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Sample records for contingency management reduces

  1. The use of contingency management to reduce cigarette smoking among college students.

    PubMed

    Correia, Christopher J; Benson, Trisha A

    2006-05-01

    The current study tested the feasibility of using contingency management to reduce cigarette smoking among college students. Eighty-eight undergraduate smokers were enrolled in a 3-week ABA study. During the baseline weeks, participants earned noncontingent monetary payments for attending data collection sessions. During the intervention week, participants earned monetary payments contingent on demonstrating recent abstinence. Participants were randomly assigned to either a low- or a high-reinforcer magnitude condition that controlled the amount of money that could be earned during the intervention week. Cigarette smoking was significantly reduced during the intervention week relative to the baseline weeks, and greater reductions were achieved under the high-reinforcer magnitude condition. These results suggest that cigarette smoking among college students is responsive to contingency management procedures.

  2. Security Officer's Role in Reducing Inmate Problem Behaviors: A Program Based on Contingency Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Describes guard-designed and implemented contingency-management work squad training program for administratively segregated prison inmates with histories of violent and assaultive behavior. Notes that participation in the work squad program sharply reduced frequency of violent and assaultive behavior for 8 of 10 offender-participants whose…

  3. Contingency Management and Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackenzie, Clara

    Some educators are turning to the process of contingency management within a classroom as a short term, immediate motivator which can work for virtually every student, regardless of his/her final grade in the course. Contingency management consists of providing a set of alternatives from which those chosen by the student reward the students in…

  4. Waste Management Project Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edward L. Parsons, Jr.

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide the office of Waste Management (WM) with recommended contingency calculation procedures for typical WM projects. Typical projects were defined as conventional construction-type activities that use innovative elements when necessary to meet the project objectives. Projects involve treatment, storage, and disposal of low level, mixed low level, hazardous, transuranic, and high level waste. Cost contingencies are an essential part of Total Cost Management. A contingency is an amount added to a cost estimate to compensate for unexpected expenses resulting from incomplete design, unforeseen and unpredictable conditions, or uncertainties in the project scope (DOE 1994, AACE 1998). Contingency allowances are expressed as percentages of estimated cost and improve cost estimates by accounting for uncertainties. The contingency allowance is large at the beginning of a project because there are more uncertainties, but as a project develops, the allowance shrinks to adjust for costs already incurred. Ideally, the total estimated cost remains the same throughout a project. Project contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by lack of project definition, and process contingency reflects the degree of uncertainty caused by use of new technology. Different cost estimation methods were reviewed and compared with respect to terminology, accuracy, and Cost Guide standards. The Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering (AACE) methods for cost estimation were selected to represent best industry practice. AACE methodology for contingency analysis can be readily applied to WM Projects, accounts for uncertainties associated with different stages of a project, and considers both project and process contingencies and the stage of technical readiness. As recommended, AACE contingency allowances taper off linearly as a project nears completion.

  5. Contingency Base Energy Management System

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-09

    CB-EMS is the latest implementation of DSOM (Decision Support for Operations and Maintenance), which was previously patented by PNNL. CB-EMS WAS specifically designed for contingency bases for the US Army. It is a software package that is designed to monitor energy consumption at an Army contingency base to alert the camp manager when the systems are wasting energy. It's main feature that separates it from DSOM is it's ability to add systems using a plug and play menu system.

  6. Contingency management reduces drug-related human immunodeficiency virus risk behaviors in cocaine-abusing methadone patients.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Tressa; Alessi, Sheila M; Petry, Nancy M

    2008-07-01

    Contingency management (CM) is efficacious in reducing drug use. This study examined whether CM also reduces human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk behaviors and if these effects are mediated by longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. Data were analyzed from a subset of participants in a combined data set of three published randomized controlled trials of CM treatments. A community-based methadone maintenance clinic. One-hundred and sixty-five cocaine-abusing methadone maintenance patients. Participants received either standard methadone treatment or standard methadone treatment with CM for 3 months. The HIV Risk Behavior Scale (HRBS) was administered prior to randomization to a study condition and 3 months after the study treatments ended. The primary objective indicator of drug use was longest duration of cocaine and opioid abstinence achieved during treatment. Relative to those assigned to standard care, participants receiving CM significantly decreased overall HIV risk behaviors and injection drug use risk behaviors. CM participants also achieved longer durations of consecutive cocaine and opioid abstinence during treatment. Duration of abstinence achieved mediated the relationship between treatment condition and HRBS difference scores. These results suggest that CM treatment reduces HIV drug use risk behaviors in cocaine-abusing methadone maintenance patients.

  7. Dynamic Cost-Contingency Management: A Method for Reducing Project Costs While Increasing the Probability of Success

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-30

    simple Monte Carlo simulation tools such as @Risk® and Crystal Ball®. The premise of this paper is that a credible Probabilistic Cost Analysis...readily performed using commercially available Monte Carlo simulation Excel add-ins. The implementation of a project-wide cost contingency to ensure...deterministic to probabilistic approach is NOT silver bullet • Monte Carlo simulation is only a mathematical tool: GIGO Poor management practices Lack of

  8. Contingency management: perspectives of Australian service providers.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jacqui; Ritter, Alison

    2007-03-01

    Given the very positive and extensive research evidence demonstrating efficacy and effectiveness of contingency management, it is important that Australia explore whether contingency management has a role to play in our own treatment context. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 experienced alcohol and drug practitioners, service managers and policy-makers in Victoria. Interviewees were selected to represent the range of drug treatment services types and included rural representation. A semi-structured interview schedule, covering their perceptions and practices of contingency management was used. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using N2 qualitative data analysis program. The majority of key informants were positively inclined toward contingency management, notwithstanding some concerns about the philosophical underpinnings. Concerns were raised in relation to the use of monetary rewards. Examples of the use of contingency management provided by key informants demonstrated an over-inclusive definition: all the examples did not adhere to the key principles of contingency management. This may create problems if a structured contingency management were to be introduced in Australia. Contingency management is an important adjunctive treatment intervention and its use in Australia has the potential to enhance treatment outcomes. No unmanageable barriers were identified in this study.

  9. Contingency Management and Stuttering in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Bruce P.

    2004-01-01

    This is a review of the contingency management literature and current related treatment programs for stuttering in childhood: the Lidcombe Program, Gradual Increase in Length and Complexity of Utterance (GILCU), and Prolongation (PS). Treatment efficacy research has shown these treatments to be effective and efficient for children, but there…

  10. A systematic review comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Farronato, Nadine S; Dürsteler-Macfarland, Kenneth M; Wiesbeck, Gerhard A; Petitjean, Sylvie A

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and contingency management for cocaine dependence. Contingency management alone reliably reduced cocaine use during active treatment in all cited trials, whereas the positive effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy emerged after treatment in 3 of 5 trials. Synergistic effects of the combination of contingency management plus cognitive-behavioral therapy are shown in 2 trials, but another 3 trials found no additive effects. Positive, rapid, and enduring effects on cocaine use are reliably seen with contingency management interventions, whereas measurable effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy emerge after treatment and are not as reliable as effects with contingency management.

  11. Contingency Management of Health Care Organizations: It Depends.

    PubMed

    Olden, Peter C

    Managers in health care organizations (HCOs) must perform many processes and activities, such as planning goals, designing organization structure, leading people, motivating employees, making decisions, and resolving conflict. How they do all this strongly affects the performance and outcomes of their organizations and themselves. Some managers develop a usual way of performing their jobs and achieve some success with a preferred method of leading or a favorite approach to motivating. However, their success will be limited if they always rely on a standard "1-size-fits-all" approach. This is because contingency factors influence the effectiveness of a given approach to managing. The "best" approach depends on contingency factors, including the situation and the people involved. Managers should choose an approach to fit with the changing contingency factors. This article explains why and how managers should develop a contingency approach to managing HCOs. The development of contingency theory is briefly described. Practical application of contingency management is explained for leading, motivating, decision making, and resolving conflict. By using a contingency approach, managers can be more effective when managing their HCOs.

  12. A prompt plus delayed contingency procedure for reducing bathroom graffiti.

    PubMed Central

    Watson, T S

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of posting signs for reducing graffiti in three men's restrooms on a college campus using a multiple baseline across settings design. During baseline, graffiti increased almost daily in each of the three settings. Immediately following the intervention, no marks were made on any of the three walls. Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. A possible explanation for the results is that the signs specified an altruistic contingency. PMID:8881353

  13. A prompt plus delayed contingency procedure for reducing bathroom graffiti.

    PubMed

    Watson, T S

    1996-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of posting signs for reducing graffiti in three men's restrooms on a college campus using a multiple baseline across settings design. During baseline, graffiti increased almost daily in each of the three settings. Immediately following the intervention, no marks were made on any of the three walls. Results were maintained at 3-month follow-up. A possible explanation for the results is that the signs specified an altruistic contingency.

  14. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes

    PubMed Central

    Regier, Paul S.; Redish, A. David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation. PMID:26082725

  15. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    PubMed

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  16. Contingency Management Requirements Document: Preliminary Version. Revision F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is the High Altitude, Long Endurance (HALE) Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) Contingency Management (CM) Functional Requirements document. This document applies to HALE ROA operating within the National Airspace System (NAS) limited at this time to enroute operations above 43,000 feet (defined as Step 1 of the Access 5 project, sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). A contingency is an unforeseen event requiring a response. The unforeseen event may be an emergency, an incident, a deviation, or an observation. Contingency Management (CM) is the process of evaluating the event, deciding on the proper course of action (a plan), and successfully executing the plan.

  17. School Management and Contingency Theory: An Emerging Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, E. Mark

    An understanding of the "situational" characteristics of the organizational forces that influence the relationships between environmental, management, and performance variables is now coming to be seen as a key to understanding the management process itself. This paper is a synthesis of the contingency theory literature drawn from the…

  18. Reducing Contingency through Sampling at the Luckey FUSRAP Site - 13186

    SciTech Connect

    Frothingham, David; Barker, Michelle; Buechi, Steve; Durham, Lisa

    2013-07-01

    Typically, the greatest risk in developing accurate cost estimates for the remediation of hazardous, toxic, and radioactive waste sites is the uncertainty in the estimated volume of contaminated media requiring remediation. Efforts to address this risk in the remediation cost estimate can result in large cost contingencies that are often considered unacceptable when budgeting for site cleanups. Such was the case for the Luckey Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) site near Luckey, Ohio, which had significant uncertainty surrounding the estimated volume of site soils contaminated with radium, uranium, thorium, beryllium, and lead. Funding provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) allowed the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) to conduct additional environmental sampling and analysis at the Luckey Site between November 2009 and April 2010, with the objective to further delineate the horizontal and vertical extent of contaminated soils in order to reduce the uncertainty in the soil volume estimate. Investigative work included radiological, geophysical, and topographic field surveys, subsurface borings, and soil sampling. Results from the investigative sampling were used in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory's Bayesian Approaches for Adaptive Spatial Sampling (BAASS) software to update the contaminated soil volume estimate for the site. This updated volume estimate was then used to update the project cost-to-complete estimate using the USACE Cost and Schedule Risk Analysis process, which develops cost contingencies based on project risks. An investment of $1.1 M of ARRA funds for additional investigative work resulted in a reduction of 135,000 in-situ cubic meters (177,000 in-situ cubic yards) in the estimated base volume estimate. This refinement of the estimated soil volume resulted in a $64.3 M reduction in the estimated project cost-to-complete, through a reduction in the uncertainty in the contaminated soil

  19. Mountain substitutability and peak load pricing of high alpine peaks as a management tool to reduce environmental damage: a contingent valuation study.

    PubMed

    Loomis, John B; Keske, Catherine M

    2009-04-01

    High alpine peaks throughout the world are under increasing environmental pressure from hikers, trekkers, and climbers. Colorado's "Fourteeners", peaks with summits above 14,000 feet are no exception. Most of these peaks have no entrance fees, and reach ecological and social carrying capacity on weekends. This paper illustrates how a series of dichotomous choice contingent valuation questions can be used to evaluate substitutability between different alpine peaks and quantify the price responsiveness to an entrance fee. Using this approach, we find that peak load pricing would decrease use of popular Fourteeners in Colorado by 22%. This reduction is due almost entirely to substitution, rather than income effects. There is also price inelastic demand, as 60% of the hikers find no substitution for their specific Fourteener at the varying cost increases posed in the survey. The no substitute group has a mean net benefit of $294 per hiker, per trip, considerably higher than visitor net benefits in most recreational use studies.

  20. School management and contingency theory: an emerging perspective.

    PubMed

    Hanson, E M

    1979-01-01

    In an article written for educational administrators, Hanson explains the assumptions, framework, and application of contingency theory. The author sees contingency theory as a way for organizations to adapt to uncertainty by developing a strategic plan with alternative scenarios. He urges school administrators to join businessmen and public managers in using a technique described as "the most powerful current sweeping over the organizational field." The theory assumes that: (1) a maze of goals govern the development of events; (2) different management approaches may be appropriate within the same organization; and (3) different leadership styles suit different situations. Contingency planning helps the organization to respond to uncertainty in the external environment by identifying possible events that may occur and by preparing alternative stratgies to deal with them. Hanson describes the purpose of this process as providing "a more effective match between an organization and its environment." He explains that contingency theory analyzes the internal adjustments of the organization (e.g., decision making process, structure, technology, instructional techniques) as it seeks to meet the shifting demands of its external or internal environments. According to the author, the intent of contingency theory is to establish an optimal "match" between environmental demands (and support) and the response capabilities of the organization including its structure, planning process, and leadership style.

  1. A Web-Based Contingency Management Program with Adolescent Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Brady; Dallery, Jesse; Shroff, Palak; Patak, Michele; Leraas, Kristen

    2008-01-01

    The present study evaluated a new 30-day Web-based contingency management program for smoking abstinence with 4 daily-smoking adolescents. Participants made 3 daily video recordings of themselves giving breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples at home that were sent electronically to study personnel. Using a reversal design, participants could earn…

  2. A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management Delivered by Community Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Ledgerwood, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) is an evidence-based treatment, but few clinicians deliver this intervention in community-based settings. Method: Twenty-three clinicians from 3 methadone maintenance clinics received training in CM. Following a didactics seminar and a training and supervision period in which clinicians delivered CM to pilot…

  3. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  4. Contingency Management for Adolescent Smokers: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tevyaw, Tracy O'Leary; Gwaltney, Chad; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Miranda, Robert; Barnett, Nancy P.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Monti, Peter M.

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a contingency management (CM) protocol for adolescent smokers that included use of a reduction phase. Using a within-participants design, 19 adolescents completed three 7-day phases: (1) reinforcement for attendance and provision of breath samples (RA) phase, (2) a washout phase,…

  5. A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management Delivered by Community Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Ledgerwood, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) is an evidence-based treatment, but few clinicians deliver this intervention in community-based settings. Method: Twenty-three clinicians from 3 methadone maintenance clinics received training in CM. Following a didactics seminar and a training and supervision period in which clinicians delivered CM to pilot…

  6. Using the Experience Sampling Method in the Context of Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husky, Mathilde M.; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing substance use. This manuscript illustrates how the experience sampling method (ESM) can depict behavior and behavior change and can be used to explore CM treatment mechanisms. ESM characterizes idiosyncratic patterns of behavior and offers the potential to determine…

  7. Prize Reinforcement Contingency Management for Cocaine Dependence: Integration with Group Therapy in a Methadone Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Martin, Bonnie; Simcic, Francis

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated a low-cost contingency management (CM) procedure for reducing cocaine use and enhancing group therapy attendance in 77 cocaine-dependent methadone patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of standard treatment or standard treatment with CM, in which patients earned the opportunity to win prizes…

  8. A Randomized Trial of Contingency Management Delivered in the Context of Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Alessi, Sheila M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) is efficacious in reducing drug use. Typically, reinforcers are provided on an individual basis to patients for submitting drug-negative samples. However, most treatment is provided in a group context, and poor attendance is a substantial concern. This study evaluated whether adding CM to group-based…

  9. Prize Reinforcement Contingency Management for Cocaine Dependence: Integration with Group Therapy in a Methadone Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Martin, Bonnie; Simcic, Francis

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated a low-cost contingency management (CM) procedure for reducing cocaine use and enhancing group therapy attendance in 77 cocaine-dependent methadone patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of standard treatment or standard treatment with CM, in which patients earned the opportunity to win prizes…

  10. Resource Management and Contingencies in Aerospace Concurrent Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpati, Gabe; Hyde, Tupper; Peabody, Hume; Garrison, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    significant concern in designing complex systems implementing new technologies is that while knowledge about the system is acquired incrementally, substantial financial commitments, even make-or-break decisions, must be made upfront, essentially in the unknown. One practice that helps in dealing with this dichotomy is the smart embedding of contingencies and margins in the design to serve as buffers against surprises. This issue presents itself in full force in the aerospace industry, where unprecedented systems are formulated and committed to as a matter of routine. As more and more aerospace mission concepts are generated by concurrent design laboratories, it is imperative that such laboratories apply well thought-out contingency and margin structures to their designs. The first part of this publication provides an overview of resource management techniques and standards used in the aerospace industry. That is followed by a thought provoking treatise on margin policies. The expose presents the actual flight telemetry data recorded by the thermal discipline during several recent NASA Goddard Space Flight Center missions. The margins actually achieved in flight are compared against pre-flight predictions, and the appropriateness and the ramifications of having designed with rigid margins to bounding stacked worst case conditions are assessed. The second half of the paper examines the particular issues associated with the application of contingencies and margins in the concurrent engineering environment. In closure, a discipline-by-discipline disclosure of the contingency and margin policies in use at the Integrated Design Center at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center is made.

  11. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Contingency Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This document involves definition of technology interface requirements for Contingency Management. This was performed through a review of Contingency Management-related, HSI requirements documents, standards, and recommended practices. Technology concepts in use by the Contingency Management Work Package were considered. Beginning with HSI high-level functional requirements for Contingency Management, and Contingency Management technology elements, HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot were identified. Results of the analysis describe (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge of system failures and associated contingency procedures, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain system status and procedure information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate Contingency Management technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how Contingency Management operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary Contingency Management functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for Contingency Management are partitioned into four categories: (1) Health and Status and (2) Contingency Management. Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  12. Contingency management: utility in the treatment of drug abuse disorders.

    PubMed

    Stitzer, M L; Vandrey, R

    2008-04-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a strategy that uses positive reinforcement to improve the clinical outcomes of substance abusers in treatment, especially sustained abstinence from drugs of abuse. Further, CM has been adopted to improve methodology and interpretation of outcomes in clinical trials testing new pharmacotherapies and to improve adherence to efficacious medications in substance abuse patients. Thus, CM has proven to be widely useful as a direct therapeutic intervention and as a tool in treatment development.

  13. Consensus oriented fuzzified decision support for oil spill contingency management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Wirtz, Kai W

    2006-06-30

    Studies on multi-group multi-criteria decision-making problems for oil spill contingency management are in their infancy. This paper presents a second-order fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE) model to resolve decision-making problems in the area of contingency management after environmental disasters such as oil spills. To assess the performance of different oil combat strategies, second-order FCE allows for the utilization of lexical information, the consideration of ecological and socio-economic criteria and the involvement of a variety of stakeholders. On the other hand, the new approach can be validated by using internal and external checks, which refer to sensitivity tests regarding its internal setups and comparisons with other methods, respectively. Through a case study, the Pallas oil spill in the German Bight in 1998, it is demonstrated that this approach can help decision makers who search for an optimal strategy in multi-thread contingency problems and has a wider application potential in the field of integrated coastal zone management.

  14. Prize-based Contingency Management for the Treatment of Substance Abusers: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Benishek, L. A.; Dugosh, K. L.; Kirby, K. C.; Matejkowski, J.; Clements, N. T.; Seymour, B. L.; Festinger, D. S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To review randomized controlled trials to assess efficacy of a prize-based contingency management procedure in reducing substance use (where a drug-free breath or urine sample provides a chance of winning a prize). Methods A meta-analysis was conducted on articles published from January 2000 to February 2013 to determine the effect size of studies comparing prize-based contingency management to a treatment-as-usual control condition (k=19 studies). Parallel analyses evaluated the efficacy of both short- (k=9 studies) and long-term outcomes (k=6 studies) of prize-based contingency management . Results The average end-of-treatment effect size (Cohen's d) was .46 [95% CI=0.37,0.54). This effect size decreased at the short-term (≤ 3-month) post-intervention follow-up to .33 (95% CI=0.12,0.54) and at the 6-month follow-up time point there was no detectable effect (d=-.09 (95% CI=−0.28,0.10)). Conclusion Adding prize-based contingency management to behavioral support for substance use disorders can increase short-term abstinence but the effect does not appear to persist to 6 months. PMID:24750232

  15. Development of a Contingency Capillary Wastewater Management Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    The Personal Body .Attached Liquid Liquidator (PBALL) is conceived as a passive, capillary driven contingency wastewater disposal device. In this contingency scenario, the airflow system on the NASA Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) is assumed to have failed, leaving only passive hardware and vacuum vent to dispose of the wastewater. To meet these needs, the PBALL was conceived to rely on capillary action and urine wetting design considerations. The PBALL is designed to accommodate a range of wetting conditions, from 0deg < (theta)adv approx. 90deg, be adaptable for both male and female use, collect and retain up to a liter of urine, minimize splash-back, and allow continuous drain of the wastewater to vacuum while minimizing cabin air loss. A sub-scale PBALL test article was demonstrated on NASA's reduced gravity aircraft in April, 2010.

  16. Motivation and Contingency Management Treatments for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Walter, Kimberly N; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a highly efficacious psychosocial treatment for substance use disorders based on the principles of behavioral analysis. CM involves delivering a tangible positive reinforcer following objective evidence of submission of a drug-negative urine sample. Although CM interventions primarily involve applying extrinsic rewards, a patient's intrinsic motivation to change substance use behavior may also be impacted by CM. This chapter provides an introduction to CM interventions for substance use disorders and examines the impact of CM on intrinsic motivation . It also addresses applications of this intervention to other conditions and patient populations.

  17. Contingency Management Approaches for Adolescent Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Budney, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    The addition of contingency management (CM) to the menu of effective treatments for adolescent substance abuse has generated excitement in the research and treatment communities. CM interventions are based on extensive basic science and clinical research evidence demonstrating that drug use is sensitive to systematically applied consequences. This article provides (a) a review of basic CM principles, (b) implementation guidelines, (c) a review of the clinical CM research targeting adolescent substance abuse, and (d) a discussion of implementation successes and challenges. Although the research base for CM with adolescents is in its infancy, there are multiple reasons for high expectations. PMID:20682220

  18. The effect of framing incentives as either losses or gains with contingency management for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R J

    2013-04-01

    Cumulative prospect theory predicts that losses motivate behavior more than equal gains. Contingency management procedures effectively reduce drug use by placing incentives in direct competition with the drug taking behavior. Therefore, framing incentives as losses, rather than gains should decrease drug use to a greater extent, given equivalent incentives. We examined whether contingent vouchers described as either losses or gains differentially affected smoking abstinence rates. Over 5 consecutive days, participants could either gain $75 per day for verified abstinence or lose $75 per day (initial endowment=$375) for continuing to smoke. As a result, loss-framed participants were more likely to achieve at least one day of abstinence. There was a trend towards loss-framed participants reducing the amount smoked more than gain-framed participants. However, participants in the gain-framed group were more likely to maintain abstinence, once initiated. The results partially support cumulative prospect theory and suggest additional ways to initiate behavior change using incentives, outside of using larger magnitude incentives in contingency management procedures.

  19. Contingency Management to Increase Grade Point Average among Fraternity Members: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, Ryan A.; Irons, Jessica G.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an incentive-based intervention strategy that has been demonstrated to be effective for inducing behavior change among a variety of populations and for a variety of behaviors. The current study examined whether contingency management techniques can help students change behaviors in an effort to raise their grade point…

  20. Contingency Management to Increase Grade Point Average among Fraternity Members: A Feasibility Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Patten, Ryan A.; Irons, Jessica G.; Apple, Kevin J.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an incentive-based intervention strategy that has been demonstrated to be effective for inducing behavior change among a variety of populations and for a variety of behaviors. The current study examined whether contingency management techniques can help students change behaviors in an effort to raise their grade point…

  1. Comments on Contingency Management and Conditional Cash Transfers

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Stephen T.

    2009-01-01

    This essay discusses research on incentive-based interventions to promote healthy behavior change, contingency management (CM) and conditional cash transfers (CCT). The overarching point of the essay is that CM and CCT are often treated as distinct areas of inquiry when at their core they represent a common approach. Some potential bi-directional benefits of recognizing this commonality are discussed. Distinct intellectual traditions probably account for the separate paths of CM and CCT to date, with the former being rooted in behavioral psychology and the latter in microeconomics. It is concluded that the emerging field of behavioral economics, which is informed by and integrates principles of each of those disciplines, may provide the proper conceptual framework for integrating CM and CCT. PMID:19670269

  2. Comments on contingency management and conditional cash transfers.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T

    2010-10-01

    This essay discusses research on incentive-based interventions to promote healthy behavior change, contingency management (CM) and conditional cash transfers (CCT). The overarching point of the essay is that CM and CCT are often treated as distinct areas of inquiry when at their core they represent a common approach. Some potential bi-directional benefits of recognizing this commonality are discussed. Distinct intellectual traditions probably account for the separate paths of CM and CCT to date, with the former being rooted in behavioral psychology and the latter in microeconomics. It is concluded that the emerging field of behavioral economics, which is informed by and integrates principles of each of those disciplines, may provide the proper conceptual framework for integrating CM and CCT.

  3. Duration effects in contingency management treatment of methamphetamine disorders.

    PubMed

    Roll, John M; Chudzynski, Joy; Cameron, Jennifer M; Howell, Donelle N; McPherson, Sterling

    2013-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether different durations of contingency management (CM) in conjunction with psychosocial treatment produced different rates of abstinence among methamphetamine dependent individuals. Participants were randomized to one of the four 16-week treatment conditions: standard psychosocial treatment or psychosocial treatment plus one of the three durations of CM (one-month, two-month, or four-month). A total of 118 participants were randomized to the four treatment conditions. There were significant differences across treatment conditions for number of consecutive days of methamphetamine abstinence (p<0.05). These differences were in the hypothesized direction, as participants were more likely to remain abstinent through the 16-week trial as CM duration increased. A significant effect of treatment condition (p<0.05) and time (p<0.05) on abstinence over time was also found. Longer durations of CM were more effective for maintaining methamphetamine abstinence.

  4. A Randomized Trial Adapting Contingency Management Targets Based on Initial Abstinence Status of Cocaine-Dependent Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Barry, Danielle; Alessi, Sheila M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) reduces drug use, but questions remain regarding optimal targets and magnitudes of reinforcement. We evaluated the efficacy of CM reinforcing attendance in patients who initiated treatment with cocaine-negative samples, and of higher magnitude abstinence-based CM in patients who began treatment positive.…

  5. A Randomized Trial Adapting Contingency Management Targets Based on Initial Abstinence Status of Cocaine-Dependent Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Barry, Danielle; Alessi, Sheila M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) reduces drug use, but questions remain regarding optimal targets and magnitudes of reinforcement. We evaluated the efficacy of CM reinforcing attendance in patients who initiated treatment with cocaine-negative samples, and of higher magnitude abstinence-based CM in patients who began treatment positive.…

  6. The Relative Contribution of Economic Valence to Contingency Management Efficacy: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.; Howard, Joni T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the extent to which a contingency management (CM) procedure that deducted money from a grand total available at the end of the study compared to a procedure in which money accumulated with continued abstinence from cigarette smoking. Results suggested that the procedure in which money increased contingent on abstinence resulted in…

  7. Interdependent Group Contingency Management for Cocaine-Dependent Methadone Maintenance Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Kerwin, MaryLouise E.; Carpenedo, Carolyn M.; Rosenwasser, Beth J.; Gardner, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) for drug abstinence has been applied to individuals independently even when delivered in groups. We developed a group CM intervention in which the behavior of a single, randomly selected, anonymous individual determined reinforcement delivery for the entire group. We also compared contingencies placed only on cocaine…

  8. Using The Experience Sampling Method in The Context of Contingency Management for Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Husky, Mathilde M; Mazure, Carolyn M; Carroll, Kathleen M; Barry, Danielle; Petry, Nancy M

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments have been shown to be effective in reducing substance use. This manuscript illustrates how the experience sampling method (ESM) can depict behavior and behavior change and can be used to explore CM treatment mechanisms. ESM characterizes idiosyncratic patterns of behavior and offers the potential to determine how behavioral patterns are affected by the operant conditioning principles that drive CM. It may also lead to the identification of new target behaviors for CM in the context of substance abuse treatment. PMID:19192868

  9. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  10. Differential Effectiveness of Interdependent and Dependent Group Contingencies in Reducing Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Kelsey; Gresham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Disruptive behavior in the classroom negatively affects all students' academic engagement, achievement, and behavior. Group contingencies have been proven effective in reducing disruptive behavior as part of behavior interventions in the classroom. The Good Behavior Game is a Tier 1 classwide intervention that utilizes an interdependent group…

  11. Contingency Management Voucher Redemption as an Indicator of Delayed Gratification

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jesse B.; Dierst-Davies, Rhodri; Reback, Cathy J.

    2014-01-01

    This prospective analysis tested whether frequency of voucher redemptions during a contingency management (CM) substance use intervention was significantly associated with participants’ ongoing substance use. Homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men (N=131) were randomized into either a “full” or “lite” voucher-based CM intervention. All participants earned vouchers for attendance and participation; participants in the CM-full condition also received vouchers for substance abstinence and enactment of prosocial and/or health-promoting behaviors. Multivariate longitudinal negative binomial regression analyses (n = 118) assessed the association between substance use during the intervention and frequency of voucher redemptions. Participants who used methamphetamine (IRR = 0.66; 95% CI=0.44–0.99) and/or opiates (IRR=0.60; 95% CI=0.40–0.99) during the intervention exhibited less time between voucher redemptions than individuals who achieved abstinence from these substances. Voucher redemption logs can be cost-effective and unobtrusive tools for measuring study participants’ tendency to delay gratification. PMID:24674235

  12. Contingency management for cocaine treatment: cash vs. vouchers.

    PubMed

    Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Kirby, Kimberly C; Seymour, Brittany L

    2014-08-01

    The efficacy of contingency management (CM) for treating drug abuse is well supported. The most widely used form of CM is voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT), where clients receive an escalating schedule of vouchers that can be redeemed for goods and services for meeting treatment goals. Though generally rejected due to concerns about potential harms to drug using participants, research suggests that cash may be a more effective reinforcer. This three-group randomized trial compared the efficacy of cash-based reinforcement therapy (CBRT) to VBRT and a non-CM condition on cocaine abstinence and treatment attendance; and examined whether CBRT resulted in greater levels of harm than VBRT. Findings indicated that the CBRT was as effective as VBRT when compared to the non-CM condition and that it did not increase rates of drug use, cravings, or high-risk behaviors. Future research should examine potential cost savings associated with a cash-based CM approach as this could have important implications for the wider adoption of the CM model.

  13. Contingency Management for Cocaine Treatment: Cash vs. Vouchers

    PubMed Central

    Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Kirby, Kimberly C.; Seymour, Brittany L.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of contingency management (CM) for treating drug abuse is well supported. The most widely used form of CM is voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT), where clients receive an escalating schedule of vouchers that can be redeemed for goods and services for meeting treatment goals. Though generally rejected due to concerns about potential harms to drug using participants, research suggests that cash may be a more effective reinforcer. This three-group randomized trial compared the efficacy of cash-based reinforcement therapy (CBRT) to VBRT and a non-CM condition on cocaine abstinence and treatment attendance; and examined whether CBRT resulted in greater levels of harm than VBRT. Findings indicated that the CBRT was as effective as VBRT when compared to the non-CM condition and that it did not increase rates of drug use, cravings, or high-risk behaviors. Future research should examine potential cost savings associated with a cash-based CM approach as this could have important implications for the wider adoption of the CM model. PMID:24746956

  14. Challenges in the transfer of contingency management techniques: comment on Silverman et al. (2001).

    PubMed

    Petry, N M

    2001-02-01

    This article critiques K. Silverman, D. Svikis, E. Robles, M. L. Stitzer, and G. E. Bigelow's (2001) study of a contingency management intervention for reinforcing development of job-related skills in substance abusing women. The strengths of Silverman et al.'s study include studying a patient population of major public health concern, expanding contingency management techniques to a vocational training setting, reinforcing gradual approximations, implementing the intervention for a long duration, and carefully designing and executing the experimental procedures. However, many of these strengths may also be interpreted as weaknesses if the ultimate goal is to apply contingency management techniques in self-sustaining, community-based settings. The need to evaluate long-term cost-effectiveness of these procedures is described, and the difficulties in transferring contingency management techniques to real-world settings is discussed.

  15. Contingency Management and Concomitant Changes in Elementary-School Students' Self-Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Harvey C.

    1974-01-01

    This study attempts to evaluate the effects of one specific positive-reinforcement-oriented contingency management program on students' total and school-related self-concepts as well as their personal and social adjustment. (Author)

  16. Contingency management for patients with dual disorders in intensive outpatient treatment for addiction.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Thomas M; Daley, Dennis C; Douaihy, Antoine B

    2014-01-01

    This quality improvement program evaluation investigated the effectiveness of contingency management for improving retention in treatment and positive outcomes among patients with dual disorders in intensive outpatient treatment for addiction. The effect of contingency management was explored among a group of 160 patients exposed to contingency management (n = 88) and not exposed to contingency management (no contingency management, n = 72) in a six-week partial hospitalization program. Patients referred to the partial hospitalization program for treatment of substance use and comorbid psychiatric disorders received diagnoses from psychiatrists and specialist clinicians according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association. A unique application of the contingency management "fishbowl" method was used to improve the consistency of attendance at treatment sessions, which patients attended 5 days a week. Days attending treatment and drug-free days were the main outcome variables. Other outcomes of interest were depression, anxiety and psychological stress, coping ability, and intensity of drug cravings. Patients in the contingency management group attended more treatment days compared to patients in the no contingency management group; M = 16.2 days (SD = 10.0) versus M = 9.9 days (SD = 8.5), respectively; t = 4.2, df = 158, p <.001. No difference was found between the treatment groups on number of drug-free days. Psychological stress and drug craving were inversely associated with drug-free days in bivariate testing (r = -.18, p <.02; r = -.31, p <.001, respectively). Treatment days attended and drug craving were associated with drug-free days in multivariate testing (B =.05, SE =.01, β =.39, t = 4.9, p <.001; B = -.47; SE =.12, β = -.30, t = -3.9, p <.001, respectively; Adj. R(2) =.21). Days attending treatment partially mediated the relationship between exposure to contingency management and self-reported drug-free days

  17. Group Contingencies, Randomization of Reinforcers, and Criteria for Reinforcement, Self-Monitoring, and Peer Feedback on Reducing Inappropriate Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coogan, Brenda Anne; Kehle, Thomas J.; Bray, Melissa A.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.

    2007-01-01

    Considerable research has demonstrated the effectiveness of interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies on reducing inappropriate classroom behavior. Several investigators have focused on the addition of self-monitoring and peer feedback to these interdependent and unknown dependent group contingencies in order to further improve…

  18. Evaluation of a modified contingency management intervention for consistent attendance in therapeutic workplace participants.

    PubMed

    Wong, Conrad J; Dillon, Erin M; Sylvest, Christine; Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-06-11

    In a therapeutic workplace business, drug abuse patients are hired as data entry operators and paid to perform data entry work contingent upon documented drug abstinence. Reliable attendance has been difficult to maintain despite the opportunity for operators to earn a living wage, 6 h per day, 5 days per week. A within-subject reversal design experiment evaluated a contingency management intervention that allowed for flexibility regarding when operators could arrive to work, yet maintained a contingency for reliable workplace attendance. Results from a within-subject reversal design experiment demonstrated the contingency management intervention to be effective in increasing the frequency of completed work shifts in four of five operators. Repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests of grouped data showed that the contingency management intervention significantly (P < 0.05) increased the mean percent of days that operators completed work shifts (5% baseline; 63% contingency management; 7% baseline). This study demonstrates an effective procedure for maintaining attendance in therapeutic workplace participants.

  19. Evaluation of Composting for Reducing Volume of Solid Waste on Contingency Bases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-23

    Incineration Two Stage Burn Higher Burn Temperature Smaller Footprint No Sorting High Cost – Capital and Fuel Scaling and Capacity Issues...National Def nse Cent rgy and Environment Nitrogen Carbon Vapor/Gas (Void Space) Water Moisture Dry Solids Water Vapor Carbon Nitrogen Two other elements...and Environment Compost to Reduce SW on Contingency Bases, 23 May 2012, E2S2 7 National Def nse Cent rgy and Environment  The stage of the

  20. Internet-based group contingency management to promote smoking abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Dallery, Jesse; Meredith, Steven; Jarvis, Brantley; Nuzzo, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Internet-based group contingencies have been shown to promote brief periods of abstinence from cigarette smoking. Under a group contingency, small teams of smokers must collectively meet abstinence goals to receive monetary consequences. The present study investigated two arrangements, one in which all team members had to meet group treatment goals to receive monetary consequences (Full Group), and one in which team members had to meet some group goals and some individual goals to receive these consequences (Mixed Group). Mōtiv8 Systems, an Internet-based remote monitoring platform, was used to collect video-recorded breath carbon monoxide (CO) samples. All team members could communicate with each other via an online discussion forum. During baseline conditions, only 3.3% of CO samples were negative for smoking, which suggests that self-monitoring and access to the online discussion forum were insufficient to initiate abstinence. When the group contingencies were instituted 41.3% of CO samples were negative. There were no statistically significant differences between the two arrangements in the percentage of negative CO samples or point prevalence at the end of treatment or at the 3-month follow-up. Participants posted an average of 25 comments on the discussion forum, most of which were rated as positive by independent observers. The mean cost of vouchers per participant was lower in the Full Group ($33) relative to the Mixed group ($190). The present results replicate and extend previous findings on group contingencies to promote abstinence and social support. PMID:25821915

  1. A Perfect Platform: Combining Contingency Management with Medications for Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) procedures, which provide concrete reinforcers or rewards contingent on verification of discrete targeted behaviors, such as drug-free urines, have been demonstrated to be effective in a number of clinical trials. However, to date there have been only a few that have capitalized on the unique strengths and capabilities of CM as an ideal platform to improve response to or address weaknesses of many pharmacotherapies used in the treatment of drug abuse. In this review, we describe the multiple potential uses of CM as a platform for pharmacotherapy, including reducing illicit drug use in the context of agonist therapies; fostering medication compliance with antagonists, aversive agents and HIV medications; fostering a period of abstinence prior to initiation of agents used to treat comorbid psychiatric conditions or in the context of vaccines to foster adequate periods of abstinence while titer levels are building; and to enhance the effectiveness of anticraving agents through additive or synergistic effects. Although its multiple strengths render it an almost perfect platform, CM does have some weaknesses that have limited its use to date, including cost, the short-term nature of its effects, and need for training. Future treatment development of CM as a medication platform needs to counter these issues by focusing on CM applications with large potential benefit, developing simple or automated methods for CM delivery and placing greater emphasis on the process of transitioning away from formal CM treatment. PMID:17613963

  2. Pinellas Plant contingency plan for the hazardous waste management facility

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    Subpart D of Part 264 (264.50 through .56) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations require that each facility maintain a contingency plan detailing procedures to {open_quotes}minimize hazards to human health or the environment from fires, explosions, or any unplanned sudden or non-sudden release of hazardous waste or hazardous waste constituents to air, soil, or surface water.{close_quotes}

  3. Contingency management in cocaine abusers: a dose-effect comparison of goods-based versus cash-based incentives.

    PubMed

    Vandrey, Ryan; Bigelow, George E; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2007-08-01

    Goods-based contingency management interventions (e.g., those using vouchers or prizes as incentives) have demonstrated efficacy in reducing cocaine use, but cost has limited dissemination to community clinics. Recent research suggests that development of a cash-based contingency management approach may improve treatment outcomes while reducing operational costs of the intervention. However, the clinical safety of providing cash-based incentives to substance abusers has been a concern. The present 16-week study compared the effects of goods-based versus cash-based incentives worth $0, $25, $50, and $100 on short-term cocaine abstinence in a small sample of cocaine-dependent methadone patients (N = 12). A within-subject design was used; a 9-day washout period separated each of 8 incentive conditions. Higher magnitude ($50 and $100) cash-based incentives (checks) produced greater cocaine abstinence compared with the control ($0) condition, but a magnitude effect was not seen for goods-based incentives (vouchers). A trend was observed for greater rates of abstinence in the cash-based versus goods-based incentives at the $50 and $100 magnitudes. Receipt of $100 checks did not increase subsequent rates of cocaine use above those seen in control conditions. The efficacy and safety data provided in this and other recent studies suggest that use of cash-based incentives deserves consideration for clinical applications of contingency management, but additional confirmation in research using larger samples and more prolonged periods of incentive delivery is needed.

  4. Contingency management of reliable attendance of chronically unemployed substance abusers in a therapeutic workplace.

    PubMed

    Wong, Conrad J; Dillon, Erin M; Sylvest, Christine E; Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-02-01

    The Therapeutic Workplace is an effective drug abuse treatment that integrates abstinence reinforcement into a work setting by using a salary that drug abusers earn for work. Drug abuse patients are trained and hired to become data entry operators in a Therapeutic Workplace business. Despite the opportunity to earn a high wage, participants frequently arrive at work late and fail to work complete shifts. In the present study, a contingency management intervention to promote consistent and reliable attendance was evaluated in 4 participants. Participants were not allowed to work on days that they arrived late, and their pay was temporarily reduced each time they arrived late at work or failed to complete a work shift. A within-subject reversal design showed that the intervention increased the frequency with which participants arrived at work on time and completed work shifts.

  5. Prize reinforcement contingency management for cocaine dependence: integration with group therapy in a methadone clinic.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Martin, Bonnie; Simcic, Francis

    2005-04-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated a low-cost contingency management (CM) procedure for reducing cocaine use and enhancing group therapy attendance in 77 cocaine-dependent methadone patients. Patients were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of standard treatment or standard treatment with CM, in which patients earned the opportunity to win prizes ranging from $1 to $100 for submitting cocainenegative samples and attending therapy. Patients in the CM condition submitted more cocaine-negative samples and attended more groups than patients in standard treatment. The best predictor of cocaine abstinence at follow-up was duration of abstinence during treatment. On average, patients in the CM condition earned $117 in prizes. Data from this study suggest that some aspects of reinforcement can be implemented in group therapy in community-based clinics.

  6. Contingency Management for Patients with Cooccurring Disorders: Evaluation of a Case Study and Recommendations for Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Claire E.; Rash, Carla J.; Burke, Randy S.; Parker, Jefferson D.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that contingency management (CM) has potential to improve a number of outcomes (e.g. substance use, treatment attendance, quality of life) among individuals with substance use and cooccurring disorders. However, multiple factors must be considered on a case-by-case basis in order to promote optimal treatment effects. The present study describes an individualized CM protocol for a US Veteran with substance dependence and cooccurring severe mental illness. CM targeted attendance at outpatient appointments and appropriate use of hospital resources. Effects of CM were assessed by comparing the 3-month baseline and CM periods. The CM intervention marginally reduced unnecessary hospital admissions, resulting in cost savings to the medical center of over $5,000 in three months for this individual. However, CM did not affect outpatient attendance. Several complications arose, highlighting challenges in using CM in populations with substance use and cooccurring disorders. Practical suggestions are offered for maximizing the effects of CM. PMID:22937413

  7. Contingency Management in the Classroom Treatment of Long-Term Elective Mutism: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colligan, Ross W.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An 11-year-old boy with a six-year history of elective mutism in school was successfully treated with operant reinforcement and contingency management techniques. The plan was carried out by the classroom teacher with a minimum amount of management consultation. (Author)

  8. Getting help quickly: older people and community worker perspectives of contingency planning for falls management.

    PubMed

    Charlton, Kimberly; Murray, Carolyn M; Kumar, Saravana

    2016-11-10

    Older people living in the community need to plan for getting help quickly if they have a fall. In this paper planning for falls is referred to as contingency planning and is not a falls prevention strategy but rather a falls management strategy. This research explored the perspectives of older people and community workers (CWs) about contingency planning for a fall. Using a qualitative descriptive approach, participants were recruited through a community agency that supports older people. In-depth interviews were conducted with seven older people (67-89 years of age) and a focus group was held with seven workers of mixed disciplines from the same agency. Older people who hadn't fallen were included but were assumed to be at risk of falls because they were in receipt of services. Thematic analysis and concept mapping combined the data from the two participant groups. Four themes including preconceptions about planning ahead for falling, a fall changes perception, giving, and receiving advice about contingency plans and what to do about falling. Both CWs and older people agree contingency planning requires understanding of individual identity and circumstances. CWs have limited knowledge about contingency planning and may be directive, informative, or conservative. Implications for Rehabilitation Falls can result in serious consequences for older people. There is an evidence-practice gap as availability of and access to contingency planning does not necessarily mean older people will use it in a falls emergency. Older people prefer community workers to be directive or informative about contingency planning options but they do want choice and control. Increased community workers knowledge of, and collaborative decision-making about, contingency planning may promote patient-centered services and assist in closing the evidence-practice gap.

  9. Implementation of a Contingency Management-Based Intervention in a Community Supervision Setting: Clinical Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotman, Adria J.; Taxman, Faye S.

    2011-01-01

    A cognitive-behaviorally based substance abuse treatment program was implemented within a community supervision setting. This program included a goals group that used a contingency management component and included the probation agent as a part of the treatment. In this article, the authors describe the contingency management component of the…

  10. A Contingency-Management Intervention to Promote Initial Smoking Cessation Among Opioid-Maintained Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Kelly E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Reimann, Edward F.; Badger, Gary J.; Heil, Sarah H.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of cigarette smoking among opioid-maintained patients is more than threefold that of the general population and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Relatively few studies have evaluated smoking interventions in this population. The purpose of the present study was to examine the efficacy of contingency management for promoting initial smoking abstinence. Forty methadone- or buprenorphine-maintained cigarette smokers were randomly assigned to a contingent (n = 20) or noncontingent (n = 20) experimental group and visited the clinic for 14 consecutive days. Contingent participants received vouchers based on breath carbon monoxide levels during Study Days 1 to 5 and urinary cotinine levels during Days 6 to 14. Voucher earnings began at $9.00 and increased by $1.50 with each subsequent negative sample for maximum possible of $362.50. Noncontingent participants earned vouchers independent of smoking status. Although not a primary focus, participants who were interested and medically eligible could also receive bupropion (Zyban). Contingent participants achieved significantly more initial smoking abstinence, as evidenced by a greater percentage of smoking-negative samples (55% vs. 17%) and longer duration of continuous abstinence (7.7 vs. 2.4 days) during the 2 week quit attempt than noncontingent participants, respectively. Bupropion did not significantly influence abstinence outcomes. Results from this randomized clinical trial support the efficacy of contingency management interventions in promoting initial smoking abstinence in this challenging population. PMID:20158293

  11. A feasibility study of home-based contingency management with adolescent smokers of rural Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Brady; Harris, Millie; Slone, Stacey A; Shelton, Brent J; Dallery, Jesse; Stoops, William; Lewis, Russell

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking among adolescents remains a significant public health concern. This problem is compounded in regions such as rural Appalachia where rates of smoking are consistently higher than national averages and access to treatments is limited. The current research evaluated a home-based contingency management program completed over the Internet with adolescent smokers recruited from rural Appalachia. Participants (N = 62) submitted 3 video recordings per day showing their breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels using a handheld CO monitor. Participants were assigned to either an active treatment condition (AT; n = 31) in which reductions in breath CO were reinforced or a control treatment condition (CT; n = 31) in which providing timely video recordings were reinforced with no requirement to reduce breath CO. Results revealed that participants in the AT condition reduced their breath CO levels significantly more so during treatment than participants in the CT condition. Within-group comparisons revealed that participants in both conditions significantly reduced their breath CO, self-reported smoking, and nicotine dependence ratings during treatment. However, only participants in the AT condition significantly reduced urinary cotinine levels during treatment, and only participants in this condition maintained all reductions until 6-week post treatment. Participants in the CT condition only maintained self-reported smoking reductions until posttreatment assessments. These results support the feasibility and initial efficacy of this incentive-based approach to smoking cessation with adolescent smokers living in rural locations.

