Network-based training can provide continuing medical education with methods, whose implementation by means of traditional training is difficult or practically impossible. By virtue of its chronological and geographical flexibility, educational application of the network may provide extra advantage for the trainee and the trainer. Implementation of network-based training is, however, demanding and laborious both technically and pedagogically, whereby organizations should strive for collaboration in organizing the training. In addition, the status of network-based continuing education in relation to the physician's working time should be clearly defined.
Alwadie, Adnan D.
As the largest country in the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and its health care system are well positioned to embark on an online learning intervention so that health care providers in all areas of the country have the resources for updating their professional knowledge and skills. After a brief introduction, online continuing medical education is…
Steeves, Lea C.
Continuing medical education is an essential feature of the practice of modern medicine since it furnishes the means to maintain the doctor's ability to provide quality patient care. To ensure that continuing medical education is provided efficiently and in the best quality, and utilized fully, it is necessary that: (1) the medical faculty inculcate in the student the concept of lifelong learning; (2) the practitioner adopt less time-consuming patterns of practice, to free more of his time for learning; (3) community hospital-based clinical teaching be provided universally; and (4) research be conducted to determine the best of current teaching methods and develop better ones. Conflicting efforts to meet these needs by practitioners (whose primary responsibility it is) and by organized medicine, specialty societies, voluntary health agencies and others have led to inefficient use of medical faculty teachers. The key parties in continuing medical education—practitioner and teacher—can learn best in medical school-administered programs, which need be supported by all other interested organizations. PMID:14278031
Trussell, Patricia M.; Crow, Sue
Emphasizes the need that continuing education programs for nurses in hospitals orient newly employed graduate nurses specifically to infection control measures as carried out in that institution and then to reinforce these learnings by regular planned programs. Points out ways that those responsible for inservice nursing education can facilitate…
Curtis, Michael T.; DiazGranados, Deborah; Feldman, Moshe
Use of simulation-based training is fast becoming a vital source of experiential learning in medical education. Although simulation is a common tool for undergraduate and graduate medical education curricula, the utilization of simulation in continuing medical education (CME) is still an area of growth. As more CME programs turn to simulation to…
Sandlow, L. J.; And Others
The educational contribution of medical care evaluation (MCE) has been portrayed as the identification of physicians' educational needs. A study of 13 MCE committees was undertaken to document the learning that occurs in these committees and to discover the conditions affecting their educational value. (Author/MLW)
Talley, Robert C.
Data are reported suggesting that a change in practice patterns did occur subsequent to a continuing medical education program. Twenty-eight physicians took a course in pulmonary artery pressure monitoring and followup surveys indicate its objectives were met. (LBH)
Storey, Patrick B.
This article provides an attempt to project the way in which a computer-based approach to continuing medical education might emerge based on the present perception of what patient care, teaching, and learning are like. (SSH)
Li Wang, Virginia; And Others
A continuing medical education program is discussed that addresses chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and that links primary care physicians to a source of needed clinical knowledge at a relatively low cost. The educational methods, evaluation design, diagnosis of educational needs, selection of program content and behavioral outcomes are…
Labrecque, Michel; Lafortune, Valerie; Lajeunesse, Judith; Lambert-Perrault, Anne-Marie; Manrique, Hermes; Blais, Johanne; Legare, France
Introduction: Defined as reviews of clinical aspects of a specific health problem published in peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed medical journals, offered without charge, continuing medical education (CME) articles form a key strategy for translating knowledge into practice. This study assessed CME articles for mention of evidence-based…
Gluck, Jeannine Cyr
Much of the literature relating to continuing medical education programs laments the lack of effectiveness of traditional lecture-based format, the most often used method of presentation in hospitals. A gap exists between the content taught in lectures and the application of that knowledge in actual patient care. The services of the medical librarian, already employed in most hospitals, can help ameliorate this problem. Further, libraries help to support quality improvement efforts. These three functions (library services, continuing medical education, and quality improvement) are interdependent. Each lends strength to the other, and, ideally, all are coordinated within the hospital structure.
Lim, Erle C H; Oh, Vernon M S; Koh, Dow-Rhoon; Seet, Raymond C S
Closure of medical schools or the barring of "live patient" contact during an epidemic or pandemic is potentially disruptive to medical education. During the SARS epidemic, the use of web-based learning, role play, video vignettes and both live and mannequin-based simulated patients minimised disruptions to medical education. This article examines the pedagogical innovations that allow clinical teaching to continue without medical students examining actual patients, and proposes a contingency plan in the event of future outbreaks that may necessitate similar containment measures.
Weinberg, Armin D.; And Others
A film describing tachypea as an early manifestation of congenital heart disease was shown to physicians and nurses at 27 hospitals during regular continuing medical education activities. Findings from pre-test and post-test data show that need-oriented educational programs can measurably improve the quality of patient care. (Author/LBH)
Ramiro-H, Manuel; Cruz-A, J Enrique
In the 19th century, the first journals in medicine appeared in order to disseminate knowledge among creators and discoverers, but especially among users of knowledge, some of these journals continue to be published nowadays. Subsequently, an organization that initially aspired to collect, sort, archive and distribute the publications: the Index Medicus. Over time, it was imperative to create indexes that measure the performance of journals and with that of researchers.
Owen, P. A.; Allery, L. A.; Harding, K. G.; Hayes, T. M.
To study continuing medical education 96 out of 101 general practitioners chosen at random from the list held by a family practitioner committee were interviewed. The results provided little evidence of regular attendance at local postgraduate centre meetings, though practice based educational meetings were common. Thirty one of the general practitioners worked in practices that held one or more practice based educational meetings each month at which the doctors provided the main educational content. Performance review was undertaken in the practices of 51 of the general practitioners, and 80 of the doctors recognised its value. The general practitioners considered that the most valuable educational activities occurred within the practice, the most valued being contact with partners. They asked for increased contact with hospital doctors. The development of general practitioners' continuing medical education should be based on the content of the individual general practitioner's day to day work and entail contact with his or her professional colleagues. PMID:2504381
Al-Azri, Hilal; Ratnapalan, Savithiri
Abstract Objective To investigate the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) in continuing medical education. Data sources PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and ERIC databases were searched for randomized controlled trials published in English from January 2001 to May 2011 using key words problem-based learning, practice-based, self-directed, learner-centered, and active learning, combined with continuing medical education, continuing professional development, post professional, postgraduate, and adult learning. Study selection Randomized controlled trials that described the effects of PBL on knowledge enhancement, performance improvement, participants’ satisfaction, or patients’ health outcomes were selected for analysis. Synthesis Fifteen studies were included in this review: 4 involved postgraduate trainee doctors, 10 involved practising physicians, and 1 had both groups. Online learning was used in 7 studies. Among postgraduate trainees PBL showed no significant differences in knowledge gain compared with lectures or non–case-based learning. In continuing education, PBL showed no significant difference in knowledge gain when compared with other methods. Several studies did not provide an educational intervention for the control group. Physician performance improvement showed an upward trend in groups participating in PBL, but no significant differences were noted in health outcomes. Conclusion Online PBL is a useful method of delivering continuing medical education. There is limited evidence that PBL in continuing education would enhance physicians’ performance or improve health outcomes. PMID:24522680
Brigley, S.; Young, Y.; Littlejohns, P.; McEwen, J.
The Royal Colleges and their Faculties have moved continuing professional development up the agenda of doctors in the UK. The low educational value and failure to change professional practice of much continuing medical education has led to criticism of its emphasis on formal, didactic teaching and academic knowledge. The ubiquitous scientific or technical bias in medical education makes questionable assumptions about the nature of professional knowledge, how professionals learn, and the linkage of theory and practice in professional work. Given its narrow conception of professional knowledge, it is hardly surprising that the effectiveness of continuing medical education has proven difficult to evaluate. These points of criticism suggest that a more systematic and coherent approach to continuing education is required. The adoption of the concept of continuing professional development, which draws on learning by reflective practice, marks an important step in this direction. Continuing professional development emphasises self-directed learning, professional self-awareness, learning developed in context, multidisciplinary and multilevel collaboration, the learning needs of individuals and their organisations, and an inquiry-based concept of professionalism. It also involves a widening of accountability to patients, the community, managers and policymakers, and a form of evaluation which is internal, participatory and collaborative rather than external and scientific in character. PMID:9039405
Klein, Douglas; Allan, G. Michael; Manca, Donna; Sargeant, Joan; Barnett, Carly
Introduction: Considerable time and money are invested in continuing medical education (CME) for family physicians (FPs) but the effectiveness is uncertain. The participation of FPs as coordinators and teachers is not well known. The goal of this project was to describe the role of FPs in organizing and teaching CME events that are accredited for…
Fox, Robert D.
Based upon a review and analysis of selected literature, the author presents a conceptual model of discrepancy analysis evaluation for planning, implementing, and assessing the impact of continuing medical education (CME). The model is described in terms of its value as a means of diagnosing errors in the development and implementation of CME. The…
Young, Kevin J.; Kim, Julie J.; Yeung, George; Sit, Christina; Tobe, Sheldon W.
Introduction: The need for up-to-date and high-quality continuing medical education (CME) is growing while the financial investment in CME is shrinking. Despite online technology's potential to efficiently deliver electronic CME (eCME) to large numbers of users, it has not yet displaced traditional CME. The purpose of this study was to explore…
Stancic, Nancy; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Prokhorov, Alexander V.; Frankowski, Ralph F.; McAlister, Alfred L.
Background: Although physicians are in a unique position to prevent life-threatening outcomes by counseling patients to stop smoking, many of them miss the opportunity to intervene in their patients' use of tobacco. Nicotine Dependence Across the Lifespan was developed as a continuing medical education (CME) program to teach and encourage…
VanNieuwenborg, Lena; Goossens, Martine; De Lepeleire, Jan; Schoenmakers, Birgitte
Introduction Our current knowledge-based society and the many actualisations within the medical profession require a great responsibility of physicians to continuously develop and refine their skills. In this article, we reflect on some recent findings in the field of continuing education for professional doctors (continuing medical education, CME). Second, we describe the development of a CME from the Academic Center for General Practice (ACHG) of the KU Leuven. Methods First, we performed a literature study and we used unpublished data of a need assessment performed (2013) in a selected group of general practitioners. Second, we describe the development of a proposal to establish a CME programme for general practitioners. Results CME should go beyond the sheer acquisition of knowledge, and also seek changes in practice, attitudes and behaviours of physicians. The continuing education offerings are subject to the goals of the organising institution, but even more to the needs and desires of the end user. Conclusions Integrated education is crucial to meet the conditions for efficient and effective continuing education. The ACHG KU Leuven decided to offer a postgraduate programme consisting of a combination of teaching methods: online courses (self-study), contact courses (traditional method) and a materials database. PMID:26850504
Luchtefeld, Martin; Kerwel, Therese G.
Continuing medical education serves a central role in the licensure and certification for practicing physicians. This chapter explores the different modalities that constitute CME along with their effectiveness, including simulation and best education practices. The evolution to maintenance of certification and the requirements for both the American Board of Surgery and the American Board of Colon and Rectal Surgery are delineated. Further progress in the education of practicing surgeons is evidenced through the introduction of laparoscopic colectomy and the improvements made from the introduction of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Finally, reentry of physicians into practice following a voluntary leave of absence, a new and challenging issue for surgeons, is also discussed. PMID:23997673
Background Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) affects at least 4 million people in the United States, yet only 16% of people with CFS have received a diagnosis or medical care for their illness. Educating health care professionals about the diagnosis and management of CFS may help to reduce population morbidity associated with CFS. Methods This report presents findings over a 5-year period from May 2000 to June 2006 during which we developed and implemented a health care professional educational program. The objective of the program was to distribute CFS continuing education materials to providers at professional conferences, offer online continuing education credits in different formats (e.g., print, video, and online), and evaluate the number of accreditation certificates awarded. Results We found that smaller conference size (OR = 80.17; 95% CI 8.80, 730.25), CFS illness related target audiences (OR = 36.0; 95% CI 2.94, 436.34), and conferences in which CFS research was highlighted (OR = 4.15; 95% CI 1.16, 14.83) significantly contributed to higher dissemination levels, as measured by visit rates to the education booth. While print and online courses were equally requested for continuing education credit opportunities, the online course resulted in 84% of the overall award certificates, compared to 14% for the print course. This remained consistent across all provider occupations: physicians, nurses, physician assistants, and allied health professionals. Conclusion These findings suggest that educational programs promoting materials at conferences may increase dissemination efforts by targeting audiences, examining conference characteristics, and promoting online continuing education forums. PMID:19954535
Melnick, Donald E.
This article has three key points. The first proposes and illustrates a model for planning effective continuing medical education (CME) and continuing professional development (CPD) and how assessment might fit into it. The second reviews major trends in assessment, particularly with regard to regulation and CME. The third addresses challenges for…
Tuomainen, Lea; Ovaskainen, Harri; Peura, Sirpa; Sevón-Vilkman, Nina; Tanskanen, Paavo; Airaksinen, Marja S.A.
Objective To implement a long-term continuing education course for pharmacy practitioners to acquire competency in and accreditation for conducting collaborative comprehensive medication reviews (CMRs). Design A 1½- year curriculum for practicing pharmacists that combined distance learning (using e-learning tools) and face-to-face learning was created. The training consisted of 5 modules: (1) Multidisciplinary Collaboration; (2) Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacotherapy; (3) Rational Pharmacotherapy; (4) CMR Tools; and (5) Optional Studies. Assessment The curriculum and participants' learning were evaluated using essays and learning diaries. At the end of the course, students submitted portfolios and completed an Internet-based survey instrument. Almost all respondents (92%) indicated their educational needs had been met by the course and 68% indicated they would conduct CMRs in their practice. The most important factors facilitating learning were working with peers and in small groups. Factors preventing learning were mostly related to time constraints. Conclusion Comprehensive medication review competencies were established by a 1½- year continuing education curriculum that combined different teaching methods and experiential learning. Peer support was greatly appreciated as a facilitator of learning by course participants. PMID:19885077
Ring, Johannes; Rakoski, Jürgen
Quality control in education and training in allergology comprises activities at the different levels of the curriculum of medical schools, residency programs and postgraduate education. Unfortunately, until now allergology in Germany has not yet been regularly embedded in the medical curriculum of all medical schools. Therefore, the German Society for Allergology and Clinical Immunology (DGAI) has demanded for years that chairs and departments of allergology be introduced at every Medical Faculty in Germany. The new Medical Licensure Rules (Approbationsordnung) offer the possibility to select allergology, amongst others, as an obligatory subject in the medical state examination. Furthermore, allergological topics can now be introduced into the newly established interdisciplinary fields (Querschnittsbereiche). At the level of residency training, doctors who want to become allergists have to undergo a special curriculum in the field of allergology, formerly called additional specialisation in allergology (Zusatzbezeichnung) after having finished their board examination in an organ-related specialty subject. Following a decision of the German "Arztetag" in May 2003, this 24-months curriculum has unfortunately been reduced to 18 months. 12 months of this 18 months requirement may be fulfilled during a residency programme in either dermatovenerology, otolaryngology, internal medicine, pulmology and/or paediatrics. Compared to previous years, this results in a drastic deterioration of allergy training in Germany. The DGAI has decided to take up the fight for its improvement in both a quantitative and qualitative respect. The crucial issue is to develop quality criteria for persons as well as institutions eligible as training centres in allergology. As regards post-graduate education, the German Academy of Allergology and Environmental Medicine (Deutsche Akademie für Allergie und Umweltmedizin, DAAU) has introduced a system of certified continuing medical education (CME
McDonald, Walter J.
The Council of Medical Specialty Societies (CMSS) recognizes the need for continuing medical education (CME) reform and intends to be actively engaged in that process. While recognizing that CME reform must involve many organizations, the CMSS and particularly the 23 societies that make up the CMSS are in a position to affect many of the needed…
Miller, Stephen H.; Thompson, James N.; Mazmanian, Paul E.; Aparicio, Alejandro; Davis, David A.; Spivey, Bruce E.; Kahn, Norman B., Jr.
To provide the best care to patients, a physician must commit to lifelong learning, but continuing education and evaluation systems in the United States typically require little more than records of attendance for professional association memberships, hospital staff privileges, or reregistration of a medical license. While 61 of 68 medical and…
Koewing, J. Robert; And Others
The Area Health Education Centers (AHEC) Program (created under the Comprehensive Health Manpower Act of 1971) is briefly described followed by a discussion of the University of North Carolina's regional planning efforts for continuing education. Major planning problems--aggregate numbers, continuing education suppliers, geographic distribution,…
FAGHIHI, SEYED ALIAKBAR; KHANKEH, HAMID REZA; HOSSEINI, SEYED JALIL; SOLTANI ARABSHAHI, SEYED KAMRAN; FAGHIH, ZAHRA; PARIKH, SAGAR V.; SHIRAZI, MANDANA
Introduction Continuing Medical Education (CME) has been considered as a lifelong commitment for doctors to provide the optimal care for patients. Despite a long history of creating CME programs, outcomes are far from ideal. The present qualitative study aims to clarify the barriers affecting effectiveness of the CME programs in Iran based on the experiences of general practitioners. Methods Sixteen general practitioners were recruited to participate in in-depth interviews and field observations concerning experiences with CME. The study was performed using a qualitative content analysis method. The codes, categories and themes were explored through an inductive process in which the researchers moved from specific to general. Results The participants’ experiences identified a number of barriers, particularly insufficient interaction with the instructors; additional problems included the teachers’ use of an undifferentiated approach; unreal and abstract CME; and ignorance of the diverse reasons to participate in CME. Conclusion Based on the study results, there are multiple barriers to effective implementation of CME in Iran. The key barriers include insufficient interaction between the trainees and providers, which must be considered by other stakeholders and program designers. Such interactions would facilitate improved program design, invite more specific tailoring of the education to the participants, allow for more effective educational methods and set the stage for outcome evaluation from the learners actually applying their new knowledge in practice. Replication of these findings with another sample would improve confidence in these recommendations, but these findings are broadly consistent with findings in the educational literature on improving the efficacy of CME. PMID:27104199
Verby, John E.
The Rural Physician Associate Program places third year medical students with rural Minnesota physicians, giving students practical experience and giving physicians onsite opportunities for continuing education. Library services, microcomputers, and an electronic mail system serve the information needs of the student/mentor pairs. (SK)
Meyer, Thomas C.
An analysis of health care in Venezuela indicates that if the health of the Venezuelan population is to be maintained and improved then there must be undertaken a major effort to develop continuing educational programs for physicians. Venezuelan undergraduate medical education is largely didactic, with little exposure to patient care;…
Background. This research aims to investigate the quantitative relationship between telemedicine and online continuing medical education (CME) and to find the optimal CME lectures to be delivered via telemedicine to improve the population's health status. Objective. This study examines the following: (1) What factors foster learning processes in CME via telemedicine? (2) What is the possible role of online CME in health improvement? And (3) How optimal learning processes can be integrated with various health services? Methods. By applying telemedicine experiences in Taiwan over the period 1995–2004, this study uses panel data and the method of ordinary least squares to embed an adequate set of phenomena affecting the provision of online CME lectures versus health status. Results. Analytical results find that a nonlinear online CME-health nexus exists. Increases in the provision of online CME lectures are associated with health improvements. However, after the optimum has been reached, greater provision of online CME lectures may be associated with decreasing population health. Conclusion. Health attainment could be partially viewed as being determined by the achievement of the appropriately providing online CME lectures. This study has evaluated the population's health outcomes and responded to the currently inadequate provision of online CME lectures via telemedicine. PMID:27660637
Swanberg, Stephanie M.; Engwall, Keith; Mi, Misa
Purpose The research assessed a three-year continuing medical education–style program for medical students in a Midwestern academic medical library. Methods A mixed methods approach of a survey and two focus groups comparing attendees versus non-attendees assessed the program. Results Eleven students participated in the focus groups. Attendance was driven by topic interest and lunch. Barriers included lack of interest, scheduling, location, and convenience. Conclusions Although attendance was a challenge, students valued opportunities to learn new skills. This study showcases a reproducible method to engage students outside the curriculum. PMID:26512222
Harris, John M., Jr.; Novalis-Marine, Cheryl; Harris, Robin B.
Introduction: On-line continuing medical education (CME) provides advantages to physicians and to medical educators. Although practicing physicians increasingly use on-line CME to meet their educational needs, the overall use of on-line CME remains limited. There are few data to describe the physicians who use this new educational medium; yet,…
Casebeer, Linda; Andolsek, Kathryn; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar; Green, Joseph; Weissman, Norman; Pryor, Erica; Zheng, Shimin; Terndrup, Thomas
Introduction: Much of the international community has an increased awareness of potential biologic, chemical, and nuclear threats and the need for physicians to rapidly acquire new knowledge and skills in order to protect the public's health. The present study evaluated the educational effectiveness of an online bioterrorism continuing medical…
Shortt, S. E. D.; Guillemette, Jean-Marc; Duncan, Anne Marie; Kirby, Frances
Introduction: The rapid increase in the use of the Internet for continuing education by physicians suggests the need to define quality criteria for accredited online modules. Methods: Continuing medical education (CME) directors from Canadian medical schools and academic researchers participated in a consensus process, Modified Nominal Group…
The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care.
The subject of the cost and value of medical education is becoming increasingly important. However, this subject is not a new one. Fifty years ago, Mr. DH Patey, Dr. OF Davies, and Dr. John Ellis published a report on the state of postgraduate medical education in the UK. The report was wide-ranging, but it made a considerable mention of cost. In this short article, I have presented the documentary research that I conducted on their report. I have analyzed it from a positivist perspective and have concentrated on the subject of cost, as it appears in their report. The authors describe reforms within postgraduate medical education; however, they are clear from the start that the issue of cost can often be a barrier to such reforms. They state the need for basic facilities for medical education, but then outline the financial barriers to their development. The authors then discuss the costs of library services for education. They state that the "annual spending on libraries varies considerably throughout the country." The authors also describe the educational experiences of newly graduated doctors. According to them, the main problem is that these doctors do not have time to attend formal educational events, and that this will not be possible until there is "a more graduated approach to responsible clinical work," something which is not possible without financial investment. While concluding their report, the authors state that the limited money invested in postgraduate medical education and continuing medical education has been well spent, and that this has had a dual effect on improving medical education as well as the standards of medical care. PMID:25802685
Alahuhta, S; Mellin-Olsen, J; Blunnie, W P; Knape, J T A
The mission of the Section and Board of Anaesthesiology of the European Union of Medical Specialists (EUMS/UEMS) is to harmonize training and medical practice in all European countries to continuously improve the quality of care. The need for continuous medical education in the field of anaesthesiology has long been recognized. However, specialty-based competencies are not the only requirements for successful medical practice. The need to acquire medical, managerial, ethical, social and personal communication skills on top of specialty-based competencies has developed into the principle of continuous professional development, which embraces both objectives. The Section and Board of Anaesthesiology of the EUMS/UEMS has approved a proposal of its Standing Committee on Continuous Medical Education/Continuous Professional Development to adopt the following charter on the subject.
Van Hoof, Thomas J; Grant, Rachel E; Sajdlowska, Joanna; Bell, Mary; Campbell, Craig; Colburn, Lois; Dorman, Todd; Fischer, Michael; Horsley, Tanya; LeBlanc, Constance; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Moore, Donald E; Morrow, Robert; Olson, Curtis A; Silver, Ivan; Thomas, David C; Turco, Mary; Kitto, Simon
The Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education commissioned a study to clarify and, if possible, to standardize the terminology for a set of important educational interventions. In the form of a guideline, this article describes one such intervention, educational meetings, which is a common intervention in health professions' education. An educational meeting is an opportunity for clinicians to assemble to discuss and apply important information relevant to patient care. Based on a review of recent evidence and a facilitated discussion with US and Canadian experts, we describe proper educational meeting terminology and other important information about the intervention. We encourage leaders and researchers to consider and to build on this guideline as they plan, implement, evaluate, and report educational meeting efforts. Clear and consistent use of terminology is imperative, along with complete and accurate descriptions of interventions, to improve the use and study of educational meetings.
collected in several ways which include computerized and manual literature searches of professional medical journals , telephonic 0 contacts with national...Spring, MD: CCEU. Davis, D. & Feldman, E. (1982, June). The McMaster CME Society. Journal of Medical E’ucation, 57(6), 476-480. Derbyshire, R.C...Continuing Medical Education. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 250(12), 1557-1559. Manning, P. R. (1983, February). Continuing
The Internet, and new information and communication technologies available through the Internet, provides medical educators with an opportunity to develop unique on-line learning environments with real potential to improve physicians' knowledge and effect change in their clinical practice. There are approximately 100 websites offering on-line CME courses in the USA alone. However, few of these CME courses appear to be based on sound educational principles or CME research and may have little chance of achieving the broader goals of CME. The majority of these courses closely resemble their traditional counterparts (e.g. paper-based books are now electronic books) and appear to be mere substitutions for old-technology CME resources. Whilst some CME providers add unique features of the Internet to enrich their websites, they do not employ strategies to optimize the learning opportunities afforded by this new technology. The adoption of adult learning principles, reflective practice and problem-based approaches can be used as a foundation for sound CME course design. In addition, knowledge of Internet technology and the learning opportunities it affords, together with strategies to maintain participation and new assessment paradigms, are all needed for developing online CME. We argue for an evidence-based and strategic approach to the development of on-line CME courses designed to enhance physician learning and facilitate change in clinical behaviour.
Markert, Ronald J.; O'Neill, Sally C.; Bhatia, Subhash C.
Introduction: The objectives of continuing medical education (CME) programs include knowledge acquisition, skill development, clinical reasoning and decision making, and health care outcomes. We conducted a yearlong medical education research study in which knowledge acquisition in our CME programs was assessed. Method: A randomized…
Lowe, Mary Martin; Aparicio, Alejandro; Galbraith, Robert; Dorman, Todd; Dellert, Edwin
To ensure that continuing medical education (CME) continues to evolve so that it offers educational activities that are relevant to physicians in keeping with the definition of CME, CME providers must respond to and prepare for emerging expectations. This article puts into context the impact of the current emphasis on lifelong learning in medicine, particularly the requirement for maintenance of certification and licensure, on CME. Further, the effect of changing needs assessments and the impact of the integration of new technology in CME is included. Finally, a discussion of the emerging unique needs of CME providers and organizations related to these changes are addressed in the following four broad categories: CME as a value center, resources in support of CME, research to further advance the field, and leadership to guide the profession.
Goodnough, Lawrence T.; And Others
Staff communication patterns were observed during 13 open-heart surgeries to identify the transfusion decision makers. It was determined that targeting decision makers for continuing medical education would improve the quality of transfusion practice and increase the efficiency of continuing education. (SK)
Mansfield, Phyllis; And Others
Primary care physicians in Pennsylvania were asked to give their attitudes and preferences regarding continuing medical education (CME) in an effort to expand and develop physician-oriented CME programs for the Hershey Continuing Education department at Penn State. A 32-item questionnaire was mailed to 952 primary care physicians practicing in…
Mazmanian, Paul E
Current approaches to evaluation in continuing medical education (CME) feature results defined as changes in participation, satisfaction, knowledge, behavior, and patient outcomes. Few studies link costs and effectiveness of CME to improved quality of care. As continuing education programs compete for scarce resources, cost-inclusive evaluation offers strategies to measure change and to determine value for resources spent.
Moore, Dale A.; Klingborg, Donald J.; Wright, Teressa
Lists by state and province the current continuing veterinary medical education (CVME) requirements in the United States and Canada and provides additional analysis and comment on CVME requirements. (EV)
Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wojnar, Margaret; Sinz, Elizabeth
This chapter focuses on how to negotiate power and interest among multiple stakeholders to develop continuing professional education programs as graduate study for those in the health and medical professions.
Van Hoof, Thomas J; Grant, Rachel E; Sajdlowska, Joanna; Bell, Mary; Campbell, Craig; Colburn, Lois; Davis, David; Dorman, Todd; Fischer, Michael; Horsley, Tanya; Jacobs-Halsey, Virginia; Kane, Gabrielle; LeBlanc, Constance; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Moore, Donald E; Morrow, Robert; Olson, Curtis A; Reeves, Scott; Sargeant, Joan; Silver, Ivan; Thomas, David C; Turco, Mary; Kitto, Simon
The Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education commissioned a study to clarify and, if possible, to standardize the terminology for a set of important educational interventions. In the form of a guideline, this article describes one such intervention, interprofessional education (IPE), which is a common intervention in health professions education. IPE is an opportunity for individuals of multiple professions to interact to learn together, to break down professional silos, and to achieve interprofessional learning outcomes in the service of high-value patient care. Based on a review of recent evidence and a facilitated discussion with US and Canadian experts, we describe IPE, its terminology, and other important information about the intervention. We encourage leaders and researchers to consider and to build on this guideline as they plan, implement, evaluate, and report IPE efforts. Clear and consistent use of terminology is imperative, along with complete and accurate descriptions of interventions, to improve the use and study of IPE.
Ansorg, J; Betzler, M
In addition to medical knowledge and skills, medical competency includes critical self-refection and professional mistake management, the ability to manage the administrative workload and techniques of professional communication and leadership. In addition to that physicians have to develop social competency and empathy for staff members and patients. Continuing medical education (CME) focuses on continuing development of medical knowledge and skills. To develop the additional aspects of medical competency the concept of medical education has to be broadened to continuing professional development (CPD). In different European countries and North America CPD includes a regular mandatory system to evaluate medical competency. Assessment systems like PAR in Alberta/Canada provide doctors with a 360 degree analysis of their daily work, showing the potential for future improvement. ECKO (Evaluation of Surgical Competency) is an adapted assessment system for German surgeons available on a voluntary basis. For the first time in Germany physicians are able to take part in a strength-weakness analysis of their daily work. They receive recommendations on practice improvement and an educational prescription for individual further education.
Katz, Harvey P.; Goldfinger, Stephen E.; Fletcher, Suzanne W.
During 4 continuing medical education conferences, 221 Harvard Medical School lectures and 103 pharmaceutical company symposia were held. There were no differences in perceived quality of presentations, but the range of topics in industry-sponsored programs was narrower and primarily linked to new products. (SK)
Raszkowski, Robert R.; Chute, Alan G.
Designing teleconference programs for the physician learner puts unique demands on the teleconferencing medium. Typically, physicians expect a 1-hour lecture presentation with high information density. To effectively present the medical content material in an audio medium, strategies which structure and organize the content material are necessary.…
Cholesterol measurements of 328 volunteers were taken before and after continuing medical education interventions (lectures and information dissemination to physicians, patient education). Although 50% reduced their serum cholesterol, the only practice change was an increase in physicians giving dietary instructions. (SK)
Rikkert, Marcel G. M.; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie
General practitioners (GPs) need advanced skills in geriatric assessment to be competent to treat the increasing number of elderly patients. Continuing medical education in geriatrics for GPs is heterogeneous, and not assessed for effectiveness. In this study we compared the educational effects of three geriatric post-graduate training methods on…
Gullion, David S.; And Others
A randomized control trial was used to evaluate a physician education program designed to improve physician management of patients' hypertension, hypertension-related behaviors, and diastolic blood pressure. It was suggested that more intensive continuing medical education programs are needed to improve physician performance and patient outcome.…
Ryan, David Patrick; Marlow, Bernard
An observation at a problem-based learning, case-building meeting prompted the realization that building cases might itself be an effective educational intervention. We developed a process for a new continuing medical education technique that is peculiarly familiar that we call "build-a-case." Build-a-case has now been used for teaching and…
The social balance sheet is an instrument used to obtain a clear and transparent account, that helps to develop an analysis of the budget from the point of view of the stakeholders; this is not all that is required by law, but it takes into account the ability of the health institutions to obtain a collaboration with the neighboring environment and with the social issues that enter into the relationship. This could be a valuable tool also for educational purposes; it is an useful task to be performed by the health workers, and an opportunity to redefine the information needs through the analysis of the results achieved.
Nahrwold, David L.
The development of competency-based education and evaluation for residents and practicing physicians by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS), respectively, includes the competency of practice-based learning and improvement. Efforts to implement this and the other competencies…
Bowen, Judith L; Hirsh, David; Aagaard, Eva; Kaminetzky, Catherine P; Smith, Marie; Hardman, Joseph; Chheda, Shobhina G
Continuity of care is a core value of patients and primary care physicians, yet in graduate medical education (GME), creating effective clinical teaching environments that emphasize continuity poses challenges. In this Perspective, the authors review three dimensions of continuity for patient care-informational, longitudinal, and interpersonal-and propose analogous dimensions describing continuity for learning that address both residents learning from patient care and supervisors and interprofessional team members supporting residents' competency development. The authors review primary care GME reform efforts through the lens of continuity, including the growing body of evidence that highlights the importance of longitudinal continuity between learners and supervisors for making competency judgments. The authors consider the challenges that primary care residency programs face in the wake of practice transformation to patient-centered medical home models and make recommendations to maximize the opportunity that these practice models provide. First, educators, researchers, and policy makers must be more precise with terms describing various dimensions of continuity. Second, research should prioritize developing assessments that enable the study of the impact of interpersonal continuity on clinical outcomes for patients and learning outcomes for residents. Third, residency programs should establish program structures that provide informational and longitudinal continuity to enable the development of interpersonal continuity for care and learning. Fourth, these educational models and continuity assessments should extend to the level of the interprofessional team. Fifth, policy leaders should develop a meaningful recognition process that rewards academic practices for training the primary care workforce.
Luo, Yongjun; Zhou, Qiquan; Huang, Jianjun; Luo, Rong; Yang, Xiaohong; Gao, Yuqi
The purpose of high altitude continuing medical education is to adapt knowledge and skills for practical application on the plateau. Most trainees have experience with academic education and grassroots work experience on the plateau, so they want knowledge about new advances in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of high altitude disease. As such, traditional classroom teaching methods are not useful to them. Training objects, content, and methods should attempt to conduct a variety of teaching practices. Through continuing medical education on high altitude disease, the authors seek to change the traditional teaching model away from a single classroom and traditional written examinations to expand trainees' abilities. These innovative methods of training can improve both the quality of teaching and students' abilities to prevent and treat acute mountain sickness, high altitude pulmonary edema, high altitude cerebral edema, and chronic mountain sickness to increase the quality of high altitude medical care.
Ben Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Haddad, Sofiène; Harrabi, Imed; Ghannem, Hassen
A continuing medical education is an essential activity in the search for doctors' performance, provided it is adapted to the specificity of their medical practice. The objective of this work is to identify the needs of general practitioners in relation to continuing medical education. It is a structural descriptive and transversal survey of about 112 general practitioners among the 140 doctors in the Sousse region in 2000. Data have been collected through a questionnaire that develops the expectation of general practitioners concerning the themes, domains and specialties privileged in a continued training. This research shows that the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies of current affections were themes requested by 85% of general practitioners. The doctor-patient relation has been chosen by 71% of doctors. Emergency medicine was the specialty proposed by most of them. Thus, general practitioners expect a permanent training specific to their profile that could improve their clinical and relational competences.
Younies, Hassan; Berham, Belal; Smith, Pamela C.
Introduction: This paper investigates the views of health care providers on continuous medical education (CME). To our knowledge, this is one of the first surveys to examine perspectives of CME in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: A 6-part questionnaire focused on the following areas of CME: the workshop leaders/trainers, the training…
Kwolek, Deborah S.; Donnelly, Michael B.; Carr, Ellen; Sloan, David A.; Haist, Steven A.
Women's health topics of interest for continuing medical education were identified by 91 primary care physicians. Most felt that more knowledge of these topics would reduce the number of referrals to specialists. A more comprehensive, rather than reproductive, perspective of women's health was called for. (SK)
Burr, Bill D.; And Others
An expanded concept of continuing medical education (CME) is reported that fills the needs of both physicians and mid-level practitioners (nurse practitioners or physician's assistants). The Family Practice Refresher Course sponsored by the University of California, Davis, School of Medicine and its evaluation are described. (LBH)
Jones, Deborah L.
