcomes, rather than escape from anxiety, maintain the religious behaviors and this fits with observations that religions typically act to increase anxiety rather than to reduce it. An implication of this theory is that there is no difference in principle between religious and nonreligious social control, and it is demonstrated that the same social strategies are utilized in both contexts, although religion has been the more historically important form of social control. PMID:22478297

  11. Integrating land cover modeling and adaptive management to conserve endangered species and reduce catastrophic fire risk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breininger, David; Duncan, Brean; Eaton, Mitchell J.; Johnson, Fred; Nichols, James

    2014-01-01

    Land cover modeling is used to inform land management, but most often via a two-step process, where science informs how management alternatives can influence resources, and then, decision makers can use this information to make decisions. A more efficient process is to directly integrate science and decision-making, where science allows us to learn in order to better accomplish management objectives and is developed to address specific decisions. Co-development of management and science is especially productive when decisions are complicated by multiple objectives and impeded by uncertainty. Multiple objectives can be met by the specification of tradeoffs, and relevant uncertainty can be addressed through targeted science (i.e., models and monitoring). We describe how to integrate habitat and fuel monitoring with decision-making focused on the dual objectives of managing for endangered species and minimizing catastrophic fire risk. Under certain conditions, both objectives might be achieved by a similar management policy; other conditions require tradeoffs between objectives. Knowledge about system responses to actions can be informed by developing hypotheses based on ideas about fire behavior and then applying competing management actions to different land units in the same system state. Monitoring and management integration is important to optimize state-specific management decisions and to increase knowledge about system responses. We believe this approach has broad utility and identifies a clear role for land cover modeling programs intended to inform decision-making.

  12. You and your manager: reducing workplace stress by creating and maintaining a good relationship.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura Sachs

    2007-01-01

    The relationship a medical practice employee has with his or her practice manager is probably the most important relationship the employee will have at work. No matter what position an employee has in the medical practice, it's to his or her advantage to get along well with the practice manager. This article offers concrete suggestions to medical practice employees to help them establish and cultivate a positive working relationship with their practice managers. It examines different working styles of practice managers and suggests strategies for medical practice employees who want or need different amounts and styles of supervision. It describes five personal characteristics a practice manager expects in employees and two basic rules of thumb for using the practice manager's time efficiently. This article also emphasizes the importance of good communication with the practice manager and offers 12 practical and specific tips for building the employee-practice manager relationship. Finally, this article offers advice to medical practice employees about what to do when they disagree with their practice managers.

  13. NASA Headquarters Space Operations Center: Providing Situational Awareness for Spaceflight Contingency Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, Theresa G.; Bihner, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the NASA Headquarters mishap response process for the Space Shuttle and International Space Station programs, and how the process has evolved based on lessons learned from the Space Shuttle Challenger and Columbia accidents. It also describes the NASA Headquarters Space Operations Center (SOC) and its special role in facilitating senior management's overall situational awareness of critical spaceflight operations, before, during, and after a mishap, to ensure a timely and effective contingency response.

  14. Absence of Sex-Contingent Gaze Direction Aftereffects Suggests a Limit to Contingencies in Face Aftereffects

    PubMed Central

    Kloth, Nadine; Rhodes, Gillian; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2015-01-01

    Face aftereffects (e.g., expression aftereffects) can be simultaneously induced in opposite directions for different face categories (e.g., male and female faces). Such aftereffects are typically interpreted as indicating that distinct neural populations code the categories on which adaptation is contingent, e.g., male and female faces. Moreover, they suggest that these distinct populations selectively respond to variations in the secondary stimulus dimension, e.g., emotional expression. However, contingent aftereffects have now been reported for so many different combinations of face characteristics, that one might question this interpretation. Instead, the selectivity might be generated during the adaptation procedure, for instance as a result of associative learning, and not indicate pre-existing response selectivity in the face perception system. To alleviate this concern, one would need to demonstrate some limit to contingent aftereffects. Here, we report a clear limit, showing that gaze direction aftereffects are not contingent on face sex. We tested 36 young Caucasian adults in a gaze adaptation paradigm. We initially established their ability to discriminate the gaze direction of male and female test faces in a pre-adaptation phase. Afterwards, half of the participants adapted to female faces looking left and male faces looking right, and half adapted to the reverse pairing. We established the effects of this adaptation on the perception of gaze direction in subsequently presented male and female test faces. We found that adaptation induced pronounced gaze direction aftereffects, i.e., participants were biased to perceive small gaze deviations to both the left and right as direct. Importantly, however, aftereffects were identical for male and female test faces, showing that the contingency of face sex and gaze direction participants experienced during the adaptation procedure had no effect. PMID:26648890