  12. Vouchers Versus Prizes: Contingency Management Treatment of Substance Abusers in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Marx, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Tardif, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually use vouchers as reinforcers, but a new technique awards chances of winning prizes. This study compares these approaches. In community treatment centers, 142 cocaine- or heroin-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST with vouchers, or ST with prizes for 12 weeks.…

  13. Contingency Management Treatments: Reinforcing Abstinence Versus Adherence with Goal-Related Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Hanson, Tressa; MacKinnon, Stephen; Rounsaville, Bruce; Sierra, Sean

    2006-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually reinforce submission of drug-negative specimens, but they can also reinforce adherence with goal-related activities. This study compared the efficacy of the 2 approaches. Substance-abusing outpatients (N = 131) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 12-week treatments: standard treatment (ST), ST with CM…

  14. A Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamon, Jody; Budney, Alan; Stanger, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative treatment for adolescent marijuana abuse and provide initial information about its feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy. Method: Provided an intervention composed of (1) a clinic-administered, abstinence-based incentive program; (2) parent-directed contingency management targeting substance use…

  15. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  16. Assessing the Feasibility of Using Contingency Management to Modify Cigarette Smoking by Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Many smokers initiate this dangerous behavior during adolescence. This report describes a contingency management intervention designed to initate and maintain a period of abstinence from cigarettes by adolescent smokers. Results suggest that the intervention was…

  17. Behavior Modification for Obesity: The Evaluation of Exercise, Contingency Management, and Program Adherence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Stalonas, Peter M., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated behavioral programs for obesity. Exercise and self-managed contingency components were compared using obese subjects who were evaluated after treatment and follow-up. Significant weight loss was observed at termination. The influence of exercise at follow-up was noticeable. Subjects engaged in behaviors, yet behaviors were not related…

  18. Assessing the Feasibility of Using Contingency Management to Modify Cigarette Smoking by Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Many smokers initiate this dangerous behavior during adolescence. This report describes a contingency management intervention designed to initate and maintain a period of abstinence from cigarettes by adolescent smokers. Results suggest that the intervention was…

  19. An Effectiveness Trial of Contingency Management in a Felony Preadjudication Drug Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Douglas B.; Festinger, David S.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Arabia, Patricia L.; Kirby, Kimberly C.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a contingency management (CM) program in a drug court. Gift certificates for compliance were delivered at 4- to 6-week intervals (total value = $390.00). Participants in one condition earned gift certificates that escalated by $5.00 increments. Participants in a second condition began earning higher magnitude gift…

  20. Vouchers Versus Prizes: Contingency Management Treatment of Substance Abusers in Community Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Marx, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Tardif, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions usually use vouchers as reinforcers, but a new technique awards chances of winning prizes. This study compares these approaches. In community treatment centers, 142 cocaine- or heroin-dependent outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST with vouchers, or ST with prizes for 12 weeks.…

  1. The Effect of Contingency Management Procedures on the Rate of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.; And Others

    Two different groups of subjects--incarcerated adult offenders and freshman nursing students--participated in an academic experiment which employed an individually prescribed learning system. The system featured programmed instructional materials and contingency management procedures to obtain stable cumulative records of learning performance.…

  2. A Contingency Management Intervention for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse and Conduct Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamon, Jody; Budney, Alan; Stanger, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe an innovative treatment for adolescent marijuana abuse and provide initial information about its feasibility, acceptability, and potential efficacy. Method: Provided an intervention composed of (1) a clinic-administered, abstinence-based incentive program; (2) parent-directed contingency management targeting substance use…

  3. Use of Self-Management with the CW-FIT Group Contingency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamps, Debra; Conklin, Carl; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of self-management as a tier two enhancement to the group contingency intervention, Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams Program (CW-FIT). Two classrooms, first and fourth grade, and two students in each of the classrooms participated in the intervention. The group contingency…

  4. Contingency Management Improves Abstinence and Quality of Life in Cocaine Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa

    2007-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments enhance drug abstinence. This study evaluated whether CM also improves quality of life and if these effects are mediated by abstinence. Across 3 independent trials, cocaine abusers in intensive outpatient treatment (n = 387) were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of standard treatment as usual or standard…

  5. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  6. Use of Self-Management with the CW-FIT Group Contingency Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamps, Debra; Conklin, Carl; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of self-management as a tier two enhancement to the group contingency intervention, Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams Program (CW-FIT). Two classrooms, first and fourth grade, and two students in each of the classrooms participated in the intervention. The group contingency…

  7. The Use of Contingency Management to Affect Learning Performance in Adult Institutionalized Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    A description is given of the development and application of contingency management (CM) techniques to the educational performance of a broad cross section of adult, male prison inmates. By most standards, these inmates are judged to be at the lowest rung of the motivational ladder. Draper Correctional Center experimental and demonstration…

  8. Contingency Management for Attendance to Group Substance Abuse Treatment Administered by Clinicians in Community Clinics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledgerwood, David M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Godley, Mark D.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is effective in enhancing retention in therapy. After an 8-week baseline, four community-based substance abuse treatment clinics were exposed in random order to 16 weeks of standard care with CM followed by 16 weeks of standard care without CM or vice versa. In total, 75 outpatients participated. Patients who were…

  9. Statewide Adoption and Initial Implementation of Contingency Management for Substance-Abusing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Chapman, Jason E.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Halliday-Boykins, Colleen A.; Randall, Jeff; Shackelford, Jennifer; Schoenwald, Sonja K.

    2008-01-01

    Four hundred thirty-two public sector therapists attended a workshop in contingency management (CM) and were interviewed monthly for the following 6 months to assess their adoption and initial implementation of CM to treat substance-abusing adolescent clients. Results showed that 58% (n = 131) of the practitioners with at least one…

  10. Contingency management and levodopa-carbidopa for cocaine treatment: a comparison of three behavioral targets.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Joy M; Lindsay, Jan A; Stotts, Angela L; Green, Charles E; Moeller, F Gerard

    2010-06-01

    New data support use of levodopa pharmacotherapy with behavioral contingency management (CM) as one efficacious combination in cocaine dependence disorder treatment. A potential mechanism of the combined treatment effects may be related to dopamine-induced enhancement of the saliency of contingently delivered reinforcers. Evidence to support this mechanism was sought by evaluating levodopa-enhancing effects across distinct CM conditions that varied in behavioral targets. A total of 136 treatment-seeking, cocaine dependent subjects participated in this 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of levodopa (vs. placebo) administered in combination with one of three behavioral CM conditions. In the CM-URINE condition, subjects received cash-valued vouchers contingent on cocaine-negative urine toxicology results. In the CM-ATTEND condition, the same voucher schedule was contingent on attending thrice weekly clinic visits. In the CM-MEDICATION condition, the same voucher schedule was contingent on Medication Event Monitoring Systems- and riboflavin-based evidence of pill-taking behavior. Primary outcomes associated with each CM target behavior were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models for repeated outcomes. CM responding in the CM-ATTEND and CM-MEDICATION conditions showed orderly effects, with each condition producing corresponding changes in targeted behaviors, regardless of medication condition. In contrast, CM responding in the CM-URINE condition was moderated by medication, with levodopa-treated subjects more likely to submit cocaine-negative urines. These findings specify the optimal target behavior for CM when used in combination with levodopa pharmacotherapy.

  11. An Analysis of Organizational Behavior Management Research in Terms of the Three-Contingency Model of Performance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Nicholas L.; Malott, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    The three-contingency model of performance management (Malott, 1992, 1993, 1999) was used to analyze interventions in the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM)" from the years 1990 through 2005 (Volume 11[1]-Volume 25[4]). The current article extends previous reviews (Malott, Shimamune, & Malott, 1992; Otto & Malott, 2004) by…

  12. An Analysis of Organizational Behavior Management Research in Terms of the Three-Contingency Model of Performance Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherly, Nicholas L.; Malott, Richard W.

    2008-01-01

    The three-contingency model of performance management (Malott, 1992, 1993, 1999) was used to analyze interventions in the "Journal of Organizational Behavior Management (JOBM)" from the years 1990 through 2005 (Volume 11[1]-Volume 25[4]). The current article extends previous reviews (Malott, Shimamune, & Malott, 1992; Otto & Malott, 2004) by…

  13. The economic value of reducing environmental health risks: Contingent valuation estimates of the value of information

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, D.J.; Hoehn, J.P.

    1999-05-01

    Obtaining economically consistent values for changes in low probability health risks continues to be a challenge for contingent valuation (CV) as well as for other valuation methods. One of the cited condition for economic consistency is that estimated values be sensitive to the scope (differences in quantity or quality) of a good described in a CV application. The alleged limitations of CV pose a particular problem for environmental managers who must often make decisions that affect human health risks. This paper demonstrates that a well-designed CV application can elicit scope sensitive values even for programs that provide conceptually complex goods such as risk reduction. Specifically, it finds that the amount sport anglers are willing to pay for information about chemical residues in fish varies systematically with informativeness--a relationship suggested by the theory of information value.

  14. Contingency Contracting and the IT Manager: Today’s Challenges and Future Implications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    explanations as patterns .91 Specifically, the use of the Gansler report to explain that contract management has been lacking is used in addition to...Technology services throughout the Iraq and Afghanistan contingencies. The case study analyzes data utilizing the pattern matching methodology to determine...analyzes data utilizing the pattern matching methodology to determine the level of efficiency and effectiveness of the management of contractor

  15. Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: Evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi

    2011-04-15

    This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling.

  16. Using a contingent valuation approach for improved solid waste management facility: evidence from Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Afroz, Rafia; Masud, Muhammad Mehedi

    2011-04-01

    This study employed contingent valuation method to estimate the willingness to pay (WTP) of the households to improve the waste collection system in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The objective of this study is to evaluate how household WTP changes when recycling and waste separation at source is made mandatory. The methodology consisted of asking people directly about their WTP for an additional waste collection service charge to cover the costs of a new waste management project. The new waste management project consisted of two versions: version A (recycling and waste separation is mandatory) and version B (recycling and waste separation is not mandatory). The households declined their WTP for version A when they were asked to separate the waste at source although all the facilities would be given to them for waste separation. The result of this study indicates that the households were not conscious about the benefits of recycling and waste separation. Concerted efforts should be taken to raise environmental consciousness of the households through education and more publicity regarding waste separation, reducing and recycling. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Application of a lag contingency to reduce perseveration on circumscribed interests.

    PubMed

    Lepper, Tracy L; Devine, Bailey; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of a lag reinforcement contingency on the conversation topics of children diagnosed with autism who perseverated on circumscribed interests (CIs). Single-case design study with two participants, age 11 and 12 years. A functional analysis employed an alternating-treatments design to assess effects of contingent attention on conversational behavior. A multiple-baseline with an embedded reversal design was employed in a subsequent lag contingency analysis, in which the conversation partner provided attention at the end of each 10 s interval if the content of the participant's conversation met the requirement of a Lag 0, Lag 1, or Lag 2 contingency. The participants' conversational behavior was sensitive to a conversation-partner's attention as a consequence. Lag contingencies successfully altered the prevalence of CI-related and-unrelated talk. Lag contingencies can shift conversation content away from CIs, but further research is needed to identify appropriate treatment goals with respect to variability and content.

  18. Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Eating Disorders: The Use of Contingency Management Procedures to Manage Dialectical Dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Wisniewski, Lucene; Ben-Porath, Denise D

    2015-01-01

    Several researchers have adapted and/or applied dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for populations with eating disorders. There is a growing body of research that indicates that DBT is an effective treatment option for this population, including those who have co-occurring Axis II disorders. The goal of the current paper is to summarize the research conducted in the area of DBT with those individuals who present with eating disorders only as well as those who present with both eating disorders and Axis II disorders. We also describe a dialectical dilemma, apparent compliance vs. active defiance, which is commonly observed in the group with comorbidities A DBT change strategy, contingency management, is discussed as an intervention to target apparent compliance and active defiance.

  19. Contingency management for smoking cessation: enhancing feasibility through use of immunoassay test strips measuring cotinine.

    PubMed

    Schepis, Ty S; Duhig, Amy M; Liss, Thomas; McFetridge, Amanda; Wu, Ran; Cavallo, Dana A; Dahl, Tricia; Jatlow, Peter; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2008-09-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a powerful behavioral intervention shown to reduce the use of a variety of substances including tobacco. Use of CM techniques for smoking cessation has been restricted by the use of multiple daily measurements of breath CO as the objective indicator to reinforce abstinence. Cotinine, with its longer half-life, may be a better marker. We evaluated the use of urinary cotinine (determined using once-daily semiquantitative immunoassay test strips and verified using quantitative GC/HPLC techniques) as an abstinence indicator in treatment-seeking adult and adolescent smokers participating in a CM-based intervention program. Both techniques of determining urinary cotinine were highly sensitive and moderately specific at detecting abstinence, and they were highly concordant. However, specificity was somewhat lower during the first few days of a quit attempt and improved over time. The results were similar in adults and adolescent smokers, and suggest that during the first few days of a quit attempt it would be advisable to continue to use daily multiple CO measurements to verify abstinence. However, once abstinence is achieved, once-daily immunoassay test strips could be used for continued monitoring of urinary cotinine levels. Immunoassay testing can identify individuals who relapse to smoking, though this study cannot evaluate whether the strips can identify resumption of abstinence. These results suggest that the use of cotinine as an abstinence indicator, by reducing the number of daily appointments, could significantly enhance the feasibility and utility of CM-based interventions for smoking cessation.

  20. Computer-assisted Behavioral Therapy and Contingency Management for Cannabis Use Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Budney, Alan J.; Stanger, Catherine; Tilford, J. Mick; Scherer, Emily; Brown, Pamela C.; Li, Zhongze; Li, Zhigang; Walker, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted behavioral treatments hold promise for enhancing access to and reducing costs of treatments for substance use disorders. This study assessed the efficacy of a computer-assisted version of an efficacious, multicomponent treatment for cannabis use disorders (CUD), i.e., motivational enhancement therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and abstinence-based contingency-management (MET/CBT/CM). An initial cost comparison was also performed. Seventy-five adult participants, 59% African Americans, seeking treatment for CUD received either, MET only (BRIEF), therapist-delivered MET/CBT/CM (THERAPIST), or computer-delivered MET/CBT/CM (COMPUTER). During treatment, the THERAPIST and COMPUTER conditions engendered longer durations of continuous cannabis abstinence than BRIEF (p < .05), but did not differ from each other. Abstinence rates and reduction in days of use over time were maintained in COMPUTER at least as well as in THERAPIST. COMPUTER averaged approximately $130 (p < .05) less per case than THERAPIST in therapist costs, which offset most of the costs of CM. Results add to promising findings that illustrate potential for computer-assisted delivery methods to enhance access to evidence-based care, reduce costs, and possibly improve outcomes. The observed maintenance effects and the cost findings require replication in larger clinical trials. PMID:25938629

  1. The Contingent Use of Trading Stamps in Reducing Truancy: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, John T.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A 13-year-old learning-disabled subject received a daily amount of trading stamps contingent on school attendance. Results showed a significant decrease in truancy from three to four days per week to less than one. A reversal design indicated that truancy could be controlled by the contingency procedure. (Author/GDC)

  2. A Comparative Study of Group Contingencies and Randomized Reinforcers to Reduce Disruptive Classroom Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theodore, Lea A.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    The present investigation employed an alternating treatments design to (1) examine the efficacy of group contingencies in the reduction of disruptive behavior, and (2) compare the effects of independent, interdependent, and dependent group contingencies in the reduction of disruptive behavior in adolescent males identified with serious emotional…

  3. Prize reinforcement contingency management for treating cocaine users: how low can we go, and with whom?

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Tedford, Jacqueline; Austin, Mark; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims This study evaluated the efficacy of a low-cost, prize reinforcement contingency management (CM) intervention for reducing cocaine use. Setting Community-based treatment centers. Participants and design Cocaine-abusing out-patients (n = 120) were assigned randomly to one of three 12-week conditions: standard treatment, standard treatment plus CM with an expected maximum of $80 of reinforcement or standard treatment plus CM with an expected maximum of $240 of reinforcement. Intervention In the CM conditions, patients earned the opportunity to win prizes for submitting negative urine samples and completing goal-related activities. Measurements Drug use was measured at intake and throughout a 3-month treatment period. Findings Patients in the $240 CM condition achieved more abstinence than patients in the standard condition. Patients who initiated treatment with positive urinalysis results were most responsive to the CM intervention, with the $240 CM condition engendering the best effects in this subgroup. In contrast, patients who initiated treatment with negative urinalysis results generally remained abstinent during treatment, regardless of treatment assignment. On average, patients in the two CM conditions earned $36 and $68 in prizes. Conclusions This study suggests that prize reinforcement CM may be suitable for community-based settings, and beneficial effects may be magnitude-dependent in more severe patients. PMID:14982548

  4. Effectiveness of very low-cost contingency management in a community adolescent treatment program.

    PubMed

    Lott, David C; Jencius, Simon

    2009-06-01

    Controlled studies have shown that motivational incentives reduce drug use, but community implementation has been limited. This observational study examines the effect of a contingency management (CM) program on urine, attendance, and cost measures in a community substance abuse treatment program for adolescents. Treatment included elements of 12-step facilitation, cognitive behavioral therapy, and motivational enhancement. All urine tests included cannabinoids, opioids, benzodiazepines, cocaine, and amphetamines. Patients with negative urines or perfect attendance earned chances to draw weekly from a bag for prizes of varying value, and the number of draws increased with each consecutive negative urine test. Data were collected for those patients (age 12-18) treated immediately before (n=83) and after (n=264) the CM program was introduced to the treatment center, and positive urine rates were compared using chi-square tests. Patients treated with the CM program had lower rates of urines positive for opioids (p<0.005) and cocaine (p<0.05), and non-significantly but consistently lower rates of urines positive for all other drug classes. Altogether, the proportion of urines positive for any drug decreased from 33.3% to 23.4% (p<0.01). Pre- and post-CM comparisons of attendance reveal lower daily attendance rates but longer retention in treatment. Expenses were minimal at $0.39 per patient per day. These data yield additional evidence for the feasibility and effectiveness of CM methods in community adolescent treatment programs.

  5. Building a bonfire that remains stoked: sustainment of a contingency management intervention developed through collaborative design.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Bryan

    2015-08-06

    Community dissemination of empirically-supported behavior therapies is fostered by collaborative design, a joint process pooling expertise of purveyors and treatment personnel to contextualize a therapy for sustainable use. The adaptability of contingency management renders it an exemplary therapy to model this collaborative design process. At conclusion of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial conducted at an opiate treatment program, a group elicitation interview was conducted with the setting's five managerial staff to cull qualitative impressions of a collaboratively-designed contingency management intervention after 90 days of provisional implementation in the setting. Two independent raters reviewed the audio-recording and conducted a phenomenological narrative analysis, extracting themes and selecting excerpts to correspond with innovation attributes (i.e., relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability, observability) of a well-known implementation science framework. This qualitative analysis suggested the intervention was regarded as: (1) cost-effective and clinically useful relative to prior practices, (2) a strong fit with existing service structure and staffing resources, (3) procedurally uncomplicated, with staff consistently implementing it as intended, (4) providing site-specific data to sufficiently inform decisions about its sustainment, and (5) offering palpable benefits to staff-patient interactions. The current work complements prior reports of positive implementation outcomes and intervention effectiveness for the parent trial, mapping qualitative managerial accounts of this contingency management intervention to a set of attributes thought to influence the speed and effectiveness with which an innovative practice is disseminated. Findings support the incorporation of collaborative design processes in future efforts to transport contingency management to the addiction treatment community.

  6. The L-Type Calcium Channel Blocker Nifedipine Impairs Extinction, but Not Reduced Contingency Effects, in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jami, Shekib; Barad, Mark; Cain, Christopher K.; Godsil, Bill P.

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported that fear extinction, a form of inhibitory learning, is selectively blocked by systemic administration of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (LVGCC) antagonists, including nifedipine, in mice. We here replicate this finding and examine three reduced contingency effects after vehicle or nifedipine (40 mg/kg) administration.…

  7. Testing the effectiveness of certainty scales, cheap talk, and dissonance-minimization in reducing hypothetical bias in contingent valuation studies

    Treesearch

    Mark Morrison; Thomas C. Brown

    2009-01-01

    Stated preference methods such as contingent valuation and choice modeling are subject to various biases that may lead to differences between actual and hypothetical willingness to pay. Cheap talk, follow-up certainty scales, and dissonance minimization are three techniques for reducing this hypothetical bias. Cheap talk and certainty scales have received considerable...

  8. The L-Type Calcium Channel Blocker Nifedipine Impairs Extinction, but Not Reduced Contingency Effects, in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jami, Shekib; Barad, Mark; Cain, Christopher K.; Godsil, Bill P.

    2005-01-01

    We recently reported that fear extinction, a form of inhibitory learning, is selectively blocked by systemic administration of L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (LVGCC) antagonists, including nifedipine, in mice. We here replicate this finding and examine three reduced contingency effects after vehicle or nifedipine (40 mg/kg) administration.…

  9. An effectiveness trial of contingency management in a felony preadjudication drug court.

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Dugosh, Karen L; Arabia, Patricia L; Kirby, Kimberly C

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated a contingency management (CM) program in a drug court. Gift certificates for compliance were delivered at 4- to 6-week intervals (total value = $390.00). Participants in one condition earned gift certificates that escalated by $5.00 increments. Participants in a second condition began earning higher magnitude gift certificates, and the density of reinforcement was gradually decreased. No main effects of CM were detected, which appears to be attributable to a ceiling effect from the intensive contingencies already delivered in the drug court and the low density of reinforcement. Preplanned interaction analyses suggested that participants with more serious criminal backgrounds might have performed better in the CM conditions. This suggests that CM programs may be best suited for more incorrigible drug offenders.

  10. Interdependent group contingency management for cocaine-dependent methadone maintenance patients.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Kimberly C; Kerwin, Marylouise E; Carpenedo, Carolyn M; Rosenwasser, Beth J; Gardner, Robert S

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) for drug abstinence has been applied to individuals independently even when delivered in groups. We developed a group CM intervention in which the behavior of a single, randomly selected, anonymous individual determined reinforcement delivery for the entire group. We also compared contingencies placed only on cocaine abstinence (CA) versus one of four behaviors (CA, treatment attendance, group CM attendance, and methadone compliance) selected randomly at each drawing. Two groups were formed with 22 cocaine-dependent community-based methadone patients and exposed to both CA and multiple behavior (MB) conditions in a reversal design counterbalanced across groups for exposure order. The group CM intervention proved feasible and safe. The MB condition improved group CM meeting attendance relative to the CA condition.

  11. Mobile contingency management as an adjunctive smoking cessation treatment for smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, Jeffrey S; Carpenter, Vickie L; Kirby, Angela C; Calhoun, Patrick S; Moore, Scott D; Dennis, Michelle F; Dennis, Paul A; Dedert, Eric A; Beckham, Jean C

    2013-11-01

    Smokers with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) smoke at higher prevalence rates and are more likely to relapse early in a quit attempt. Innovative methods are needed to enhance quit rates, particularly in the early quit period. Web-based contingency-management (CM) approaches have been found helpful in reducing smoking among other difficult-to-treat smoker populations but are limited by the need for computers. This pilot study builds on the web-based CM approach by evaluating a smartphone-based application for CM named mobile CM (mCM). Following a 2-week training period, 22 smokers with PTSD were randomized to a 4-week mCM condition or a yoked (i.e., noncontingent 4-week mCM condition). All smokers received 2 smoking cessation counseling sessions, nicotine replacement, and bupropion. Participants could earn up to $690 ($530 for mCM, $25.00 for assessments and office visits [up to 5], and $35.00 for equipment return). The average earned was $314.00. Compliance was high during the 2-week training period (i.e., transmission of videos) (93%) and the 4-week treatment period (92%). Compliance rates did not differ by group assignment. Four-week quit rates (verified with CO) were 82% for the mCM and 45% for the yoked controls. Three-month self-report quit rates were 50% in the mCM and 18% in the yoked controls. mCM may be a useful adjunctive smoking cessation treatment component for reducing smoking among smokers with PTSD, particularly early in a smoking quit attempt.

  12. Training Opioid Addiction Treatment Providers to Adopt Contingency Management: A Prospective Pilot Trial of a Comprehensive Implementation Science Approach

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Sara J.; Squires, Daniel D.; Strong, David R.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Monti, Peter M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Few prospective studies have evaluated theory-driven approaches to the implementation of evidence-based opioid treatment. This study compared the effectiveness of an implementation model (Science to Service Laboratory; SSL) to training as usual (TAU) in promoting the adoption of contingency management across a multi-site opiate addiction treatment program. We also examined whether the SSL affected putative mediators of contingency management adoption (perceived innovation characteristics and organizational readiness to change). Methods Sixty treatment providers (39 SSL, 21 TAU) from 15 geographically diverse satellite clinics (7 SSL, 8 TAU) participated in the 12-month study. Both conditions received didactic contingency management training and those in the pre-determined experimental region received 9 months of SSL-enhanced training. Contingency management adoption was monitored biweekly, while putative mediators were measured at baseline, 3-, and 12-months. Results Relative to providers in the TAU region, treatment providers in the SSL region had comparable likelihood of contingency management adoption in the first 20 weeks of the study, and then significantly higher likelihood of adoption (odds ratios = 2.4-13.5) for the remainder of the study. SSL providers also reported higher levels of one perceived innovation characteristic (Observability) and one aspect of organizational readiness to change (Adequacy of Training Resources), although there was no evidence that the SSL affected these putative mediators over time. Conclusions Results of this study indicate that a fully powered randomized trial of the SSL is warranted. Considerations for a future evaluation are discussed. PMID:26682582

  13. Assessing the benefits of reducing fire risk in the wildland urban interface: A contingent valuation approach

    Treesearch

    Jeremy Fried; Greg J. Winter; Keith J. Gilless

    1999-01-01

    Wildland-urban interface (WUI) residents in Michigan were interviewed using a contingent valuation protocol to assess their-willingness-to-pay (WT) for incremental reductions in the risk of losing their homes to wildfire. WTP was elicited using a probability model which segments the risk of structure loss into "public" and "private" components.

  14. "Our Mystery Hero!" A Group Contingency Intervention for Reducing Verbally Disrespectful Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Melissa; Boon, Richard T.; Fore, Cecil, III; Bender, William N.

    2008-01-01

    A reversal (ABAB) design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a group contingency intervention on the verbally disrespectful behaviors of seven middle school students with specific learning disabilities and attention deficit disorders (ADHD) in a special education resource classroom setting for reading instruction. During the intervention…

  15. "Our Mystery Hero!" A Group Contingency Intervention for Reducing Verbally Disrespectful Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Melissa; Boon, Richard T.; Fore, Cecil, III; Bender, William N.

    2008-01-01

    A reversal (ABAB) design was used to evaluate the effectiveness of a group contingency intervention on the verbally disrespectful behaviors of seven middle school students with specific learning disabilities and attention deficit disorders (ADHD) in a special education resource classroom setting for reading instruction. During the intervention…

  16. Clinic- and Home-Based Contingency Management Plus Parent Training for Adolescent Cannabis Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R.; Scherer, Emily A.; Norton, Gray E.; Budney, Alan J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To conduct a randomized test comparing two multicomponent, contingency management interventions, one with and one without a full parent training curriculum, and an individual treatment for adolescent cannabis use disorders. Method 153 adolescents who met DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse or dependence were randomized to motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy (MET/CBT), MET/CBT+abstinence-based contingency management (CM), or MET/CBT+CM+Parent Training (PT). Results Overall, during treatment, abstinence was greater for youth receiving clinic- and home-based CM without PT compared to those who received individual MET/CBT. There was no additional benefit of the full parent training curriculum on marijuana use, youth externalizing problems, or parenting. Conclusion These results suggest that clinic- plus home-based CM for cannabis use disorders can increase rates of abstinence during treatment over and above an evidence-based treatment (individual MET/CBT), but the addition of a comprehensive parenting training curriculum did not further enhance efficacy. PMID:26004659

  17. Clinic- and home-based contingency management plus parent training for adolescent cannabis use disorders.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R; Scherer, Emily A; Norton, Gray E; Budney, Alan J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a randomized test comparing 2 multicomponent, contingency management interventions, 1 with and 1 without a full parent training curriculum, and an individual treatment for adolescent cannabis use disorders. A total of 153 adolescents who met DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse or dependence were randomized to motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy (MET/CBT), MET/CBT+abstinence-based contingency management (CM), or MET/CBT+CM+Parent Training (PT). Overall, during treatment, abstinence was greater for youth receiving clinic- and home-based CM without PT compared to those who received individual MET/CBT. There was no additional benefit of the full PT curriculum on marijuana use, youth externalizing problems, or parenting. These results suggest that clinic- plus home-based CM for cannabis use disorders can increase rates of abstinence during treatment over and above an evidence-based treatment (individual MET/CBT), but in this study the addition of a comprehensive parenting training curriculum did not further enhance efficacy. Treatment for Adolescent Marijuana Abuse; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00580671. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Qualitative evaluation of a novel contingency management-related intervention for patients receiving supervised injectable opioid treatment.

    PubMed

    Neale, Joanne; Tompkins, Charlotte N E; Strang, John

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate a novel contingency management (CM)-related intervention for people experiencing complex drug problems, thereby increasing understanding of CM implementation in real-world settings. Objectives are to provide new insights into (i) how context influences intervention delivery; (ii) aspects of intervention delivery that influence outcomes; and (iii) intervention outcomes. Qualitative realist evaluation of a novel CM-related intervention: conditional budgets (CB). Supervised injectable opioid treatment (IOT) clinic in England (May 2014-March 2015). Twenty IOT clinic patients (14 men; six women); 10 IOT clinic staff (seven men; three women). Semi-structured interviews systematically coded relating to knowledge and views of the intervention, experiences of delivering/receiving the intervention, and effectiveness of the intervention. Personal budgets provided to patients who reduced their supervised IOT while demonstrating ongoing stability. (i) Contextual factors influencing intervention delivery included patient motivation; clarity of intervention information; prior trust in the treatment system; patient and staff involvement in intervention design; stability of the treatment setting. (ii) Aspects of delivery influencing outcomes included transparency of the eligibility criteria, rules and operating processes; rule enforcement; continued verbal information about the intervention; speed of incentive processing and receipt. (iii) Reduced drug use was difficult to attribute to CBs, as patients who did well were those most motivated to change before the intervention started. Unintended outcomes were positive (improved patient psychological wellbeing, staff job satisfaction, staff/patient relationships) and negative (patient relapse, increased staff work-load, tensions in clinic relationships). A 'qualitative realist' evaluation of a contingency management intervention to help address complex substance use disorder problems suggests that the programmes need to

  19. Newborn birth-weight of pregnant women on methadone or buprenorphine maintenance treatment: A national contingency management approach trial.

    PubMed

    Peles, Einat; Sason, Anat; Schreiber, Shaul; Adelson, Miriam

    2017-03-01

    Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the gold standard for pregnant women with opioid use disorders. Still, low birth-weights were reported, in particular of mothers who became pregnant before admission to MMT. We studied whether an escalating incentive contingency-management approach may contribute to better newborn birth-weights. A nationwide controlled randomized trial among all Israeli methadone/buprenorphine maintenance treatment (MBMT), newly or already in treatment pregnant women was performed. A modified contingency-management protocol with coupons of escalating value depending upon reduction of drug use, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption was compared to standard care arm. Drugs in urine, smoking (Fagerstrom score), alcohol use, and depression were monitored. Thirty-five women had 46 pregnancies. In their first pregnancy, 19 from the contingency-management and 16 from the standard care arms were studied. Contingency-management group as compared to the standard care arm included more newly admitted women (36.8% vs. 6.3%, p = .05), with benzodiazepine and cannabis onset at a younger age, and higher proportion of any drug abuse while pregnant (100% vs. 68.8%, p = .01). Fifteen of the contingency-management and 14 of the control arm gave birth (78.9% vs. 87.5%, p = .3) with similar proportions of normal (>2,500 g) birth-weight (71.4% vs. 61.5%, p = .8). Newborns' birth-weight was comparable among the two study arms indicating no contribution of the contingency-management approach. Small sample and baseline differences between arms might have influenced results. Intensive intervention should be evaluated on a larger scale of participants. (Am J Addict 2017;26:167-175). © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  20. Moving toward a "third generation" of contingency management studies in the abuse treatment field: comment on Silverman et al. (2001).

    PubMed

    McLellan, A T

    2001-02-01

    The power of positively reinforced contingency management procedures has been definitively proven in the drug abuse field-even among the most severely affected clients. This study by K. Silverman, D. Svikis, E. Robles, M. L. Stitzer, and G. E. Bigelow (2001) and other studies like it have clearly moved the contingency management work out of controlled, contrived settings and into the real world. Suggestions are offered for moving the next generation of studies toward less complicated populations and using more robust reinforcements within the constraints of contemporary financial and administrative boundaries.

  1. Effects of a Randomized Contingency Management Intervention on Opiate Abstinence and Retention in Methadone Maintenance Treatment in China

    PubMed Central

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Li, Jianhua; Jiang, Haifeng; Zhang, Ruimin; Du, Jiang; Zhang, Congbin; Zhang, Bo; Evans, Elizabeth; Wu, Fei; Chang, Yen-Jung; Peng, Chinyi; Huang, David; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Roll, John; Zhao, Min

    2011-01-01

    Aims Methadone maintenance treatment has been made available in China in response to the rapid spread of HIV, but high rates of dropout and relapse are problematic. The aim of this study was to apply and test if a contingency management (or motivational incentives) intervention can improve treatment retention and reduce drug use. Design Random assignment to usual care with (n=160) or without (n=159) incentives during a 12-week trial. Incentives participants earned draws for a chance to win prizes on two separate tracks targeting opiate-negative urine sample or consecutive attendance; the number of draws increased with continuous abstinence or attendance. Setting Community-based methadone maintenance clinics in Shanghai and Kunming. Participants The sample was 23.8 % female, mean age was 38, mean years of drug use was 9.4, and 57.8 % had injected drugs in the past 30 days. Measurements Treatment retention and negative drug urine. Findings Relative to the treatment-as-usual (control) group, better retention was observed among the Incentives group in Kunming (44% vs. 75%), but no difference was found in Shanghai (90% vs. 86%). Submission of negative urine samples was more common among the Incentive group than the usual care (74% vs. 68% in Shanghai, 27% vs. 18% in Kunming), as was the longest duration of sustained abstinence (7.7 wks vs. 6.5 in Shanghai, 2.5 vs. 1.6 in Kunming). The average total prize amount was 371 Yuan (or $55) per participant (527 for Shanghai vs. 216 in Kunming). Conclusions Contingency management improves treatment retention and drug abstinence in methadone maintenance treatment clinics in China, although there can be considerable site differences in magnitude of effects. PMID:21793958

  2. The Efficacy of Contingency Management on Cocaine Craving, using Prize-based Reinforcement of Abstinence in Cocaine Users

    PubMed Central

    Pirnia, Bijan; Tabatabaei, Seyed Kazem Rasoulzadeh; Tavallaii, Abbas; Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Pirnia, Kambiz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Contingency management (CM) is one of the most common therapies in the domain of drug addiction. This study has been carried out with the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of contingency management intervention. Method In an experimental design, between December 15, 2014 and November 20, 2015, fifty men (between 18 and 31 with an average age of 24.6) with a history of cocaine use, were selected voluntarily and were randomly assigned into two groups of CM and control group. The CM group were awarded coupons for negative urine tests, over a period of twelve weeks. The urine tests were taken from the participants twice per week, with cutoff concentrations for positive set at 300 ng/ml and self-reporting index of cocaine craving (response rate = 96%) were evaluated in two phase, through pretest and posttest measures. The data were analyzed by parametric covariance test. Additionally, the qualitative data, resulted from demographic measures, were coded and were analyzed with the help of an analysis instrument of qualitative data i.e. ATLAS.ti-5.2. Results The primary outcome was the number of negative urine tests and the secondary outcome included the cocaine usage craving index over twelve weeks. The mean of (95% of confidence) number of negative cocaine urine tests was 15.4 (13.1–17.8) in the CM group and 19.7 (17.7–21.6) in the control group (P = 0.049). Also, results showed that CM has a significant effect on reducing craving (p<0.01). Conclusion The findings of this study, while having practical aspects in this domain, can be valuable in planning remedial procedures. PMID:28070254

  3. Efficacy of cocaine contingency management in heroin-assisted treatment: Results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Blanken, Peter; Hendriks, Vincent M; Huijsman, Ineke A; van Ree, Jan M; van den Brink, Wim

    2016-07-01

    To determine the efficacy of contingency management (CM), targeting cocaine use, as an add-on intervention for heroin dependent patients in supervised heroin-assisted treatment (HAT) with frequent cocaine use. Multi-center, open-label, parallel group, randomized controlled trial. Twelve specialized addiction treatment centers for HAT in The Netherlands; April 2006-January 2011. 214 chronic, treatment-refractory heroin dependent patients in HAT, with frequent cocaine use. Routine, daily supervised diacetylmorphine treatment, co-prescribed with oral methadone (HAT), with and without 6 months contingency management for cocaine use as an add-on intervention; HAT+CM and HAT-only, respectively. Primary outcome was the longest, uninterrupted duration of cocaine abstinence, based upon laboratory urinalysis. Secondary outcome measures included other cocaine-related measures, treatment retention in HAT, and multi-domain health-related treatment response. In an intention-to-treat analysis, HAT+CM was more effective than HAT-only in promoting longer, uninterrupted duration of cocaine abstinence (3.7 weeks versus 1.6 weeks; negative binomial regression: Exp(B)=2.34, 95%-CI: 1.70-3.23; p<0.001). This result remained significant in sensitivity analyses and was supported by all secondary, cocaine-related outcome measures. Treatment retention in HAT was high (91.6%) with no difference between the groups. The improvement in multi-domain health-related treatment response during the trial was numerically higher in HAT+CM (from 37.4% to 53.1%; +15.7%) than in HAT-only (from 44.5% to 46.5%; +2.0%), but this difference was statistically not significant. Contingency management is an effective add-on intervention to promote longer, uninterrupted periods of cocaine abstinence in chronic, treatment-refractory heroin dependent patients in heroin-assisted treatment with frequent cocaine use. The trial has been registered in The Netherlands National Trial Register under clinical trial

  4. Integrating contingency management with relapse prevention skills: comment on Silverman et al. (2001).

    PubMed

    Marlatt, G A

    2001-02-01

    The study by K. Silverman, D. Svikis, E. Robles, M. L. Stitzer, and G. E. Bigelow (2001) demonstrates the effectiveness of a voucher-based reinforcement intervention in the treatment of pregnant women in treatment for substance abuse. The effects of prolonged initial abstinence as a form of "sobriety sampling" may serve to enhance long-term recovery by providing patients with rewards for maintaining abstinence. Several limitations to the study are addressed, including selection of the treatment sample and the absence of any follow-up data on drug use or relapse following completion of the 24-week treatment program. Recommendations are made to enhance maintenance of abstinence by providing coping-skill training for relapse prevention as an addition to the contingency management approach.

  5. A multilevel approach to predicting community addiction treatment attitudes about contingency management.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Bryan; Donovan, Dennis M; Tillotson, Carrie J; Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange; Doyle, Suzanne R; McCarty, Dennis

    2012-03-01

    Adoption of contingency management (CM) by the addiction treatment community is limited to date despite much evidence for its efficacy. This study examined systemic and idiographic staff predictors of CM adoption attitudes via archival data collected from treatment organizations affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Multilevel modeling analyses evaluated potential predictors from organizational, treatment unit, and workforce surveys. Among these were individual and shared perceptions of staff concerning aspects of their clinic culture and climate. Modeling analyses identified three systemic predictors (clinic provision of opiate agonist services, national accreditation, and lesser shared perception of workplace stress) and five idiographic predictors (staff with a graduate degree, longer service tenure, managerial position, e-communication facility, and openness to change in clinical procedures). Findings are discussed as they relate to extant literature on CM attitudes and established implementation science constructs, and their practical implications are discussed.

  6. Sex effects in cocaine using methadone patients randomized to contingency management interventions

    PubMed Central

    Burch, Ashley E.; Rash, Carla J.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is an effective treatment for promoting cocaine abstinence in patients receiving methadone maintenance. However, few studies have examined the effect of sex on treatment outcomes in this population. This study evaluated the impact of sex on longest duration of abstinence (LDA) and percent negative urine samples in 323 cocaine-using methadone patients from four randomized clinical trials comparing CM to standard methadone care. Overall, women had better treatment outcomes compared to men, demonstrated by an increase in both LDA and percentages of negative samples. Patients receiving CM also had significantly higher LDA and percentages of negative samples compared to patients receiving standard care, but sex by treatment condition effects were not significant. These data suggest that cocaine using methadone patients who are women have better substance use outcomes than men in interventions that regularly monitor cocaine use, and CM is equally efficacious regardless of sex. PMID:26237326

  7. Organizational factors associated with the use of contingency management in publicly funded substance abuse treatment centers.

    PubMed

    Bride, Brian E; Abraham, Amanda J; Roman, Paul M

    2011-01-01

    A promising area within technology transfer studies is the identification of organizational factors that influence the adoption of treatment innovations. Although studies have identified organizational factors associated with the adoption of pharmacological innovations, few studies have examined organizational factors in the adoption of psychosocial innovations, among which contingency management (CM) is a significant practice. Using data from a sample (N = 318) drawn from the population of publicly funded treatment centers in the United States, this study modeled organizational factors falling in the domains of structural characteristics, workforce variables, values and norms, and patient characteristics associated with the use of CM. Organizations were more likely to use CM if they embrace a supportive therapeutic approach, are research friendly, offer only outpatient levels of care, or serve drug-court patients. Implications for studying the diffusion and implementation of evidence-based psychosocial interventions are discussed.

  8. A Multi-Level Approach to Predicting Community Addiction Treatment Attitudes About Contingency Management

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan; Donovan, Dennis; Tillotson, Carrie; Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange; Doyle, Suzanne; McCarty, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Adoption of contingency management (CM) by the addiction treatment community is limited to date despite much evidence for its efficacy. This study examined systemic and idiographic staff predictors of CM adoption attitudes via archival data collected from treatment organizations affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Multilevel modeling analyses evaluated potential predictors from organizational, treatment unit, and workforce surveys. Among these were individual and shared perceptions of staff concerning aspects of their clinic culture and climate. Modeling analyses identified three systemic predictors (clinic provision of opiate agonist services, national accreditation, lesser shared perception of workplace stress) and five idiographic predictors (staff with a graduate degree, longer service tenure, managerial position, e-communication facility, and openness to change in clinical procedures). Findings are discussed as they relate to extant literature on CM attitudes and established implementation science constructs, and their practical implications are discussed. PMID:22138199

  9. Contingency management treatment in substance abusers with and without legal problems

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Rash, Carla J.; Easton, Caroline J.

    2013-01-01

    Drug and alcohol abusers frequently have legal difficulties, and the legal system often provides negative reinforcers for substance abuse treatment involvement. In contrast, contingency management (CM) treatments utilize positive reinforcement procedures to improve patient outcomes. This study evaluated whether substance abusing patients with legal problems at treatment entry had differential outcomes in general, and in response to CM, compared to those without legal problems. Data from three randomized CM trials (n = 393) were used in an evaluation of main and interactive effects of legal status and treatment condition, with respect to retention and abstinence. Compared with patients without legal difficulties, those with legal problems remained in treatment for shorter durations and achieved shorter periods of abstinence. CM was positively and significantly associated with longer durations of abstinence, regardless of legal status. Results suggest that substance abusers with legal problems have generally poor outcomes but that CM is effective regardless of patients’ legal status. PMID:21908754

  10. Contingency management is effective across cocaine-dependent outpatients with different socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Fernández, Gloria; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón

    2013-03-01

    Contingency management (CM) has demonstrated its efficacy for treating cocaine dependence, but there is still some controversy with regard to its dissemination. Understanding how individual differences affect CM outcomes is important for detecting barriers to its dissemination. The aim of this study is to examine the impact of socioeconomic variables in cocaine-dependent outpatients on the effectiveness of CM in a community setting. Cocaine-dependent outpatients (N=118) were randomized to community reinforcement approach (CRA) treatment or a CRA plus vouchers program. The impact of baseline economic variables, alone and in combination with treatment conditions, on abstinence and retention outcomes after 6 months of treatment was assessed. Results showed that income had no effect on retention or abstinence outcomes after 6 months of treatment in either treatment condition. The addition of a CM component was beneficial for individuals with any socioeconomic status. These results support the generalizability of CM strategies with patients of different socioeconomic status in community settings.

  11. Adapting the Helpful Responses Questionnaire to assess communication skills involved in delivering contingency management: Preliminary psychometrics

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    A paper/pencil instrument, adapted from Miller and colleagues’ (1991) Helpful Responses Questionnaire (HRQ), was developed to assess clinician skill with core communicative aspects involved in delivering contingency management (CM). The instrument presents a single vignette consisting of six points of client dialogue to which respondents write ‘what they would say next.’ In the context of an implementation/effectiveness hybrid trial, 19 staff clinicians at an opiate treatment program completed serial training outcome assessments before, following, and three months after CM training. Assessments included this adaptation of the HRQ, a multiple-choice CM knowledge test, and a recorded standardized patient encounter scored for CM skillfulness. Study results reveal promising psychometric properties for the instrument, including strong scoring reliability, internal consistency, concurrent and predictive validity, test-retest reliability and sensitivity to training effects. These preliminary findings suggest the instrument is a viable, practical method to assess clinician skill in communicative aspects of CM delivery. PMID:25770870

  12. Training Workshops Positively Impact Beliefs about Contingency Management in a Nationwide Dissemination Effort

    PubMed Central

    Rash, Carla J.; DePhilippis, Dominick; McKay, James R.; Drapkin, Michelle; Petry, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the Veterans Administration called for nationwide implementation of contingency management (CM) in its intensive outpatient substance use disorders treatment programs, and this study evaluated the impact of the initial 1 and ½ day training workshops on knowledge and perceptions about CM among 159 clinical leaders from 113 clinics. Workshop attendance significantly increased CM-related knowledge (d = 1.88) and changed attendees’ perceptions of CM (ds = 0.26-0.74). Endorsement of barriers to CM adoption decreased and positive impressions of CM increased. These perceptions about CM emerged as key correlates of post-training preparedness to implement CM. Results suggest that training workshops can be an effective avenue for increasing CM-related knowledge, as well as addressing persistent misperceptions about CM that may impede adoption efforts. Continued efforts to introduce educational materials and offer training and consultation opportunities may increase understanding about this evidence-based intervention among clinicians, thereby leading to improved patient outcomes. PMID:23856601

  13. Contingency Management for Attendance to Group Substance Abuse Treatment Administered by Clinicians in Community Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Ledgerwood, David M; Alessi, Sheila M; Hanson, Tressa; Godley, Mark D; Petry, Nancy M

    2008-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) is effective in enhancing retention in therapy. After an 8-week baseline, four community-based substance abuse treatment clinics were exposed in random order to 16 weeks of standard care with CM followed by 16 weeks of standard care without CM or vice versa. In total, 75 outpatients participated. Patients who were enrolled in the clinics when the CM treatment phase was in effect attended a significantly greater percentage of therapy sessions than patients who were enrolled in treatment when CM was not in effect. This study is one of the first to investigate CM in community settings implemented entirely by community clinicians, and results suggest that CM is effective in improving therapy attendance. PMID:19192856

  14. Organizational Factors Associated with the Use of Contingency Management in Publicly Funded Substance Abuse Treatment Centers

    PubMed Central

    Bride, Brian E.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Roman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    A promising area within technology transfer studies is the identification of organizational factors that influence the adoption of treatment innovations. While studies have identified organizational factors associated with the adoption of pharmacological innovations, few studies have examined organizational factors in the adoption of psychosocial innovations, among which contingency management (CM) is a significant practice. Using data from a sample (n = 318) drawn from the population of publicly funded treatment centers in the U.S., this study modeled organizational factors falling in the domains of structural characteristics, workforce variables, values and norms, and patient characteristics associated with the use of CM. Organizations were more likely to use CM if they: embrace a supportive therapeutic approach, are research-friendly, offer only outpatient levels of care, or serve drug-court patients. Implications for studying the diffusion and implementation of evidence-based psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:20850259

  15. Contingency management treatment in substance abusers with and without legal problems.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Rash, Carla J; Easton, Caroline J

    2011-01-01

    Drug and alcohol abusers frequently have legal difficulties, and the legal system often provides negative reinforcement for substance abuse treatment. In contrast, contingency management (CM) treatments utilize positive reinforcement procedures to improve patient outcomes. This study evaluated whether substance-abusing patients with legal problems at treatment entry had differential outcomes, in general and in response to CM, compared with those without legal problems. Data from three randomized CM trials (n = 393) were used in an evaluation of main and interactive effects of legal status and treatment condition, with respect to retention and abstinence. Compared with patients without legal difficulties, those with legal problems remained in treatment for shorter durations and achieved shorter periods of abstinence. CM was positively and significantly associated with longer durations of abstinence, regardless of legal status. Results suggest that substance abusers with legal problems have generally poor outcomes, but that CM is effective regardless of the patient's legal status.

  16. Training workshops positively impact beliefs about contingency management in a nationwide dissemination effort.

    PubMed

    Rash, Carla J; Dephilippis, Dominick; McKay, James R; Drapkin, Michelle; Petry, Nancy M

    2013-09-01

    In 2011, the Veterans Administration called for nationwide implementation of contingency management (CM) in its intensive outpatient substance use disorders treatment programs, and this study evaluated the impact of the initial 1 and ½ day training workshops on knowledge and perceptions about CM among 159 clinical leaders from 113 clinics. Workshop attendance significantly increased CM-related knowledge (d=1.88) and changed attendees' perceptions of CM (ds=0.26-0.74). Endorsement of barriers to CM adoption decreased and positive impressions of CM increased. These perceptions about CM emerged as key correlates of post-training preparedness to implement CM. Results suggest that training workshops can be an effective avenue for increasing CM-related knowledge, as well as addressing persistent misperceptions about CM that may impede adoption efforts. Continued efforts to introduce educational materials and offer training and consultation opportunities may increase understanding about this evidence-based intervention among clinicians, thereby leading to improved patient outcomes.

