Marichal, J F
Among the dialysis method, Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) is considered as simple, efficient, economical and giving autonomy to the patient. After more than ten year using Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis, results are evaluated. The method remains simple, but the obvious simplicity demands a strict medical control. It is efficient, but the hope in anemia and osteodystrophy correction is not confirmed. It offers more freedom but with a lot of restraints: the dietary restriction must be followed and there is only relative moving autonomia. It is economical, but the costs with the use of disconnectable systems which reduce morbidity, bring it near to the home hemodialysis.
Abraham, Georgi; Mathew, Milli; Hinduja, Anish; Padma, G
Chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) has been initiated as a treatment modality for chronic renal failure patients in the Indian subcontinent since 1990. Over a period of 9 years both continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) have emerged as accepted forms of renal replacement therapy in our country. Although there were government restrictions on import of dialysis fluid until 1993, the availability of locally manufactured fluid in collapsible bags had facilitated the expansion of the programme to the far corners of the country and in neighbouring countries. Initially majority (78%) of the patients who were started on this programme were diabetics with other comorbid conditions who were drop-outs from haemodialysis and unfit for transplantation. Both CAPD and CCPD have been used for all age groups and for men and women. Majority of the patients do 3 x 2 l exchanges a day on CAPD; 8-10 l using a cycler at night those who are onCCPD. Peritonitis rate was 1 episode every 18 patient months. With the introduction of new connection and disposable sets the incidence of peritonitis is dropping down. The major cause of drop-out is cardiovascular death followed by peritonitis. Malnutrition is a major problem in both CAPD and haemodialysis patients. The programme has been expanded and there are over one thousand patients on this treatment in the country. The introduction of CPD had a major impact on the treatment of renal failure in India.
von Graevenitz, A; Amsterdam, D
The process of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis has provided a useful, relatively inexpensive, and safe alternative for patients with end-stage renal disease. Infectious peritonitis, however, has limited a more widespread acceptance of this technique. The definition of peritonitis in this patient population is not universally accepted and does not always include the laboratory support of a positive culture (or Gram stain). In part, the omission of clinical microbiological findings stems from the lack of sensitivity of earlier microbiological efforts. Peritonitis results from decreased host phagocytic efficiency with depressed phagocytosis and bactericidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages. During episodes of peritonitis, fluid movement is reversed, away from the lymphatics and peritoneal membrane and toward the cavity. As a result, bloodstream infections are rare. Most peritonitis episodes are caused by bacteria. Coagulase-negative staphylococci are the most frequently isolated organisms, usually originating from the skin flora, but a wide array of microbial species have been documented as agents of peritonitis. Clinical microbiology laboratories need to be cognizant of the diverse agents so that appropriate primary media can be used. The quantity of dialysate fluid that is prepared for culture is critical and should constitute at least 10 ml. The sensitivity of the cultural approach depends on the volume of dialysate, its pretreatment (lysis or centrifugation), the media used, and the mode of incubation. The low concentration of microorganisms in dialysate fluids accounts for negative Gram stain results. Prevention of infection in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients is associated with the socioeconomic status of the patient, advances in equipment (catheter) technology, and, probably least important, the application of prophylactic antimicrobial agents. PMID:1735094
Polo, J R; Luño, J; Menarguez, C; Gallego, E; Robles, R; Hernandez, P
A 48-year-old man receiving maintenance hemodialysis for 3 years and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 1 year developed a clinical picture compatible with peritonitis. Three successive fluid cultures were negative, and only after filtration of a large volume of peritoneal fluid a fungus identified as a Rhizopus sp was isolated in cultures of the filtering devices. The same fungus was also isolated from the peritoneal catheter cuff. Intravenous amphotericin B was administered and both the abdominal and general conditions of the patient improved transiently. Twenty days after initiation of antifungal treatment, a clinical suspicion of intestinal perforation arose and an exploratory laparotomy was scheduled, but the patient died during the anesthetic induction. The patient never received deferoxamine; any conditions predisposing to mucormycosis, such as diabetes or immunosuppression, were also absent.
Tsai, T C; Hsu, J C; Chou, L H; Lee, M L
We present a 13-year-old girl with Arnold-Chiari syndrome and uremia secondary to neurogenic bladder. She had been treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 13 months prior to the development of peritonitis. The patient demonstrated no improvement with a 3-day therapy of intraperitoneal vancomycin and netilmicin. Meanwhile, smear of centrifuged dialysate revealed acid fast bacilli on two occasions. We, then, started anti-TB therapy with oral isoniazid (INAH), rifampin and ethambutal. The symptoms subsided within three days. In the first week, the patient lost her peritoneal ultrafiltration and needed daytime automatic peritoneal dialysis. At the last follow-up examination, 12 months after treatment, she remained well on standard CAPD.