  15. The Slope of Change: An Environmental Management Approach to Reduce Drinking on a Day of Celebration at a US College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchell, Timothy C.; Lewis, Deborah D.; Croom, Katherine; Lesser, Martin L.; Murphy, Susan H.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Frank, Jeremy; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This research extends the literature on event-specific environmental management with a case study evaluation of an intervention designed to reduce student drinking at a university's year-end celebration. Participants: Cornell University undergraduates were surveyed each May from 2001 through 2009. Sample sizes ranged from 322 to…

  16. Design of Experiments with Multiple Independent Variables: A Resource Management Perspective on Complete and Reduced Factorial Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Linda M.; Dziak, John J.; Li, Runze

    2009-01-01

    An investigator who plans to conduct an experiment with multiple independent variables must decide whether to use a complete or reduced factorial design. This article advocates a resource management perspective on making this decision, in which the investigator seeks a strategic balance between service to scientific objectives and economy.…

  17. Reducing environmental noise impacts: A USAREUR noise-management program handbook. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Feather, T.D.; Shekell, T.K.

    1991-06-01

    Noise pollution is a major environmental problem faced by the U.S. Army in Europe. Noise-related complaints from German citizens can escalate into intense political issues in German communities. This in turn hampers efficient operation of military training and often times threatens the Army's mission. In order to remedy these problems, USAREUR has developed a noise management program. A successful noise management program will limit the impact of unavoidable noise on the populace. This report, a component of the noise management program, is a reference document for noise management planning. It contains guidelines and rules-of-thumb for noise management. This document contains procedures which operation and training level personnel can understand and apply in their day to day noise management planning. Noise mitigation tips are given. Basic technical information that will aid in understanding noise mitigation is provided along with noise management through land use planning. Noise management for specific components of the military community, (airfields, base operations, training areas, and housing and recreation areas) are addressed. The nature of noise generated, means of noise abatement at the source, path, and receiver (both physical and organizational/public relations methods), and a case study example are described.

  18. Projectizing the development and/or maintenance process for emergency response/contingency plans

    SciTech Connect

    A. A. Francis

    2000-07-01

    The attainment of established goals and objects is essential and paramount for all successful projects in business and industry, including the development and/or maintenance of emergency response/contingency plans. The need for effective project management is an ongoing effort. As with any aspect of business, better ways of managing projects have been and are being developed. Those organizations that take the lead in implementing these capabilities consistently perform their projects better, and in the case of emergency management, provide better protection to employees, property, and the environment.

  19. The measurement of contingent valuation for health economics.

    PubMed

    Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2004-01-01

    In health economics, contingent valuation is a method that elicits an individual's monetary valuations of health programmes or health states. This article reviews the theory and conduct of contingent valuation studies, with suggestions for improving the future measurement of contingent valuation for health economics applications. Contingent valuation questions can be targeted to any of the following groups: the general population, to value health insurance premiums for programmes; users of a health programme, to value the associated programme costs; or individuals with a disease, to evaluate health states. The questions can be framed to ask individuals how much they would pay to obtain positive changes in health status or avoid negative changes in health status ('willingness to pay'; WTP) or how much they would need to be paid to compensate for a decrease in health status or for foregoing an improvement in heath status ('willingness to accept'; WTA). In general WTP questions yield more accurate and precise valuations than WTA questions. Payment card techniques, with follow-up bidding using direct interviews with visual aids, are well suited for small contingent valuation studies. Several biases may be operative when assessing contingent valuation, including biases in the way participants are selected, the way in which the questions are posed, the way in which individuals interpret probabilities and value gains relative to losses, and the way in which missing or extreme responses are interpreted. An important aspect of all contingent valuation studies is an assessment of respondents' understanding of the evaluation method and the valuation task. Contingent valuation studies should measure the potential influence of biases, the validity of contingent valuation tests as measures of QOL, and the reliability and responsiveness of responses. Future research should address equity concerns associated with using contingent valuation and explore contingent valuation as a