  17. A Comparison of Five Reinforcement Schedules for Use in Contingency Management-Based Treatment of Methamphetamine Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.; Huber, Alice; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Chudzynski, Joy E.; Moynier, Eugene; Shoptaw, Steve

    2006-01-01

    One variation of contingency management involves providing vouchers with monetary value for the provision of a biological sample indicating no recent drug use. These vouchers can be exchanged for goods or services. The schedule with which the vouchers are disbursed has been studied and results suggest that those schedules that incorporate…

  18. Effect of Reinforcement Probability and Prize Size on Cocaine and Heroin Abstinence in Prize-Based Contingency Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghitza, Udi E.; Epstein, David H.; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2008-01-01

    Although treatment outcome in prize-based contingency management has been shown to depend on reinforcement schedule, the optimal schedule is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (Ghitza et al., 2007) to determine the effects of the probability of winning a prize (low vs. high) and…

  19. Treating Youths with Selective Mutism with an Alternating Design of Exposure-Based Practice and Contingency Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchio, Jennifer; Kearney, Christopher A.

    2009-01-01

    Selective mutism is a severe childhood disorder involving failure to speak in public situations in which speaking is expected. The present study examined 9 youths with selective mutism treated with child-focused, exposure-based practices and parent-focused contingency management via an alternating treatments design. Broadband measures of…

  20. A Group Contingency plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study.…

  1. A Comparison of Five Reinforcement Schedules for Use in Contingency Management-Based Treatment of Methamphetamine Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, John M.; Huber, Alice; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Chudzynski, Joy E.; Moynier, Eugene; Shoptaw, Steve

    2006-01-01

    One variation of contingency management involves providing vouchers with monetary value for the provision of a biological sample indicating no recent drug use. These vouchers can be exchanged for goods or services. The schedule with which the vouchers are disbursed has been studied and results suggest that those schedules that incorporate…

  2. A Group Contingency plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study.…

  3. Meta-Analysis of Day Treatment and Contingency-Management Dismantling Research: Birmingham Homeless Cocaine Studies (1990-2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Joseph E.; Milby, Jesse B.; Wallace, Dennis; Meehan, Dawna-Cricket; Kertesz, Stefan; Vuchinich, Rudy; Dunning, Jonathan; Usdan, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    Four successive randomized clinical trials studying contingency management (CM), involving various treatment arms of drug-abstinent housing and work therapy and day treatment (DT) with a behavioral component, were compared on common drug abstinence outcomes at 2 treatment completion points (2 and 6 months). The clinical trials were conducted from…

  4. Internet-Based Contingency Management to Improve Adherence with Blood Glucose Testing Recommendations for Teens with Type 1 Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The current study used Internet-based contingency management (CM) to increase adherence with blood glucose testing to at least 4 times daily. Four teens diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes earned vouchers for submitting blood glucose testing videos over a Web site. Participants submitted a mean of 1.7 and 3.1 blood glucose tests per day during the 2…

  5. Disseminating contingency management: impacts of staff training and implementation at an opiate treatment program.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Bryan; Jackson, T Ron; Jones, Brinn E; Beadnell, Blair; Calsyn, Donald A

    2014-04-01

    Guided by a comprehensive implementation model, this study examined training/implementation processes for a tailored contingency management (CM) intervention instituted at a Clinical Trials Network-affiliate opioid treatment program (OTP). Staff-level training outcomes (intervention delivery skill, knowledge, and adoption readiness) were assessed before and after a 16-hour training, and again following a 90-day trial implementation period. Management-level implementation outcomes (intervention cost, feasibility, and sustainability) were assessed at study conclusion in a qualitative interview with OTP management. Intervention effectiveness was also assessed via independent chart review of trial CM implementation vs. a historical control period. Results included: 1) robust, durable increases in delivery skill, knowledge, and adoption readiness among trained staff; 2) positive managerial perspectives of intervention cost, feasibility, and sustainability; and 3) significant clinical impacts on targeted patient indices. Collective results offer support for the study's collaborative intervention design and the applied, skills-based focus of staff training processes. Implications for CM dissemination are discussed.

  6. Implementing the Contingent Valuation Method for supporting decision making in the waste management sector.

    PubMed

    Gaglias, A; Mirasgedis, S; Tourkolias, C; Georgopoulou, E

    2016-07-01

    This study presents an application of the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) for valuing the environmental impacts associated with the operation of landfills for residues following waste treatment and depicts how the results of the analysis can be used for decision making in the field of waste management. The survey was conducted in Ikaria, Greece, a medium-sized island in the northern Aegean Sea, with a view to estimate the amount of compensatory benefits that are socially acceptable to be attributed to the hosting community of a new landfill for residues. The results showed that the mean willingness to pay per household to create a fund for financing social and environmental programs in the community that will host the landfill in question was estimated at €6.5-6.7 per 2-month and household taking into account all households of the sample. This estimate is at the same order of magnitude but at the lower band compared to the results of other relevant studies showing that the public in Ikaria is aware for the relatively limited environmental burdens associated with the operation of landfills for residues following an integrated waste management treatment.

  7. Impaired Contingent Attentional Capture Predicts Reduced Working Memory Capacity in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Jutta S.; Fukuda, Keisuke; Vogel, Edward K.; Park, Sohee

    2012-01-01

    Although impairments in working memory (WM) are well documented in schizophrenia, the specific factors that cause these deficits are poorly understood. In this study, we hypothesized that a heightened susceptibility to attentional capture at an early stage of visual processing would result in working memory encoding problems. 30 patients with schizophrenia and 28 demographically matched healthy participants were presented with a search array and asked to report the orientation of the target stimulus. In some of the trials, a flanker stimulus preceded the search array that either matched the color of the target (relevant-flanker capture) or appeared in a different color (irrelevant-flanker capture). Working memory capacity was determined in each individual using the visual change detection paradigm. Patients needed considerably more time to find the target in the no-flanker condition. After adjusting the individual exposure time, both groups showed equivalent capture costs in the irrelevant-flanker condition. However, in the relevant-flanker condition, capture costs were increased in patients compared to controls when the stimulus onset asynchrony between the flanker and the search array was high. Moreover, the increase in relevant capture costs correlated negatively with working memory capacity. This study demonstrates preserved stimulus-driven attentional capture but impaired contingent attentional capture associated with low working memory capacity in schizophrenia. These findings suggest a selective impairment of top-down attentional control in schizophrenia, which may impair working memory encoding. PMID:23152783

  8. Lost in translation? Moving contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy into clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    In the treatment of addictions, the gap between the availability of evidence-based therapies and their limited implementation in practice has not yet been bridged. Two empirically validated behavioral therapies, contingency management (CM) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), exemplify this challenge. Both have a relatively strong level of empirical support but each has weak and uneven adoption in clinical practice. This review highlights examples of how barriers to their implementation in practice have been addressed systematically, using the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development as an organizing framework. For CM, barriers such as cost and ideology have been addressed through the development of lower-cost and other adaptations to make it more community-friendly. For CBT, barriers such as relative complexity, lack of trained providers and need for supervision have been addressed via conversion to standardized computer-assisted versions that can serve as clinician extenders. Although these and other modifications have rendered both interventions more disseminable, diffusion of innovation remains a complex, often unpredictable process. The existing specialty addiction treatment system may require significant reforms to fully implement CBT and CM, particularly greater focus on definable treatment goals and performance-based outcomes. PMID:25204847

  9. Lost in translation? Moving contingency management and cognitive behavioral therapy into clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Kathleen M

    2014-10-01

    In the treatment of addictions, the gap between the availability of evidence-based therapies and their limited implementation in practice has not yet been bridged. Two empirically validated behavioral therapies, contingency management (CM) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), exemplify this challenge. Both have a relatively strong level of empirical support but each has weak and uneven adoption in clinical practice. This review highlights examples of how barriers to their implementation in practice have been addressed systematically, using the Stage Model of Behavioral Therapies Development as an organizing framework. For CM, barriers such as cost and ideology have been addressed through the development of lower-cost and other adaptations to make it more community friendly. For CBT, barriers such as relative complexity, lack of trained providers, and need for supervision have been addressed via conversion to standardized computer-assisted versions that can serve as clinician extenders. Although these and other modifications have rendered both interventions more disseminable, diffusion of innovation remains a complex, often unpredictable process. The existing specialty addiction-treatment system may require significant reforms to fully implement CBT and CM, particularly greater focus on definable treatment goals and performance-based outcomes. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. A Remotely-Delivered CBT and Contingency Management Therapy for Substance Using People with HIV.

    PubMed

    Moore, Brent A; Rosen, Marc I; Wang, Yan; Shen, Jie; Ablondi, Karen; Sullivan, Anna; Guerrero, Mario; Siqueiros, Lisa; Daar, Eric S; Liu, Honghu

    2015-06-01

    Substance using HIV patients are at risk for non-adherence, and most prior interventions in this population have had only modest effects on adherence. Contingency management (CM) is a promising intervention. The Centralized Off-site Adherence Enhancement (CARE) program involved 12 telephone-delivered substance and adherence-targeted cognitive behavior therapy sessions coupled with CM for adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and counseling participation. CM involved 6 weeks of escalating reinforcement for taking prescribed doses followed by 6 weeks of tapering variable rate reinforcement, and separate reinforcement for counseling ($806 possible). Participants' adherence was measured by devices which wirelessly provided real-time notification of device-opening. HIV infected patients on ART (N = 10) with recent stimulant or alcohol use completed 10.2 of 12 possible telephone sessions, spent 42.8 min/call, and rated the counseling 6.2 on a 1-7 scale. Medication adherence improved from 81 to 93 % (p = 0.04). CARE appears to be acceptable and engaging.

  11. The efficacy of contingency management for adolescent cannabis use disorder: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kaminer, Yifrah; Burleson, Joseph A; Burke, Rebecca; Litt, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the efficacy of a voucher-based reinforcement therapy (VBRT) rewarding drug-free urine for adolescents with cannabis use disorder. A controlled 10-week study where 59 adolescents aged 14-18 years were assigned by cohorts into groups of either an integrated cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and VBRT or CBT with attendance-based reward program. Substance use was monitored by twice-weekly urinalysis. Other measures were collected at pre- and posttreatment and at 3-month follow-up. There was no significant difference in the linear change between conditions for cannabis use either from Sessions 1 to 10 or between end-of-treatment to 3-month follow-up. Also, self-efficacy and coping response did not show improvement during treatment. In this study, the addition of contingency management (CM) to CBT in youth was not found to be more efficacious than similar compensation rewarding attendance only. Continued examination of the efficacy of CM and its interaction with the associated mechanisms of behavior change of CBT in youth is necessary. Examination of the effect of the magnitude of the reward as well as considering the emotional and cognitive developmental differences from adults is warranted.

  12. Contingency management improves outcomes in cocaine-dependent outpatients with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Gloria; Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Peña-Suárez, Elsa; Sánchez-Hervás, Emilio

    2013-12-01

    Despite depressive symptoms being very common among patients seeking treatment for cocaine dependence, few studies have examined the effects of depressive symptoms on cocaine outpatient treatment outcomes, and there is even less research in the context of Contingency Management (CM). The purpose of this study was to assess the main and interactive effects of co-occurring depressive symptoms on CM outcomes. Cocaine-dependent individuals (N = 108) were randomized to Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) or CRA plus CM in two outpatient community clinical settings. Participants were categorized according to depression symptoms, self-reported by means of the BDI at treatment entry. Outcome measures included treatment retention and documented cocaine abstinence over a 6-month treatment period. Depressive symptoms were more commonly found in females and in unemployed participants, and were associated with more drug-related, social, and psychiatric problems at treatment entry. Individuals with baseline depressive symptoms had poorer treatment outcomes than patients without depressive symptoms. The addition of CM to CRA made the program more effective than with CRA alone, regardless of depressive symptoms. CM was associated with better abstinence treatment outcomes, while the interaction between unemployment and depressive symptoms was associated with negative retention treatment outcomes. This study supports the efficacy of CM for cocaine-dependent outpatients with and without depressive symptoms, and highlights its importance for improving treatment for unemployed and depressed cocaine-dependent individuals.

  13. Is Exposure to an Effective Contingency Management Intervention Associated with More Positive Provider Beliefs?

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Kimberly C.; Carpenedo, Carolyn M.; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Dugosh, Karen L.; Petry, Nancy M.; Roll, John M.; Saladin, Michael E.; Cohen, Allan J.; Hamilton, John; Reese, Karen; Sillo, Gina R.; Stabile, Patricia Quinn; Sterling, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    This study empirically examined opinions of treatment providers regarding Contingency Management (CM) programs while controlling for experience with a specific efficacious CM program. In addition to empirically describing provider opinions, we examined whether the opinions of providers at the sites that implemented the CM program were more positive than those of matched providers at sites that did not implement it. Participants from 7 CM treatment sites (n = 76) and 7 matched non-participating sites (n = 69) within the same nodes of NIDA's Clinical Trials Network completed the Provider Survey of Incentives (PSI), which assesses positive and negative beliefs about incentive programs. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences in the PSI summary scores of providers in CM program vs. matched sites, but correcting for experience with tangible incentives showed significant differences, with providers from CM sites reporting more positive opinions than those from matched sites. Some differences were found in opinions regarding costs of incentives and these generally indicated that participants from CM sites were more likely to see the costs as worthwhile. The results from the study suggest that exposing community treatment providers to incentive programs may itself be an effective strategy in prompting the dissemination of CM interventions. PMID:22116009

  14. Investigating reinforcer magnitude and reinforcer delay: a contingency management analog study.

    PubMed

    Packer, Robert R; Howell, Donelle N; McPherson, Sterling; Roll, John M

    2012-08-01

    The influence of reinforcer magnitude and reinforcer delay on smoking abstinence was studied using an analog model of contingency management. Participants (N = 103, 74% men) visited our laboratory 3 times daily for 5 days and received money for providing a breath sample that indicated smoking abstinence (carbon monoxide level ≤6 parts per million). Using a factorial design, we assigned participants randomly to 1 of 4 groups that could earn a total of either $207.50 (high-magnitude condition) or $70.00 (low-magnitude condition), and received earnings either at each visit (no-delay condition) or in a single lump sum 1 week following the study (delay condition). High-magnitude reinforcement, regardless of delay, was associated with higher rates of abstinence than was low-magnitude reinforcement. High magnitude of reinforcement provided immediately but in incremental amounts was associated with longer intervals to relapse during treatment in comparison with high-magnitude reinforcement provided in a single lump sum after a delay. Low rates of responding in the low-magnitude conditions made interpretation of the impact of delay in those conditions difficult. These findings further demonstrate that high magnitude of reinforcement results in better outcomes than does low magnitude of reinforcement, and that a delay to reinforcement can be detrimental-even when a high magnitude of reinforcement is provided.

  15. A Remotely-Delivered CBT and Contingency Management Therapy for Substance Using People with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Brent A.; Rosen, Marc I.; Wang, Yan; Shen, Jie; Ablondi, Karen; Sullivan, Anna; Guerrero, Mario; Siqueiros, Lisa; Daar, Eric S.; Liu, Honghu

    2015-01-01

    Substance using HIV patients are at risk for non-adherence, and most prior interventions in this population have had only modest effects on adherence. Contingency Management (CM) is a promising intervention. The Centralized Off-site AdheRence Enhancement (CARE) program involved 12 telephone-delivered substance and adherence-targeted Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) sessions coupled with CM for adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and counseling participation. CM involved 6 weeks of escalating reinforcement for taking prescribed doses followed by 6 weeks of tapering variable rate reinforcement, and separate reinforcement for counseling ($806 possible). Participants’ adherence was measured by devices which wirelessly provided real-time notification of device-opening. HIV infected patients on ART (N=10) with recent stimulant or alcohol use completed 10.6 of 12 possible telephone sessions, spent 44 minutes/call, and rated the counseling 6.2 on a 1–7 scale. Medication adherence improved from 81% to 93% (p = .04). CARE appears to be acceptable and engaging. PMID:25645326

  16. Parent training plus contingency management for substance abusing families: A Complier Average Causal Effects (CACE) analysis*

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R.; Fu, Hongyun; Budney, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Children of substance abusers are at risk for behavioral/emotional problems. To improve outcomes for these children, we developed and tested an intervention that integrated a novel contingency management (CM) program designed to enhance compliance with an empirically-validated parent training curriculum. CM provided incentives for daily monitoring of parenting and child behavior, completion of home practice assignments, and session attendance. Methods Forty-seven mothers with substance abuse or dependence were randomly assigned to parent training + incentives (PTI) or parent training without incentives (PT). Children were 55% male, ages 2-7 years. Results Homework completion and session attendance did not differ between PTI and PT mothers, but PTI mothers had higher rates of daily monitoring. PTI children had larger reductions in child externalizing problems in all models. Complier Average Causal Effects (CACE) analyses showed additional significant effects of PTI on child internalizing problems, parent problems and parenting. These effects were not significant in standard Intent-to-Treat analyses. Conclusion Results suggest our incentive program may offer a method for boosting outcomes. PMID:21466925

  17. Is exposure to an effective contingency management intervention associated with more positive provider beliefs?

    PubMed

    Kirby, Kimberly C; Carpenedo, Carolyn M; Stitzer, Maxine L; Dugosh, Karen L; Petry, Nancy M; Roll, John M; Saladin, Michael E; Cohen, Allan J; Hamilton, John; Reese, Karen; Sillo, Gina R; Stabile, Patricia Quinn; Sterling, Robert C

    2012-06-01

    This study empirically examined opinions of treatment providers regarding contingency management (CM) programs while controlling for experience with a specific efficacious CM program. In addition to empirically describing provider opinions, we examined whether the opinions of providers at the sites that implemented the CM program were more positive than those of matched providers at sites that did not implement it. Participants from 7 CM treatment sites (n = 76) and 7 matched nonparticipating sites (n = 69) within the same nodes of the National Institute of Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network completed the Provider Survey of Incentives (PSI), which assesses positive and negative beliefs about incentive programs. An intent-to-treat analysis found no differences in the PSI summary scores of providers in CM program versus matched sites, but correcting for experience with tangible incentives showed significant differences, with providers from CM sites reporting more positive opinions than those from matched sites. Some differences were found in opinions regarding costs of incentives, and these generally indicated that participants from CM sites were more likely to see the costs as worthwhile. The results from the study suggest that exposing community treatment providers to incentive programs may itself be an effective strategy in prompting the dissemination of CM interventions.

  18. Amount of earnings during prize contingency management treatment is associated with posttreatment abstinence outcomes.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Roll, John M

    2011-12-01

    Contingency management (CM) treatments that provide patients with the opportunity to earn chances of winning prizes of varying magnitudes are becoming increasingly popular. In the CM literature, magnitude of reinforcement is linked with effect sizes, such that CM treatments that provide larger magnitude reinforcement are more efficacious than those that provide lower magnitude reinforcement. With prize CM, even when magnitudes of overall expected prize earnings are constant, some patients win more prizes than others. Thus, patients who win larger overall amounts of prizes during treatment may have better outcomes than those who win fewer prizes. This study evaluated the impact of overall amounts of prizes won on long-term abstinence outcomes. The dollar amount of prizes won during prize CM treatments was determined from 78 cocaine-abusing methadone-maintenance patients who were randomized to prize CM treatments in three clinical trials. Abstinence three months following the end of the CM intervention was the primary dependent variable. The dollar amount of prizes won during CM treatment was a significant predictor of submission of cocaine-negative urine samples and self-reports of cocaine abstinence at the follow-up evaluation, even after controlling for other variables associated with long-term abstinence, such as pretreatment urinalysis results and longest duration of abstinence achieved during treatment. These results suggest that magnitudes of earnings during prize CM may impact outcomes and call for further experimentation of parameters related to the efficacy of prize CM.

  19. Contingency Management Interventions for HIV, Tuberculosis, and Hepatitis Control Among Individuals With Substance Use Disorders: A Systematized Review.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Evan S; Matusiewicz, Alexis K; Stitzer, Maxine L; Higgins, Stephen T; Sigmon, Stacey C; Heil, Sarah H

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis, HIV and tuberculosis are significant and costly public health problems that disproportionately affect individuals with substance use disorders (SUDs). Incentive-based treatment approaches (i.e., contingency management; CM) are highly effective at reducing drug use. The primary aim of this report is to review the extant literature that examines the efficacy of CM interventions for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis, HIV and tuberculosis among individuals with SUDs. A literature search identified 23 controlled studies on this topic. In approximately 85% of the studies, CM produced significantly better adherence to prevention, diagnosis and treatment-related medical services, with adherence rates averaging almost 35% higher among patients receiving incentives vs. control condition participants. Findings from these studies parallel the results of a meta-analysis of CM interventions for the treatment of SUDs. The results also suggest that the principles that underlie the efficacy of CM generalize across infectious disease and substance abuse treatment behaviors. The application of additional principles from the literature on CM for treatment of SUDs to interventions targeting infectious disease control would be beneficial. Further development and dissemination of these interventions has the potential to greatly impact public health.

  20. Contingency management is especially efficacious in engendering long durations of abstinence in patients with sexual abuse histories

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nancy M.; Ford, Julian D.; Barry, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to sexual victimization is prevalent among persons with substance use disorders (SUDs). Contingency management (CM) treatments utilize concrete and relatively immediate positive reinforcers to retain patients in treatment and reduce substance use, and CM may have particular benefits for patients with histories of sexual victimization. Using data from three randomized trials of CM (N = 393), this study evaluated main and interactive effects of sexual abuse history and treatment condition (standard care versus CM) with respect to during treatment outcomes (retention, proportion of negative urine samples submitted, and longest duration of abstinence) and abstinence at a nine-month follow-up. Compared to patients without sexual abuse histories (N = 316), those with sexual abuse histories (N = 77) submitted a significantly higher proportion of negative samples in treatment. In CM, but not in standard care, patients with sexual abuse histories achieved significantly longer durations of abstinence during treatment than those without sexual abuse histories. Although sexual abuse history was not associated with abstinence at nine-month follow-up evaluations, longest duration of abstinence during treatment was significantly associated with this long-term outcome. Results suggest that SUD patients with sexual abuse histories may accrue particular benefits during CM treatment that are associated with long-term abstinence. PMID:21443305

  1. An economic evaluation of contingency management for completion of hepatitis B vaccination in those on treatment for opiate dependence

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Peter J.; Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra S.; Hope, Vivian D.; Ncube, Fortune; Byford, Sarah; Tie, Hiong; Metrebian, Nicola; Hellier, Jennifer; Weaver, Tim; Strang, John

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims To determine whether the provision of contingency management using financial incentives to improve hepatitis B vaccine completion in people who inject drugs entering community treatment represents a cost‐effective use of health‐care resources. Design A probabilistic cost‐effectiveness analysis was conducted, using a decision‐tree to estimate the short‐term clinical and health‐care cost impact of the vaccination strategies, followed by a Markov process to evaluate the long‐term clinical consequences and costs associated with hepatitis B infection. Settings and participants Data on attendance to vaccination from a UK cluster randomized trial. Intervention Two contingency management options were examined in the trial: fixed versus escalating schedule financial incentives. Measurement Life‐time health‐care costs and quality‐adjusted life years discounted at 3.5% annually; incremental cost‐effectiveness ratios. Findings The resulting estimate for the incremental life‐time health‐care cost of the contingency management strategy versus usual care was £21.86 [95% confidence interval (CI) = –£12.20 to 39.86] per person offered the incentive. For 1000 people offered the incentive, the incremental reduction in numbers of hepatitis B infections avoided over their lifetime was estimated at 19 (95% CI = 8–30). The probabilistic incremental cost per quality adjusted life‐year gained of the contingency management programme was estimated to be £6738 (95% CI = £6297–7172), with an 89% probability of being considered cost‐effective at a threshold of £20 000 per quality‐adjusted life years gained (97.60% at £30 000). Conclusions Using financial incentives to increase hepatitis B vaccination completion in people who inject drugs could be a cost‐effective use of health‐care resources in the UK as long as the incidence remains above 1.2%. PMID:26990598

  2. Hypothetical intertemporal choice and real economic behavior: delay discounting predicts voucher redemptions during contingency-management procedures.

    PubMed

    Bickel, Warren K; Jones, Bryan A; Landes, Reid D; Christensen, Darren R; Jackson, Lisa; Mancino, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Delay discounting rates are predictive of drug use status, the likelihood of becoming abstinent, and a variety of health behaviors. Rates of delay discounting may also be related to other relevant behaviors associated with addiction, such as the frequency at which individuals redeem contingency management voucher earnings. This study examined the discounting rates of 152 participants in a buprenorphine treatment program for opioid abuse. Participants received up to 12 weeks of buprenorphine treatment combined with contingency management. Participant's drug use was measured via urine specimens submitted three times a week. Successive negative urine specimens were reinforced with increasing amounts of money. After each negative urine specimen, a participant could either redeem his or her earnings or accumulate it in an account. Analysis of the frequency of redemptions showed that participants with higher rates of delay discounting at study intake redeemed their earnings significantly more often than participants with lower rates of discounting. Age and income also predicted redemption rates. We suggest that delay discounting rates can be used to predict redemption behaviors in a contingency management treatment program and that these findings are consistent with the recent theory of the competing neurobehavioral decision systems.

  3. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Ethyl Glucuronide-Based Contingency Management for Outpatients With Co-Occurring Alcohol Use Disorders and Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    McDonell, Michael G; Leickly, Emily; McPherson, Sterling; Skalisky, Jordan; Srebnik, Debra; Angelo, Frank; Vilardaga, Roger; Nepom, Jenny R; Roll, John M; Ries, Richard K

    2017-04-01

    The authors examined whether a contingency management intervention using the ethyl glucuronide (EtG) alcohol biomarker resulted in increased alcohol abstinence in outpatients with co-occurring serious mental illnesses. Secondary objectives were to determine whether contingency management was associated with changes in heavy drinking, treatment attendance, drug use, cigarette smoking, psychiatric symptoms, and HIV-risk behavior. Seventy-nine (37% female, 44% nonwhite) outpatients with serious mental illness and alcohol dependence receiving treatment as usual completed a 4-week observation period and were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of contingency management for EtG-negative urine samples and addiction treatment attendance, or reinforcement only for study participation. Contingency management included the variable magnitude of reinforcement "prize draw" procedure contingent on EtG-negative samples (<150 ng/mL) three times a week and weekly gift cards for outpatient treatment attendance. Urine EtG, drug test, and self-report outcomes were assessed during the 12-week intervention and 3-month follow-up periods. Contingency management participants were 3.1 times (95% CI=2.2-4.5) more likely to submit an EtG-negative urine test during the 12-week intervention period, attaining nearly 1.5 weeks of additional alcohol abstinence compared with controls. Contingency management participants had significantly lower mean EtG levels, reported less drinking and fewer heavy drinking episodes, and were more likely to submit stimulant-negative urine and smoking-negative breath samples, compared with controls. Differences in self-reported alcohol use were maintained at the 3-month follow-up. This is the first randomized trial utilizing an accurate and validated biomarker (EtG) to demonstrate the efficacy of contingency management for alcohol dependence in outpatients with serious mental illness.

  4. Contingency management in substance abuse treatment: A structured review of the evidence for its transportability

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan; Lash, Steve; Roll, John

    2011-01-01

    Aims Extant literature on contingency management (CM) transportability, or its transition from academia to community practice, is reviewed. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR; Damschroder et al., 2009) guides the examination of this material. Methods PsychInfo and Medline database searches identified 27 publications, with reviewed reference lists garnering 22 others. These 49 sources were examined according to CFIR domains of the intervention, outer setting, inner setting, clinicians, and implementation processes. Results Intervention characteristics were focal in 59% of the identified literature, with less frequent focus on clinicians (34%), inner setting (32%), implementation processes (18%), and outer setting (8%). As intervention characteristics, adaptability and trialability most facilitate transportability whereas non-clinical origin, perceived inefficacy or disadvantages, and costs are impediments. Clinicians with a managerial focus and greater clinic tenure and CM experience are candidates to curry organizational readiness for implementation, and combat staff disinterest or philosophical objection. A clinic’s technology comfort, staff continuity, and leadership advocacy are inner setting characteristics that prompt effective implementation. Implementation processes in successful demonstration projects include careful fiscal/logistical planning, role-specific staff engagement, practical adaptation in execution, and evaluation via fidelity-monitoring and cost-effectiveness analyses. Outer setting characteristics—like economic policies and inter-agency networking or competition—are salient, often unrecognized influences. Conclusions As most implementation constructs are still moving targets, CM transportability is in its infancy and warrants further scientific attention. More effective dissemination may necessitate that future research weight emphasis on external validity, and utilize models of implementation science. PMID

  5. Contingency management for alcohol use reduction: a pilot study using a transdermal alcohol sensor.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Nancy P; Tidey, Jennifer; Murphy, James G; Swift, Robert; Colby, Suzanne M

    2011-11-01

    Contingency management (CM) has not been thoroughly evaluated as a treatment for alcohol abuse or dependence, in part because verification of alcohol use reduction requires frequent in-person breath tests. Transdermal alcohol sensors detect alcohol regularly throughout the day, providing remote monitoring and allowing for rapid reinforcement of reductions in use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of CM for reduction in alcohol use, using a transdermal alcohol sensor to provide a continuous measure of alcohol use. Participants were 13 heavy drinking adults who wore the Secure Continuous Remote Alcohol Monitoring (SCRAM) bracelet for three weeks and provided reports of alcohol and drug use using daily web-based surveys. In Week 1, participants were asked to drink as usual; in Weeks 2 and 3, they were reinforced on an escalating schedule with values ranging from $5 to $17 per day on days when alcohol use was not reported or detected by the SCRAM. Self-reports of percent days abstinent and drinks per week, and transdermal measures of average and peak transdermal alcohol concentration and area under the curve declined significantly in Weeks 2-3. A nonsignificant but large effect size for reduction in days of tobacco use also was found. An adjustment to the SCRAM criteria for detecting alcohol use provided an accurate but less conservative method for use with non-mandated clients. Results support the efficacy of CM for alcohol use reductions and the feasibility of using transdermal monitoring of alcohol use for clinical purposes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contingency management for substance use disorders in Spain: Implications for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; García-Rodríguez, Olaya; Fernández-Hermida, José R

    2015-11-01

    We provide a narrative review of published studies evaluating voucher-based contingency management (CM) treatment for cocaine, nicotine and cannabis use disorders in Spain and discuss the concerns and future challenges. Published studies between 2008 and 2015 that evaluated the impact of incentives for SUD in Spain and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were identified and reviewed. Adding voucher-based CM to standard treatments obtained better treatment retention and cocaine abstinence than standard care alone. CM also improved psychosocial functioning. Economic status or depressive symptoms did not affect the results of CM treatment for cocaine dependence. The addition of a CM protocol to cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) also improved treatment effectiveness for smoking cessation. Available data on the effect of CM on cannabis use disorders (CUD) with young people did not allow confirmation of its superiority to date. The research conducted to date in Spain confirms and expands the findings of studies conducted in the US supporting the effectiveness of CM in the context of community settings with cocaine- and nicotine-dependents. However, CM has not yet been readily adopted into general clinical practice in Spain or the rest of Europe. The limited effectiveness of CM for CUD is likely due to the scarcity of data and may change with more studies, taking into account recent research on this topic in the US. Continued efforts are warranted to further develop and disseminate incentive-based treatments for SUD across clinical settings and populations in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Substance Abuse Treatment Patients in Housing Programs Respond to Contingency Management Interventions.

    PubMed

    Rash, Carla J; Alessi, Sheila M; Petry, Nancy M

    2017-01-01

    Use of homeless and transitional housing (e.g., recovery homes) programs can be associated with success in substance abuse treatment, perhaps because many of these programs encourage or mandate sobriety. In this study, we examined whether contingency management (CM) protocols that use tangible incentives for submission of drug-free specimens or other specific behaviors are effective for treatment-seeking substance abusers whose behavior may also be shaped by housing programs. Of 355 participants in randomized trials of CM, 56 (16%) reported using transitional housing during the 12-week treatment period. Main and interaction effects of housing status and treatment condition were evaluated for the primary substance abuse treatment outcomes: a) longest duration of abstinence from alcohol, cocaine, and opioids, b) percentage of samples submitted that were negative for these substances, and c) treatment retention. After controlling for demographic and clinical characteristics, those who accessed housing programs submitted a higher percentage of negative samples (75%) compared to those who did not access housing programs (67%). Housing status groups did not differ in terms of longest duration of abstinence (accessed housing: M=3.1 weeks, SE=0.6; did not access housing: M=3.9 weeks, SE=0.3) or retention in substance abuse treatment (accessed housing: M=6.4 weeks, SE=0.6; did not access housing: M=6.6 weeks, SE=0.3). Regardless of housing status, CM was associated with longer durations of abstinence and treatment retention. No interactive effects of housing and treatment condition were observed (p>.05). Results suggest that those who accessed housing programs during substance abuse treatment benefit from CM to a comparable degree as their peers who did not use such programs. These effects suggest that CM remains appropriate for those accessing housing in community-based programs.

  8. Contingency management for tobacco smoking during opioid addiction treatment: a randomised pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ainscough, Tom Stephen; Brose, Leonie S; Strang, John; McNeill, Ann

    2017-09-01

    Smoking rates among individuals in treatment for opioid addiction are close to five times that of the general public. Moreover, drug-addicted smokers have a premature mortality rate four times greater than drug-addicted non-smokers. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether contingency management (CM) can be successfully added to evidence-based stop smoking treatment in individuals undergoing treatment for opioid addiction and assess preliminary evidence for its impact. Forty tobacco smokers currently undergoing treatment for opioid addiction. Escalating with reset CM as an adjunct to standard smoking cessation treatment. Financial incentives will be administered over a 5-week period for either biochemically verified abstinence from smoking or attendance at the clinic. Participants will be randomised to conditions stratified on current levels of smoking (high or low). To assess whether a CM intervention can be successfully added to standard stop smoking services treatment, in patients undergoing outpatient treatment for opioid addiction. This will be measured as the number of people completing the 5 weeks of the intervention. Ethics approval for the study was granted on the 16 June 2016 by the London-city and east (reference 16/LO/0990) ethics committee. The pilot study was retrospectively registered on clincaltrials.gov in January 2017 (ID: NCT03015597). A SPIRIT checklist and figure are available for this protocol. It is planned that the results of this study will be published in an academic journal. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Contingent Valuation and Pharmacists' Acceptable Levels of Compensation for Medication Therapy Management Services

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junling; Hong, Song Hee

    2012-01-01

    Background Pharmacists' acceptable level of compensation for medication therapy management (MTM) services needs to be determined using various economic evaluation techniques. Objectives Using contingent valuation method, determine pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for MTM services. Methods A mailing survey was used to elicit Tennessee (US) pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for a 30-minute MTM session for a new patient with 2 medical conditions, 8 medications, and an annual drug cost of $2,000. Three versions of a series of double-bounded, closed-ended, binary discrete choice questions were asked of pharmacists for their willingness-to-accept (WTA) for an original monetary value ($30, $60, or $90) and then follow-up higher or lower value depending on their responses to the original value. A Kaplan-Meier approach was taken to analyze pharmacists' WTA, and Cox's proportional hazards model was used to examine the effects of pharmacist characteristics on their WTA. Results Three hundred and forty-eight pharmacists responded to the survey. Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session had a mean of $63.31 and median of $60. The proportions of pharmacists willing to accept $30, $60, and $90 for the given MTM session were 30.61%, 85.19%, and 91.01%, respectively. Pharmacists' characteristics had statistically significant association with their WTA rates. Conclusions Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session is higher than current Medicare MTM programs' compensation levels of $15 to $50 and patients' willingness-to-pay of less than $40. Besides advocating for higher MTM compensation levels by third-party payers, pharmacists also may need to charge patients to reach sufficient compensation levels for MTM services. PMID:22436583

  10. Contingent valuation and pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for medication therapy management services.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junling; Hong, Song Hee

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacists' acceptable level of compensation for medication therapy management (MTM) services needs to be determined using various economic evaluation techniques. Using contingent valuation method, determine pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for MTM services. A mailing survey was used to elicit Tennessee (U.S.) pharmacists' acceptable levels of compensation for a 30-minute MTM session for a new patient with 2 medical conditions, 8 medications, and an annual drug cost of $2000. Three versions of a series of double-bounded, closed-ended, binary discrete choice questions were asked of pharmacists for their willingness to accept (WTA) for an original monetary value ($30, $60, or $90) and then follow-up higher or lower value depending on their responses to the original value. A Kaplan-Meier approach was taken to analyze pharmacists' WTA, and Cox's proportional hazards model was used to examine the effects of pharmacist characteristics on their WTA. Three hundred and forty-eight pharmacists responded to the survey. Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session had a mean of $63.31 and median of $60. The proportions of pharmacists willing to accept $30, $60, and $90 for the given MTM session were 30.61%, 85.19%, and 91.01%, respectively. Pharmacists' characteristics had statistically significant association with their WTA rates. Pharmacists' WTA for the given MTM session is higher than current Medicare MTM programs' compensation levels of $15-$50 and patients' willingness to pay of less than $40. Besides advocating for higher MTM compensation levels by third-party payers, pharmacists also may need to charge patients to reach sufficient compensation levels for MTM services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interdependent Group Contingency and Mystery Motivators to Reduce Preschool Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Kelly A.; Theodore, Lea A.; Aloiso, Danielle; Alric-Edwards, Jolie M.; Hughes, Tammy L.

    2007-01-01

    Children exhibiting challenging and disruptive behaviors can require teachers to spend a substantial amount of time on classroom management. Disruptive behaviors in the classroom impact the learning process by taking time away from academic instruction. Further, preschoolers who are disruptive are more likely to continue displaying problematic…

  12. A Randomized Investigation of Methadone Doses at or Over 100 mg/day, Combined with Contingency Management*

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ashley P.; Phillips, Karran A.; Epstein, David H.; Reamer, Dave; Schmittner, John; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Methadone maintenance for heroin dependence reduces illicit drug use, crime, HIV risk, and death. Typical dosages have increased over the past few years, based on strong experimental and clinical evidence that dosages under 60 mg/day are inadequate and that dosages closer to 100 mg/day produce better outcomes. However, there is little experimental evidence for the benefits of exceeding 100 mg/day, or for individualizing methadone dosages. We sought to provide such evidence. METHODS We combined individualized methadone dosages over 100 mg/day with voucher-based cocaine-targeted contingency management (CM) in 58 heroin- and cocaine-dependent outpatients. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a fixed dose increase from 70 mg/day to 100 mg/day, or to be eligible for further dose increases (up to 190 mg/day, based on withdrawal symptoms, craving, and continued heroin use). All dosing was double-blind. The main outcome measure was simultaneous abstinence from heroin and cocaine. RESULTS We stopped the study early due to slow accrual. Cocaine-targeted CM worked as expected to reduce cocaine use. Polydrug use (effect-size h = .30) and heroin craving (effect-size d = .87) were significantly greater in the flexible/high-dose condition than in the fixed-dose condition, with no trend toward lower heroin use in the flexible/high-dose participants. CONCLUSIONS Under double-blind conditions, dosages of methadone over 100 mg/day, even when prescribed based on specific signs and symptoms, were not better than 100 mg/day. This counterintuitive finding requires replication, but supports the need for additional controlled studies of high-dose methadone. PMID:23195924

  13. Multi-Component Smoking Cessation Treatment including Mobile Contingency Management for Smoking Cessation in Homeless Veteran Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Vickie L.; Hertzberg, Jeffrey S.; Kirby, Angela C.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Moore, Scott D.; Dennis, Michelle F.; Dennis, Paul A.; Dedert, Eric A.; Hair, Lauren P.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Smoking rates are 80% among persons who are homeless, and these smokers have decreased odds of quitting smoking. Little is known about relapse rates among homeless smokers, but the dearth of research indicates that more information regarding quit rates in this population is needed. Furthermore, innovative methods are needed to treat smoking cessation among homeless smokers. Web-based contingency management (CM) approaches have been found helpful in reducing smoking among other difficult-to-treat smoker populations but have been generally limited by the need for computers or frequent clinic based carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. This pilot study builds on a web-based CM approach by evaluating a smart phone based application for CM named mobile CM (mCM). Methods Following a one-week training period, 20 homeless veteran smokers participated in a multi-component smoking cessation intervention including 4 weeks of mCM. All smokers received 4 smoking cessation counseling sessions, nicotine replacement and bupropion (if medically eligible). Participants could earn up to $815 ($480 for mCM, $100 for CO readings showing abstinence at posttreatment and follow up, and $35 for equipment return). Mean compensation for the mCM component was $286 of a possible $480. Results Video transmission compliance was high during the one-week training (97%) and the four-week treatment period (87%). Bioverified 7-day point prevalence abstinence was 50% at four weeks. Follow up bioverified single assessment point prevalence abstinence was 65% at three months and 60% at six months. Conclusions mCM may be a useful adjunctive smoking cessation treatment component for reducing smoking among homeless smokers. PMID:25699616

  14. Contingent workers.

    PubMed

    Guerrina, Ryan T; Burns, Candace M; Conlon, Helen

    2011-03-01

    Contingent workers compose a large portion of the U.S. work force. Contingent workers include temporary employees, contracted employees, day laborers, and freelancers. The skill level and educational requirements for their jobs vary from basic to highly advanced. Construction, housekeeping, engineering, and nursing have such positions. U.S. contingent workers are more likely to engage in occupations associated with increased risk of injury, and a variety of factors increase their risk of work injuries, particularly those leading to death. This article focuses on select occupational health and safety issues affecting contingent workers and their implications for occupational health nurses.

  15. Reducing Absenteeism and Rescheduling among Grocery Store Employees with Point-Contingent Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camden, Matt C.; Price, Virginia A.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a reward program designed to reduce absenteeism among staff (N = 38) at a grocery store. The intervention included public feedback and a credit reward system whereby participants got store dollars for attendance and authorized rescheduling of work assignments. Results showed that absenteeism decreased…

  16. Reducing Absenteeism and Rescheduling among Grocery Store Employees with Point-Contingent Rewards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camden, Matt C.; Price, Virginia A.; Ludwig, Timothy D.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate a reward program designed to reduce absenteeism among staff (N = 38) at a grocery store. The intervention included public feedback and a credit reward system whereby participants got store dollars for attendance and authorized rescheduling of work assignments. Results showed that absenteeism decreased…

  17. Resurgence of instrumental behavior after an abstinence contingency.

    PubMed

    Bouton, Mark E; Schepers, Scott T

    2014-06-01

    In resurgence, an extinguished instrumental behavior (R1) recovers when a behavior that has replaced it (R2) is also extinguished. The phenomenon may be relevant to understanding relapse that can occur after the termination of "contingency management" treatments, in which an unwanted behavior (e.g., substance abuse) is reduced by reinforcing an alternative behavior. When reinforcement is discontinued, the unwanted behavior might resurge. However, unlike most resurgence experiments, contingency management treatments also introduce a negative contingency, in which reinforcers are not delivered unless the client has abstained from the unwanted behavior. In two experiments with rats, we therefore examined the effects of adding a negative "abstinence" contingency to the resurgence design. During response elimination, R2 was not reinforced unless R1 had not been emitted for a minimum period of time (45, 90, or 135 s). In both experiments, adding such a contingency to simple R1 extinction reduced, but did not eliminate, resurgence. In Experiment 2, we found the same effect in a yoked group that could earn reinforcers for R2 at the same points in time as the negative-contingency group, but without the requirement to abstain from R1. Thus, the negative contingency per se did not contribute to the reduction in resurgence. These results suggest that the contingency reduced resurgence by making reinforcers more difficult to earn and more widely spaced in time. This could have allowed the animal to learn that R1 was extinguished in the "context" of infrequent reinforcement-a context more like that of resurgence testing. The results are thus consistent with a contextual (renewal) account of resurgence. The method might provide a better model of relapse after termination of a contingency management treatment.

  18. Effect of reinforcement probability and prize size on cocaine and heroin abstinence in prize-based contingency management.

    PubMed

    Ghitza, Udi E; Epstein, David H; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L

    2008-01-01

    Although treatment outcome in prize-based contingency management has been shown to depend on reinforcement schedule, the optimal schedule is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (Ghitza et al., 2007) to determine the effects of the probability of winning a prize (low vs. high) and the size of the prize won (small, large, or jumbo) on likelihood of abstinence until the next urine-collection day for heroin and cocaine users (N=116) in methadone maintenance. Higher probability of winning, but not the size of individual prizes, was associated with a greater percentage of cocaine-negative, but not opiate-negative, urines.

  19. A pilot study of low-cost contingency management to increase attendance in an adolescent substance abuse program.

    PubMed

    Branson, Christopher E; Barbuti, Anna Maria; Clemmey, Philip; Herman, Lisa; Bhutia, Phintso

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies demonstrate the efficacy of contingency management (CM) for improving patient outcomes, yet it is rarely used in treatment settings due to the high cost of implementation. This quasi-experimental study (N = 52) examined the effect of a low-cost "Fishbowl" CM intervention on attendance/retention in an early intervention adolescent substance abuse program. The CM group attended significantly more sessions compared to the control group. Furthermore, the CM intervention costs $3.27 per patient per session. Our findings support the use of low-cost CM to improve adolescent attendance in clinical settings.

  20. How much are Ecuadorians Willing to Pay to Reduce Maternal Mortality? Results from a Pilot Study on Contingent Valuation.

    PubMed

    Roldós, María Isabel; Corso, Phaedra; Ingels, Justin

    2017-01-01

    There is an established association between the provision of health care services and maternal mortality. In Ecuador, little is known if the societal value is greater than the resources expended in preventive medicine. The purpose of this research is to investigate Ecuadorians' willingness to pay to prevent maternal death and disabilities due to complications of care during childbirth in the context of universal coverage. The study elicited a "contingent" market on morbidity and mortality outcomes, specific to Ecuador's epidemiologic profiles between a hypothetical market that included a 50% reduction in the risk of maternal mortality from 100 to 50 per 100,000, and a market that included a 50% reduction in the risk of maternal morbidity from 4,000 to 2,000 per 100,000. The average amount participants are willing to pay (WTP) to prevent maternal mortality in the context of universal coverage, was $176 a year (95% CI=$172, $179). The unadjusted mean WTP for a reduction in the maternal morbidity risk was $135 (95% CI=$132, $139). Translated into Value of statistical Life, participant´s from this study valued the prevention of one statistical maternal death at USD $352,000. Results suggest that the costs of maternal care do not outweigh the benefit of prevention, and that Ecuadorians are willing to pay a significant amount to reduce the risk of maternal mortality. Reduction of maternal mortality will remain an important global developmental goal in the upcoming years. Having a monetary approximation on the value of these losses may have important implications in the allotting financial and technical resources to reduce it.

  1. Behavioral research in preventive dentistry: educational and contingency management approaches to the problem of patient compliance.

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, B A; Becksfort, C M

    1981-01-01

    This study examined the effects of reinforcement on compliance with an oral hygiene education program. Patients 18 years of age or older who enrolled in an ongoing program at a periodontal practice received 3-5 sessions of instruction in preventive dental care. Using a between-subjects design, patients who entered the program during alternating months also had a portion of their fees refunded contingent upon improvements in their dental plaque scores. Pre- and posttreatment data showed that all subjects exhibited lower plaque levels following the program, but that greater improvements were seen in patients who were exposed to the fee reduction contingency. Plaque scores taken at a 6-month follow-up revealed some relapse for the Fee Reduction subjects. However, their scores were still substantially better than pretreatment, and better than those of the Education only subjects, whose data differed little from untreated Controls. Methodological and practical issues related to behavioral research in preventive dentistry are discussed. PMID:7287595

  2. Collegiate contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Lamal, P. A.; Rakos, Richard F.; Greenspoon, Joel

    2000-01-01

    We discuss contemporary trends and developments that affect colleges and universities and describe several central contingencies that have given rise to, maintain, and operate in response to these trends and developments. We identify the differential impacts of these contingencies on faculty, students, and administrators in various types of higher education institutions. These contingencies are sources of conflict between and among these three groups within the academy that, we argue, cause significant instability in contemporary academe. We discuss prominent domains of this dis-equilibrium and propose several general interventions to address the sources of the instability. PMID:22478348

  3. A contingent valuation study of the value of reducing fire hazards to old-growth forests in the Pacific Northwest

    Treesearch

    John B. Loomis; Armando González-Cabán; Robin Gregory

    1996-01-01

    A contingent valuation methodology was applied to old-growth forests and critical habitat units for the Northern Spotted Owl in Oregon to estimate the economic value to the public in knowing that rare and unique ecosystems will be protected from fire for current and future generations. Generalizing to the whole state, the total annual willingness-to-pay of Oregon...