Several features of a two-day national nephrology continuing medical education conference were analyzed using commitments for change and subsequent self-reports of implementation of change as the dependent variables. Subjects were those physician participants (N=84) who completed demographic information forms and agreed to participate in the…
Wergin, Jon F.; And Others
A method for evaluating physicians' practice behavior after undertaking continuing medical education (CME) conducted by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) was developed and tested during 1983-1985. The literature on CME effectiveness and physician behavior change was reviewed. Physicians who were trained interviewers conducted telephone…
Reed, Virginia A.; Schifferdecker, Karen E.; Turco, Mary G.
Introduction: Although there is increasing focus on provider behavior change as an outcome of continuing medical education (CME), it has long been known that an increase in knowledge alone is rarely sufficient to induce such change. The Personal Learning Plan (PLP), designed to motivate and assess CME learning, was partly derived from SMART goals…
Shewchuk, Richard M.; Schmidt, Hilary J.; Benarous, Alexandra; Bennett, Nancy L.; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar; Casebeer, Linda L.
Introduction: Rapidly expanding science and mandates for maintaining credentials place increasing demands on continuing medical education (CME) activities to provide information that is current and relevant to patient care. Quality may be seen as the perceived level of service measured against consumer expectations. Standard tools have not been…
Maisonneuve, Herve; Matillon, Yves; Negri, Alfonso; Pallares, Luis; Vigneri, Ricardo; Young, Howard L.
Introduction: Since reliable information is scarce to describe continuing medical education (CME) and revalidation in Europe, we carried out a survey in 5 selected countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom). Methods: A tested questionnaire was sent to 2 experts per country (except in Germany), during August-September 2004.…
Barnes, Barbara E.; Cole, Jeanne G.; King, Catherine Thomas; Zukowski, Rebecca; Allgier-Baker, Tracy; Rubio, Doris McGartland; Thorndyke, Luanne E.
Introduction: Heightened concerns about industry influence on continuing medical education (CME) have prompted tighter controls on the management of commercial funding and conflict of interest. As a result, CME providers must closely monitor their activities and intervene if bias or noncompliance with accreditation standards is likely. Potential…
Estrada, Carlos A.; Krishnamoorthy, Periyakaruppan; Smith, Ann; Staton, Lisa; Korf, Michele J.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Houston, Thomas K.
Introduction: CME providers may be interested in identifying effective marketing strategies to direct users to specific content. Online advertisements for recruiting participants into activities such as clinical trials, public health programs, and continuing medical education (CME) have been effective in some but not all studies. The purpose of…
Campbell, Craig M.
The following abstracts were peer-reviewed for presentation and publication. They were edited by Craig M. Campbell, MD, chairman, Research Committee, Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education.
Chu, Larry F; Erlendson, Matthew J; Sun, John S; Clemenson, Anna M; Martin, Paul; Eng, Reuben L
Today's educators are faced with substantial challenges in the use of information technology for anaesthesia training and continuing medical education. Millennial learners have uniquely different learning styles than previous generations of students. These preferences distinctly incorporate the use of digital information technologies and social technologies to support learning. To be effective teachers, modern educators must be familiar with these new information technologies and understand how to use them for medical education. Examples of new information technologies include learning management systems, lecture capture, social media (YouTube, Flickr), social networking (Facebook), Web 2.0, multimedia (video learning triggers and point-of-view video) and mobile computing applications. The information technology challenges for educators in the twenty-first century include: (a) understanding how technology shapes the learning preferences of today's anaesthesia residents, (b) distinguishing between the function and properties of new learning technologies and (c) properly using these learning technologies to enhance the anaesthesia curriculum.
Mascarenhas, Desmond; Singh, Baljit K; Singh, Amoolya H; Veer, Sally Vander
The influence of continuing medical education (CME) on the adoption of new treatments is widely regarded as self-evident. Less well understood is how the dynamics of dissemination of new healthcare practices are influenced by the intersection of education with the adaptive characteristics of providers. We developed and validated a 43-item online instrument (eSAIL) for measuring adaptive style and used it to investigate the interplay of physician adaptivity with key components of effective medical education. Satisfactory Cronbach alpha and test-retest reliability coefficients were observed for all primary psychometric scales and a composite adaptivity scale. Discriminant, convergent, and predictive validities of eSAIL scales were consistent across all cohorts. Using an online medical education program for which data on physician behavioral change are available, we show that the rate of adoption of new drugs is driven by both psychological (adaptivity) and environmental (educational) inputs. We show for the first time that topic eminence, length of reinforcement period and physician adaptive score in the eSAIL are each proportional to early-adoption-related behavioral change. Using a simple forced-choice question, a cohort of 208 physicians was segmented into "A" (adaptive) and "C" (conservative) segments based on their eSAIL adaptivity z scores (+0.170 versus -0.234 respectively; P < 0.01). Early adoption of new drug treatments by similarly segmented physician cohorts was driven almost entirely by A-segment physicians, but only when those physicians were additionally exposed to effective medical education.
Toner, John A; Ferguson, K Della; Sokal, Regina Davis
There is a widening gap between the health care needs of older persons and the treatment skills of the health care professionals who serve them. This gap is especially severe in rural areas, where there is a shortage of and inadequate collaboration between health care professionals and poor access to services for older persons. There is also a special opportunity in rural areas, particularly those designated as "medically underserved," for continuing interprofessional education as a vehicle for retaining health care professionals who tend to leave medically underserved areas for more lucrative professional opportunities elsewhere. In collaboration with the Consortium of New York Geriatric Education Centers, the Columbia-New York Geriatric Education Center at the Stroud Center of Columbia University has developed the Program for Outreach to Interprofessional Services and Education (POISE). The purpose of POISE is to develop, implement, evaluate, and sustain interprofessional education and training for health care learners, while emphasizing improved access to health services for the geriatric population in medically underserved areas. The POISE model was designed as an effective approach to teaching the core geriatrics and gerontology curriculum endorsed by the national (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services) network of Geriatric Education Centers to health care learners in medically underserved areas of upstate New York. This article describes the adaptation and implementation of the POISE model.
Feldman, W; Milner, R; Punthakee, N
A nationwide survey of Canadian pediatricians was undertaken to answer questions about demographic and practice characteristics, perceptions of the quantity and quality of residency training in relation to the realities of practice, and the patterns of use and the value of continuing medical education. The findings included a lower average age of pediatricians from that determined 10 years earlier, a higher proportion of women practising pediatrics, and higher proportions of pediatricians entering practice in smaller communities, doing geographic full-time university work and doing mainly consulting work. Pediatrics is still perceived as an attractive discipline, but there is dissatisfaction with the quantity and quality of training in adolescent medicine, ophthalmology, dermatology, psychosocial pediatrics and orthopedics. The changing patterns of continuing medical education among the most recent certificants suggest a need for journals and professional societies to assess how they can better meet the needs of Canadian pediatricians in this area. PMID:7260758
McCormick, Andrew J; Stowell-Weiss, Patti; Carson, Jennifer; Tebo, Gerald; Hanson, Inga; Quesada, Bianca
Medical social workers have needs for training in ethics that is specific to dilemmas that arise while providing service to patients who are very ill, mentally compromised, or in a terminal condition. A social work department developed a continuing education training to educate social workers in bioethics related to determining decisional capacity and understanding standards of ethical decision making. Case studies are used to illustrate ethical conflicts and the role of social workers in resolving them. The benefits of case study training are discussed.
Lelli, Maria Barbara
On the strength of the literature analysis and the Emilia-Romagna Region experience, we suggest a reflection on the workplace-based learning that goes beyond the analysis of the effectiveness of specific didactic methodologies and aspects related to Continuing Medical Education. Health education and training issue is viewed from a wider perspective, that integrates the three learning dimensions (formal, non formal and informal). In such a perspective the workplace-based learning becomes an essential paradigm to reshape the explicit knowledge conveyed in formal context and to emphasize informal contexts where innovation is generated.
Ryan, David Patrick; Marlow, Bernard
An observation at a problem-based learning, case-building meeting prompted the realization that building cases might itself be an effective educational intervention. We developed a process for a new continuing medical education technique that is peculiarly familiar that we call "build-a-case." Build-a-case has now been used for teaching and learning in many clinical situations and with several kinds of health professionals. Subjective evaluations of the approach are consistently positive, and people feel that they learn from it because it prompts the discussion of practice as it is in their clinics and communities. In what follows, we describe the build-a-case process and our experiences with it and suggest several theoretical constructs that might be useful in promoting thoughtful research on what may become a useful new tool for continuing education.
Fremont Unified School District, CA.
The Fremont, California Unified School District organized a continuing education program through a workshop held in the summer of 1968. This paper presents the results of that workshop. Following a statement of philosophy, an outline of the characteristics of the continuation student, and an outline of the functions of the program, an overview of…
McLaren, Kimberly; Lord, Julie; Murray, Suzanne
Education about physicians' disruptive behavior is relevant for practicing physicians, who must demonstrate competence in professionalism for maintenance of certification. In addition, physicians need to know about newer regulatory standards that define disruptive behavior and mandated processes for dealing with such behavior, as health care organizations are now charged with having formal policies addressing this issue. There is a growing literature about dealing with disruptive behavior, but it has not addressed education, including continuing medical education (CME), aimed at reducing or preventing disruptive behavior. The authors suggest specific strategies for such CME educational programs, including knowing the audience before the presentation, avoiding potential pitfalls, defusing defensiveness, and increasing audience "buy-in." They present two viewpoints from which to approach the topic of disruptive behavior, depending on the audience: "rekindling of values" and "risk reduction." The authors also recommend interactive teaching methods designed to maximize audience participation and foster self-awareness and reflection.
Carrera, Renato Melli; Cendoroglo, Miguel; Gonçales, Paulo David Scatena; Marques, Flavio Rocha Brito; Sardenberg, Camila; Glezer, Milton; dos Santos, Oscar Fernando Pavão; Rizzo, Luiz Vicente; Lottenberg, Claudio Luiz; Schvartsman, Cláudio
Objective Physician participation in Continuing Medical Education programs may be influenced by a number of factors. To evaluate the factors associated with compliance with the Continuing Medical Education requirements at a private hospital, we investigated whether physicians’ activity, measured by volumes of admissions and procedures, was associated with obtaining 40 Continuing Medical Education credits (40 hours of activities) in a 12-month cycle. Methods In an exclusive and non-mandatory Continuing Medical Education program, we collected physicians’ numbers of hospital admissions and numbers of surgical procedures performed. We also analyzed data on physicians’ time since graduation, age, and gender. Results A total of 3,809 credentialed, free-standing, private practice physicians were evaluated. Univariate analysis showed that the Continuing Medical Education requirements were more likely to be achieved by male physicians (odds ratio 1.251; p=0.009) and who had a higher number of hospital admissions (odds ratio 1.022; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that age and number of hospital admissions were associated with achievement of the Continuing Medical Education requirements. Each hospital admission increased the chance of achieving the requirements by 0.4%. Among physicians who performed surgical procedures, multivariate analysis showed that male physicians were 1.3 time more likely to achieve the Continuing Medical Education requirements than female physicians. Each surgical procedure performed increased the chance of achieving the requirements by 1.4%. Conclusion The numbers of admissions and number of surgical procedures performed by physicians at our hospital were associated with the likelihood of meeting the Continuing Medical Education requirements. These findings help to shed new light on our Continuing Medical Education program. PMID:25807247
Nasir, A; Khader, A; Nasir, L; Abuzayed, I; Seita, A
Most physicians who work in the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) infant and child health programme in Jordan are general practitioners with no postgraduate training in paediatrics. Furthermore, in resource-poor or remote settings, the ability to deliver live continuing medical education (CME) is often limited. A questionnaire exploring the resources available for accessing CME, preferences for types of CME, current sources of CME and topics of interest in the field of paediatric care was sent to all 92 physicians practising in UNRWA clinics in Jordan. Of the 89 respondents 80% had attended live medical lectures for CME and 70% CME meetings. Despite most physicians having access to the Internet only 52.8% were interested in Internet-based courses for accessing CME. There was a statistically significant relationship between year of graduation from medical school and preference for Internet-based CME. Implications for CME participation and paediatric CME topics are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of an educational program in family medicine for general practitioners in Saudi Arabia from 2009 to 2011. A continuing medical education program called Family Medicine Education (FAME) was developed with 7 modules each consisting of 12-14 hours of teaching to be delivered in 3 day blocks, over 45 days. Twenty percent (2,761) of all general practitioners participated in the FAME program. Initial assessment of the program showed significant improvement of knowledge from scores of 49% on a pre-test to 89% on post-tests. FAME program in Saudi Arabia facilitated primary care physicians’ knowledge. PMID:24250833
Forti, E M; Martin, K E; Jones, R L; Herman, J M
Family physicians provide the greatest proportion of care in rural communities. Yet, the number of physicians choosing family practice and rural practice has continued to decline. Undesirable aspects of rural practice, such as professional isolation and a lack of or inadequate resources, are assumed to be associated with this decline. This article reports on the practice support and continuing medical education needs of rural family physicians. A mail survey was conducted in 1993 on a purposive sample of family physicians in 39 of 67 rural-designated or urban Pennsylvania counties with low population densities. The physicians identified needs that included patient education materials and programs, community health promotion, federal regulation updates, technical assistance with computers and business management, database software and a videotape lending library, a drug hotline, and mini-fellowships on clinical skill development. A majority of respondents were willing to participate in clinical educational experiences for students and residents. Some physicians indicated a lack of interest in access to information through telecommunications, e.g., video conference referrals and consultations. Overall, findings revealed that family physicians need and are receptive to a variety of practice support and continuing education programs. A practice support program coupled with policy coordination among public and private organizations is likely to lessen complaints by rural primary care physicians.
Manning, P R; Clintworth, W A; Sinopoli, L M; Taylor, J P; Krochalk, P C; Gilman, N J; Denson, T A; Stufflebeam, D L; Knowles, M S
A method of self-directed learning for physicians that can be used to satisfy a portion of specialty board recertification requirements integrates contract learning (self-formulated learning plans), information brokering (linking physicians with consultants and community resources), and collegial networking (discussion groups). The method encourages physicians to focus on educational objectives, supplies learning resources, and promotes interactions with colleagues in study groups. Fifty-nine (53%) of the 102 learning goals update physicians' knowledge. Print sources and discussions with experts were the commonest resources used. Forty-five (49%) of 91 participants completed their learning plans. Forty-nine (74%) completed projects were judged successful in achieving their goals. Twenty-five (45%) of 56 physicians responding to a questionnaire stated that the method was superior to traditional continuing medical education. Fifty-two percent of the participants found the method as effective as traditional continuing medical education. Proof of accomplishment allows the method to be used as part of a specialty board recertification process.
Lewis, Denice Colleen; Pluye, Pierre; Rodriguez, Charo; Grad, Roland
A mixed methods research (sequential explanatory design) studied the potential of mining the data from the consumers of continuing medical education (CME) programs, for the developers of CME programs. The quantitative data generated by family physicians, through applying the information assessment method to CME content, was presented to key informants from the CME planning community through a qualitative description study.The data were revealed to have many potential applications including supporting the creation of CME content, CME program planning and personal learning portfolios.
Sinozić, Tamara; Kovacević, Jadranka
A number of healthcare professionals, specialists in different fields and with different levels of education, as well as non-healthcare professionals, are involved in the care of chronic wound patients, thus forming a multidisciplinary team that is not only responsible for the course and outcome of treatment, but also for the patient quality of life. Family doctor is also member of the team the task of which is to prevent, diagnose, monitor and anticipate complications and relapses, as well as complete recovery of chronic wound patients, with the overall care continuing even after the wound has healed, or is involved in palliative care. A family medicine practitioner with specialized education and their team of associates in the primary health care, along with material conditions and equipment improvement, can provide quality care for patients with peripheral cardiovascular diseases and chronic wounds, organized according to the holistic approach. It is essential that all professional associations of family medicine as well as professional associations of other specialties - fields that are involved in wound prevention and treatment - be included in developing the continuous medical education program. The benefits of modern information technology should be used to good advantage. The education should be adapted to the needs of family practitioners in terms of the form, place, time, volume, financial affordability and choice of topic. The interest shown in team education should be transformed into specialized programs in the creation of which it is essential to include both physicians and nurses and their respective professional associations. Special attention should be paid to education and training of young doctors/nurses, those with less work experience, those that have not yet been part of such education, those that lack experience in working with wound patients, those whose teams deal mostly with elderly patients, and also residents in family medicine and
The multiple-choice question (MCQ) is the most commonly used type of test item in radiologic graduate medical and continuing medical education examinations. Now that radiologists are participating in the maintenance of certification process, there is an increased need for self-assessment modules that include MCQs and persons with test item-writing skills to develop such modules. Although principles of effective test item writing have been documented, violations of these principles are common in medical education. Guidelines for test construction are related to development of educational objectives, defining levels of learning for each objective, and writing effective MCQs that test that learning. Educational objectives should be written in observable, behavioral terms that allow for an accurate assessment of whether the learner has achieved the objectives. Learning occurs at many levels, from simple recall to problem solving. The educational objectives and the MCQs that accompany them should target all levels of learning appropriate for the given content. Characteristics of effective MCQs can be described in terms of the overall item, the stem, and the options. Flawed MCQs interfere with accurate and meaningful interpretation of test scores and negatively affect student pass rates. Therefore, to develop reliable and valid tests, items must be constructed that are free of such flaws. The article provides an overview of established guidelines for writing effective MCQs, a discussion of writing appropriate educational objectives and MCQs that match those objectives, and a brief review of item analysis.
Huang, Ke-Jian; Cen, Gang; Jiang, Tao; Cao, Jun; Fu, Chun-Yu
Abstract Background: Continuing medical education (CME) is an effective way for practicing physicians to acquire up-to-date clinical information. Materials and Methods: We conducted four CME seminars in 2007–2010 endorsed by the Chinese Medical Association Council on Medical Education. Overseas telelectures and live case demonstrations were introduced in each seminar via telemedicine based on a digital video transport system. Network stability and packet loss were recorded. An anonymous mini-questionnaire was conducted to evaluate the satisfaction of attendees regarding the image and sound quality, content selection, and overall evaluation. Results: Four telelectures and five live case demonstrations were successfully conducted. Stability of the network was maintained during each videoconference. High-quality videos of 720×480 pixels at the rate of 30 frames per second were shown to the entire group of attendees. The time delay between Shanghai and Fukuoka, Japan, was only 0.3 s, and the packet loss was 0%. We obtained 129 valid responses to the mini-questionnaire from a total of 146 attendees. The majority of the attendees were satisfied with the quality of transmitted images and voices and with the selected contents. The overall evaluation was ranked as excellent or good. Conclusions: Videoconferences are excellent channels for CME programs associated with laparoscopic training. PMID:23758077
Background One of the major challenges in the current century is the increasing number of post-conflict states where infrastructures are debilitated. The dysfunctional health care systems in post-conflict settings are putting the lives of the populations in these zones at increased risk. One of the approaches to improve such situations is to strengthen human resources by organizing training programmes to meet the special needs in post-conflict zones. Evaluations of these training programmes are essential to assure effectiveness and adaptation to the health service needs in these conditions. Methods A specialized qualitative evaluation was conducted to assess and improve a post-conflict continuing medical education (CME) programme that was conducted in Nagorno Karabagh. Qualitative research guides were designed for this post-conflict zone that included focus group discussions with physician programme participants and semi-structured in-depth interviews with directors of hospitals and training supervisors. Results Saturation was achieved among the three participating groups in the themes of impact of participation in the CME and obstacles to application of obtained skills. All respondents indicated that the continuing medical education programme created important physician networks absent in this post-conflict zone, updated professional skills, and improved professional confidence among participants. However, all respondents indicated that some skills gained were inapplicable in Nagorno Karabagh hospitals and clinics due to lack of appropriate medical equipment, qualified supporting human resources and facilities. Conclusion The qualitative research methods evaluation highlighted the fact that the health care human resources training should be closely linked to appropriate technologies, supplies, facilities and human resources available in post-conflict zones and identified the central importance of creating health professional networks and professional confidence
Kushner, Howard I.; Horton, Mary E. Kollmer
Well-intentioned attempts by the Senate Finance Committee to improve the content and quality of continuing medical education (CME) offerings had the unanticipated consequence of decimating academically oriented history of medicine conferences. New guidelines intended to keep CME courses free of commercial bias from the pharmaceutical industry were worded in a fashion that caused CME officials at academic institutions to be reluctant to offer CME credit for history of medicine gatherings. At the 2013 annual conference of the American Association for the History of Medicine, we offered a novel solution for determining CME credit in line with current guidelines. We asked attendees to provide narrative critiques for each presentation for which they desired CME credit. In this essay, we evaluate the efficacy of this approach. PMID:24688209
Partin, Clyde; Kushner, Howard I; Horton, Mary E Kollmer
Well-intentioned attempts by the Senate Finance Committee to improve the content and quality of continuing medical education (CME) offerings had the unanticipated consequence of decimating academically oriented history of medicine conferences. New guidelines intended to keep CME courses free of commercial bias from the pharmaceutical industry were worded in a fashion that caused CME officials at academic institutions to be reluctant to offer CME credit for history of medicine gatherings. At the 2013 annual conference of the American Association for the History of Medicine, we offered a novel solution for determining CME credit in line with current guidelines. We asked attendees to provide narrative critiques for each presentation for which they desired CME credit. In this essay, we evaluate the efficacy of this approach.
Dryer, Bernard V.
Historical and present-day developments indicate that the continuing education of physicians is one of the most important problems in medical education today. The gap between scientific knowledge and application is increasing, largely because of the rapid advance of research, imbalance in the quantity, quality, and availability of opportunities…
Van Hoof, Thomas J; Grant, Rachel E; Miller, Nicole E; Bell, Mary; Campbell, Craig; Colburn, Lois; Davis, David; Dorman, Todd; Horsley, Tanya; Jacobs-Halsey, Virginia; Kane, Gabrielle; LeBlanc, Constance; Lockyer, Jocelyn; Moore, Donald E; Morrow, Robert; Olson, Curtis A; Silver, Ivan; Thomas, David C; Kitto, Simon
The Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education commissioned a study to clarify and, if possible, to standardize the terminology for a set of important educational interventions. In the form of a guideline, this article describes one such intervention, performance measurement and feedback, which is a common intervention in health professions education. In the form of a summary report, performance measurement and feedback is an opportunity for clinicians to view data about the care they provide compared with some standard and often with peer and benchmark comparisons. Based on a review of recent evidence and a facilitated discussion with the US and Canadian experts, we describe proper terminology for performance measurement and feedback and other important information about the intervention. We encourage leaders and researchers to consider and build on this guideline as they plan, implement, evaluate, and report efforts with performance measurement and feedback. Clear and consistent use of terminology is imperative, along with complete and accurate descriptions of interventions, to improve the use and study of performance measurement and feedback.
Background In recent years, medical practice has followed two different paradigms: evidence-based medicine (EBM) and values-based medicine (VBM). There is an urgent need to promote medical education that strengthens the relationship between these two paradigms. This work is designed to establish the foundations for a continuing medical education (CME) program aimed at encouraging the dialogue between EBM and VBM by determining the values relevant to everyday medical activities. Methods A quasi-experimental, observational, comparative, prospective and qualitative study was conducted by analyzing through a concurrent triangulation strategy the correlation between healthcare personnel-patient relationship, healthcare personnel's life history, and ethical judgments regarding dilemmas that arise in daily clinical practice. In 2009, healthcare personnel working in Mexico were invited to participate in a free, online clinical ethics course. Each participant responded to a set of online survey instruments before and after the CME program. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with healthcare personnel, focusing on their views and representations of clinical practice. Results The healthcare personnel's core values were honesty and respect. There were significant differences in the clinical practice axiology before and after the course (P <0.001); notably, autonomy climbed from the 10th (order mean (OM) = 8.00) to the 3rd position (OM = 5.86). In ethical discernment, the CME program had an impact on autonomy (P ≤0.0001). Utilitarian autonomy was reinforced in the participants (P ≤0.0001). Regarding work values, significant differences due to the CME intervention were found in openness to change (OC) (P <0.000), self-transcendence (ST) (P <0.001), and self-enhancement (SE) (P <0.019). Predominant values in life history, ethical discernment and healthcare personnel-patient relation were beneficence, respect and compassion, respectively. Conclusions The
Kim, H C; Pandolfino, J E; Komanduri, S; Hirano, I; Cohen, E R; Wayne, D B
Advanced esophageal endoscopic procedures such as stricture dilation, hemostasis tools, and stent placement as well as high-resolution manometry (HRM) interpretation are necessary skills for gastroenterology fellows to obtain during their training. Becoming proficient in these skills may be challenging in light of higher complication rates compared with diagnostic procedures and infrequent opportunities to practice these skills. Our aim was to determine if intensive training during a continuing medical education (CME) course boosts the knowledge and skills of gastroenterology fellows in esophageal diagnostic test interpretation and performance of therapeutic procedures. This was a pretest-posttest design without a control group of a simulation-based, educational intervention in esophageal stricture balloon dilation and HRM interpretation. The participants were 24 gastroenterology fellows from 21 accredited US training programs. This was an intensive CME course held in Las Vegas, Nevada from August 7 to August 9, 2009. The research procedure had two phases. First, the subjects were measured at baseline (pretest) for their knowledge and procedural skill. Second, the fellows received 6 hours of education sessions featuring didactic content, instruction in HRM indications and interpretation, and deliberate practice using an esophageal stricture dilation model. After the intervention, all of the fellows were retested (posttest). A 17-item checklist was developed for the esophageal balloon dilation procedure using relevant sources, expert opinion, and rigorous step-by-step procedures. Nineteen representative HRM swallow studies were obtained from Northwestern's motility lab and formed the pretest and posttest in HRM interpretation. Mean scores on the dilation checklist improved 81% from 39.4% (standard deviation [SD]= 33.4%) at pretest to 71.3% (SD = 29.5%) after simulation training (P < 0.001). HRM mean examination scores increased from 27.2% (SD = 16.4%) to 46.5% (SD
Ratelle, John T; Bonnes, Sara L; Wang, Amy T; Mahapatra, Saswati; Schleck, Cathy D; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Mauck, Karen F; Beckman, Thomas J; Wittich, Christopher M
Effective medical educators can engage learners through self-reflection. However, little is known about the relationships between teaching effectiveness and self-reflection in continuing medical education (CME). We aimed to determine associations between presenter teaching effectiveness and participant self-reflection in conference-based CME. This cross-sectional study evaluated presenters and participants at a national CME course. Participants provided CME teaching effectiveness (CMETE) ratings and self-reflection scores for each presentation. Overall CMETE and CME self-reflection scores (five-point Likert scale with one as strongly disagree and five as strongly agree) were averaged for each presentation. Correlations were measured among self-reflection, CMETE, and presentation characteristics. In total, 624 participants returned 430 evaluations (response, 68.9%) for the 38 presentations. Correlation between CMETE and self-reflection was medium (Pearson correlation, 0.3-0.5) or large (0.5-1.0) for most presentations (n = 33, 86.9%). Higher mean (SD) CME reflection scores were associated with clinical cases (3.66 [0.12] vs. 3.48 [0.14]; p = 0.003) and audience response (3.66 [0.12] vs. 3.51 [0.14]; p = 0.005). To our knowledge, this is the first study to show a relationship between teaching effectiveness and participant self-reflection in conference-based CME. Presenters should consider using clinical cases and audience response systems to increase teaching effectiveness and promote self-reflection among CME learners.
Shahabudin, S H; Edariah, A B
A random survey of 400 doctors was carried out over a period of 3 months to determine the factors that would facilitate or inhibit the participation of doctors in continuing medical education (CME) in Malaysia. Regular participation in CME was defined as participation in any activity (self-directed reading or attending organized activities) at least once a month during the past year. It was found that 78% of doctors regularly participated in CME. Working in a hospital environment and being members of the Malaysian Medical Association and at least one specialty organization appeared to be important facilitatory factors in CME participation. These doctors also read the local medical journals regularly and subscribed to other journals. In addition, they were more likely to possess postgraduate qualifications and would have teaching, research, diagnostic or clinical responsibilities as major components of their work. They were more likely to practise in the big cities and would tend to be active in at least one voluntary or social organization. If they were in the Government sector, they were more likely to work in the Universities or in the Hospital Division of the Ministry of Health. The 22% who were less likely to participate in CME were general practitioners in the private sector. They worked long hours with day, evening and/or night shifts every day. If the doctors were in the Government sector, they were more likely to be in the Health Division, working in administration and public health, or they were in the armed forces and other organizations such as local councils. They worked in the smaller towns or in the districts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Coulehan, Jack; Granek, Iris A
One respected tradition in medical education holds that physicians should struggle to maintain sensibility, openness, and compassion in the face of strong contravening tendencies. However, today's medical education is structured around a more recent tradition, which maintains that physicians should struggle to develop emotional detachment as a prerequisite for objectivity. In this model, sensibility and reflective capacity are potentially subversive. Reflective writing is one component of a revisionist approach to medical education that explicitly addresses reflective "habits of the mind" as core competencies and builds on existential concerns voiced by medical students. In response to Wald and colleagues' study, the authors reflect on the role of repeated formative feedback in developing reflective capacity. Formative feedback is as critical in this process as it is in traditional clinical learning. The authors emphasize that well-designed rubrics can assist learners in delineating desired outcomes and teachers in providing appropriate guidance.
D'Alessandro, Donna M; D'Alessandro, Michael P
A challenge today is how to deliver initial and continuing education on biodefense to military medical providers in a manner that can be integrated into their workflow and lifestyle. A summative evaluation of a prototypical biodefense digital library (BDL) and learning collaboratory was performed. The BDL posted daily links to biodefense news stories from January 2004 to December 2005. Four evaluations were completed, that is, content evaluation, curriculum comparison with a biodefense graduate program, usage evaluation, and impact factor analysis. News stories (N = 678) came from a broad range of authoritative national and international news sources (N = 178). News stories covered all of the categories in the required and elective formal biodefense graduate program courses. The BDL was consistently displayed on the first page of the top three Internet search engines, meaning that it was among the top 10 authoritative Internet sites on biodefense. Presenting biodefense news stories to busy military medical providers in an organized chronological fashion produces an unstructured biodefense educational curriculum that unfolds in practice and becomes an educational resource that is ultimately well regarded and may be efficient to use.
Leist, J C; Kristofco, R E
The teachable moment is the time when a learner is ready to accept new information for use conceptually or in practice. Adult educators are always searching for that "moment" and models in which it has been incorporated. This article reviews the changing paradigm for continuing education of the health professional and the impact of information from the context of university-based providers of continuing education and information. Providers of continuing education and information face similar external opportunities and threats. The continuing education provider is a "marginal dweller" in the organization. The information provider (the library), although moving in that direction as technology affects the way information is accessed and managed, is much more a part of the core institutional mission. These parallel conditions provide opportunities for both organizations to work closely together to identify successful models to serve the "teachable moments" of all health care practitioners. A range of new library roles that suggest strong interaction with continuing educators is presented. Workable models are identified as well as characteristics of successful models. Suggestions for survival for continuing educators and librarians in "stalking the teachable moment" are discussed. PMID:2328366
Ali, Syed Arsalan; Hamiz Ul Fawwad, Shaikh; Ahmed, Gulrayz; Naz, Sumayya; Waqar, Syeda Aimen; Hareem, Anam
To determine the attitude of general practitioners towards continuing medical education (CME) and reasons motivating or hindering them from attending CME procedures, we conducted a cross-sectional survey from November 2013 to April 2014 in Karachi. Three hundred general practitioners who possessed a medical license for practice in Pakistan filled a pre-designed questionnaire consisting of questions pertaining to attitudes towards CME. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS v16.0. 70.3% (n = 211) of the participants were males. Mean age was 47.75 ± 9.47 years. Only 67.33% knew about CME and only 52% had attended a CME session. Reasons for attending CME procedures reported were: need for updating knowledge, skills and competencies (67.30%), opportunity to meet colleagues (18.58%) and presenting scientific papers (8.97%). Mean Likert score was 1.67 (±0.667) for those who thought CME is worthwhile and 1.44 (±0.686) for those who consider their clinical duties as the major hurdle in attending CME procedures. Most common cause for not attending CME was lack of knowledge (32.66%) followed by time constraint (24%). Most physicians were not sufficiently informed about the potential benefits of CME and had never attended a CME session. Most common reason for attending CME procedures reported was need for updating knowledge, skills and competencies while reasons hindering physicians from attending CME were lack of knowledge and time constraint.
Ruf, D; Berner, M M; Kriston, L; Härter, M
There is increasing activity in the development of e-learning modules for general medical training and continuing education. One of the central advantages of e-learning is flexibility regarding time and place of its use. The quality of the available e-learning opportunities varies quite considerably. For users it is often not easy to assess the quality of e-learning modules or to find offers of high quality. This could be a reason for the fact that despite the huge number of e-learning modules still only few students and physicians are using them. This is although e-learning has proven to be as effective as and even more efficient than learning in the classroom or with paper-based materials. This article summarizes the different models of e-learning, how and where to find offers of high quality, advantages of using e-learning, and the effectiveness and efficiency of such offers. In addition problems of e-learning and possibilities to overcome these problems are shown.
Dickmann, C; Habermeyer, E; Spitzer, K
WWW-based Continuing Medical Education (CME) is assumed to have the potential to make up for shortcomings in traditional lifelong learning of General Practitioners (GPs). This is obvious for CME systems with accreditation and control of the individual GP's CME activities but seems less clear for non-controlled CME systems like in several European countries, e.g. Germany. This paper reports results from the evaluation of a German CME website by 59 GPs (internet experience of 20 months on average) during a 4-months period. GPs mainly learned at home after work, with 46% of the GPs visiting the website at least once per month. Self-study and information seeking accounted for 58% of the activities, while communication and interaction were used infrequently. 77% of the GPs judged less but detailed information on selected topics more important than being able to access many but broad contents. GPs mostly prefer established means of learning and communication. It is concluded that the GPs' self-directed individual learning mainly needs high-quality information and well-structured collections of existing relevant WWW resources. Communication, virtual community building and sophisticated interactivity are of little importance at present. WWW-based CME complements existing CME activities, especially regarding individual information seeking on focused problems.
du Boulay, C
AIM: To discover the attitudes to continuing medical education (CME) of the Wessex pathologists who participated in the Wessex CME pilot scheme and to identify their preferences and difficulties in pursuing CME activities. METHOD: The views of pathologists in the scheme were collected during a period of one year using workshops and discussions. A confidential, anonymous postal questionnaire based on these issues was sent to the 103 pathologists in Wessex who participated in the pilot scheme. RESULTS: A 64% response rate was obtained. The respondents identified lack of time and funded study leave as major barriers to CME and highlighted the gap between CME activity and its recognition and funding by employers. They wanted a wide variety of locally based CME activities to be recognised, and they valued local activities that linked theory with practice. They believed that the college scheme tended to favour academic activities over more practical and locally based ones. They found the paired peer review process time consuming but valuable for identifying their learning needs in some cases, but demonstrated that they have mixed preferences about the way they do their CME. CONCLUSIONS: The Wessex pathologists believe that CME is important and have positive attitudes to it. Their attitudes to CME echo the current literature about what makes CME effective. Unless individuals' preferences and difficulties are taken into account, CME programmes in which they participate are not likely to succeed. PMID:9516886
Dunn, D.; Lusignan, B.
A set of analytical capabilities that are needed to assess the role satellite communications technology will play in public and other services was developed. It is user oriented in that it starts from descriptions of user demand and develops the ability to estimate the cost of satisfying that demand with the lowest cost communications system. To ensure that the analysis could cope with the complexities of the real users, two services were chosen as examples, continuing professional education and medical services. Telecommunications costs are effected greatly by demographic factors, involving distribution of users in urban areas and distances between towns in rural regions. For this reason the analytical tools were exercised on sample locations. San Jose, California and Denver, Colorado were used to represent an urban area and the Rocky Mountain states were used to represent a rural region. In assessing the range of satellite system costs, two example coverage areas were considered, one appropriate to cover the contiguous forty-eight states, a second appropriate to cover about one-third that area.