Wu, G.; Khanna, R.; Vas, S. I.; Digenis, G.; Oreopoulos, D. G.
Many patients with end-stage renal disease have now been maintained for 5 years or more with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Viewed initially as an experimental alternative to be used only when hemodialysis was not feasible, CAPD is now seen as the treatment of choice in an increasing number of situations. CAPD is suitable for self-care. The main concern in the early years--peritonitis--is now less frightening and less frequent (one episode occurring every 18 patient-months as compared with every 8 initially), and this has allowed chronic complications of CAPD, such as malnutrition and loss of the peritoneum's capacity for ultrafiltration, to come to light. As would be expected, among patients of advanced age and those who have heart disease or diabetes, survival rates tend to be lower than among other CAPD patients. However, hypertension seems to be more easily controlled, pre-existing anemia can be significantly ameliorated, and young children grow more normally than they do with hemodialysis. Diabetes-related changes in vision stabilize in most CAPD patients, and control of the blood glucose level is good; insulin is administered intraperitoneally. CAPD is thus showing itself to be a feasible form of long-term treatment for end-stage renal disease. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6697277
Apostolovic, B L; Velickovic-Radovanovic, R M; Andjelkovic-Apostolovic, M R; Cvetkovic, T P; Dinic, M M; Radivojevic, J D
Burkholderia cepacia (B cepacia) is a rare opportunistic pathogen in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis. We describe the first case of repeated B cepacia CAPD peritonitis, occurring in an outpatient environment, treated with antimicrobial medication without peritoneal catheter removal. B cepacia may lead to repeat infection, therefore, we should insist on catheter removal during each peritonitis episode.
Apostolovic, BL; Velickovic-Radovanovic, RM; Andjelkovic-Apostolovic, MR; Cvetkovic, TP; Dinic, MM; Radivojevic, JD
ABSTRACT Burkholderia cepacia (B cepacia) is a rare opportunistic pathogen in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis. We describe the first case of repeated B cepacia CAPD peritonitis, occurring in an outpatient environment, treated with antimicrobial medication without peritoneal catheter removal. B cepacia may lead to repeat infection, therefore, we should insist on catheter removal during each peritonitis episode. PMID:26426187
Okada, K; Takahashi, S; Higuchi, T; Kinoshita, Y; Kikuchi, F; Yamauchi, T; Yanai, M; Kuno, T; Nagura, Y
We investigated how long continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) could be continued in the face of peritoneal sclerosis. 15 CAPD patients with no experience of peritonitis were selected and the time limitation for CAPD was examined retrospectively, based on the dialysate osmolality, serum creatinine concentration, etc.. The values for the dialysate osmolality and serum creatinine concentration increased gradually with the duration of CAPD and were significantly increased from 6 months. 5 patients whose serum creatinine concentration during the first 6 months after initiation of CAPD increased more than 5 mg/dl, could not continue CAPD for more than 24 months because of the appearance of peritoneal membrane failure. When the time limitation for CAPD was assessed in 10 stable patients, close relationships between the mean dialysate osmolality and duration of CAPD (Y = 0.52X + 351.25, r = 0.83, P < 0.01), and between the mean serum creatinine concentration and duration of CAPD (Y = 0.18X + 6.84, r = 0.95, P < 0.001) were recognized. If the practical limitation for CAPD was set at 400 mOsm/l in terms of the dialysate osmolality or 20 mg/dl in terms of serum creatinine concentration, its value became 94.1 months or 73.1 months, respectively. It is concluded that the time limitation for CAPD can be expected to be approximately 6 to 8 years in stable CAPD patients, and we need to resolve CAPD-induced problems involving the peritoneal membrane in order to continue CAPD for more than 10 years.
Hod, T; Kushnir, R; Paitan, Y; Korzets, Z
Mycobacterium fortuitum group species is an atypical rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterium. It has been increasingly recognized as a potential pathogen mostly encountered in skin and soft tissue infections. Rarely, however, it has been associated with catheter-related infections, either central venous lines or peritoneal dialysis catheters. In this report we describe 2 patients maintained on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis who developed Mycobacterium fortuitum peritonitis and a catheter tunnel abscess, respectively. Molecular biology identification of the isolates was performed in both cases. The literature is reviewed regarding all similar cases.