  4. Use of contingency management incentives to improve completion of hepatitis B vaccination in people undergoing treatment for heroin dependence: a cluster randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Tim; Metrebian, Nicola; Hellier, Jennifer; Pilling, Stephen; Charles, Vikki; Little, Nicholas; Poovendran, Dilkushi; Mitcheson, Luke; Ryan, Frank; Bowden-Jones, Owen; Dunn, John; Glasper, Anthony; Finch, Emily; Strang, John

    2014-07-12

    Poor adherence to treatment diminishes its individual and public health benefit. Financial incentives, provided on the condition of treatment attendance, could address this problem. Injecting drug users are a high-risk group for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and transmission, but adherence to vaccination programmes is poor. We aimed to assess whether contingency management delivered in routine clinical practice increased the completion of HBV vaccination in individuals receiving opioid substitution therapy. In our cluster randomised controlled trial, we enrolled participants at 12 National Health Service drug treatment services in the UK that provided opioid substitution therapy and nurse-led HBV vaccination with a super-accelerated schedule (vaccination days 0, 7, and 21). Clusters were randomly allocated 1:1:1 to provide vaccination without incentive (treatment as usual), with fixed value contingency management (three £10 vouchers), or escalating value contingency management (£5, £10, and £15 vouchers). Both contingency management schedules rewarded on-time attendance at appointments. The primary outcome was completion of clinically appropriate HBV vaccination within 28 days. We also did sensitivity analyses that examined vaccination completion with full adherence to appointment times and within a 3 month window. The trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials, number ISRCTN72794493. Between March 16, 2011, and April 26, 2012, we enrolled 210 eligible participants. Compared with six (9%) of 67 participants treated as usual, 35 (45%) of 78 participants in the fixed value contingency management group met the primary outcome measure (odds ratio 12·1, 95% CI 3·7-39·9; p<0·0001), as did 32 (49%) of 65 participants in the escalating value contingency management group (14·0, 4·2-46·2; p<0·0001). These differences remained significant with sensitivity analyses. Modest financial incentives delivered in routine clinical practice significantly improve

  5. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students’ Class-Work and Active Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students’ reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement. PMID:26617432

  6. A Group Contingency Plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement.

    PubMed

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study. Students used self-management strategies during independent reading time to increase the amount of writing in their reading logs. They used self-monitoring strategies to record whether or not they performed expected behaviors in class. A token economy using points and tickets was included in the GC to provide positive reinforcement for target responses. The results were analyzed through visual inspection of graphs and effect size computations and showed that the intervention increased the total amount of written words in the students' reading logs and overall classroom and individual student academic engagement.

  7. Collective proposal of Contingency Plan as an alternative for management risks to socioenvironmental disasters within Network Management Risk of Córrego Dantas (REGER-CD), Nova Friburgo, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Leonardo; Luiza Coelho Netto, Ana

    2017-04-01

    An extreme rainfall event took place in the Mountainous Region of the state of Rio de Janeiro in January 2011, causing a catastrophic landslide that resulted in more than 900 deaths and 350 people disappearances. Precipitation events associated with landslides are common in this region and climate change tends to increase the frequency of intense rains and, consequently, landslides. At the same time, the vulnerability of communities has increased as a result of disorderly urban growth. Despite that, before 2011 communities and public power were not prepared to disaster management..After the 2011 event, public authorities try to established policies to reduce these vulnerabilities. One of the communities where the government acted was Córrego Dantas. However, the actions in this place were carried out in a top-down model, without discussion with population. As a consequence, the performance of public power has amplified social vulnerabilities. Highlight for the truculent removal of residents; resettlement in geographically isolated housing complexes; and the establishment of urbanization policies that go against the interests of the residents. The construction of the Córrego d'Aantas Disaster Risk Management Network (REGER-CD), including residents of affected communities, researchers, NGO members and representatives of the public power, is one way to respond these questions. Within this network, the construction of a proposal for a collective contingency plan, articulated with the municipal contingency plan, is generating residents' empowerment, greater adaptation to risks and reducing the vulnerability of Disasters and mass movements

  8. Analysis of integrated healthcare networks' performance: a contingency-strategic management perspective.

    PubMed

    Lin, B Y; Wan, T T

    1999-12-01

    Few empirical analyses have been done in the organizational researches of integrated healthcare networks (IHNs) or integrated healthcare delivery systems. Using a contingency derived contact-process-performance model, this study attempts to explore the relationships among an IHN's strategic direction, structural design, and performance. A cross-sectional analysis of 100 IHNs suggests that certain contextual factors such as market competition and network age and tax status have statistically significant effects on the implementation of an IHN's service differentiation strategy, which addresses coordination and control in the market. An IHN's service differentiation strategy is positively related to its integrated structural design, which is characterized as integration of administration, patient care, and information system across different settings. However, no evidence supports that the development of integrated structural design may benefit an IHN's performance in terms of clinical efficiency and financial viability.

  9. Contingency plan improvement for managing oil spills in the coastal waters of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2014-12-15

    The estimated risks of being impacted by oil spills in the coastal waters were used to improve the oil spill contingency plan of Thailand. Functional roles of local agencies are integrated into the plan. Intensive measures are suggested for the coastal provinces located in high-very high risk zones, whereas light and moderate measures are suggested for the coastal provinces located in low and moderate risk zones, respectively. The estimated percentage risks due to simulated oil slicks hitting the coast and/or important resources (PRoilspill) were used to guide the year-round water activities that should be carefully handled at a certain radius with a low-moderate PRoilspill, whereas they should be avoided at a certain radius with a high-very high PRoilspill. Important measures before, during, and post periods of an oil spill incident are suggested to prevent and monitor oil spill incidents and mitigate their impacts on the environment.

  10. Community opioid treatment perspectives on contingency management: Perceived feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability of social and financial incentives

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan; Rabun, Carl

    2013-01-01

    Treatment community reluctance toward contingency management (CM) may be better understood by eliciting views of its feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability when social vs. financial incentives are utilized. This mixed method study involved individual staff interviews representing three personnel tiers (an executive, clinical supervisor, and two front-line clinicians) at 16 opiate treatment programs. Interviews included Likert ratings of feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability of each incentive type, and content analysis of corresponding interviewee narrative. Multi-level modeling analyses indicated that social incentives were perceived more feasible, more effective, and more transportable than financial incentives, with results pervading personnel tier. Content analysis suggested the more positive perception of social incentives was most often due to expected logistical advantages, positive impacts on patient quality-of-life, and philosophical congruence among staff. Weaker perception of financial incentives was most often influenced by concerns about costs, patient dissatisfaction, and staff philosophical incongruence. Implications for CM dissemination are discussed. PMID:23506780

  11. Community opioid treatment perspectives on contingency management: perceived feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability of social and financial incentives.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Bryan; Rabun, Carl

    2013-08-01

    Treatment community reluctance toward contingency management (CM) may be better understood by eliciting views of its feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability when social versus financial incentives are utilized. This mixed method study involved individual staff interviews representing three personnel tiers (an executive, clinical supervisor, and two front-line clinicians) at 16 opiate treatment programs. Interviews included Likert ratings of feasibility, effectiveness, and transportability of each incentive type, and content analysis of corresponding interviewee narrative. Multi-level modeling analyses indicated that social incentives were perceived more feasible, more effective, and more transportable than financial incentives, with results pervading personnel tier. Content analysis suggested that the more positive perception of social incentives was most often due to expected logistical advantages, positive impacts on patient quality-of-life, and philosophical congruence among staff. Weaker perception of financial incentives was most often influenced by concerns about costs, patient dissatisfaction, and staff philosophical incongruence. Implications for CM dissemination are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Contingency management adapted for African-American adolescents with obesity enhances youth weight loss with caregiver participation: a multiple baseline pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hartlieb, Kathryn Brogan; Naar, Sylvie; Ledgerwood, David M; Templin, Thomas N; Ellis, Deborah A; Donohue, Bradley; Cunningham, Phillippe B

    2015-12-07

    Contingency management (CM) interventions, which use operant conditioning principles to encourage completion of target behavioral goals, may be useful for improving adherence to behavioral skills training (BST). Research-to-date has yet to explore CM for weight loss in minority adolescents. To examine the effects of CM in improving adolescent weight loss when added to BST. The study utilized an innovative experimental design that builds upon multiple baseline approaches as recommended by the National Institutes of Health. Six obese African-American youth and their primary caregivers living in Detroit, Michigan, USA. Adolescents received between 4 and 12 weeks of BST during a baseline period and subsequently received CM targeting weight loss. Youth weight. Linear mixed effects modeling was used in the analysis. CM did not directly affect adolescent weight loss above that of BST (p=0.053). However, when caregivers were involved in CM session treatment, contingency management had a positive effect on adolescent weight loss. The estimated weight loss due to CM when caregivers also attended was 0.66 kg/week (p<0.001, [95% CI; -1.96, -0.97]) relative to the baseline trajectory. This study demonstrates application of a novel experimental approach to intervention development and demonstrated the importance of parent involvement when delivering contingency management for minority youth weight loss. Lessons learned from contingency management program implementation are also discussed in order to inform practice.

  13. Abstinence reinforcement maintenance contingency and one-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Preston, Kenzie L; Umbricht, Annie; Epstein, David H

    2002-07-01

    Relapse to drug use is often seen when contingencies designed to reduce drug use are discontinued. This paper reports on a stepdown maintenance contingency and 1-year follow-up in 110 patients who were maintained on methadone (50 or 70 mg/day) and who had completed a contingency management trial targeted to decreasing their opiate use. In the prior study (induction phase, 8 weeks) participants received vouchers for each opiate-negative urine screen or noncontingently. In this study (maintenance phase, 12 weeks), participants were rerandomized to receive vouchers and take-home methadone doses contingent on providing opiate-negative urine specimens (N=55) or noncontingently (N=55). Since participants had been rerandomized from induction-phase contingencies, most study data were analyzed as if from a 2 x 2 (inductionxmaintenance) design. Follow-up interviews were conducted at 3, 6, and 12 months after study participation. Patients who received the maintenance contingency following an 8-week induction contingency had better outcomes than those who received noncontingent incentives in either the maintenance or induction phases of the trial. Good outcome at follow-up was predicted by enrollment in methadone maintenance after the study. Significantly more participants in the maintenance contingency group transferred directly to another methadone program. These findings support the therapeutic value of extending the duration of contingency management and long-term methadone maintenance.

  14. The use of noncontingent reinforcement and contingent restraint to reduce physical aggression and self-injurious behaviour in a traumatically brain injured adult.

    PubMed

    Persel, C S; Persel, C H; Ashley, M J; Krych, D K

    1997-10-01

    Many different intervention programmes for reducing undesirable behaviour with people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been investigated in recent years. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of using noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) in combination with contingent restraint to reduce severe behaviour. The subject (E.L.) was a 40-year-old male with TBI admitted to a rehabilitation long-term care programme. E.L. had a history of physical aggression (PA) and self-injurious behaviour (SIB). Assessment conditions included a descriptive analysis, response scatterplot and Self-Injury Trauma (SIT) Scale. Attention was identified as the maintaining positive reinforcement for PA and SIB. Treatment conditions were compared using a reversal (ABAB) design. Attention (NCR) was delivered on a fixed-time schedule that was not dependent on the subject's behaviour. Contingent restraint was applied when E.L. exhibited PA or SIB that was dangerous to himself or others. During treatment, PA occurred over 4 times less often and SIB over 2.5 times less often. Results demonstrated that PA and SIB were sensitive to NCR. NCR can be an effective procedure for reducing severe behaviour maintained by socially-mediated positive reinforcement.

  15. Survey Response-Related Biases in Contingent Valuation: Concepts, Remedies, and Empirical Application to Valuing Aquatic Plant Management

    Treesearch

    Mark L. Messonnier; John C. Bergstrom; Chrisopher M. Cornwell; R. Jeff Teasley; H. Ken Cordell

    2000-01-01

    Simple nonresponse and selection biases that may occur in survey research such as contingent valuation applications are discussed and tested. Correction mechanisms for these types of biases are demonstrated. Results indicate the importance of testing and correcting for unit and item nonresponse bias in contingent valuation survey data. When sample nonresponse and...

  16. Automation in an Addiction Treatment Research Clinic: Computerized Contingency Management, Ecological Momentary Assessment, and a Protocol Workflow System

    PubMed Central

    Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2009-01-01

    Issues A challenge in treatment research is the necessity of adhering to protocol and regulatory strictures while maintaining flexibility to meet patients’ treatment needs and accommodate variations among protocols. Another challenge is the acquisition of large amounts of data in an occasionally hectic environment, along with provision of seamless methods for exporting, mining, and querying the data. Approach We have automated several major functions of our outpatient treatment research clinic for studies in drug abuse and dependence. Here we describe three such specialized applications: the Automated Contingency Management (ACM) system for delivery of behavioral interventions, the Transactional Electronic Diary (TED) system for management of behavioral assessments, and the Protocol Workflow System (PWS) for computerized workflow automation and guidance of each participant’s daily clinic activities. These modules are integrated into our larger information system to enable data sharing in real time among authorized staff. Key Findings ACM and TED have each permitted us to conduct research that was not previously possible. In addition, the time to data analysis at the end of each study is substantially shorter. With the implementation of the PWS, we have been able to manage a research clinic with an 80-patient capacity having an annual average of 18,000 patient-visits and 7,300 urine collections with a research staff of five. Finally, automated data management has considerably enhanced our ability to monitor and summarize participant-safety data for research oversight. Implications and conclusion When developed in consultation with end users, automation in treatment-research clinics can enable more efficient operations, better communication among staff, and expansions in research methods. PMID:19320669

  17. Substance abuse treatment patients with early onset cocaine use respond as well to contingency management interventions as those with later onset cocaine use.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Lindsay M; Petry, Nancy M

    2014-08-01

    Early onset drug use is associated with increased risk of developing substance use disorders, but relatively little is known about the correlates of early drug use among adults receiving treatment. A retrospective analysis of a randomized study of contingency management treatment compared cocaine-dependent patients who reported initial cocaine use at age 14 or younger (n = 41) to those who began using after age 14 (n = 387). Patients with early onset cocaine use had more legal and psychiatric problems than those who initiated cocaine use later. Patients with early-onset cocaine use also dropped out of treatment sooner and achieved less sustained abstinence than those who began using at older ages, but the interaction between age of first use and treatment condition was not significant. Early-onset cocaine use is associated with persistent psychosocial problems and an overall poor response to treatment. However, contingency management is efficacious in improving outcomes in early onset cocaine users.

  18. Lighting the darkness of addiction: can phototherapy enhance contingency-management-based treatment of substance-related and addictive disorders?

    PubMed

    Siporin, Sheldon

    2014-01-01

    Maladaptive patterns of substance use are serious social problems. Both pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments are available, but nondrug options may be preferable because they avoid the expense and adverse side effects of psychotropic medication. Contingency management (CM) and nondrug social and recreational activities (NDSRAs) are based on operant conditioning principles and seek to decrease substance use by means of nondrug rewards. However, their efficacy may be hindered where brain reward circuitry is dysfunctional. Research shows that substance abuse biases neural reward systems in favor of drug-induced highs, while disrupting circadian-based rhythms. Circadian systems also have been found to influence human reward pathways. Possibly, a bidirectional relationship exists between circadian disturbance and substance abuse effects. If so, repair of abnormal circadian rhythms might help normalize reward response in substance abusers, with positive effects on CM or NDSRA treatment outcomes. Phototherapy has been effective in repairing circadian rhythms in persons with seasonal affective disorder and other chronobiological conditions. This article proposes that it similarly may repair circadian response in substance abusers, thereby normalizing brain reward systems. By doing so, it would enhance the efficacy of CM and NDSRA therapies and may also help prevent relapse. Given its low cost and ease of administration, phototherapy seems a promising avenue to pursue.

  19. The role of avoidance and inflexibility in characterizing response to contingency management for cocaine use disorders: A secondary profile analysis.

    PubMed

    Stotts, Angela L; Vujanovic, Anka; Heads, Angela; Suchting, Robert; Green, Charles E; Schmitz, Joy M

    2015-06-01

    Contingency management (CM) is a reinforcement-based approach that provides tangible rewards for objectively verified drug abstinence. CM is the most effective available behavioral intervention for cocaine use disorders; however, response to CM is variable, with significant rates of nonresponse. In the present investigation, we conducted a secondary profile analysis to identify potentially modifiable cognitive-affective characteristics associated with CM response (abstinence vs. continued use) preceding a pharmacotherapy trial for cocaine dependence. Ninety-nine cocaine-dependent, treatment-seeking adults participated in a 4-week baseline CM procedure using high-value vouchers for submission of cocaine-negative urines. Separate profiles for responders and the nonresponders were established using standardized mean scores on relevant pretreatment measures of negative affect, experiential avoidance, cocaine withdrawal/craving, and impulsivity. Results indicated no differences between responder subgroups on baseline levels of negative affect, withdrawal/craving, or impulsivity; however, CM nonresponders, relative to responders, reported significantly higher levels of avoidance and behavioral inflexibility (p < .01) in the context of distressing cocaine-related thoughts, feelings, and bodily sensations. These data suggest that emotion regulation skills may serve as a therapeutic strategy for enhancing response to CM for cocaine use disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Patients Undergoing Substance Abuse Treatment and Receiving Financial Assistance for a Physical Disability Respond Well to Contingency Management Treatment.

    PubMed

    Burch, Ashley E; Morasco, Benjamin J; Petry, Nancy M

    2015-11-01

    Physical illness and disability are common in individuals with substance use disorders, but little is known about the impact of physical disability status on substance use treatment outcomes. This study examined the main and interactive effects of physical disability payment status on substance use treatment. Participants (N = 1,013) were enrolled in one of six prior randomized clinical trials comparing contingency management (CM) to standard care; 79 (7.8%) participants reported receiving disability payments, CM improved all three primary substance use outcomes: treatment retention, percent negative samples and longest duration of abstinence. There was no significant main effect of physical disability payment status on treatment outcomes; however, a significant treatment condition by physical disability status interaction effect emerged in terms of retention in treatment and duration of abstinence achieved. Patients who were receiving physical disability payments responded particularly well to CM, and their time in treatment and durations of drug and alcohol abstinence increased even more markedly with CM than did that of their counterparts who were not receiving physical disability assistance. These findings suggest an objectively defined cohort of patients receiving substance use treatment who respond particularly well to CM.

  1. Acceptability of contingency management among clinicians and clients within a co-occurring mental health and substance use treatment program.

    PubMed

    Srebnik, Debra; Sugar, Andrea; Coblentz, Patrick; McDonell, Michael G; Angelo, Frank; Lowe, Jessica M; Ries, Richard K; Roll, John

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence supports the effectiveness of contingency management (CM) for addictions treatment among individuals with co-occurring serious mental illness (SMI). Addiction treatment for people with SMI generally occurs within community mental health centers (CMHCs) and it is not known whether CM is acceptable within this context. Client views regarding CM are also unknown. This study is the first to describe CM acceptability among CMHC clinicians, and the first to explore client views. Clinician-level predictors of CM acceptability are also examined. This study examined views about CM among 80 clinicians and 29 clients within a CMHC within the context of a concurrent CM study. Three-quarters of clinicians reported they would use CM if funding were available. Clinicians and clients affirmed that incentives enhance abstinence motivation. Clinician CM acceptability was related to greater years of experience, and identifying as an addictions or co-occurring disorders counselor, more than a mental health clinician. The findings provide preliminary evidence that CMHC clinicians, serving clients with addictions and complicating SMI, and client participants in CM, view CM as motivating and a positive tool to facilitate recovery. As an evidence-based intervention, CM warrants further efforts toward funding and dissemination in CMHCs. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  2. Income received during treatment does not affect response to contingency management treatments in cocaine-dependent outpatients

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Leonardo F.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies find no effect of baseline income on response to contingency management (CM) interventions. However, income among substance disordered patients is variable, particularly at treatment entry. This study investigated the impact of during-treatment income, a more proximal estimate of economic resources at the time that CM is in effect, on response to standard treatment or the standard treatment plus CM. Method These secondary analyses included 418 cocaine dependent participants initiating community intensive outpatient treatment. We examined whether differences were present in pretreatment and during-treatment overall income, as well as specific income sources. We then conducted a series of regression models to investigate the impact of during-treatment income on treatment outcome. Results Participants’ during-treatment income was significantly lower compared to pretreatment income, and this difference was largely attributable to decreases in earned income, illegal income, and support from friends and family. Neither the main effect of income, nor the interaction of income and treatment condition, was significantly associated with treatment outcome. CM, however, was a significant predictor of improved treatment outcome relative to standard treatment. Income sources and some demographic characteristics were also significant predictors of outcomes; public assistance income was associated with improved outcomes and illegal income was associated with poorer outcomes. Conclusions These results suggest that substance abusers benefit from CM regardless of their income level, and these data add to the growing literature supporting the generalizability of CM across a variety of patient characteristics. PMID:23631869

  3. Acceptability of an Internet-based contingency management intervention for smoking cessation: Views of smokers, nonsmokers, and healthcare professionals

    PubMed Central

    Raiff, Bethany R.; Jarvis, Brantley P.; Turturici, Marissa; Dallery, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The acceptability of an Internet-based contingency management (CM) intervention for cigarette-smoking was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, 67 participants completed an Internet-based CM intervention and then answered questions about the intervention. Experiment 2 assessed the acceptability of the intervention among potential treatment users (smokers, n = 164), non-smokers (n = 166), and healthcare providers (n = 139), who had never used the intervention. Participants in Experiment 2 were randomly assigned to either watch a video describing the standard CM intervention (No Deposit Group) or to watch a video about the standard intervention plus a deposit incentive (Deposit Group). Overall, results of both experiments indicated high acceptability across all dimensions of the intervention. Seventy-four percent of participants in Experiment 1, and 92% of those in Experiment 2, said they would use it if they needed to quit. Eighty one percent of healthcare providers reported that they would be very likely to recommend the intervention to patients. Participants in both experiments reported that monitoring their progress and earning vouchers were strengths of the intervention. The No Deposit group rated voucher earnings, cash earnings, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention higher than the Deposit Group. Healthcare professionals did not differ in their ratings across video conditions. Overall, the results suggest that Internet-based CM is acceptable as a method to help people quit smoking. PMID:23750691

  4. Willingness to pay for reducing fatal risk by improving air quality: a contingent valuation study in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Mullahy, John

    2006-08-15

    In China, 76% of all energy comes from coal consumption, which is the major cause of air pollution. One of the major barriers to developing sound policies for controlling air pollution is the lack of information related to the value of the health consequences of air pollution. We conducted a willingness-to-pay (WTP) study using contingent valuation (CV) methods in Chongqing, China to estimate the economic value of saving one statistical life through improving air quality. A sample of 500residents was chosen based on multistage sampling methods. A face-to-face household interview was conducted using a series of hypothetical, open-ended scenarios followed by bidding game questions designed to elicit the respondents' WTP for air pollution reduction. The Two-Part Model was used for estimations. The results show that 96% of respondents were able to express their WTP. Their mean annual income is $490. Their WTP to save one statistical life is $34,458. Marginal increases for saving one statistical life is $240 with 1year age increase, $14,434 with 100yuan monthly income increase, and $1590 with 1year education increase. Unlike developed country, clean air may still be considered as a "luxury" good in China based on the estimation of income elasticity.

  5. Project Success Environment: A Positive Contingency Program for Elementary Teachers Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Marion; And Others

    The third year of the project, funded under Elementary Secondary Education Act Title III, was essentially a replication of Year Two. Second Year results indicated that the success technique had provided inner-city teachers with both an effective classroom management system, and an effective program for the acceleration of academic performance.…

  6. Who Needs Contingency Approaches and Guidelines in Order to Adapt Vague Management Ideas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortenblad, Anders

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to question the assumption that the general idea of the learning organisation needs to be adapted to the specific context before it can be put into practical use. It is suggested that there are lots of ways to use management ideas, other than implementing them in the practice of organisations. It is further…

  7. The Use of Contingency Management Techniques--An Applied Classroom Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Dianne Knotts; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Describes a Title I project whose purpose was "to determine if a series of three group and three individual instruction sessions with classroom teachers were adequate to train them in the use of basic behavioral modification techniques, by judging whether or not this instruction was evidenced by their management of children in the classroom."…

  8. Sustainable Contingency Base Camp Operations and Management: Observations in Afghanistan 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-11

    CAMP STAFFING AND TRAINING BUILDING STRONG® MANEUVER ENHANCEMENT BRIGADE – Good!  TF Rushmore (196th MEB) managed Kabul Base Cluster (7 camps...bearing walls or partitions  Thick walls increase R-value and force protection  Electrical wiring uses surface mounted conduit ► Facilitates

  9. Wind Turbine Contingency Control Through Generator De-Rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai; Balas, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbines with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. The contingency control involves de-rating the generator operating point to achieve reduced loads on the wind turbine. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  10. Contingencies for change in complacent smokers.

    PubMed

    Lamb, R J; Morral, Andrew R; Kirby, Kimberly C; Javors, Martin A; Galbicka, Gregory; Iguchi, Martin

    2007-06-01

    The majority of smokers have no plans to quit in the near future. These complacent smokers are less likely to quit than other smokers, and few interventions are known to reduce smoking in this population. Although monetary incentives can reduce complacent smokers' breath carbon monoxide (BCO) levels, it is not clear whether these effects can be sustained beyond the several weeks that past studies have examined. The authors compared complacent smokers randomly assigned to receive incentives for BCO reductions (n=18) or noncontingent incentives (n=19) for 3 months. Contingent incentives were associated with (a) reduced BCO; (b) more BCO samples indicative of abstinence; (c) fewer cigarettes smoked and more days abstinent at study end; and (d) lower salivary cotinine. These behaviors can predict future cessation, and 2 of the 18 smokers (11%) receiving BCO-contingent incentives reported quitting as compared with none in the control group. Contingency management procedures, such as those used here, may effectively promote cessation among complacent smokers and provide a model for understanding the possible effects of some environmental interventions (like workplace smoking bans) on the behavior of complacent smokers.

  11. 48 CFR 2132.770 - Insurance premium payments and special contingency reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and special contingency reserve. 2132.770 Section 2132.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT, FEDERAL EMPLOYEES GROUP LIFE INSURANCE FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... and special contingency reserve. Insurance premium payments and a special contingency reserve are...

  12. Poultry litter moisture management to reduce ammonia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ammonia generation in poultry houses results from the natural breakdown of litter (bedding material mixed with deposits of feces, feathers, spilled feed and water). Good management practices can reduce ammonia concentrations in poultry houses. This factsheet relates findings from a recent publicat...

  13. Examining longitudinal stimulant use and treatment attendance as parallel outcomes in two contingency management randomized clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, Sterling; Brooks, Olivia; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Lederhos, Crystal; Lamp, Amanda; Murphy, Sean; Layton, Matthew; Roll, John

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine stimulant use and longitudinal treatment attendance in one ‘parallel outcomes’ model in order to determine how these two outcomes are related to one another during treatment, and to quantify how the intervention impacts these two on- and off-target outcomes differently. Data came from two multi-site randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of contingency management (CM) that targeted stimulant use. We used parallel multilevel modeling to examine the impact of multiple pre-specified covariates, including selected Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores, age and sex, in addition to CM on concurrent attendance and stimulant use in two separate analyses, i.e., one per trial. In one trial, CM was positively associated with attending treatment throughout the trial (β = 0.060, p < 0.05). In the second trial, CM predicted negative urinalysis (−UA) over the 12-week treatment period (β = 0.069, p < 0.05). In both trials, there was a significant, positive relationship between attendance and −UA submission, but in the first trial a −UA at both baseline and over time was related to attendance over time (r = 0.117; r = 0.013, respectively) and in the second trial, a −UA submission at baseline was associated with increased attendance over time (r = 0.055). These findings indicate that stimulant use and treatment attendance over time are related but distinct outcomes that, when analyzed simultaneously, portray a more informative picture of their predictors and the separate trajectories of each. This ‘indirect reinforcement’ between two clinically meaningful on-target (directly reinforced behavior) and off-target (indirectly reinforced behavior) outcomes is in need of further examination in order to fully exploit the potential clinical benefits that could be realized in substance use disorder treatment trials. PMID:26456717

  14. A Randomized Trial of Computer-Delivered Brief Intervention and Low-Intensity Contingency Management for Smoking During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Svikis, Dace S.; Lam, Phebe K.; Connors-Burge, Veronica S.; Ledgerwood, David M.; Hopper, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Implementation of evidence-based interventions for smoking during pregnancy is challenging. We developed 2 highly replicable interventions for smoking during pregnancy: (a) a computer-delivered 5As-based brief intervention (CD-5As) and (b) a computer-assisted, simplified, and low-intensity contingency management (CM-Lite). Methods: A sample of 110 primarily Black pregnant women reporting smoking in the past week were recruited from prenatal care clinics and randomly assigned to CD-5As (n = 26), CM-Lite (n = 28), CD-5As plus CM-Lite (n = 30), or treatment as usual (n = 26). Self-report of smoking, urine cotinine, and breath CO were measured 10 weeks following randomization. Results: Participants rated both interventions highly (e.g., 87.5% of CD-5As participants reported increases in likelihood of quitting), but most CM-Lite participants did not initiate reinforcement sessions and did not show increased abstinence. CD-5As led to increased abstinence as measured by cotinine (43.5% cotinine negative vs. 17.4%; odds ratio [OR] = 10.1, p = .02) but not for CO-confirmed 7-day point prevalence (30.4% abstinent vs. 8.7%; OR = 5.7, p = .06). Collapsing across CM-Lite status, participants receiving the CD-5As intervention were more likely to talk to a doctor or nurse about their smoking (60.5% vs. 30.8%; OR = 3.0, p = .02). Conclusions: Low-intensity participant-initiated CM did not affect smoking in this sample, but the CD-5As intervention was successful in increasing abstinence during pregnancy. Further research should seek to replicate these results in larger and more diverse samples. Should CD-5As continue to prove efficacious, it could greatly increase the proportion of pregnant smokers who receive an evidence-based brief intervention. PMID:22157229

  15. A randomized factorial trial of disulfiram and contingency management to enhance cognitive behavioral therapy for cocaine dependence.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Kathleen M; Nich, Charla; Petry, Nancy M; Eagan, Dorothy A; Shi, Julia M; Ball, Samuel A

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the extent to which the addition of disulfiram and contingency management for adherence and abstinence (CM), alone and in combination, might enhance the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for cocaine use disorders. Factorial randomized double blind (for medication condition) clinical trial where CBT served as the platform and was delivered in weekly individual sessions in a community-based outpatient clinic. 99 outpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for current cocaine dependence were assigned to receive either disulfiram or placebo, and either CM or no CM. Cocaine and other substance use was assessed via a daily calendar with thrice weekly urine sample testing for 12 weeks with a one-year follow-up (80% interviewed at one year). The primary hypothesis that CM and disulfiram would produce the best cocaine outcomes was not confirmed, nor was there a main effect for disulfiram. For the primary outcome (percent days of abstinence, self report), there was a significant interaction, with the best cocaine outcomes were seen for the combination of CM and placebo, with the two groups assigned to disulfiram associated with intermediate outcomes, and poorest cocaine outcome among those assigned to placebo and no CM. The secondary outcome (urinalysis) indicated a significant effect favoring CM over no CM but the interaction effect was not significant. One year follow-up data indicated sustained treatment effects across conditions. CM enhances outcomes for CBT treatment of cocaine dependence, but disulfiram provided no added benefit to the combination of CM and CBT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Examining Longitudinal Stimulant Use and Treatment Attendance as Parallel Outcomes in Two Contingency Management Randomized Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Sterling; Brooks, Olivia; Barbosa-Leiker, Celestina; Lederhos, Crystal; Lamp, Amanda; Murphy, Sean; Layton, Matthew; Roll, John

    2016-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine stimulant use and longitudinal treatment attendance in one 'parallel outcomes' model in order to determine how these two outcomes are related to one another during treatment, and to quantify how the intervention impacts these two on- and off-target outcomes differently. Data came from two multi-site randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of contingency management (CM) that targeted stimulant use. We used parallel multilevel modeling to examine the impact of multiple pre-specified covariates, including selected Addiction Severity Index (ASI) scores, age and sex, in addition to CM on concurrent attendance and stimulant use in two separate analyses, i.e., one per trial. In one trial, CM was positively associated with attending treatment throughout the trial (β=0.060, p<0.05). In the second trial, CM predicted negative urinalysis ((-)UA) over the 12-week treatment period (β=0.069, p<0.05). In both trials, there was a significant, positive relationship between attendance and (-)UA submission, but in the first trial a (-)UA at both baseline and over time was related to attendance over time (r=0.117; r=0.013, respectively) and in the second trial, a (-)UA submission at baseline was associated with increased attendance over time (r=0.055). These findings indicate that stimulant use and treatment attendance over time are related but distinct outcomes that, when analyzed simultaneously, portray a more informative picture of their predictors and the separate trajectories of each. This 'indirect reinforcement' between two clinically meaningful on-target (directly reinforced behavior) and off-target (indirectly reinforced behavior) outcomes is in need of further examination in order to fully exploit the potential clinical benefits that could be realized in substance use disorder treatment trials.

  17. Community treatment adoption of contingency management: A conceptual profile of U.S. clinics based on innovativeness of executive staff

    PubMed Central

    Hartzler, Bryan; Rabun, Carl

    2012-01-01

    Background Community adoption of contingency management (CM) varies considerably, and executive innovativeness may help explain variance due to its presumed influence on clinic decision-making. Methods Sixteen U.S. opioid treatment programs (OTPs) were visited, with ethnographic interviewing used in casual contacts with executives to inform their eventual classification by study investigators into one of Rogers’ (2003) five adopter categories. Audio-recorded interviews were also conducted individually with the executive and three staff members (N=64) wherein they reported reactions to clinic CM implementation during the prior year, from which study investigators later identified salient excerpts during interview transcript reviews. Results The executive sample was progressive, with 56% classified as innovators or early adopters. Implementation reports and corresponding staff reactions were generally consistent with what might be expected according to diffusion theory. Clinics led by innovators had durably implemented multiple CM applications, for which staff voiced support. Clinics led by early adopters reported CM exposure via research trial participation, with mixed reporting of sustained and discontinued applications and similarly mixed staff views. Clinics led by early majority adopters employed CM selectively for administrative purposes, with staff reticence about its expansion to therapeutic uses. Clinics led by late majority adopters had either deferred or discontinued CM adoption, with typically disenchanted staff views. Clinics led by a laggard executive evidenced no CM exposure and strongly dogmatic staff views against its use. Conclusion Study findings are consistent with diffusion theory precepts, and illustrate pervasive influences of executive innovativeness on clinic practices and staff impressions of implementation experiences. PMID:22940140

  18. Community treatment adoption of contingency management: a conceptual profile of U.S. clinics based on innovativeness of executive staff.

    PubMed

    Hartzler, Bryan; Rabun, Carl

    2013-07-01

    Community adoption of contingency management (CM) varies considerably, and executive innovativeness may help explain variance due to its presumed influence on clinic decision-making. Sixteen U.S. opioid treatment programs (OTPs) were visited, with ethnographic interviewing used in casual contacts with executives to inform their eventual classification by study investigators into one of Rogers' (2003) five adopter categories. Audio-recorded interviews were also conducted individually with the executive and three staff members (N = 64) wherein they reported reactions to clinic CM implementation during the prior year, from which study investigators later identified salient excerpts during interview transcript reviews. The executive sample was progressive, with 56% classified as innovators or early adopters. Implementation reports and corresponding staff reactions were generally consistent with what might be expected according to diffusion theory. Clinics led by innovators had durably implemented multiple CM applications, for which staff voiced support. Clinics led by early adopters reported CM exposure via research trial participation, with mixed reporting of sustained and discontinued applications and similarly mixed staff views. Clinics led by early majority adopters employed CM selectively for administrative purposes, with staff reticence about its expansion to therapeutic uses. Clinics led by late majority adopters had either deferred or discontinued CM adoption, with typically disenchanted staff views. Clinics led by a laggard executive evidenced no CM exposure and strongly dogmatic staff views against its use. Study findings are consistent with diffusion theory precepts, and illustrate pervasive influences of executive innovativeness on clinic practices and staff impressions of implementation experiences. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Counselor Attitudes Toward Contingency Management for Substance Use Disorder: Effectiveness, Acceptability, and Endorsement of Incentives for Treatment Attendance and Abstinence.

    PubMed

    Aletraris, Lydia; Shelton, Jeff S; Roman, Paul M

    2015-10-01

    Despite research demonstrating its effectiveness, use of contingency management (CM) in substance use disorder treatment has been limited. Given the vital role that counselors play as arbiters in the use of therapies, examination of their attitudes can provide insight into how further use of CM might be effectively promoted. In this paper, we examine 731 counselors' attitudes toward the effectiveness and acceptability of CM in treatment, as well as their specific attitudes toward both unspecified and tangible incentives for treatment attendance and abstinence. Compared to cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, and community reinforcement approach, counselors rated CM as the least effective and least acceptable psychosocial intervention. Exposure through the use of CM in a counselor's employing organization was positively associated with perceptions of acceptability, agreement that incentives have a positive effect on the client-counselor relationship, and endorsement of tangible incentives for abstinence. Endorsement of tangible incentives for treatment attendance was significantly greater among counselors with more years in the treatment field, and counselors who held at least a master's degree. Counselors' adaptability or openness to innovations was also positively associated with attitudes toward CM. Further, female counselors and counselors with a greater 12-step philosophy were less likely to endorse the use of incentives. A highlight of our study is that it offers the first specific assessment of the impact of "Promoting Awareness of Motivational Incentives" (PAMI), a Web-based tool based on findings of CM protocols tested within the Clinical Trials Network (CTN), on counselors employed outside the CTN. We found that 10% of counselors had accessed PAMI, and those who had accessed PAMI were more likely to report a higher degree of perceived effectiveness of CM than those who had not. This study lays the groundwork for vital research on the

  20. Blunted striatal response to monetary reward anticipation during smoking abstinence predicts lapse during a contingency-managed quit attempt

    PubMed Central

    Sweitzer, Maggie M.; Geier, Charles F.; Denlinger, Rachel; Forbes, Erika E.; Raiff, Bethany R.; Dallery, Jesse; McClernon, F.J.; Donny, Eric C.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale Tobacco smoking is associated with dysregulated reward processing within the striatum, characterized by hypersensitivity to smoking rewards and hyposensitivity to non-smoking rewards. This bias toward smoking reward at the expense of alternative rewards is further exacerbated by deprivation from smoking, which may contribute to difficulty maintaining abstinence during a quit attempt. Objective We examined whether abstinence-induced changes in striatal processing of rewards predicted lapse likelihood during a quit attempt supported by contingency management (CM), in which abstinence from smoking was reinforced with money. Methods Thirty-six non-treatment seeking smokers participated in two fMRI sessions, one following 24-hr abstinence and one following smoking as usual. During each scan, participants completed a rewarded guessing task designed to elicit striatal activation in which they could earn smoking and monetary rewards delivered after the scan. Participants then engaged in a 3-week CM-supported quit attempt. Results As previously reported, 24-hr abstinence was associated with increased striatal activation in anticipation of smoking reward and decreased activation in anticipation of monetary reward. Individuals exhibiting greater decrements in right striatal activation to monetary reward during abstinence (controlling for activation during non-abstinence) were more likely to lapse during CM (p<.05), even when controlling for other predictors of lapse outcome (e.g., craving); no association was seen for smoking reward. Conclusions These results are consistent with a growing number of studies indicating the specific importance of disrupted striatal processing of non-drug reward in nicotine dependence, and highlight the importance of individual differences in abstinence-induced deficits in striatal function for smoking cessation. PMID:26660448

  1. Blunted striatal response to monetary reward anticipation during smoking abstinence predicts lapse during a contingency-managed quit attempt.

    PubMed

    Sweitzer, Maggie M; Geier, Charles F; Denlinger, Rachel; Forbes, Erika E; Raiff, Bethany R; Dallery, Jesse; McClernon, F J; Donny, Eric C

    2016-03-01

    Tobacco smoking is associated with dysregulated reward processing within the striatum, characterized by hypersensitivity to smoking rewards and hyposensitivity to non-smoking rewards. This bias toward smoking reward at the expense of alternative rewards is further exacerbated by deprivation from smoking, which may contribute to difficulty maintaining abstinence during a quit attempt. We examined whether abstinence-induced changes in striatal processing of rewards predicted lapse likelihood during a quit attempt supported by contingency management (CM), in which abstinence from smoking was reinforced with money. Thirty-six non-treatment-seeking smokers participated in two functional MRI (fMRI) sessions, one following 24-h abstinence and one following smoking as usual. During each scan, participants completed a rewarded guessing task designed to elicit striatal activation in which they could earn smoking and monetary rewards delivered after the scan. Participants then engaged in a 3-week CM-supported quit attempt. As previously reported, 24-h abstinence was associated with increased striatal activation in anticipation of smoking reward and decreased activation in anticipation of monetary reward. Individuals exhibiting greater decrements in right striatal activation to monetary reward during abstinence (controlling for activation during non-abstinence) were more likely to lapse during CM (p < 0.025), even when controlling for other predictors of lapse outcome (e.g., craving); no association was seen for smoking reward. These results are consistent with a growing number of studies indicating the specific importance of disrupted striatal processing of non-drug reward in nicotine dependence and highlight the importance of individual differences in abstinence-induced deficits in striatal function for smoking cessation.

  2. A public health response to the methamphetamine epidemic: the implementation of contingency management to treat methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Shoptaw, Steven; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Reback, Cathy J; Tierney, Stephen; Stansell, John; Hare, C Bradley; Gibson, Steven; Siever, Michael; King, William D; Kao, Uyen; Dang, Jeffrey

    2006-08-18

    In response to increases in methamphatemine-associated sexually transmitted diseases, the San Francisco Department of Public Health implemented a contingency management (CM) field program called the Positive Reinforcement Opportunity Project (PROP). Methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) in San Francisco qualified for PROP following expressed interest in the program, provision of an observed urine sample that tested positive for methamphetamine metabolites and self-report of recent methamphetamine use. For 12 weeks, PROP participants provided observed urine samples on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays and received vouchers of increasing value for each consecutive sample that tested negative to metabolites of methamphetamine. Vouchers were exchanged for goods and services that promoted a healthy lifestyle. No cash was provided. Primary outcomes included acceptability (number of enrollments/time), impact (clinical response to treatment and cost-effectiveness as cost per patient treated). Enrollment in PROP was brisk indicating its acceptability. During the first 10 months of operation, 143 men sought treatment and of these 77.6% were HIV-infected. Of those screened, 111 began CM treatment and averaged 15 (42%) methamphetamine-free urine samples out of a possible 36 samples during the 12-week treatment period; 60% completed 4 weeks of treatment; 48% 8 weeks and 30% 12 weeks. Across all participants, an average of $159 (SD = $165) in vouchers or 35.1% of the maximum possible ($453) was provided for these participants. The average cost per participant of the 143 treated was $800. Clinical responses to CM in PROP were similar to CM delivered in drug treatment programs, supporting the adaptability and effectiveness of CM to non-traditional drug treatment settings. Costs were reasonable and less than or comparable to other methamphetamine outpatient treatment programs. Further expansion of programs like PROP could address the increasing need for acceptable

  3. Follow-up treatment effects of contingency management and motivational interviewing on substance use: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sayegh, Caitlin S; Huey, Stanley J; Zara, Erica J; Jhaveri, Kinnari

    2017-06-01

    Motivation is an integral factor in substance use treatment and long-term recovery. However, it is unclear what role intrinsic and extrinsic motivation play across different treatment modalities. A meta-analysis (N = 84) was performed to estimate the pooled effect size of Motivational Interviewing (MI; primarily targeting intrinsic motivation) and contingency management (CM; primarily targeting extrinsic motivation) at different follow-up periods. Collapsed across all substance types, CM had a significant effect at 3-month follow-up, only. In contrast, MI had a significant effect at 6-month follow-up, only. CM had small and medium effects on multiple substances at 3-month follow-up (i.e., tobacco, marijuana, stimulants, polysubstances), but not at 6-month follow-up. MI had 1 significant medium effect at 3-month follow-up (i.e., marijuana), but several significant small effects at 6-month follow-up (i.e., alcohol, tobacco, polysubstances). This meta-analysis suggests that both CM and MI promote reductions in a range of substances, even several months after the intervention concludes. Further, these results provide some evidence that extrinsically focused CM may produce medium follow-up effects in the short run, but intrinsically focused MI may produce small but durable follow-up effects. However, this interpretation is complicated by the differences between the MI and CM studies that preclude statistical tests comparing effect sizes, and few studies assessed motivation itself. Future researchers should investigate how motivational dynamics impact lasting outcomes in substance use treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. A review of the literature on contingency management in the treatment of substance use disorders, 2009–2014

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Danielle R.; Kurti, Allison N.; Skelly, Joan M.; Redner, Ryan; White, Thomas J.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2017-01-01

    This report describes a systematic literature review of voucher and related monetary-based contingency management (CM) interventions for substance use disorders (SUDs) over 5.2 years (November 2009 through December 2014). Reports were identified using the search engine PubMed, expert consultations, and published bibliographies. For inclusion, reports had to (a) involve monetary-based CM; (b) appear in a peer-reviewed journal; (c) include an experimental comparison condition; (d) describe an original study; (e) assess efficacy using inferential statistics; (f) use a research design allowing treatment effects to be attributed to CM. Sixty-nine reports met inclusion criteria and were categorized into 7 research trends: (1) extending CM to special populations, (2) parametric studies, (3) extending CM to community clinics, (4) combining CM with pharmacotherapies, (5) incorporating technology into CM, (6) investigating longer-term outcomes, (7) using CM as a research tool. The vast majority (59/69, 86%) of studies reported significant (p < 0.05) during-treatment effects. Twenty-eight (28/59, 47%) of those studies included at least one follow-up visit after CM was discontinued, with eight (8/28, 29%) reporting significant (p < 0.05) effects. Average effect size (Cohen’s d) during treatment was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.70) and post-treatment it was 0.26 (95% CI: 0.11, 0.41). Overall, the literature on voucher-based CM over the past 5 years documents sustained growth, high treatment efficacy, moderate to large effect sizes during treatment that weaken but remain evident following treatment termination, and breadth across a diverse set of SUDs, populations, and settings consistent with and extending results from prior reviews. PMID:27514250

  5. An Evidence-based Approach to Developing a Management Strategy for Medical Contingencies on the Lunar Surface: The NASA/Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation at Devon Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chappell, S.; Rafiq, A.; Braham, S.; Hodgson, E.; Sullivan, P.; Wilkinson, N.; Bach, D.; Torney, S.

    2007-01-01

    The lunar architecture for future sortie and outpost missions will require humans to serve on the lunar surface considerably longer than the Apollo moon missions. Although the Apollo crewmembers sustained few injuries during their brief lunar surface activity, injuries did occur and are a concern for the longer lunar stays. Interestingly, lunar medical contingency plans were not developed during Apollo. In order to develop an evidence-base for handling a medical contingency on the lunar surface, a simulation using the moon-Mars analog environment at Devon Island, Nunavut, high Canadian Arctic was conducted. Objectives of this study included developing an effective management strategy for dealing with an incapacitated crewmember on the lunar surface, establishing audio/visual and biomedical data connectivity to multiple centers, testing rescue/extraction hardware and procedures, and evaluating in suit increased oxygen consumption. Methods: A review of the Apollo lunar surface activities and personal communications with Apollo lunar crewmembers provided the knowledge base of plausible scenarios that could potentially injure an astronaut during a lunar extravehicular activity (EVA). Objectives were established to demonstrate stabilization and transfer of an injured crewmember and communication with ground controllers at multiple mission control centers. Results: The project objectives were successfully achieved during the simulation. Among these objectives were extraction from a sloped terrain by a two-member crew in a 1 g analog environment, establishing real-time communication to multiple centers, providing biomedical data to flight controllers and crewmembers, and establishing a medical diagnosis and treatment plan from a remote site. Discussion: The simulation provided evidence for the types of equipment and methods for performing extraction of an injured crewmember from a sloped terrain. Additionally, the necessary communications infrastructure to connect

  6. An Evidence-based Approach to Developing a Management Strategy for Medical Contingencies on the Lunar Surface: The NASA/Haughton-Mars Project (HMP) 2006 Lunar Medical Contingency Simulation at Devon Island

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, R. A.; Jones, J. A.; Lee, P.; Comtois, J. M.; Chappell, S.; Rafiq, A.; Braham, S.; Hodgson, E.; Sullivan, P.; Wilkinson, N.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The lunar architecture for future sortie and outpost missions will require humans to serve on the lunar surface considerably longer than the Apollo moon missions. Although the Apollo crewmembers sustained few injuries during their brief lunar surface activity, injuries did occur and are a concern for the longer lunar stays. Interestingly, lunar medical contingency plans were not developed during Apollo. In order to develop an evidence-base for handling a medical contingency on the lunar surface, a simulation using the moon-Mars analog environment at Devon Island, Nunavut, high Canadian Arctic was conducted. Objectives of this study included developing an effective management strategy for dealing with an incapacitated crewmember on the lunar surface, establishing audio/visual and biomedical data connectivity to multiple centers, testing rescue/extraction hardware and procedures, and evaluating in suit increased oxygen consumption. Methods: A review of the Apollo lunar surface activities and personal communications with Apollo lunar crewmembers provided the knowledge base of plausible scenarios that could potentially injure an astronaut during a lunar extravehicular activity (EVA). Objectives were established to demonstrate stabilization and transfer of an injured crewmember and communication with ground controllers at multiple mission control centers. Results: The project objectives were successfully achieved during the simulation. Among these objectives were extraction from a sloped terrain by a two-member crew in a 1 g analog environment, establishing real-time communication to multiple centers, providing biomedical data to flight controllers and crewmembers, and establishing a medical diagnosis and treatment plan from a remote site. Discussion: The simulation provided evidence for the types of equipment and methods for performing extraction of an injured crewmember from a sloped terrain. Additionally, the necessary communications infrastructure to connect

  7. Behavioral contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Mechner, Francis

    2008-06-01

    This paper presents a formal symbolic language, with its own specialized vocabulary and grammar, for codifying any behavioral contingency, including the complex multiparty contingencies encountered in law, economics, business, public affairs, sociology, education, and psychotherapy. This language specifies the "if, then" and temporal relationships between acts and their consequences for the parties involved. It provides for the notation of the probabilities, magnitudes, positive or negative valences, or time delays of the consequences for the parties, and for the parties that would perceive, misperceive, not perceive, predict, mispredict, or not predict events. The language's fractal-like hierarchical and recursive grammar provides for the flexible combination and permutation of the modifiers of the language's four nouns: acts, consequences, time intervals, and agents of acts; and its four verbs: consequate, prevent, perceive, and predict-thereby giving the language the ability to describe and codify various nuances of such complex contingencies as fraud, betting, blackmail, various types of games, theft, crime and punishment, contracts, family dynamics, racing, competition, mutual deterrence, feuding, bargaining, deception, borrowing, insurance, elections, global warming, tipping for service, vigilance, sexual overtures, decision making, and mistaken identity. Applications to the management of practical situations and techniques for doing so, as well as applications in current behavior analysis research and neuroscience, are discussed.