Ferguson, Ian; Phillips, Andrew W.; Lin, Michelle
Introduction Although continuing medical education (CME) presentations are common across health professions, it is unknown whether slide design is independently associated with audience evaluations of the speaker. Based on the conceptual framework of Mayer’s theory of multimedia learning, this study aimed to determine whether image use and text density in presentation slides are associated with overall speaker evaluations. Methods This retrospective analysis of six sequential CME conferences (two annual emergency medicine conferences over a three-year period) used a mixed linear regression model to assess whether post-conference speaker evaluations were associated with image fraction (percentage of image-based slides per presentation) and text density (number of words per slide). Results A total of 105 unique lectures were given by 49 faculty members, and 1,222 evaluations (70.1% response rate) were available for analysis. On average, 47.4% (SD=25.36) of slides had at least one educationally-relevant image (image fraction). Image fraction significantly predicted overall higher evaluation scores [F(1, 100.676)=6.158, p=0.015] in the mixed linear regression model. The mean (SD) text density was 25.61 (8.14) words/slide but was not a significant predictor [F(1, 86.293)=0.55, p=0.815]. Of note, the individual speaker [χ2(1)=2.952, p=0.003] and speaker seniority [F(3, 59.713)=4.083, p=0.011] significantly predicted higher scores. Conclusion This is the first published study to date assessing the linkage between slide design and CME speaker evaluations by an audience of practicing clinicians. The incorporation of images was associated with higher evaluation scores, in alignment with Mayer’s theory of multimedia learning. Contrary to this theory, however, text density showed no significant association, suggesting that these scores may be multifactorial. Professional development efforts should focus on teaching best practices in both slide design and presentation
Barrett, Theresa J.
This quantitative, nonexperimental, correlational study sought to determine whether a relationship exists between family physicians' levels of self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) and their preferences for continuing medical education (CME) activities. The study also sought to determine whether years in clinical practice or size of clinical…
Hemmati, Nima; Omrani, Soghra; Hemmati, Naser
The purpose of this study was to compare the satisfaction and effectiveness of Internet-based learning (IBL) and traditional classroom lecture (TCL) for continuing medical education (CME) programs by comparing final resuscitation exam results of physicians who received the newest cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) curriculum guidelines training…
Wang, Amy T.; Sandhu, Nicole P.; Wittich, Christopher M.; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.; Beckman, Thomas J.
Objective To determine continuing medical education (CME) course participants' use of social media (SM) and their attitudes about the value of SM for enhancing CME education and to examine associations between participants' characteristics and attitudes toward SM. Participants and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey and validation study of 539 participants at a Mayo Clinic Internal Medicine CME course in November 2011. The Social Media Use and Perception Instrument (SMUPI) consisted of 10 items (5-point Likert scales) and categorical response options. The main outcome measures were psychometric characteristics of the SMUPI scale, course participants' use of SM, and their attitudes regarding the importance of SM for enhancing CME. Results Of 539 CME course participants, 327 (61%) responded to the SMUPI survey. Most respondents (291 [89%]) reported using SM, with the most common types being YouTube (189 of the 327 participants [58%]) and Facebook (163 of 327 [50%]). Factor analysis revealed a 2-dimensional assessment of course participants' attitudes. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach α) was excellent for factor 1 (0.94), factor 2 (0.89), and overall (0.94). The CME course participants' favorable attitudes toward SM were associated with younger age (20-29 years, mean score 3.13; 30-39 years, 3.40; 40-49 years, 3.39; 50-59 years, 3.18; 60-69 years, 2.93; and ≥70 years, 2.92; P=.02), using SM frequently (never, mean score 2.49; less than once monthly, 2.75; once monthly, 3.21; weekly, 3.31; and daily, 3.81; P<.0001), and professional degree (PhD, mean score 3.00; MD, 3.05; DO, 3.35; PA, 3.42; and NP, 3.50; P=.01). Conclusion We describe the first validated measure of CME course participants' use of and attitudes toward SM. Our results suggest that CME course directors should guide SM strategies toward more youthful, technology-savvy CME participants and that SM will become increasingly worthwhile in CME as younger learners continue to enter the
Hotelling, Barbara A.
In this column, the author presents information from prominent Lamaze childbirth educators and from the literature to describe various options that educators can share with expectant parents regarding the use of pain relief medications during labor and birth. Ann Tumblin teaches about epidurals in a hospital class without losing sight of evidence-based practices that support normal birth. Jessica English focuses her classes on the natural processes of giving birth and spends only a little time presenting information about pain medications. Judith Lothian encourages educators to consider a new framework for Lamaze classes that involves letting go of the details and incorporating Lamaze’s six Healthy Birth Practices and storytelling. PMID:23277731
Davis, Dave; Ryan, David; Sibbald, Gary; Rachlis, Anita; Davies, Sharon; Manchul, Lee; Parikh, Sagar
Introduction: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) struck Toronto in the spring of 2003, causing many deaths, serious morbidity, forced quarantine of thousands of individuals, and the closure of all provincial hospitals for several weeks. Given the direction by public health authorities to cancel or postpone all continuing medical education…
Stoll, Scott T.; Russo, David P.; Atchison, James W.
In a survey of 165 physicians and 166 patients, the majority felt that manual medicine (musculoskeletal manipulation) was safe, beneficial, and appropriate in primary care. Only 40% of physicians had relevant training; 56% were willing to pay to acquire appropriate continuing education credits. (Contains 23 references.) (SK)
Flynn, Simone; Hebert, Paul; Korenstein, Deborah; Ryan, Mark; Jordan, William B.
Importance New dissemination methods are needed to engage physicians in evidence-based continuing medical education (CME). Objective To examine the effectiveness of social media in engaging physicians in non-industry-sponsored CME. Design We tested the effect of different media platforms (e-mail, Facebook, paid Facebook and Twitter), CME topics, and different “hooks” (e.g., Q&A, clinical pearl and best evidence) on driving clicks to a landing site featuring non-industry sponsored CME. We modelled the effects of social media platform, CME topic, and hook using negative binomial regression on clicks to a single landing site. We used clicks to landing site adjusted for exposure and message number to calculate rate ratios. To understand how physicians interact with CME content on social media, we also conducted interviews with 10 physicians. Setting The National Physicians Alliance (NPA) membership. Participants NPA e-mail recipients, Facebook followers and friends, and Twitter followers. Main Outcomes and Measures Clicks to the NPA’s CME landing site. Results On average, 4,544 recipients received each message. Messages generated a total of 592 clicks to the landing site, for a rate of 5.4 clicks per 1000 recipients exposed. There were 5.4 clicks from e-mail, 11.9 clicks from Facebook, 5.5 clicks from paid Facebook, and 6.9 clicks from Twitter to the landing site for 1000 physicians exposed to each of 4 selected CME modules. A Facebook post generated 2.3x as many clicks to the landing site as did an e-mail after controlling for participant exposure, hook type and CME topic (p<0.001). Twitter posts (p = 0.13) and paid Facebook posts (p = 0.06) were not statistically different from e-mail in generating clicks to the landing site. Use of different hooks to engage physicians had no impact on clicks to the landing site. Interviews with physicians suggested that social media might not be a preferred vehicle for disseminating CME. Conclusions Social media has a modest
ZARIF SANAIEY, NAHID; KARAMNEJAD, SAHAR; REZAEE, RITA
Introduction Assessment and prioritization are the first steps of planning. According to the family physician's idea, evaluating programs in order to improve them is one of the necessities of promoting quality and increases the efficiency and effectiveness of continuing education. This study aimed to determine family physicians’ educational needs regarding health and its applicability in continuous medical education in Fasa University of Medical Sciences. Methods In this cross-sectional study, viewpoints of 45 general physicians working at Fasa University of Medical Sciences in 2013 were studied. Samples were selected through census. Data collection was done using a researcher-made questionnaire using 10-point Likert scale and a checklist with Delphi technique. Content validity of the questionnaire and its reliability were confirmed by the experts’ opinion and Cronbach's alpha of 80%. The data were analyzed through SPSS software version 16, using both descriptive and inferential statistics (mean and standard deviation, standard score (SQ), t-test, ANOVAs). A significance level of <0.05 was considered. Results The highest educational priority was in the field of mental health (SQ= 0.38), and environmental and professional health was the lowest priority (SQ= _0.24). Additionally, within each of the areas above specific priorities were determined. Based on the results of this study, gender, graduation date, cooperation time, and university they were educated in did not affect expressing educational needs (p>0.05). The most educational conformity with continuing education was in the diseases area (topic 27%, content 37%). In the areas of environmental and professional health and health education, compliance was zero. Conclusions The physicians stated that mental health was the first educational need and environmental and professional health was the last one. According to the results, proper continuing medical programs should be coordinated with educational
Sandars, John; Homer, Matthew; Walsh, Kieran; Rutherford, Alaster
There is increasing use of hypermedia online learning in continuing medical education (CME) that presents the learner with a wide range of different learning resources, requiring the learner to use self-regulated learning (SRL) skills. This study is the first to apply an SRL perspective to understand how learners engage with hypermedia online learning in CME. We found that the main SRL skills used by learners were use of strategies and monitoring. The increasing use of strategies was associated with increasing interest in the topic and with increasing satisfaction with the learning experience. Further research is recommended to understand SRL processes and its impact on learning in other aspects of hypermedia online learning across the different phases of medical education. Research is also recommended to implement and evaluate the learning impact of a variety of approaches to develop the SRL skills of hypermedia online learners in CME.
Milaković, Sanja Blazeković; Stojanović-Spehar, Stanislava; Marković, Biserka Bergman; Katić, Milica; Zupanić, Gordana; Supe, Svjetlana
Family medicine as a discipline is more than other specialties oriented to holistic approach to patient. The physician has to know and use the possibilities of clinical, first of all somatic but also psychosociological medicine, and to continuously evaluate and follow-up results of his/her own work. The aim of the article is to present differences in clinical judgment before and after postgraduate study in family medicine. A 60-year-old woman living with her disabled son is presented. She visited her family physician many times complaining of a number of symptoms: itching, hypertension, sleep disturbance, poor general condition, trembling. It took ten months to diagnose hyperthyroidism and to begin appropriate therapy. Polysymptomatolgy of the disease based on the patient's psychological and family situation was the reason for the long-lasting wandering to definitive diagnosis. Analysis of the case revealed that neither clinical nor holistic approach was properly used in family medicine. The wrong clinical approach could be explained by fact that this physician worked for years without specialization or continuing education in family medicine. The authors conclude that postgraduate education as part of professional training in family medicine enables physicians to recognize and distinguish the interference of psychological, somatic and environmental factors, which is a major characteristic of good family practice.
Rajasekaran, Rajkumar; Iyengar, Nallani Chackravatula Sriman Narayana
Objectives: Mobile technology helps to improve continuing medical education; this includes all aspects of public health care as well as keeping one’s knowledge up-to-date. The program of continuing medical and health education is intertwined with mobile health technology, which forms an imperative component of national strategies in health. Continuing mobile medical education (CMME) programs are designed to ensure that all medical and health-care professionals stay up-to-date with the knowledge required through mobile JXTA to appraise modernized strategies so as to achieve national goals of health-care information distribution. Methods: In this study, a 20-item questionnaire was distributed to 280 health professionals practicing traditional training learning methodologies (180 nurses, 60 doctors, and 40 health inspectors) in 25 rural hospitals. Among the 83% respondents, 56% are eager to take new learning methodologies as part of their evaluation, which is considered for promotion to higher grades, increments, or as part of their work-related activities. Results: The proposed model was executed in five public health centers in which nurses and health inspectors registered in the JXTA network were referred to the record peer group by administrators. A mobile training program on immunization was conducted through the ADVT, with the lectures delivered on their mobiles. Credits are given after taking the course and completing an evaluation test. The system is faster compared with traditional learning. Conclusion: Medical knowledge management and mobile-streaming application support the CMME system through JXTA. The mobile system includes online lectures and practice quizzes, as well as assignments and interactions with health professionals. Evaluation and assessments are done online and credits certificates are provided based on the score the student obtains. The acceptance of mobile JXTA peer-to-peer learning has created a drastic change in learning methods among
Stagnaro-Green, Alex S; Downing, Steven M
Physicians in the United States are required to complete a minimum number of continuing medical education (CME) credits annually. The goal of CME is to ensure that physicians maintain their knowledge and skills throughout their medical career. The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) provides its readers with the opportunity to obtain weekly CME credits. Deviation from established item-writing principles may result in a decrease in validity evidence for tests. This study evaluated the quality of 40 NEJM MCQs using the standard evidence-based principles of effective item writing. Each multiple-choice item reviewed had at least three item flaws, with a mean of 5.1 and a range of 3 to 7. The results of this study demonstrate that the NEJM uses flawed MCQs in its weekly CME program.
Moja, Lorenzo; Kwag, Koren Hyogene
The structure and aim of continuing medical education (CME) is shifting from the passive transmission of knowledge to a competency-based model focused on professional development. Self-directed learning is emerging as the foremost educational method for advancing competency-based CME. In a field marked by the constant expansion of knowledge, self-directed learning allows physicians to tailor their learning strategy to meet the information needs of practice. Point of care information services are innovative tools that provide health professionals with digested evidence at the front line to guide decision making. By mobilising self-directing learning to meet the information needs of clinicians at the bedside, point of care information services represent a promising platform for competency-based CME. Several points, however, must be considered to enhance the accessibility and development of these tools to improve competency-based CME and the quality of care. PMID:25655251
Mazmanian, Paul E
The continuing medical education (CME) system of the United States is being questioned for its integrity. Leaders in medicine and in government are asking about the effectiveness of CME, the influence of commercial support, and the value of CME credit and accreditation in assuring CME courses offer valid content, free of commercial bias. Nationally accredited CME organizations received $1.2B in commercial support during 2007, much of it associated with CME in formats shown to be less effective for improving clinical behavior and patient outcomes. There are few reliable data to respond to careful criticism. In 2007, U.S. expenditures for health exceed $2.2 trillion, with physicians responsible for clinical decisions that account for a large part of the spending. Approximately $4013 was spent per physician on CME. Rigorous studies are required to describe and explain relationships of CME accreditation and credit to better education and improved patient outcomes.
Shah, L. R.
The various types and forms of credit and non-credit university continuing education programmes are described in these extracts from a paper presented at the Hyderabad conference on university continuing education. (ABM)
Martins e Silva, João
Is briefly analyzed the evolution that the objectives, strategies and models of medical education have had since their presentation and subsequent implementation of the famous model of Abraham Flexner, is now 103 years. Although globally accepted in their original pedagogical principles and instruments, that model does not have avoided the continuing dissatisfaction by the medical community and students and, most markedly in recent decades, the demanding of a most efficient health care by society, in general, and by patients in particular. In response to these ambitions, the medical community felt that it was essential to review the traditional criteria of medical professionalism, adapting them to a new paradigm of society and an appropriate and more efficient model of medical education. In this respect, are analyzed strategies and methodologies, apparently more suitable proposals for the inclusion of the principles and responsibilities of medical professionalism since the early period of pre-graduated medical education. It is assumed that the emphasis in teaching and practice of reflection throughout the course will have positive and lasting repercussions during active working life. However, the author believes that the success of the measures to be introduced in medical education programs to a new model of professionalism continues to depend, above all, of the humanistic and cognitive attributes of the students to be chosen, and the pedagogical quality, professional and academic of their teachers.
Relations between professional medical associations and healthcare industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a policy statement from the European Society of Cardiology.
Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry.
Relations between professional medical associations and the health-care industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a policy statement from the European Society of Cardiology.
Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry.
Relations between professional medical associations and the health-care industry, concerning scientific communication and continuing medical education: a Policy Statement from the European Society of Cardiology.
Physicians have an ethical duty to keep up-to-date with current knowledge. Professional medical associations such as the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) support these obligations. In Europe, the costs of continuing medical education (CME) are insufficiently supported from governments and employers; however, medical associations have been criticized for accepting alternative financial support from industry. Medical education and training in research include learning how to assess the quality and reliability of any information. There is some risk of bias in any form of scientific communication including intellectual, professional, and financial and it is essential that in particular, the latter must be acknowledged by full disclosure. It is essential that there is strong collaboration between basic and clinical researchers from academic institutions on the one hand, with engineers and scientists from the research divisions of device and pharmaceutical companies on the other. This is vital so that new diagnostic methods and treatments are developed. Promotion of advances by industry may accelerate their implementation into clinical practice. Universities now frequently exhort their academic staff to protect their intellectual property or commercialize their research. Thus, it is not commercial activity or links per se that have become the target for criticism but the perceived influence of commercial enterprises on clinical decision-making or on messages conveyed by professional medical organizations. This document offers the perspective of the ESC on the current debate, and it recommends how to minimize bias in scientific communications and CME and how to ensure proper ethical standards and transparency in relations between the medical profession and industry.
Kraus, Carl N; Baldwin, Alan T; McAllister, R G
The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires risk communication as an element of Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) to alert and educate healthcare providers about severe toxicities associated with approved drugs. The educational effectiveness of this approach has not been evaluated. To support the communication plan element of the ipilimumab REMS, a Medscape Safe Use Alert (SUA) letter was distributed by Medscape via email and mobile device distribution to clinicians specified in the REMS. This alert contained the FDA-approved Dear Healthcare Provider (DHCP) letter mandated for distribution. A continuing medical education (CME) activity describing ipilimumab toxicities and the appropriate management was simultaneously posted on the website and distributed to Medscape members. Data were collected over a 6-month period regarding the handling of the letter and the responses to pre- and post-test questions for those who participated in the CME activity. Analysis of the answers to the pre- and posttest questions showed that participation in the CME activity resulted in an improvement in correct answer responses of 47%. Our experience shows that there are likely distinct information sources that are utilized by different HCP groups. The ready availability of a brief CME activity was utilized by 24,063 individuals, the majority of whom showed enhanced understanding of ipilimumab toxicity by improvement in post-test scores, educational data that are not available via implementation of standard safety alert communications. These results demonstrate that improvement in understanding of specific drug toxicities is enhanced by a CME intervention.
Casebeer, Linda; Bennett, Nancy; Kristofco, Robert; Carillo, Anna; Centor, Robert
Responses from 2,200 physicians indicated that nearly all have Internet access and use it primarily for medical information and professional development, not for communicating with patients. Credibility of source, speed, accessibility, and searching ease were most important. Barriers included information overload and too little information…
Kenny, Nuala; Sargeant, Joan; Allen, Michael
Questionnaires and small-group discussions with a physician-ethicist revealed that physicians had very little formal ethics training in medical school. They did not feel they needed a very high level of confidence regarding ethical issues in practice, but lacked a systematic approach to identification and analysis of ethical issues. (Contains 24…
Han, Heeyoung; Resch, David S; Kovach, Regina A
This article aims to review the past practices of educational technology and envision future directions for medical education. The discussion starts with a historical review of definitions and perspectives of educational technology, in which the authors propose that educators adopt a broader process-oriented understanding of educational technology. Future directions of e-learning, simulation, and health information technology are discussed based on a systems view of the technological process. As new technologies continue to arise, this process-oriented understanding and outcome-based expectations of educational technology should be embraced. With this view, educational technology should be valued in terms of how well the technological process informs and facilitates learning, and the acquisition and maintenance of clinical expertise.
Maisonneuve, Herve; Touboul, Chantal; Bonnelye, Genevieve; Bertrand, Dominique
Introduction: Little data on the educational needs and practices of French hospital physicians have been obtained through surveys. Given that continuing medical education (CME) information is now available on http://www.cnfmc.fr and providers are accredited, we investigated CME practices and knowledge of the CME system with the use of a…
Johnson, Sara S.; Castle, Patricia H.; Van Marter, Deborah; Roc, Anne; Neubauer, David; Auerbach, Sanford; DeAguiar, Emma
Study Objective: To evaluate the effect of continuing medical education (CME) activities on patient reported outcomes with regard to (1) screening for excessive sleepiness (ES) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and (2) appropriate referral and treatment. Methods: A total of 725 patients were recruited from 75 providers who either participated or did not participate in Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based OSA CME activities. Patient reported outcomes from participating (n = 36) and non-participating providers (n = 39) were compared using generalized estimating equations examining random effects of provider as unit of assignment. Results: Patients' reports demonstrate that participating physicians were 1.7 times more likely to initiate discussion of sleep problems than non-participating physicians (t1,411 = 3.71, p = 0.05) and 2.25–2.86 times more likely to administer validated measures for OSA (Epworth Sleepiness Scale and STOP-BANG). Patient reports also indicated that participating clinicians (79.9%) were significantly more likely to recommend seeing a sleep specialist compared to non-participating clinicians (60.7%; t1,348 = 9.1, p < 0.01, OR = 2.6). Furthermore, while 89.4% of participating clinicians recommended a sleep study, only 73.2% of the non-participating physicians recommended one (t1,363 = 11.46, p < 0.001, OR = 3.1). Conclusions: Participation in TTM-based OSA CME activities was associated with improved patient reported outcomes compared to the non-participating clinicians. Citation: Johnson SS, Castle PH, Van Marter D, Roc A, Neubauer D, Auerbach S, DeAguiar E. The effect of physician continuing medical education on patient-reported outcomes for identifying and optimally managing obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(3):197–204. PMID:25845903
Walshok, Mary Lindenstein
Re-inventing continuing higher education is about finding ways to be a more central player in a region's civic, cultural, and economic life as well as in the education of individuals for work and citizenship. Continuing higher education will require data gathering, analytical tools, convening authority, interpretive skills, new models of delivery,…
Patients (n=672) were screened and instructed about osteoporosis; 53 of their physicians attended lectures, a control group did not. A survey of 258 patients showed doctor-ordered screening tests increased regardless of lecture attendance. Increased patient-initiated discussions about osteoporosis suggest that patient education is effective.…
Drake, Richard L.; McBride, Jennifer M.; Lachman, Nirusha; Pawlina, Wojciech
At most institutions, education in the anatomical sciences has undergone several changes over the last decade. To identify the changes that have occurred in gross anatomy, microscopic anatomy, neuroscience/neuroanatomy, and embryology courses, directors of these courses were asked to respond to a survey with questions pertaining to total course…
Rafiq, Azhar; Merrell, Ronald C.
Health care practices continue to evolve with technological advances integrating computer applications and patient information management into telemedicine systems. Telemedicine can be broadly defined as the use of information technology to provide patient care and share clinical information from one geographic location to another. Telemedicine…
Adams, E. M.; Nord, Warren
Liberal education is as essential as continuing professional education, partly because the humanities and liberal arts are "adult matters." Institutions must (1) raise consciousness about its role, and (2) develop concrete ideas for using university resources effectively. (LB)
Dermatologists from Germany are increasingly involved in international missions under tropical conditions. While civilian operations take place primarily in the context of international development cooperation, non-governmental organizations and private initiatives, dermatologists of the German Armed Forces have been engaged in numerous military missions and international disaster relief missions abroad. The specific requirements of these missions require a specialist qualification; however, the specialist training in "Skin and Venereal Diseases" under the conditions for medical care in Germany is frequently not sufficient. For an optimal preparation for dermatological missions in tropical regions, an additional qualification in tropical medicine is to be recommended. Since this additional training is time-consuming and can often not be put into practice, especially in the civilian sector, the acquisition of the certificate "Tropical and Travel Dermatology (DDA)" of the International Society for Dermatology in the Tropics in cooperation with the German Dermatological Academy (DDA) can be recommended. In the future, training in tropical dermatology should be incorporated into the main curriculum of dermatology for those specialists planning to work on dermatological missions in the tropics.
Vollmar, H C; Schürer-Maly, C-C; Lelgemann, M; Koneczny, N; Koch, M; Butzlaff, M
Effective translation of relevant knowledge into clinical practice is essential for modern health care systems. National Disease Management Guidelines (NDMG) are considered relevant instruments to support this transfer. To implement NDMG Internet-based continuing medical education (CME), modules and online case-based learning objects were designed and published. To ensure high quality the contents are based on NDMG and subjected to multi-step review processes. Presentation on the web was realized through a modified content management system. To obtain a CME certificate, completing an online questionnaire using a four-point Likert scale was mandatory. Between June 2003 and April 2005, 3,105 physicians were registered and used the platform: 95% of the physicians expressed positive feedback in the evaluation questionnaire, and 35% actually used the corresponding NDMG in practice. This prompted the development of interactive medical case-based learning objects as a second learning pathway. An Internet platform for CME including case-based learning objects can be a helpful tool to assure the provision of scientific knowledge for patient care.
Kerr, Brendan; Lee-Ann Hawkins, Trisha; Herman, Robert; Barnes, Sue; Kaufmann, Stephanie; Fraser, Kristin; Ma, Irene W Y
Introduction Although simulation-based training is increasingly used for medical education, its benefits in continuing medical education (CME) are less established. This study seeks to evaluate the feasibility of incorporating simulation-based training into a CME conference and compare its effectiveness with the traditional workshop in improving knowledge and self-reported confidence. Methods Participants (N=27) were group randomized to either a simulation-based workshop or a traditional case-based workshop. Results Post-training, knowledge assessment score neither did increase significantly in the traditional group (d=0.13; p=0.76) nor did significantly decrease in the simulation group (d= - 0.44; p=0.19). Self-reported comfort in patient assessment parameters increased in both groups (p<0.05 in all). However, only the simulation group reported an increase in comfort in patient management (d=1.1, p=0.051 for the traditional group and d=1.3; p= 0.0003 for the simulation group). At 1 month, comfort measures in the traditional group increased consistently over time while these measures in the simulation group increased post-workshop but decreased by 1 month, suggesting that some of the effects of training with simulation may be short lived. Discussion The use of simulation-based training was not associated with benefits in knowledge acquisition, knowledge retention, or comfort in patient assessment. It was associated with superior outcomes in comfort in patient management, but this benefit may be short-lived. Further studies are required to better define the conditions under which simulation-based training is beneficial.
Franco, G; Costa, G
In the future many changes will extensively affect workforce, workplace and work organization. The changes expected in the workforce will be a larger share of workers over 55 years and of women and a larger share of migrants. Two main changes will affect the workplace: the increasing percentage of jobs in the service sector and the decreasing permanent relationship of the worker with the workplace with an increase in temporary work, on-call work and work at home. The evolution of global trade is accelerating the transformation of work organization, with important changes in management systems, production and services processes and their influence on the way work is performed. Although working conditions will continue to improve overall, many matters remain to be resolved due to the increase in workers' health demands and awareness. Old diseases, such as tuberculosis, and new aspects of the more common health disorders, such as stress related-disorders, will represent a challenge for the specialist. In addition, new hazards, such as the exposure to nanoparticles or to static magnetic fields, will be conditions worthy to be considered for the possible implication to health. The workplace will represent a privileged place to promote health and well being of workers aiming at ensuring an effective healthy lifestyle, career and employment security. In this rapidly changing and demanding context, a new challenge for the occupational physicians will start with having a good understanding of the implications for adhering to the ethical principles and to values of quality, equity, relevance and cost-effectiveness and maintaining a balance among them.
the risk averse and assimilators. The success of a combined educational strategy will depend on an inclusive philosophy, both recognizing and engaging the wide range of differences in learning style and risk taking for all the individuals who make up learning teams.
Houle, Cyril O.
The theme of this discursive essay is residential continuing education: its definition, its development along somewhat different lines in Europe and in America, and its practice in university centers in the United States. Continuing education includes any learning or teaching program that is based on the assumptions that the learners have studied…
Despite early widespread recognition of the necessity of continuing medical education (CME) for practicing physicians and surgeons, medical schools and national medical organizations were slow to mobilize to address the need. One pioneering program, developed by the Albany Medical College in New York, not only provided CME, but did so in a live distance education format that allowed for interaction between the participants and the faculty presenters. The Albany Program commenced in 1955 using what was then state-of-the-art technology; it exemplified principles and practices that can be seen as the precursors for the distance education approaches used to reach physicians today. This short article describes the contributions of the Albany Two-Way Radio Conferences and places them in the context of developments in national organizations and policies in the 20th century.
Monif, G R; Severin, M J
A crisis exists in medical education. Changes in methodology have diverted attention from synthesis to mass accumulation of factual data. The response to this crisis has been largely focused on a shell game involving new pathways and curriculum changes without addressing the critical issue of what constitutes education. The ultimate problem in medical education is a crisis of leadership. Until education is given a priority status and the obligations to teach on the part of medical educators and to learn on the part of students are translated into a creative policy by those who can lead, the wheels of learning will continue to spin without significant progress.
Piatt, Virginia; Seybert, Jeff
An in-class survey of 683 continuing education students was conducted at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) to obtain information on: (1) student characteristics, including age, sex, family characteristics, income, educational background, occupation, area of residence, distance to class, sources of information about JCCC, and method of…
Curtis, Frieda Smith; And Others
This book is planned to provide guidance for nurses in planning, conducting, and evaluating programs of continuing education; content is built on the collective experiences and thinking of a regional group of nurse educators engaged in developing a coordinated program for a large geographical area. After discussion of changing patterns of health…
Gill, Christopher J.; Le Ngoc, Bao; Halim, Nafisa; Nguyen Viet, Ha; Larson Williams, Anna; Nguyen Van, Tan; McNabb, Marion; Tran Thi Ngoc, Lien; Falconer, Ariel; An Phan Ha, Hai; Rohr, Julia; Hoang, Hai; Michiel, James; Nguyen Thi Thanh, Tam; Bird, Liat; Pham Vu, Hoang; Yeshitla, Mahlet; Ha Van, Nhu; Sabin, Lora
Background Community health workers (CHWs) provide critical services to underserved populations in low and middle-income countries, but maintaining CHW’s clinical knowledge through formal continuing medical education (CME) activities is challenging and rarely occurs. We tested whether a Short Message Service (SMS)-based mobile CME (mCME) intervention could improve medical knowledge among a cadre of Vietnamese CHWs (Community Based Physician’s Assistants–CBPAs) who are the leading providers of primary medical care for rural underserved populations. Methods The mCME Project was a three arm randomized controlled trial. Group 1 served as controls while Groups 2 and 3 experienced two models of the mCME intervention. Group 2 (passive model) participants received a daily SMS bullet point, and were required to reply to the text to acknowledge receipt; Group 3 (interactive model) participants received an SMS in multiple choice question format addressing the same thematic area as Group 2, entering an answer (A, B, C or D) in their response. The server provided feedback immediately informing the participant whether the answer was correct. Effectiveness was based on standardized examination scores measured at baseline and endline (six months later). Secondary outcomes included job satisfaction and self-efficacy. Results 638 CBPAs were enrolled, randomized, and tested at baseline, with 592 returning at endline (93.7%). Baseline scores were similar across all three groups. Over the next six months, participation of Groups 2 and 3 remained high; they responded to >75% of messages. Group 3 participants answered 43% of the daily SMS questions correctly, but their performance did not improve over time. At endline, the CBPAs reported high satisfaction with the mCME intervention, and deemed the SMS messages highly relevant. However, endline exam scores did not increase over baseline, and did not differ between the three groups. Job satisfaction and self-efficacy scores also did
Background Selection of medical students in the UK is still largely based on prior academic achievement, although doubts have been expressed as to whether performance in earlier life is predictive of outcomes later in medical school or post-graduate education. This study analyses data from five longitudinal studies of UK medical students and doctors from the early 1970s until the early 2000s. Two of the studies used the AH5, a group test of general intelligence (that is, intellectual aptitude). Sex and ethnic differences were also analyzed in light of the changing demographics of medical students over the past decades. Methods Data from five cohort studies were available: the Westminster Study (began clinical studies from 1975 to 1982), the 1980, 1985, and 1990 cohort studies (entered medical school in 1981, 1986, and 1991), and the University College London Medical School (UCLMS) Cohort Study (entered clinical studies in 2005 and 2006). Different studies had different outcome measures, but most had performance on basic medical sciences and clinical examinations at medical school, performance in Membership of the Royal Colleges of Physicians (MRCP(UK)) examinations, and being on the General Medical Council Specialist Register. Results Correlation matrices and path analyses are presented. There were robust correlations across different years at medical school, and medical school performance also predicted MRCP(UK) performance and being on the GMC Specialist Register. A-levels correlated somewhat less with undergraduate and post-graduate performance, but there was restriction of range in entrants. General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)/O-level results also predicted undergraduate and post-graduate outcomes, but less so than did A-level results, but there may be incremental validity for clinical and post-graduate performance. The AH5 had some significant correlations with outcome, but they were inconsistent. Sex and ethnicity also had predictive effects on
Adult Basic Education Region V Staff Development Bulletin, 1974
The Continuing Education Unit (CEU) is a means of recording and accounting non-credit programs and activities which are professional in nature. Seven criteria have been established to assure the professionalism and quality of instruction. The criteria concern the need, objectives, and rationale of the activity; the course planning and…
Bird, K. A.; Fenwick, P. R.
In 1978, a national survey was conducted in New Zealand to determine the extent of participation in continuing education and the level of unmet need for these activities. A questionnaire was developed dealing with respondent characteristics, spare time and interests, agency-directed learning activities (ADLAS), and unmet needs, and administered to…
Hendrickson, Gayle A.
This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and…
This paper presents a comprehensive review of the five-volume set, "Adult and Continuing Education." This publication is a monumental and diverse collection of material related directly or indirectly to the broad theme of adult and continuing education. The collection captures a great deal of the thought which has informed the…
Johnson, Helen Arleen
Distance education technologies may be applied to academic settings, continuing education/continuing medical education settings or in combination to both. This article provides an overview of what we have learned about academic and continuing education/continuing medical education in geriatrics and gerontology. It includes information on the scope…
Esmaily, Hamideh M; Savage, Carl; Vahidi, Rezagoli; Amini, Abolghasem; Zarrintan, Mohammad Hossein; Wahlstrom, Rolf
Background Continuing medical education (CME) is compulsory for physicians in Iran. Recent studies in Iran show that modifications of CME elements are necessary to improve the effectiveness of the educational programmes. Other studies point to an inappropriate, even irrational drug prescribing. Based on a needs assessment study regarding CME for general physicians in the East Azerbaijan province in Iran, rational prescribing practice was recognized as a high priority issue. Considering different educational methods, outcome-based education has been proposed as a suitable approach for CME. The purpose of the study was to obtain experts' consensus about appropriate educational outcomes of rational prescribing for general physicians in CME and developing curricular contents for this education. Methods The study consisted of two phases: The first phase was conducted using a two-round Delphi consensus process to identify the outcome-based educational indicators regarding rational prescribing for general physicians in primary care (GPs). In the second phase the agreed indicators were submitted to panels of experts for assessment and determination of content for a CME program in the field. Results Twenty one learning outcomes were identified through a modified Delphi process. The indicators were used by the panels of experts and six educational topics were determined for the CME programme and the curricular content of each was defined. The topics were 1) Principles of prescription writing, 2) Adverse drug reactions, 3) Drug interactions, 4) Injections, 5) Antibiotic therapy, and 6) Anti-inflammatory agents therapy. One of the topics was not directly related to any outcome, raising a question about the need for a discussion on constructive alignment. Conclusions Consensus on learning outcomes was achieved and an educational guideline was designed. Before suggesting widespread use in the country the educational package should be tested in the CME context. PMID:18510774
Israel, D A; McCabe, M
The purpose of this project was to design, implement, and improve a nationwide medical nutrition therapy (MNT) intervention program for nutritionally at-risk employees and their dependents and retirees (hereinafter referred to as clients) with a Fortune 100 company (Texas Instruments, Dallas, Tex) with a dispersed population of 80,000. Preferred Nutrition Therapists (PNT), a network of registered dietitians, with the assistance of the Texas Instruments Health Promotion and Benefits Department, identified International Classification of Diseases, 9th ed (ICD-9), codes for which MNT intervention was appropriate. PNT then negotiated a contract with the Texas Instruments Health Promotion and Benefits Department and implemented clients' self-referral process. The main challenge was to promote utilization of a new service from an outside vendor (PNT) and to measure outcomes in meaningful ways. The goal was to use MNT as a tool to prevent the progression of clients' diseases to states that require more costly treatments. PNT used a continuous quality improvement process to refine the system and improve information gathering and reporting, by providing quarterly reports to the Health Promotion and Benefits Department. These reports summarized the outcomes for all clients seen at least 3 times during the quarter. The cost was less than $0.35 per member per month (less than the employer spent on advertising the program), and 0.5% of the population requested MNT during the first year of implementation (about what was expected for a new carveout benefit).