  20. Reducing CH4 emission from rice paddy fields by altering water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudo, S.; Itoh, M.

    2010-12-01

    Percentage of atmospheric methane emitted form rice paddy is estimated at 60Tg/yr (20 - 100Tg/yr) which is near 10% of total global methane emission of 535Tg/yr (410 - 660Tg) (IPCC(1995), and which is near 30% of anthropogenic CH4 emission. Thus, mitigation of CH4 emission is urgently required. CH4 in paddy soil is emanated by the activities of anaerobic bacteria which is called methane producer through reduction of CO2 or decomposition of acetic acid, and it is transported to atmosphere through soil or paddy water surface. It is effective to control methane emission from rice paddy that period is extended on intermittent drainage, composted rice straw is incorporated as fertilizer instead of flesh one, or other. However, empirical approach of these kinds of experiments had not been sufficient because such a kind of experiment required significant times and efforts. In this study, we conducted demonstrative experiments to verify the effects of water management method differences in order to reduce CH4 emission from rice paddy at 9 experimental sites in 8 prefectures. In this, we used new gas analyzer which can measure CH4, CO2 and N2O at once developed by National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences (NIAES), Japan. In this report, we show the results in two years of this study. 'Nakaboshi' (mid-season-drainage) is one of cultivation methods in rice paddy that surface water in paddy field is once drained for about 10 days and the field is maintained like upland field to give adequate stress to rice plant for better harvest qualities and yields. Our targeted evaluation was dependencies of Nakaboshi periods lengths and Nakaboshi periods to CH4 emission reduction amounts for total cultivation periods within harvest yield maintained. The longer length of Nakaboshi period was extended, the lesser CH4 emitted even after when Nakaboshi period lasted, as a whole. In some cases, for example in Kagoshima, exceptional phenomena of that significant high emission were

  1. Neural Events in the Reinforcement Contingency

    PubMed Central

    Teresa Araujo Silva, Maria; Leyser Gonçalves, Fábio; Garcia-Mijares, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    When neural events are analyzed as stimuli and responses, functional relations among them and among overt stimuli and responses can be unveiled. The integration of neuroscience and the experimental analysis of behavior is beginning to provide empirical evidence of involvement of neural events in the three-term contingency relating discriminative stimuli, responses, and consequences. This paper is aimed at highlighting exemplar instances in the development of this issue. It has long been known that the electrical stimulation of certain cerebral areas can have a reinforcing function. Extraordinary technological advances in recent years show that neural activity can be selected by consequences. For example, the activity of in vitro isolated neurons that receive dopamine as a reinforcer functions as a cellular analogue of operant conditioning. The in vivo activity of populations of neurons of rats and monkeys can be recorded on an instant-to-instant basis and can then be used to move mechanical arms or track a target as a function of consequences. Neural stimulation acts as a discriminative stimulus for operant responses that are in turn maintained by neural consequences. Together with investigations on the molecular basis of classical conditioning, those studies are examples of possibilities that are being created for the study of behavior–environment interactions within the organism. More important, they show that, as an element in the three-term contingency, neural activity follows the same laws as other events. PMID:22478485