  8. The Use of Contingency Management and Motivational/Skills-Building Therapy to Treat Young Adults with Marijuana Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Easton, Caroline J.; Nich, Charla; Hunkele, Karen A.; Neavins, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Ford, Haley L.; Vitolo, Sally A.; Doebrick, Cheryl A.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2006-01-01

    Marijuana-dependent young adults (N = 136), all referred by the criminal justice system, were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: a motivational/skills-building intervention (motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy; MET/CBT) plus incentives contingent on session attendance or submission of marijuana-free urine…

  9. The Use of Contingency Management and Motivational/Skills-Building Therapy to Treat Young Adults with Marijuana Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Easton, Caroline J.; Nich, Charla; Hunkele, Karen A.; Neavins, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Ford, Haley L.; Vitolo, Sally A.; Doebrick, Cheryl A.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.

    2006-01-01

    Marijuana-dependent young adults (N = 136), all referred by the criminal justice system, were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment conditions: a motivational/skills-building intervention (motivational enhancement therapy/cognitive-behavioral therapy; MET/CBT) plus incentives contingent on session attendance or submission of marijuana-free urine…

  10. Contingency management is effective in promoting abstinence and retention in treatment among crack cocaine users in Brazil: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Miguel, André Q C; Madruga, Clarice S; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo; Yamauchi, Rodolfo; Simões, Viviane; da Silva, Claudio J; McPherson, Sterling; Roll, John M; Laranjeira, Ronaldo R

    2016-08-01

    Crack cocaine dependence has become a severe public health problem in Brazil, and current psychosocial approaches to this problem have shown little or no effectiveness. Although contingency management is among the most effective behavioral treatments for substance use disorders, it has never been applied in the treatment of crack cocaine-dependent individuals in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of incorporating contingency management into standard outpatient treatment for crack cocaine dependence, as well as the impact that doing so has on treatment attendance, retention in treatment, maintenance of abstinence, and the frequency of substance use. We evaluated 65 treatment-seeking, crack cocaine-dependent individuals, randomized to receive 12 weeks of standard treatment plus contingency management (STCM; n = 33) or 12 weeks of standard treatment alone (STA; n = 32). Those in the STCM group received monetary incentives for being abstinent, earning up to US$235.50 if they remained abstinent throughout the entire treatment period. The STCM group participants attended a mean of 19.5 (SD = 14.9) treatment sessions, compared with 3.7 (SD = 5.9) for the STA group participants (p < .01). Those in the STCM group were 3.8, 4.6, and 68.9 times more likely to be retained in treatment at weeks 4, 8, and 12 than were those in the STA group. The likelihood of detecting 4, 8, and 12 weeks of continuous abstinence was 17.7, 9.9, and 18.6 times higher in the STCM group than in the STA group (p < .05). Compared to the STA group, the STCM group submitted a significantly higher proportion of negative samples for crack cocaine, delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and alcohol (p < .001) when all expected samples were included in the denominator but not when only submitted samples were considered. The average monthly cost/participant for incentives was $29.00. Contingency management showed efficacy in a sample of Brazilian crack cocaine users. The intervention holds

  11. 48 CFR 1632.770 - Contingency reserve payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... payments. 1632.770 Section 1632.770 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... FINANCING Contract Funding 1632.770 Contingency reserve payments. (a) Payments from the contingency reserve... time for a payment from the contingency reserve that is in addition to those amounts, if any, paid...

  12. The Outsourced/Contingent Workforce: Abuse, Threat, or Blessing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jette, Karen D.; Dixon, Clay-Edward

    1998-01-01

    Examines reasons for hiring contingent employees or outsourcing vendor services in libraries, as well as disadvantages of contingent employees. Considers the issue of exploitation. Explores the extent to which contingent employees are a part of the organizational structure, and discusses effective management for positive outcomes and ways to…

  13. How much are Ecuadorians Willing to Pay to Reduce Maternal Mortality? Results from a Pilot Study on Contingent Valuation

    PubMed Central

    Roldós, María Isabel; Corso, Phaedra; Ingels, Justin

    2017-01-01

    Context: There is an established association between the provision of health care services and maternal mortality. In Ecuador, little is known if the societal value is greater than the resources expended in preventive medicine. Aims: The purpose of this research is to investigate Ecuadorians’ willingness to pay to prevent maternal death and disabilities due to complications of care during childbirth in the context of universal coverage. Methods and Materials: The study elicited a “contingent” market on morbidity and mortality outcomes, specific to Ecuador’s epidemiologic profiles between a hypothetical market that included a 50% reduction in the risk of maternal mortality from 100 to 50 per 100,000, and a market that included a 50% reduction in the risk of maternal morbidity from 4,000 to 2,000 per 100,000. Results: The average amount participants are willing to pay (WTP) to prevent maternal mortality in the context of universal coverage, was $176 a year (95% CI=$172, $179). The unadjusted mean WTP for a reduction in the maternal morbidity risk was $135 (95% CI=$132, $139). Translated into Value of statistical Life, participant´s from this study valued the prevention of one statistical maternal death at USD $352,000. Conclusion: Results suggest that the costs of maternal care do not outweigh the benefit of prevention, and that Ecuadorians are willing to pay a significant amount to reduce the risk of maternal mortality. Global Health Implications: Reduction of maternal mortality will remain an important global developmental goal in the upcoming years. Having a monetary approximation on the value of these losses may have important implications in the allotting financial and technical resources to reduce it. PMID:28058202

  14. Hanford Facility contingency plan

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, L.N.; Miskho, A.G.; Brunke, R.C.

    1993-10-01

    The Hanford Facility Contingency Plan, together with each TSD unit-specific contingency plan, meets the WAC 173-303 requirements for a contingency plan. This plan includes descriptions of responses to a nonradiological hazardous materials spill or release at Hanford Facility locations not covered by TSD unit-specific contingency plans or building emergency plans. This plan includes descriptions of responses for spills or releases as a result of transportation activities, movement of materials, packaging, and storage of hazardous materials.

  15. Motivating physician behaviour change: social influence versus financial contingencies.

    PubMed

    Goodpastor, W A; Montoya, I D

    1996-01-01

    The recent development of clinical practice heuristics is a logical consequence of outcomes and effectiveness research. Proponents of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) believe they will lower costs, enhance quality, and reduce the incidence of malpractice claims. Although the process for generating CPGs appears relatively uncomplicated, guidelines alone do not produce lasting changes in physician behaviour. Discusses strategies for implementing CPGs based on the various factors that influence physician behaviour. Recommends direct behaviour management strategy based on financial contingencies.

  16. Fisheries management to reduce contaminant consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Stow, C.A.; Jackson, L.J.; Eby, L.A.

    1995-12-01

    Lake Michigan is a microcosm of global environmental issues. A history of problems has plagued the lake, arising from the wide range of human activities the basin supports. Much of Lake Michigan`s watershed is agriculturally developed, and the shoreline is dotted with major urban, industrial centers. The lake has supported important commercial shipping and fishing industries for more than a century. In the 1960s and 1970s eutrophication was a concern. More recently toxic contaminants, particularly PCBs, and invasions by exotic species, such as the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), have captured headlines. More than 200 years of development and exploitation have taken Lake Michigan far from a pristine state. The Lake Michigan fishery in intensively managed, and food web manipulation may more effectively reduce PCB exposure than cleanup activities do. Four management options are discussed in this article: trophic cascade; growth maximization; size of stocked fish; and selective species stocking. The most promising option, well supported by data is in many ways the simplist: selective stocking of species that accumulate contaminants at the lowest levels. 51 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Visual analytics for power grid contingency analysis.

    PubMed

    Pak Chung Wong; Zhenyu Huang; Yousu Chen; Mackey, Patrick; Shuangshuang Jin

    2014-01-01

    Contingency analysis employs different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to any threats. A proposed visual-analytics pipeline for power grid management can transform approximately 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form. Grid operators can examine individual scenarios and devise preventive or mitigation strategies in a timely manner. Power grid engineers have applied the pipeline to a Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model.

  18. Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-14

    The Dynamic Contingency Analysis Tool (DCAT) is an open-platform and publicly available methodology to help develop applications that aim to improve the capabilities of power system planning engineers to assess the impact and likelihood of extreme contingencies and potential cascading events across their systems and interconnections. Outputs from the DCAT will help find mitigation solutions to reduce the risk of cascading outages in technically sound and effective ways. The current prototype DCAT implementation has been developed as a Python code that accesses the simulation functions of the Siemens PSS/E planning tool (PSS/E). It has the following features: It uses a hybrid dynamic and steady-state approach to simulating the cascading outage sequences that includes fast dynamic and slower steady-state events. It integrates dynamic models with protection scheme models for generation, transmission, and load. It models special protection systems (SPSs)/remedial action schemes (RASs) and automatic and manual corrective actions. Overall, the DCAT attempts to bridge multiple gaps in cascading-outage analysis in a single, unique prototype tool capable of automatically simulating and analyzing cascading sequences in real systems using multiprocessor computers.While the DCAT has been implemented using PSS/E in Phase I of the study, other commercial software packages with similar capabilities can be used within the DCAT framework.

  19. Computing contingency statistics in parallel.

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, Janine Camille; Thompson, David; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Statistical analysis is typically used to reduce the dimensionality of and infer meaning from data. A key challenge of any statistical analysis package aimed at large-scale, distributed data is to address the orthogonal issues of parallel scalability and numerical stability. Many statistical techniques, e.g., descriptive statistics or principal component analysis, are based on moments and co-moments and, using robust online update formulas, can be computed in an embarrassingly parallel manner, amenable to a map-reduce style implementation. In this paper we focus on contingency tables, through which numerous derived statistics such as joint and marginal probability, point-wise mutual information, information entropy, and {chi}{sup 2} independence statistics can be directly obtained. However, contingency tables can become large as data size increases, requiring a correspondingly large amount of communication between processors. This potential increase in communication prevents optimal parallel speedup and is the main difference with moment-based statistics where the amount of inter-processor communication is independent of data size. Here we present the design trade-offs which we made to implement the computation of contingency tables in parallel.We also study the parallel speedup and scalability properties of our open source implementation. In particular, we observe optimal speed-up and scalability when the contingency statistics are used in their appropriate context, namely, when the data input is not quasi-diffuse.

  20. The Effects of Reduced Cigarette Smoking on Discounting Future Rewards: An Initial Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Richard; Johnson, Matthew W.; Giordano, Louis A.; Landes, Reid D.; Badger, Gary J.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether reduction of smoking via contingency management in dependent smokers would decrease the discounting of delayed reinforcers compared with smokers who did not reduce their smoking, moderate to heavy cigarette smokers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a contingency management condition and a control condition. In…

  1. The Effects of Reduced Cigarette Smoking on Discounting Future Rewards: An Initial Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Richard; Johnson, Matthew W.; Giordano, Louis A.; Landes, Reid D.; Badger, Gary J.; Bickel, Warren K.

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether reduction of smoking via contingency management in dependent smokers would decrease the discounting of delayed reinforcers compared with smokers who did not reduce their smoking, moderate to heavy cigarette smokers were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: a contingency management condition and a control condition. In…

  2. Combining cognitive behavioral therapy and contingency management to enhance their effects in treating cannabis dependence: less can be more, more or less

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; LaPaglia, Donna M.; Peters, Erica N.; Easton, Caroline J.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To evaluate reciprocal enhancement (combining treatments to offset their relative weaknesses) as a strategy to improve cannabis treatment outcomes. Contingency management (CM) with reinforcement for homework completion and session attendance was used as a strategy to enhance cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) via greater exposure to skills training; CBT was used as a strategy to enhance durability of CM with rewards for abstinence. Setting Community-based out-patient treatment program in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Design Twelve-week randomized clinical trial of four treatment conditions: CM for abstinence alone or combined with CBT, CBT alone or combined with CM with rewards for CBT session attendance and homework completion. Participants A total of 127 treatment-seeking young adults (84.3% male, 81.1% minority, 93.7% referred by criminal justice system, average age 25.7 years). Measurements Weekly urine specimens testing positive for cannabis, days of cannabis use via the time-line follow-back method. Findings Within treatment, reinforcing homework and attendance did not significantly improve CBT outcomes, and the addition of CBT worsened outcomes when added to CM for abstinence (75.5 versus 57.1% cannabis-free urine specimens, F = 2.25, P = 0.02). The CM for abstinence condition had the lowest percentage of cannabis-negative urine specimens and the highest mean number of consecutive cannabis-free urine specimens (3.3, F = 2.33, P = 0.02). Attrition was higher in the CBT alone condition, but random effect regression analyses indicated this condition was associated with the greatest rate of change overall. Cannabis use during the 1-year follow-up increased most rapidly for the two enhanced groups. Conclusions Combining contingency management and cognitive–behavioural therapy does not appear to improve success rates of treatment for cannabis dependence in clients involved with the criminal justice system. PMID:22404223

  3. Combining cognitive behavioral therapy and contingency management to enhance their effects in treating cannabis dependence: less can be more, more or less.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Kathleen M; Nich, Charla; Lapaglia, Donna M; Peters, Erica N; Easton, Caroline J; Petry, Nancy M

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate reciprocal enhancement (combining treatments to offset their relative weaknesses) as a strategy to improve cannabis treatment outcomes. Contingency management (CM) with reinforcement for homework completion and session attendance was used as a strategy to enhance cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) via greater exposure to skills training; CBT was used as a strategy to enhance durability of CM with rewards for abstinence. Community-based out-patient treatment program in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. Twelve-week randomized clinical trial of four treatment conditions: CM for abstinence alone or combined with CBT, CBT alone or combined with CM with rewards for CBT session attendance and homework completion. A total of 127 treatment-seeking young adults (84.3% male, 81.1% minority, 93.7% referred by criminal justice system, average age 25.7 years). Weekly urine specimens testing positive for cannabis, days of cannabis use via the time-line follow-back method. Within treatment, reinforcing homework and attendance did not significantly improve CBT outcomes, and the addition of CBT worsened outcomes when added to CM for abstinence (75.5 versus 57.1% cannabis-free urine specimens, F = 2.25, P = 0.02). The CM for abstinence condition had the lowest percentage of cannabis-negative urine specimens and the highest mean number of consecutive cannabis-free urine specimens (3.3, F = 2.33, P = 0.02). Attrition was higher in the CBT alone condition, but random effect regression analyses indicated this condition was associated with the greatest rate of change overall. Cannabis use during the 1-year follow-up increased most rapidly for the two enhanced groups. Combining contingency management and cognitive-behavioural therapy does not appear to improve success rates of treatment for cannabis dependence in clients involved with the criminal justice system. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. An Economic Evaluation of a Contingency-Management Intervention for Stimulant Use among Community Mental Health Patients with Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sean M.; McDonell, Michael G.; McPherson, Sterling; Srebnik, Debra; Angelo, Frank; Roll, John M.; Ries, Richard K.

    2015-01-01

    Background This study examines the cost-effectiveness of contingency-management (CM) for stimulant dependence among community mental health patients with serious mental illness (SMI). Methods Economic evaluation of a 12-week randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy of CM added to treatment-as-usual (CM+TAU), relative to TAU without CM, for treating stimulant dependence among patients with a SMI. The trial included 176 participants diagnosed with SMI and stimulant dependency who were receiving community mental health and addiction treatment at one community mental health center in Seattle, Washington. Participants were also assessed during a 12-week follow-up period. Positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) scores were used to calculate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for the primary economic outcome. The primary clinical outcome, the stimulant-free year (SFY) is a weighted measure of time free from stimulants. Two perspectives were adopted, those of the provider and the payer. Results At 12-weeks neither the provider ($2,652, p=.74) nor the payer ($2,611, p=.99) cost differentials were statistically significant. This was also true for the payer at 24-weeks (-$125, p=1.00). QALYs gained were similar across groups, resulting in small, insignificant differences (0.04, p=0.23 at 12-weeks; .01, p=0.70 at 24 weeks). CM+TAU experienced significantly more SFYs, 0.24 (p<0.001) at 12 weeks and 0.20 (p=0.002) at 24 weeks, resulting in at least an 85% chance of being considered cost-effective at a threshold of $200,000/SFY. Conclusion Contingency management appears to be a wise investment for both the provider and the payer with regard to the clinical outcome of time free from stimulants. PMID:26026494

  5. Oil spill contingency planning

    SciTech Connect

    Kip, S.H. )

    1988-01-01

    Oil spill contingency planning is an essential feature required in present day activities involving oil and gas exploration, production and transportation. A well through out continency plan will not only eliminate or minimize the sense of panic, normally associated with oil spill emergency, but also can minimize damage and cost involved. Oil spill contingency planning is a process of predetermining a response to an oil spill emergency. The process of preparing a contingency plan is discussed in this paper.

  6. Marine Corps Contingency Contracting MCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-12-01

    unfamiliar, such as, foreign business practices, cultures, and language barriers . The importance of having a trained contingency contracting officer...practices, cultures, and language barriers . D. WHO PERFORMS CONTINGENCY CONTRACTING The individuals who perform contingency contracting within the

  7. A tabletop exercise to assess a hospital emergency blood management contingency plan in a simulated acute blood shortage.

    PubMed

    Galloway, M J; Jane, G; Sudlow, L; Trattles, J; Watson, J

    2008-10-01

    The objective was to assess both our local plan and the assumptions made in the national guidelines on how laboratories should prepare for an acute shortage of red cells. The Chief Medical Officer's National Blood Transfusion Committee for England and North Wales has issued guidance on how hospitals should prepare contingency plans to deal with a shortage of red cells for transfusion. This study has therefore assessed the practicalities of these proposals together with assessing how well local policies would deal with this situation. A tabletop exercise was carried out in which all requests over a 21-day period were assessed. The restrictions as suggested by the national blood transfusion committee were applied and the impact on the blood stocks during an acute blood shortage was assessed. The results show that application of the national guidelines on the restriction of the use of red cells during an acute blood shortage resulted in all transfusion requests for red cells being met. We also appear to have shown that the assumptions made by the national transfusion team are realistic. Carrying out a tabletop exercise is a useful method to assess local procedures for dealing with an acute reduction in the supply of red cells.

  8. The economic value of conjoint local management in water resources: Results from a contingent valuation in the Boquerón aquifer (Albacete, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Rupérez-Moreno, Carmen; Pérez-Sánchez, Julio; Senent-Aparicio, Javier; del Pilar Flores-Asenjo, Maria

    2015-11-01

    In the field of water resources management, the Water Framework Directive is the first directive to adopt an ecosystem approach, establishing principles and economic tools for an integrated management of water resources to protect, conserve and restore all water bodies. The incorporation of local authorities in this management involves quality benefits that are perceived by users in an effective and lasting way. The purpose of this paper is to present the economic value of the environmental recovery of the overexploited Boquerón aquifer in Hellín (Albacete, SE Spain) and all of its associated ecosystems. This aquifer operates as a regulating reservoir for the surface waters of the Hellín Canal. The contingent valuation method (CVM) applied in this environmental assessment of the aquifer showed that its non-use value was €147,470 per year, due to the high environmental awareness of the Hellín people, which is enough to ensure the survival of the ecosystems linked to the aquifer.

  9. A Comparison of Cost and Reward Procedures With Interdependent Group Contingencies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathryn; Penrod, Becky; Price, Jenifer N

    2016-06-07

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of two variations of a token economy for reducing disruptive behavior within a general education classroom. One variation involved a group contingency in which tokens were removed contingent on disruptive behavior (response cost), and the other variation involved a group contingency in which tokens were gained according to a differential reinforcement of other behavior schedule. Two elementary school teachers and their students participated. Results indicated that both procedures were effective in reducing the overall number of students disrupting; however, both teachers and students indicated a greater preference for the response cost condition. Implications for the use of these behavior management strategies in the classroom are discussed in terms of effectiveness and ease of implementation.

  10. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Wilfred M; Venterea, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as they relate to North America-wide budgeting and future projection of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Understanding the current magnitude and providing guidance on the future trajectories of atmospheric concentrations of these gases requires investigation of their (i) biogeochemical origins, (ii) response to climate feedbacks and other environmental factors, and (iii) susceptibility to management practices. This special issue provides a group of articles that present the current state of continental scale sources and sinks of biogenic GHGs and the potential to better manage them in the future.

  11. Contingent valuation study of the value of reducing fire hazards to old-growth forests in the Pacific northwest. Forest Service research paper

    SciTech Connect

    Loomis, J.B.; Gonzalez-Caban, A.; Gregory, R.

    1996-07-01

    A contingent valuation methodology was applied to old-growth forests and critical habitat units for the Northern Spotted Owl in Oregon to esimate the economic value to the public in knowing that rare and unique ecosystems will be protected from fire for current and future generations. Generalizing to the whole state, the total annual willingness-to-pay of Oregon residents ranges from $49.6 to $99 million. In terms of old-growth forests protected from fire, the value is $28 per acre.

  12. A Review of the Use of Group Contingencies in Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorski, Elizabeth A.; Barton, Erin E.; Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    Individual contingency management systems have been used successfully to improve behaviors in school settings--including preschools--but often come with associated challenges in time and personnel management. Group contingencies, in the form of independent, interdependent, and dependent contingencies, have been used in preschools to address these…

  13. A Review of the Use of Group Contingencies in Preschool Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorski, Elizabeth A.; Barton, Erin E.; Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2017-01-01

    Individual contingency management systems have been used successfully to improve behaviors in school settings--including preschools--but often come with associated challenges in time and personnel management. Group contingencies, in the form of independent, interdependent, and dependent contingencies, have been used in preschools to address these…

  14. Aeromedical Evacuation Contingency Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-19

    S~ -(Unclassified Paper) . S~DTIC_ EECTE lmU~ JUL2 819921 i•I NAVAL WAR COLLEGE Newport, R.I. 3JUL AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION CONTINGENCY PLANNING by...ACCESSION INO. I𔃻. TITLE (kKInd Security ClOSSificAtICIA AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION CONTINGENCY PLANNING ( ) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Schwartz, Rudolh Carl, Jr...8217 are obsolete U.G eawnP൓ ofW 118401 0102-LF-014-6602 Abstract of AEROMEDICAL EVACUATION CONTINGENCY PLANNING Aeromedical evacuation is an element of

  15. The acceptability and feasibility of the Positive Reinforcement Opportunity Project, a community-based contingency management methamphetamine treatment program for gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Strona, Frank V; McCright, Jacque; Hjord, Hanna; Ahrens, Katherine; Tierney, Steven; Shoptaw, Steven; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2006-11-01

    The Positive Reinforcement Opportunity Project (PROP) was a pilot program developed to build on the efficacy of contingency management (CM) using positive reinforcement to address the treatment needs of gay and bisexual men currently using crystal methamphetamines (meth). It was hypothesized that a version of CM could be implemented in San Francisco that was less costly than traditional treatment methods and reached gay and other MSM using meth who also engaged in high-risk sexual activity. Of the 178 men who participated in PROPfrom December 2003 to December 2005, many self-reported behaviors for acquiring and spreading sexually transmitted diseases including HIV infection. During the initial intake, 73% reported high-risk sexual behavior in the prior three months, with 60% reporting anal receptive and/or insertive sex without condoms. This report describes the implementation of PROP and suggest both its limitations and potential strengths. Initial findings suggest that PROP was a useful and low cost substance use treatment option that resulted in a 35% 90-day completion rate, which is similar to graduation rates from traditional, more costly treatment options. Further evaluation of the limited data from three- and six-month follow-up of those who completed PROP is currently ongoing.

  16. Fisheries management to reduce contaminant consumption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stow, Craig A.; Carpenter, Stephen R.; Madenjian, Charles P.; Eby, Lisa A.; Jackson, Leland J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper concludes that contaminants in Lake Michigan fishes are likely to remain above detectable levels for some time. Some interest groups have called for measures ranging from additional effluent controls to a ban on the industrial use of chlorine. Such measures, however well intended, are likely to have little impact on many of the contaminants of primary concern. PCBs, in particular, are largely the legacy of past activities and are not likely to be substantially affected by additional regulation. The authors review several options for reducing human exposure to PCBs, using relatively simple fisheries manipulations, although they do not propose that these measures are the ultimate solution to the contaminant problem. Of the options presented, the most promising is the replacement of lake trout with less-contaminated species, such as rainbow trout.

  17. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-05-03

    Health geography has emerged from under the "shadow of the medical" to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline.

  18. Global Health, Geographical Contingency, and Contingent Geographies

    PubMed Central

    Herrick, Clare

    2016-01-01

    Health geography has emerged from under the “shadow of the medical” to become one of the most vibrant of all the subdisciplines. Yet, this success has also meant that health research has become increasingly siloed within this subdisciplinary domain. As this article explores, this represents a potential lost opportunity with regard to the study of global health, which has instead come to be dominated by anthropology and political science. Chief among the former's concerns are exploring the gap between the programmatic intentions of global health and the unintended or unanticipated consequences of their deployment. This article asserts that recent work on contingency within geography offers significant conceptual potential for examining this gap. It therefore uses the example of alcohol taxation in Botswana, an emergent global health target and tool, to explore how geographical contingency and the emergent, contingent geographies that result might help counter the prevailing tendency for geography to be side-stepped within critical studies of global health. At the very least, then, this intervention aims to encourage reflection by geographers on how to make explicit the all-too-often implicit links between their research and global health debates located outside the discipline. PMID:27611662

  19. NextGen Flight Deck Surface Trajectory-Based Operations (STBO): Contingency Holds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bakowski, Deborah Lee; Hooey, Becky Lee; Foyle, David C.; Wolter, Cynthia A.; Cheng, Lara W. S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot-in-the-loop taxi simulation was to investigate a NextGen Surface Trajectory-Based Operations (STBO) concept called "contingency holds." The contingency-hold concept parses a taxi route into segments, allowing an air traffic control (ATC) surface traffic management (STM) system to hold an aircraft when necessary for safety. Under nominal conditions, if the intersection or active runway crossing is clear, the hold is removed, allowing the aircraft to continue taxiing without slowing, thus improving taxi efficiency, while minimizing the excessive brake use, fuel burn, and emissions associated with stop-and-go taxi. However, when a potential traffic conflict exists, the hold remains in place as a fail-safe mechanism. In this departure operations simulation, the taxi clearance included a required time of arrival (RTA) to a specified intersection. The flight deck was equipped with speed-guidance avionics to aid the pilot in safely meeting the RTA. On two trials, the contingency hold was not released, and pilots were required to stop. On two trials the contingency hold was released 15 sec prior to the RTA, and on two trials the contingency hold was released 30 sec prior to the RTA. When the hold remained in place, all pilots complied with the hold. Results also showed that when the hold was released at 15-sec or 30-sec prior to the RTA, the 30-sec release allowed pilots to maintain nominal taxi speed, thus supporting continuous traffic flow; whereas, the 15-sec release did not. The contingency-hold concept, with at least a 30-sec release, allows pilots to improve taxiing efficiency by reducing braking, slowing, and stopping, but still maintains safety in that no pilots "busted" the clearance holds. Overall, the evidence suggests that the contingency-hold concept is a viable concept for optimizing efficiency while maintaining safety.

  20. A Contingent Trip Model for Estimating Rail-trail Demand

    Treesearch

    Carter J. Betz; John C. Bergstrom; J. Michael Bowker

    2003-01-01

    The authors develop a contingent trip model to estimate the recreation demand for and value of a potential rail-trail site in north-east Georgia. The contingent trip model is an alternative to travel cost modelling useful for ex ante evaluation of proposed recreation resources or management alternatives. The authors estimate the empirical demand for trips using a...

  1. Developing and Maintaining a Useful Deployed/Contingency Operations Financial Management Guidebook for the United States Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    formats. It can remain as an 8.5” x 11” printable resource; be made smaller (5” x 7”) to laminate and fit into a cargo pocket; be made into an electronic...the guidebook should be completely reworked . The current structured chapters provide no logical step-by-step process for a Financial Management...multiple formats) 1= Small-Can fit into Cargo-Pocket 2= Small/Waterproof- laminated and Cargo-Pocket Size 3= Large-8.5 x 11 Pages in a Bound Book 4

  2. Optimal Limited Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meuleau, Nicolas; Smith, David E.

    2003-01-01

    For a given problem, the optimal Markov policy over a finite horizon is a conditional plan containing a potentially large number of branches. However, there are applications where it is desirable to strictly limit the number of decision points and branches in a plan. This raises the question of how one goes about finding optimal plans containing only a limited number of branches. In this paper, we present an any-time algorithm for optimal k-contingency planning. It is the first optimal algorithm for limited contingency planning that is not an explicit enumeration of possible contingent plans. By modelling the problem as a partially observable Markov decision process, it implements the Bellman optimality principle and prunes the solution space. We present experimental results of applying this algorithm to some simple test cases.

  3. 30 CFR 582.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contingency Plan. 582.26 Section 582.26 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER... necessary to reflect any new information concerning the nature, magnitude, and significance of...

  4. Pretreatment ethyl glucuronide levels predict response to a contingency management intervention for alcohol use disorders among adults with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    McDonell, Michael Gerard; Leickly, Emily; McPherson, Sterling; Skalisky, Jordan; Hirchak, Katherine; Oluwoye, Oladunni; Srebnik, Debra; Roll, John Michael; Ries, Richard Kirkland

    2017-08-18

    This study investigated if pretreatment ethyl glucuronide (EtG) levels corresponding to light (100 ng/mL), heavy (500 ng/mL), and very heavy (1,000 ng/mL) drinking predicted longest duration of alcohol abstinence (LDA) and proportion of EtG-negative urine tests in outpatients receiving a 12-week EtG-based contingency management (CM) intervention for alcohol dependence. Participants were 40 adults diagnosed with alcohol use disorders and serious mental illness who submitted up to 12 urine samples for EtG analysis during a 4-week observation period and were then randomized to 12-weeks of CM for alcohol abstinence and addiction treatment attendance. Alcohol use outcomes during CM as assessed by EtG and self-report were compared across those who did and did not attain a pre-treatment average EtG level of 500 ng/mL-a level that equates to frequent heavy drinking. Only the 500 ng/mL cutoff was associated with significant differences in LDA and proportion of EtG-negative samples during CM. Those with a pre-treatment EtG < 500 ng/mL attained a LDA 2.3 (alcohol) to 2.9 (drugs) weeks longer than pre-treatment heavy drinkers. The EtG biomarker can be used to determine who will respond to a CM intervention for alcohol use disorders and could inform future trials that are designed to be tailored to individual patients. Results suggest pre-treatment EtG cutoffs equivalent to heavy and very heavy drinking predict outcomes in CM. (Am J Addict 2017;XX:1-3). Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  5. Contingency contractor optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Jones, Katherine A.; Bandlow, Alisa; Durfee, Justin David.; Jones, Dean A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Detry, Richard Joseph; Nanco, Alan Stewart; Nozick, Linda Karen

    2013-10-01

    The goal of Phase 3 the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization (CCO) project is to create an engineering prototype of a tool for the contingency contractor element of total force planning during the Support for Strategic Analysis (SSA). An optimization model was developed to determine the optimal mix of military, Department of Defense (DoD) civilians, and contractors that accomplishes a set of user defined mission requirements at the lowest possible cost while honoring resource limitations and manpower use rules. An additional feature allows the model to understand the variability of the Total Force Mix when there is uncertainty in mission requirements.

  6. Contingency contractor optimization.

    SciTech Connect

    Gearhart, Jared Lee; Adair, Kristin Lynn; Jones, Katherine A.; Bandlow, Alisa; Detry, Richard Joseph; Durfee, Justin David.; Jones, Dean A.; Martin, Nathaniel; Nanco, Alan Stewart; Nozick, Linda Karen

    2013-06-01

    The goal of Phase 3 the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization (CCO) project is to create an engineering prototype of a tool for the contingency contractor element of total force planning during the Support for Strategic Analysis (SSA). An optimization model was developed to determine the optimal mix of military, Department of Defense (DoD) civilians, and contractors that accomplishes a set of user defined mission requirements at the lowest possible cost while honoring resource limitations and manpower use rules. An additional feature allows the model to understand the variability of the Total Force Mix when there is uncertainty in mission requirements.

  7. Massive Contingency Analysis with High Performance Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Nieplocha, Jaroslaw

    2009-07-26

    Contingency analysis is a key function in the Energy Management System (EMS) to assess the impact of various combinations of power system component failures based on state estimates. Contingency analysis is also extensively used in power market operation for feasibility test of market solutions. Faster analysis of more cases is required to safely and reliably operate today’s power grids with less marginal and more intermittent renewable energy sources. Enabled by the latest development in the computer industry, high performance computing holds the promise of meet the need in the power industry. This paper investigates the potential of high performance computing for massive contingency analysis. The framework of "N-x" contingency analysis is established and computational load balancing schemes are studied and implemented with high performance computers. Case studies of massive 300,000-contingency-case analysis using the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model are presented to illustrate the application of high performance computing and demonstrate the performance of the framework and computational load balancing schemes.

  8. Superior–subordinate dyads: Dependence of leader effectiveness on mutual reinforcement contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Ram K.; Mawhinney, T. C.

    1991-01-01

    Task contingencies were modeled from bureaucratic organizations in which vague job descriptions provide incomplete contingency specifications. Response rates within dyads were examined using two nonsocial, two social, and two control contingencies. In the first social contingency, responses by the superior produced monetary reinforcement for a subordinate while the superior received no reinforcement from his subordinate. A second social contingency was identical to the first except that the subordinate's rate of responding determined the rate of reinforcement delivered to his superior. Within this contingency, mutual reinforcement occurred whenever rates of superior and subordinate responding were correlated. Two control contingencies were identical to the second social contingency except that either the superior or the subordinate received a rate of response-independent reinforcement virtually identical to the rate received during the second social contingency. Leadership, in this context, was the difference between rates of subordinate responding produced by a nonsocial contingency and rates produced by each of the two social contingencies. The two nonsocial contingencies supported almost no responding among subjects. The first social contingency produced minimal levels of leadership within every dyad. The second social contingency produced high levels of leadership. Response-independent reinforcement generally reduced or eliminated responding. PMID:16812640

  9. Contingent Faculty as Nonideal Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Bernstein-Sierra, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores how contingent faculty address the issue of work and family and demonstrates the importance of understanding the diversity of contingent faculty experiences and of underemployment rather than notions of the ideal worker to explain their work lives.

  10. Contingent Faculty as Nonideal Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna; Bernstein-Sierra, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores how contingent faculty address the issue of work and family and demonstrates the importance of understanding the diversity of contingent faculty experiences and of underemployment rather than notions of the ideal worker to explain their work lives.

  11. How performance (non-)contingent reward modulates cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Fröber, Kerstin; Dreisbach, Gesine

    2016-07-01

    Reward has repeatedly been shown to influence cognitive control. More precisely, performance contingent reward is known to increase preparatory, proactive control. In comparison, performance non-contingent reward, that is, reward that is not dependent on a pre-specified performance criterion but is given unconditional for any response, even errors, is a rather understudied topic. Recently, Fröber and Dreisbach (2014) compared performance contingent and non-contingent reward in a single experiment. They found that non-contingent reward seems to modulate cognitive control in an oppositional way than contingent reward, namely by reducing proactive control. In the present paper, the authors further investigate this dissociation in two experiments with a reward manipulation that facilitated adaptations to changes in reward availability: reward - with performance contingency varying between subjects - was manipulated not trial-by-trial but in mini-blocks of 20 consecutive trials in an AX-Continuous Performance Task. Performance contingent reward significantly increased proactive control. The repeated experience of non-contingent reward even for errors did not result in increased error rates, but instead was indicative of stable compliance with task rules over time and with less reliance on proactive control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  13. Supervisory Styles: A Contingency Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehe, Dirk Michael

    2016-01-01

    While the contingent nature of doctoral supervision has been acknowledged, the literature on supervisory styles has yet to deliver a theory-based contingency framework. A contingency framework can assist supervisors and research students in identifying appropriate supervisory styles under varying circumstances. The conceptual study reported here…

  14. National Missile Defense Contingency Deployment.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Defense Organization PMCS IDEA PAPER TITLE: National Missile Defense, Contingency Deployment Planning PMCS CLASS: 95C AUTHOR: Clifford E. Reeves... NATIONAL MISSILE DEFENSE CONTINGENCY DEPLOYMENT INTRODUCTION The author feels it is vital to start strategic planning for the development of operational...PROFESSIONAL MILITARY COMPTROLLER SCHOOL IDEA PAPER TITLE NATIONAL MISSILE DEFENSE CONTINGENCY DEPLOYMENT AUTHOR CLIFFORD E. REEVES GS-15, OSD

  15. Incremental Contingency Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David E.; Washington, Rich

    2003-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. However, this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the energy required, the data storage necessary, and its current position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  16. Contingent valuation and incentives

    Treesearch

    Patricia A. Champ; Nicholas E. Flores; Thomas C. Brown; James Chivers

    2002-01-01

    We empirically investigate the effect of the payment mechanism on contingent values by asking a willingness-to-pay question with one of three different payment mechanisms: individual contribution, contribution with provision point, and referendum. We find statistical evidence of more affirmative responses in the referendum treatment relative to the individual...

  17. Model for Contingency Contracting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince George's Community Coll., Largo, MD. Dept. of Human Development.

    The Department of Human Development at Prince George's Community College has developed a contingency contracting model for the department's counseling and student services which presents planning and evaluation as interrelated parts of the same process of self-imposed accountability. The implementation of the model consisted of: (1) planning…

  18. National Contingency Plan (NCP) Subpart J Product Schedule Fact Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This section of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan stipulates the criteria for listing and managing the use of dispersants and other chemical and biological agents used to mitigate oil spills.

  19. Space Flight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joseph; Gernhardt, Michael L.; Ross, Charles E.; Hamilton, Douglas; Homick, Jerry L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose was to develop an enhanced plan to diagnose, treat, and manage decompression sickness (DCS) during extravehicular activity (EVA). This plan is merited by the high frequency of upcoming EVAs necessary to construct and maintain the International Space Station (ISS). The upcoming ISS era will demand a significant increase in EVA. The DCS Risk and Contingency Plan provided a new and improved approach to DCS reporting, treatment, management, and training.

  20. Reducing uncertainty about objective functions in adaptive management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, B.K.

    2012-01-01

    This paper extends the uncertainty framework of adaptive management to include uncertainty about the objectives to be used in guiding decisions. Adaptive decision making typically assumes explicit and agreed-upon objectives for management, but allows for uncertainty as to the structure of the decision process that generates change through time. Yet it is not unusual for there to be uncertainty (or disagreement) about objectives, with different stakeholders expressing different views not only about resource responses to management but also about the appropriate management objectives. In this paper I extend the treatment of uncertainty in adaptive management, and describe a stochastic structure for the joint occurrence of uncertainty about objectives as well as models, and show how adaptive decision making and the assessment of post-decision monitoring data can be used to reduce uncertainties of both kinds. Different degrees of association between model and objective uncertainty lead to different patterns of learning about objectives. ?? 2011.

  1. Visual Analytics for Power Grid Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Mackey, Patrick S.; Jin, Shuangshuang

    2014-01-20

    Contingency analysis is the process of employing different measures to model scenarios, analyze them, and then derive the best response to remove the threats. This application paper focuses on a class of contingency analysis problems found in the power grid management system. A power grid is a geographically distributed interconnected transmission network that transmits and delivers electricity from generators to end users. The power grid contingency analysis problem is increasingly important because of both the growing size of the underlying raw data that need to be analyzed and the urgency to deliver working solutions in an aggressive timeframe. Failure to do so may bring significant financial, economic, and security impacts to all parties involved and the society at large. The paper presents a scalable visual analytics pipeline that transforms about 100 million contingency scenarios to a manageable size and form for grid operators to examine different scenarios and come up with preventive or mitigation strategies to address the problems in a predictive and timely manner. Great attention is given to the computational scalability, information scalability, visual scalability, and display scalability issues surrounding the data analytics pipeline. Most of the large-scale computation requirements of our work are conducted on a Cray XMT multi-threaded parallel computer. The paper demonstrates a number of examples using western North American power grid models and data.

  2. Graphical Contingency Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-02

    GCA is a visual analytic tool for power grid contingency analysis to provide more decision support for power grid operations. GCA allows power grid operators to quickly gain situational awareness of power grid by converting large amounts of operational data to graphic domain with a color contoured map; identify system trend and foresee and discern emergencies by performing trending analysis; identify the relationships between system configurations and affected assets by conducting clustering analysis; and identify the best action by interactively evaluate candidate actions.

  3. Some contingencies of spelling

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vicki L.; Sanderson, Gwenda M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents some speculation about the contingencies that might select standard spellings. The speculation is based on a new development in the teaching of spelling—the process writing approach, which lets standard spellings emerge collateral to a high frequency of reading and writing. The paper discusses this approach, contrasts it with behavior-analytic research on spelling, and suggests some new directions for this latter research based on a behavioral interpretation of the process writing approach to spelling. PMID:22477529

  4. Prospects for managing turfgrass pests with reduced chemical inputs.

    PubMed

    Held, David W; Potter, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    Turfgrass culture, a multibillion dollar industry in the United States, poses unique challenges for integrated pest management. Why insect control on lawns, golf courses, and sport fields remains insecticide-driven, and how entomological research and extension can best support nascent initiatives in environmental golf and sustainable lawn care are explored. High standards for aesthetics and playability, prevailing business models, risk management-driven control decisions, and difficulty in predicting pest outbreaks fuel present reliance on preventive insecticides. New insights into pest biology, sampling methodology, microbial insecticides, plant resistance, and conservation biological control are reviewed. Those gains, and innovations in reduced-risk insecticides, should make it possible to begin constructing holistic management plans for key turfgrass pests. Nurturing the public's interest in wildlife habitat preservation, including beneficial insects, may be one means to change aesthetic perceptions and gain leeway for implementing integrated pest management practices that lend stability to turfgrass settings.

  5. Transitional care management reimbursement to reduce COPD readmission.

    PubMed

    Kangovi, Shreya; Grande, David

    2014-01-01

    Reducing preventable readmissions for COPD is an important national health policy goal. Thus far, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) policies focused on incentivizing improvements in inpatient quality have had variable success. In its 2013 physician-payment rule, CMS announced new payments that reimburse ambulatory care providers for timely posthospital visits and transitional care management services. CMS hopes that posthospital transitional care and services will substitute for readmission, but the evidence supporting this hypothesis is mixed. In this article, we discuss ways for ambulatory pulmonologists to leverage transitional care management payments to enhance access for their patients with COPD while minimizing the risk of a paradoxic increase in readmission rates.

  6. Can agent based models effectively reduce fisheries management implementation uncertainty?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, M.

    2016-02-01

    Uncertainty is an inherent feature of fisheries management. Implementation uncertainty remains a challenge to quantify often due to unintended responses of users to management interventions. This problem will continue to plague both single species and ecosystem based fisheries management advice unless the mechanisms driving these behaviors are properly understood. Equilibrium models, where each actor in the system is treated as uniform and predictable, are not well suited to forecast the unintended behaviors of individual fishers. Alternatively, agent based models (AMBs) can simulate the behaviors of each individual actor driven by differing incentives and constraints. This study evaluated the feasibility of using AMBs to capture macro scale behaviors of the US West Coast Groundfish fleet. Agent behavior was specified at the vessel level. Agents made daily fishing decisions using knowledge of their own cost structure, catch history, and the histories of catch and quota markets. By adding only a relatively small number of incentives, the model was able to reproduce highly realistic macro patterns of expected outcomes in response to management policies (catch restrictions, MPAs, ITQs) while preserving vessel heterogeneity. These simulations indicate that agent based modeling approaches hold much promise for simulating fisher behaviors and reducing implementation uncertainty. Additional processes affecting behavior, informed by surveys, are continually being added to the fisher behavior model. Further coupling of the fisher behavior model to a spatial ecosystem model will provide a fully integrated social, ecological, and economic model capable of performing management strategy evaluations to properly consider implementation uncertainty in fisheries management.

  7. Can managed care reduce employers' retiree medical liability?

    PubMed

    Taylor, R S; Newton, B

    1991-01-01

    The Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) has forced U.S. companies to look squarely at their current retiree health obligations and their future commitments. Accounting Statement No. 106 (FAS 106) requires employers to accrue liabilities for retiree health benefits during employees' active service, rather than record the costs as benefits are paid. Employers are scrambling to find ways to reduce the statement's effect on corporate balance sheets. While managed health care has been increasingly employed to control benefit costs in active employee health plans, it has not been as popular in retiree plans. This article reviews important demographic and health trends in the retiree population and summarizes employers' early responses to FAS 106. It explores why managed health care has thus far played a limited role in reducing employers' postretirement medical liability, and offers insight into how that role could be increased in the future.

  8. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  9. Contingency Software in Autonomous Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lutz, Robyn; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the development of contingency software for autonomous systems. Autonomous vehicles currently have a limited capacity to diagnose and mitigate failures. There is a need to be able to handle a broader range of contingencies. The goals of the project are: 1. Speed up diagnosis and mitigation of anomalous situations.2.Automatically handle contingencies, not just failures.3.Enable projects to select a degree of autonomy consistent with their needs and to incrementally introduce more autonomy.4.Augment on-board fault protection with verified contingency scripts

  10. Enhancing outpatient clinics management software by reducing patients' waiting time.

    PubMed

    Almomani, Iman; AlSarheed, Ahlam

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) gives great attention to improving the quality of services provided by health care sectors including outpatient clinics. One of the main drawbacks in outpatient clinics is long waiting time for patients-which affects the level of patient satisfaction and the quality of services. This article addresses this problem by studying the Outpatient Management Software (OMS) and proposing solutions to reduce waiting times. Many hospitals around the world apply solutions to overcome the problem of long waiting times in outpatient clinics such as hospitals in the USA, China, Sri Lanka, and Taiwan. These clinics have succeeded in reducing wait times by 15%, 78%, 60% and 50%, respectively. Such solutions depend mainly on adding more human resources or changing some business or management policies. The solutions presented in this article reduce waiting times by enhancing the software used to manage outpatient clinics services. Both quantitative and qualitative methods have been used to understand current OMS and examine level of patient's satisfaction. Five main problems that may cause high or unmeasured waiting time have been identified: appointment type, ticket numbering, doctor late arrival, early arriving patient and patients' distribution list. These problems have been mapped to the corresponding OMS components. Solutions to the above problems have been introduced and evaluated analytically or by simulation experiments. Evaluation of the results shows a reduction in patient waiting time. When late doctor arrival issues are solved, this can reduce the clinic service time by up to 20%. However, solutions for early arriving patients reduces 53.3% of vital time, 20% of the clinic time and overall 30.3% of the total waiting time. Finally, well patient-distribution lists make improvements by 54.2%. Improvements introduced to the patients' waiting time will consequently affect patients' satisfaction and improve the quality of health care services.

  11. Modeling and simulation of cascading contingencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianfeng

    This dissertation proposes a new approach to model and study cascading contingencies in large power systems. The most important contribution of the work involves the development and validation of a heuristic analytic model to assess the likelihood of cascading contingencies, and the development and validation of a uniform search strategy. We model the probability of cascading contingencies as a function of power flow and power flow changes. Utilizing logistic regression, the proposed model is calibrated using real industry data. This dissertation analyzes random search strategies for Monte Carlo simulations and proposes a new uniform search strategy based on the Metropolis-Hastings Algorithm. The proposed search strategy is capable of selecting the most significant cascading contingencies, and it is capable of constructing an unbiased estimator to provide a measure of system security. This dissertation makes it possible to reasonably quantify system security and justify security operations when economic concerns conflict with reliability concerns in the new competitive power market environment. It can also provide guidance to system operators about actions that may be taken to reduce the risk of major system blackouts. Various applications can be developed to take advantage of the quantitative security measures provided in this dissertation.