In the last few decades the medical community has increasingly underlined the necessity for medical students and healthcare professionals to acquire adequate and patient-friendly medical language and communication skills. Although teachers of foreign languages for medical purposes are usually not medically trained, their learners present them with…
Zhang, Qin; Lee, Liming; Gruppen, Larry D; Ba, Denian
As medical education undergoes significant internationalization, it is important for the medical education community to understand how different countries structure and provide medical education. This article highlights the current landscape of medical education in China, particularly the changes that have taken place in recent years. It also examines policies and offers suggestions about future strategies for medical education in China. Although many of these changes reflect international trends, Chinese medical education has seen unique transformations that reflect its particular culture and history.
Moore, Dale A; Sischo, William M; Kurtz, Suzanne; Siler, Julie D; Pereira, Richard V; Warnick, Lorin D; Davis, Margaret A
The increasing size and complexity of US dairy farms could make it more difficult for a veterinary practitioner to effectively communicate protocol recommendations for prevention or treatment on the farm. A continuing education workshop was set up based on the results of research on dairy organizational communication on dairy farms, which resulted in a tool to assess dairy communication structure and flow. The workshop specifically focused on communication structure and whom to talk to when implementing health care changes in calf rearing. In addition, modern methods of veterinary-client communication knowledge and skills were provided. Primary outcomes of the workshops were to obtain feedback from participants about research findings and the communication model, to improve awareness about the complexity of communication structures on dairy farms, and to change participants' knowledge and skills associated with on-farm communication by providing communication theory and skills and an approach to evaluate and improve dairy organizational communication. Of the 37 participants completing the pre-program assessment, most recognized a need for themselves or their practice to improve communication with clients and farm employees. After the program, most participants were confident in their new communication skills and would consider using them. They highlighted specific new ideas they could apply in practice, such as conducting a "communication audit." The results from the assessment of this communication workshop, focused on dairy veterinarians, highlighted the need for communication training in this sector of the profession and practitioners' desire to engage in this type of training.
Moore, Dale A.; Sischo, William M.; Kurtz, Suzanne; Siler, Julie D.; Pereira, Richard V.; Warnick, Lorin D.; Davis, Margaret A.
The increasing size and complexity of US dairy farms could make it more difficult for a veterinary practitioner to effectively communicate protocol recommendations for prevention or treatment on the farm. A continuing education workshop was set up based on the results of research on dairy organizational communication on dairy farms, which resulted in a tool to assess dairy communication structure and flow. The workshop specifically focused on communication structure and whom to talk to when implementing health care changes in calf rearing. In addition, modern methods of veterinary–client communication knowledge and skills were provided. Primary outcomes of the workshops were to obtain feedback from participants about research findings and the communication model, to improve awareness about the complexity of communication structures on dairy farms, and to change participants' knowledge and skills associated with on-farm communication by providing communication theory and skills and an approach to evaluate and improve dairy organizational communication. Of the 37 participants completing the pre-program assessment, most recognized a need for themselves or their practice to improve communication with clients and farm employees. After the program, most participants were confident in their new communication skills and would consider using them. They highlighted specific new ideas they could apply in practice, such as conducting a “communication audit”. The results from the assessment of this communication workshop, focused on dairy veterinarians, highlighted the need for communication training in this sector of the profession and practitioners' desire to engage in this type of training. PMID:26751909
Johnson, Helen Arleen
Distance education technologies may be applied to academic settings, continuing education/continuing medical education settings or in combination to both. This article provides an overview of what we have learned about academic and continuing education/continuing medical education in geriatrics and gerontology. It includes information on the scope of distance education, the strengths and challenges of distance education, and discusses issues related to technology, intellectual property, instructional design and curriculum development, collaborative effort, marketing, evaluation, and research.
This paper offers a medical-education perspective that I will hope complement other disciplinary perspectives in examining the value of reflection for learning in tertiary education. The paper outlines some of the theoretical strands of reflective practice facilitated in a unique course subject for professionalism and patient safety, within the…
Lindgren, Stefan; Brännström, Thomas; Hanse, Eric; Ledin, Torbjörn; Nilsson, Gunnar; Sandler, Stellan; Tidefelt, Ulf; Donnér, Jakob
Undergraduate medical education in Sweden has moved from nationally regulated, subject-based courses to programmes integrated either around organ systems or physiological and patho-physiological processes, or organised around basic medical science in conjunction with clinical specialities, with individual profiles at the seven medical schools. The national regulations are restricted to overall academic and professional outcomes. The 5½ year long university undergraduate curriculum is followed by a mandatory 18 months internship, delivered by the County Councils. While quality control and accreditation for the university curriculum is provided by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, no such formal control exists for the internship; undergraduate medical education is therefore in conflict with EU directives from 2005. The Government is expected to move towards 6 years long university undergraduate programmes, leading to licence, which will facilitate international mobility of both Swedish and foreign medical students and doctors. Ongoing academic development of undergraduate education is strengthened by the Bologna process. It includes outcome (competence)-based curricula, university Masters level complying with international standards, progression of competence throughout the curriculum, student directed learning, active participation and roles in practical clinical education and a national assessment model to assure professional competence. In the near future, the dimensioning of Swedish undergraduate education is likely to be decided more by international demands and aspects of quality than by national demands for doctors.
Geissbuhler, Antoine; Bagayoko, Cheick Oumar; Ly, Ousmane
Continuing education of healthcare professionals is a key element for the quality and efficiency of a health system. In developing countries, this activity is usually limited to capitals, and delocalized professionals do not have access to such opportunities, or to didactic material adapted to their needs. This limits the interest of such professionals to remain active in the periphery, where they are most needed to implement effective strategies for prevention and first-line healthcare. Telemedicine tools enable the communication and sharing of medical information in electronic form, and thus facilitate access to remote expertise. A physician located far from a reference center can consult its colleagues remotely in order to resolve a difficult case, follow a continuous education course over the Internet, or access medical information from digital libraries or knowledge bases. These same tools can also be used to facilitate exchanges between centers of medical expertise: health institutions of a same country as well as across borders. Since 2000, the Geneva University Hospitals have been involved in coordinating the development of a network for eHealth in Africa (the RAFT, Réseau en Afrique Francophone pour la Télémédecine), first in Mali, and now extending to 10 French-speaking African countries. The core activity of the RAFT is the webcasting of interactive courses. These sessions put the emphasis on knowledge sharing across care professionals, usually in the form of presentations and dialogs between experts in different countries. The technology used for the webcasting works with a slow (25 kbits/s) internet connection. Other activities of the RAFT network include visioconferences, teleconsultations based on the iPath system, collaborative knowledge bases development, support for medical laboratories quality control, and the evaluation of the use of telemedicine in rural areas (via satellite connections) in the context of multisectorial development. Finally
Calhoun, A. Brian
Describes the efforts of the Triton College Continuing Education Department to develop a unified curriculum and to market the program. Includes information on developing a continuing education philosophy, providing a unified curriculum, and creating a marketing bulletin. Illustrates ways to recombine courses to provide a unified approach. (CH)
Examines a number of issues facing the Australian library and information services community in the area of continuing education, including recommendations of the Library Association of Australia, the cost of continuing education activities, the role and responsibility of schools of library and information studies, and notions of coordination.…
Parochka, Jacqueline; And Others
Ideas underlying both professional and public attitudes toward continuing education in clinical laboratory science are examined, and the history of the American Society for Medical Technology (ASMT) in continuing education is traced. Continuing education may be defined as any systematic effort developed by a clinical laboratory scientist to update…
Petersdorf, R G
The cost of a medical education may dissuade qualified young people from entering the medical profession or may so load them with debt that they cannot pursue relatively low-paid careers in primary care or clinical investigation. Three aspects of this problem are examined: (1) the cost of medical school, (2) the magnitude of student indebtedness, and (3) the effects of this indebtedness on career choices. High tuition and fees require many students to assume sizable educational debts, some of which are so large that the trainees will be unable to repay them unless they enter highly remunerative specialties. Also, high levels of indebtedness may increase default levels once graduates feel the full impact of scheduled repayments. Several steps would help to alleviate this problem, but are unlikely to solve it. First, medical schools should lower tuition or at least declare a moratorium on increases. Second, limits should be imposed on the amount of total education debt a student is allowed to assume. Third, hospitals with extensive residency programs should assume some responsibility for helping trainees manage their finances. Fourth, the government should institute a loan forgiveness program that addresses the need for physician-investigators, primary care physicians, those willing to practice in underserved areas, and those from underrepresented minorities. And fifth, all institutions involved in medical training and its finance should work together to advise students on managing their debts.
Wear, Delese; Zarconi, Joseph; Kumagai, Arno; Cole-Kelly, Kathy
Slow medical education borrows from other "slow" movements by offering a complementary orientation to medical education that emphasizes the value of slow and thoughtful reflection and interaction in medical education and clinical care. Such slow experiences, when systematically structured throughout the curriculum, offer ways for learners to engage in thoughtful reflection, dialogue, appreciation, and human understanding, with the hope that they will incorporate these practices throughout their lives as physicians. This Perspective offers several spaces in the medical curriculum where slowing down is possible: while reading and writing at various times in the curriculum and while providing clinical care, focusing particularly on conducting the physical exam and other dimensions of patient care. Time taken to slow down in these ways offers emerging physicians opportunities to more fully incorporate their experiences into a professional identity that embodies reflection, critical awareness, cultural humility, and empathy. The authors argue that these curricular spaces must be created in a very deliberate manner, even on busy ward services, throughout the education of physicians.
Alger, Ian, Ed.
Reviews two conferences sponsored by the Ackerman Institute for Family Therapy: "Professional Systems and the Family," focusing on the interfaces among family therapists and professionals in education, health care, and human resources, and "Family Systems Over Time: The Fourth Dimension," focusing on the family life cycle, and…
[Role of a credit system in the development of continuous postgraduate training of physicians within the framework of the innovation educational space formation program of the I. M. Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy].
Vyzhigina, M A; Buniatian, A A; Sizova, Zh M; Protopopova, T A; Zaugol'nikova, T V; Zhukova, S G
Russia 's joining the European higher educational space and an increase in the international competitive capacity of the European higher educational system envisage first of all that the European credit test system (ECTS) should be accepted and introduced into all national higher educational schools, which ensures both credit test and cumulative functions and guarantees the academic recognition of the education abroad. The issues of modernization of approaches to reforming the continuous postgraduate training of physicians, by using the credit test system, as well as new forms and technologies for an educational process in accordance with the European educational system principles are under discussion. The novelty of the proposed development is that the credit test system is first applied to the continuous postgraduate training of physicians within the framework of the Russian higher medical educational system. The Russian continuous postgraduate medical training pattern that is common in form and content is proposed in accordance with the Bologna declaration principles; approaches have been developed to incorporating the European educational traditions into the Russian national continuous postgraduate medical training system, by employing the credit test system; criteria have been elaborated for adapting the European credit test system at all stages of reformation of the Russian educational system; guidelines have been worked out for the conversion of academic load of various forms of the continuous postgraduate training of physicians to the credit test system; ways of introducing the new forms and technologies into an educational process have been proposed in accordance with the European education system principles, by taking into account the credit test system. The introduction of new technologies of an educational process, by using the credit test system will contribute to personality formation in a physician who has a high competence, a capacity for valuable
A survey of continuing education providers showed the need for greater investment in marketing, cultivation of outsourcing relationships, staff development in marketing techniques, and new ways of communicating the message to potential customers. (SK)
Chemical and Engineering News, 1974
By leasing the Eugene W. Kettering Engineering and Science Center in downtown Dayton, Ohio, Wright State University plans to enlarge significantly its activities in continuing education for engineers, scientists, and others. (JR)
English, John K.
A job description for continuing education practitioners includes 11 domains and the job responsibilities for each: client management, external marketing, internal marketing, strategic planning, administration, program development, technology management, adult learning, personal development, career management, and community and professional…
Professional Engineer, 1979
Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)
Focusing on three recent developments in communications technology--communications satellites, multichannel cable systems, and home videodisc players--the author discusses the current and potential applications of each to continuing education programs. (SK)
Pelaccia, Thierry; Viau, Rolland
Motivation is a concept which has fascinated researchers for many decades. The field of medical education has become interested in motivation recently, having always assumed that medical students must be motivated because of their commitment to highly specific training, leading to a very specific profession. However, motivation is a major determinant of the quality of learning and success, the lack of which may well explain why teachers sometimes observe medical students who are discouraged, have lost interest or abandon their studies, with a feeling of powerlessness or resignation. After describing the importance of motivation for learning in medicine, this Guide will define the concept of motivation, setting it within the context of a social cognitive approach. In the second part of this Guide, recommendations are made, based upon the so-called "motivational dynamic model", which provides a multitude of various strategies with positive effects on students' motivation to learn.
Background Achieving a high response rate in a physician survey is challenging. Monetary incentives increase response rates but obviously add cost to a survey project. We wondered whether an offer of a free continuing medical education (CME) activity would be effective in improving survey response rate. Results As part of a survey of a national sample of physicians, we randomized half to an offer for a free on-line CME activity upon completion of a web-based survey and the other half to no such offer. We compared response rates between the groups. A total of 1214 out of 8477 potentially eligible physicians responded to our survey, for an overall response rate of 14.3%. The response rate among the control group (no offer of CME credit) was 16.6%, while among those offered the CME opportunity, the response rate was 12.0% (p < 0.0001). Conclusions An offer for a free on-line CME activity did not improve physician survey response rate. On the contrary, the offer for a free CME activity actually appeared to worsen the response rate. PMID:22397624
Carlton, Paul K; Bringle, Dottie
On May 22, 2011, The St Johns Mercy Medical Center in Joplin, MO, was destroyed by an F-5 tornado. There were 183 patients in the building at that time in this 367-bed Medical Center. The preparation and response were superbly done and resulted in many lives saved. This report is focused on the reconstitution phase of this disaster response, which includes how to restore business continuity. As 95 percent of our medical capacity resides in the private sector in the United States, we must have a proper plan for how to restore business continuity or face the reality of the medical business failing and not providing critical medical services to the community. A tornado in 2007 destroyed a medical center in Sumter County, GA, and it took more than 365 days to restore business continuity at a cost of $18M. The plan executed by the Mercy Medical System after the disaster in Joplin restored business continuity in 88 days and cost a total of $6.6M, with all assets being reusable. The recommendation from these lessons learned is that every county, state, and Federal Emergency Management Agency region has a plan on the shelf to restore business continuity and the means to be able to do so. The hard work that the State of Missouri and the Mercy Medical System did after this disaster can serve as a model for the nation in how to quickly recover from any loss of medical capability.
Community-orientated medicine is a topical area for debate in the current discussions about medical education, but it can be argued that medical education has always been in the community because medical practice is located therein. It is widely accepted that community settings provide a wealth of learning opportunities for students and trainees…
Zayapragassarazan, Z.; Kumar, Santosh
The ongoing pedagogical advancements in medical education across the globe have gained the attention of academicians for the preparation of well-educated and competent physicians to address the healthcare issues facing today. The integration of technology into medical pedagogy has proved effective in many ways. This has made the medical education…
Yang, Eunbae B; Meng, Kwang Ho
This study is to investigate the historical characteristics of medical education and healthcare environment in Korea and to suggest the desirable direction for future medical education. We draw a consensus through the literature analysis and several debates from the eight experts of medical education. There are several historical characteristics of medical education: medical education as vocational education and training, as a higher education, rapid growth of new medical schools, change to the medical education system, curriculum development, reinforcement of medical humanities, improvement of teaching and evaluation methods, validation of the national health personnel licensing examination, accreditation system for quality assurance, and establishment of specialized medical education division. The changes of health care environment in medical education are development of medical technologies, changes in the structures of the population and diseases, growth of information and communication technology, consumer-centered society, and increased intervention by the third party stakeholder. We propose five suggestions to be made to improve future medical education. They are plan for outcome and competency-based medical education, connection between the undergraduate and graduate medical education, reinforcement of continuous quality improvement of medical education, reorganization of the medical education system and construction of leadership of "academic medicine."
van Mook, Walther N K A; Gorter, Simone L; de Grave, Willem S; van Luijk, Scheltus J; O'Sullivan, Helen; Wass, Valerie; Zwaveling, Jan Harm; Schuwirth, Lambert W; van der Vleuten, Cees P M
Given the changes in society we are experiencing, the increasing focus on patient centred care and acknowledgment that medical education needs to continue not only in the residency programmes but throughout the doctors career, is not surprising. This article describes the attention currently paid to professionalism in the residency programmes, differences in perception of professionalism between patients, faculty, students and residents, differences in professionalism issues in the different educational phases, as well as their consequences for training and assessment regarding professionalism. Continuous medical education in professionalism is thereafter briefly discussed.
The author addresses the fate and future of Graduate and Medical Education. The dominant concern lies with the identification of a reliable and continuous source of funding for the education, training and research experience of the students. The problems and the needs are discussed along with some potential remedies.
Cassner, Mary; Adams, Kate E.
Distance librarians as engaged professionals work in a complex environment of changes in technologies, user expectations, and institutional goals. They strive to keep current with skills and competencies to support distance learners. This article provides a selection of continuing education opportunities for distance librarians, and is relevant…
Laszlo, Halldora; Strettle, Robert J.
Responses from 83 of 120 British midwives showed that motivation for continuing education was strongest in regard to professional competence and innate desire for knowledge, less in regard to legal requirements for practice. Strongest motivators were internal and learning related. Social integration was the least important aspect of continuing…
Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.
This guide presents an overview of marketing and its potential value in continuing education programs for nurses. The first portion of the guide briefly discusses the concept of marketing. It contains definitions of key marketing concepts (product, place, price, and promotion), discussion of the basic tenets of marketing (consumer needs…
Lehmann, Ronny; Hanebeck, Benjamin; Oberle, Stephan; Simon, Anke; Choukair, Daniela; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Huwendiek, Sören
Aim: Virtual patients (VPs) are a one-of-a-kind e-learning resource, fostering clinical reasoning skills through clinical case examples. The combination with face-to-face teaching is important for their successful integration, which is referred to as “blended learning”. So far little is known about the use of VPs in the field of continuing medical education and residency training. The pilot study presented here inquired the application of VPs in the framework of a pediatric residency revision course. Methods: Around 200 participants of a pediatric nephology lecture (‘nephrotic and nephritic syndrome in children’) were offered two VPs as a wrap-up session at the revision course of the German Society for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine (DGKJ) 2009 in Heidelberg, Germany. Using a web-based survey form, different aspects were evaluated concerning the learning experiences with VPs, the combination with the lecture, and the use of VPs for residency training in general. Results: N=40 evaluable survey forms were returned (approximately 21%). The return rate was impaired by a technical problem with the local Wi-Fi firewall. The participants perceived the work-up of the VPs as a worthwhile learning experience, with proper preparation for diagnosing and treating real patients with similar complaints. Case presentations, interactivity, and locally and timely independent repetitive practices were, in particular, pointed out. On being asked about the use of VPs in general for residency training, there was a distinct demand for more such offers. Conclusion: VPs may reasonably complement existing learning activities in residency training. PMID:26604993
Collins, Patti-Ann; Hardesty, Ilana; White, Julie L; Zisblatt, Lara
In an effort to improve patient safety and health care outcomes, continuing medical education has begun to focus on performance improvement initiatives for physician practices. Boston University School of Medicine's (BUSM) Continuing Nursing Education Accredited Provider Unit has begun a creative project to award nursing contact hours for nurses' participation in performance improvement activities. This column highlights its initial efforts.
Freeman, Elizabeth; Lischka, Terri A
The information provided in the present report on osteopathic graduate medical education (OGME) is based primarily on annual data provided through the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) Intern/Resident Registration Program (ie, the AOA Match) and the AOA Trainee Information, Verification, and Registration Audit reporting system. In 2007, the number of osteopathic medical graduates totaled 3103, surpassing 3000 for the first time. In 2008, the total reached 3462 graduates. Statistics on the Match in this article are reported for both 2007 and 2008. A total of 1267 (41%) and 1316 (38%) graduates and previous graduates participated and matched in 2007 and 2008, respectively. With post-Match scramble data, the number of graduates and previous graduates in AOA-approved internships and first-year residency positions rose to 1645 (53%) for the 2007-2008 academic year and is estimated to be 1828 (51%) for the 2008-2009 academic year. The response of students through the Match and the increased attention to innovative OGME development activities--particularly the internship restructuring and OGME Development Initiative--are evidence of a positive momentum in OGME in recent years.
Sundberg, Kristina; Josephson, Anna; Reeves, Scott; Nordquist, Jonas
A key role for educational leaders within undergraduate medical education is to continually improve the quality of education; global quality health care is the goal. This paper reports the findings from a study employing a power model to highlight how educational leaders influence the development of undergraduate medical curricula and the…
Lee, David E.
Explores why continuing veterinary medical education (CVME) programs can play a vital role in supporting the overall strategy of a veterinary college. Discusses the current and future market for CVME programs and strategies for sustainability and synergy. (EV)
Radoff, Kari; Nacht, Amy; Natch, Amy; McConaughey, Edie; Salstrom, Jan; Schelling, Karen; Seger, Suzanne
Midwives have been involved formally and informally in the training of medical students and residents for many years. Recent reductions in resident work hours, emphasis on collaborative practice, and a focus on midwives as key members of the maternity care model have increased the involvement of midwives in medical education. Midwives work in academic settings as educators to teach the midwifery model of care, collaboration, teamwork, and professionalism to medical students and residents. In 2009, members of the American College of Nurse-Midwives formed the Medical Education Caucus (MECA) to discuss the needs of midwives teaching medical students and residents; the group has held a workshop annually over the last 4 years. In 2014, MECA workshop facilitators developed a toolkit to support and formalize the role of midwives involved in medical student and resident education. The MECA toolkit provides a roadmap for midwives beginning involvement and continuing or expanding the role of midwives in medical education. This article describes the history of midwives in medical education, the development and growth of MECA, and the resulting toolkit created to support and formalize the role of midwives as educators in medical student and resident education, as well as common challenges for the midwife in academic medicine. This article is part of a special series of articles that address midwifery innovations in clinical practice, education, interprofessional collaboration, health policy, and global health.
Kumar, Santosh; Zayapragassarazan, Z.
Modern curricula have both compulsory portions and electives or portions chosen by students. Electives have been a part of graduate and postgraduate general higher education. Electives are included in various standards for graduate medical education and are also included in proposed Medical Council of India Regulations on Graduate Medical…
Ten Cate, Olle
This paper aims to draw a picture of current medical education in The Netherlands. Based on strong historical roots in the seventeenth century, Dutch medical education has adapted to changing circumstances through the ages. Nowadays, medical education in The Netherlands may be called "modern", according to international standards and schools such as the one in Maastricht serve as examples, nationally and internationally. After considerable redesign of undergraduate education in the 1980s and 1990s, the first decade of the new century shows a revolutionary development of postgraduate medical education, with the introduction of nationwide competency-based training, and mandatory in-training assessments and portfolios for residents. The high level of activity in medical education development is reflected in high research productivity, measured as Dutch articles in international journals. Despite these strengths, several critical issues around medical education are in debate, ranging from entrance selection, small group tutoring, the two-cycle bachelor-master model and the relevance of basic sciences to the planning of enrolment numbers and working hours for residents. Medical education in The Netherlands is a dynamic field.
Jackson, Valerie P
The education of radiology residents and fellows is a vitally important but costly process. This paper reviews the most common methods of funding graduate medical education. The majority of graduate medical education in the United States is funded by Medicare, but there are caps on the number of trainees allowed, and the government is cutting payments. Academic medicine, particularly academic radiology, is at a point of crisis today if new methods to provide additional support are not found.
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of Continuing Education.
This handbook is designed to aid directors of continuing education programs in New York State. The chapters of the guide are as follows: I. Overview--Why Continuing Education?; Historical Backgroun; Goals, Purposes, and Principles; Role of the Public Schools in Continuing Education; II. Regulations of the Commissioner of Education and…
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... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Continuing education providers and continuing education programs. 10.9 Section 10.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the... Continuing education providers and continuing education programs. (a) Continuing education providers—(1)...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Continuing education providers and continuing education programs. 10.9 Section 10.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the... Continuing education providers and continuing education programs. (a) Continuing education providers—(1)...
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Leach, David C.
The Conjoint Committee on Continuing Medical Education has developed a position paper, a set of recommendations, and next steps in the reform of continuing medical education (CME). The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) sets standards for and accredits residency programs in graduate medical education and is not directly…
Hegge, Margaret; Powers, Penny; Hendrickx, Lori; Vinson, Judith
A survey of RNs in South Dakota was performed to determine their perceived level of competence, the extent to which their continuing nursing education (CNE) needs are being met, and their use of computers for CNE. Nationally certified nurses rated themselves significantly more competent than nurses who are not nationally certified. Fewer than half of the RNs reported their CNE needs were being met despite geographic access to CNE and programs available in their specialty. Three-fourths of nurses had computers at home while 76% had computers at work, yet fewer than 20% of nurses used these computers for CNE.
Conedera, F; Schoessler, M
Hospice nursing is unique because of the philosophy and issues surrounding hospice care. Program planning for hospice staff follows basic principles. The real challenge in developing programs for orientation, continuing, and inservice education is using a format that will truly enable staff to meet the objectives. A lecture, programmed instruction, or video/slide format works well for the "nuts and bolts," but more creativity is needed for the other issues facing the hospice nurse--death, grief, symptom control, stress, team roles, and helping patients with options. Incorporating into the program some of the methods suggested will offer staff the opportunity to become involved in learning and make that learning more meaningful.
Gosling, H; Nhonoli, A M
At the new Medical Faculty at the University of Dar-es-Salaam (East Africa) a number of innovations were instituted. The most significant was continual assessment of students. During the first 3 years of the course, results of weekly testing may comprise three-fourths of each student's assessment. Later they are assessed on each rotation and clerkship; and these must be completed satisfactorily before Final Examinations are taken. These assessments never contribute less than one-half of the final results. Failures were reduced from 10 to 2% with no reduction in standards or performance levels. The method utilizes Reinforcement Theory techniques; specifically referred to are schedules of testing, grades as reinforcers, and frequent feed-back for students, self-shaping of study strategies and for constant surveilance of its teaching by the Faculty.
Brandt, E N
Publicly funded institutions, such as NIH, NLM, and state-supported universities, have explicit public service missions that extend beyond the walls of a single institution. During the past few years, national organizations, such as NLM and AAMC, have funded studies and projects to measure how well universities are adapting to technological change and educational reform. The IAIMS models are evidence of universities fostering cooperative rather than duplicative effort. Opportunities and problems facing universities extending systems and services to the private practice setting, to community-based health care HMO's, and to state and local health care agencies are discussed in terms of political, economic, and geographic realities. Instilling lifelong learning concepts begins before the health professional enters practice and is dependent on the emphasis universities place on "excellence in teaching." Without cooperation among core facilities, such as libraries, computer centers, and excellent instructors, continuing education will remain a parochial issue instead of a national thrust toward the continuum of the learning process. If continuing education is to become a high priority for universities and take its place on the education spectrum, flexible policies must be established to accommodate individual practitioners' expectations and interests.
Ferris, Helena A.; Collins, Mary E.
The landscape of medical education is continuously evolving, as are the needs of the learner. The appropriate use of research and evaluation is key when assessing the need for change and instituting one's innovative endeavours. This paper demonstrates how research seeks to generate new knowledge, whereas evaluation uses information acquired from…
The dean of continuing education at the Communiity College of Beaver County (Pennsylvania) defines community services as one portion of continuing education - and the program in Beaver County. (Editor)
Pollock, George P.
The basic curricular structure and courses deemed necessary to podiatric medical education are outlined and their rationale explained. Specialties appropriate to podiatric practice, such as electrophysiology and cardiovascular physiology, are noted, and the sequence of coursework suggested. (MSE)
Reed, Suzanne; Shell, Richard; Kassis, Karyn; Tartaglia, Kimberly; Wallihan, Rebecca; Smith, Keely; Hurtubise, Larry; Martin, Bryan; Ledford, Cynthia; Bradbury, Scott; Bernstein, Henry Hank; Mahan, John D
The application of the best practices of teaching adults to the education of adults in medical education settings is important in the process of transforming learners to become and remain effective physicians. Medical education at all levels should be designed to equip physicians with the knowledge, clinical skills, and professionalism that are required to deliver quality patient care. The ultimate outcome is the health of the patient and the health status of the society. In the translational science of medical education, improved patient outcomes linked directly to educational events are the ultimate goal and are best defined by rigorous medical education research efforts. To best develop faculty, the same principles of adult education and teaching adults apply. In a systematic review of faculty development initiatives designed to improve teaching effectiveness in medical education, the use of experiential learning, feedback, effective relationships with peers, and diverse educational methods were found to be most important in the success of these programs. In this article, we present 5 examples of applying the best practices in teaching adults and utilizing the emerging understanding of the neurobiology of learning in teaching students, trainees, and practitioners. These include (1) use of standardized patients to develop communication skills, (2) use of online quizzes to assess knowledge and aid self-directed learning, (3) use of practice sessions and video clips to enhance significant learning of teaching skills, (4) use of case-based discussions to develop professionalism concepts and skills, and (5) use of the American Academy of Pediatrics PediaLink as a model for individualized learner-directed online learning. These examples highlight how experiential leaning, providing valuable feedback, opportunities for practice, and stimulation of self-directed learning can be utilized as medical education continues its dynamic transformation in the years ahead.
Chen, Xiao; Davey, Gareth
This article reports on continuing education in China. It discusses the emergence of the field in the 1980s, the Chinese characteristics of continuing education, recent developments, and limitations. Continuing education became available in China in the 1980s following a change in government policy and economic reform. It caters mainly for…
Owen, John A.; Schmitt, Madeline H.
Informal continuing interprofessional education (CIPE) can be traced back decades in the United States; however, interest in formal CIPE is recent. Interprofessional education (IPE) now is recognized as an important component of new approaches to continuing education (CE) that are needed to increase health professionals' ability to improve…
Mandal, Jharna; Dinoop, KP; Parija, Subhash Chandra
“Microethics” is an avant-garde in the field of ethics. When the term “ethics” is brought into discussion in medical education or clinical practice, it customarily points to the traditional ethics, that is, biomedical ethics that deals with the ethical issues faced during unaccustomed or rare clinical circumstances. In contrast, microethics is a continuous ethical science existing in the physician-patient interaction that happens each day in every physician's clinical liaison. These ethical issues of everyday importance need to be introduced in the ethics training programs of medical institutions to provide insight and thereby promoting improvement in medical care and outcome. PMID:26629449
Leggat, Peter A.
Discusses the learning experience from both traditional and computer-assisted instructional methods. Describes the environments in which these methods are effective. Focuses on learning experiences in medical education and describes educational strategies, particularly the 'SPICES' model. Discusses the importance of mentoring in the psychosocial…
Whicker, Shari A.; Engle, Deborah L.; Chudgar, Saumil; DeMeo, Stephen; Bean, Sarah M.; Narayan, Aditee P.; Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor; Nagler, Alisa
Background Graduate medical education faculty bear the responsibility of demonstrating active research and scholarship; however, faculty who choose education-focused careers may face unique obstacles related to the lack of promotion tracks, funding, career options, and research opportunities. Our objective was to address education research and scholarship barriers by providing a collaborative peer-mentoring environment and improve the production of research and scholarly outputs. Methods We describe a Medical Education Scholarship Support (MESS) group created in 2013. MESS is an interprofessional, multidisciplinary peer-mentoring education research community that now spans multiple institutions. This group meets monthly to address education research and scholarship challenges. Through this process, we develop new knowledge, research, and scholarly products, in addition to meaningful collaborations. Results MESS originated with eight founding members, all of whom still actively participate. MESS has proven to be a sustainable unfunded local community of practice, encouraging faculty to pursue health professions education (HPE) careers and fostering scholarship. We have met our original objectives that involved maintaining 100% participant retention; developing increased knowledge in at least seven content areas; and contributing to the development of 13 peer-reviewed publications, eight professional presentations, one Masters of Education project, and one educational curriculum. Discussion The number of individuals engaged in HPE research continues to rise. The MESS model could be adapted for use at other institutions, thereby reducing barriers HPE researchers face, providing an effective framework for trainees interested in education-focused careers, and having a broader impact on the education research landscape. PMID:27476538
Is the art of medical education just making sure to provide sufficient up to date medical knowledge and a lot of clinical experience? It is much more. The art of medical education is about a teaching program that is designed to serve the community of the near future. The program is the result of a thorough evaluation of societal needs and is capable of influencing the properties of future care. New care professionals who are trained in the program will -become instrumental in solving complex problems in health systems. The art of medical education is about the change of traditional ideas of how to cope with these health systems. This change will raise anger and resistance. Effective change management is essential to survive attacks from laggards and to maintain enthusiasm to invest in the health care of the future. Educationalist science provides several important insights that help us find the optimal shape of the program. Good role models and a learning environment that is an example of the intended professional and organisational behaviour, learning by doing, simulation programs, educational tools like e-learning systems, a good assessment and feedback system, and a portfolio to prove and discuss professional progress are all pivotal components of the ideal program. To achieve mastery within the art of medical education, a quality improvement program will be the crown of the process. Medical education is a multifaceted process and so the quality improvement should be. The art of medical education is a great challenge. The health care of your future deserves it.
Dauphinee, W Dale; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon
The development of the Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) Collaboration is introduced in the context of other systematic review initiatives, specifically the Cochrane and Campbell collaborations. The commentary addresses two goals: to describe the current status of BEME and to situate BEME in the broader context of the medical education community's need to be accountable, to conduct research to understand educational processes and results, and the key role that medical educational research must play within the quality-improvement agenda. Lessons drawn from the evidence-based practice movement of the last ten years and the current experience with BEME suggest that, although BEME will inform some educational policies and practices, its initial success may be limited because of the paucity of studies that meet current standards for evidence and the great difficulty in conducting methodologically rigorous studies in the complex social interaction called education. Nonetheless, the need exists for medical education research to continue to address key issues in medical education using experimental designs, while at the same time anticipating the need for more situation-specific data to permit educators to monitor and benchmark their existing programs within a quality-improvement and accountability framework. The authors conclude that the very nature of being professional in today's social and fiscal context demands that medical educators provide evidence of effectiveness and efficiency of their programs while at the same time BEME and medical education research continue to grow and mature.
The purpose of this article is to give international readers an overview of the organisation, structure and curriculum, together with important advances and problems, of undergraduate medical education in Germany. Interest in medical education in Germany has been relatively low but has gained momentum with the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" which came into effect in 2003. Medical education had required substantial reform, particularly with respect to improving the links between theoretical and clinical teaching and the extension of interdisciplinary and topic-related instruction. It takes six years and three months to complete the curriculum and training is divided into three sections: basic science (2 years), clinical science (3 years) and final clinical year. While the reorganisation of graduate medical education required by the new "Regulation of the Licensing of Doctors" has stimulated multiple excellent teaching projects, there is evidence that some of the stipulated changes have not been implemented. Indeed, whether the medical schools have complied with this regulation and its overall success remains to be assessed systematically. Mandatory external accreditation and periodic reaccreditation of medical faculties need to be established in Germany. PMID:19675742
Hilton, Sean; Southgate, Lesley
Medical professionalism in today's society requires the exhibition of a range of qualities deployed in the service of patients, rather than more traditionally defined aspects such as mastery, autonomy and self-regulation. These qualities incorporate demonstrated clinical competence; aspiring to excellence in practice while demonstrating humility…
The 20th century witnessed phenomenal growth in scientific medical knowledge and technology, enabling physicians to more accurately diagnose and effectively treat a wide range of diseases. However, these advances led to longer and more complex training periods for physicians and increasing specialization and dependence on the new technology. An adverse outcome of these changes has been the development of many physicians who are less able to communicate with their patients and deal with them in a humanistic and personally caring manner; ie, the development of finely trained medical technologists as opposed to caring physicians. Their behavior and their blind trust in science and technology without understanding the patients in whom illness occurs often leads to making incorrect, incomplete, or inappropriate diagnoses or to unnecessary failures of treatment. It also results in excessive costs, hazardous procedures, and ill will from patients. Unfortunately, such technologically oriented physicians are often the primary role models for students. The best hope for a remedy to the problem lies in recognizing that it exists, understanding its causes, and modifying medical education accordingly. Providing students with good role models and some rudimentary techniques can lead to significant gains, but sophisticated programs have been designed only in some schools.