  2. Universals versus historical contingencies in lexical evolution.

    PubMed

    Bochkarev, V; Solovyev, V; Wichmann, S

    2014-12-01

    The frequency with which we use different words changes all the time, and every so often, a new lexical item is invented or another one ceases to be used. Beyond a small sample of lexical items whose properties are well studied, little is known about the dynamics of lexical evolution. How do the lexical inventories of languages, viewed as entire systems, evolve? Is the rate of evolution of the lexicon contingent upon historical factors or is it driven by regularities, perhaps to do with universals of cognition and social interaction? We address these questions using the Google Books N-Gram Corpus as a source of data and relative entropy as a measure of changes in the frequency distributions of words. It turns out that there are both universals and historical contingencies at work. Across several languages, we observe similar rates of change, but only at timescales of at least around five decades. At shorter timescales, the rate of change is highly variable and differs between languages. Major societal transformations as well as catastrophic events such as wars lead to increased change in frequency distributions, whereas stability in society has a dampening effect on lexical evolution.

  3. Medication Management in Schools: A Systems Approach to Reducing Risk and Strengthening Quality in School Medication Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Health and Health Care in Schools, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This paper and the invitational meeting for which it has been prepared make certain assumptions about the challenge of strengthening the quality of medication management in school. The participants believe that recent research on improving the safety and quality of patient care has relevance for health services in school, particularly the safety…

  4. Coping Card Usage can Further Reduce Suicide Reattempt in Suicide Attempter Case Management Within 3-Month Intervention.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying-Chuan; Hsieh, Ling-Yu; Wang, Ming-Yu; Chou, Cheng-Hsiang; Huang, Min-Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen

    2016-02-01

    This randomized controlled trial was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of using crisis coping cards (n = 32) in the case management of suicide prevention compared with case management without the use of coping cards (n = 32) over a 3-month intervention period. The generalized estimating equation was used to examine the interaction effect between treatments and time on suicide risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness. Results indicated that subsequent suicidal behaviors, severity of suicide risk, depression, anxiety, and hopelessness were reduced more in the coping card intervention group compared to the case management only group. Moreover, for the survival curves of time to suicide reattempt, the coping card group showed a significantly longer time to reattempt than the case management only group at 2-month and 3-month intervention periods.

  5. Contingent Commitments: Bringing Part-Time Faculty into Focus. A Special Report from the Center for Community College Student Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Part-time faculty teach approximately 58% of U.S. community college classes and thus manage learning experiences for more than half (53%) of students enrolled in community colleges (JBL Associates, 2008). Often referred to as "contingent faculty," their work is conditional; the college typically has no obligation to them beyond the…

  6. Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels

    SciTech Connect

    Purdie, J.

    1995-09-01

    State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined.

  7. Contingency and Freedom: Important Concepts for an Educated Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mark E.

    Individuals in general and educators in particular should be knowledgeable about and understand the social implications of contingency and freedom. Contingency--a possible or unforeseen occurrence--is interpreted in light of the unpredictability of nature which insures that people cannot be prepared for every possibility. Freedom is interpreted as…

  8. Infant Contingency/Extinction Performance after Observing Partial Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weir, Catherine; Toland, Cynthia; King, Rose Ann; Martin, Lisa Maas

    2005-01-01

    Social information gathering by infants 6 and 12 months old was examined as a foundation for later social learning that may be uniquely human. Infant performance on a contingency/extinction task was studied following a caregiver demonstration of the contingency on varied reinforcement schedules. Infants who observed caregivers receive any…

  9. 50 CFR 296.3 - Fishermen's contingency fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fishermen's contingency fund. 296.3 Section 296.3 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.3...

  10. A Comparison of Group-Oriented Contingencies for Addition Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Shutte, Greg; Rowland, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Math fact fluency is critical for understanding complex mathematics. Explicit timing interventions have shown promise for improving math fluency, and they may benefit from being paired with group-oriented contingencies. Further, investigations of independent and dependent group-oriented contingencies would help to identify their relative…

  11. Using an Academic Peer Interaction Contingency with Emotionally Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Robert C.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An academic peer interaction contingency was introduced into an ongoing token economy program in a class of five emotionally disturbed children with minimal interpersonal skills. Seven behavioral categories of academically relevant and irrelevant behaviors were recorded during multiple baseline, contingency, and follow-up observation periods.…

  12. The Role of Feedback Contingency in Perceptual Category Learning

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, F. Gregory; Vucovich, Lauren E.