  12. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  13. Rotorcraft contingency power study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirschkron, R.; Haynes, J. F.; Goldstein, D. N.; Davis, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    Twin helicopter engines are often sized by the power requirement of a safe mission completion after the failure of one of the two engines. This study was undertaken for NASA Lewis by General Electric Co. to evaluate the merits of special design features to provide a 2-1/2 Contingency Power rating, permitting an engine size reduction. The merits of water injection, turbine cooling airflow modulation, throttle push, and a propellant auxiliary power plant were evaluated using military Life Cycle Cost (LCC) and commercial helicopter Direct Operating Cost (DOC) merit factors in a rubber engine and a rubber aircraft scenario.

  14. Complexity, contingency, and criticality.

    PubMed Central

    Bak, P; Paczuski, M

    1995-01-01

    Complexity originates from the tendency of large dynamical systems to organize themselves into a critical state, with avalanches or "punctuations" of all sizes. In the critical state, events which would otherwise be uncoupled become correlated. The apparent, historical contingency in many sciences, including geology, biology, and economics, finds a natural interpretation as a self-organized critical phenomenon. These ideas are discussed in the context of simple mathematical models of sandpiles and biological evolution. Insights are gained not only from numerical simulations but also from rigorous mathematical analysis. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:11607561

  15. Do continence management strategies reduce falls? a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Batchelor, Frances A; Dow, Briony; Low, May-Ann

    2013-12-01

    Urinary incontinence is associated with increased fall risk, and fall prevention programs include recommendations to manage continence as one component of fall reduction. However, the evidence to support this recommendation is unclear. The aim of this study was to identify continence management interventions that are effective in decreasing falls. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Studies were included if they evaluated the effect of any type of continence management strategy on falls in older adults. The included studies were assessed for quality, and data relating to participants, interventions and outcomes were extracted by two independent reviewers. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. Two studies were randomised controlled trials, one a retrospective cohort study and one an uncontrolled intervention study. Interventions included pharmacological agents, a toileting regime combined with physical activity and an individualised continence program. Only the study evaluating the combination of physical activity and prompted voiding found an effect on falls. It is surprising that there has been so little research into continence management interventions that include fall outcomes. A toileting regime combined with physical activity may reduce falls in residential care. There is a need for further studies investigating the impact of continence management on falls.

  16. Forest management strategies for reducing carbon emissions, the French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Bellassen, Valentin; Vallet, Patrick; Martin, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    International agreements now recognize the role of forest in the mitigation of climate change through the levers of in-situ sequestration, storage in products and energy and product substitution. These three strategies of carbon management are often antagonistic and it is still not clear which strategy would have the most significant impact on atmospheric carbon concentrations. With a focus on France, this study compares several scenarios of forest management in terms of their effect on the overall carbon budget from trees to wood-products. We elaborated four scenarios of forest management that target different wood production objectives. One scenario is 'Business as usual' and reproduces the current forest management and wood production levels. Two scenarios target an increase in bioenergy wood production, with either long-term or short-term goals. One scenario aims at increasing the production of timber for construction. For this, an empirical regression model was developed building on the rich French inventory database. The model can project the current forest resource at a time horizon of 20 years for characteristic variables diameter, standing volume, above-ground biomass, stand age. A simplified life-cycle analysis provides a full carbon budget for each scenario from forest management to wood use and allows the identification of the scenario that most reduces carbon emissions.

  17. Cooperative Learning Contingencies: Unrelated versus Related Individual and Group Contingencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Erin; Williams, Robert L.; Hautau, Briana

    2006-01-01

    College students operating under related cooperative contingencies (students had to earn individual credit before being considered for group credit) showed more consistent individual and group improvement on exam performance than students operating under unrelated contingencies (individual credit and group credit were independently determined). A…

  18. [Assessment of non-ionic contrast agents in reducing the risk of side effects: analysis on the basis of voluntary willingness-to-pay measured by the contingent valuation method].

    PubMed

    Sugimura, K

    2000-01-01

    The benefit of replacing ionic contrast agents with non-ionic ones was assessed by employing cost-benefit analysis, a method of medical economic analysis. The benefit derived from replacing ionic with non-ionic contrast agents was assessed by a questionnaire survey of patients using the willingness-to-pay method based on the contingent valuation method. This questionnaire survey was conducted on 204 patients in Shimane Medical University Hospital during the period from October to December 1998. The result of analysis showed that when ionic contrast agents are replaced with non-ionic ones, patients' willingness-to-pay stands at a median value of 12,500 yen and a mean value of 17,082 +/- 1,049 yen. These figures are identical with or larger than the NHI-price differences (12,266-14,234 yen; average 13,287 yen), suggesting that patients think the benefit of reduced side effects from non-ionic contrast agents has a value that is equal to or higher than the actual NHI-prices of these agents. Further, analysis of patient profiles indicated that patients' willingness-to-pay went up with age and income but decreased when age exceeded 60 years, a finding which also suggests that the willingness-to-pay amount is closely related to the economic strength of patients.

  19. Alternative Forms of Fit in Contingency Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazin, Robert; Van de Ven, Andrew H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the selection, interaction, and systems approaches to fit in structural contingency theory. The concepts of fit evaluated may be applied not only to structural contingency theory but to contingency theories in general. (MD)

  20. Contingencies promote delay tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ghaemmaghami, Mahshid; Hanley, Gregory P; Jessel, Joshua

    2016-09-01

    The effectiveness of functional communication training as treatment for problem behavior depends on the extent to which treatment can be extended to typical environments that include unavoidable and unpredictable reinforcement delays. Time-based progressive delay (TBPD) often results in the loss of acquired communication responses and the resurgence of problem behavior, whereas contingency-based progressive delay (CBPD) appears to be effective for increasing tolerance for delayed reinforcement. No direct comparison of TBPD and CBPD has, however, been conducted. We used single-subject designs to compare the relative efficacy of TBPD and CBPD. Four individuals who engaged in problem behavior (e.g., aggression, vocal and motor disruptions, self-injury) participated. Results were consistent across all participants, and showed lower rates of problem behavior and collateral responses during CBPD than during TBPD. The generality of CBPD treatment effects, including optimal rates of communication and compliance with demands, was demonstrated across a small but heterogeneous group of participants, reinforcement contingencies, and contexts.

  1. Department of Defense Program for Planning, Managing, and Accounting for Contractor Services and Contractor Personnel During Contingency Operations. Report to the Congress of the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-04-01

    Officers, Warrant Officers, and Non-commissioned Officers. • Lessons Learned Program . The DoD understands that it is imperative to leverage...F. Lessons Learned Program ……………………………………..………….24 Supporting Initiatives……………………………………………….……………………26 Synchronization of Efforts...Contingency Operations _______________________________________________________________________ Lessons Learned Program The DoD understands that

  2. Reputation management: evidence for ability but reduced propensity in autism.

    PubMed

    Cage, Eilidh; Pellicano, Elizabeth; Shah, Punit; Bird, Geoffrey

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has reported that autistic adults do not manage their reputation, purportedly due to problems with theory of mind [Izuma, Matsumoto, Camerer, & Adolphs]. The current study aimed to test alternative explanations for this apparent lack of reputation management. Twenty typical and 19 autistic adults donated to charity and to a person, both when alone and when observed. In an additional manipulation, for half of the participants, the observer was also the recipient of their donations, and participants were told that this observer would subsequently have the opportunity to donate to them (motivation condition). This manipulation was designed to encourage an expectation of a reciprocal "tit-for-tat" strategy in the participant, which may motivate participants to change their behavior to receive more donations. The remaining participants were told that the person watching was just observing the procedure (no motivation condition). Our results replicated Izuma et al.'s finding that autistic adults did not donate more to charity when observed. Yet, in the motivation condition, both typical and autistic adults donated significantly more to the observer when watched, although this effect was significantly attenuated in autistic individuals. Results indicate that, while individuals with autism may have the ability to think about reputation, a reduced expectation of reciprocal behavior from others may reduce the degree to which they engage in reputation management. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Strategies to reduce hospitalization in the management of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Robert; Blank, Lenore J; Powell, Suzanne K

    2005-01-01

    Progressive and debilitating heart failure (HF) affects almost 5 million, mostly elderly, individuals in the United States. As the elderly population grows in coming decades, the prevalence of HF is expected to increase substantially. In addition to its human toll, HF yields a substantial economic burden, with direct and indirect cost estimates ranging from $27 to $56 billion annually. It is associated with an unacceptably high rehospitalization rate--50% within 6 months--which not only drives burgeoning costs but also provides a signal that current management approaches to HF are less than optimal. Evidence-based treatment approaches, which include the use of beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, spironolactone, and nesiritide, may offer opportunities for reducing mortality and rehospitalization rates in HF. Yet, because of inadequate discharge guidance and follow-up, many patients with HF are caught in a "revolving door" process that ultimately culminates in exacerbation and rehospitalization. Hospital-based disease management programs have consistently been shown to optimize care and reduce rehospitalization rates in patients with HF. The Hackensack University Medical Center HF program is discussed as an example of a successful HF program. This program represents a multidisciplinary, multifaceted approach to care that emphasizes case management. The core goal of this program is to provide a continuum of care that extends through hospitalization and into the patients' home environment.

  4. The Ethics of Group Contingencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapon-Shevin, Mara

    Group contingencies structure situations which link individual behavior with group outcomes, attempting to change behavior through peer pressure. As such, group contingencies raise numerous methodological and ethical problems, and illuminate the relationship between what data is collected and what subsequent decisions can be made. Over 100…

  5. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes

    PubMed Central

    Krull, Cheryl R.; Stanley, Margaret C.; Burns, Bruce R.; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R.

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return. PMID

  6. Reducing Wildlife Damage with Cost-Effective Management Programmes.

    PubMed

    Krull, Cheryl R; Stanley, Margaret C; Burns, Bruce R; Choquenot, David; Etherington, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Limiting the impact of wildlife damage in a cost effective manner requires an understanding of how control inputs change the occurrence of damage through their effect on animal density. Despite this, there are few studies linking wildlife management (control), with changes in animal abundance and prevailing levels of wildlife damage. We use the impact and management of wild pigs as a case study to demonstrate this linkage. Ground disturbance by wild pigs has become a conservation issue of global concern because of its potential effects on successional changes in vegetation structure and composition, habitat for other species, and functional soil properties. In this study, we used a 3-year pig control programme (ground hunting) undertaken in a temperate rainforest area of northern New Zealand to evaluate effects on pig abundance, and patterns and rates of ground disturbance and ground disturbance recovery and the cost effectiveness of differing control strategies. Control reduced pig densities by over a third of the estimated carrying capacity, but more than halved average prevailing ground disturbance. Rates of new ground disturbance accelerated with increasing pig density, while rates of ground disturbance recovery were not related to prevailing pig density. Stochastic simulation models based on the measured relationships between control, pig density and rate of ground disturbance and recovery indicated that control could reduce ground disturbance substantially. However, the rate at which prevailing ground disturbance was reduced diminished rapidly as more intense, and hence expensive, pig control regimes were simulated. The model produced in this study provides a framework that links conservation of indigenous ecological communities to control inputs through the reduction of wildlife damage and suggests that managers should consider carefully the marginal cost of higher investment in wildlife damage control, relative to its marginal conservation return.

  7. Can disease management reduce health care costs by improving quality?

    PubMed

    Fireman, Bruce; Bartlett, Joan; Selby, Joe

    2004-01-01

    Disease management (DM) promises to achieve cost savings by improving the quality of care for chronic diseases. During the past decade the Permanente Medical Group in Northern California has implemented extensive DM programs. Examining quality indicators, utilization, and costs for 1996-2002 for adults with four conditions, we find evidence of substantial quality improvement but not cost savings. The causal pathway--from improved care to reduced morbidity to cost savings--has not produced sufficient savings to offset the rising costs of improved care. We conclude that the rationale for DM programs, like the rationale for any medical treatments, should rest on their effectiveness and value.

  8. A case management protocol: reducing unnecessary Medicare admissions in Florida.

    PubMed

    Michelman, Mark; Collier, Patricia; Dion, Charles; Richards, Ferdinand; Ohleyer, Henry; Vasey, Paulette; Henshaw, Zachary; Davison, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The Florida Medicare quality improvement organization implemented a case management project with 20 acute care hospitals to reduce unnecessary Medicare admissions. The project called for hospitals to implement a protocol to assign patients to observation or inpatient admission status. Results of the project showed a 67% reduction in the denial rate for the participating facilities. This relative reduction in denial rates was nearly 3 times greater for the participating facilities as compared to the control facilities. The protocol can easily be adopted by hospitals.

  9. Academic response rate as a function of teacher- and self-imposed contingencies1

    PubMed Central

    Lovitt, Thomas C.; Curtiss, Karen A.

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the contingency manager (teacher or pupil) on a pupil's academic response rate. The results of two such experiments disclosed that higher academic rates occurred when the pupil arranged the contingency requirements than when the teacher specified them. A third study manipulated only reinforcement magnitude to ascertain whether amount of reinforcement had interacted with pupil-specified contingencies to produce the increase in academic response rate. The latter findings revealed that the contingency manager, not reinforcement magnitude, accounted for this subject's gain in performance. PMID:16795202

  10. Can climate-effective land management reduce regional warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, A. L.; Wilhelm, M.; Davin, E. L.; Thiery, W.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2017-02-01

    Limiting global warming to well below 2°C is an imminent challenge for humanity. However, even if this global target can be met, some regions are still likely to experience substantial warming relative to others. Using idealized global climate simulations, we examine the potential of land management options in affecting regional climate, with a focus on crop albedo enhancement and irrigation (climate-effective land management). The implementation is performed over all crop regions globally to provide an upper bound. We find that the implementation of both crop albedo enhancement and irrigation can reduce hot temperature extremes by more than 2°C in North America, Eurasia, and India over the 21st century relative to a scenario without management application. The efficacy of crop albedo enhancement scales with the magnitude, where a cooling response exceeding 0.5°C for hot temperature extremes was achieved with a large (i.e., ≥0.08) change in crop albedo. Regional differences were attributed to the surface energy balance response with temperature changes mostly explained by latent heat flux changes for irrigation and net shortwave radiation changes for crop albedo enhancement. However, limitations do exist, where we identify warming over the winter months when climate-effective land management is temporarily suspended. This was associated with persistent cloud cover that enhances longwave warming. It cannot be confirmed if the magnitude of this feedback is reproducible in other climate models. Our results overall demonstrate that regional warming of hot extremes in our climate model can be partially mitigated when using an idealized treatment of climate-effective land management.

  11. Contingent reinforcement of marijuana abstinence among individuals with serious mental illness: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Sigmon, S C; Steingard, S; Badger, G J; Anthony, S L; Higgins, S T

    2000-11-01

    The feasibility of using monetary incentives to promote abstinence from marijuana use among individuals with serious mental illness was examined by using a within-subjects experimental design. Participants were 18 adults with schizophrenia or other serious mental illness who reported regular marijuana use. During 2 baseline conditions, participants received payment for submitting urine specimens independent of urinalysis results. During 3 incentive conditions, participants received varying amounts of money if urinalysis results were negative for recent marijuana use. The number of marijuana-negative specimens obtained was significantly greater during incentive than baseline conditions. These results provide evidence that marijuana use among at least some mentally ill individuals is sensitive to contingent reinforcement and support the potential feasibility of using contingency-management interventions to reduce substance abuse among the mentally ill.

  12. Contingent Attentional Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

  13. Do managed care plans reduce racial disparities in preventive care?

    PubMed

    Lin, Chyongchiou Jeng; Musa, Donald; Silverman, Myrna; Degenholtz, Howard B

    2005-02-01

    This study was designed to determine whether managed care plans reduce racial disparities in use of influenza vaccination, mammography, and prostate-specific antigen screening. The study analyzed the use of three types of preventive care in a population-based sample of adults who were 65 years or older and were enrolled in a Medicare managed care (MMC) or fee-for-service (FFS) plan in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The study sample included 463 African Americans and 592 whites. Fewer African Americans than whites reported having had an influenza vaccination (64.4% versus 76.5%; p < 0.01) or a prostate-specific antigen test (64% versus 71.2%; p = 0.09) during the previous year. Slightly more African Americans than white women reported having had a mammogram (66.1% versus 63.8%). Logistic regression showed that, regardless of health plan type, African Americans were significantly less likely than whites to have an influenza vaccination (p < 0.05). A MMC plan did not narrow racial differences in preventive care. Reducing disparities may require interventions developed for specific racial/ethnic groups.

  14. Dengue Contingency Planning: From Research to Policy and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Runge-Ranzinger, Silvia; Kroeger, Axel; Olliaro, Piero; McCall, Philip J.; Sánchez Tejeda, Gustavo; Lloyd, Linda S.; Hakim, Lokman; Bowman, Leigh R.; Horstick, Olaf; Coelho, Giovanini

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue is an increasingly incident disease across many parts of the world. In response, an evidence-based handbook to translate research into policy and practice was developed. This handbook facilitates contingency planning as well as the development and use of early warning and response systems for dengue fever epidemics, by identifying decision-making processes that contribute to the success or failure of dengue surveillance, as well as triggers that initiate effective responses to incipient outbreaks. Methodology/Principal findings Available evidence was evaluated using a step-wise process that included systematic literature reviews, policymaker and stakeholder interviews, a study to assess dengue contingency planning and outbreak management in 10 countries, and a retrospective logistic regression analysis to identify alarm signals for an outbreak warning system using datasets from five dengue endemic countries. Best practices for managing a dengue outbreak are provided for key elements of a dengue contingency plan including timely contingency planning, the importance of a detailed, context-specific dengue contingency plan that clearly distinguishes between routine and outbreak interventions, surveillance systems for outbreak preparedness, outbreak definitions, alert algorithms, managerial capacity, vector control capacity, and clinical management of large caseloads. Additionally, a computer-assisted early warning system, which enables countries to identify and respond to context-specific variables that predict forthcoming dengue outbreaks, has been developed. Conclusions/Significance Most countries do not have comprehensive, detailed contingency plans for dengue outbreaks. Countries tend to rely on intensified vector control as their outbreak response, with minimal focus on integrated management of clinical care, epidemiological, laboratory and vector surveillance, and risk communication. The Technical Handbook for Surveillance, Dengue Outbreak

  15. Diabetes disease management in Medicare Advantage reduces hospitalizations and costs.

    PubMed

    Rosenzweig, James L; Taitel, Michael S; Norman, Gordon K; Moore, Tim J; Turenne, Wendy; Tang, Pei

    2010-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a telephonic diabetes disease management intervention in a Medicare Advantage population with comorbid diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). Prospective unequal randomization design of 526 members from a Medicare Advantage segment of one region of a large national health plan from May 2005 through April 2007. High-risk and high-cost patients with diabetes and CAD who were enrolled in telephonic diabetes disease management were compared with a randomly selected comparison group receiving usual care. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare the groups on all-cause hospital admissions, diabetes-related hospital admissions, all-cause and diabetes-related emergency department (ED) visits, and all-cause medical costs. Changes in self-reported clinical outcomes also were measured in the intervention group. Patients receiving telephonic diabetes disease management had significantly decreased all-cause hospital admissions and diabetes-related hospital admissions (P <.05). The intervention group had decreased all-cause and diabetes-related ED visits, although the difference was not statistically significant. The comparison group had increased ED utilization. The intervention group decreased their all-cause total medical costs by $984.87 per member per year (PMPY) compared with a $4547.06 PMPY increase in the comparison group (P <.05). All clinical measures significantly improved (P <.05) in the intervention group. A disease management program for high-risk patients with diabetes and CAD was effective in reducing hospital inpatient admission and total costs in a Medicare Advantage population.

  16. Management of tropospheric ozone by reducing methane emissions.

    PubMed

    West, J Jason; Fiore, Arlene M

    2005-07-01

    Background concentrations of tropospheric ozone are increasing and are sensitive to methane emissions, yet methane mitigation is currently considered only for climate change. Methane control is shown here to be viable for ozone management. Identified global abatement measures can reduce approximately 10% of anthropogenic methane emissions at a cost-savings, decreasing surface ozone by 0.4-0.7 ppb. Methane controls produce ozone reductions that are widespread globally and are realized gradually (approximately 12 yr). In contrast, controls on nitrogen oxides (NOx) and nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) target high-ozone episodes in polluted regions and affect ozone rapidly but have a smaller climate benefit. A coarse estimate of the monetized global benefits of ozone reductions for agriculture, forestry, and human health (neglecting ozone mortality) justifies reducing approximately 17% of global anthropogenic methane emissions. If implemented, these controls would decrease ozone by -1 ppb and radiative forcing by approximately 0.12 W m(-2). We also find that climate-motivated methane reductions have air quality-related ancillary benefits comparable to those for CO2. Air quality planning should consider reducing methane emissions alongside NOx and NMVOCs, and because the benefits of methane controls are shared internationally, industrialized nations should consider emphasizing methane in the further development of climate change or ozone policies.

  17. Use of integrated malaria management reduces malaria in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Okech, Bernard A; Mwobobia, Isaac K; Kamau, Anthony; Muiruri, Samuel; Mutiso, Noah; Nyambura, Joyce; Mwatele, Cassian; Amano, Teruaki; Mwandawiro, Charles S

    2008-01-01

    and 81% reported buying the nets within the last 5 years. The community also used mosquito reduction measures including, in order of preference, environmental management (35%), mosquito repellent and smoke (31%) insecticide canister sprays (11%), and window and door screens (6%). These methods used by the community comprise an integrated malaria management (IMM) package. Over the last 4 years prior to this study, the malaria cases in the community hospital reduced from about 40% in 2000 to less than 10% by 2004 and by the year 2007 malaria cases decreased to zero. In addition, a one time cross-sectional malaria parasite survey detected no Plasmodium infection in 300 primary school children in the area. Mosquito vector populations were variable in the six villages but were generally lower in villages that did not engage in irrigation activities. The malaria risk as estimated by EIR remained low and varied by village and proximity to irrigation areas. The average EIR in the area was estimated at 0.011 infectious bites per person per day. The usage of a combination of malaria control tools in an integrated fashion by residents of Mwea division might have influenced the decreased malaria cases in the district hospital and in the school children. A vigorous campaign emphasizing IMM should be adopted and expanded in Mwea division and in other areas with different eco-epidemiological patterns of malaria transmission. With sustained implementation and support from community members integrated malaria management can reduce malaria significantly in affected communities in Africa.

  18. 30 CFR 282.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contingency Plan. 282.26 Section 282.26 Mineral... § 282.26 Contingency Plan. (a) When required by the Director, a lessee shall include a Contingency Plan as part of its request for approval of a Delineation, Testing, or Mining Plan. The Contingency Plan...

  19. 49 CFR 1544.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1544.301 Section 1544.301... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.301 Contingency plan. Each aircraft operator must adopt a contingency plan and must: (a) Implement its contingency plan when directed by TSA. (b)...

  20. Endoscopic surgery and telemedicine in microgravity: developing contingency procedures for exploratory class spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. A.; Johnston, S.; Campbell, M.; Miles, B.; Billica, R.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The risk of a urinary calculus during an extended duration mission into the reduced gravity environment of space is significant. For medical operations to develop a comprehensive strategy for the spaceflight stone risk, both preventive countermeasures and contingency management (CM) plans must be included. METHODS: A feasibility study was conducted to demonstrate the potential CM technique of endoscopic ureteral stenting with ultrasound guidance for the possible in-flight urinary calculus contingency. The procedure employed the International Space Station/Human Research Facility ultrasound unit for guide wire and stent localization, a flexible cystoscope for visual guidance, and banded, biocompatible soft ureteral stents to successfully stent porcine ureters bilaterally in zero gravity (0g). RESULTS: The study demonstrated that downlinked endoscopic surgical and ultrasound images obtained in 0g are comparable in quality to 1g images, and therefore are useful for diagnostic clinical utility via telemedicine transmission. CONCLUSIONS: In order to be successful, surgical procedures in 0g require excellent positional stability of the operating surgeon, assistant, and patient, relative to one another. The technological development of medical procedures for long-duration spaceflight contingencies may lead to improved terrestrial patient care methodology and subsequently reduced morbidity.

  1. Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of marijuana abstinence among individuals with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies by our group have used money given contingent on abstinence to reduce drug use by individuals with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of marijuana use by individuals with serious mental illness to voucher-based contingent reinforcement, which represents the first study to date investigating the efficacy of voucher incentives with this population. This within-subject reversal design consisted of three conditions: 4-week baseline, 12-week voucher intervention, and 4-week baseline. During baseline periods, subjects received 10 US dollars vouchers per urine specimen, independent of urinalysis results. During voucher intervention, only specimens testing negative for marijuana earned vouchers, with total possible earnings of 930 US dollars. Seven adults with schizophrenia or other serious mental illnesses participated in the study. The percentage of marijuana-negative specimens was significantly greater during voucher intervention than during baseline periods. These results provide evidence that marijuana use among individuals with serious mental illness is sensitive to voucher-based incentives and further support the potential feasibility of using voucher-based contingency management to reduce substance abuse in this challenging population.

  2. Case Management Reduces Drinking During Pregnancy among High Risk Women

    PubMed Central

    May, Philip A.; Marais, Anna-Susan; Gossage, J. Phillip; Barnard, Ronel; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Hendricks, Natalie; Roux, Sumien; Blom, Annalien; Steenekamp, Jeanetta; Alexander, Theresa; Andreas, Romena; Human, Suzanne; Snell, Cudore; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles C.; Kalberg, Wendy O.; Buckley, David; Blankenship, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Aim Estimate the efficacy of Case Management (CM) for women at high risk for bearing a child with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Design Women were recruited from antenatal clinics and engaged in 18 months of CM. Setting A South African community with a subculture of heavy, regular, weekend, recreational drinking and high documented rates of FASD. Participants Forty-one women who were high risk for bearing a child with FASD. Measures Statistical analysis of trends in drinking and other risk factors. Findings At intake 87.8% were pregnant, most had previous alcohol-exposed pregnancies, most/all of their friends drink alcohol (67.5%), and 50.0% had stressful lives. CM was particularly valuable for pregnant women, as statistically significant reductions in alcohol risk were obtained for them in multiple variables: total drinks on weekends after six months of CM (p = .026) and estimated peak blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at six (p < .001) and 18 months (p < .001). For participants completing 18 months of CM, AUDIT scores improved significantly by 6-month follow-up (from 19.8 to 9.7, p = .000), and even though rising at 12 and 18 months, AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking remained statistically significantly lower than baseline throughout CM. Happiness scale scores correlated significantly with reduced drinking in most time periods. Conclusions An enduring change in drinking behavior is difficult in this social setting. Yet, CM provided by skilled and empathic case managers reduced maternal drinking at critical times, and therefore, alcohol exposure levels to the fetus. PMID:24729823

  3. Integrated weed management (IWM): will it reduce herbicide use?

    PubMed

    Moss, S R

    2010-01-01

    The Sustainable Use of Pesticides Directive (2009/128/EC), part of the EU Thematic Strategy for Pesticides, requires Integrated Pest Management (IPM) to be actively promoted. A key objective is to give greater priority to non-chemical methods of plant protection to reduce the impact of pesticides on human health and the environment. Integrated Weed Management (IWM) can be considered part of IPM, and many non-chemical methods are available. For example, a recent review of methods for control of Alopecurus myosuroides (black-grass) in winter wheat found the following mean annual levels of control: ploughing 67%; delayed drilling 37%; fallowing 70%; higher seed rates 30%; competitive cultivars 27%. In comparison with herbicides these efficacy levels are mediocre, and A. myosuroides would be classified as resistant (R) or moderately resistant (MR) to all these methods if the criteria used by the Chemicals Regulation Directorate in the UK for assigning ratings to herbicide efficacy were used. It is, therefore, not surprising that farmers are reluctant to embrace IWM and continue to place greater.reliance on herbicides as a more reliable and cost effective method of weed control. While non-chemical methods will not replace herbicides on most farms, reduced reliance on herbicides will be necessary both for practical (increasing resistance, lack of new herbicides) and political reasons (complying with EU legislation). Farmers will use nonchemical control methods when they have a major weed problem, and have no alternative, but they must be encouraged to adopt IWM at an earlier stage. Research into IWM must be relevant and practical, and not simply conducted as some sort of 'academic' exercise. More effective knowledge transfer is vital, and this is a challenge due to the decline in independent, state funded, advisory services in many European countries. The question arises; is it possible to achieve reductions in pesticide use by simply promoting non-chemical methods of

  4. National Contingency Plan Subpart J

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Subpart J of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) directs EPA to prepare a schedule of dispersants, other chemicals, and oil spill mitigating devices and substances that may be used to remove or control oil discharges.

  5. The Misperception of Contingency Contracting

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    images of military men and women carrying bags full of money executing purchases on foreign soil . While these images are not totally inaccurate, they are...Mission Ready Contracting Officer Course ( MRC ) for Air Force officers and civilians (on a space-available basis). As most deployed contingency contracting...Hurricane Katrina was, in all probability, spared because operations were conducted on U.S. soil . The FAR is applicable to all contingency operations

  6. Spaceflight Decompression Sickness Contingency Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dervay, Joseph P.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the Decompression Sickness (DCS) Contingency Plan for manned spaceflight is shown. The topics include: 1) Approach; 2) DCS Contingency Plan Overview; 3) Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Cuff Classifications; 4) On-orbit Treatment Philosophy; 5) Long Form Malfunction Procedure (MAL); 6) Medical Checklist; 7) Flight Rules; 8) Crew Training; 9) Flight Surgeon / Biomedical Engineer (BME) Training; and 10) DCS Emergency Landing Site.

  7. Reducing hospital noise: a review of medical device alarm management.

    PubMed

    Konkani, Avinash; Oakley, Barbara; Bauld, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    Increasing noise in hospital environments, especially in intensive care units (ICUs) and operating rooms (ORs), has created a formidable challenge for both patients and hospital staff. A major contributing factor for the increasing noise levels in these environments is the number of false alarms generated by medical devices. This study focuses on discovering best practices for reducing the number of false clinical alarms in order to increase patient safety and provide a quiet environment for both work and healing. The researchers reviewed Pub Med, Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar sources to obtain original journal research and review articles published through January 2012. This review includes 27 critically important journal articles that address different aspects of medical device alarms management, including the audibility, identification, urgency mapping, and response time of nursing staff and different solutions to such problems. With current technology, the easiest and most direct method for reducing false alarms is to individualize alarm settings for each patient's condition. Promoting an institutional culture change that emphasizes the importance of individualization of alarms is therefore an important goal. Future research should also focus on the development of smart alarms.

  8. Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of smoking abstinence among methadone-maintained patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kelly E; Sigmon, Stacey C; Thomas, Colleen S; Heil, Sarah H; Higgins, Stephen T

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) intervention to promote smoking cessation in methadone-maintained patients. Twenty participants, randomized into contingent (n=10) or noncontingent (n=10) experimental conditions, completed the 14-day study. Abstinence was determined using breath carbon monoxide and urine cotinine levels. Contingent participants received voucher-based incentives for biochemical evidence of smoking abstinence. Noncontingent participants earned vouchers independent of smoking status. Contingent participants achieved significantly more smoking abstinence and longer durations of continuous smoking abstinence than did noncontingent participants. These results support the potential efficacy of using voucher-based CM to promote smoking cessation among methadone-maintained patients.

  9. Contingency planning at the flotilla level in the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary: flotilla 81-a case study.

    PubMed

    Schooley, Shawn Erik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study of United States Coast Guard Auxiliary Flotilla 81. Flotilla 81 created its first formal, single agency contingency plan. The research question addressed is "How can a flotilla successfully develop a contingency plan?" Five emergent themes are identified. They are offered as suggested promising practices for other flotillas in need of creating a contingency plan. Findings suggest successful contingency planning is a result of effective collaboration with community partners. Network management theory is a key to an effective contingency planning process.

  10. The Efficacy of Contingency Models of Reinforcement on Group Expectations and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilder, Valerie Kristine

    2011-01-01

    Social learning theory contends that group contingent reinforcement can be used as a means of shaping problematic behavior in both academic and nonacademic settings. Prior research has focused on contingent management of academic behaviors with older populations at the college level and younger students both with and without disabilities in the…

  11. Task-Contingent Conscientiousness as a Unit of Personality at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minbashian, Amirali; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the viability of incorporating task-contingent units into the study of personality at work, using conscientiousness as an illustrative example. We used experience-sampling data from 123 managers to show that (a) momentary conscientiousness at work is contingent on the difficulty and urgency demands of the tasks people…

  12. Randomized Trial of Contingent Prizes versus Vouchers in Cocaine-Using Methadone Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Alessi, Sheila M.; Hanson, Tressa; Sierra, Sean

    2007-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) interventions frequently utilize vouchers as reinforcers, but a prize-based system is also efficacious. This study compared these approaches. Seventy-four cocaine-dependent methadone outpatients were randomly assigned to standard treatment (ST), ST plus a maximum of $585 in contingent vouchers, or ST plus an expected…

  13. Voucher-Based Contingent Reinforcement of Smoking Abstinence among Methadone-Maintained Patients: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Kelly E.; Sigmon, Stacey C.; Thomas, Colleen S.; Heil, Sarah H.; Higgins, Stephen T.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) intervention to promote smoking cessation in methadone-maintained patients. Twenty participants, randomized into contingent (n = 10) or noncontingent (n = 10) experimental conditions, completed the 14-day study. Abstinence was determined using breath carbon monoxide and urine…

  14. Task-Contingent Conscientiousness as a Unit of Personality at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minbashian, Amirali; Wood, Robert E.; Beckmann, Nadin

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the viability of incorporating task-contingent units into the study of personality at work, using conscientiousness as an illustrative example. We used experience-sampling data from 123 managers to show that (a) momentary conscientiousness at work is contingent on the difficulty and urgency demands of the tasks people…

  15. Contingent reinforcement sustains post-detoxification abstinence from multiple drugs: a preliminary study with methadone patients.

    PubMed

    Chutuape, M A; Silverman, K; Stitzer, M

    1999-03-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a urinalysis-based contingency management program for preventing relapse to abused drugs following a brief residential detoxification. Fourteen methadone maintenance patients who were chronic benzodiazepine users were enrolled in a 7-day inpatient benzodiazepine detoxification and randomly assigned to receive Contingency Management (N = 7) or Standard Care (N = 7) therapy upon return to outpatient methadone treatment. In the Contingency Management condition, a methadone take-home dose or a US $25 voucher (patient's choice) could be earned for each urine sample submitted on a Monday, Wednesday or Friday that was free of opiates, cocaine and benzodiazepines. Data analysis and interpretation focused on within-group post-hoc differences due to group differences on employment and legal status, potentially confounding baseline variables. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that Contingency Management patients submitted significantly more drug-free urine samples during the intervention compared to pre-detoxification (p < 0.01), whereas no significance changes were observed from pre- to post-detoxification in the Standard Care patients. Employment and legal status of patients may have facilitated response to contingency management procedures, but did not prevent relapse when contingency management procedures were withdrawn. Overall, these preliminary results suggest that abstinence-based contingency management is a promising strategy for preventing relapse to multiple drugs of abuse in a subset of methadone maintenance patients when abstinence has been initiated through brief inpatient treatment.

  16. Reducing maladaptive weight management practices: developing a psychoeducational intervention program.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Karina M; LeBow, Michael D

    2007-04-01

    Previous research has addressed the issues of behavior change and eating disorder prevention among adolescents and young women. The current study was designed to evaluate: (a) whether an 8-week psychoeducational intervention can reduce maladaptive weight-management practices in women (University females, N=24) with sub-clinical levels of eating pathology; and (b) whether its implementation reduces the risk of developing more severe eating pathology across time. Participants were randomly assigned to an experimental (EX) group or a self-monitoring control (SMC) group. Statistically significant changes on measures of eating pathology, including the Eating Attitudes Test-26 [Garner, D. M., Olmsted, M. P., Bohr, Y., & Garfinkel, P. (1982). The Eating Attitudes Test: psychometric features and clinical correlates. Psychological Medicine, 12, 871-878]; Forbidden Food Survey [Ruggerio, L., Williamson, D. A., Davis, C. J., Schlundt, D. G., & Carey, M. P. (1988). Forbidden Food Survey: Measure of bulimic's anticipated emotional reactions to specific foods. Addictive Behaviors, 13, 267-274]; and Bulimia Test-Revised [Thelen, M. H., Farmer, J., Wonderlich, S., & Smith, M. (1991). A revision of the bulimia test: The BULIT-R. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 3(1), 119-124] were observed, as were changes in body image, as measured by the Body Shape Questionnaire [Cooper, P. J., Taylor, M. J., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C. G. (1987). The development and validation of the body shape questionnaire. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6(4), 485-494]. Additional significant between-group differences in eating behavior, as measured by daily meal records, were also seen. Participants in the EX group evidenced improvements in scores which were significantly different from those observed in the SMC group. Unfortunately, attrition limited the utility of follow up data.

  17. Effects of sensitization on the detection of an instrumental contingency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gavin D; Vugler, Anthony

    2011-11-01

    While prior exposure to drugs of abuse permanently changes many behaviors, the underlying psychological mechanisms are relatively obscure. Here, the effects of sensitization on the detection of an action-outcome relationship were assessed, using a particularly stringent contingency degradation procedure. Rats were trained to leverpress until the probability of reinforcement for a response on one lever, or alternative reinforcement for a response on a second lever was reduced to 0.05 per second. Sensitization was then carried out (1mg/kg d-amphetamine/day for 7 days). Then, one reinforcer was also made available for a lack of response on either lever (p=0.05/s), maintaining its contiguity with the original response but eliminating its contingent relationship. Sensitized animals were more active, particularly early in the contingency degradation phase, but reduced responding directed at the degraded action-outcome contingency at a similar rate as controls. However, controls also reduced responding directed at the nondegraded contingency until very late in training, while sensitized animals maintained nondegraded responding at baseline levels. It was suggested that the relatively specific response shown by sensitized animals may reflect either improved action-outcome utilization or discrimination of relevant task features.

  18. Accident Precursor Analysis and Management: Reducing Technological Risk Through Diligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phimister, James R. (Editor); Bier, Vicki M. (Editor); Kunreuther, Howard C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Almost every year there is at least one technological disaster that highlights the challenge of managing technological risk. On February 1, 2003, the space shuttle Columbia and her crew were lost during reentry into the atmosphere. In the summer of 2003, there was a blackout that left millions of people in the northeast United States without electricity. Forensic analyses, congressional hearings, investigations by scientific boards and panels, and journalistic and academic research have yielded a wealth of information about the events that led up to each disaster, and questions have arisen. Why were the events that led to the accident not recognized as harbingers? Why were risk-reducing steps not taken? This line of questioning is based on the assumption that signals before an accident can and should be recognized. To examine the validity of this assumption, the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) undertook the Accident Precursors Project in February 2003. The project was overseen by a committee of experts from the safety and risk-sciences communities. Rather than examining a single accident or incident, the committee decided to investigate how different organizations anticipate and assess the likelihood of accidents from accident precursors. The project culminated in a workshop held in Washington, D.C., in July 2003. This report includes the papers presented at the workshop, as well as findings and recommendations based on the workshop results and committee discussions. The papers describe precursor strategies in aviation, the chemical industry, health care, nuclear power and security operations. In addition to current practices, they also address some areas for future research.

  19. Reducing watershed scale phosphorus export through integrated management practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phosphorus losses from golf course have been documented and are comparable to losses from agriculture and urban areas. Integrated management practices are required to address the problem. An integrated management approach using filter socks and limiting the amount of phosphorus applied to the golf c...

  20. Reduce--recycle--reuse: guidelines for promoting perioperative waste management.

    PubMed

    Laustsen, Gary

    2007-04-01

    The perioperative environment generates large amounts of waste, which negatively affects local and global ecosystems. To manage this waste health care facility leaders must focus on identifying correctable issues, work with relevant stakeholders to promote solutions, and adopt systematic procedural changes. Nurses and managers can moderate negative environmental effects by promoting reduction, recycling, and reuse of materials in the perioperative setting.

  1. Contingency Planning for Planetary Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearden, Richard; Meuleau, Nicolas; Ramakrishnan, Sailesh; Smith, David; Washington, Rich; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There has been considerable work in AI on planning under uncertainty. But this work generally assumes an extremely simple model of action that does not consider continuous time and resources. These assumptions are not reasonable for a Mars rover, which must cope with uncertainty about the duration of tasks, the power required, the data storage necessary, along with its position and orientation. In this paper, we outline an approach to generating contingency plans when the sources of uncertainty involve continuous quantities such as time and resources. The approach involves first constructing a "seed" plan, and then incrementally adding contingent branches to this plan in order to improve utility. The challenge is to figure out the best places to insert contingency branches. This requires an estimate of how much utility could be gained by building a contingent branch at any given place in the seed plan. Computing this utility exactly is intractable, but we outline an approximation method that back propagates utility distributions through a graph structure similar to that of a plan graph.

  2. The Contingency Theory of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodnow, Wilma Elizabeth

    1982-01-01

    Develops a conceptual framework for determining the appropriateness of various methodologies. Concludes that educators should stop switching from one to another and recognize that the best methodology is contingent upon the circumstances. (Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe, Nr Lewes, East Sussex, BN8 5DL, UK) (JOW)

  3. The Psychophysics of Contingency Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Lorraine G.; Hannah, Samuel D.; Crump, Matthew J. C.; Siegel, Shepard

    2008-01-01

    The authors previously described a procedure that permits rapid, multiple within-participant evaluations of contingency assessment (the "streamed-trial" procedure, M. J. C. Crump, S. D. Hannah, L. G. Allan, & L. K. Hord, 2007). In the present experiments, they used the streamed-trial procedure, combined with the method of constant stimuli and a…

  4. Contingent Faculty and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaeger, Audrey J.

    2008-01-01

    While it may provide greater economic efficiency, the increased use of part-time faculty in colleges and universities has been strongly criticized. The criticisms of increased employment of contingent faculty are based on research that supports the idea that faculty-student interaction leads to positive outcomes, including increased cognitive and…

  5. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  6. Bayesian Full Rank Marginalization for Two-Way Contingency Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Tom; Novick, Melvin R.

    A general approach is proposed for modeling the structure of a two-way contingency table, and for drawing inferences about the marginal and interaction effects, cell parameters, and conditional probabilities. The prior distribution expresses uncertainty in a simple reduced model, in particular the independence model. The posterior estimates of the…

  7. Management Can Reduce Contamination Potential of Beef Backgrounding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Producers who want to “background” beef cattle on karst landscapes face great challenges. This is because without proper management, manure-borne contaminants from backgrounding sites can quickly degrade water quality in karst regions. Western Kentucky University and USDA-ARS reported on three-year ...

  8. Can weight management programs in worksites reduce the obesity epidemic?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Worksites can potentially be important locations for weight management programs that contribute to curbing the national obesity epidemic. In published studies, weight loss programs targeting overweight and obese employees have been relatively more effective for weight loss than programs for preventi...

  9. Feed management for beef feedlots to reduce air emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This power point presentation gives an overview of air emissions from beef cattle feedyards as well as nutritional and management techniques that might decrease these emissions. Topics include greenhouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide), ammonia, particulate matter and odors. This was presented as on...

  10. Improving Benefits and Reducing Costs: Managing Educational Secondments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Paquita; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A (British) educational "secondment" involves resource allocation from one institution to another and new forms of employee accountability and commitment. This article examines management implications of educational secondments, exploring costs and benefits accruing to 50 secondees, their seconding organizations, and those to which they…

  11. Management Science/Industrial Engineering Techniques to Reduce Food Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Murray

    This paper examines the contributions of Industrial Engineering and Management Science toward reduction in the cost of production and distribution of food. Food processing firms were requested to respond to a questionnaire which asked for examples of their use of various operations research tools and information on the number of operations…

  12. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Paul P. Guss

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes the contingency planning for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory scheduled for the 21-day window beginning on September 15, 2009. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTec’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. RSL is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment, sample collection and control, contaminated material release criteria, data management, reporting, recording, and even communications. The tools RSL has available to support these efforts will be reported. The data platform RSL will provide shall also be compatible with integration of assets and field data acquired with other DOE, National Space and Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), state, and local resources, personnel, and equipment. This paper also outlines the organizational structure for response elements in radiological contingency planning.

  13. Radiological Contingency Planning for the Mars Science Laboratory Launch

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Guss, Robert Augdahl, Bill Nickels, Cassandra Zellers

    2008-04-16

    This paper describes the contingency planning for the launch of the Mars Science Laboratory scheduled for the 21-day window beginning on September 15, 2009. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), based in Las Vegas, Nevada, will support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in its role for managing the overall radiological contingency planning support effort. This paper will focus on new technologies that NSTec’s Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing to enhance the overall response capability that would be required for a highly unlikely anomaly. This paper presents recent advances in collecting and collating data transmitted from deployed teams and sensors. RSL is responsible to prepare the contingency planning for a range of areas from monitoring and assessment, sample collection and control, contaminated material release criteria, data management, reporting, recording, and even communications. The tools RSL has available to support these efforts will be reported. The data platform RSL will provide shall also be compatible with integration of assets and field data acquired with other DOE, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, state, and local resources, personnel, and equipment. This paper also outlines the organizational structure for response elements in radiological contingency planning.

  14. Parallel contingency statistics with Titan.

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes existing statistical engines in VTK/Titan and presents the recently parallelized contingency statistics engine. It is a sequel to [PT08] and [BPRT09] which studied the parallel descriptive, correlative, multi-correlative, and principal component analysis engines. The ease of use of this new parallel engines is illustrated by the means of C++ code snippets. Furthermore, this report justifies the design of these engines with parallel scalability in mind; however, the very nature of contingency tables prevent this new engine from exhibiting optimal parallel speed-up as the aforementioned engines do. This report therefore discusses the design trade-offs we made and study performance with up to 200 processors.

  15. Contingent plan structures for spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, M.; Currie, K.; Tate, A.

    1987-01-01

    Most current AI planners build partially ordered plan structures which delay decisions on action ordering. Such structures cannot easily represent contingent actions. A representation which can is presented. The representation has some other useful features: it provides a good account of the causal structure of a plan, can be used to describe disjunctive actions, and it offers a planner the opportunity of even less commitment than the classical partial order on actions. The use of this representation is demonstrated in an on-board spacecraft activity sequencing problem. Contingent plan execution in a spacecraft context highlights the requirements for a fully disjunctive representation, since communication delays often prohibit extensive ground-based accounting for remotely sensed information and replanning on execution failure.

  16. Human factors in contingency operations.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Simon J; Khan, M A; Scott, T; Matthews, J J; Henning, Dcw; Stapley, S

    2016-06-10

    The UK Defence Medical Services are currently supporting contingency operations following a period of intensive activity in relatively mature trauma systems in Iraq and Afghanistan. Among the key lessons identified, human factors or non-technical skills played an important role in the improvement of patient care. This article describes the importance of human factors on Role 2 Afloat, one of the Royal Navy's maritime contingency capabilities, and illustrates how they are vital to ensuring that correct decisions are made for patient care in a timely manner. Teamwork and communication are particularly important to ensure that limited resources such as blood products and other consumables are best used and that patients are evacuated promptly, allowing the facility to accept further casualties and therefore maintain operational capability. These ideas may be transferred to any small specialist team given a particular role to perform.

  17. Reducing the variability of compound management delivery using visual management systems.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Philip; Ratcliffe, Stuart; Cole, Shaun

    2014-04-01

    The globalization and externalization of a pharmaceutical company's research and development (R&D) places considerable demands on its underpinning compound management (CM) capability. More robust CM workflows are needed to support higher demands and cross-continent supply chains. The tracking and visibility of compound orders progressing through CM processes has become crucial to ensure prompt and reliable delivery to customers and project timelines worldwide. AstraZeneca at Alderley Park UK has successfully introduced and integrated a visual management system into its CM processes to support the company's global R&D strategy. A simple, low-cost approach has been employed to track solid processing and solubilization orders. This reduced variability and end-to-end cycle times by decreasing waiting time between processing steps. The visual tracking system has been quick to implement, adaptable to change, and able to be owned and run by delivery teams. Introduction of the visual tracking system has resulted in significant improvements in order processing, both in terms of variability and speed. The percentage of orders processed within 24 h rose from 81.5% to 92.5%, and reductions of 50% and 17.5% in the average processing time were seen for solid dispense and solubilization orders, respectively.

  18. The value of fuel management in reducing wildfire damage

    Treesearch

    Kenneth W. Outcalt; Dale D. Wade

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of a regular prescribed burning program to reduce mortality of southern pines when forests are burned by wildfire. The study was installed on the Osceola National Forest in where about 10,000 ha of flatwoods forest type was burned by arson set wildfires under extreme conditions in June 1998. Stands within the...

  19. Systems Engineering for Contingency Basing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-30

    Experiment Software Engineering Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of... Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 UNCLASSIFIED Contract Number: H98230-08-D-0171 TO 0010, RT 033 Report No. SERC-2012-TR-033...and verification (V&V) of Contingency Basing concepts and early formulation will be difficult because in its current form it is an applied practice

  20. Suited Contingency Ops Food - 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, J. W.; Leong, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

  1. Comparison of Anxiety Management Training and Desensitization in Reducing Test and Other Anxieties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Shelton, John L.