Advocating development for all continuing education staff, the author asserts that staff who understand adult education theory, the goals and visions of the organization, the environmental context of continuing education, and the roles of other staff members will be more effective. Also essential are support mechanisms that facilitate change. (SK)
Simmons, Brian; Wagner, Susan
Although interprofessional education (IPE) and continuing interprofessional education (CIPE) are becoming established activities within the education of health professions, assessment of learners continues to be limited. Arguably, this in part is due to a lack of IPE and CIPE within in the clinical workplace. The accountability of…
Corporate strategies that can be used in continuing nursing education programs are discussed, based on the Regional Action for Continuing Education in Nursing Education project. Attention is focused on strategies employed at Southern State University (SSU). A practical planning method was used to guide the process of corporate strategy formulation…
Cheung, Bruce; Yiu, S. M.
Adult continuing education (ACE) has different audiences and characteristics than distance learning and full-time education. The University of Hong Kong is regarded as the leading provider of ACE through the programs offered by the School of Professional and Continuing Education (SPACE). To maintain that position, SPACE's challenge is to develop…
Baukal, Charles E., Jr.
Many are calling for increased continuing education for engineers, but few details are provided as to how to source that education. This paper recommends a strategy for sourcing continuing engineering education (CEE). Providers of CEE are categorized here as internal (the organization itself), external (universities, professional/trade…
Al Mosawi, Aamir Jalal
The lack of resources in a country experiencing decades of successive wars, blockade, administrative corruption, and poor governance led to deteriorated standards throughout medical education. Although professional certification programs exist, continuing medical education accreditation and credit systems are required to monitor and certify the…
Changing Education: A Journal for Teachers and Administrators, 1997
"Changing Education" is targeted for Australian teachers and administrators. This theme issue, which the editorial defines as about "The Changing World of Continuing Education," contains eight articles and an editorial about recent developments in adult literacy and basic education (ALBE), vocational education and training, and…
Leete, Burt A.
Discusses the possibility of compulsory legal education, examining recent experience of the accounting profession with mandatory continuing education, and presenting results of a survey of 400 lawyers which indicated no consensus on the subject. (JT)
Williams, J. D.
The needs for continuing engineering education to avoid technical obsolescence and the programs offered by one company to fill this need are discussed. Ten educational alternative programs of the Sandia Laboratories, Albuquerque (New Mexico) are described. (CP)
Patient care appraisal (PCA) is a type of medical audit specifically designed for educational purposes. It can be instituted in solo or group practices. A subject is selected (preferably a commonly treated condition), criteria for care are established (the most educational element of PCA), records of cases are searched to see if these criteria are met, results are reviewed, and corrective action is planned. A follow up audit is then done. This method of CME is currently under study at Dalhousie University's Division of Continuing Medical Education as a possible alternative to formal courses. PMID:20469392
Medical education and training in Australia comprises four phases: basic education, prevocational training, vocational training and continuing professional development. Between the 1860s and 1960s, eight medical schools were established in Australia, admitting school leavers to courses comprised of preclinical, paraclinical and clinical phases. Between the 1970s and the 1990s, two innovative new schools were established and all schools made major reforms to student selection, curricula and teaching, learning and assessment methods. Since 2000, student numbers expanded rapidly, both in existing medical schools and in eight new schools established to meet workforce demands, particularly in the rural sector. Prevocational training, first introduced as a compulsory internship year in the 1930s, has undergone reform and extension to subsequent years of junior doctor training through the agency of health departments and postgraduate medical education councils. Vocational training and continuing professional development, delivered by 15 specialist medical colleges, has evolved since the 1930s from a focus on specialist care of individual patients to include broader professional attributes required to manage complex health care systems. The Australian Medical Council began accreditation of basic medical education in 1985 and its remit now extends to all phases of medical education and training. With national governance of the entire system of medical education and training now achieved, mechanisms exist for flexible integration of all phases of medical education to meet the local and global challenges facing Australia's medical workforce.
Linville, Mark David; Bates, J Edward
Graduate medical education (GME) is a critical link in the educational chain for physicians. Graduating from a strict apprenticeship model, GME has become a highly structured educational system whose peer-review organization provides an intentional and direct approach to ensuring that GME not only addresses the public's expectations of the profession but also positions itself to be a foundational structure in the outcomes-focused healthcare environment of the nation. GME is currently in a state of accelerated change-grounded in both educational and patient outcomes. This article provides an update on the significant changes that have occurred in GME over the past 10 years, a review of current initiatives and the perspectives related to educating physicians-in-training. Additionally, an analysis is provided on the future of GME, including areas of continued focus and uncertainty.
Norcini, John J.; McKinley, Danette W.
Since the 1950s, there has been rapid and extensive change in the way assessment is conducted in medical education. Several new methods of assessment have been developed and implemented over this time and they have focused on clinical skills (taking a history from a patient and performing a physical examination), communication skills, procedural…
Woods, Majka; Anderson, Leslie; Rosenberg, Mark E
Traditionally, changes to medical education come from the top down, an approach that potentially misses important contributions from medical students, residents, faculty and staff. In order to provide an avenue for them to bring forward their ideas for educational improvements, the University of Minnesota Medical School sponsored the "What's the Bright Idea?" contest. Through the contest, we sought to foster a culture of innovation and collaboration among faculty, staff and students. The contest included five phases: launch, idea submission, online voting, follow-up and implementation. Seventy-six ideas were submitted, and 902 people participated in the online voting. When asked in a follow-up survey whether the submitter would have developed their idea without the contest, 27% of respondents answered "no" and 18% answered "maybe." Three-fourths stated the contest stimulated networking and collaboration. Four of the recommendations are now being implemented.
Summary Objectives This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. Methods With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Results Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Conclusions Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated. PMID:26123910
This manual outlines Maryland's community college course evaluation system. Part I provides a historical overview of continuing education in Maryland, including the legal provisions establishing the development of continuing education courses as a function of community college instructional development. Part II presents policies for state…
Edelson, Paul Jay
It is reasonable to argue that the members of a profession are the only ones who can directly address issues of accreditation. In the context of accreditation for international continuing education, it may be argued that professional organizations in continuing education cannot function as accrediting bodies except in the sense that they determine…
Lerner, Allan W., Ed.; King, B. Kay, Ed.
This book, containing seven chapters and an epilogue, describes how continuing education--as a structure and a function--can become a unique tool for reorienting major universities toward confronting new societal challenges. "The Coming Wave" (Lerner) discusses relevant organizational theory to explain the special role of continuing education in…
American Nurses' Association, Kansas City, MO.
The American Nursing Association accreditation mechanism for continuing education in nursing is outlined. The mechanism encompasses local, state, regional, and national levels and identifies criteria for accrediting other agencies and associations and for the approval of continuing education offerings and programs. It includes programs in nursing…
Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Continuing Education Service.
Major addresses presented at the 13th Seminar for College and University Leaders in Continuing Education are provided in these proceedings. The addresses are as follows: "Seminar Preview" by Russell J. Kleis; "Welcome" by Armand L. Hunter; "The Continuing Education University" by Charles E. Perry; "Major Problems Facing the University: Internal…
Dionne, Raymond A.
A study of 196 dentists' comprehension of an article in a leading dental continuing education journal revealed about four-fifths gaining knowledge, and the remainder decreasing or showing no change in knowledge. Use of scholarly articles as an efficient continuing education method is recommended. (MSE)
approximately 88 weeks of classroom instruction, to include: BOLC is approximately 6 months long, Captains Career Course (CCC) 6 months, and Intermediate...Noncommissioned Officer Education System (NCOES) courses total approximately 31 weeks or 8 months of classroom instruction, which is one-third the... classroom instruction for the military education of their officer counterpart. Interestingly enough, in an effort to compensate for the lost time in
Peterson, Eric D.; Overstreet, Karen M.; Parochka, Jacqueline N.; Lemon, Michael R.
Introduction: Medical Education and Communication Companies (MECCs) represent approximately 21% of the providers accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education (ACCME), yet relatively little is known about these organizations in the greater continuing medical education (CME) community. Two prior studies described them,…
Redd, Frank J.
The objectives of the National Space Grant and Fellowship Program include the expansion of space-oriented educational programs beyond the traditional boundaries of university campuses to reach 'non-traditional' students whose personal and professional lives would be enhanced by access to such programs. These objectives coincide with those of the continuing education programs that exist on most university campuses. By utilizing continuing educations resources and facilities, members of the National Space Grant Program can greatly enhance the achievement of program objectives.
New York State Education Dept., Albany.
As discussed in several addresses at a New York State Board of Regents symposium, the task of continuing education in New York State includes adult basic education, job training, and other forms of involvement by educators and other segments of society in efforts to enable individuals, communities, and organizations to function effectively in a…
Interprofessional education, continuing interprofessional education, interprofessional collaboration, and interprofessional care are moving to the forefront of approaches with the potential to reorganize the delivery of health professions education and health care practice. This article discusses 7 key trends in the scholarship and practice of…
Cole, Ariel Forrester
The act of overt plagiarism by graduates of accredited residency programs represents a failure in personal integrity. It also indicates a lack of professionalism, one of the six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies for graduate medical education. A recent experience at one geriatric fellowship indicates that the problem of plagiarism may be more prevalent than previously recognized. A situation was discovered at the geriatric medicine fellowship at Florida Hospital Family Medicine Residency Program in Orlando, Fla, in which three of the personal statements included in a total of 26 applications to the fellowship in the past 2 years contained portions plagiarized from a single Web site. The aim in documenting this plagiarism is to raise awareness among medical educators about the availability of online sources of content and ease of electronic plagiarism. Some students and residents may not recognize copying other resources verbatim as plagiarism. Residency programs should evaluate their own need for education about plagiarism and include this in the training of the competency of professionalism.
Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Addleton, Robert L.; Vitale, Frank M.; Christiansen, Bruce A.; Mejicano, George C.
This article describes how the CS2day (Cease Smoking Today) initiative positioned continuing education (CE) in the intersection between medicine and public health. The authors suggest that most CE activities address the medical challenges that clinicians confront, often to the neglect of the public health issues that are key risk factors for the…
Young, L J; Keenan, K M; Bakdash, M B; Grayden, S K
This study addresses questions associated with performance on a continuing education course in periodontics and the participants' satisfaction with that course. The authors examine relationships between pre- and post-course test scores and various characteristics of the 120 dental hygienists who enrolled in one or more continuing education courses on periodontics. Four characteristics were found to be related to pre-course test scores. Those who performed significantly better on the written pre-course test generally were (1) younger, (2) less experienced, (3) educators and (4) four-year graduates rather than two-year graduates. Those who went on to take additional continuing education courses in periodontics had higher mean scores on the post-course I test than those who did not. Satisfaction with the course was generally high. Additional research is needed on factors which may influence achievement in a continuing education program and encourage participation in additional learning experiences.
[Post-Doc (post-graduate training for medical doctors in Europe). The use of the Internet in the continuing education of general practice physicians: a European project of multimedia continuing medical education. The University of Aachen, Maastricht, Catholic University Leuven and the Central University Limburg (Diepenbeek) and EUREGIONET].
Montrieux, C; Collette, G; van Lochem, J J; Baldewyns, L; Orban, M
The continuing formation of the General Practitioners (GP) must stay in stride with the rapid evolution of society, technology, science and needs of the population. The Web allows on-line a rapid access to a pertinent and practical information whenever needed. PostDoc is a joint venture of the Universities of Aachen, Maastricht, Leuven and Diepenbeek. The Department of general medicine is associated with the Service of Technology of Education in this project. The interactivity of an Internet Website introduces a cooperative dimension in the work of the GP's centred on formation and discussion of problems encountered. This tool allows each GP to contribute to clinical cases and information.
Lewis, Kadriye O; Cidon, Michal J; Seto, Teresa L; Chen, Haiqin; Mahan, John D
e-Learning has become a popular medium for delivering instruction in medical education. This innovative method of teaching offers unique learning opportunities for medical trainees. The purpose of this article is to define the present state of e-learning in pediatrics and how to best leverage e-learning for educational effectiveness and change in medical education. Through addressing under-examined and neglected areas in implementation strategies for e-learning, its usefulness in medical education can be expanded. This study used a systematic database review of published studies in the field of e-learning in pediatric training between 2003 and 2013. The search was conducted using educational and health databases: Scopus, ERIC, PubMed, and search engines Google and Hakia. A total of 72 reference articles were suitable for analysis. This review is supplemented by the use of "e-Learning Design Screening Questions" to define e-learning design and development in 10 randomly selected articles. Data analysis used template-based coding themes and counting of the categories using descriptive statistics.Our search for pediatric e-learning (using Google and Hakia) resulted in six well-defined resources designed to support the professional development of doctors, residents, and medical students. The majority of studies focused on instructional effectiveness and satisfaction. There were few studies about e-learning development, implementation, and needs assessments used to identify the institutional and learners' needs. Reviewed studies used various study designs, measurement tools, instructional time, and materials for e-learning interventions. e-Learning is a viable solution for medical educators faced with many challenges, including (1) promoting self-directed learning, (2) providing flexible learning opportunities that would offer continuous (24h/day/7 days a week) availability for learners, and (3) engaging learners through collaborative learning communities to gain
Aschenbrener, Carol A; Ast, Cori; Kirch, Darrell G
Nearly half a century ago, Lowell T. Coggeshall recommended, through what has come to be known as the Coggeshall Report, that physician education-medical school (or undergraduate medical education [UME]), residency training (or graduate medical education [GME]), and continuing medical education (CME)-be "planned and provided as a continuum." While the dream of a true continuum remains unfulfilled, recent innovations focused on defining and assessing meaningful outcomes at last offer the anchor for the creation of a seamless, flexible, and ongoing pathway for the preparation of physicians. Recent innovations, including a widely accepted competency framework and entrustable professional activities (EPAs), provide key tools for creating a continuum. The competency framework is being leveraged in UME, GME, and CME and is serving as the foundation for the continuum. Learners and those who assess them are increasingly relying on observable behaviors (e.g., EPAs) to determine progress. The GME community in the United States and Canada has played-and continues to play-a leading role in the creation of these tools and a true medical education continuum. Despite some systemic challenges to implementation (e.g., premedical learner formation, time-in-step requirements), the GME community is already operationalizing these tools as a basis for other innovations that are improving transitions across the continuum (e.g., competency-based progression of residents). The medical education community's greatest responsibility in the years ahead will be to build on these efforts in GME-joining together to learn from one another and develop a continuum that serves the public and the profession.
Mauksch, Larry B; Fogarty, Colleen T
In this issue, the reader will find three articles examining different but converging perspectives on medically unexplained symptoms (MUS). In the first article, Gates, Petterson, Wingrove, Miller, and Klink (2016) examined 110,000 office visits to primary care providers between 2002 and 2010. In the second article, Clarke (2016), an internist and gastroenterologist, presents a model for diagnosing and treating MUS. The person most referenced in the first two articles and author of the landmark study-Kroenke (2016) writes the third article, an invited commentary. Kroenke eloquently reviews the major issues confronting health care clinicians dealing with MUS. We hope that readers of the three articles on MUS in this issue will reflect on their own practice, share these articles and their impressions with colleagues, and consider ways to improve the service and consultation designs in their practice settings. Those who teach behavioral health clinicians and physicians will surely be reinforced or reinvigorated to focus on ways to help patients and colleagues. (PsycINFO Database Record
Roper, F W
The medical Library Association's present program of continuing education began with the presentation of courses at the annual meeting in San Francisco in 1964. Since that time the range and scope of the Association's continuing education activities have grown rapidly. This paper examines the growth of those activities, assesses the present role of the Committee on Continuing Education, and considers some of the implications of the proposed certification code on the work of the Committee on Continuing Education. PMID:1139062
In the setting of clinical medical education, feedback refers to information describing students' or house officers' performance in a given activity that is intended to guide their future performance in that same or in a related activity. It is a key step in the acquisition of clinical skills, yet feedback is often omitted or handled improperly in clinical training. This can result in important untoward consequences, some of which may extend beyond the training period. Once the nature of the feedback process is appreciated, however, especially the distinction between feedback and evaluation and the importance of focusing on the trainees' observable behaviors rather than on the trainees themselves, the educational benefit of feedback can be realized. This article presents guidelines for offering feedback that have been set forth in the literature of business administration, psychology, and education, adapted here for use by teachers and students of clinical medicine.
Rabin, Avis B.
Discusses the growth and development of the Continuing Education in Nursing Department, a part of the School of Nursing at the University of Southern Mississippi. Curriculum development inservice programs, workshops, conferences. (RB)
Pearson, Patricia; Nixon, Robert
Suggests ways business communication teachers can reach continuing education students, including analyzing the community needs, finding a target market, tailoring a course to the market, selling the course, setting up the class, and using effective teaching techniques. (RL)
Martel, Laurence D.; Colley, Robert M.
Raises ethical considerations relevant to the marketing of continuing education and suggests two approaches to their resolution: deontology (all actions guided by universal rules are moral) and teleology (consequences of an action determine whether it is moral). (CH)
LeBlanc, Jacqueline; Frankel, Saundra
Describes the continuing education program for clinical chemistry instrumentation training established at The College of Staten Island, New York. A course consisting of 14 sessions is outlined and discussed. (CS)
Continuing education agencies have cycles of financial activities that are all parts of financial management, including obtaining funding and venture capital, setting fees, and controlling costs for cost recovery. (Author/SSH)
Long, Huey B.
The article discusses the Continuing Education Unit's chameleon-like nature by focusing on its definition and background and possible perceptions from the academic perspective, the user group perspective and the individual learner's perspective. (AG)
Monsen, Rita Black; Anderson, Gwen
Responses from 43 of 68 nursing specialty organizations surveyed showed only 30% intended to offer genetics programs in continuing-education offerings. None planned programming on consumer perspectives of genetic illnesses or gene mapping. (SK)
Background Despite an increasing concern about a future shortage of medical educators, little published research exists on career choices in medical education nor the impact of specific training posts in medical education (e.g. academic registrar/resident positions). Medical educators at all levels, from both medical and non-medical backgrounds, are crucial for the training of medical students, junior doctors and in continuing professional development. We explored the motivations and experiences of junior doctors considering an education career and undertaking a medical education registrar (MER) post. Methods Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with junior doctors and clinicians across Queensland Health. Framework analysis was used to identify themes in the data, based on our defined research questions and the medical education workforce issues prompting the study. We applied socio-cognitive career theory to guide our analysis and to explore the experience of junior doctors in medical education registrar posts as they enter, navigate and fulfil the role. Results We identified six key themes in the data: motivation for career choice and wanting to provide better education; personal goals, expectations and the need for self-direction; the influence of role models; defining one’s identity; support networks and the need for research as a potential barrier to pursuing a career in/with education. We also identified the similarities and differences between the MERs’ experiences to develop a composite of an MER’s journey through career choice, experience in role and outcomes. Conclusions There is growing interest from junior doctors in pursuing education pathways in a clinical environment. They want to enhance clinical teaching in the hospitals and become specialists with an interest in education, and have no particular interest in research or academia. This has implications for the recruitment and training of the next generation of clinical
Hengesbaugh, Jean Houger
A continuing education program to provide technical training or consultation for laboratory technologists practicing in rural and urban Utah has been established by the Centers for Disease Control and the Utah State Department of Health under the name Project PEER (Pursuing Excellence through Education Regionally). The core of the program is a…
Niles, Anne McKee
Nursing Dial Access was designed primarily to meet the needs of the nurse practicing in an isolated setting in order to facilitate continuing education or for review of previously acquired knowledge. The service has also been widely used as a teaching resource by instructors and by in-service educators in staff development programs. (Author/AS)
Popiel, Elda S., Ed.
Thirty-two authors from a wide variety of backgrounds reflect trends concerning basic assumptions, theoretical concepts, goals, and processes in continuing education in nursing. The purpose of the book is to provide nurses and adult educators with a conventient reference to program designs, methods, methods of implementation, and learning aids.…
Baukal, C. E.
The demand for distance continuing engineering education (CEE) is growing. This article describes the following with regard to CEE: the purpose; its importance, trends and unique challenges. Distance education can meet some of these challenges. Benefits and challenges of distance CEE are discussed along with the different types of distance CEE…
Continuing interprofessional education is the means by which experienced health, social care, and other practitioners learn with, from, and about each other, formally and informally, to improve their collective practice and to cultivate closer collaboration. It applies principles of interprofessional education through media commonly employed in…
The provision of guidance in adult and continuing education in Ireland was examined. First, policy in Ireland regarding guidance for adults in education is discussed in the context of the proposals adopted by the European Union (EU) Commission and EU Member States pursuant to the EU Year of Lifelong Learning in 1996. Recent literature on career…
Purpose--The purpose of this paper is to provide higher education institutions with strategies of continuing education and methods to communicate and implement these strategies. Design/methodology/approach--The balanced scorecard approach is used to implement the strategy. It translates the strategy into tangible objectives, measures and targets…
Pelton, Arthur Elwood
Using a mailed questionnaire survey of administrators, this dissertation examined sources of income, proposed expenditures, and financial practices in publicly supported college and university residential continuing education centers. Data were gathered, organized, and interpreted in terms of well established principles of educational finance as…
Fram, Eugene H.; Clarcq, Jack R.
Stating that continuing education administrators and faculty must change their curricula to meet the needs of students and employers, the authors present for curriculum planners what they call a "cybernetic model," which uses a marketing approach. As an illustration they describe a management education case study. (MF)
Gleiman, Ashley; Zacharakis, Jeff
The military relies on continuing professional education as a key component to the success of its organization. With decreasing budgets and increasing importance for a force that operates efficiently and thinks critically, the cognitive tension among training, education, and learning comes center stage.
This article begins by revisiting the current model of values education (moral education) which has recently been set up in Australian schools. This article problematizes the pedagogical model of teaching values in the direct transmission mode from the perspective of the continuity of experience as central to the philosophies of John Dewey and…
Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Röbken, Heinke; Ehrenspeck-Kolasa, Yvonne; von Ossietzky, Carl
This study builds upon a Delphi study carried out by Zawacki-Richter (2009) which posited a validated classification of research areas in the special area of distance education. We now replicate the study for the broader field of adult and continuing education (ACE). The aims of this paper are: firstly, to develop a categorisation of research…
National Association for Public Continuing and Adult Education, Washington, DC.
Designed to serve both the United States and Canada, this directory of the National Association for Public Continuing and Adult Education (NAPCAE) presents NAPCAE officers, staff, and activities (including annual conference highlights), followed by NAPCAE award winners, past conferences and presidents, an adult education legislative summary,…
Voss, John W.
Intended primarily for California educators, this handbook outlines the history, aims, and structure of continuation education (mainly for out of school youth under 18), and discusses procedures and problems in the areas of program establishment and administration, relations with full time school and other agencies, counseling, guidance, general…
Wong, Evia O. W.
Purpose: Hong Kong continuing education has encountered vigorous change in recent years. It is not limited to the mode of teaching and learning. Changing government policies, fund cutting to the higher education system and the entry of overseas university degrees increase the intensity of competition in the environment to an extraordinary extent.…
Smith, E. R.
Any educational process involves four distinct stages: the selection of goals, the selection of learning experiences, the organization of these experiences and the evaluation of achievement. If the results of evaluation are unsatisfactory, then the goals were unrealistic, the learning experiences were inadequate, or the experiences were poorly organized. The characteristics of the good physician and the recognition of these in candidates for medical education are matters of great interest. Does a student learn because he has good teachers or because he has proper motivation for success? Is it possible for one to teach another, and if so, what is the best technique of instruction? How can the student best be evaluated? Medical education is in a state of rapid change, but changes of significance will not occur until the quality of the teachers is improved and the barriers of departmental organization are removed, thus putting the students' instruction in the hands of persons unbiased by concentration on a small field of endeavour. PMID:5907585
Churton, Michael W.
The costs for providing medical school education and services in Vietnam's universities continue to increase. Through a collaborative project between the Government of the Netherlands and Vietnam's Ministry of Health, a five year experimental program to develop in-country capacity and reduce the dependence upon a foreign medical service delivery…
Shapiro, Johanna; Cho, Beverly
Medical Readers' Theater (MRT) is an innovative and simple way of helping medical students to reflect on difficult-to-discuss topics in geriatrics medical education, such as aging stereotypes, disability and loss of independence, sexuality, assisted living, relationships with adult children, and end-of-life issues. The authors describe a required…
The importance of continuing education for nurses has been increasingly emphasized in the nursing literature since the beginning of the profession. The concept of continuing education is often used as a substitute for associated terms such as continuing professional development and lifelong learning, thus highlighting a need for its clarification. The purpose of this article is to explain and describe continuing education, in order to encourage a broader understanding of the concept among nurses. The concept analysis is directed by Rodgers' [Rodgers, B.L., 1989. Concept analysis and the development of nursing knowledge: the evolutionary cycle. Journal of Advanced Nursing 14, 330-335] 'evolutionary approach' which is viewed as an ongoing dynamic process, and one that identifies the shared meaning of concepts. Examining everyday discourse used in the nursing literature identified the critical attributes, antecedents and consequence of continuing education in nursing. As a result, the emerging attributes of the concept are synthesised into a conceptual model. The article concludes with an exploration of the application of the concept of continuing education within nursing and its implications for professional development.
Lopreiato, Joseph O; Sawyer, Taylor
The use of simulation-based medical education (SBME) in pediatrics has grown rapidly over the past 2 decades and is expected to continue to grow. Similar to other instructional formats used in medical education, SBME is an instructional methodology that facilitates learning. Successful use of SBME in pediatrics requires attention to basic educational principles, including the incorporation of clear learning objectives. To facilitate learning during simulation the psychological safety of the participants must be ensured, and when done correctly, SBME is a powerful tool to enhance patient safety in pediatrics. Here we provide an overview of SBME in pediatrics and review key topics in the field. We first review the tools of the trade and examine various types of simulators used in pediatric SBME, including human patient simulators, task trainers, standardized patients, and virtual reality simulation. Then we explore several uses of simulation that have been shown to lead to effective learning, including curriculum integration, feedback and debriefing, deliberate practice, mastery learning, and range of difficulty and clinical variation. Examples of how these practices have been successfully used in pediatrics are provided. Finally, we discuss the future of pediatric SBME. As a community, pediatric simulation educators and researchers have been a leading force in the advancement of simulation in medicine. As the use of SBME in pediatrics expands, we hope this perspective will serve as a guide for those interested in improving the state of pediatric SBME.
Canadian Teachers' Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).
This bibliography on continuing education for teachers covers a period of approximately five years, and is partially annotated. Some of the entries are available through ERIC and are listed with their ED numbers. The bibliography is divided according to the following subtopics: (1) competency-based programs; (2) continuing education in general;…
Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen
Medical education accreditation organizations require medical ethics and humanities education to develop professionalism in medical learners, yet there has never been a comprehensive critical appraisal of medical education in ethics and humanities. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) I Workshop, convened in May 2010, undertook the first critical appraisal of the definitions, goals, and objectives of medical ethics and humanities teaching. The authors describe assembling a national expert panel of educators representing the disciplines of ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This panel was tasked with describing the major pedagogical goals of art, ethics, history, and literature in medical education, how these disciplines should be integrated with one another in medical education, and how they could be best integrated into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The authors present the recommendations resulting from the PRIME I discussion, centered on three main themes. The major goal of medical education in ethics and humanities is to promote humanistic skills and professional conduct in physicians. Patient-centered skills enable learners to become medical professionals, whereas critical thinking skills assist learners to critically appraise the concept and implementation of medical professionalism. Implementation of a comprehensive medical ethics and humanities curriculum in medical school and residency requires clear direction and academic support and should be based on clear goals and objectives that can be reliably assessed. The PRIME expert panel concurred that medical ethics and humanities education is essential for professional development in medicine.
Kusec, Sanja; Jaksić, Zelimir; Vuletić, Gorka; Kovacić, Luka; Pavleković, Gordana
The recent technological developments have found its place in medical education as well. Hypermedia has become very popular through the widespread use of the Internet. In its research project, the Department of Educational Technology of the Andrija Stampar School of Public Health studied and applied the educational methods in continuing training of health professionals using hypermedia and taking into account the specificities of medical and health practices. Potentials of hypermedia in medical education are presented within the topic on quality of health care. The result of this project is an interactive educational disk designed for physicians and other health professionals in primary health care faced with the issue of quality. This paper gives an overview of the experience gained during the work on the project and describes the created educational disk with all its specificities observed in the development of the educational hypermedia materials.
Balcioglu, Huseyin; Bilge, Ugur; Unluoglu, Ilhami
Even though there are significant developments in recent years in medical education, physicians are still needed reform and innovation in order to prepare the information society. The spots in the forefront of medical education in recent years; holistic approach in all processes, including health education, evidence-based medicine and…
Viana, Karynna Pimentel; Brito, Alexandre dos Santos; Rodrigues, Claudia Soares; Luiz, Ronir Raggio
OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence and associated access factors for all continued-use prescription drugs and the ways in which they can be obtained. METHODS Data was obtained from the 2008 Household National Survey. The sample comprised 27,333 individuals above 60 years who reported that they used continued-use prescription drugs. A descriptive analysis and binary and multiple multinomial logistic regressions were performed. RESULTS 86.0% of the older adults had access to all the medication they needed, and among them, 50.7% purchased said medication. Those who obtained medication from the public health system were younger (60-64 years), did not have health insurance plans, and belonged to the lower income groups. It is remarkable that 14.0% of the subjects still had no access to any continued-use medication, and for those with more than four chronic diseases, this amount reached 22.0%. Those with a greater number of chronic diseases ran a higher risk of not having access to all the medication they needed. CONCLUSIONS There are some groups of older adults with an increased risk of not obtaining all the medication they need and of purchasing it. The results of this study are expected to contribute to guide programs and plans for access to medication in Brazil. PMID:25741646
Jones, Robert F.
This report presents information about the academic medical centers belonging to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and profiles American medical education generally. Following a brief introduction, a section on institutions and resources offers information on medical schools' financial support, faculties, and faculty practice…
Sorrel, Amy Lynn
With lifestyle-related diseases on the rise, some medical schools help to arm future doctors with the nutrition knowledge they'll need. Texas medical schools and residency programs are getting ahead of the curve in addressing this public-health-meets-medical-education issue, with medical students often leading the charge.
Tidmarsh, Patrica J; Cummings, Joseph; Hersh, William R; Freidman, Charles P
The curricula of most medical informatics training programs are incomplete. We used Internet2-based videoconferencing to expand the educational opportunities of medical informatics students at Oregon Health & Science University and the University of Pittsburgh. Students and faculty in both programs shared extra-curricular research conferences and journal club meetings. A course in Information Retrieval was made available to students in both programs. The conferences, meetings and class were well accepted by participants. A few problems were experienced with the technology, some of which were resolved, and some non-technical challenges to distributing academic conferences, meetings and coursework were also uncovered. We plan to continue our efforts with expanded course and extra-curricular offerings and a more comprehensive evaluation strategy.
Tidmarsh, Patrica J.; Cummings, Joseph; Hersh, William R.; Freidman, Charles P.
The curricula of most medical informatics training programs are incomplete. We used Internet2-based videoconferencing to expand the educational opportunities of medical informatics students at Oregon Health & Science University and the University of Pittsburgh. Students and faculty in both programs shared extra-curricular research conferences and journal club meetings. A course in Information Retrieval was made available to students in both programs. The conferences, meetings and class were well accepted by participants. A few problems were experienced with the technology, some of which were resolved, and some non-technical challenges to distributing academic conferences, meetings and coursework were also uncovered. We plan to continue our efforts with expanded course and extra-curricular offerings and a more comprehensive evaluation strategy. PMID:12463932
The Chilean Academy of Medicine published a "Report on the Current Status of Medical Education in Chile". This report reviews the history of medical education in this country and its close relationship with the Health Care System, public and private; highlights the main changes that took place during the last 25 years in superior and medical education; provides information on the 26 currently existing Medical Schools; refers to the availability of medical doctors and specialists; discusses the mechanisms that control the quality of institutions involved and their programs; and summarizes the results of the Annual National Medical Examination. The members of the Committee on Superior Education of the Academy provided a critical analysis of medical education in Chile and recommendations on how to improve it.
Langenau, Erik E.; Gimpel, John R.
The current system of continuing medical education, maintenance of certification, and renewal of medical licenses can be quite burdensome and inefficient for all practicing physicians: medical doctors (M.D.s) and doctors of osteopathic medicine (D.O.s). D.O.s have opportunities for residency training and specialty certification which are not…
Gainor, Jamie; Patel, Nilay K; George, Paul F; MacNamara, Marina M C; Dollase, Richard; Taylor, Julie Scott
Peer teaching by medical students is increasingly consid- ered an effective and efficient instructional modality with value for both teachers and learners. In 2012, twelve senior medical students participated in an inaugural, four-week Medical Education Elective at The Alpert Medical School of Brown University. The first week emphasized education theory and skills. During the remaining three weeks, participants served as a core group of instructors in a Clinical Skills Clerkship (CSC), a three-week required course transitioning rising third-year students to clinical clerkships. Senior near-peer instructors (NPIs) gained substantive experience in developing curriculum, facilitating small group sessions, teaching clinical skills, mentoring, providing feedback, and grading an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Based on direct observation by faculty and written anonymous evaluations by learners (n=98), NPIs demonstrated a high degree of teaching competence. This innovative, by-invitation-only, annual elective is the most substantive medical education experience for medical students described in the literature.
Prisciandaro, Joann I
Medical physicists are often involved in the didactic training of graduate students, residents (both physics and physicians), and technologists. As part of continuing medical education, we are also involved in maintenance of certification projects to assist in the education of our peers. As such, it is imperative that we remain current concerning available educational resources. Medical physics journals offer book reviews, allowing us an opportunity to learn about newly published books in the field. A similar means of communication is not currently available for online educational resources. This information is conveyed through informal means. This review presents a summary of online resources available to the medical physics community that may be useful for educational purposes.
Brooke, Michael, Ed.; Waldron, Mark, Ed.
This book contains the following papers about the role and activities of Canada's universities in continuing education: "Introduction" (Brooke, Waldron); "Continuing Education and the Canadian Mosaic" (Selman); "Philosophical Issues in Continuing Education" (Selman); "Improving Support Services for Adult…
The development of graduate education in biostatistics and medical statistics is discussed in the context of training within a medical center setting. The need for medical researchers to employ a wide variety of statistical designs in clinical, genetic, basic science and translational settings justifies the ongoing integration of biostatistical training into medical center educational settings and informs its content. The integration of large data issues are a challenge. PMID:24472088
Benamer, Hani T S; Bakoush, Omran
The history of medical education in Libya spans over a period of 40 years. Medical schools had a good and promising start in the 1970s. The graduates of the first few classes had a good impact on the health services in Libya. However, the medical schools did not embrace the immense changes that medical education experienced over the last two decades. This article aims to give a background on the medical education in Libya and explore the challenges facing it, which may help in gaining the initial momentum that seems to have been lost.