Sangwan, Jyoti; Lathwal, Sumit; Kumar, Satish; Juyal, Deepak
Mycobacterium fortuitum, an environmental organism, is capable of producing a variety of clinical infections such as cutaneous infections, abscesses and nosocomial infections. Rarely, it has been a documented as a cause of peritonitis in patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is one of the treatment options which are used for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Although peritonitis rates have declined in parallel with advances in peritoneal dialysis (PD) technology, peritonitis remains a leading complication of CAPD and it is the major cause for transfer to other methods of dialysis. We are reporting a case of M. fortuitum peritonitis in a patient who was undergoing CAPD, which was successfully treated. This case emphasizes the importance of mycobacterial cultures in patients with CAPD-associated peritonitis, whose routine cultures may yield no organisms.
Mettang, T; Stoeltzing, H; Alscher, D M; Magadum, S; Dunst, R; Kuhlmann, U
Controversy still exists as to whether peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment can be safely continued after herniotomy. Many nephrologists withhold PD treatment for several weeks after herniotomy for fear of dialysate leakage and hernia recurrence. Here, we report on 9 patients (2 women, 7 men) in whom herniotomy was performed for umbilical (n = 3), inguinal (n = 5), or cicatricial hernia (n = 2), or for open processus vaginalis (n = 2). Surgery was performed according to the Lichtenstein method with insertion of a polypropylene mesh and ligation of the hernia sac. In all patients, PD treatment was paused for the day of surgery and for 1-3 days postoperatively, depending on residual renal function. Over the next several days, low-volume (1.0-1.5 L), high-frequency (6 per day) exchanges were started. The patient's original PD regimen was gradually reinstated over the next 2-4 weeks. All patients recovered rapidly, with no uremia or dialysis-related complications. Particularly, no leakage and no hernia recurrence could be observed 3 months thereafter. None of the patients had to be hemodialyzed intercurrently. In conclusion, continuing a modified regimen of CAPD treatment after herniotomy seems to be safe, with excellent patient comfort.
Bibashi, Evangelia; Sofianou, Danai; Kontopoulou, Konstantina; Mitsopoulos, Efstathios; Kokolina, Elisabeth
Roseomonas is a newly described genus of pink-pigmented, nonfermentative, gram-negative bacteria that have been recognized as a cause of human infections. Roseomonas fauriae is a species rarely isolated from clinical specimens. We report the first known case of peritonitis caused by R. fauriae in a patient receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. PMID:10618142
Shaer, A J; Gadegbeku, C A
A case of Tsukamurella peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis in a 23-year-old woman is described. The organism was difficult to identify and was mistaken for Corynebacterium and atypical mycobacteria. Despite prolonged, multidrug, antimicrobial therapy with conventional antibiotics including vancomycin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, gentamicin and ceftazidime, catheter removal was required to successfully treat peritonitis. Human infection due to this organism is rare and has been previously reported in only 13 cases, 1 of which was peritonitis. We describe here the second case of Tsukamurella peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis.
Magnussen, Eyð Tausen; Vang, Amanda Gratton; á Steig, Torkil; Gaini, Shahin
We present a case where Bacillus cereus was determined to be the causative agent of relapsing peritonitis in a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The patient, a 70-year-old man from the Faroe Islands, was admitted with relapsing peritonitis four times over a 3-month period. Peritoneal cultures were positive for growth of B. cereus, a rare bacterial cause of peritonitis. The cultures demonstrated susceptibility to vancomycin, and therefore the patient was treated with intraperitoneal vancomycin, intraperitoneal gentamycin and oral ciprofloxacin. As a result of the relapsing B. cereus peritonitis diagnosis and a CT scan showing contraction of the peritoneum after longstanding inflammation, the peritoneal catheter was removed and the patient converted to haemodialysis. To date, the patient has not been readmitted due to peritonitis. A lack of proper hygiene when changing the dialysis bag was the suspected source of infection with B. cereus. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Burgess, E D; Blair, A D
The pharmacokinetics of ceftizoxime were studied in 12 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. After a 3-g intravenous dose, the steady-state volume of distribution was 0.23 +/- 0.05 liter kg-1, with an elimination half-life of 9.7 +/- 5.1 h. The peritoneal clearance of ceftizoxime (2.8 +/- 0.7 ml min-1) contributed modestly to the overall serum clearance of the drug (17.1 +/- 7.4 ml min-1) and was greater than the renal clearance (0.8 +/- 0.8 ml min-1). The peritoneal concentration rose to 91 +/- 29 micrograms ml-1 at 6 h, which was 0.61 +/- 0.17 of the serum concentration. A 3-g intravenous dose of ceftizoxime given every 48 h would result in adequate activity against most susceptible organisms, but more frequent dosing may be necessary for less susceptible organisms. PMID:6314887
Barbhaiya, R H; Knupp, C A; Pfeffer, M; Zaccardelli, D; Dukes, G M; Mattern, W; Pittman, K A; Hak, L J