    1978-01-01

    Effects of systematic desensitization and anxiety management training in reducing test anxiety and generalizing to other anxieties were compared. Both desensitization and anxiety management training produced significant reduction of text anxiety, but by follow-up, anxiety management training produced significantly more test-anxiety reduction on…

  2. Waste management: three R's (reduce, reuse, recycle) reduce waste, save money.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, G

    1993-01-01

    This article outlines the problems of waste disposal in health care facilities and offers practical ways to reduce, reuse, recycle, and compost waste in the health care setting. The author presents data on medical waste, gives alternatives to incineration, and describes recycling practices at various hospitals.

  3. Contingent post-closure plan, hazardous waste management units at selected maintenance facilities, US Army National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, is a US Army training installation that provides tactical experience for battalion/task forces and squadrons in a mid- to high-intensity combat scenario. Through joint exercises with US Air Force and other services, the NTC also provides a data source for improvements of training doctrines, organization, and equipment. To meet the training and operational needs of the NTC, several maintenance facilities provide general and direct support for mechanical devices, equipment, and vehicles. Maintenance products used at these facilities include fuels, petroleum-based oils, lubricating grease, various degreasing solvents, antifreeze (ethylene glycol), transmission fluid, brake fluid, and hydraulic oil. Used or spent petroleum-based products generated at the maintenance facilities are temporarily accumulated in underground storage tanks (USTs), collected by the NTC hazardous waste management contractor (HAZCO), and stored at the Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant (POL) Storage Facility, Building 630, until shipped off site to be recovered, reused, and/or reclaimed. Spent degreasing solvents and other hazardous wastes are containerized and stored on-base for up to 90 days at the NTC`s Hazardous Waste Storage Facility, Building 703. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed an inspection and reviewed the hazardous waste management operations of the NTC. Inspections indicated that the NTC had violated one or more requirements of Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and as a result of these violations was issued a Notice of Noncompliance, Notice of Necessity for Conference, and Proposed Compliance Schedule (NON) dated October 13, 1989. The following post-closure plan is the compliance-based approach for the NTC to respond to the regulatory violations cited in the NON.

  4. Contingent post-closure plan, hazardous waste management units at selected maintenance facilities, US Army National Training Center, Fort Irwin, California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California, is a US Army training installation that provides tactical experience for battalion/task forces and squadrons in a mid- to high-intensity combat scenario. Through joint exercises with US Air Force and other services, the NTC also provides a data source for improvements of training doctrines, organization, and equipment. To meet the training and operational needs of the NTC, several maintenance facilities provide general and direct support for mechanical devices, equipment, and vehicles. Maintenance products used at these facilities include fuels, petroleum-based oils, lubricating grease, various degreasing solvents, antifreeze (ethylene glycol), transmission fluid, brake fluid, and hydraulic oil. Used or spent petroleum-based products generated at the maintenance facilities are temporarily accumulated in underground storage tanks (USTs), collected by the NTC hazardous waste management contractor (HAZCO), and stored at the Petroleum, Oil, and Lubricant (POL) Storage Facility, Building 630, until shipped off site to be recovered, reused, and/or reclaimed. Spent degreasing solvents and other hazardous wastes are containerized and stored on-base for up to 90 days at the NTC's Hazardous Waste Storage Facility, Building 703. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) performed an inspection and reviewed the hazardous waste management operations of the NTC. Inspections indicated that the NTC had violated one or more requirements of Subtitle C of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and as a result of these violations was issued a Notice of Noncompliance, Notice of Necessity for Conference, and Proposed Compliance Schedule (NON) dated October 13, 1989. The following post-closure plan is the compliance-based approach for the NTC to respond to the regulatory violations cited in the NON.

  5. The Management of Decline in Education: The Case of Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo, Manuel; Hache, Jean B.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the social and organizational contexts of enrollment decline in Quebec (Canada) and describes the management strategies adopted by Quebec school districts to survive within reduced budgets and to try to increase budgets. Proposes a contingency model of the districts' management strategies and discusses the strategies' consequences and…

  6. Performance Evaluation of Counter-Based Dynamic Load Balancing Schemes for Massive Contingency Analysis with Different Computing Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yousu; Huang, Zhenyu; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel

    2010-09-30

    Contingency analysis is a key function in the Energy Management System (EMS) to assess the impact of various combinations of power system component failures based on state estimation. Contingency analysis is also extensively used in power market operation for feasibility test of market solutions. High performance computing holds the promise of faster analysis of more contingency cases for the purpose of safe and reliable operation of today’s power grids with less operating margin and more intermittent renewable energy sources. This paper evaluates the performance of counter-based dynamic load balancing schemes for massive contingency analysis under different computing environments. Insights from the performance evaluation can be used as guidance for users to select suitable schemes in the application of massive contingency analysis. Case studies, as well as MATLAB simulations, of massive contingency cases using the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power grid model are presented to illustrate the application of high performance computing with counter-based dynamic load balancing schemes.

  7. Water engineering. Reducing sewer corrosion through integrated urban water management.

    PubMed

    Pikaar, Ilje; Sharma, Keshab R; Hu, Shihu; Gernjak, Wolfgang; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2014-08-15

    Sewer systems are among the most critical infrastructure assets for modern urban societies and provide essential human health protection. Sulfide-induced concrete sewer corrosion costs billions of dollars annually and has been identified as a main cause of global sewer deterioration. We performed a 2-year sampling campaign in South East Queensland (Australia), an extensive industry survey across Australia, and a comprehensive model-based scenario analysis of the various sources of sulfide. Aluminum sulfate addition during drinking water production contributes substantially to the sulfate load in sewage and indirectly serves as the primary source of sulfide. This unintended consequence of urban water management structures could be avoided by switching to sulfate-free coagulants, with no or only marginal additional expenses compared with the large potential savings in sewer corrosion costs.

  8. Management strategies to reduce risk of postoperative infections.

    PubMed

    Galor, Anat; Goldhardt, Raquel; Wellik, Sarah R; Gregori, Ninel Z; Flynn, Harry W

    2013-12-01

    Postoperative infections, although rare, are still of great concern to the ophthalmologist. The incidence of post-cataract endophthalmitis is low, with a range of .28 per 1,000 to 2.99 per 1000. In addition to intraoperative considerations such as poor wound construction, vitreous loss, topical anesthesia, and prolonged surgical time, other risk factors include preoperative factors such as a diseased ocular surface and systemic immunosuppression. Potential methods of reducing risk of endophthalmitis after anterior segment surgery are discussed and available literature is summarized.

  9. Management strategies to reduce risk of postoperative infections

    PubMed Central

    Galor, Anat; Goldhardt, Raquel; Wellik, Sarah R.; Gregori, Ninel Z.; Flynn, Harry W.

    2013-01-01

    Postoperative infections, although rare, are still of great concern to the ophthalmologist. The incidence of post-cataract endophthalmitis is low, with a range of .28 per 1,000 to 2.99 per 1000. In addition to intraoperative considerations such as poor wound construction, vitreous loss, topical anesthesia, and prolonged surgical time, other risk factors include preoperative factors such as a diseased ocular surface and systemic immunosuppression. Potential methods of reducing risk of endophthalmitis after anterior segment surgery are discussed and available literature is summarized. PMID:24319649

  10. Municipal solid waste management in rural areas and small counties: an economic analysis using contingent valuation to estimate willingness to pay for Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; He, Jie; Kim, Yoonhee; Kamata, Takuya

    2014-08-01

    Municipal solid waste management (SWM) is a major challenge for local governments in rural China. One key issue is the low priority assigned by the local government which is faced with limited financing capacity. We conducted an economic analysis in Eryuan, a poor county in Yunnan, China, where the willingness- to- pay (WTP) for an improved solid waste collection and disposal service was valuated and compared with project cost. Similar to most previous studies in developing countries, this study found that the mean WTP is approximately 1% of the household income. The economic internal rate of return of the project is about 5%, which signifies the estimated social benefit to be already higher than the project cost. Moreover, we believe our estimation of social benefit to be a conservative one since our study only focuses on the local people who will be directly served by the project; wider positive externality of the project, such as CO2 emission reduction and groundwater pollution alleviation, etc., whose impact most probably surpass the frontier of Eryuan county, are not considered explicitly in our survey. The analysis also reveals that the poorest households are not only willing to pay more than the rich households in terms of percentage income but are also willing to pay no less than the rich in terms of absolute value in locations where solid waste services are unavailable. This result reveals the fact that the poorest households have stronger demands for public SWM services, whereas the rich may have the ability to employ private solutions.

  11. Waste management: how reducing partiality can promote efficient resource allocation.

    PubMed

    Choshen-Hillel, Shoham; Shaw, Alex; Caruso, Eugene M

    2015-08-01

    Two central principles that guide resource-allocation decisions are equity (providing equal pay for equal work) and efficiency (not wasting resources). When these two principles conflict with one another, people will often waste resources to avoid inequity. We suggest that people wish to avoid inequity not because they find it inherently unfair, but because they want to avoid the appearance of partiality associated with it. We explore one way to reduce waste by reducing the perceived partiality of inequitable allocations. Specifically, we hypothesize that people will be more likely to favor an efficient (albeit inequitable) allocation if it puts them in a disadvantaged position than if it puts others in a disadvantaged position. To test this hypothesis, we asked participants to choose between giving some extra resource to one person (thereby creating inequity between this person and equally deserving others) and not giving the resource to anyone (thereby wasting the resource). Six studies, using realistic scenarios and behavioral paradigms, provide robust evidence for a self-disadvantaging effect: Allocators were consistently more likely to create inequity to avoid wasting resources when the resulting inequity would put them at a relative disadvantage than when it would put others at a relative disadvantage. We further find that this self-disadvantaging effect is a direct result of people's concern about appearing partial. Our findings suggest the importance of impartiality even in distributive justice, thereby bridging a gap between the distributive and procedural justice literatures.

  12. The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation Contingency Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Case, Warren F.; Richon, Karen

    2005-01-01

    The Earth Science Afternoon Constellation comprises NASA missions Aqua, Aura, CloudSat and the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO), the joint NASA/CNES mission CALIPSO and the CNES mission PARASOL. Both NASA and CNES offices are responsible for ensuring that contingency plans or other arrangements exist to cope with contingencies within their respective jurisdictions until the conclusion of all Afternoon Constellation operations. The Mission Operations Working Group, comprised of members from each of the missions, has developed the high-level procedures for maintaining the safety of this constellation. Each contingency situation requires detailed analyses before any decisions are made. This paper describes these procedures, and includes defining what constitutes a contingency situation, the pertinent parameters involved in the contingency analysis and guidelines for the actions required, based on the results of the contingency analyses.

  13. Reducing the cognitive workload: Trouble managing power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.; Liberman, Eugene M.; Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.

    1993-01-01

    The complexity of space-based systems makes monitoring them and diagnosing their faults taxing for human beings. Mission control operators are well-trained experts but they can not afford to have their attention diverted by extraneous information. During normal operating conditions monitoring the status of the components of a complex system alone is a big task. When a problem arises, immediate attention and quick resolution is mandatory. To aid humans in these endeavors we have developed an automated advisory system. Our advisory expert system, Trouble, incorporates the knowledge of the power system designers for Space Station Freedom. Trouble is designed to be a ground-based advisor for the mission controllers in the Control Center Complex at Johnson Space Center (JSC). It has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and tested in conjunction with prototype flight hardware contained in the Power Management and Distribution testbed and the Engineering Support Center, ESC, at LeRC. Our work will culminate with the adoption of these techniques by the mission controllers at JSC. This paper elucidates how we have captured power system failure knowledge, how we have built and tested our expert system, and what we believe are its potential uses.

  14. Reducing the cognitive workload: Trouble managing power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manner, David B.; Liberman, Eugene M.; Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.

    1993-12-01

    The complexity of space-based systems makes monitoring them and diagnosing their faults taxing for human beings. Mission control operators are well-trained experts but they can not afford to have their attention diverted by extraneous information. During normal operating conditions monitoring the status of the components of a complex system alone is a big task. When a problem arises, immediate attention and quick resolution is mandatory. To aid humans in these endeavors we have developed an automated advisory system. Our advisory expert system, Trouble, incorporates the knowledge of the power system designers for Space Station Freedom. Trouble is designed to be a ground-based advisor for the mission controllers in the Control Center Complex at Johnson Space Center (JSC). It has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and tested in conjunction with prototype flight hardware contained in the Power Management and Distribution testbed and the Engineering Support Center, ESC, at LeRC. Our work will culminate with the adoption of these techniques by the mission controllers at JSC. This paper elucidates how we have captured power system failure knowledge, how we have built and tested our expert system, and what we believe are its potential uses.

  15. Reducing the cognitive workload - Trouble managing power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manner, David B.; Liberman, Eugene M.; Dolce, James L.; Mellor, Pamela A.

    1993-01-01

    The complexity of space-based systems makes monitoring them and diagnosing their faults taxing for human beings. When a problem arises, immediate attention and quick resolution is mandatory. To aid humans in these endeavors we have developed an automated advisory system. Our advisory expert system, Trouble, incorporates the knowledge of the power system designers for Space Station Freedom. Trouble is designed to be a ground-based advisor for the mission controllers in the Control Center Complex at Johnson Space Center (JSC). It has been developed at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and tested in conjunction with prototype flight hardware contained in the Power Management and Distribution testbed and the Engineering Support Center, ESC, at LeRC. Our work will culminate with the adoption of these techniques by the mission controllers at JSC. This paper elucidates how we have captured power system failure knowledge, how we have built and tested our expert system, and what we believe its potential uses are.

  16. Animal management to reduce phosphorus losses to the environment.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, K F; Radcliffe, J S; Novak, C L; Emmerson, D A

    2004-01-01

    Water quality in the United States is threatened by contamination with nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus. Animal manure can be a valuable resource for farmers, providing nutrients, improving soil structure, and increasing vegetative cover to decrease erosion potential. At the same time, application of manure nutrients in excess of crop requirements can result in environmental contamination. Environmental concerns with P are primarily associated with pollution of surface water (streams, lakes, rivers). This pollution may be caused by runoff of P when application to land is in excess of crop requirements. Increased specialization and concentration of livestock and crop production has led to the net export of nutrients from major crop-producing areas of the country to areas with a high concentration of animal agriculture. Concentrated animal agriculture has been identified as a significant source of P contamination of surface water. Areas facing the dilemma of an economically important livestock industry concentrated in an environmentally sensitive area have few options. If agricultural practices continue as they have in the past, continued damage to water resources and a loss of fishing and recreational activity are inevitable. If agricultural productivity is decreased, however, the maintenance of a stable farm economy, a viable rural economy, and a reliable domestic food supply are seriously threatened. Decreasing the P content of manure through nutrition is a powerful, cost-effective approach to reducing P losses from livestock farms and will help farmers meet increasingly stringent environmental regulations. This paper reviews opportunities available to reduce the P content of livestock manure, including more accurate interpretation of the published P requirements of animals, improved diet formulation and group-feeding strategies to more precisely meet requirements, and approaches to improve availability of feed P for monogastric and ruminant species.

  17. Cyber Contingency Analysis version 1.x

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-02

    Contingency analysis based approach for quantifying and examining the resiliency of a cyber system in respect to confidentiality, integrity and availability. A graph representing an organization's cyber system and related resources is used for the availability contingency analysis. The mission critical paths associated with an organization are used to determine the consequences of a potential contingency. A node (or combination of nodes) are removed from the graph to analyze a particular contingency. The value of all mission critical paths that are disrupted by that contingency are used to quantify its severity. A total severity score can be calculated based on the complete list of all these contingencies. A simple n1 analysis can be done in which only one node is removed at a time for the analysis. We can also compute nk analysis, where k is the number of nodes to simultaneously remove for analysis. A contingency risk score can also be computed, which takes the probability of the contingencies into account. In addition to availability, we can also quantify confidentiality and integrity scores for the system. These treat user accounts as potential contingencies. The amount (and type) of files that an account can read to is used to compute the confidentiality score. The amount (and type) of files that an account can write to is used to compute the integrity score. As with availability analysis, we can use this information to compute total severity scores in regards to confidentiality and integrity. We can also take probability into account to compute associated risk scores.

  18. Development of the Air Force Contingency Contracting Course Framework

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    AUTHOR(S) 7.PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) B. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Air Force Institute of Technology , WPAFB OH 45433...Logistics and Acquisition Management of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air Education and Training Command I- 0 artial Fulfillment of the...officers that were deployed in support of the contingency, as well as other more recent Air Force Institute of Technology 1AFIT) theses, corroborated

  19. Graphical Contingency Analysis for the Nation's Electric Grid

    ScienceCinema

    Zhenyu (Henry) Huang

    2016-07-12

    PNNL has developed a new tool to manage the electric grid more effectively, helping prevent blackouts and brownouts--and possibly avoiding millions of dollars in fines for system violations. The Graphical Contingency Analysis tool monitors grid performance, shows prioritized lists of problems, provides visualizations of potential consequences, and helps operators identify the most effective courses of action. This technology yields faster, better decisions and a more stable and reliable power grid.

  20. Evolutionary contingency and SETI revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, Milan M.

    2014-07-01

    The well-known argument against the Search for ExtraTerrestrial Intelligence (SETI) due to George Gaylord Simpson is re-analyzed almost half a century later, in the light of our improved understanding of preconditions for the emergence of life and intelligence brought about by the ongoing "astrobiological revolution". Simpson's argument has been enormously influential, in particular in biological circles, and it arguably fueled the most serious opposition to SETI programmes and their funding. I argue that both proponents and opponents of Simpson's argument have occasionally mispresented its core content. Proponents often oversimplify it as just another consequence of biological contingency, thus leaving their position open to general arguments limiting the scope of contingency in evolution (such as the recent argument of Geerat Vermeij based on selection effects in the fossil record). They also tend to neglect that the argument has been presented as essentially atemporal, while referring to entities and processes that are likely to change over time; this has become even less justifiable as our astrobiological knowledge increased in recent years. Opponents have failed to see that the weaknesses in Simpson's position could be removed by restructuring of the argument; I suggest one way of such restructuring, envisioned long ago in the fictional context by Stanislaw Lem. While no firm consensus has emerged on the validity of Simpson's argument so far, I suggest that, contrary to the original motivation, today it is less an anti-SETI argument, and more an astrobiological research programme. In this research programme, SETI could be generalized into a platform for testing some of the deepest assumptions about evolutionary continuity and the relative role of contingency versus convergence on unprecedented spatial and temporal scales.

  1. Development of Medical Technology for Contingency Response to Marrow Toxic Agents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-30

    closed. IIB.4 Task 2: Central Contingency Management Period 7 Activity: African American ( AFA ) Few 10/10 Matched Donor Study The AFA research study...continued to evaluate NMDP process interventions for AFA searches, which included proactive HLA expert review of AFA patient searches, proactive...ability for process changes to increase AFA patients’ chances to proceed to transplant, particularly in time of a contingency event. In the current

  2. On privacy, causes, and contingencies

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Jay

    1984-01-01

    Radical behaviorism may be distinguished from other varieties of behaviorism, notably methodological behaviorism, by the way it accommodates private events in causal explanations of behavior. That is, in an operational sense, radical behaviorism accommodates private phenomena in the context of the three term contingency of reinforcement with regard to their discriminative function, their nature as responses, or their reinforcing function. In any case, any contribution of a private phenomenon is presumably linked at some point to a prior public event that has endowed the private phenomenon with its functional significance. PMID:22478592

  3. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  4. Management Options For Reducing The Release Of Antibiotics And Antibiotic Resistance Genes To The Environment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water - 77 environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. 78 Objective: To identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and 79 antibiotic resist...

  5. Creating Access to Invisible Special Collections: Using Participatory Management to Reduce a Backlog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, M. Winslow; Hollis, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries used participatory management to reduce a special collections backlog. Without an increase in budget or staffing, technical and public services departments designed a pilot project to redeploy internal human resources in a collaborative manner. The process of backlog management is discussed.

  6. How to reduce injuries to residual trees during stand management activities.

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Aho; Gary Fiddler; Gregory M. Filip

    1983-01-01

    Losses of trees and tree volume that result from decay initiated by mechanical injuries during stand management activities in the western United States are substantial. They can be reduced through improved logging methods and careful planning of other forest management activities.

  7. Creating Access to Invisible Special Collections: Using Participatory Management to Reduce a Backlog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundy, M. Winslow; Hollis, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries used participatory management to reduce a special collections backlog. Without an increase in budget or staffing, technical and public services departments designed a pilot project to redeploy internal human resources in a collaborative manner. The process of backlog management is discussed.

  8. Energy Shortage Contingency Plan. (California Energy Commission)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The California Energy Commission's 1993 Energy Shortage Contingency Plan is prepared in response to state legislative requirements. The statute directs the California Energy Commission to prepare and submit to the Governor and Legislature contingency plans to deal with possible shortages of electrical energy or fuel supplies to protect public health, safety and welfare.

  9. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  10. 40 CFR 51.152 - Contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Contingency plans. 51.152 Section 51.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS... emergency agencies and news media. (c) Each plan for a Priority IA and II region must include a contingency...

  11. 40 CFR 51.152 - Contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Contingency plans. 51.152 Section 51.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS... emergency agencies and news media. (c) Each plan for a Priority IA and II region must include a contingency...

  12. 40 CFR 51.152 - Contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contingency plans. 51.152 Section 51.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS... emergency agencies and news media. (c) Each plan for a Priority IA and II region must include a contingency...

  13. 40 CFR 51.152 - Contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contingency plans. 51.152 Section 51.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS... emergency agencies and news media. (c) Each plan for a Priority IA and II region must include a contingency...

  14. 40 CFR 51.152 - Contingency plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Contingency plans. 51.152 Section 51.152 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS REQUIREMENTS... emergency agencies and news media. (c) Each plan for a Priority IA and II region must include a contingency...

  15. 9 CFR 2.134 - Contingency planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Contingency planning. 2.134 Section 2.134 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.134 Contingency planning. (a) Dealers, exhibitors...

  16. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... dollar limitations for purchases made to support a contingency operation. (See 13.306.) (e) Test program for certain commercial items. The threshold limits authorized for use of the test program may be increased for acquisitions to support a contingency operation. (See 13.500(e).) ...

  17. A Primer on Improving Contingent Faculty Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Heidi; Untener, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Challenges associated with the increasing use of contingent faculty appointments in American higher education are mounting. The AAUP and other professional groups have identified several major problems: (1) unacceptable conditions and compensation for contingent faculty members; (2) poor learning outcomes for students; and (3) the potential…

  18. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  19. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  20. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  1. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  2. 49 CFR 1542.301 - Contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Contingency plan. 1542.301 Section 1542.301 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRPORT SECURITY Contingency Measures §...

  3. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  4. Base Rates, Contingencies, and Prediction Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kareev, Yaakov; Fiedler, Klaus; Avrahami, Judith

    2009-01-01

    A skew in the base rate of upcoming events can often provide a better cue for accurate predictions than a contingency between signals and events. The authors study prediction behavior and test people's sensitivity to both base rate and contingency; they also examine people's ability to compare the benefits of both for prediction. They formalize…

  5. A Primer on Improving Contingent Faculty Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Heidi; Untener, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Challenges associated with the increasing use of contingent faculty appointments in American higher education are mounting. The AAUP and other professional groups have identified several major problems: (1) unacceptable conditions and compensation for contingent faculty members; (2) poor learning outcomes for students; and (3) the potential…

  6. Mothers' Contingent Imitation Increases Infant Vocalizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelaez-Nogueras, Martha; Gewirtz, Jacob L.

    This study compared the reinforcement effects of imitation to the elicitation effects of noncontingent maternal vocal stimulation. Subjects were 17 three- to six-month-old infants and their mothers. Infants received three successive experimental conditions: contingent imitation B1, noncontingent elicitations, and contingent imitation B2. Under the…

  7. Contingency Planning. Technical Assistance Bulletin 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Toole, C. P.

    This bulletin describes a set of general guidelines for developing contingency plans that prepare school systems to cope with expected and unexpected disruptions in the educational process. Typically, contingency plans are prepared to anticipate consequences of school desegregation, natural disasters, bomb threats, or mass demonstrations. The…

  8. Contingency Pest Management Guide. 2010 Edition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    infections. Examples include bees, wasps, hornets, yellow jackets, spiders, centipedes, scorpions and urticating caterpillars . Personnel should be...during exercises, and temporary areas in the field (e.g., a temporary aircraft landing strips or field support areas set up in tents ) are not considered...Permethrin 6840-01-334-2666 BX (12) 151 ml bottles 1 bt. to 2 gal water For use in 2-gal. sprayer for treatment of BDU/ACU/DCU, bed nets and tents

  9. Contingency Management in a Correctional Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, John M.

    1971-01-01

    The individually prescribed instruction (IPI) system in use at Draper Correctional Center was studied. The IPI system for basic education involves five operations: (1) establishing the learning objectives--basic literacy, educational skills prerequisite for occupational training, preparation for the GED high school equivalency examination, etc.,…

  10. Developing Disaster Contingency Plans: Management Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abowd, Anthony; Catrambone, Joseph A.

    1979-01-01

    Methods for examining the risk of long-term interruptions of data processing in large computer centers are discussed. Procedures are outlined for responding to such a disaster, with the University of Illinois Administrative Computer Center and its security system cited as an example. (SF)

  11. Contingency bias in probability judgement may arise from ambiguity regarding additional causes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Chris J; Griffiths, Oren; More, Pranjal; Lovibond, Peter F

    2013-09-01

    In laboratory contingency learning tasks, people usually give accurate estimates of the degree of contingency between a cue and an outcome. However, if they are asked to estimate the probability of the outcome in the presence of the cue, they tend to be biased by the probability of the outcome in the absence of the cue. This bias is often attributed to an automatic contingency detection mechanism, which is said to act via an excitatory associative link to activate the outcome representation at the time of testing. We conducted 3 experiments to test alternative accounts of contingency bias. Participants were exposed to the same outcome probability in the presence of the cue, but different outcome probabilities in the absence of the cue. Phrasing the test question in terms of frequency rather than probability and clarifying the test instructions reduced but did not eliminate contingency bias. However, removal of ambiguity regarding the presence of additional causes during the test phase did eliminate contingency bias. We conclude that contingency bias may be due to ambiguity in the test question, and therefore it does not require postulation of a separate associative link-based mechanism.

  12. Differing views of contingencies: How contiguous?

    PubMed Central

    Lattal, Kennon A.; Shahan, Timothy A.

    1997-01-01

    The contingency between environmental events and behavior has proven to be a useful concept in the study of both behavior and cognition. There is common ground in the definition of contingency in both domains, but interpretations of the basis of its action differ. For behavior analysts the contingency acts through both its direct, response-strengthening effect and indirectly through its function as a discriminative stimulus. Cognitive accounts, as represented in the work of both Bower and Watson, focus more on the organism's detection and interpretation of the contingency as the basis of its action. Despite such conceptual differences, Watson's quantitative descriptions of contingency effects seem relevant to feedback functions that describe reinforcement schedule performance and, as such, may bear on research involving combinations of response-dependent and response-independent food presentations and on superstitious behavior. PMID:22478289

  13. Consolidating AMC’s Contingency Response Capabilities: A Delphi Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-19

    rapid response capabilities, inability to provide full-time JTF-PO alert coverage, and reduced CR standardization. The least important disadvantages ...doing (ADCON) Reserve/Guard Unit (Majority of CR capability to ARC, TFI, or all to ARC) could provide these disadvantages : ____ 36-hour response time...CONSOLIDATING AMC’S CONTINGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITIES: A DELPHI STUDY GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER June 2015 Brad P. Bowyer, Major, USAF AFIT- ENS-GRP-15

  14. A systematic evidence review of school-based group contingency interventions for students with challenging behavior.

    PubMed

    Maggin, Daniel M; Johnson, Austin H; Chafouleas, Sandra M; Ruberto, Laura M; Berggren, Melissa

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this review was to synthesize the research underlying group contingency interventions to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support their use for managing the classroom behavior of students with behavioral difficulties. An application of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) procedures for evaluating single-subject research revealed that the research investigating group contingencies demonstrated sufficient rigor, evidence, and replication to label the intervention as evidence-based. These findings were further supported across five quantitative indices of treatment effect. The results associated with the application of the WWC procedures and quantitative evaluations were supplemented with additional systematic coding of methodological features and study characteristics to evaluate the populations and conditions under which the effects of the group contingency best generalize. Findings associated with this coding revealed that the lack of detailed reporting across studies limited our ability to determine for whom and under what conditions group contingencies are best suited.

  15. Restructuring materiel management functions: a method for prioritizing changes and reducing costs.

    PubMed

    Craig, K W

    1992-02-01

    The success of any manager depends highly on the ability to seize on opportunities that will achieve the organization's goals. Hospitals are currently searching for ways to reduce costs while maintaining or enhancing the quality of services. Quality services are increasingly being defined as those that are most responsive to customer needs. It is important, as hospital management restructures materiel systems or methods of operation for reduced costs, to focus on the user departments as the customers. The consolidation of materiel management activity should not be seen as a loss of control at the user department level. Instead it can be seen as a new way of providing service with higher quality. User departments should see concrete benefits on a weekly basis, including reduced time spent on materiel management functions; increased planning of purchasing, inventory, and distribution functions; and assistance in meeting restricted supply budgets.

  16. Historical Contingency in Controlled Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A basic question in evolution is dealing with the nature of an evolutionary memory. At thermodynamic equilibrium, at stable stationary states or other stable attractors the memory on the path leading to the long-time solution is erased, at least in part. Similar arguments hold for unique optima. Optimality in biology is discussed on the basis of microbial metabolism. Biology, on the other hand, is characterized by historical contingency, which has recently become accessible to experimental test in bacterial populations evolving under controlled conditions. Computer simulations give additional insight into the nature of the evolutionary memory, which is ultimately caused by the enormous space of possibilities that is so large that it escapes all attempts of visualization. In essence, this contribution is dealing with two questions of current evolutionary theory: (i) Are organisms operating at optimal performance? and (ii) How is the evolutionary memory built up in populations?

  17. [Contingent nurses' burnout and influencing factors].

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Ock; Moon, Sook Ja; Han, Sang Sook

    2010-12-01

    This study was designed to identify burnout and factors influencing burnout in contingent nurses. A cross-sectional design was conducted with a sample of 228 contingent nurses randomly selected from 25 general hospitals in Korea. The tools used for this study were scales measuring burnout (8 items), job stress (8 items), job satisfaction (9 items), self efficacy (9 items), organizational commitment (9 items), empowerment (9 items), autonomy (7 items) and social support (8 items). The data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0 employing Pearson correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis. The mean score for burnout in contingent nurses was 3.05 points. Factors influencing burnout in contingent nurses were identified as job stress (β=.40), satisfaction level with current ward (β=-.25), organizational commitment (β=-.21), job satisfaction (β=-.19) and empowerment (β=-.16). These factors explained 65.0% of burnout reported by contingent nurses. The results indicate which factors are major factors influencing burnout in contingent nurses in general hospitals. Therefore, these factors may serve as predictors of burnout in contingent nurses.

  18. Managing a subsidized predator population: Reducing common raven predation on desert tortoises

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boarman, W.I.

    2003-01-01

    Human communities often are an inadvertent source of food, water, and other resources to native species of wildlife. Because these resources are more stable and predictable than those in a natural environment, animals that subsist on them are able to increase in numbers and expand their range, much to the detriment of their competitors and species they prey upon. In the Mojave Desert, common ravens (Corvus corax) have benefited from human-provided resources to increase in population size precipitously in recent years. This trend has caused concern because ravens prey on juvenile desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii), a federally threatened species. In this paper, I discuss management strategies to reduce raven predation on desert tortoises. The recommendations fall into three categories: (1) managing raven populations by reducing access to anthropogenic resources; (2) removing offending ravens or other birds in specially targeted tortoise management zones; and (3) continuing research on raven ecology, raven behavior, and methods of reducing raven predation on tortoises. I also recommend approaching the problem within an adaptive management framework: management efforts should first be employed as scientific experiments - with replicates and controls - to yield an unbiased assessment of their effectiveness. Furthermore, these strategies should be implemented in concert with actions that reduce other causes of desert tortoise mortality to aid the long-term recovery of their populations. Overall, the approaches outlined in this paper are widely applicable to the management of subsidized predators, particularly where they present a threat to a declining species of prey.

  19. Abnormal contingent negative variation in HIV patients receiving antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Linda L.; Cardenas, Valerie A.; Meyerhoff, Dieter J.; Rothlind, Johannes C.; Flenniken, Derek L.; Lindgren, Joselyn A.; Weiner, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    The contingent negative variation, an event-related potential related to neural activity in the frontal lobe and basal ganglia, neuropsychological tests and structural MRI were used to examine CNS function and structure in HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. Relative to controls, HIV patients had smaller thalamic volume and reduced late contingent negative variation amplitude that correlated with caudal atrophy. Behaviorally, viremic patients were more impaired than virally suppressed patients and controls on neuropsychological measures of psychomotor speed, selective attention and mental flexibility. These results suggest that antiretroviral therapy may not be effective in protecting cortical and subcortical structures against HIV-related neuropathology, regardless of immune function. However, the benefits of antiretroviral therapy on immune function appear to facilitate neurocognitive performance. PMID:14600507

  20. Gaze-Contingent Music Reward Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Lazarov, Amit; Pine, Daniel S; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2017-07-01

    Patients with social anxiety disorder exhibit increased attentional dwelling on social threats, providing a viable target for therapeutics. This randomized controlled trial examined the efficacy of a novel gaze-contingent music reward therapy for social anxiety disorder designed to reduce attention dwelling on threats. Forty patients with social anxiety disorder were randomly assigned to eight sessions of either gaze-contingent music reward therapy, designed to divert patients' gaze toward neutral stimuli rather than threat stimuli, or to a control condition. Clinician and self-report measures of social anxiety were acquired pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 3-month follow-up. Dwell time on socially threatening faces was assessed during the training sessions and at pre- and posttreatment. Gaze-contingent music reward therapy yielded greater reductions of symptoms of social anxiety disorder than the control condition on both clinician-rated and self-reported measures. Therapeutic effects were maintained at follow-up. Gaze-contingent music reward therapy, but not the control condition, also reduced dwell time on threat, which partially mediated clinical effects. Finally, gaze-contingent music reward therapy, but not the control condition, also altered dwell time on socially threatening faces not used in training, reflecting near-transfer training generalization. This is the first randomized controlled trial to examine a gaze-contingent intervention in social anxiety disorder. The results demonstrate target engagement and clinical effects. This study sets the stage for larger randomized controlled trials and testing in other emotional disorders.

  1. Dissociating contingency awareness and conditioned attitudes: evidence of contingency-unaware evaluative conditioning.

    PubMed

    Hütter, Mandy; Sweldens, Steven; Stahl, Christoph; Unkelbach, Christian; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Whether human evaluative conditioning can occur without contingency awareness has been the subject of an intense and ongoing debate for decades, troubled by a wide array of methodological difficulties. Following recent methodological innovations, the available evidence currently points to the conclusion that evaluative conditioning effects do not occur without contingency awareness. In a simulation, we demonstrate, however, that these innovations are strongly biased toward the conclusion that evaluative conditioning requires contingency awareness, confounding the measurement of contingency memory with conditioned attitudes. We adopt a process-dissociation procedure to separate the memory and attitude components. In 4 studies, the attitude parameter is validated using existing attitudes and applied to probe for contingency-unaware evaluative conditioning. A fifth experiment incorporates a time-delay manipulation confirming the dissociability of the attitude and memory components. The results indicate that evaluative conditioning can produce attitudes without conscious awareness of the contingencies. Implications for theories of evaluative conditioning and associative learning are discussed.

  2. A comparison of cheap talk and alternative certainty calibration techniques in contingent valuation

    Treesearch

    Mihail Samnaliev; Thomas Stevens; Thomas More

    2003-01-01

    A field test of cheap talk and two types of certainty calibration in contingent valuation of public lands indicated that cheap talk does not reduce WTP estimates. Use of a ten point certainty calibration scale reduces WTP estimates by about half. However, adjusting for uncertainty using a 'Not Sure' option does not reduce WTP estimates but increases the...

  3. Commentary: Exploiting the overlap: using utilization management to reduce medical malpractice.

    PubMed

    Dulworth, Sherrie

    2003-01-01

    This report presents a practical way in which hospitals can reduce medical malpractice exposure that is related to omissions and delays in care. We illustrate our approach using the results of a risk/medical management study performed at an acute-care hospital. Traditional risk management (RM) often focuses retrospectively on adverse events and may miss opportunities to prevent errors related to omissions and delays in care. Close-to-real-time utilization management (UM) activity offers ready potential to improve quality and reduce medical malpractice--but only if UM can work synergistically with RM. It is our conclusion that hospitals can implement systematic processes to identify and intervene in patterns of omissions and delays and improve the communication and synergy among stakeholders and thereby improve patient safety and reduce their medical malpractice risks.

  4. Does Water Management Reduce uncertainty of Projected Climate Change Impacts on River Discharge?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohle, I.; Koch, H.; Gaedeke, A.; Hinz, C.; Grünewald, U.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change impact studies are associated with error propagation and amplification of uncertainties through model chains. Water management, especially reservoir management, reduces discharge variability. In this study we investigated how water management influences uncertainty propagation of climate change scenarios. We applied a model ensemble of (i) the regional climate model STAR (STAR 0K: no further climate change, STAR 2K and 3K: increase of mean annual temperature by 2 K and 3 K resp.; each scenario is represented by 100 realizations), (ii) the hydrological models SWIM and EGMO, and (iii) the water management model WBalMo. The study was performed in the two neighbouring catchments of the Schwarze Elster River (Germany) and the Spree River (Germany and Czech Republic). These catchments have similar climate, topography and land use, but differ in their water management. The Spree River has a higher reservoir capacity, more withdrawals and discharges from water users and more water transfers. The projected natural runoff in both catchments is similar. Compared to STAR 0K, the natural runoff decreases remarkably in the other climate scenarios. The uncertainties related to the climate projection are propagated through the hydrological model. In the Schwarze Elster River catchment, these uncertainties are slightly increased by the water management model, whereas in the Spree River catchment, due to a higher reservoir capacity and more water transfers, interannual variability and uncertainty of managed discharge are strongly moderated by water management. The results of this study imply that generally, effective water management can reduce uncertainty related to climate change impacts on river discharge. Catchments with a high storage ratio are less vulnerable to changing climate conditions. This underlines the role of water management in coping with climate change impacts. Yet, due to decreasing reservoir volumes in drought periods, reservoir management alone

  5. Aircraft Thrust/Power Management can Save Defense Fuel, Reduce Engine Maintenance Costs, and Improve Readiness.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-29

    reduce maintenance costs. Iii’ (See p. 8.) - I The services also lack effective thrust/power coPv management programs. Thrust/power management...variances to determine the causes and take corrective action if warranted. 14 The Navy established a research and development activity at the Naval Air...stated that while funding is avail- able to conduct research , implementation of the most costly ideas must compete with other priorities for limited

  6. 40 CFR 265.52 - Content of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DISPOSAL FACILITIES Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 265.52 Content of contingency plan. (a) The.... EPA recommends that the plan be based on the National Response Team's Integrated Contingency Plan Guidance (“One Plan”). When modifications are made to non-RCRA provisions in an integrated contingency plan...

  7. 40 CFR 264.53 - Copies of contingency plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copies of contingency plan. 264.53 Section 264.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES... Contingency Plan and Emergency Procedures § 264.53 Copies of contingency plan. A copy of the contingency plan...

  8. 18 CFR 367.15 - Contingent assets and liabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ACT General Instructions § 367.15 Contingent assets and liabilities. Contingent assets represent a... uncertain. Contingent liabilities include items that, under certain conditions, may become obligations of... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Contingent assets...

  9. Utilizing an Energy Management System with Distributed Resources to Manage Critical Loads and Reduce Energy Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Systems with Electric Power Systems,” IEEE std 1547.4–2011, IEEE , 2011. [3] Department of the Navy, “Department of the Navy’s Energy Program for...Providing Improved Power Quality in Microgrids,” IEEE Industry Applications Magazine , pp. 34–43, September– October 2014. [27] A. Julian, N. Peck...and G. Oriti, “ Power electronics enabled energy management systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference, Long Beach, CA

  10. Defense Management: How Do We Manage in an Era of Reduced Budgets?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    efficiently manage defense in an era of budget constraint and shifting security threat ? -- Does history provide any applicable lessons or insights? -- What...of defense is needed and certain levels of modernization are prudent. --- Defense policy must be based on a realistic analysis of threats to national...Multi-year funding, increased time-on-station, and base closure are a few examples. Any reform will be resisted if viewed as a threat to an organization

  11. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... operation. (a) Contingency operation is defined in 2.101. (b) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold... use of the SF 44 is at or below the micro-purchase threshold. Agencies may, however, establish...

  12. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operation. (a) Contingency operation is defined in 2.101. (b) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold... use of the SF 44 is at or below the micro-purchase threshold. Agencies may, however, establish...

  13. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... operation. (a) Contingency operation is defined in 2.101. (b) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold... use of the SF 44 is at or below the micro-purchase threshold. Agencies may, however, establish...

  14. 30 CFR 582.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... necessary to reflect any new information concerning the nature, magnitude, and significance of potential equipment or procedural failures or the effectiveness of the corrective actions described in the Contingency...

  15. 30 CFR 582.26 - Contingency Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... necessary to reflect any new information concerning the nature, magnitude, and significance of potential equipment or procedural failures or the effectiveness of the corrective actions described in the Contingency...

  16. 12 CFR 380.39 - Contingent claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contingent obligation would become fixed and the probable magnitude thereof. (b) If the receiver repudiates a... would become fixed and the probable magnitude thereof. (c) The Corporation as receiver shall...

  17. 48 CFR 18.201 - Contingency operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operation. (a) Contingency operation is defined in 2.101. (b) Micro-purchase threshold. The threshold... use of the SF 44 is at or below the micro-purchase threshold. Agencies may, however, establish higher...

  18. 7 CFR 457.9 - Appropriation contingency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.9 Appropriation contingency... Congress to deliver the crop insurance program, the policy will automatically terminate without liability. ...

  19. A randomised controlled trial of the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a contingency management intervention compared to treatment as usual for reduction of cannabis use and of relapse in early psychosis (CIRCLE): a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sonia; Sheridan Rains, Luke; Marwaha, Steven; Strang, John; Craig, Thomas; Weaver, Tim; McCrone, Paul; King, Michael; Fowler, David; Pilling, Stephen; Marston, Louise; Omar, Rumana Z; Craig, Meghan; Hinton, Mark

    2016-10-22

    Around 35-45 % of people in contact with services for a first episode of psychosis are using cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with delays in remission, poorer clinical outcomes, significant increases in the risk of relapse, and lower engagement in work or education. While there is a clear need for effective interventions, so far only very limited benefits have been achieved from psychological interventions. Contingency management (CM) is a behavioural intervention in which specified desired behavioural change is reinforced through financial rewards. CM is now recognised to have a substantial evidence base in some contexts and its adoption in the UK is advocated by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidance as a treatment for substance or alcohol misuse. However, there is currently little published data testing its effectiveness for reducing cannabis use in early psychosis. CIRCLE is a two-arm, rater-blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a CM intervention for reducing cannabis use among young people receiving treatment from UK Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIP) services. EIP service users (n = 544) with a recent history of cannabis use will be recruited. The experimental group will receive 12 once-weekly CM sessions, and a voucher reward if urinalysis shows that they have not used cannabis in the previous week. Both the experimental and the control groups will be offered an Optimised Treatment as Usual (OTAU) psychoeducational package targeting cannabis use. Assessment interviews will be performed at consent, at 3 months, and at 18 months. The primary outcome is time to relapse, defined as admission to an acute mental health service. Secondary outcomes include proportion of cannabis-free urine samples during the intervention period, severity of positive psychotic symptoms, quality-adjusted life years, and engagement in work or education. CIRCLE is a RCT of CM for

  20. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Platform Requirements - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa; Gearhart, Jared Lee; Jones, Katherine A.

    2016-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is in Phase 3 Sustainment of development of a prototype tool, currently referred to as the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype (CCOTP), under the direction of OSD Program Support. CCOT-P is intended to help provide senior Department of Defense (DoD) leaders with comprehensive insight into the global availability, readiness and capabilities of the Total Force Mix. The CCOT-P will allow senior decision makers to quickly and accurately assess the impacts, risks and mitigating strategies for proposed changes to force/capabilities assignments, apportionments and allocations options, focusing specifically on contingency contractor planning. During Phase 2 of the program, conducted during fiscal year 2012, Sandia developed an electronic storyboard prototype of the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool that can be used for communication with senior decision makers and other Operational Contract Support (OCS) stakeholders. Phase 3 used feedback from demonstrations of the electronic storyboard prototype to develop an engineering prototype for planners to evaluate. Sandia worked with the DoD and Joint Chiefs of Staff strategic planning community to get feedback and input to ensure that the engineering prototype was developed to closely align with future planning needs. The intended deployment environment was also a key consideration as this prototype was developed. Initial release of the engineering prototype was done on servers at Sandia in the middle of Phase 3. In 2013, the tool was installed on a production pilot server managed by the OUSD(AT&L) eBusiness Center. The purpose of this document is to specify the CCOT-P engineering prototype platform requirements as of May 2016. Sandia developed the CCOT-P engineering prototype using common technologies to minimize the likelihood of deployment issues. CCOT-P engineering prototype was architected and designed to be as independent as possible of the major deployment

  1. Overseas Contingency Operations Funding: Background and Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    appropriated $1.6 trillion for war- related operational costs of the DOD since the terror attacks of September 11, 2001. When combined with an estimated...Contingency Operation/Global War on Terror ” (OCO/GWOT) requirement in annual agency budget requests – or both. Funds designated as such are not subject to...budget control limits. The BCA added the designation “Overseas Contingency Operation/Global War on Terror ” to the BBEDCA exemption, thereby providing

  2. Reduced exercise capacity in persons with Down syndrome: cause, effect, and management.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, Goncalo V; Pereira, Fernando D; Fernhall, Bo

    2010-12-08

    Persons with Down syndrome (DS) have reduced peak and submaximal exercise capacity. Because ambulation is one predictor of survival among adults with DS, a review of the current knowledge of the causes, effects, and management of reduced exercise capacity in these individuals would be important. Available data suggest that reduced exercise capacity in persons with DS results from an interaction between low peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak)) and poor exercise economy. Of several possible explanations, chronotropic incompetence has been shown to be the primary cause of low VO(2peak) in DS. In contrast, poor exercise economy is apparently dependent on disturbed gait kinetics and kinematics resulting from joint laxity and muscle hypotonia. Importantly, there is enough evidence to suggest that such low levels of physical fitness (reduced exercise capacity and muscle strength) limit the ability of adults with DS to perform functional tasks of daily living. Consequently, clinical management of reduced exercise capacity in DS seems important to ensure that these individuals remain productive and healthy throughout their lives. However, few prospective studies have examined the effects of structured exercise training in this population. Existent data suggest that exercise training is beneficial for improving exercise capacity and physiological function in persons with DS. This article reviews the current knowledge of the causes, effects, and management of reduced exercise capacity in DS. This review is limited to the acute and chronic responses to submaximal and peak exercise intensities because data on supramaximal exercise capacity of persons with DS have been shown to be unreliable.

  3. Contingency and the order of nature.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, Nancy

    2016-08-01

    Many profess faith in the universal rule of deterministic law. I urge remaining agnostic, putting into nature only what we need to account for what we know to be the case: order where, and to the extent that, we see it. Powers and mechanisms can do that job. Embracing contingency and deriving order from powers and mechanisms reduces three kinds of problems: ontological, theological, and epistemological. Ontologically, there is no puzzle about why models from various branches of natural and social science, daily life, and engineering serve us in good stead if all that's happening is physics laws playing themselves out. Also, when universal laws are replaced with a power/mechanism ontology, nothing is set irredeemably by the Big Bang or at some hyper-surface in space-time. What happens can depend on how we arrange things to exploit the powers of their parts. That may be put to significant theological advantage. The epistemological problem comes from philosopher of physics, Erhard Scheibe. Given what we take physics to teach about the universality of interaction, there is just one very large object - the entire universe - to be governed by laws of nature. How then do we ever learn those laws? Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Contingency Analysis of Cascading Line Outage Events

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas L Baldwin; Magdy S Tawfik; Miles McQueen

    2011-03-01

    As the US power systems continue to increase in size and complexity, including the growth of smart grids, larger blackouts due to cascading outages become more likely. Grid congestion is often associated with a cascading collapse leading to a major blackout. Such a collapse is characterized by a self-sustaining sequence of line outages followed by a topology breakup of the network. This paper addresses the implementation and testing of a process for N-k contingency analysis and sequential cascading outage simulation in order to identify potential cascading modes. A modeling approach described in this paper offers a unique capability to identify initiating events that may lead to cascading outages. It predicts the development of cascading events by identifying and visualizing potential cascading tiers. The proposed approach was implemented using a 328-bus simplified SERC power system network. The results of the study indicate that initiating events and possible cascading chains may be identified, ranked and visualized. This approach may be used to improve the reliability of a transmission grid and reduce its vulnerability to cascading outages.