Lerner, Susan; Magrane, Diane; Friedman, Erica
Teamwork has become a major focus in healthcare. In part, this is the result of the Institute of Medicine report entitled To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, which details the high rate of preventable medical errors, many of which are the result of dysfunctional or nonexistent teamwork. It has been proposed that a healthcare system that supports effective teamwork can improve the quality of patient care and reduce workload issues that cause burnout among healthcare professionals. Few clear guidelines exist to help guide the implementation of all these recommendations in healthcare settings. In general, training programs designed to improve team skills are a new concept for medicine, particularly for physicians who are trained largely to be self-sufficient and individually responsible for their actions. Outside of healthcare, research has shown that teams working together in high-risk and high-intensity work environments make fewer mistakes than individuals. This evidence originates from commercial aviation, the military, firefighting, and rapid-response police activities. Commercial aviation, an industry in which mistakes can result in unacceptable loss, has been at the forefront of risk reduction through teamwork training. The importance of teamwork has been recognized by some in the healthcare industry who have begun to develop their own specialty-driven programs. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current literature on teaching about teamwork in undergraduate medical education. We describe the science of teams, analyze the work in team training that has been done in other fields, and assess what work has been done in other fields about the importance of team training (ie, aviation, nonmedical education, and business). Additionally, it is vital to assess what work has already been done in medicine to advance the skills required for effective teamwork. Much of this work has been done in fields in which medical professionals deal with crisis
Rachlin, Susan; Schonberger, Alison; Nocera, Nicole; Acharya, Jay; Shah, Nidhi; Henkel, Jacqueline
Given that maintaining compliance with Maintenance of Certification is necessary for maintaining licensure to practice as a radiologist and provide quality patient care, it is important for radiology residents to practice fulfilling each part of the program during their training not only to prepare for success after graduation but also to adequately learn best practices from the beginning of their professional careers. This article discusses ways to implement continuous certification (called Continuous Residency Certification) as an educational model within the residency training program.
Owen, John A; Schmitt, Madeline H
Informal continuing interprofessional education (CIPE) can be traced back decades in the United States; however, interest in formal CIPE is recent. Interprofessional education (IPE) now is recognized as an important component of new approaches to continuing education (CE) that are needed to increase health professionals' ability to improve outcomes of care. Although there are examples of CIPE programs that are being successfully implemented, a clearly articulated, step-by-step planning process to help guide educators in providing effective CIPE programs is lacking. This lack of guidance poses a significant barrier to increasing the number of CIPE programs in the United States. In this article, we describe a process for developing, implementing, and evaluating CIPE programs using the familiar systematic CE planning process. Limitations of traditional CE also are addressed, and the relationship between CIPE and other new approaches to CE is clarified. Four examples of CIPE programs are provided to illustrate how the planning process can be adapted to include IPE, while implementing recommended changes in traditional CE offerings. The article is concluded with a discussion of some of the challenges that will face CE educators in moving toward a new vision of CE integrated with IPE.
Doherty-Restrepo, Jennifer L.; Hughes, Brian J.; Del Rossi, Gianluca; Pitney, William A.
Objective: Although continuing education is required for athletic trainers (AT) to maintain their Board of Certification credential, little is known regarding its efficacy for advancing knowledge and improving patient care. Continuing professional education (CPE) is designed to provide professionals with important practical learning opportunities.…
Lamoureux, Marvin E.
The objective of the study conducted at the Centre for Continuing Education (CCE) at the University of British Columbia was to determine that threshold pricing not only existed for continuing education courses, but also was applicable to an administrative decision-making structure. The first part of the three-part investigation analyzed consumer…
Kho, Anna; Henderson, Laura E; Dressler, Daniel D; Kripalani, Sunil
BACKGROUND Over the past decade, handheld computers (or personal digital assistants [PDAs]) have become a popular tool among medical trainees and physicians. Few comprehensive reviews of PDA use in medicine have been published. OBJECTIVE We systematically reviewed the literature to (1) describe medical trainees' use of PDAs for education or patient care, (2) catalog popular software applications, and (3) evaluate the impact of PDA use on patient care. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE (1993 to 2004), medical education-related conference proceedings, and hand search of article bibliographies. REVIEW METHODS We identified articles and abstracts that described the use of PDAs in medical education by trainees or educators. Reports presenting a qualitative or quantitative evaluation were included. RESULTS Sixty-seven studies met inclusion criteria. Approximately 60% to 70% of medical students and residents use PDAs for educational purposes or patient care. Satisfaction was generally high and correlated with the level of handheld computer experience. Most of the studies included described PDA use for patient tracking and documentation. By contrast, trainees rated medical textbooks, medication references, and medical calculators as the most useful applications. Only 1 randomized trial with educational outcomes was found, demonstrating improved learning and application of evidence-based medicine with use of PDA-based decision support software. No articles reported the impact of PDA use on patient outcomes. CONCLUSION Most medical trainees find handhelds useful in their medical education and patient care. Further studies are needed to evaluate how PDAs impact learning and clinical outcomes. PMID:16704405
This paper reviews the rise of medical nationalism and protectionism in France from the end of the nineteenth century through to the 1940s, with an emphasis on the Vichy period. It presents this nationalism as part of a continuity, showing its beginnings well before the coming of the Vichy government, its extremes under this government, and its continuation after the fall of the Vichy government, although retreating from its more extreme positions.
Recupero, Patricia Ryan; Heru, Alison M; Price, Marilyn; Alves, Jody
The prevalence and frequency of sexual harassment in medical education is well documented. On the graduation questionnaire administered by the Association of American Medical Colleges in 2003, 15% of medical students reported experiences of mistreatment during medical school. On items that specifically address sexual mistreatment, over 2% of students reported experiencing gender-based exclusion from training opportunities, and unwanted sexual advances and offensive sexist comments from school personnel. Sexual harassment of medical trainees by faculty supervisors is obviously unethical and may also be illegal under education discrimination laws. In two cases in 1998 and 1999, the U.S. Supreme Court clarified that schools may be held liable under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 for the sexual harassment of their students. In 2001, the Office of Civil Rights of the Department of Education released revised policy guidelines on sexual harassment that reflect the Supreme Court rulings. Medical school administrators should undertake formal assessments of the educational environment in their training programs as a first step toward addressing the problem of sexual harassment. The authors recommend that medical schools implement measures to both prevent and remedy sexual harassment in their training programs. These constructive approaches include applying faculty and student education, establishing a system for notification and response, and creating an institutional structure to provide continuous evaluation of the educational environment.
Sabanović, Zekerijah; Mujcinagić, Alija
Medical informatics is a specific and interdisciplinary science which involves many participants of the health system like: patients, physicians, nurses, managers, administrators, computer experts, students, with the different level of education and understanding, different approaches and expectations. Education of medical informatics requests organization solutions of high quality and necessary equipment for its realization. Educational programs are also limited by student's basic knowledge of informatics from secondary schools. For assessment of this knowledge we have conducted special designed questionnaire at the first year of undergraduate study which results confirm our thesis that great number of students entered the faculty with the lack of basic knowledge from informatics area. In this paper was presented level of organization and education of medical informatics at the Medical faculty and University Clinical Center of Tuzla, with its characteristics through which this system has been passed since 1990.
Deakin Australia (DA) CBE (Continuing Business Education) programs are designed for use in conjunction with print and audio materials which are distributed as distance learning packages to business studies graduates working or planning to work as accountants, who are enrolled in the professional licensing program run by the Australian Society of…
Burns, Nancy; Pickard, Myrna R.
Describes a rural outreach program to provide continuing education in nursing practice to all levels of nursing personnel in rural hospitals. Covers difficulties in planning and implementing the programs and the steps taken to explain the program philosophy and gain the trust of hospital adminstration and staff. (MF)
Craven, Ruth F.; DuHamel, Martha B.
Describes tenets of continuing professional education marketing: identify target audience, define mission, assess community needs, identify competition, establish credibility, develop marketing plans, provide options, evaluate, and develop high-quality programs. Offers advice for pricing, cancellations, new courses, promotion expenses, direct…
Kasworm, Carol; Hampton, Leonard A.
The University of Georgia Center for Continuing Education and the School of Pharmacy developed and presented, as a pilot project, a series of four telelectures at 10 locations throughout the State. Participating pharmacists were receptive to the approach and reported favorable reactions in the evaluation. (LH)
Continuing professional education in the United Kingdom is discussed and the influences examined. Within a framework of national, nursing, and local perspectives, the issues and implications for the various individual agencies and personnel are identified. An overview is provided to include agendas for action.
Stone, Elizabeth W.
In the opinion of the librarians sampled, continuing education is a nationwide problem for which a cooperative nationwide plan based on the best thinking and planning of a national assembly of all relevant groups is the best solution. (Author/NH)
Moroney, Peter; Boeck, Deena
This article, based on a presentation at the University Professional and Continuing Education Association Annual Conference, March 29, 2012, provides concepts, terminology, and financial models for establishing and maintaining successful institutional partnerships. The authors offer it as a contribution to developing a wider understanding of the…
Haughey, Margaret L.; Murphy, Peter J.
Continuing professional education activities offered off-campus by satellite by the University of Victoria, British Columbia, are discussed. One- to three-day workshops and off-campus degree programs are offered throughout the province by the university. Both increased demand and economic factors have encouraged the use of distance education…
State Univ. of New York, Albany. Office for Continuing Education.
This report provides statistical information on the development of continuing education since 1965. Although there is an increase in the number of part time students at most campuses each year, in many instances evening credit courses are not offered in a pattern which will allow enrollees to make consistent progress toward an undergraduate…
Social Research, Inc., Chicago, IL.
This study collected and interpreted facts on the need for, use of, and appraisal of, professional continuing education (PCE) by research and development scientists and engineers in the Federal government and industry. There were three broad approaches: interaction modes (including professional meetings, seminars, lectures, and sabbatical leaves);…
Masatoshi, Nagashima, Ed.; And Others
This book contains the following articles about the state of continuing education and occupational training in Japan: "Funabashi City University of Sports Health" (Abe Nobuhiro); "Public Halls in Omiya City" (Kawamoto Koji); "Setagaya Senior Citizens College (Setagaya Rojin Daigaku)" (Sawamura Hiroshi); "Lifelong…
Simerly, Robert G.; And Others
This comprehensive guide to effectively marketing continuing education programs and courses consists of the following chapters: (1) "The Strategic Role of Marketing for Organizational Success" (Robert G. Simerly); (2) "Integrating Marketing into Strategic Planning" (Simerly); (3) "Learning More about Your Market: Sources and Uses of Data" (Dennis…
Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.
Based on a study of the component parts of the mental health continuing education system, this publication presents guidelines for the following fiscal functions: determining funding needs, obtaining funds, budgeting funds, expending funds, and cost accounting. In addition to considering these components, the guidelines explore principal issues in…
Gunning, Angela; Clift, Roland
A British project: (1) identified national needs for continuing education and training (CET) in new materials; (2) assessed the priorities among the needs and developed course outlines; and (3) established a CET needs review system for training in new materials. The new materials fall into four categories: (1) polymers; (2) composites; (3)…
Howland, Jared L.; Howell, Scott; Wright, Thomas C.; Dickson, Cody
The recent introduction of Google Scholar has renewed hope that someday a powerful research tool will bring continuing education literature more quickly, freely, and completely to one's computer. The authors suggest that using Google Scholar with other traditional search methods will narrow the research gap between what is discoverable and…
Hayes, Karen; Huckstadt, Alicia; Gibson, Robert
A survey of 187 nurse practitioners found that more than 80% had Internet access, 71% had adequate computer skills, and 50% were interested in online continuing education. The data were used to design web-based interactive self-study modules on clinical practice issues. (SK)
Matter, Betty R.
Reports on a program of family therapy instruction intended as a continuing professional education service to mental health personnel. Rapid expansion of the program since its inception in late 1971 is attributed to increasing demand from human service agencies in and around greater Philadelphia area. Some characteristics of participants are…
Condliffe, Peter G.; Furnia, Arthur H.
This book is the second of a series of conference proceedings on problems of medical education held by the Fogarty International Center. The participants discussed the value of research in medical education, research as a teaching tool, research and the teaching of community medicine, concepts of medical education, the role of the school of…
Canellos, Harriete; Medio, Franklin J.; Mozlin, Rochelle; Perry, Claudia A.
Describes a program at the State University of New York College of Optometry targeted at training younger clinical faculty who wish to become involved in continuing professional education. Covers the program's purpose and the institution's experiences with implementation. (DB)
Marreez, Yehia M. A-H.; Willems, Luuk N. A.; Wells, Michael R.
From the early 19th century until the most recent two decades, open-space and satellite museums featuring anatomy and pathology collections (collectively referred to as "medical museums") had leading roles in medical education. However, many factors have caused these roles to diminish dramatically in recent years. Chief among these are…
World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).
This paper presents an agenda for worldwide change in medical education to meet current and future requirements of society. The first of four sections offers the central arguments for change in medical education noting global patterns in the search for better use of resources for health care, describing a profound shift underway in the present…
In this article, the author described eight, distinct practices through which schools were medicalized during the last decade of the 19th century and the first three decades of the 20th century. The medicalization of education was summarized in expanding definitions of educational hygiene, encompassing mental, neoscholastic, physical, and school…
Shahabudin, S H
With globalization education has become a tradable service governed by the rules and regulations of GATS and worth trillions of dollars. International standards are rapidly being developed to facilitate cross border supply of services. In medical education, the WFME has produced International Guidelines on Quality in Medical Education which has a regional equivalent in the WHO Western Pacific Region, and the IIME has defined the minimum essential requirements of standards in medical education in seven core competences. Malaysia, having an explicit policy of making education a sector for revenue generation, has put in place regulatory frameworks and incentives to make the country a centre of educational excellence. Within the ambit of this national aspiration, medical education has grown phenomenally in the last decade. Standards and procedures for accreditation of medical schools in line with the world standards have been developed and implemented and policies are enforced to facilitate compliance to the standards. The ultimate goal is for medical schools to be self-accredited. In striving towards self-accreditation medical schools should be innovative in making changes in the three requirements of medical education. These are the intellectual and social imperatives and strategies for effective implementation.
Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry
A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.
Formal education for medical library specialization was initiated only thirty-two years ago despite the fact that medical libraries received special treatment for many years before that time. The philosophy of specialized education was developed as early as 1925, and this theory was finally put into practice beginning with the medical reference and bibliography course given at Columbia in 1939. In the late 1940s the requisites for medical librarians were formalized into a certification code by the Medical Library Association, and since that time specialized education for medical librarians has grown stronger using this code as a guideline. This education consists basically of two types-formal library school courses and internship programs which offer a working-while-learning situation. Now that the established programs have a few years of history, there is a need for evaluation and restatement of goals and methods.
Lehrmann, Jon A.; Hoop, Jinger; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss
Objective: Despite the acknowledged importance of ethics education in medical school, little empirical work has been done to assess the needs and preferences of medical students regarding ethics curricula. Methods: Eighty-three medical students at the University of New Mexico participated in a self-administered written survey including 41 scaled…
Miles, Steven H.; And Others
A discussion of medical ethics in the medical curriculum reviews its recent history, examines areas of consensus, and describes teaching objectives and methods, course content, and program evaluation at preclinical and clinical levels. Prerequisites for successful institutionalization of medical ethics education are defined, and its future is…
Galanter, Marc, Ed.
This book presents the state of the art of American medical education in alcohol and drug abuse, and is the culmination of a four-year collaborative effort among the medical school faculty of the Career Teacher Program in Alcohol and Drug Abuse. The first part contains reports, curricula, and survey data prepared for the medical education…
American Medical Association, Chicago, IL. Council on Medical Education.
Prepared by the Council on Medical Education of the American Medical Association with the cooperation of collaborating organizations, this document is a collection of guidelines for accredited programs for medical assistants, nuclear medicine technology, orthopedic assistants, radiation therapy technology, and radiologic technologists. The…
Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Toronto (Ontario). Education Div.
Summarizing Canada's Regional Continuing Education Programs for the 1972-74 fiscal years, this document indicates support for solid education programs for the development of Indians in their communities. Brief summations are presented for the following regions: Maritime Region (1972-73 was a peak year for on-the-job training placements with…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Special Continuing Education.
This guide for the director of continuing education focuses upon stimulating participation in civic and public affairs education. Suggestions are given as to: (1) how to write publicity releases concerning public affairs programs; (2) which audio-visual aids should be used in a given situation; (3) how field trips can be used most effectively; (4)…
Blanchard, Rebecca D; Visintainer, Paul F; La Rochelle, Jeffrey
The lack of effective and consistent research mentorship and research mentor training in both undergraduate medical education (UME) and graduate medical education (GME) is a critical constraint on the development of innovative and high quality medical education research. Clinical research mentors are often not familiar with the nuances and context of conducting education research. Clinician-educators, meanwhile, often lack the skills in developing and conducting rigorous research. Mentors who are not prepared to articulate potential scholarship pathways for their mentees risk limiting the mentee's progress in early stages of their career. In fact, the relative paucity of experienced medical education research mentors arguably contributes to the perpetuation of a cycle leading to fewer well-trained researchers in medical education, a lack of high quality medical education research, and relative stagnation in medical education innovation. There is a path forward, however. Integration of doctoral-level educators, structured inter-departmental efforts, and external mentorship provide opportunities for faculty to gain traction in their medical education research efforts. An investment in medical education research mentors will ensure rigorous research for high quality innovation in medical education and patient care.
Tinney, Veronica A; Paulson, Jerome A; Bathgate, Susanne L; Larsen, John W
Obstetricians-gynecologists can protect the reproductive health of women, men, and their offspring from environmental hazards through preconception and prenatal counseling and encouraging patients to take actions to reduce environmental exposures. Although obstetricians-gynecologists are well positioned to prevent hazardous exposures, education on environmental health in medical education is limited. The Mid-Atlantic Center for Children's Health and the Environment and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of George Washington University convened a meeting to begin integration of environmental health topics into medical education for obstetricians-gynecologists. Several avenues were identified to incorporate environmental health topics into medical education including continuing education requirements, inclusion of environmental health questions on board certification examinations and the creation of a curriculum on environmental health specific to obstetrics-gynecology.
Round, W Howell
Continuing professional development (CPD) and continuing professional education (CPE) are seen as being necessary for medical physicists to ensure that they are up-to-date with current clinical practice. CPD is more than just continuing professional education, but can include research publication, working group contribution, thesis examination and many other activities. A systematic way of assessing and recording such activities that a medical physicist undertakes is used in a number of countries. This can be used for certification and licensing renewal purposes. Such systems are used in 27 countries, but they should be implemented in all countries where clinical medical physicists are employed. A survey of the CPD systems that are currently operated around the world is presented. In general they are quite similar although there are a few countries that have CPD systems that differ significantly from the others in many respects. Generally they ensure that medical physicists are kept up-to-date, although there are some that clearly will fail to achieve that. An analysis of what is required to construct a useful medical physics CPD system is made. Finally, the need for medical physicist professional organizations to cooperate and share in the production and distribution of CPD and CPE materials is emphasized.
Jacobson, Elliott; Heard, Darryl; Isaza, Ramiro
Reptile medicine has emerged as a specialty area within the broader field of zoological medicine. It encompasses the medical needs of approximately 7,500 vertebrate species. This vertebrate class is highly diversified, having biological and medical peculiarities that differ both between and within major groups. Historically, veterinarians who have become recognized specialists with reptiles have had limited formal training in their medical management. The pet reptile trade is a multi-million-dollar business, and the popularity of reptiles as pets has resulted in a need for more veterinarians with training in their medical management. While few private practices have high volumes of reptile cases, many small-animal practices will have the opportunity to see a significant number of reptiles on an annual basis. Most practitioners with reptile medical expertise have merged their experiences as reptile pet owners with the principles of veterinary medicine taught in veterinary college. Several North American veterinary colleges have reptile medicine courses, and most have didactic and clinical courses in exotic and zoo animal medicine that include lectures and practical experience. Most accredited zoological medicine residency training programs include training in reptile medicine. The case load and interest in reptile medicine will probably never be sufficient to lead the average veterinary college to develop much more than what is currently offered. Consequently, those few colleges having more extensive course offerings, both didactic and clinical, will serve as educational centers for this discipline. Future Web-based teaching programs in reptile medicine will allow students nationally and internationally to have access to instructional material that can be continually updated.
Gensini, Gian Franco; Conti, Andrea Alberto; Conti, Antonio
This paper presents an analysis of some innovative educational perspectives regarding the figure of the physician, on the basis of the awareness that the cultural formation of the medical class represents a major strategy in achieving a high quality medical standard and an effective evidence-based health care. Quality education, both during the graduate curriculum and in the post-graduate phase (today including Decision Making, Knowledge Management, Health Economics, General Practice Medicine, Evidence Based Medicine and Evidence Based History of Medicine, as in the Florence Medical School), is essential for the training of updated health professionals, as well as being geared to life-long learning. The classical medical education paradigm involved knowing, knowing how to do and knowing how to be; today this model should be enriched by other key competences for practicing medicine, among them knowing how to make other people do things and knowing how to continue with self-education. With specific reference to making others carry out tasks, the current need for team work renders it necessary for physicians to reconstruct their competences continuously in the light of the essential integration with the competence of non-medical colleagues with whom they work in an inter-disciplinary pattern. With regard to knowing how to continue with self-education, this is possibly the most relevant current and future challenge, not only for health systems but also for physicians.
In the past several years, mobile learning made rapid inroads into the provision of medical education. There are significant advantages associated with mobile learning. These include high access, low cost, more situated and contextual learning, convenience for the learner, continuous communication and interaction between learner and tutor and between learner and other learners, and the ability to self-assess themselves while learning. Like any other form of medical pedagogy, mobile learning has its downsides. Disadvantages of mobile learning include: inadequate technology, a risk of distraction from learning by using a device that can be used for multiple purposes, and the potential for breakdown in barriers between personal usage of the mobile device and professional or educational use. Despite these caveats, there is no question but that mobile learning offers much potential. In the future, it is likely that the strategy of mobile first, whereby providers of e-learning think of the user experience on a mobile first, will result in learners who increasingly expect that all e-learning provision will work seamlessly on a mobile device.
Booth, Barbara; Lawrance, Richard
A survey examined the continuing education needs of 706 rural general practitioners (GPs) across Australia. An inability to generalize findings across location indicates that regional identification by local service providers would be more effective. However, a set of topics broader than the traditional continuing medical education topics for…
McCurdy, Leyla Erk; Roberts, James; Rogers, Bonnie; Love, Rebecca; Etzel, Ruth; Paulson, Jerome; Witherspoon, Nsedu Obot; Dearry, Allen
Pediatric medical and nursing education currently lacks the environmental health content necessary to appropriately prepare pediatric health care professionals to prevent, recognize, manage, and treat environmental-exposure–related disease. Leading health institutions have recognized the need for improvements in health professionals’ environmental health education. Parents are seeking answers about the impact of environmental toxicants on their children. Given the biologic, psychological, and social differences between children and adults, there is a need for environmental health education specific to children. The National Environmental Education and Training Foundation, in partnership with the Children’s Environmental Health Network, created two working groups, one with expertise in medical education and one with expertise in nursing education. The working groups reviewed the transition from undergraduate student to professional to assess where in those processes pediatric environmental health could be emphasized. The medical education working group recommended increasing education about children’s environmental health in the medical school curricula, in residency training, and in continuing medical education. The group also recommended the expansion of fellowship training in children’s environmental health. Similarly, the nursing working group recommended increasing children’s environmental health content at the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing nursing education levels. Working groups also identified the key medical and nursing organizations that would be important in leveraging these changes. A concerted effort to prioritize pediatric environmental health by governmental organizations and foundations is essential in providing the resources and expertise to set policy and provide the tools for teaching pediatric environmental health to health care providers. PMID:15579423
Bynum, Ann B; Irwin, Cathy A; Cohen, Betty
This study assessed differences in program satisfaction among health professionals participating in a distance continuing education program by gender, ethnicity, discipline, and community size. A one-group posttest design was used with a sample of 45,996 participants in the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Rural Hospital, Distance Continuing Medical Education Program during 1995-2007. This program provided 2,219 continuing education programs for physicians (n = 7,047), nurses (n = 21,264), allied health (n = 3,230) and dental (n = 305) professionals, pharmacists (n = 4,088), administrators (n = 1,211), and marketing/finance/human resources professionals (n = 343). These programs were provided in Arkansas hospitals, clinics, and area health education centers. Interactive video technology and the Internet were used to deliver these programs. The program satisfaction instrument demonstrated adequate internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.91) and construct validity. Participants had high levels of satisfaction regarding knowledge and skills, use of information to enhance patient care, program quality, and convenience of the technology (mean total satisfaction score = 4.44, range: 1-5). Results from the t-test for independent samples and one-way analysis of variance indicated that men (p = 0.01), African-Americans and Hispanics (p < 0.01), dental professionals (p < 0.01), and participants in larger urban communities (population of 75,001-185,000) (p < 0.01) had significantly greater satisfaction. Nurses and physicians had significantly greater satisfaction regarding the use of information in practice to enhance patient care (p < 0.01). Results suggest that socioeconomic and demographic factors can affect satisfaction with distance continuing education programs.
Endler, Gregor; Schwab, Peter K; Wahl, Andreas M; Tenschert, Johannes; Lenz, Richard
In the medical domain, data quality is very important. Since requirements and data change frequently, continuous and sustainable monitoring and improvement of data quality is necessary. Working together with managers of medical centers, we developed an architecture for a data quality monitoring system. The architecture enables domain experts to adapt the system during runtime to match their specifications using a built-in rule system. It also allows arbitrarily complex analyses to be integrated into the monitoring cycle. We evaluate our architecture by matching its components to the well-known data quality methodology TDQM.
Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian
The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.
We are pleased to be able to offer continuing education credits to Registered Dietitians. Registered Dietitians This event is pending for approval by the Commission on Dietetic Registration for 2 CPEUs. Procedure Immediately after the event, a link to a short questionnaire will be sent to you by email. Please complete the questionnaire online and print out your certificate of completion. |
McCarthy, David; O'Gorman, Ciaran; Gormley, Gerry J
The landscape of medical education is changing as students embrace the accessibility and interactivity of e-learning. Virtual patients are e-learning resources that may be used to advance microbiology education. Although the development of virtual patients has been widely considered, here we aim to provide a coherent approach for clinical educators.
Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.
As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible confounders.…
In the last few years, medical education policy makers have expressed concern about changes in the ethical attitude and behavior of medical trainees during the course of their education. They claim that newly graduated physicians (MDs) are entering residency years with inappropriate habits and attitudes earned during their education. This allegation has been supported by numerous research on the changes in the attitude and morality of medical trainees. The aim of this paper was to investigate ethical erosion among medical trainees as a serious universal problem, and to urge the authorities to take urgent preventive and corrective action. A comparison with the course of moral development in ordinary people from Kohlberg’s and Gilligan's points of view reveals that the growth of ethical attitudes and behaviors in medical students is stunted or even degraded in many medical schools. In the end, the article examines the feasibility of teaching ethics in medical schools and the best approach for this purpose. It concludes that there is considerable controversy among ethicists on whether teaching ethical virtues is plausible at all. Virtue-based ethics, principle-based ethics and ethics of care are approaches that have been considered as most applicable in this regard. PMID:28050246
In the last few years, medical education policy makers have expressed concern about changes in the ethical attitude and behavior of medical trainees during the course of their education. They claim that newly graduated physicians (MDs) are entering residency years with inappropriate habits and attitudes earned during their education. This allegation has been supported by numerous research on the changes in the attitude and morality of medical trainees. The aim of this paper was to investigate ethical erosion among medical trainees as a serious universal problem, and to urge the authorities to take urgent preventive and corrective action. A comparison with the course of moral development in ordinary people from Kohlberg's and Gilligan's points of view reveals that the growth of ethical attitudes and behaviors in medical students is stunted or even degraded in many medical schools. In the end, the article examines the feasibility of teaching ethics in medical schools and the best approach for this purpose. It concludes that there is considerable controversy among ethicists on whether teaching ethical virtues is plausible at all. Virtue-based ethics, principle-based ethics and ethics of care are approaches that have been considered as most applicable in this regard.
David, S P; Greer, D S
Medical education is often a frustrating endeavor, particularly when it attempts to change practice behavior. Traditional lecture-based educational methods are limited in their ability to sustain concentration and interest and to promote learner adherence to best-practice guidelines. Marketing techniques have been very effective in changing consumer behavior and physician behavior. However, the techniques of social marketing-goal identification, audience segmentation, and market research-have not been harnessed and applied to medical education. Social marketing can be applied to medical education in the effort to go beyond inoculation of learners with information and actually change behaviors. The tremendous potential of social marketing for medical education should be pilot-tested and systematically evaluated.
The unprecedented progress in biomedical sciences and technology during the last few decades has resulted in great transformations in the concepts of health and disease, health systems and healthcare organization and practices. Those changes have been accompanied by the emergence of a broad range of ethical dilemmas that confront the health professionals more frequently in an increasing range of problems and situations. Health care that has been practiced for centuries on the basis of a direct doctor-patient relationship has been increasingly transformed to a more complex process integrating the health-team, the patient (healthcare seeker) and the community. Systematic review of the specialized literature revealed that Healthcare Ethics Education became a basic requirement for any training program for health professionals, and should cover the different stages of undergraduate, postgraduate and continuing education. Both theoretical foundations and practical skills are required for the appropriate ethical reasoning, ethical attitude and decision-making. There is growing evidence that physicians' professional and moral development is not determined by the formal curriculum of ethics, rather more, it is determined by the moral environment of the professional practice, the "hidden curriculum" which deserves serious consideration by medical educators.
Locke, Kenneth A.; Bates, Carol K.; Karani, Reena; Chheda, Shobhina G.
Background A rapidly evolving body of literature in medical education can impact the practice of clinical educators in graduate medical education. Objective To aggregate studies published in the medical education literature in 2011 to provide teachers in general internal medicine with an overview of the current, relevant medical education literature. Review We systematically searched major medical education journals and the general clinical literature for medical education studies with sound design and relevance to the educational practice of graduate medical education teachers. We chose 12 studies, grouped into themes, using a consensus method, and critiqued these studies. Results Four themes emerged. They encompass (1) learner assessment, (2) duty hour limits and teaching in the inpatient setting, (3) innovations in teaching, and (4) learner distress. With each article we also present recommendations for how readers may use them as resources to update their clinical teaching. While we sought to identify the studies with the highest quality and greatest relevance to educators, limitation of the studies selected include their single-site and small sample nature, and the frequent lack of objective measures of outcomes. These limitations are shared with the larger body of medical education literature. Conclusions The themes and the recommendations for how to incorporate this information into clinical teaching have the potential to inform the educational practice of general internist educators as well as that of teachers in other specialties. PMID:24404262
Malpas, Phillipa J; Corbett, Andrea
Medical and nursing student numbers are expected to increase significantly in NZ over the next few years. The ethical, and professional and clinical skills' training of trainee health practitioners is a central and crucial component in medical and nursing education and is underpinned by a strong commitment to improve patient health and well being. In this discussion we reflect on the virtue of empathy and the importance of role modelling in the education of nurses and doctors. We endorse the claim that as medical educators, how and what we teach matters.
Edwards, Roger A; Colchamiro, Rachel; Tolan, Ellen; Browne, Susan; Foley, Mary; Jenkins, Lucia; Mainello, Kristen; Vallu, Rohith; Hanley, Lauren E; Boisvert, Mary Ellen; Forgit, Julie; Ghiringhelli, Kara; Nordstrom, Christina
Lack of health professional support is an important variable affecting mothers' achievement of breastfeeding goals. Online continuing education is a recognized pathway for disseminating content for improving clinicians' knowledge and supporting efforts to change practices. At the time we developed our project, free, accredited continuing education for physicians related to breastfeeding management that could be easily accessed using portable devices (via tablets/smartphones) was not available. Such resources were in demand, especially for facilities pursuing designation through the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. We assembled a government, academic, health care provider, and professional society partnership to create such a tutorial that would address the diverse content needed for supporting breastfeeding mothers postdischarge in the United States. Our 1.5-hour-long continuing medical and nursing education was completed by 1606 clinicians (1172 nurses [73%] and 434 physicians [27%]) within 1 year. More than 90% of nurses and over 98% of physicians said the tutorial achieved its 7 learning objectives related to breastfeeding physiology, broader factors in infant feeding decisions and practices, the American Academy of Pediatrics' policy statement, and breastfeeding management/troubleshooting. Feedback received from the tutorial led to the creation of a second tutorial consisting of another 1.5 hours of continuing medical and nursing education related to breast examination and assessment prior to delivery, provision of anticipatory guidance to pregnant women interested in breastfeeding, maternity care practices that influence breastfeeding outcomes, breastfeeding preterm infants, breastfeeding's role in helping address disparities, and dispelling common myths. The tutorials contribute to achievement of 8 Healthy People 2020 Maternal, Infant and Child Health objectives.
Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J
Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance.
Grant, Rachel E; Van Hoof, Thomas J; Sajdlowska, Joanna; Miller, Nicole E; Kitto, Simon
Researchers and leaders working in quality improvement and continuing education have a variety of interventions available to change clinician behavior and to improve patient outcomes. Evidence from systematic reviews and meta-analyses of such interventions is often mixed, with methodological weaknesses contributing to challenges in summarizing and interpreting evidence. Confusion and inconsistency surrounding many of the terms contributes to this challenge. This international study was commissioned by the Society for Academic Continuing Medical Education to use expert opinion to improve the consistency of important educational terminology by describing the essential components of a set of educational interventions, such as educational meetings. This article will describe how this project uses the literature and an expert consensus process to improve precision around the conceptualization and implementation of educational interventions. This article will offer an in-depth description of a hybrid methodology that blends the Chaffee framework for concept explication with a modified Delphi technique that constitutes a novel expert consensus process. This article concludes with recommendations for other scholars replicating this process.
Cianciolo, Anna T; Eva, Kevin W; Colliver, Jerry A
The role and status of theory is by no means a new topic in medical education. Yet summarizing where we have been and where we are going with respect to theory development and application is difficult because our community has not yet fully elucidated what constitutes medical education theory. In this article, we explore the idea of conceptualizing theory as an effect on scholarly dialogue among medical educators. We describe theory-enabled conversation as argumentation, which frames inquiry, permits the evaluation of evidence, and enables the acquisition of community understanding that has utility beyond investigators' local circumstances. We present ideas for assessing argumentation quality and suggest approaches to increasing the frequency and quality of argumentation in the exchange among diverse medical education scholars.
We need to ensure that we get value for money for our investments in medical education. Commissioning is one method of ensuring that we get value. However, like any other tool, it needs to be used properly.
The author documents a significant broadening of the interest of both state and federal government in influencing graduate medical education. He states that the unwillingness of the academic medical community to address the issues of manpower supply and specialty distribution, the limited effectiveness of minority enhancement programs, and an ambiguous position on foreign medical graduates have invited government intervention. The author maintains that such intervention was inevitable because academic medical centers have focused only on the educational process and the quality of graduates but have not dealt with the need to shape the output of their training programs to meet national health needs. He challenges the academic medical community to seize the initiative in seeking the difficult-to-find solutions to major issues of medical training or be prepared to yield to the decisions of lawmakers and regulators.
Clinical effectiveness and efficiency in medicine for patient benefit should be grounded in the quality of medical education. In turn, the quality of medical education should be informed by contemporary learning theory that offers high explanatory, exploratory and predictive power. Multiple team-based health care interventions and associated policy are now routinely explored and explained through complexity theory. Yet medical education--how medical students learn to become doctors and how doctors learn to become clinical specialists or primary care generalists--continues to refuse contemporary, work-based social learning theories that have deep resonance with models of complexity. This can be explained ideologically, where medicine is grounded in a tradition of heroic individualism and knowledge is treated as private capital. In contrast, social learning theories resonating with complexity theory emphasize adaptation through collaboration, where knowledge is commonly owned. The new era of clinical teamwork demands, however, that we challenge the tradition of autonomy, bringing social learning theories in from the cold, to reveal their affinities with complexity science and demonstrate their powers of illumination. Social learning theories informed by complexity science can act as a democratizing force in medical education, helping practitioners to work more effectively in non-linear, complex, dynamic systems through inter-professionalism, shared tolerance of ambiguity and distributed cognition. Taking complexity science seriously and applying its insights demands a shift in cultural mindset in medical education. Inevitably, patterns of resistance will arise to frustrate such potential innovation.
Dailey, Jason I.