    2016-01-01

    Feedback is highly contingent on behavior if it eventually becomes easy to predict, and weakly contingent on behavior if it remains difficult or impossible to predict even after learning is complete. Many studies have demonstrated that humans and nonhuman animals are highly sensitive to feedback contingency, but no known studies have examined how feedback contingency affects category learning, and current theories assign little or no importance to this variable. Two experiments examined the effects of contingency degradation on rule-based and information-integration category learning. In rule-based tasks, optimal accuracy is possible with a simple explicit rule, whereas optimal accuracy in information-integration tasks requires integrating information from two or more incommensurable perceptual dimensions. In both experiments, participants each learned rule-based or information-integration categories under either high or low levels of feedback contingency. The exact same stimuli were used in all four conditions and optimal accuracy was identical in every condition. Learning was good in both high-contingency conditions, but most participants showed little or no evidence of learning in either low-contingency condition. Possible causes of these effects are discussed, as well as their theoretical implications. PMID:27149393

  13. Modification of Preschool Children's Bathroom Behaviors by Contingent Teacher Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Marjorie J.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    1978-01-01

    Repeated measures of the frequency of paper towel litter, unflushed toilets, dirty sinks, and running water faucets were used to evaluate effectiveness of contingent teacher praise for appropriate bathroom use by preschool children. Contingent praise for appropriate bathroom behaviors resulted in markedly decreased frequencies of four target…

  14. Contingent Fees in Medical Malpractice Litigation—A Qualitative Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Ottensmeyer, David J.; Smith, Howard L.; Porter, James

    1983-01-01

    The medical profession has experienced high liability insurance premiums accompanied by widespread use of contingent fees in medical malpractice litigation. It is worthwhile, therefore, to assess qualitatively the merits of contingent fees, the evidence suggesting that they are associated with unjustified litigation and their implications for the medical and legal professions. PMID:6636743

  15. 40 CFR 264.227 - Emergency repairs; contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emergency repairs; contingency plans... FACILITIES Surface Impoundments § 264.227 Emergency repairs; contingency plans. (a) A surface impoundment... liquids in the impoundment suddenly drops and the drop is not known to be caused by changes in the...

  16. CW-FIT: Group Contingency Effects across the Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wills, Howard P.; Iwaszuk, Wendy M.; Kamps, Debra; Shumate, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the effects of a group-contingency intervention on student behavior across academic instructional periods. Research suggests group contingencies are evidence-based practices, yet calls for investigation to determine the best conditions and groups suited for this type of intervention. CW-FIT (Class-Wide Function-related…

  17. 26 CFR 1.1275-4 - Contingent payment debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Contingent payment debt instruments. 1.1275-4....1275-4 Contingent payment debt instruments. (a) Applicability—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, this section applies to any debt instrument that provides for one or...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1275-4 - Contingent payment debt instruments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Contingent payment debt instruments. 1.1275-4... Contingent payment debt instruments. (a) Applicability—(1) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, this section applies to any debt instrument that provides for one or more...

  19. Better off Jobless? Scarring Effects of Contingent Employment in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Wei-hsin

    2012-01-01

    Previous research fails to address whether contingent employment benefits individuals' careers more than the alternative they often face: being without a job. Using work history data from Japan, this study shows that accepting a contingent job delays individuals' transition to standard employment more than remaining jobless. Moreover, having a…

  20. A Test Based on the Contingency Model of Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchio, Robert P.

    1981-01-01

    The contingency model of leadership was extended to investigate subordinate satisfaction. It was hypothesized that subordinate satisfaction with a leader would yield evidence of an interaction between leadership style and situational parameters. Results indicated moderate support for an extension of the contingency model formulation. (RC)