  5. Diversity in forest management to reduce wildfire losses: implications for resilience

    Treesearch

    Susan Charnley; Thomas A. Spies; Ana M. G. Barros; Eric M. White; Keith A. Olsen

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how federal, state, and private corporate forest owners in a fire-prone landscape of southcentral Oregon manage their forests to reduce wildfire hazard and loss to high-severity wildfire. We evaluate the implications of our findings for concepts of social–ecological resilience. Using interview data, we found a high degree of "response...

  6. Best management practices for reducing nutrient loads in a sub-watershed of Chesapeake Bay area

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water quality improvement in the Chesapeake Bay is a grave concern. An initiative to reduce the nutrient loads to stream has been undertaken to attain a target total maximum daily load (TMDL) at Chesapeake Bay. A general guideline with a set of best management practices (BMPs) has been in place for ...

  7. Best management practices for reducing nutrient loads in a sub-watershed of Chesapeake Bay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water quality improvement in the Chesapeake Bay is a grave concern. An initiative to reduce the nutrient loads to stream has been undertaken to attain a target total maximum daily load (TMDL) at Chesapeake Bay. A general guideline with a set of best management practices (BMPs) has been in place for ...

  8. Retaining Educational Fundraisers: Reducing Turnover by Investing in Human Capital Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Christy

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines an approach to reducing gift officer turnover during comprehensive campaigns by investing in the human capital management (HCM) program. While many universities have begun to create HCM programs, I suggest creating a position specifically focused on the retention of gift offices to ensure that universities and non-profits can…

  9. Retaining Educational Fundraisers: Reducing Turnover by Investing in Human Capital Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Christy

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines an approach to reducing gift officer turnover during comprehensive campaigns by investing in the human capital management (HCM) program. While many universities have begun to create HCM programs, I suggest creating a position specifically focused on the retention of gift offices to ensure that universities and non-profits can…

  10. A "Mental-Health-at-the-Workplace" Educational Workshop Reduces Managers' Stigma Toward Depression.

    PubMed

    Hamann, Johannes; Mendel, Rosmarie; Reichhart, Tatjana; Rummel-Kluge, Christine; Kissling, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Stigma and discrimination are important factors hindering people with mental health conditions to stay employed or successfully make their careers. We surveyed 580 German managers before and after visiting a "mental-health-at-the-workplace" educational workshop using the Depression Stigma Scale. The workshop significantly reduced stigma toward depression. Managers at baseline already exhibited lower stigma toward depression compared with the general population. In addition, female gender and higher education predicted lower stigma, which is in line with findings from other studies. We conclude that an educational workshop giving practical guidance regarding "mental-health-at-the-workplace" reduces managers' stigma toward depression and improves knowledge regarding depression, its course, and its treatment.

  11. [The activities of hospitals of Narkomat of public health system for special contingent during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Svintsova, M N

    2015-01-01

    The period of the Great Patriotic War from autumn 1942 to summer 1945 is marked by process of becoming ofsystem of hospitals for special contingent. The special hospitals were marked out in common system of medical care in war time by specificity of its treatment activities, every day and technical commodities and schemes of management and provision. The organization of treatment of prisoners of war encountered difficulties in transportation and diagnostic of diseases, health conditions of arrived contingent, provision with medical documentation and specificity of psychological aspects of work of military medical personnel in hospitals for special contingent.

  12. Source reduction in Florida's salt marshes: management to reduce pesticide use and enhance the resource.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Douglas B

    2006-09-01

    Source reduction as part of an integrated pest management program is a cornerstone of the American Mosquito Control Association's Pesticide Environmental Stewardship Program Strategy Document to reduce pesticide risk. Since the early 1980s, Florida has made important strides in implementing environmentally sound source reduction strategies in salt marshes while managing them for both mosquito control and natural resource enhancement. The political mechanism for this progress has been interagency cooperation through the Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control and its Subcommittee on Managed Marshes. Challenges in accomplishing source reduction continue because both public and private lands are involved. Public lands include those owned by federal (e.g., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, National Park Service), state (Florida Department of Environmental Protection), and local governments, and they have a diversity of management objectives. This diversity adds to the challenge facing mosquito control agencies in providing mosquito control services while protecting and enhancing the environment.

  13. Passive, Collapsible Contingency Urinal for Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenson, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Fluid transport systems for spacecraft face acute challenges because of the persistently unfamiliar and unforgiving low-gravity environment. IRPI, LLC, has developed a contingency wastewater collection and processing device that provides passive liquid collation, containment, bubble separation, and droplet coalescence functions. The lightweight, low-volume, low-cost, and potentially disposable device may be used for subsequent sampling, metering, storage, disposal, and/or reuse. The approach includes a fractal wetting design that incorporates smart capillary fluidics. This work could have a broad impact on capillary-based fluid management on spacecraft and on Earth.

  14. Supply chain management of health commodities for reducing global disease burden.

    PubMed

    Chukwu, Otuto Amarauche; Ezeanochikwa, Valentine Nnaemeka; Eya, Benedict Ejikeme

    Reducing global disease burden requires improving access to medicines, thus the need for efficient and effective supply chain management for medicines. The Nigerian government came up with new policies on Mega Drug Distribution Centres and National Drug Distribution Guidelines to improve access to quality medicines with pharmacists having a key role to play. However, pharmacists in Nigeria seem not to be aware and adequately equipped to handle the medicines supply chain. This article aimed at assessing the awareness and readiness of Nigerian pharmacists on supply chain management practices for improving access to medicines. Pharmacists in Nigeria's Capital were randomly sampled. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered. Descriptive statistics was used in data analysis. P values less than 0.05 were considered to be significant. 29.3%, 20.7% and 53.7% were not aware of supply chain management, National Drug Distribution Guidelines and Mega Drug Distribution Centres, respectively. 85.46% do not have a copy of the National Drug Distribution Guidelines. 78% were not aware that Mega Drug Distribution Centres are already operational. 35.4% have never been involved in any supply chain management practice. 69.5% often experience stock out of vital and essential medicines, of which 85.2% were in hospitals. 15.9% were successful in managing their facility's supply chains. 84.1% opined that pharmacists in Nigeria are not yet ready to handle the medicines supply chain. Findings showed limited awareness and readiness on supply chain management of medicines. This may be due to inadequate supply chain management skills and infrastructure, poor financing, lack of accountability and poor management. Tackling these as well as pharmacists showing more interest in the country's health policies and obtaining necessary postgraduate certifications will lead to improvements. This will improve access to quality medicines and thus help in the fight to reduce disease burden both

  15. Do referral-management schemes reduce hospital outpatient attendances? Time-series evaluation of primary care referral management

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Jonathan MS; Steel, Nicholas; Clark, Allan B; Kumaravel, Bharathy; Bachmann, Max O

    2013-01-01

    Background Ninety-one per cent of primary care trusts were using some form of referral management in 2009, although evidence for its effectiveness is limited. Aim To assess the impact of three referral-management centres (RMCs) and two internal peer-review approaches to referral management on hospital outpatient attendance rates. Design and setting A retrospective time-series analysis of 376 000 outpatient attendances over 3 years from 85 practices divided into five groups, with 714 000 registered patients in one English primary care trust. Method The age-standardised GP-referred first outpatient monthly attendance rate was calculated for each group from April 2009 to March 2012. This was divided by the equivalent monthly England rate, to derive a rate ratio. Linear regression tested for association between the introduction of referral management and change in the outpatient attendance rate and rate ratio. Annual group budgets for referral management were obtained. Results Referral management was not associated with a reduction in the outpatient attendance rate in any group. There was a statistically significant increase in attendance rate in one group (a RMC), which had an increase of 1.05 attendances per 1000 persons per month (95% confidence interval = 0.46 to 1.64; attendance rate ratio increase of 0.07) after adjustment for autocorrelation. Mean annual budgets ranged from £0.55 to £6.23 per registered patient in 2011/2012. RMCs were more expensive (mean annual budget £5.18 per registered patient) than internal peer-review approaches (mean annual budget £0.97 per registered patient). Conclusion Referral-management schemes did not reduce outpatient attendance rates. RMCs were more expensive than internal peer review. PMID:23735409

  16. Contingency Contractor Optimization Phase 3 Sustainment Software Design Document - Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype

    SciTech Connect

    Durfee, Justin David; Frazier, Christopher Rawls; Bandlow, Alisa; Jones, Katherine A.

    2016-05-01

    This document describes the final software design of the Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype. Its purpose is to provide the overall architecture of the software and the logic behind this architecture. Documentation for the individual classes is provided in the application Javadoc. The Contingency Contractor Optimization project is intended to address Department of Defense mandates by delivering a centralized strategic planning tool that allows senior decision makers to quickly and accurately assess the impacts, risks, and mitigation strategies associated with utilizing contract support. The Contingency Contractor Optimization Tool - Prototype was developed in Phase 3 of the OSD ATL Contingency Contractor Optimization project to support strategic planning for contingency contractors. The planning tool uses a model to optimize the Total Force mix by minimizing the combined total costs for selected mission scenarios. The model optimizes the match of personnel types (military, DoD civilian, and contractors) and capabilities to meet mission requirements as effectively as possible, based on risk, cost, and other requirements.

  17. How contingent should a lifelike robot be? The relationship between contingency and complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaoka, F.; Kanda, T.; Ishiguro, H.; Hagita, N.

    2007-06-01

    We believe that lifelikeness is important to make it possible for a communication robot to interact naturally with people. In this research, the relationship between contingency and complexity in a lifelike robot was investigated. We have developed a robot control system to control experimentally contingency and complexity in interaction by combining a humanoid robot with a motion-capturing system. Two independent experiments were conducted with different levels of interaction complexity: simple interaction and complex interaction. Experiments in the simple interaction situation indicated that subjects felt that the robot behaved autonomously when contingency was low, and there was no significant relationship between contingency and a lifelike impression. On the other hand, experiments in the complex interaction situation showed that the robot gave the subjects the impression of being more autonomous and lifelike when contingency was high.

  18. Effects of reward contingencies on brain activation during feedback processing

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yi; Kim, Sung-il; Bong, Mimi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates differential neural activation patterns in response to reward-related feedback depending on various reward contingencies. Three types of reward contingencies were compared: a “gain” contingency (a monetary reward for correct answer/no monetary penalty for incorrect answer); a “lose” contingency (no monetary reward for correct answer/a monetary penalty for incorrect answer); and a “combined” contingency (a monetary reward for correct answer/a monetary penalty for incorrect answer). Sixteen undergraduate students were exposed to the three reward contingencies while performing a series of perceptual judgment tasks. The fMRI results revealed that only the “gain” contingency recruited the ventral striatum, a region associated with positive affect and motivation, during overall feedback processing. Specifically, the ventral striatum was more activated under the “gain” contingency than under the other two contingencies when participants received positive feedback. In contrast, when participants received negative feedback, the ventral striatum was less deactivated under the “gain” and “lose” contingencies than under the “combined” contingency. Meanwhile, the negative feedback elicited significantly stronger activity in the dorsal amygdala, a region tracking the intensity and motivational salience of stimuli, under the “gain” and “lose” contingencies. These findings suggest the important role of contextual factor, such as reward contingency, in feedback processing. Based on the current findings, we recommend implementing the “gain” contingency to maintain individuals’ optimal motivation. PMID:25206327

  19. Management options for reducing the release of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes to the environment.

    PubMed

    Pruden, Amy; Larsson, D G Joakim; Amézquita, Alejandro; Collignon, Peter; Brandt, Kristian K; Graham, David W; Lazorchak, James M; Suzuki, Satoru; Silley, Peter; Snape, Jason R; Topp, Edward; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-08-01

    There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Our aim in this study was to identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance determinants via environmental pathways, with the ultimate goal of extending the useful life span of antibiotics. We also examined incentives and disincentives for action. We focused on management options with respect to limiting agricultural sources; treatment of domestic, hospital, and industrial wastewater; and aquaculture. We identified several options, such as nutrient management, runoff control, and infrastructure upgrades. Where appropriate, a cross-section of examples from various regions of the world is provided. The importance of monitoring and validating effectiveness of management strategies is also highlighted. Finally, we describe a case study in Sweden that illustrates the critical role of communication to engage stakeholders and promote action. Environmental releases of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can in many cases be reduced at little or no cost. Some management options are synergistic with existing policies and goals. The anticipated benefit is an extended useful life span for current and future antibiotics. Although risk reductions are often difficult to quantify, the severity of accelerating worldwide morbidity and mortality rates associated with antibiotic resistance strongly indicate the need for action.

  20. Management Options for Reducing the Release of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes to the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Pruden, Amy; Amézquita, Alejandro; Collignon, Peter; Brandt, Kristian K.; Graham, David W.; Lazorchak, James M.; Suzuki, Satoru; Silley, Peter; Snape, Jason R.; Topp, Edward; Zhang, Tong; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objective: Our aim in this study was to identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistance determinants via environmental pathways, with the ultimate goal of extending the useful life span of antibiotics. We also examined incentives and disincentives for action. Methods: We focused on management options with respect to limiting agricultural sources; treatment of domestic, hospital, and industrial wastewater; and aquaculture. Discussion: We identified several options, such as nutrient management, runoff control, and infrastructure upgrades. Where appropriate, a cross-section of examples from various regions of the world is provided. The importance of monitoring and validating effectiveness of management strategies is also highlighted. Finally, we describe a case study in Sweden that illustrates the critical role of communication to engage stakeholders and promote action. Conclusions: Environmental releases of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can in many cases be reduced at little or no cost. Some management options are synergistic with existing policies and goals. The anticipated benefit is an extended useful life span for current and future antibiotics. Although risk reductions are often difficult to quantify, the severity of accelerating worldwide morbidity and mortality rates associated with antibiotic resistance strongly indicate the need for action. PMID:23735422

  1. Evaluation of vegetable production management practices to reduce the ecological risk of pesticides.

    PubMed

    Rice, Pamela J; Hapeman, Cathleen J; McConnell, Laura L; Sadeghi, Ali M; Teasdale, John R; Coffman, C Benjamin; McCarty, Gregory W; Abdul-Baki, Aref A; Starr, James L

    2007-11-01

    The ability of agricultural management practices to reduce the ecological risks of pesticides was evaluated. Risk quotients, a mathematical description of the relationship between exposure and toxicity, and hazard ratings, a rank of the potential risk of pesticides to aquatic environments, were calculated for conventional and alternative cultivation practices for tomatoes: Poly-Bare, raised beds covered with polyethylene mulch with bare-soil furrows; Poly-Rye, raised beds covered with polyethylene mulch with cereal rye (Secale cereale) grown in the furrows; and Vetch, raised beds and furrows planted with hairy vetch seed (Vicia villosa). Evaluations were conducted using measured pesticide concentrations in runoff at the edge-of-field and estimated environmental concentrations in an adjacent creek and a theoretical pond receiving the runoff. Runoff from Poly-Bare presented the greatest risk to ecosystem health and to sensitive organisms, whereas the use of Vetch minimized these risks. Previous studies have shown that harvest yields were maintained and that runoff volume, soil loss, and off-site transport of pesticides measured in runoff were reduced using the alternative management practices (Poly-Rye and Vetch). Together, these results indicate that the alternative management practices (Poly-Rye and Vetch) have a less adverse impact on the environment than the conventional management practice (Poly-Bare) while providing growers with an acceptable economic return. In addition, the present study demonstrates the need to consider the management practice when assessing the potential risks and hazards for certain pesticides.

  2. Searching for management approaches to reduce HAI transmission (SMART): a study protocol.

    PubMed

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Hefner, Jennifer L; Sieck, Cynthia J; Walker, Daniel M; Aldrich, Alison M; Sova, Lindsey N; Gaughan, Alice A; Slevin, Caitlin M; Hebert, Courtney; Hade, Erinn; Buck, Jacalyn; Grove, Michele; Huerta, Timothy R

    2017-06-28

    Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) impact patients' lives through prolonged hospitalization, morbidity, and death, resulting in significant costs to both health systems and society. Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are two of the most preventable HAIs. As a result, these HAIs have been the focus of significant efforts to identify evidence-based clinical strategies to reduce infection rates. The Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) provides a formal model for translating CLABSI-reduction evidence into practice. Yet, a national demonstration project found organizations experienced variable levels of success using CUSP to reduce CLABSIs. In addition, in Fiscal year 2019, Medicare will expand use of CLABSI and CAUTI metrics beyond ICUs to the entire hospital for reimbursement purposes. As a result, hospitals need guidance about how to successfully translate HAI-reduction efforts such as CUSP to non-ICU settings (clinical practice), and how to shape context (management practice)-including culture and management strategies-to proactively support clinical teams. Using a mixed-methods approach to evaluate the contribution of management factors to successful HAI-reduction efforts, our study aims to: (1) Develop valid and reliable measures of structural management practices associated with the recommended CLABSI Management Strategies for use as a survey (HAI Management Practice Guideline Survey) to support HAI-reduction efforts in both medical/surgical units and ICUs; (2) Develop, validate, and then deploy the HAI Management Practice Guideline Survey, first across Ohio hospitals, then nationwide, to determine the positive predictive value of the measurement instrument as it relates to CLABSI- and CAUTI-prevention; and (3) Integrate findings into a Management Practices Toolkit for HAI reduction that includes an organization-specific data dashboard for monitoring progress and an

  3. Learning, awareness, and instruction: subjective contingency awareness does matter in the colour-word contingency learning paradigm.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, James R; De Houwer, Jan

    2012-12-01

    In three experiments, each of a set colour-unrelated distracting words was presented most often in a particular target print colour (e.g., "month" most often in red). In Experiment 1, half of the participants were told the word-colour contingencies in advance (instructed) and half were not (control). The instructed group showed a larger learning effect. This instruction effect was fully explained by increases in subjective awareness with instruction. In Experiment 2, contingency instructions were again given, but no contingencies were actually present. Although many participants claimed to be aware of these (non-existent) contingencies, they did not produce an instructed contingency effect. In Experiment 3, half of the participants were given contingency instructions that did not correspond to the correct contingencies. Participants with these false instructions learned the actual contingencies worse than controls. Collectively, our results suggest that conscious contingency knowledge might play a moderating role in the strength of implicit learning.

  4. CHANG'E-3 contingency scheme and trajectory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lei; Cao, Jian-feng; Liu, Yong; Hu, Song-jie; Tang, Ge-shi; Xie, Jian-feng

    2015-02-01

    This paper addresses contingency trajectories of CHANG'E-3 in the case of a failure of the lunar brake, which is crucial to the CHANG'E-3 mission, i.e., the first Chinese lunar soft-landing and rover mission. Considering the flight-time and control-energy requirements placed on the contingency trajectories, the paper proposes a direct return method and a low-energy return method and develops the corresponding contingency trajectories based on the CHANG'E-3 cislunar transfer trajectory. The direct return method was studied on return style, flight time, control energy, and influence of maneuver time on energy. The low-energy return method was investigated using the method of invariant manifold calculations for a Lissajous orbit, the method of direct libration-point orbit transfer and injection, and the control strategy used for a low-energy trajectory. The results demonstrate that the control energy for direct return trajectories can be reduced using a certain flight course. When a flight time of less than half of a month is desired, a trajectory from the north celestial pole should be selected as a lunar approach trajectory for CHANG'E-3. Otherwise, a trajectory from the south celestial pole should be selected. Furthermore, these two trajectories have approximately equal velocity increments if their flight-time difference is close to half of a month. In the case of the low-energy return method, methods using approximate manifold calculations for a Lissajous orbit and the direct transfer and injection to a libration-point orbit are proposed and shown to be useful. CHANG'E-3 would return via the Sun-Earth L2 libration point and would require four maneuvers during its flight. The low-energy return method offers remarkable energy savings of up to 267 m/s compared to the direct return method. The methodology not only provides a contingency control technique for CHANG'E-3 and for future lunar missions, but it also serves as a beneficial supplement to the present studies

  5. Acute Concussion Management with Remove-Reduce/Educate/Adjust-Accommodate/Pace (REAP).

    PubMed

    Kirelik, Susan B; McAvoy, Karen

    2016-02-01

    With increased concussion awareness and significantly increased numbers of emergency department (ED) visits for pediatric concussion, a seamless process of managing a patient with a concussion can begin in the ED. This article demonstrates the effectiveness of the Remove-Reduce/Educate/Adjust-Accommodate/Pace (REAP) concussion management program in the evaluation, management, and return to play of an acutely concussed pediatric patient. The REAP program was developed in Colorado and promotes a multidisciplinary team approach to concussion management. The team consists of parents, teachers, athletic personnel, and clinicians. The patient described in this case report had concussion management initiated in the ED. He was able to successfully return to sports, having recovered from his concussion with the guidance of the Center for Concussion (Centennial, Colorado) staff utilizing the REAP model of care and the currently recommended graduated return-to-play process. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Busy EDs are often the initial point of contact for school-aged patients with concussion. We present a program that we believe represents a good model of patient care with concussion management implemented in the ED and carried through to clearance of the patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Does recyclable separation reduce the cost of municipal waste management in Japan?

    PubMed

    Chifari, Rosaria; Lo Piano, Samuele; Matsumoto, Shigeru; Tasaki, Tomohiro

    2017-02-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a system involving multiple sub-systems that typically require demanding inputs, materials and resources to properly process generated waste throughput. For this reason, MSW management is generally one of the most expensive services provided by municipalities. In this paper, we analyze the Japanese MSW management system and estimate the cost elasticity with respect to the waste volumes at three treatment stages: collection, processing, and disposal. Although we observe economies of scale at all three stages, the collection cost is less elastic than the disposal cost. We also examine whether source separation at home affects the cost of MSW management. The empirical results show that the separate collection of the recyclable fraction leads to reduced processing costs at intermediate treatment facilities, but does not change the overall waste management cost. Our analysis also reveals that the cost of waste management systems decreases when the service is provided by private companies through a public tender. The cost decreases even more when the service is performed under the coordination of adjacent municipalities.

  7. External Validity of Contingent Valuation: Comparing Hypothetical and Actual Payments.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Mandy; Mentzakis, Emmanouil; Jareinpituk, Suthi; Cairns, John

    2016-10-09

    Whilst contingent valuation is increasingly used in economics to value benefits, questions remain concerning its external validity that is do hypothetical responses match actual responses? We present results from the first within sample field test. Whilst Hypothetical No is always an Actual No, Hypothetical Yes exceed Actual Yes responses. A constant rate of response reversals across bids/prices could suggest theoretically consistent option value responses. Certainty calibrations (verbal and numerical response scales) minimise hypothetical-actual discrepancies offering a useful solution. Helping respondents resolve uncertainty may reduce the discrepancy between hypothetical and actual payments and thus lead to more accurate policy recommendations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Working to reduce the effects of discrimination: Identity management strategies in organizations.

    PubMed

    Shih, Margaret; Young, Maia J; Bucher, Amy

    2013-04-01

    Despite efforts to dispel discrimination, workplace discrimination still occurs. We introduce two classes of identity management strategies individuals use to mitigate the negative consequences of discrimination: identity switching (i.e., deemphasizing target identities and recategorizing to a more positively valued identity) and identity redefinition (i.e., stereotype reassociation and regeneration). Organizations adopting a color-blind approach may make it more difficult for individuals to use identity switching because the policies deemphasize differences in social identities. In contrast, organizations adopting a multicultural approach may make it more difficult for individuals to use identity redefinition. Multicultural approaches, applied superficially, may celebrate group differences that might actually reinforce culturally dominant stereotypes. We explore the likelihood that individuals will adopt each strategy given these organizational approaches to diversity. We outline steps organizations can take to reduce the need for identity management strategies and to facilitate identity management when necessary.

  9. Reducing Health Cost: Health Informatics and Knowledge Management as a Business and Communication Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyampoh-Vidogah, Regina; Moreton, Robert; Sallah, David

    Health informatics has the potential to improve the quality and provision of care while reducing the cost of health care delivery. However, health informatics is often falsely regarded as synonymous with information management (IM). This chapter (i) provides a clear definition and characteristic benefits of health informatics and information management in the context of health care delivery, (ii) identifies and explains the difference between health informatics (HI) and managing knowledge (KM) in relation to informatics business strategy and (iii) elaborates the role of information communication technology (ICT) KM environment. This Chapter further examines how KM can be used to improve health service informatics costs, and identifies the factors that could affect its implementation and explains some of the reasons driving the development of electronic health record systems. This will assist in avoiding higher costs and errors, while promoting the continued industrialisation of KM delivery across health care communities.

  10. Equivalence relations and the reinforcement contingency.

    PubMed

    Sidman, M

    2000-07-01

    Where do equivalence relations come from? One possible answer is that they arise directly from the reinforcement contingency. That is to say, a reinforcement contingency produces two types of outcome: (a) 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, or n-term units of analysis that are known, respectively, as operant reinforcement, simple discrimination, conditional discrimination, second-order conditional discrimination, and so on; and (b) equivalence relations that consist of ordered pairs of all positive elements that participate in the contingency. This conception of the origin of equivalence relations leads to a number of new and verifiable ways of conceptualizing equivalence relations and, more generally, the stimulus control of operant behavior. The theory is also capable of experimental disproof.

  11. Northwest area contingency plan for region X

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The Northwest Area Contingency Plan (ACP) supersedes the working draft released in March 1993 which officially replaced the Local Contingency Plans for MSO Puget Sound and MSO Portland; it functions as the Inland Area Contingency Plan for the Environmental Protection Agency; and it replaces Washington and Oregon Statewide Master Plans as the primary response and planning document for oil spill response. This volume represents the basic plan. It is the summation of policies and procedures for two Coast Guard Captain of the Port Zones, the Statewide Master Plans for the States of Oregon and Washington, and EPA Inland Region Ten. It provides Federal, state, and local responders in the Pacific Northwest with a single comprehensive response and planning document.

  12. Color and Contingency in Robert Boyle's Works.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tawrin

    2015-01-01

    This essay investigates the relationship between color and contingency in Robert Boyle's Experiments and Considerations Touching Colours (1664) and his essays on the unsuccessfulness of experiments in Certain Physiological Essays (1661). In these two works Boyle wrestles with a difficult practical and philosophical problem with experiments, which he calls the problem of contingency. In Touching Colours, the problem of contingency is magnified by the much-debated issue of whether color had any deep epistemic importance. His limited theoretical principle guiding him in Touching Colours, that color is but modified light, further exacerbated the problem. Rather than theory, Boyle often relied on craftsmen, whose mastery of color phenomena was, Boyle mentions, brought about by economic forces, to determine when colors were indicators of important 'inward' properties of substances, and thus to secure a solid foundation for his experimental history of color.

  13. A Systematic Evidence Review of School-Based Group Contingency Interventions for Students with Challenging Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maggin, Daniel M.; Johnson, Austin H.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Ruberto, Laura M.; Berggren, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to synthesize the research underlying group contingency interventions to determine whether there is sufficient evidence to support their use for managing the classroom behavior of students with behavioral difficulties. An application of the What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) procedures for evaluating single-subject…

  14. 50 CFR 600.335 - National Standard 6-Variations and Contingencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Standard 6-Variations and Contingencies. 600.335 Section 600.335 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... of fish; identify causes of pollution and habitat degradation and the authorities having jurisdiction...

  15. 50 CFR 600.335 - National Standard 6-Variations and Contingencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Standard 6-Variations and Contingencies. 600.335 Section 600.335 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... of fish; identify causes of pollution and habitat degradation and the authorities having jurisdiction...

  16. 50 CFR 600.335 - National Standard 6-Variations and Contingencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Standard 6-Variations and Contingencies. 600.335 Section 600.335 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... of fish; identify causes of pollution and habitat degradation and the authorities having jurisdiction...

  17. 50 CFR 600.335 - National Standard 6-Variations and Contingencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Standard 6-Variations and Contingencies. 600.335 Section 600.335 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL... of fish; identify causes of pollution and habitat degradation and the authorities having jurisdiction...

  18. 76 FR 49650 - Private Security Contractors (PSCs) Operating in Contingency Operations, Combat Operations or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... requirements to be included in their respective guidance and procedures. Situations change significantly from... subsequently incorporated into appropriate contracts. This will provide a basis for the management of PSC... planning. The Rule, as written supports flexible, agile, and focused contingency planning and DoD, DoS and...

  19. Group-Based Randomized Trial of Contingencies for Health and Abstinence in HIV Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Alessi, Sheila M.; Lewis, Marilyn W.; Dieckhaus, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) treatments are usually applied individually for drug abstinence, but CM can also be targeted toward health behaviors and implemented in groups. This study evaluated effects of a group-based CM intervention that focused on reinforcing health behaviors. Method: HIV-positive patients with cocaine or opioid use…

  20. Conducting Airport Anti-Terrorism Operations and Contingency Planning for Risk Reduction of the Terrorist Threat.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    victims of some of the most vicious terrorist acts occurring in the past year, airport security has come under increasing scrutiny by television...operations and contingency planning can be the weapons which airport security managers use to successfully battle the increasing trend of terrorist acts on airports today. (Author)

  1. Group-Based Randomized Trial of Contingencies for Health and Abstinence in HIV Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petry, Nancy M.; Weinstock, Jeremiah; Alessi, Sheila M.; Lewis, Marilyn W.; Dieckhaus, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Contingency management (CM) treatments are usually applied individually for drug abstinence, but CM can also be targeted toward health behaviors and implemented in groups. This study evaluated effects of a group-based CM intervention that focused on reinforcing health behaviors. Method: HIV-positive patients with cocaine or opioid use…

  2. Designing and Implementing Group Contingencies in the Classroom: A Teacher's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Jason C.; Gilmour, Allison F.

    2016-01-01

    Group contingencies are a positive, proactive classroom management technique that works well as Tier 1 of a multi-tiered system of behavior support. These programs are adaptable to student and classroom needs and work well to support the behavior of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Off-the-shelf programs exist, but…

  3. Designing and Implementing Group Contingencies in the Classroom: A Teacher's Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Jason C.; Gilmour, Allison F.

    2016-01-01

    Group contingencies are a positive, proactive classroom management technique that works well as Tier 1 of a multi-tiered system of behavior support. These programs are adaptable to student and classroom needs and work well to support the behavior of students with disabilities in general education classrooms. Off-the-shelf programs exist, but…

  4. Concussion sideline management intervention for rugby union leads to reduced concussion claims.

    PubMed

    Gianotti, Simon; Hume, Patria A

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of a concussion management education programme (CMEP) in rugby in reducing the number and cost of concussion/brain injury (CBI) moderate to serious claims (MSC) was assessed. A RugbySmart educational video and a sideline concussion check (SCC) tool comprised the CMEP. Over 30,000 SCC, providing information on management of suspected concussion among community level rugby players prior to seeking medical treatment, were distributed from July 2003 to June 2005. Each year approximately 10,000 coaches and 2,000 referees participated in RugbySmart. From 2003 to 2005 new rugby CBI MSC reduced by 10.7% (actual) and 58.2% (forecast). Rugby player numbers, new non-sport CBI MSC and new sport MSC all increased by 13.6%, 16.9% and 24.6% respectively in the same period. The median number of days between CBI injury and the player seeking medical treatment decreased from six days to four days. Cost savings after CMEP were 690 USD dollars, 690 (actual) to 3,354,780 USD dollars (forecast). The two-year cost of CMEP was 54,810 USD dollars returning 12.60 USD dollars (actual) and 61.21 USD dollars (forecast) for every 1 USD dollar invested (ROI). CMEP provided community coaches and managers with education on minimum best practice for managing suspected concussion, contributed towards ROI and savings for CBI MSC in rugby.

  5. Revisiting the relation between contingency awareness and attention: evaluative conditioning relies on a contingency focus.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Florian

    2012-01-01

    Although evaluative conditioning has occasionally been demonstrated in the absence of contingency awareness, many recent studies imply that its acquisition depends on the availability of attentional resources during conditioning. In previous experiments attention has typically been manipulated in a general way rather than looking at the particular focus of attention. The present study investigated the role of a focus on the CS-US contingency. Two separate distraction tasks were designed that either diverted attention from the stimuli or directed it to the stimuli while drawing attention away from the contingency between the stimuli. Both types of distraction were shown to eliminate evaluative conditioning. Significant evaluative conditioning was observed in a third group of participants who were required to attend the contingencies. A mediation analysis showed that the observed discrepancy in evaluative conditioning effects between groups was mediated by contingency awareness. The results imply that attention in terms of a stimulus focus is not sufficient for evaluative conditioning to occur. Rather, attention to the contingencies between stimuli appears to be crucial in evaluative conditioning, because it is supposed to foster the acquisition of contingency awareness.

  6. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part I: employment status and fair labor standards act issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal landmines that await the unsuspecting employer. The purpose of this article was to familiarize health care employers with some of the rapidly evolving legal issues that surround the use of contingent workers.

  7. Your workers may be contingent, but your liability for them is certain: part I: employment status and Fair Labor Standards Act issues.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Michael S; Koen, Clifford M; Crow, Stephen M

    2010-01-01

    Hiring contingent workers can significantly help health care employers reduce labor costs while maintaining the staff required for quality patient care. However, a number of federal laws create legal landmines that await the unsuspecting employer. The purpose of this article was to familiarize health care employers with some of the rapidly evolving legal issues that surround the use of contingent workers.

  8. Management Strategies Aiming to Improve Horse Welfare Reduce Embryonic Death Rates in Mares.

    PubMed

    Malschitzky, E; Pimentel, A M; Garbade, P; Jobim, Mim; Gregory, R M; Mattos, R C

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the effect of management strategies aiming to improve animal well-being on pregnancy and embryonic death (ED) rates. Breeding records of a cohort of 1206 Thoroughbred mares brought to a stallion station facility, to be bred with the stallions housed there, were evaluated during ten breeding seasons. Mares were blocked according to management strategies in two groups: Stress and Relax. Strategies used to improve animal well-being (Relax group) were as follows: stopping the teasing routine, reducing or eliminating stall confinement, reducing the number of mares per group and maintaining herd stability during the breeding season. In barren mares, the pregnancy rate was higher in the Relax group (91.8%) when compared to the observed in Stress group (84.7%). However, no difference in pregnancy rates were observed (Stress = 85.2% vs. Relax = 86.2) in foaling mares. ED rate was higher in barren and foaling mares of the Stress group mares (25.5% and 26.8%, respectively) compared with the Relax group (16.1% and 14.7%, respectively). No significant differences were observed on foal heat pregnancy rate between groups; yet, the embryo loss on foal heat was significant reduced in Relax mares (Relax = 8.7% vs Stress = 24.5%). In conclusion, management strategies aimed to reduce social stress can reduce early pregnancy losses and the average cycles per pregnancy, improving reproductive performance in mares.

  9. Integrating modeling, monitoring, and management to reduce critical uncertainties in water resource decision making.

    PubMed

    Peterson, James T; Freeman, Mary C

    2016-12-01

    Stream ecosystems provide multiple, valued services to society, including water supply, waste assimilation, recreation, and habitat for diverse and productive biological communities. Managers striving to sustain these services in the face of changing climate, land uses, and water demands need tools to assess the potential effectiveness of alternative management actions, and often, the resulting tradeoffs between competing objectives. Integrating predictive modeling with monitoring data in an adaptive management framework provides a process by which managers can reduce model uncertainties and thus improve the scientific bases for subsequent decisions. We demonstrate an integration of monitoring data with a dynamic, metapopulation model developed to assess effects of streamflow alteration on fish occupancy in a southeastern US stream system. Although not extensive (collected over three years at nine sites), the monitoring data allowed us to assess and update support for alternative population dynamic models using model probabilities and Bayes rule. We then use the updated model weights to estimate the effects of water withdrawal on stream fish communities and demonstrate how feedback in the form of monitoring data can be used to improve water resource decision making. We conclude that investment in more strategic monitoring, guided by a priori model predictions under alternative hypotheses and an adaptive sampling design, could substantially improve the information available to guide decision-making and management for ecosystem services from lotic systems.

  10. A Novel Application of Parallel Betweenness Centrality to Power Grid Contingency Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Shuangshuang; Huang, Zhenyu; Chen, Yousu; Chavarría-Miranda, Daniel; Feo, John T.; Wong, Pak C.

    2010-04-19

    In Energy Management Systems, contingency analysis is commonly performed for identifying and mitigating potentially harmful power grid component failures. The exponentially increasing combinatorial number of failure modes imposes a significant computational burden for massive contingency analysis. It is critical to select a limited set of high-impact contingency cases within the constraint of computing power and time requirements to make it possible for real-time power system vulnerability assessment. In this paper, we present a novel application of parallel betweenness centrality to power grid contingency selection. We cross-validate the proposed method using the model and data of the western US power grid, and implement it on a Cray XMT system - a massively multithreaded architecture - leveraging its advantages for parallel execution of irregular algorithms, such as graph analysis. We achieve a speedup of 55 times (on 64 processors) compared against the single-processor version of the same code running on the Cray XMT. We also compare an OpenMP-based version of the same code running on an HP Superdome shared-memory machine. The performance of the Cray XMT code shows better scalability and resource utilization, and shorter execution time for large-scale power grids. This proposed approach has been evaluated in PNNL’s Electricity Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC). It is expected to provide a quick and efficient solution to massive contingency selection problems to help power grid operators to identify and mitigate potential widespread cascading power grid failures in real time.

  11. Task-contingent conscientiousness as a unit of personality at work.

    PubMed

    Minbashian, Amirali; Wood, Robert E; Beckmann, Nadin

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined the viability of incorporating task-contingent units into the study of personality at work, using conscientiousness as an illustrative example. We used experience-sampling data from 123 managers to show that (a) momentary conscientiousness at work is contingent on the difficulty and urgency demands of the tasks people are engaged in, (b) there are significant and stable differences between people in the extent to which their conscientiousness behaviors are contingent on task demands, and (c) individual differences in task-contingent conscientiousness are related to, though distinct from, individual differences in trait conscientiousness. We also provide evidence in relation to (a) need for cognition as a possible antecedent of task-contingent conscientiousness and (b) adaptive performance on a cognitive task as a possible consequence of it. We discuss the theoretical implications of our findings for the cognitive nature of personality and the way in which conscientiousness is expressed at work. Practical implications in relation to the predictive function of personality and applications that focus on behavioral change are also discussed.

  12. Contingencies of self-worth and social-networking-site behavior.

    PubMed

    Stefanone, Michael A; Lackaff, Derek; Rosen, Devan

    2011-01-01

    Social-networking sites like Facebook enable people to share a range of personal information with expansive groups of "friends." With the growing popularity of media sharing online, many questions remain regarding antecedent conditions for this behavior. Contingencies of self-worth afford a more nuanced approach to variable traits that affect self-esteem, and may help explain online behavior. A total of 311 participants completed an online survey measuring such contingencies and typical behaviors on Facebook. First, exploratory factor analyses revealed an underlying structure to the seven dimensions of self-worth. Public-based contingencies explained online photo sharing (β = 0.158, p < 0.01), while private-based contingencies demonstrated a negative relationship with time online (β = -0.186, p < 0.001). Finally, the appearance contingency for self-worth had the strongest relationship with the intensity of online photo sharing (β = 0.242), although no relationship was evident for time spent managing profiles.

  13. Aging and the detection of contingency in causal learning.

    PubMed

    Mutter, Sharon A; Williams, Thomas W

    2004-03-01

    Young and older participants' ability to detect negative, random, and positive response-outcome contingencies was evaluated using both contingency estimation and response rate adaptation tasks. Age differences in contingency estimation were consistently greater for negative than positive contingencies, and these differences, though still present, were smaller when response rate adaptation was used as the measure of contingency learning. Detecting causal contingency apparently becomes more difficult with age, especially when an oven numerical estimate of contingency must be provided and when the relationship between a causal event and an outcome is negative. A model that incorporates features of both associative and rule-based approaches to contingency learning (e.g., P. C. Price & J. F. Yates, 1995; D. R. Shanks, 1995) provides the best explanation for this pattern of findings.

  14. Reducing Lake Erie's Harmful Algal Blooms: Projection and Adoption of Management Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J.; Aloysius, N.; Howard, G.; Kalcic, M. M.; Wilson, R. S.; Scavia, D.; Roe, B.

    2016-12-01

    In early 2016, the United States and Canada formally agreed to reduce phosphorus inputs to Lake Erie by 40% to reduce the severity of annual Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). These blooms have become more severe, with record events occurring in 2011 and 2015, and have compromised public safety, shut down drinking water supplies, and negatively impacted the economy of the western Lake Erie basin. Now, key questions revolve around the ability to reach the 40% reduction, required management changes, and resources to support these changes. This presentation will highlight interdisciplinary research to compare the amount and types of practices needed for this reduction to the current and projected levels of adoption. Economic resources to support these management changes are also compared with the financial support from the general public to improve Lake Erie water quality. Multiple models of the Maumee watershed identified management plans and adoption rates needed to reach the reduction targets. For example, one successful scenario estimated necessary adoption rates of 50% for subsurface application of fertilizer on row crops, 58% for cover crops, and 78% for buffer strips. Current adoption is below these levels, but future projections based on farmer surveys shows these levels are possible. Public support is necessary to generate the funding to support cost sharing and other programs aimed at increasing adoption of recommended practices. Comparing results from willingness-to-pay surveys of the general public with the estimated need for these management plans shows a gap in resources to support these levels of adoption. In general, these results show that accelerated adoption of management plans is needed compared to past adoption rates, but that these rates are possible based on likely adoption rates. Projected support from the general public indicates it will be challenging to fund these rates of adoption, especially during climate changes that may require even greater

  15. Real-time laboratory exercises to test contingency plans for classical swine fever: experiences from two national laboratories.

    PubMed

    Koenen, F; Uttenthal, A; Meindl-Böhmer, A

    2007-12-01

    In order to adequately and efficiently handle outbreaks of contagious diseases such as classical swine fever (CSF), foot and mouth disease or highly pathogenic avian influenza, competent authorities and the laboratories involved have to be well prepared and must be in possession of functioning contingency plans. These plans should ensure that in the event of an outbreak access to facilities, equipment, resources, trained personnel, and all other facilities needed for the rapid and efficient eradication of the outbreak is guaranteed, and that the procedures to follow are well rehearsed. It is essential that these plans are established during 'peace-time' and are reviewed regularly. This paper provides suggestions on how to perform laboratory exercises to test preparedness and describes the experiences of two national reference laboratories for CSF. The major lesson learnt was the importance of a well-documented laboratory contingency plan. The major pitfalls encountered were shortage of space, difficulties in guaranteeing biosecurity and sufficient supplies of sterile equipment and consumables. The need for a standardised laboratory information management system, that is used by all those involved in order to reduce the administrative load, is also discussed.

  16. Using Lean Management to Reduce Emergency Department Length of Stay for Medicine Admissions.

    PubMed

    Allaudeen, Nazima; Vashi, Anita; Breckenridge, Julia S; Haji-Sheikhi, Farnoosh; Wagner, Sarah; Posley, Keith A; Asch, Steven M

    The practice of boarding admitted patients in the emergency department (ED) carries negative operational, clinical, and patient satisfaction consequences. Lean tools have been used to improve ED workflow. Interventions focused on reducing ED length of stay (LOS) for admitted patients are less explored. To evaluate a Lean-based initiative to reduce ED LOS for medicine admissions. Prospective quality improvement initiative performed at a single university-affiliated Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center from February 2013 to February 2016. We performed a Lean-based multidisciplinary initiative beginning with a rapid process improvement workshop to evaluate current processes, identify root causes of delays, and develop countermeasures. Frontline staff developed standard work for each phase of the ED stay. Units developed a daily management system to reinforce, evaluate, and refine standard work. The primary outcome was the change in ED LOS for medicine admissions pre- and postintervention. ED LOS at the intervention site was compared with other similar VA facilities as controls over the same time period using a difference-in-differences approach. ED LOS for medicine admissions reduced 26.4%, from 8.7 to 6.4 hours. Difference-in-differences analysis showed that ED LOS for combined medicine and surgical admissions decreased from 6.7 to 6.0 hours (-0.7 hours, P = .003) at the intervention site compared with no change (5.6 hours, P = .2) at the control sites. We utilized Lean management to significantly reduce ED LOS for medicine admissions. Specifically, the development and management of standard work were key to sustaining these results.

  17. The medical management of intestinal failure: methods to reduce the severity.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, Jeremy M D

    2003-08-01

    A new definition of intestinal failure is of reduced intestinal absorption so that macronutrient and/or water and electrolyte supplements are needed to maintain health or growth. Severe intestinal failure is when parenteral nutrition and/or fluid are needed and mild intestinal failure is when oral supplements or dietary modification suffice. Treatment aims to reduce the severity of intestinal failure. In the peri-operative period avoiding the administration of excessive amounts of intravenous saline (9 g NaCl/l) may prevent a prolonged ileus. Patients with intermittent bowel obstruction may be managed with a liquid or low-residue diet. Patients with a distal bowel enterocutaneous fistula may be managed with an enteral feed absorbed by the proximal small bowel while no oral intake may be needed for a proximal bowel enterocutaneous fistula. Patients undergoing high-dose chemotherapy can usually tolerate jejunal feeding. Rotating antibiotic courses may reduce small bowel bacterial overgrowth in patients with chronic intestinal pseudoobstruction. Restricting oral hypotonic fluids, sipping a glucose-saline solution (Na concentration of 90-120 mmol/l) and taking anti-diarrhoeal or anti-secretory drugs, reduces the high output from a jejunostomy. This treatment allows most patients with a jejunostomy and > 1 m functioning jejunum remaining to manage without parenteral support. Patients with a short bowel and a colon should consume a diet high in polysaccharides, as these compounds are fermented in the colon, and low in oxalate, as 25% of the oxalate will develop as calcium oxalate renal stones. Growth factors normally produced by the colon (e.g. glucagon-like peptide-2) to induce structural jejunal adaptation have been given in high doses to patients with a jejunostomy and do marginally increase the daily energy absorption.

  18. Use of Escape and Reward in the Management of Young Children during Dental Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Keith D.; Stokes, Trevor F.

    1987-01-01

    A contingency management procedure using both positive and negative reinforcement was used to strengthen cooperative behavior in five children (ages 3-6) during a series of restorative dental treatment sessions lasting from 15-60 minutes. Baseline levels of disruptive behavior as high as 90 percent were reduced to less than 15 percent. (JW)

  19. Increasing value and reducing waste in biomedical research regulation and management.

    PubMed

    Al-Shahi Salman, Rustam; Beller, Elaine; Kagan, Jonathan; Hemminki, Elina; Phillips, Robert S; Savulescu, Julian; Macleod, Malcolm; Wisely, Janet; Chalmers, Iain

    2014-01-11

    After identification of an important research question and selection of an appropriate study design, waste can arise from the regulation, governance, and management of biomedical research. Obtaining regulatory and governance approval has become increasingly burdensome and disproportionate to the conceivable risks to research participants. Regulation and governance involve interventions that are assumed to be justified in the interests of patients and the public, but they can actually compromise these interests. Inefficient management of the procedural conduct of research is wasteful, especially if it results in poor recruitment and retention of participants in well designed studies addressing important questions. These sources of waste can be minimised if the following four recommendations are addressed. First, regulators should use their influence to reduce other causes of waste and inefficiency in research. Second, regulators and policy makers should work with researchers, patients, and health professionals to streamline and harmonise the laws, regulations, guidelines, and processes that govern whether and how research can be done, and ensure that they are proportionate to the plausible risks associated with the research. Third, researchers and research managers should increase the efficiency of recruitment, retention, data monitoring, and data sharing in research through use of research designs known to reduce inefficiencies, and further research should be done to learn how efficiency can be increased. Finally, everyone, particularly those responsible for health-care systems, should promote integration of research into everyday clinical practice. Regulators and researchers should monitor adherence to each of these recommendations and publish metrics.

  20. Increasing value and reducing waste in biomedical research regulation and management

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Beller, Elaine; Kagan, Jonathan; Hemminki, Elina; Phillips, Robert S; Savulescu, Julian; Macleod, Malcolm; Wisely, Janet; Chalmers, Iain

    2014-01-01

    After identification of an important research question and selection of an appropriate study design, waste can arise from the regulation, governance, and management of biomedical research. Obtaining regulatory and governance approval has become increasingly burdensome and disproportionate to the conceivable risks to research participants. Regulation and governance involve interventions that are assumed to be justified in the interests of patients and the public, but they can actually compromise these interests. Inefficient management of the procedural conduct of research is wasteful, especially if it results in poor recruitment and retention of participants in well designed studies addressing important questions. These sources of waste can be minimised if the following four recommendations are addressed. First, regulators should use their influence to reduce other causes of waste and inefficiency in research. Second, regulators and policy makers should work with researchers, patients, and health professionals to streamline and harmonise the laws, regulations, guidelines, and processes that govern whether and how research can be done, and ensure that they are proportionate to the plausible risks associated with the research. Third, researchers and research managers should increase the efficiency of recruitment, retention, data monitoring, and data sharing in research through use of research designs known to reduce inefficiencies, and further research should be done to learn how efficiency can be increased. Finally, everyone, particularly those responsible for health-care systems, should promote integration of research into everyday clinical practice. Regulators and researchers should monitor adherence to each of these recommendations and publish metrics. PMID:24411646