As residents and medical students progress through their medical training, they are presented with multiple instances in which they feel they must manipulate the healthcare system and deceive others in order to efficiently treat their patients. This, however, creates a culture of manipulation resulting in untoward effects on trainees' ethical and…
Both students of health sciences (medical technology, nursing science, physical therapy, and occupational therapy) and medical students learn medical teamwork in the primary stage by joint practice in Shinshu University. The aim of this class is for students that will become medical staff to increase their necessary communication skills for medical teamwork in addition to understanding the mutual medical professional fields in a medical institution. The 242 students of the medical department (147 students of health sciences and 95 students of medicine) take 15 classes during their first term as freshers. One teacher takes charge of a group consisting of 14 students for tutorials by mutually cooperation between teachers of medicine and health sciences. Positive relationships are expected to develop in the group, raising sociality and ethics so that both students of health science and medicine experience interdisciplinary discussion in small groups as an ideal method for continuing health care in times of poor knowledge of medicine and health care.
Miller, George E., Ed.
Proceedings of a conference on Medical Education in the Contemporary World, organized by Dr. George E. Miller and sponsored by the University of Illinois in Chicago, September 13-14, 1976, are presented. American and foreign medical edu- cation experts considered the principal and recurrent problems confronting the field in a period of rapid…
Curran, Vernon R.; Bornstein, Stephen; Jong, Michael; Fleet, Lisa
(Purpose) This report summarizes a synthesis of the literature related to the evidence, initiatives and approaches to rural/northern medical education, particularly its role in strengthening the medical workforce in rural areas. (Methodology) A literature review was conducted involving the literature databases MEDLINE (January 1990-March 2003),…
Mayer, Heidi; Renouf, Tia
Despite a large number of yearly medical graduates, rural New Zealand is faced with a scarcity of practicing physicians. Opportunities to learn and practice in rural settings start at the undergraduate level and extend to practicing physicians. There are a number of different programs available to facilitate rural medical education for all students and physicians. These programs will be discussed in this article.
CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Distance learning refers to use of technologies based on health care delivered on distance and covers areas such as electronic health, tele-health (e-health), telematics, telemedicine, tele-education, etc. For the need of e-health, telemedicine, tele-education and distance learning there are various technologies and communication systems from standard telephone lines to the system of transmission digitalized signals with modem, optical fiber, satellite links, wireless technologies, etc. Tele-education represents health education on distance, using Information Communication Technologies (ICT), as well as continuous education of a health system beneficiaries and use of electronic libraries, data bases or electronic data with data bases of knowledge. Distance learning (E-learning) as a part of tele-education has gained popularity in the past decade; however, its use is highly variable among medical schools and appears to be more common in basic medical science courses than in clinical education. Distance learning does not preclude traditional learning processes; frequently it is used in conjunction with in-person classroom or professional training procedures and practices. Tele-education has mostly been used in biomedical education as a blended learning method, which combines tele-education technology with traditional instructor-led training, where, for example, a lecture or demonstration is supplemented by an online tutorial. Distance learning is used for self-education, tests, services and for examinations in medicine i.e. in terms of self-education and individual examination services. The possibility of working in the exercise mode with image files and questions is an attractive way of self education. Automated tracking and reporting of learners’ activities lessen faculty administrative burden. Moreover, e-learning can be designed to include outcomes assessment to determine whether learning has occurred. This review article
Benn, Roseanne, Ed.; Elliott, Jane, Ed.; Whaley, Pat, Ed.
This book contains 17 papers examining the various roles--learner, teacher, researcher, manager--that women have played in the development of lifelong learning. The following papers are included: "Introduction: Women and Continuing Education--Where Are We Now?" (Roseanne Benn, Jane Elliott, Pat Whaley); "Dancing into the Future:…
Gruppen, Larry D
The Department of Medical Education (DME) at the University of Michigan Medical School has a strong and sustained history of contributing to medical education research. The author identifies several dimensions that contribute to this productivity: (1) the quality of department faculty and the complementary areas of expertise they possess; (2) a critical mass of educational scholars, both within and outside the DME; (3) extensive collaborations of DME faculty with colleagues in other departments on educational innovation; (4) the departmental status of the DME; (5) the separation of the DME from the administration of the curriculum; (6) the need to balance the missions of research and educational support of the medical school; (7) the research-intensive nature of the larger University of Michigan environment; (8) the complex challenge of funding the educational scholarship mission; and (9) the importance of maintaining visibility within the institution. Factors that will affect the health of future educational scholarship include (1) the response to the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's definition of resident competencies and similar initiatives; (2) the growth of opportunities for advanced training in educational scholarship and the corresponding expansion of medical school faculty with greater interest and skills in educational research; (3) an emerging emphasis on the importance of behavioral science in medical care; (4) demands on the clinical productivity of collaborating faculty; and (5) the paucity of funding for medical education research.
Computer-aided and managed instruction has been incorporated into the continuing education program in the Electronics Division of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two Control Data Corporation PLATO terminals have been installed in the learning center, and have been providing individualized instruction to the employees for approximately 2 years. Reactions from users and total usage figures indicate that there are unique advantages to computer-aided instruction. User interaction with a computer assures individual response from a student. The learner must be actively involved in the course and cannot passively allow content to flow by. Complex simulations can be programed and used in the learning process; thus, expensive equipment can be spared the wear and tear attributed to learners. The breadth of course topics included in the on-line library assures that PLATO has a continuing education offering for most employees. New lessons appear on line at the rate of three or four per week; PLATO cost effectiveness is thus certified. Comparisons of courses taken on the terminal to the same or similar courses offered elsewhere indicate that PLATO is advantageous. Computer-aided instruction is available when the learner is ready for initial instruction and later for reviews. At Los Alamos, the demand for PLATO service is growing. The Laboratory will have eight terminals installed and operating by April 1981. 8 tables.
Kehrer, James P.; Yuksel, Nesé; Hughes, Christine A.
University-based continuing education (CE) fulfills an important role to support the professional development of pharmacists, advance the practice of pharmacy, and contribute to societal needs for research and healthcare services. Opportunities for pharmacists to engage in new models of patient care are numerous worldwide, particularly as pharmacists’ scope of practice has expanded. Approaches to CE have changed to address the changing needs of pharmacists and now include a variety of approaches to support development of knowledge and skills. There is emphasis on the learning process as well as the knowledge, with the introduction of the concept of continuing professional development (CPD). As institutions of research and education, universities are uniquely positioned to bridge the gap between academic and practice environments, providing opportunities for translation of knowledge to practice. The Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences at the University of Alberta is a provider of CE in Alberta, Canada, where an expanded scope of pharmacy practice includes prescribing, administering injections, accessing electronic patient records, and ordering laboratory tests. In this paper, the Faculty offers views about future directions for CE, including the integration of CE with core faculty activities, expanding the audience for CE, areas of focus for learning, and partnerships. Finally, we hope to ignite dialogue with others in the profession about the role and function of university-based CE. PMID:22438592
Dietze, Stefan; Taibi, Davide; Yu, Hong Qing; Dovrolis, Nikolas
Reusable educational resources became increasingly important for enhancing learning and teaching experiences, particularly in the medical domain where resources are particularly expensive to produce. While interoperability across educational resources metadata repositories is yet limited to the heterogeneity of metadata standards and interface…
Masic, Izet; Pandza, Haris; Toromanovic, Selim; Masic, Fedja; Sivic, Suad; Zunic, Lejla; Masic, Zlatan
Advances in medicine in recent decades are in significant correlation with the advances in the information technology. Modern information technologies (IT) have enabled faster, more reliable and comprehensive data collection. These technologies have started to create a large number of irrelevant information, which represents a limiting factor and a real growing gap, between the medical knowledge on one hand, and the ability of doctors to follow its growth on the other. Furthermore, in our environment, the term technology is generally reserved for its technical component. Education means, learning, teaching, or the process of acquiring skills or behavior modification through various exercises. Traditionally, medical education meant the oral, practical and more passive transferring of knowledge and skills from the educators to students and health professionals. For the clinical disciplines, of special importance are the principles, such as, “learning at bedside,” aided by the medical literature. In doing so, these techniques enable students to contact with their teachers, and to refer to the appropriate literature. The disadvantage of these educational methods is in the fact, that teachers often do not have enough time. Additionally they are not very convenient to the horizontal and vertical integration of teaching, create weak or almost no self education, as well as, low skill levels and poor integration of education with a real social environment. In this paper authors describe application of modern IT in medical education – their advantages and disadvantages comparing with traditional ways of education. PMID:23408471
Harendza, S; Guse, A H
Gain of basic and applied medical knowledge and the changing demands of society with regard to medical professions are the main factors for continuous reforms in medical curricula. The Bologna Declaration of 1999 initiated the development of a unified European higher education area. A key tool for unification is the introduction of the Bachelors/Masters system. Although some European countries have adapted their medical curricula to the Bachelors/Masters system there is still debate on this issue in Germany. Some societies, e.g., the Society for Medical Education, demonstrated how the Bachelors/Masters system might be transferred to Germany. Moreover, the German Association of Medical Students already published a core curriculum compatible with the Bologna criteria. Some central elements of the Bologna Declaration have already been or could easily be integrated into the current structure of medical studies, e.g., quality assurance or a credit point transfer system. Furthermore, in the framework of the German medical licensure law, it is possible to introduce a curriculum fully compatible with the Bologna Declaration. A meaningful prerequisite would be a unified national (or European) qualification frame and catalog of learning objectives, designed according to the Bologna criteria. This should guarantee good mobility for medical students within Europe.
Parsell, G. J.; Bligh, J.
It has long been recognised that intensive efforts are needed to reform medical education in order to meet the future needs of populations worldwide. Pressure for changes to the organisation, content and delivery of both undergraduate and postgraduate medical education has greatly increased in the last two decades. The experience of innovative medical schools, the emergence of learner-centred teaching methods and the implications of health-care reforms in North America and Britain are major factors influencing calls for change. The pace of change has accelerated to such an extent in recent years that progress towards widespread reform appears to be more attainable than ever before. This article provides an overview of the changing context of health-care, some patterns of existing medical education and some strategies for change. PMID:7567730
McLean, Michelle; McKimm, Judy; Major, Stella
Medical education is now a global enterprise, with many medical educators working internationally, either for short or longer periods or even permanently. In parallel, many medical schools are now involved in collaborations and partnerships with schools in other countries. With this in mind, we set out to explore what motivates, supports and inhibits medical educators who wish to or might work outside their "home country". This article reports on the pilot stage (in specific organizational contexts in Middle East) of a longitudinal project aimed at canvassing medical educators on a broader global scale, using reflective accounts and a questionnaire survey. The findings from this pilot study raise interesting issues about the lived experience of medical educators who have chosen to work in a different culture from their own. Respondents identify many advantages around skills, personal and professional development. Three main issues emerged in terms of educators' experiences: the academic environment, medical practice in a different cultural context and personal matters. Adapting to the local culture, gender segregation and the impact on learning and teaching was an overarching factor. We introduce an explanatory framework to explain the development of international educator identity, a cyclical process in which, through experiences and reflection, individual world views and perspectives are continually modified and developed. This pilot study tested the methodologies and developed a new conceptual model that will be used in a wider study across different cultures.
LaMantia, Joseph; Hamstra, Stanley J; Martin, Daniel R; Searle, Nancy; Love, Jeffrey; Castaneda, Jill; Aziz-Bose, Rahela; Smith, Michael; Griswold-Therodorson, Sharon; Leuck, JoAnna
This 2012 Academic Emergency Medicine consensus conference breakout session was devoted to the task of identifying the history and current state of faculty development in education research in emergency medicine (EM). The participants set a future agenda for successful faculty development in education research. A number of education research and content experts collaborated during the session. This article summarizes existing academic and medical literature, expert opinions, and audience consensus to report our agreement and findings related to the promotion of faculty development.
Army Regulation 40–25 BUMEDINST 10110.6 AFI 44-141 Medical Services Nutrition Standards and Education Headquarters Departments of the Army, Navy, and...YYYY) 15-06-2001 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (FROM - TO) xx-xx-2001 to xx-xx-2001 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nutrition Standards and Education...AFI 44–141 Nutrition Standards and Education This revision-- o Renames the recommended nutrient standards, changing the term from Military Recommended
Wolfrey, Jeff; Brown, Steven R.; Ebell, Mark H.; Geng, Jamie
Concerns about the influence of the pharmaceutical and medical device industries on continuing medical education (CME) have been voiced frequently over the past decade. Reliance on industry funding increases the potential for bias. Industry-supported CME often emphasizes conditions that can be treated with newer drugs or devices rather than those…
Dennis, K J; Elstein, M
Medical curricula have been deficient in the area of education in sexuality, and it is only over the last decade or so that medical schools in the UK and abroad have recognized the importance of teaching human sexual physiology and sexuality. Attention in this discussion of education in sexuality in the medical curricula is directed to the following: present status of sex education in British schools and in medical schools; a suggested component of human sexuality in the undergraduate medical curriculum (learning objectives and strategy for introducing education in sexuality in the medical curriculum); and postgraduate education in sexual matters. Secondary schools, whether comprehensive, grammar, or private, have been slow to develop cognitive learning in such topics as the place of sexual drive within and without marriage, variations in sexual orientation, and the technicalities of various contraceptives methods. They have done even less to encourage the development of positive responsible attitudes to human sexuality. Students at the time of arrival at a medical school will have many gaps in their knowledge of the commonplace in human sexuality and in reproduction. If they have positive, healthy, and responsible attitudes toward their own sexual drives and to the sexuality of others, it is only because they are among the minority whose parents have been able to transmit them to their offspring. The Royal Commission on Medical Education (Todd report 1965-1968) identified deficiencies in the sex education of Britain's doctors and recommended that medical students should learn about the reproductive organs and their physiology and should also have an awareness of the wide implications of the problems of fertility and infertility and know something about marital problems and their management. In the older and well established medical schools, the teaching of human sexuality, especially in the earlier preclinical part of the course, depends upon enthusiasts
The fragmented field of continuing education may lack leaders because of the lack of a single model of practice. Preserving the diversity of the field may require spokespersons rather than leaders. Career success in continuing higher education may depend on commitment to continuing education itself, to administrative advancement, or to a vision of…
Indabawa, Sabo A., Ed.; Oduaran, Akpovire, Ed.; Afrik, Tai, Ed.; Walters, Shirley, Ed.
This document contains 21 papers examining the state of adult and continuing education in Africa. The following papers are included: "Introduction: An Overview of the State of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa" (Akpovire Oduaran); "Setting the Tone of Adult and Continuing Education in Africa" (Michael A. Omolewa);…
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Provision of continuing education allowances. 136... Improvement Act Programs Subdivision J-5-Continuing Education Allowances § 136.340 Provision of continuing education allowances. In order to encourage physicians, dentists and other health professionals to join...
Weaver, Sallie J; Rosen, Michael A; Salas, Eduardo; Baum, Karyn D; King, Heidi B
The provision of high-quality, efficient care results from the coordinated, cooperative efforts of multiple technically competent health care providers working in concert over time, spanning disciplinary and professional boundaries. Accordingly, the role of medical education must include the development of providers who are both expert clinicians and expert team members. However, the competencies underlying effective teamwork are only just beginning to be integrated into medical school curricula and residency programs. Therefore, continuing education (CE) is a vital mechanism for practitioners already in the field to develop the attitudes, behaviors (skills), and cognitive knowledge necessary for highly reliable and effective team performance.The present article provides an overview of more than 30 years of evidence regarding team performance and team training in order to guide, shape, and build CE activities that focus on developing team competencies. Recognizing that even the most comprehensive and well-designed team-oriented CE programs will fail unless they are supported by an organizational and professional culture that values collaborative behavior, ten evidence-based lessons for practice are offered in order to facilitate the use of the science of team-training in efforts to foster continuous quality improvement and enhance patient safety.
This textbook examines the theory and practice of adult and continuing education. The following topics are among those discussed in 11 chapters: rationale for provision of education for adults (nature of contemporary society and the individual); conceptual framework for adult and continuing education (changing concept of education; teaching,…
Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park. Center for Continuing Liberal Education.
A listing is given, with brief descriptions, of Acts of Congress which relate to continuing education and public service activities. Forty-nine laws specifically authorize funds for continuing education and public service programs (Adult Education Act of 1966, Higher Education Act of 1965, Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968, Older…
Further Education Unit, London (England).
The project described in this report aimed to develop an effective and affordable educational marketing strategy in one local British continuing education provider, as a case study for adult and continuing education nationally. Methods employed were as follows: a marketing consultant visited education centers; business and community directories…
Hatem, Charles J; Searle, Nancy S; Gunderman, Richard; Krane, N Kevin; Perkowski, Linda; Schutze, Gordon E; Steinert, Yvonne
Of the many roles that the academic-educator may fulfill, that of teacher is particularly challenging. Building on prior recommendations from the literature, this article identifies the skill set of teachers across the medical education continuum-characteristics of attitude and attributes, knowledge, and pedagogic skills that permit effective teaching to be linked with effective learning and understanding. This examination which characterizes teachers' attitudes, knowledge, and skills serves to reemphasize the centrality of teaching within medical education, provides direction for faculty and institutions alike in the discharge of academic responsibilities, and makes educational accountability clear. This listing of teacher attitudes and responsibilities was vetted in 2009 by medical education leaders from across North America during a national conference on faculty development.A set of recommendations concerning faculty development issues for medical teachers is offered. The recommendations are intended to establish an academic culture in medical education that values and rewards-academically and fiscally-those centrally committed to the role of teacher. The challenges of defining skills, developing and funding programs, and ongoing evaluation must be faced to achieve success in teaching throughout medical education, now and in the future. Faculty members, fellow learners, and patients deserve no less.
Washington State Univ., Pullman. Coll. of Education.
The document presents an annotated bibliography of Master's degree theses in Adult and Continuing Education, Washington State University, 1974-76. Abstracts for the following 12 theses are presented: (1) Agrarian Reform in Chile: A Case Study; (2) An Analysis of the Activities and the Needs of the Senior Citizens in Garfield, Washington and the…
Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R.
A continuous-flow system utilizes microwave heating to sterilize water and to thermally inactivate endotoxins produced in the sterilization process. The system is designed for use in converting potable water to medical-grade water. Systems like this one could be used for efficient, small-scale production of medical- grade water in laboratories, clinics, and hospitals. This system could be adapted to use in selective sterilization of connections in ultra-pure-water-producing equipment and other equipment into which intrusion by microorganisms cannot be tolerated. Lightweight, port - able systems based on the design of this system could be rapidly deployed to remote locations (e.g., military field hospitals) or in response to emergencies in which the normal infrastructure for providing medical-grade water is disrupted. Larger systems based on the design of this system could be useful for industrial production of medical-grade water. The basic microwave-heating principle of this system is the same as that of a microwave oven: An item to be heated, made of a lossy dielectric material (in this case, flowing water) is irradiated with microwaves in a multimode microwave cavity. The heating is rapid and efficient because it results from absorption of microwave power throughout the volume of the lossy dielectric material. In this system, a copper tube having a length of 49.5 cm and a diameter of 2.25 cm serves as both the microwave cavity and the sterilization chamber. Microwave power is fed via a coaxial cable to an antenna mounted inside the tube at mid-length (see figure). Efficient power transfer occurs due to the shift in wavelength associated with the high permittivity of water combined with the strong coupling of 2.45-GHz microwaves with rotational-vibrational transitions of the dipolar water molecule.
Van Horn, Linda; Rock, Cheryl L; Edwards, Marilyn S; Bales, Connie W; Kohlmeier, Martin; Akabas, Sharon R
Undergraduate medical education has undergone significant changes in development of new curricula, new pedagogies, and new forms of assessment since the Nutrition Academic Award was launched more than a decade ago. With an emphasis on a competency-based curriculum, integrated learning, longitudinal clinical experiences, and implementation of new technology, nutrition educators have an opportunity to introduce nutrition and diet behavior–related learning experiences across the continuum of medical education. Innovative learning opportunities include bridging personal health and nutrition to community, public, and global health concerns; integrating nutrition into lifestyle medicine training; and using nutrition as a model for teaching the continuum of care and promoting interprofessional team-based care. Faculty development and identification of leaders to serve as champions for nutrition education continue to be a challenge. PMID:24646826
Mekdeci, Kelly Broyles
United States schools and American Overseas (A/OS) schools depend upon educational technology (ET) to support business operations and student learning experiences. Schools rely upon administrative software, on-line course modules, information databases, digital communications systems, and many other ET processes. However, ET's fragility compared…
The Bologna Process designates the ongoing activities whereby the Ministers responsible for Higher Education in Europe attempt to change and harmonize fundamental aspects of all higher education in the many countries involved. This grand scheme is gaining momentum. The number of participating countries is increasing, more aspects of higher education are included and the number of activities and projects is growing. Medical education has so far been neglected in the process and awareness of the development at medical schools has been limited. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the Bologna Process, its background, objectives and main activities and to draw attention to some of the challenges medical education will probably have to face in the near future such as a structure based on two main cycles, undergraduate and graduate, a system of easily readable and comparable degrees and European cooperation in quality assurance including a system of accreditation, certification or comparable procedures. The position of medical education towards the Bologna Process is essential.
Pierce, J Thomas
Access "The Action Level,"® Questions online at: http://www.acgih.org/products/joeh/alquestions.htm Access "The Action Level,"® Answers online at: http://www.acgih.org/products/joeh/alanswers.htm Access "The Action Level,"® Registration Form online at: http://www.acgih.org/products/joeh/alregfrm.htm "The Action Level,"® a self-study, continuing education program, provides a convenient and interesting opportunity for individuals to expand their knowledge in relevant areas of industrial hygiene, as well as occupational and environmental safety and health. The program is approved by both the American Board of Industrial Hygiene, and the Board of Certified Safety Professionals, which award Certification Maintenance (CM) points and Continuance of Certification (COC) points, respectively, for successful participation. Participants must read each issue of the Journal, answer "The Action Level"® questions, and return the completed answer sheet at the end of that issue's "The Action Level"® column. To earn the designated CM or COC credit, a score of 70 percent or better is required within a 12-month period. Certified Industrial Hygienists and Certified Associate Industrial Hygienists may earn 2 points per year. Certified Safety Professionals may earn 1.2 points per year. Enrollment is possible each month, but points are awarded only four times each year-in March, June, September, and December-to participants who score an average of 70 percent or better within each three-month period. If you register in March 2010, you will not receive CM points and/or COC points until the following quarter. In the next quarter, you'll receive 0.5 CM points and/or 0.3 COC points after satisfactorily completing answer sheets for the April, May, and June 2010 issues, and so on. To enroll, complete the registration form and the answer sheet at the end of this "The Action Level"® column. The cost is $199 (ACGIH®/AIHA members)/$219 (nonmembers) for one year. Nonmembers are encouraged to
Holloway, K J
Resistance by physicians, medical researchers, medical educators, and medical students to pharmaceutical industry influence in medicine is often based on the notion that physicians (guided by the ethics of their profession) and the industry (guided by profit) are in conflict. This criticism has taken the form of a professional movement opposing conflict of interest (COI) in medicine and medical education and has resulted in policies and guidelines that frame COI as the problem and outline measures to address this problem. In this paper, I offer a critique of this focus on COI that is grounded in a broader critique of neo-liberalism, arguing it individualizes the relationship between physicians and industry, too neatly delineates between the two entities, and reduces the network of social, economic, and political relations to this one dilemma.
Carpenter, Harold F., Jr.
This paper explores the effect of 350 years of Dutch colonial rule upon Indonesian educational policies and the resulting regional inequalities in education. It was Dutch policy not to educate most of the children from the poorer social classes, but to use education to maintain and strengthen the existing social structure. Education was also used…
The author reviews the many forces that have driven contemporary medical education approaches to evaluation and places them in an adult learning theory context. After noting their strengths and limitations, the author looks to lessons learned from manufacturing on both efficacy and efficiency and explores how these can be applied to the process of trainee assessment in medical education.Building on this, the author describes the rationale for and development of the Educational Kanban (EK) at Children's Hospital Boston--specifically, how it was designed to integrate adult learning theory, Japanese manufacturing models, and educator observations into a unique form of teacher-student collaboration that allows for continuous improvement. It is a formative tool, built on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education's six core competencies, that guides educational efforts to optimize teaching and learning, promotes adult learner responsibility and efficacy, and takes advantage of the labor-intensive clinical educational setting. The author discusses how this model, which will be implemented in July 2009, will lead to training that is highly individualized, optimizes faculty and student educational efforts, and ultimately conserves faculty resources. A model EK is provided for general reference.The EK represents a novel approach to adult learning that will enhance educational effectiveness and efficiency and complement existing evaluative models. Described here in a specific graduate medical setting, it can readily be adapted and integrated into a wide range of undergraduate and graduate clinical educational environments.
Despite a large number of yearly medical graduates, rural New Zealand is faced with a scarcity of practicing physicians. Opportunities to learn and practice in rural settings start at the undergraduate level and extend to practicing physicians. There are a number of different programs available to facilitate rural medical education for all students and physicians. These programs will be discussed in this article. PMID:27882273
Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn
Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures" from the community. The results were analyzed using the concept of "field" developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results reveal that a large majority of these influential figures believe that research in medical education continues to be of insufficient quality despite the progress that has taken place over the past 2 decades. According to this group, studies tend to be both redundant and opportunistic, and researchers tend to have limited understanding of both theory and methodological practice from the social sciences. Three factors were identified by the participants to explain the current problems in research: the working conditions of researchers, budgetary restraints in financing research in medical education, and the conception of research in the medical environment. Two principal means for improving research are presented: intensifying collaboration between PhD's and clinicians, and encouraging the diversification of perspectives brought to bear on research in medical education.
Charters, Alexander N.
The author states that the coming of age of adult and continuing education has brought the role of research into focus. Two aspects of the research role are explored: What research has been done on the continuing education of adult educators, and what should be the roles of research? The major portion of this report is devoted to a review of the…
Otero, Hansel J; Ondategui-Parra, Silvia; Erturk, Sukru Mehmet; Ros, Pablo R
Radiology graduate medical education (GME) is exposed to huge financial challenges. First, there is a continuous increase in demand for imaging services by referring doctors and the general population, aggravating the staff shortage. Second, there has been an important decline in reimbursements. Third and probably most important is the progressive reduction of federal funds subsidizing GME. Medicare is the largest single contributor to GME. The Balanced Budget Act (BBA) of 1997 introduced reductions in Medicare payments to the major teaching hospitals calculated at $5.6 billion over the first 5 years after implementation. The BBA also brought other changes directly affecting GME. Financial changes in health care over the past decade have increased the pressure on academic institutions, which must preserve or improve the quality of training and the quality of care and manage an increased workload with fewer funds available and a narrow margin for errors. Yet the use of new technology promises to help simplify processes, decreasing workloads for residents and faculty members and increasing overall productivity, and new sources of funding have been suggested. By reviewing the financial challenges of radiologic training in today's academic centers, the authors reach the conclusion that there is still space for improving academic quality and the quality of care within current financial boundaries. But more reliable data about the specific benefits and drawbacks of having a residency program in a clinical radiology department are required.
Vanderbilt, Allison A; Baugh, Reginald F; Hogue, Patricia A; Brennan, Julie A; Ali, Imran I
In the United States, the health of a community falls on a continuum ranging from healthy to unhealthy and fluctuates based on several variables. Research policy and public health practice literature report substantial disparities in life expectancy, morbidity, risk factors, and quality of life, as well as persistence of these disparities among segments of the population. One such way to close this gap is to streamline medical education to better prepare our future physicians for our patients in underserved communities. Medical schools have the potential to close the gap when training future physicians by providing them with the principles of social medicine that can contribute to the reduction of health disparities. Curriculum reform and systematic formative assessment and evaluative measures can be developed to match social medicine and health disparities curricula for individual medical schools, thus assuring that future physicians are being properly prepared for residency and the workforce to decrease health inequities in the United States. We propose that curriculum reform includes an ongoing social medicine component for medical students. Continued exposure, practice, and education related to social medicine across medical school will enhance the awareness and knowledge for our students. This will result in better preparation for the zero mile stone residency set forth by the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education and will eventually lead to the outcome of higher quality physicians in the United States to treat diverse populations.
Marion-Veyron, Régis; Bourquin, Céline; Saraga, Michael; Stiefel, Friedrich
For many years, a major focus of interest has been the patient, in the context of a constantly changing society and increasingly complex medical practices. We propose to shift this focus on the physician, who is entangled in a similar, but less evident way. In these three articles, we explore, in succession, the lived experience of the contemporary physician, the ethos which brings together the medical community, and the education of the future physician, using research projects currently under way within the Service of Liaison Psychiatry at Lausanne University Hospital. The article hereunder is dedicated to the education and will examine the multiple and paradoxical expectations that punctuate it.
Barnum, Trevor J; Thome, Lindsay; Even, Elizabeth
Medical students are expected to learn certain procedural skills in addition to clinical skills, such as assessment and decision making. There is much literature that shows proficiency in procedural skills translated to improved outcomes and cost-saving. Given the time constraints placed by increasing clinical demands, physicians have less time to work with students in teaching technical skills. There is a unique opportunity to utilize nurses in clinical clerkships to teach procedural skills. A dedicated nurse educator can provide a consistent curriculum, work with learners to achieve proficiency, and provide measurable outcomes. Future research should explore the role played by nurses in medical education and the comparison of instructional effectiveness.
Williams, Ruth; Evans, Lowri; Alshareef, Nora Talal
Medical dramas are an incredibly popular TV genre especially amongst medical learners, and they have become an increasingly accepted resource in learning experiences. Educators have recognised their pedagogical value, as they allow a host of complex medical and psychosocial issues to be presented to learners in an engaging format. Care has to be taken however to appreciate and overcome their limitations including recognising 'unexpected learning outcomes'. What is vital to their successful incorporation into teaching programme is the reflection component; which facilitates discussion and allows for a deeper learning experience.
Roemer, M. I.
The physician, said Henry Sigerist in 1940, has been acquiring an increasingly social role. For centuries, however, codes of medical ethics have concentrated on proper behavior toward individual patients and almost ignored the doctor's responsibilities to society. Major health service reforms have come principally from motivated lay leadership and citizen groups. Private physicians have been largely hostile toward movements to equalize the economic access for people to medical care and improve the supply and distribution of doctors. Medical practice in America and throughout the world has become seriously commercialized. In response, governments have applied various strategies to constrain physicians and induce more socially responsible behavior. But such external pressures should not be necessary if a broad socially oriented code of medical ethics were followed. Health care system changes would be most effective, but medical education could be thoroughly recast to clarify community health problems and policies required to meet them. Sigerist proposed such a new medical curriculum in 1941; if it had been introduced, a social code of medical ethics would not now seem utopian. An international conference might well be convened to consider how physicians should be educated to reach the inspiring goals of the World Health Organization. PMID:7405276
Duplaga, Mariusz; Juszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Leszczuk, Mikolaj
Medial education, both on the graduate and postgraduate levels, has become a real challenge nowadays. The volume of information in medical sciences grows so rapidly that many health professionals experience essential problems in keeping track of the state of the art in this domain. e-learning offers important advantages to medical education continuation due to its universal availability and opportunity for implementation of flexible patterns of training. An important trace of medical education is developing practical skills. Some examples of standardization efforts include: the CEN/ISSS Workshop on Learning Technology (WSLT), the Advanced Learning Infrastructure Consortium (ALIC), Education Network Australia (EdNA) and PROmoting Multimedia access to Education and Training in European Society (PROMETEUS). Sun Microsystems' support (Sun ONE, iPlanetTM ) for many of the above-mentioned standards is described as well. Development of a medical digital video library with recordings of invasive procedures incorporating additional information and commentary may improve the efficiency of the training process in interventional medicine. A digital video library enabling access to videos of interventional procedures performed in the area of thoracic medicine may be a valuable element for developing practical skills. The library has been filled with video resources recorded at the Department of Interventional Pulmonology; it enhances training options for pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons. The main focus was put on demonstration of bronchofiberoscopic and videothoracoscopic procedures. The opportunity to browse video recordings of procedures performed in the specific field also considerably enhances the options for training in other medical specialties. In the era of growing health consumer awareness, patients are also perceived as the target audience for medical digital libraries. As a case study of Computer-Based Training systems, the Medical Digital Video Library is
The widespread adoption of ultrasound technologies in medicine has necessitated the development of educational programs to address the growing demand for trained expertise in both academia and industry. The demand has been especially great in the field of therapeutic ultrasound that has experienced a significant level of research and development activities in the past decade. The applications cover a wide range including cancer treatment, hemorrhage control, cardiac ablation, gene therapy, and cosmetic surgery. A comprehensive educational program in ultrasound is well suited for bioengineering departments at colleges and universities. Our educational program for students in Bioengineering at the University of Washington includes a year-long coursework covering theory and practice of ultrasound, conducting research projects, attending and presenting at weekly seminars on literature survey, presentations at scientific meetings, and attending specialized workshops offered by various institutions for specific topics. An important aspect of this training is its multi-disciplinary approach, encompassing science, engineering, and medicine. The students are required to build teams with expertise in these disciplines. Our experience shows that these students are well prepared for careers in academia, conducting cutting edge research, as well as industry, being involved in the transformation of research end-products to commercially viable technology.
Schier, Joshua G; Rubin, Carol; Schwartz, Michael D; Thomas, Jerry D; Geller, Robert J; Morgan, Brent W; McGeehin, Michael A; Frumkin, Howard
In December 2002, the medical toxicology sub-board, which consists of representatives from emergency medicine, preventive medicine, and pediatrics, released revised core content for medical toxicology, aiming to better meet the academic challenges imposed by the continually expanding knowledge base of medical toxicology. These challenges included the addition of relatively new areas of interest in medical toxicology, including population health, while simultaneously ensuring that a structural framework existed to accommodate future areas of interest. There is no evidence readily available to assess how well the educational curricula of existing fellowship programs are meeting these needs. In an effort to address this, the authors describe a medical toxicology fellowship program that consists of a partnership among the Emory University School of Medicine, the Georgia Poison Control Center, and the CDC, as well as the results of a reorganization of its academic curriculum that occurred in 2006. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report describing such a curriculum redesign. Suggestions and potential resources proposed as enhancements for the public health-associated education of medical toxicology fellows are discussed. The authors also seek to initiate a discussion among programs about how to optimally meet the new challenges developed by the medical toxicology sub-board.
Some aspects of the educative system at the Mexican Institute of Social Security are described. It is based on the perception of a problematic situation that constitutes a challenge. An educational process to enhance the quality of medical education is proposed, with the adoption of a participative model of self-constructive learning. This proposal is based on theoretical references in a both philosophical and sociological knowledge perspective of an individual related to institutional behavior, to end with a psychological view from which some learning theories are explored. An educational model is built with the inclusion of institutional elements, like the new evaluation system for residents; centers for educational investigation and a teacher training process. Three axes of the educational process are proposed: tutorial teaching, development of complex abilities of thought and critical reading. The evaluation system includes guides for measuring the operational process established and the professional responsibilities of the different participants.
Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.
Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship…
Cooley, Max G.
Designed to review the changing pattern of adult education, this monograph focuses attention on the current situation and pivotal points of change confronting business educators. A discussion of philosophical foundations in adult education for business in chapter 1 provides definitions and discusses transition in adult education and importance of…
Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi
The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations. PMID:27486351
Gonzales, Jim L.
Educational effects of migrant student mobility are reviewed and issues and recommendations for educational continuity are offered for discussion by policymakers. Considerations for discussion of mobility are presented: continuity of age-grade level progression and education/social/health services; agency responsibility; communication…
Jarvis, Peter, Ed.
This book contains 19 papers on 20th century thinkers in adult and continuing education. The book is arranged in four parts as follows: early 20th century English thinkers; early 20th century American thinkers; theorists of adult and continuing education; and theorists of adult education and social change. The following papers are included:…
Bond, Susan B.; Waltz, Carolyn F.
The prevalence of the need for marketing in continuing education in nursing is justifiable considering the growing pressures for efficiency and economies of scale in this field of higher education. This paper critically analyzes the current utilization of needs assessment in continuing education programs in nursing. It is argued that the cost…
This article aims to describe post-war continuity and change in disaster education in Japan. Preparedness for natural disasters has been a continuous agenda in Japan for geographical and meteorological reasons, and disaster education has been practised in both formal and informal settings. Post-war disaster management and education have taken a…
Charters, Alexander N.; Holmwood, Donald
This document is a complete list of Syracuse University Publications in Continuing Education (SUPCE). Publications are categorized under 16 headings: Notes and Essays and Reports Series in Continuing Education for Adults; Occasional Papers Series; Landmark and New Horizons Series; William Pearson Tolley Medal Series; Papers on Adult Education,…
Blatt, Benjamin; Plack, Margaret; Suzuki, Mari; Arepalli, Sruthi; Schroth, Scott; Stagnaro-Green, Alex
Few avenues exist to familiarize medical students with careers as clinician-educators, and the clinician-educator career pathway has not been well defined. In this article, the authors describe how they integrated a career-oriented student track into the 2011 Northeast Group on Educational Affairs (NEGEA) annual retreat to introduce students to careers in medical education. Annual education conferences are principal sources of educational scholarship, networking, collaboration, and information sharing; as such, they represent attractive venues for early exposure to the culture of medical education. The authors' goal in creating the NEGEA conference student track was to excite students about careers in medical education by providing them with an array of opportunities for active involvement in both student-specific and general conference activities.The authors draw from their experience to provide a guide for recruiting student participants to career-building student tracks. They also offer a guide for developing future student tracks, based on their experience and grounded in social cognitive career theory. Although their focus is on medical education, they believe these guides will be useful for educators planning a conference-based student track in any field.
Luanrattana, Rattiporn; Win, Khin Than; Fulcher, John; Iverson, Don
This study was undertaken to determine the PDA functionalities for a problem-based learning (PBL) medical curriculum at the Graduate School of Medicine (GSM), the University of Wollongong (UOW). The study determines the factors/aspects of incorporating PDAs, and the attitudes of stakeholders regarding the use of PDAs in such a PBL-based medical curriculum. In-depth interviews were designed and conducted with medical faculty, the medical education technology team and honorary medical academics. Four major PDA functionalities were identified, these being: clinical-log, reference, communication, and general functions. Two major aspects for the incorporation of PDAs into the PBL-medical curriculum at the UOW were determined from the interviews, these being technical and practical aspects. There is a potential for PDAs to be incorporated into the PBL-medical curricula at the UOW. However, a clear strategy needs to be defined as to how best to incorporate PDAs into PBL-medical curricula with minimal impact on students, as well as financial and resource implications for the GSM.
Miller, Michael T.; Edmunds, Niel
Data for an examination of budget analysis in continuing education were collected using personal interviews with the continuing program directors at four institutions. The institutions represented public and private, degree and nondegree continuing education programs. Despite practitioner-oriented data to draw upon, a literature review identified…
Burn, Barbara B., Ed.
As part of a study of access and admission to higher education in Germany and the United States, a group of papers on medical admissions in various countries was commissioned. The papers presented in this book reveal wide differences in admissions policies and procedures. Barbara Burn examines some of the major issues in a foreword: representation…
Irby, David M.; Edwards, Janine C. Ed.
Medical educators debate which models of scientific research should be applied to problems in academic medicine. The reigning model was derived from the first scientific revolution of Newtonian physics. The emerging model is grounded in the second scientific revolution of Einstein's quantum physics. (Author/MSE)
Fox, Ellen; And Others
This article reviews the 25-year history of undergraduate medical ethics education. Alternatives to the traditional model that focus more directly on students' personal values, attitudes, and behavior, are discussed. Three incipient trends are identified: everyday ethics, student ethics, and macro-ethics. Specific course and curricula are used as…
Fleming, Kenneth; Pugh, Christopher; Best, Denise
Postgraduate medical education in the UK has gone through a maelstrom of change in the last 20 years; many components have disadvantaged clinical academic training in particular. In this article we summarise some of the changes and describe the advantages of the creation of a dedicated clinical academic graduate school as a response to these changes.
Lewis, Natalie J.; Rees, Charlotte E.; Hudson, J. Nicky; Bleakley, Alan
The construct of emotional intelligence (EI) has gained increasing popularity over the last 10 years and now has a relatively large academic and popular associated literature. EI is beginning to be discussed within the medical education literature, where, however, it is treated uncritically. This reflections paper aims to stimulate thought about…
Coulehan, Jack; Williams, Peter C.
Asserts that North American medical education favors an explicit commitment to traditional values of doctoring--empathy, compassion, and altruism--but a tacit commitment to behaviors grounded in an ethic of detachment, self-interest, and objectivity. Explores differing ways (conflation, deflation, and maintaining of values) that students respond…
Lyon, Deborah S
The 20th century model of medical education has focused on a network of urban medical centers serving primarily indigent patients in an unspoken contract of medical services in exchange for student and resident education. The improvement in federal and state reimbursement for indigent care services, along with the decline in reimbursement rates from the private sector, has led to competition for these patients from nonacademic providers. As numbers of patients seeking care at urban teaching centers have steadily declined, concerns about adequate teaching volume and revenue generation have led to very creative problem-solving. Bringing marketing concerns into the indigent care environment is not a straightforward undertaking, but the rewards might far exceed the simple goal of "getting our numbers back up."
Park, H W; Park, Y J; Yeo, I S; Kim, I S
Medical education in Je Joong Won was proposed and initiated by Dr. HN Allen. In his proposal of building a new hospital, submitted to the king in 1885, he expressed his wish to teach Western medicine to young Koreans at the hospital. The king welcomed his proposal and the plan was soon realized. Je Joon Won, the first modern hospital in Korea, opened on April 10th, 1885. The following year, on March 29th, Dr. Allen began medical school attached to the hospital. Many applicants were recruited by the government and 16 students were selected through the entrance examination. At first, they were taught English and finally 12 students out of them were selected after three months of teaching. The selected students were taught arithmetic, physics, chemistry, anatomy and physiology. The medical education at this period cannot be evaluated entirely successful since none of the 12 students was presumed to have worked as a practitioner.
Ai, Zhuming; Dech, Fred; Silverstein, Jonathan; Rasmussen, Mary
By combining teleconferencing, tele-presence, and Virtual Reality, the Tele-Immersive environment enables master surgeons to teach residents in remote locations. The design and implementation of a Tele-Immersive medical educational environment, Teledu, is presented in this paper. Teledu defines a set of Tele-Immersive user interfaces for medical education. In addition, an Application Programming Interface (API) is provided so that developers can easily develop different applications with different requirements in this environment. With the help of this API, programmers only need to design a plug-in to load their application specific data set. The plug-in is an object-oriented data set loader. Methods for rendering, handling, and interacting with the data set for each application can be programmed in the plug-in. The environment has a teacher mode and a student mode. The teacher and the students can interact with the same medical models, point, gesture, converse, and see each other.
Zumberg, Marc S; Broudy, Virginia C; Bengtson, Elizabeth M; Gitlin, Scott D
To better prepare medical students to care for patients in today's changing health-care environment as they transition to continuing their education as residents, many US medical schools have been reviewing and modifying their curricula and are considering integration of newer adult learning techniques, including team-based learning, flipped classrooms, and other active learning approaches (Assoc Am Med Coll. 2014). Directors of hematology/oncology (H/O) courses requested an assessment of today's H/O education environment to help them respond to the ongoing changes in the education content and environment that will be necessary to meet this goal. Several recommendations for the improvement of cancer education resulted from American Association for Cancer Education's (ACCE's) "Cancer Education Survey II" including a call for medical schools to evaluate the effectiveness of current teaching methods in achieving cancer education objectives (Chamberlain et al. J Cancer Educ 7(2):105-114.2014). To understand the current environment and resources used in medical student preclinical H/O courses, an Internet-based, Survey Monkey®-formatted, questionnaire focusing on nine topic areas was distributed to 130 United States Hematology/Oncology Course Directors (HOCDs). HOCDs represent a diverse group of individuals who work in variably supportive environments and who are variably satisfied with their position. Several aspects of these courses remain relatively unchanged from previous assessments, including a predominance of traditional lectures, small group sessions, and examinations that are either written or computer-based. Newer technology, including web-based reproduction of lectures, virtual microscopes, and availability of additional web-based content has been introduced into these courses. A variety of learner evaluation and course assessment approaches are used. The ultimate effectiveness and impact of these changes needs to be determined.
Brower, Stewart M
The Open Access movement in scholarly communications poses new issues and concerns for medical education in general and information literacy education specifically. For medical educators, Open Access can affect the availability of new information, instructional materials, and scholarship in medical education. For students, Open Access materials continue to be available to them post-graduation, regardless of affiliation. Libraries and information literacy librarians are challenged in their responses to the Open Access publishing movement in how best to support Open Access endeavors within their own institutions, and how best to educate their user base about Open Access in general.
Rhodes, A. J.
During the last five years, 48 graduates have taken the formal Diploma in Bacteriology course offered by the School of Hygiene, University of Toronto. This course provides instruction by lectures, seminars, and practical work in bacteriology, virology, immunology, parasitology, sanitary bacteriology, and statistics. A graduate course of this type presents many advantages as it is possible to cover a considerable area of knowledge in the relatively short space of one academic year. Of the 48 students, 23 held degrees in medicine, and 25 in veterinary science, arts, or science. Eleven diplomates continued further formal studies by enrolling in Master's or Ph.D. programs. Twenty diplomates are now engaged in university teaching in Canada or overseas. Almost all of the remaining 28 are employed in hospital, public health, or veterinary laboratories. PMID:13981970
Garcia, Richard Staggers
Race is important in medicine. In order to correct the inequality in healthcare racial minority people can expect to receive, a new rhetorical stance is needed so that we can place our discourse in a productive arena. Most recommended solutions argue for increased education on "cultural competence" for physicians. Who will educate the educators? What rhetorical stance will work? A requirement for physicians to learn about cultural and linguistic competence will not get us to fairness in medical care, independent of race. That's because race is not the problem. There's nothing wrong with our race. Other disciplines within academe must contribute to students' understanding and treatment of race in America if we are to seriously address disparities in medical care. PMID:16749662
Jha, Vikram; Duffy, Sean
Reports the results of an evaluation of Distance Interactive Learning in Obstetrics and Gynecology (DIALOG) which is an electronic program for continuing education. Presents 10 golden rules for designing software for medical practitioners. (Contains 26 references.) (Author/YDS)
OLEAN, SALLY J.
AFTER WORLD WAR II, BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY MOVED INTO THE ADULT EDUCATION FIELD, AND ARE NOW SPENDING A REPORTED $20 BILLION ANNUALLY IN HIGHER EDUCATION FOR THEIR SCIENTIFIC PERSONNEL AND MANAGEMENT. LARGE INDUSTRIES, LIKE IBM, HAVE COMPLETE EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMS AND FACILITIES FOR THEIR PERSONNEL. FORD AND GENERAL MOTORS USE OUTSIDE EDUCATIONAL…
Swatt, Kenneth A.
Focusing on adult business education in the public evening school, the monograph first presents a brief history of the educational form and its philosophical foundations for progress and then lists programs of adult business curriculums, both preparatory and supplementary. The broad preparatory programs offer courses to educate adults for entry…
Mazmanian, Paul E.
This paper suggests that since continuing professional educators must address the ever present gap between new knowledge and practitioner competence, accurate identification and prioritization of practitioners' educational needs must be maintained on a continuous basis. Describing an adult education agency as an open system whose output depends on…
A hybrid of professional continuing education and Carl Rogers's humanistic philosophy supporting freedom in learning is proposed, and the five principles of the philosophy are examined for their potential for transfer to professional education. (MSE)
Models through which higher education provides outreach include centralized, decentralized, and hybrid. The latter, academically integrated and administratively decentralized, meshes continuing education programs with the academic mission while maximizing cost effectiveness. (SK)
Medical physics, an applied field of physics, is the applications of physics in medicine. Medical physicists are essential professionals in contemporary healthcare, contributing primarily to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases through numerous inventions, advances, and improvements in medical imaging and cancer treatment. Clinical service, research, and teaching by medical physicists benefits thousands of patients and other individuals every day. This talk will cover three main topics. First, exciting current research and development areas in the medical physics sub-specialty of radiation oncology physics will be described, including advanced oncology imaging for treatment simulation, image-guided radiation therapy, and biologically-optimized radiation treatment. Challenges in patient safety in high-technology radiation treatments will be briefly reviewed. Second, the educational path to becoming a medical physicist will be reviewed, including undergraduate foundations, graduate training, residency, board certification, and career opportunities. Third, I will introduce the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), which is the professional society that represents, advocates, and advances the field of medical physics (www.aapm.org).
Siddaiah-Subramanya, Manjunath; Nyandowe, Masimba; Zubair, Omar
Self-regulated learning has played an increasingly significant role in medical education over the last one to two decades. Medical educators have endeavored to ensure that the students are equipped to face the challenges of continued growth of medical knowledge. Here we enquire and reflect on various aspects of self-regulated learning including its strengths and weaknesses. We investigate how it could be incorporated with traditional teaching to bring the best out of the students and what students think about it.
Tsouroufli, Maria; Payne, Heather
Background We analysed the learning and professional development narratives of Hospital Consultants training junior staff ('Consultant Trainers') in order to identify impediments to successful postgraduate medical training in the UK, in the context of Modernising Medical Careers (MMC) and the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Methods Qualitative study. Learning and continuing professional development (CPD), were discussed in the context of Consultant Trainers' personal biographies, organisational culture and medical education practices. We conducted life story interviews with 20 Hospital Consultants in six NHS Trusts in Wales in 2005. Results Consultant Trainers felt that new working patterns resulting from the EWTD and MMC have changed the nature of medical education. Loss of continuity of care, reduced clinical exposure of medical trainees and loss of the popular apprenticeship model were seen as detrimental for the quality of medical training and patient care. Consultant Trainers' perceptions of medical education were embedded in a traditional medical education culture, which expected long hours' availability, personal sacrifices and learning without formal educational support and supervision. Over-reliance on apprenticeship in combination with lack of organisational support for Consultant Trainers' new responsibilities, resulting from the introduction of MMC, and lack of interest in pursuing training in teaching, supervision and assessment represent potentially significant barriers to progress. Conclusion This study identifies issues with significant implications for the implementation of MMC within the context of EWTD. Postgraduate Deaneries, NHS Trusts and the new body; NHS: Medical Education England should deal with the deficiencies of MMC and challenges of ETWD and aspire to excellence. Further research is needed to investigate the views and educational practices of Consultant Medical Trainers and medical trainees. PMID:18492261
Valone, David A
The form and amount of medical payments has been a contentious issue throughout the history of Western medicine. The prices charged by doctors, and the actual payments they receive, have reflected a complex interaction of the social, economic, and political forces impinging upon medical practice. Contemporary concerns about the medical payment system in the U.S. relate, in part, to the unprecedented scale and complexity of the modern system of medical payments. Historical analysis reminds us that medicine and money have always made odd bedfellows. Today's problems may seem intractable, but such problems have been consistent throughout medical history.
This is part I of a two-part annotated bibliography of selected references on medical education in the People's Republic of China. The references date from 1925 to 1983. Most of the references are from the 1970's. (RH)
Rich, Eugene C; Liebow, Mark; Srinivasan, Malathi; Parish, David; Wolliscroft, James O; Fein, Oliver; Blaser, Robert
The past decade has seen ongoing debate regarding federal support of graduate medical education, with numerous proposals for reform. Several critical problems with the current mechanism are evident on reviewing graduate medical education (GME) funding issues from the perspectives of key stakeholders. These problems include the following: substantial interinstitutional and interspecialty variations in per-resident payment amounts; teaching costs that have not been recalibrated since 1983; no consistent control by physician educators over direct medical education (DME) funds; and institutional DME payments unrelated to actual expenditures for resident education or to program outcomes. None of the current GME reform proposals adequately address all of these issues. Accordingly, we recommend several fundamental changes in Medicare GME support. We propose a re-analysis of the true direct costs of resident training (with appropriate adjustment for local market factors) to rectify the myriad problems with per-resident payments. We propose that Medicare DME funds go to the physician organization providing resident instruction, keeping DME payments separate from the operating revenues of teaching hospitals. To ensure financial accountability, we propose that institutions must maintain budgets and report expenditures for each GME program. To establish educational accountability, Residency Review Committees should establish objective, annually measurable standards for GME program performance; programs that consistently fail to meet these minimum standards should lose discretion over GME funds. These reforms will solve several long-standing, vexing problems in Medicare GME funding, but will also uncover the extent of undersupport of GME by most other health care payers. Ultimately, successful reform of GME financing will require “all-payer” support. PMID:11972725
Rich, Eugene C; Liebow, Mark; Srinivasan, Malathi; Parish, David; Wolliscroft, James O; Fein, Oliver; Blaser, Robert
The past decade has seen ongoing debate regarding federal support of graduate medical education, with numerous proposals for reform. Several critical problems with the current mechanism are evident on reviewing graduate medical education (GME) funding issues from the perspectives of key stakeholders. These problems include the following: substantial interinstitutional and interspecialty variations in per-resident payment amounts; teaching costs that have not been recalibrated since 1983; no consistent control by physician educators over direct medical education (DME) funds; and institutional DME payments unrelated to actual expenditures for resident education or to program outcomes. None of the current GME reform proposals adequately address all of these issues. Accordingly, we recommend several fundamental changes in Medicare GME support. We propose a re-analysis of the true direct costs of resident training (with appropriate adjustment for local market factors) to rectify the myriad problems with per-resident payments. We propose that Medicare DME funds go to the physician organization providing resident instruction, keeping DME payments separate from the operating revenues of teaching hospitals. To ensure financial accountability, we propose that institutions must maintain budgets and report expenditures for each GME program. To establish educational accountability, Residency Review Committees should establish objective, annually measurable standards for GME program performance; programs that consistently fail to meet these minimum standards should lose discretion over GME funds. These reforms will solve several long-standing, vexing problems in Medicare GME funding, but will also uncover the extent of undersupport of GME by most other health care payers. Ultimately, successful reform of GME financing will require "all-payer" support.
This discussion reviews the major changes that have taken place in higher education since the end of World War II and discusses the various stages or phases that reflect changing demands and expectations. The stages are identified as: (1) 1946-1958, readjustment and educational opportunity; (2) 1958-1964, excellence and equality; (3) 1964-1972,…
Sanders, Nicholas M.
This report presents information on a search for measures of citizen education in elementary and secondary schools. It is intended to update information presented in ED 159 115 and to reevaluate the current state of affairs in measurement of citizen education goals. The document is presented in three sections. Section I explains criteria and…
Hall, Budd L.
The author discusses adult education and social action, quoting a statement that all serious educational movements are also social movements, and cites examples of this statement from programs and activities in various countries. He also gives a brief introduction to other articles in the issue and invites debate. (MF)
Jorgensen, Sara; Schwartz, Joni
The American adult education and literacy movement in the early twentieth century had its roots deep in the study and practice of democracy (Ramdeholl, Giordani, Heaney, Yanow, 2010). From Lindeman, Dewey, Laubach, Horton, to Heaney and Brookfield, a persistent theme is the indispensable relationship between democracy and adult education. For…
... medical cessation determination. 404.1597a Section 404.1597a Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Continuing Or Stopping Disability § 404.1597a Continued benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation...). If you appeal a medical cessation under both title II and title XVI (a concurrent case), the title...
With this issue, Revista Médica de Chile will have been published uninterruptedly, for 130 years. Formal medical education had an early development since Chile became independent from Spain (1817). The first Medical Sciences Course was organized in 1833 by the Irish physician William C Blest. The Santiago Medical Society was founded in 1869 and its journal-Revista Médica de Chile--in 1872. Its first director was Dr. German Schneider. Revista Medica is the oldest serial publication in South America and the second oldest in the Spanish speaking world. This is a remarkable fact for a comparatively young country. With the creation of the Medical Society and Revista Medica, a process of continuous medical education was started and they became a real Graduate School. The Journal has adopted the main changes in knowledge and technology. Some important milestones of its development, during the second half of the 20th century, were the definition of its objectives and structure, the incorporation of peer review of manuscripts (even with foreign reviewers) the adoption of international guidelines for publication, its incorporation into the main biomedical journal indexes, the modernization of its printing process, the making of a computer generated index of all papers published since 1872, its incorporation into a digital library in INTERNET and the active participation of its editors in the World Association of Medical Journal Editors. The success of the journal is influenced by the independence that the Medical Society has conferred to the editors (all outstanding University Professors), as well as to the characteristics of an educational campus "invisible and without tumult" (Ingelfinger).
Borus, Jonathan F; Alexander, Erik K; Bierer, Barbara E; Bringhurst, F Richard; Clark, Christopher; Klanica, Kaley E; Stewart, Erin C; Friedman, Lawrence S
Concerns about the influence of industry support on medical education, research, and patient care have increased in both medical and political circles. Some academic medical centers, questioning whether industry support of medical education could be appropriate and not a conflict of interest, banned such support. In 2009, a Partners HealthCare System commission concluded that interactions with industry remained important to Partners' charitable academic mission and made recommendations to transparently manage such relationships. An Education Review Board (ERB) was created to oversee and manage all industry support of Partners educational activities.Using a case review method, the ERB developed guidelines to implement the commission's recommendations. A multi-funder rule was established that prohibits industry support from only one company for any Partners educational activity. Within that framework, the ERB established guidelines on industry support of educational conferences, clinical fellowships, and trainees' expenses for attending external educational programs; gifts of textbooks and other educational materials; promotional opportunities associated with Partners educational activities; Partners educational activities under contract with an industry entity; and industry-run programs using Partners resources.Although many changes have resulted from the implementation of the ERB guidelines, the number of industry grants for Partners educational activities has remained relatively stable, and funding for these activities declined only moderately during the first three full calendar years (2011-2013) of ERB oversight. The ERB continually educates both the Partners community and industry about the rationale for its guidelines and its openness to their refinement in response to changes in the external environment.
Goosby, Eric P; von Zinkernagel, Deborah
The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) and Nursing Education Partnership Initiative (NEPI) are innovative approaches to strengthening the academic and clinical training of physicians and nurses in Sub-Saharan African countries, which are heavily burdened by HIV/AIDS. Begun in 2010 by the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief with the National Institutes of Health, investments in curricula, innovative learning technologies, clinical mentoring, and research opportunities are providing a strong base to advance high-quality education for growing numbers of urgently needed new physicians and nurses in these countries. The MEPI and NEPI focus on strengthening learning institutions is central to the vision for expanding the pool of health professionals to meet the full range of a country's health needs. A robust network of exchange between education institutions and training facilities, both within and across countries, is transforming the quality of medical education and augmenting a platform for research opportunities for faculty and clinicians, which also serves as an incentive to retain professionals in the country. Excellence in patient care and a spirit of professionalism, core to MEPI and NEPI, provide a strong foundation for the planning and delivery of health services in participating countries.
Carlson, Peggy, Ed.
The technology explosion in medical education has led to the use of computer models, videotapes, interactive videos, and state-of-the-art simulators in medical training. This booklet describes alternatives to using animals in medical education. Although it is mainly intended to describe products applicable to medical school courses, high-quality,…
Beckers, Stefan K; Timmermann, Arnd; Müller, Michael P; Angstwurm, Matthias; Walcher, Felix
Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21); problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10), e-learning at 3% (n = 1), and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4). In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions) are favoured (89%, n = 31), partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11). Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15), objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10) or oral examinations (17%, n = 6). Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard level of education
Rosenblum, Ruth K.; Sprague-McRae, Julie
School nurses require ongoing continuing education in a number of areas. The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) framework can be utilized in considering school nurses' roles and developing continuing education. Focusing on neurology continuing education, the QSEN framework is illustrated with the example of concussion management…
Balkanci, Z. Dicle; Pehlivanoglu, Bilge
Physiology education, which occupies an important place in undergraduate medical education, exhibits diversities across the world. Since there was no specific source of information about physiology education in Turkish medical faculties, the authors aimed to evaluate the general status of undergraduate physiology teaching of medical students in…
Colwell, N. P.
This bulletin documents: (1) a quarter century's progress in medical education, including inadequate governmental control over medical education, action by a voluntary agency, legal power v. publicity, greatly enlarged teaching plants, hospitals as related to medical education, hospital internships, and the hospital as an important educational…
Affirmative action programs of all types are under attack legally and politically. Although medical schools have not been specifically targeted, their affirmative action programs, like others in higher education, are potentially in danger. This article examines the current legal status of affirmative action in medical education and concludes that a refurbished defense of such programs is essential if they are to survive impending judicial and political scrutiny. An analysis of existing case law and available evidence suggests that a carefully reinvigorated diversity argument is the tactic most likely to pass constitutional muster, as well as the justification most likely to blunt growing public and political opposition to admissions policies that take race and ethnicity into consideration. PMID:10432920
Ruiz, Jorge G; Mintzer, Michael J; Leipzig, Rosanne M
The authors provide an introduction to e-learning and its role in medical education by outlining key terms, the components of e-learning, the evidence for its effectiveness, faculty development needs for implementation, evaluation strategies for e-learning and its technology, and how e-learning might be considered evidence of academic scholarship. E-learning is the use of Internet technologies to enhance knowledge and performance. E-learning technologies offer learners control over content, learning sequence, pace of learning, time, and often media, allowing them to tailor their experiences to meet their personal learning objectives. In diverse medical education contexts, e-learning appears to be at least as effective as traditional instructor-led methods such as lectures. Students do not see e-learning as replacing traditional instructor-led training but as a complement to it, forming part of a blended-learning strategy. A developing infrastructure to support e-learning within medical education includes repositories, or digital libraries, to manage access to e-learning materials, consensus on technical standardization, and methods for peer review of these resources. E-learning presents numerous research opportunities for faculty, along with continuing challenges for documenting scholarship. Innovations in e-learning technologies point toward a revolution in education, allowing learning to be individualized (adaptive learning), enhancing learners' interactions with others (collaborative learning), and transforming the role of the teacher. The integration of e-learning into medical education can catalyze the shift toward applying adult learning theory, where educators will no longer serve mainly as the distributors of content, but will become more involved as facilitators of learning and assessors of competency.
Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei
Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.
Medical education is now suffused with concepts that have their source outside the traditional scientific and medical disciplines: concepts such as holism, connectedness and reflective practice. Teaching of these, and other problematic concepts such as medical uncertainty and error, has been defined more by the challenge they pose to the standard model rather than being informed by a strong positive understanding. This challenge typically involves a critical engagement with the idea of objectivity, which is rarely acknowledged as an inherently metaphysical critique. Consequently, these ideas prove to be difficult to teach well. I suggest that the lack of an integrating, positive narrative is the reason for teaching difficulty, and propose that what is needed is an explicit commitment to teach the metaphysics of medicine, with the concept of holism being the fulcrum on which the remaining concepts turn. An acknowledged metaphysical narrative will encompass the scientific realism that medical students typically bring to their tertiary education, and at the same time enable a bigger picture to be drawn that puts the newer and more problematic concepts into context.
Logan, Judith R; Price, Susan L
The core curriculum in the education of medical informaticians remains a topic of concern and discussion. This paper reports on a survey of medical informaticians with Master's level credentials that asked about computer science (CS) topics or skills that they need in their employment. All subjects were graduates or "near-graduates" of a single medical informatics Master's program that they entered with widely varying educational backgrounds. The survey instrument was validated for face and content validity prior to use. All survey items were rated as having some degree of importance in the work of these professionals, with retrieval and analysis of data from databases, database design and web technologies deemed most important. Least important were networking skills and object-oriented design and concepts. These results are consistent with other work done in the field and suggest that strong emphasis on technical skills, particularly databases, data analysis, web technologies, computer programming and general computer science are part of the core curriculum for medical informatics.
Bernardo, Lisa Marie; Stein, Howard
To enhance school nurses' knowledge, skills and abilities to impact youth overweight and obesity, we designed, implemented and evaluated three on-site continuing education workshops. These workshops were converted to an on-line learning management system. Suggestions for how school nurses can replicate our processes for delivery of continuing education are discussed.
Deets, Carol; Blume, Dorothy
This paper presented at the 1976 National Conference on Continuing Education in Nursing describes evaluation methodology used to determine the effectiveness of different continuing education offerings in nursing. The evaluation design, workshops for inservice directors, findings and problems, and examples of three evaluation forms used are…
Cuppett, Marchell M.
Examined the self-perceived continuing education needs of certified athletic trainers and factors affecting those needs. Survey data indicated that trainers perceived some to moderate need for continuing education in all domains investigated, particularly in the areas of rehabilitation of athletic injuries and programs for the back and neck.…
Clagett, Craig A.; McConochie, Daniel D.
Although only Ohio has issued statewide standards for noncredit continuing education and a few other states have looked at such a process, most of the literature on student outcomes focuses exclusively on degree-credit programs. A college, university, or state system might want to assess continuing education outcomes for the following reasons: to…
Blat, Gimeno J.
This article discusses the importance of continuing education for teachers and various aspects of the problem which should be considered. The role and function of the teacher is discussed; continuing education must assist in developing the teacher's ability to fulfill that role. The ever-changing demands on the teacher mean that the teacher's…
Young, Anita M.
Extensive research indicates that adults learn best when they are motivated, self-directed and choose what and how they learn. This project focuses on continuing pharmacy education and seeks to answer the question: "How can pharmacists be motivated to participate in continuing pharmacy education programs because they want to, not because they…
Cervero, Ronald M.; Yang, Baiyin
Cluster analysis of responses from 551 veterinarians (63%) participating in continuing professional education supported Houle's typology of professionals as innovators, pacesetters, middle majority, or laggards, in terms of their attitude toward and previous participation in continuing education, expectations of significant others, and personal…
Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, Atlanta, GA. Commission on Colleges.
This handbook, directed to administrators and program planners, provides guidelines for implementing the Continuing Education Unit (CEU), the basic unit of measurement for organized continuing education activities. The Standard Nine Study, a survey of 415 of the 560 member institutions of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, revealed…
Toombs, William; Lindsay, Carl A.
The Continuing Professional Education Project at The Pennsylvania State University is described. Five professions were involved: architecture, accounting, clinical psychology, clinical dietetics, and nursing. The objectives were: (1) to bring the university and the professions into collaboration, (2) to focus continuing education activities as…
Stevens, Joyce; Latshaw, Lois L.
The final report summarized the development of a health occupations continuing education center. The project was designed to assess the needs of selected health occupations at the vocational level and to develop guidelines for the establishment of a model for a health occupations continuing education center. The learning needs of licensed…
Abbatt, F. R.; Mejia, A.
This book is intended to promote the development of systems of continuing education and describe some of the principles involved in establishing them, at either a national or regional level. The book is designed for workshop organizers, workshop participants, and persons interested in promoting continuing education systems. Resources are provided…
University Continuing Education Association, Washington, DC.
This publication profiles four award-winning programs honored in 1997 by the University Continuing Education Association. The four programs have instituted imaginative continuing higher education responses to important community needs. In all four cases, the focus is on developing human resources to support local employment and enhance the…
Smith, Jayne L.; Cervero, Ronald M.; Valentine, Thomas
Introduction: There is a serious debate over the involvement of the pharmaceutical industry in continuing education. Policies that govern the planning of continuing education for pharmacists center on the potential conflict of interest when there is commercial support for programs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of…
McWilliam, Carol L.
As the evidence-based practice movement gains momentum, continuing education practitioners increasingly confront the challenge of developing and conducting opportunities for achieving research uptake. Recent thinking invites new approaches to continuing education for health professionals, with due consideration of what knowledge merits uptake by…
National Univ. Extension Association, Washington, DC.
This document is a compilation of manuscripts describing seven programs which received the 1976 American College Testing Program and the National University Extension Association Innovative Awards in Continuing Education for making innovative contributions to the improvement of continuing education. Entry manuscripts for each of the following…
Lawton, Stephen B.; Donaldson, E. Lisbeth
An investigation into the costs of adult continuing education in Ontario was conducted to provide information that could be used in setting the level of provincial grants for continuing education programs. The research was carried out over a 6-month period from April to October 1987. The research strategy involved three stages: a review of the…
Billett, Stephen; Choy, Sarojni; Dymock, Darryl; Smith, Ray; Henderson, Amanda; Tyler, Mark; Kelly, Ann
This is the final report of a three-year research project that aimed to identify and evaluate the potential models and practices of learning support that might constitute a national approach to workers' continuing education and training. The identification of a national approach to continuing education and training is emerging as a priority for…
In this chapter, the author explores a variety of aspects of continuing professional education for teachers and university and college faculty members. She discusses the kinds of knowledge that are addressed and the role of online learning in continuing professional education.
Coates, Wendy C; Love, Jeffrey N; Santen, Sally A; Hobgood, Cherri D; Mavis, Brian E; Maggio, Lauren A; Farrell, Susan E
As the definition of scholarship is clarified, each specialty should develop a cadre of medical education researchers who can design, test, and optimize educational interventions. In 2004, the Association for American Medical Colleges' Group on Educational Affairs developed the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program to provide a curriculum to help medical educators acquire or enhance skills in medical education research, to promote effective collaboration with seasoned researchers, and to create better consumers of medical education scholarship. MERC courses are offered to individuals during educational meetings. Educational leaders in emergency medicine (EM) identified a disparity between the "scholarship of teaching" and medical education research skills, and they collaborated with the MERC steering committee to develop a mentored faculty development program in medical education research. A planning committee comprising experienced medical education researchers who are also board-certified, full-time EM faculty members designed a novel approach to the MERC curriculum: a mentored team approach to learning, grounded in collaborative medical education research projects. The planning committee identified areas of research interest among participants and formed working groups to collaborate on research projects during standard MERC workshops. Rather than focusing on individual questions during the course, each mentored group identified a single study hypothesis. After completing the first three workshops, group members worked under their mentors' guidance on their multiinstitutional research projects. The expected benefits of this approach to MERC include establishing a research community network, creating projects whose enrollments offer a multiinstitutional dimension, and developing a cadre of trained education researchers in EM.
Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P
This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education.
Al-Eraky, Mohamed Mostafa
Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals that teaching medical professionalism is essential, yet challenging. According to a recent Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) guide, there is no consensus on a theoretical or practical model to integrate the teaching of professionalism into medical education. The aim of this article is to outline a practical manual for teaching professionalism at all levels of medical education. Drawing from research literature and author's experience, Twelve Tips are listed and organised in four clusters with relevance to (1) the context, (2) the teachers, (3) the curriculum, and (4) the networking. With a better understanding of the guiding educational principles for teaching medical professionalism, medical educators will be able to teach one of the most challenging constructs in medical education.
Reports on the curriculum development process used as part of teacher education, identifying problems of teacher time and effort, relationship to the practical demands of classroom teaching, and links with other aspects of teacher's work. (Author/CK)
Bibault, J-E; Denis, F; Marchesi, V; Lisbona, A; Noël, G; Mahé, M A
Stereotactic body radiation therapy is a rapidly growing advanced treatment technique that delivers high radiation dose with great precision. The implementation of stereotactic body radiation therapy should be associated with a specific initial training and continuing professional education for radiation oncologists and medical physicists. The creation of a French stereotactic body radiation therapy group gathering radiation oncologists (SFRO and AFCOR) and medical physicists (SFPM) is mandatory in order to create dedicated national guidelines, prospective databases and to promote clinical trials in this field.
Fry, Carlton F.; And Others
The use of a telemedicine system (live, color microwave television transmission with two-way auditory and visual communication capability) to teach a course in critical care nursing from an urban university medical center to staff members in rural southeastern Ohio hospitals is described. (MS)
Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Shuhei; Hosoba, Minoru; Okuda, Yasuo; Konishi, Yasuhiko; Ikeda, Ryuji
The purpose of this study was to clarify actual conditions and problems in medical information education and to propose the educational concept to be adopted in medical information. A questionnaire survey was carried out by the anonymous method in June 2008. The survey was intended for 40 radiological technology schools. The questionnaire items were as follows: (1) educational environment in medical information education, (2) content of a lecture in medical information, (3) problems in medical information education. The response rate was 55.0% (22 schools). Half of the responding schools had a laboratory on medical information. Seventeen schools had a medical information education facility, and out of them, approximately 50% had an educational medical information system. The main problems of the medical information education were as follows: (a) motivation of the students is low, (b) the educational coverage and level for medical information are uncertain, (c) there are not an appropriate textbook and educational guidance. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is necessary to have a vision of medical information education in the education of radiological technologists.