The pharmacokinetics of cefepime were studied in 10 male patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis therapy. Five patients received a single 1,000-mg dose and the other five received a single 2,000-mg dose; all doses were given as 30-min intravenous infusions. Serial plasma, urine, and peritoneal dialysate samples were collected; and the concentrations of cefepime in these fluids were measured over 72 h by using a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental methods. The peak concentrations in plasma and the areas under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve for the 2,000-mg dose group were twice as high as those observed for the 1,000-mg dose group. The elimination half-life of cefepime was about 18 h and was independent of the dose. The steady-state volume of distribution was about 22 liters, and values for the 1,000- and 2,000-mg doses were not significantly different. The values for total body clearance and peritoneal dialysis clearance were about 15 and 4 ml/min, respectively. No dose dependency was observed for the clearance estimates. Over the 72-h sampling period, about 26% of the dose was excreted intact into the peritoneal dialysis fluid. For 48 h postdose, mean concentrations of cefepime in dialysate at the end of each dialysis interval exceeded the reported MICs for 90% of the isolates (MIC90s) for bacteria which commonly cause peritonitis resulting from continuous peritoneal dialysis. A parenteral dose of 1,000 or 2,000 mg of cefepime every 48 h would maintain the antibiotic levels in plasma and peritoneal fluid above the MIC90s for the most susceptible bacteria for the treatment of systemic and intraperitoneal infections [corrected]. PMID:1510432
Nine nurses were interviewed to determine nurses' experiences of teaching patients to use continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The material was analyzed using content analysis. Data were sorted into four themes and ten subthemes. The themes were presented as follows: Importance of language, individualized teaching, teaching needs and structure of care in teaching. The findings highlighted important insights into how nurses experience teaching patients to perform CAPD. The study revealed some barriers for the nurses during teaching. The major barrier was shortage of Arabic speaking nursing staff. Incidental findings involved two factors that played an important role in teaching, retraining and a special team to perform pre-assessments, including home visits. In conclusion, the findings of this study showed several factors that are considered as barriers for the nurses during teaching the CAPD patients and the need to improve the communication and teaching in the peritoneal dialysis units, including the importance of individualized teaching.
Hsieh, Yao-Peng; Wang, Shu-Chuan; Chang, Chia-Chu; Wen, Yao-Ko; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Yang, Yu
♦ Background: Peritonitis rate has been reported to be associated with technique failure and overall mortality in previous literatures. However, information on the impact of the timing of the first peritonitis episode on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients is sparse. The aim of this research is to study the influence of time to first peritonitis on clinical outcomes, including technique failure, patient mortality and dropout from peritoneal dialysis (PD). ♦ Methods: A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted over 10 years at a single PD unit in Taiwan. A total of 124 patients on CAPD with at least one peritonitis episode comprised the study subjects, which were dichotomized by the median of time to first peritonitis into either early peritonitis patients or late peritonitis patients. Cox proportional hazard model was used to analyze the correlation of the timing of first peritonitis with clinical outcomes. ♦ Results: Early peritonitis patients were older, more diabetic and had lower serum levels of creatinine than the late peritonitis patients. Early peritonitis patients were associated with worse technique survival, patient survival and stay on PD than late peritonitis patients, as indicated by Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank test, p = 0.04, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). In the multivariate Cox regression model, early peritonitis was still a significant predictor for technique failure (hazard ratio (HR), 0.54; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.30 - 0.98), patient mortality (HR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.13 - 0.92) and dropout from PD (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.30 - 0.82). In continuous analyses, a 1-month increase in the time to the first peritonitis episode was associated with a 2% decreased risk of technique failure (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.97 - 0.99), a 3% decreased risk of patient mortality (HR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95 - 0.99), and a 2% decreased risk of dropout from PD (HR, 98%; 95% CI, 0.97 - 0.99). Peritonitis rate was inversely
Tian, Yuanshi; Xie, Xishao; Xiang, Shilong; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shou, Zhangfei; Chen, Jianghua
Abstract Peritonitis remains a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). A high peritonitis rate (HPR) affects continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients’ technique survival and mortality. Predictors and outcomes of HPR, rather than the first peritonitis episode, were rarely studied in the Chinese population. In this study, we examined the risk factors associated with HPR and its effects on clinical outcomes in CAPD patients. This is a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 294 patients who developing at least 1 episode of peritonitis were followed up from March 1st, 2002, to July 31, 2014, in our PD center. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with HPR, and the Cox proportional hazard model was conducted to assess the effects of HPR on clinical outcomes. During the study period of 2917.5 patient-years, 489 episodes of peritonitis were recorded, and the total peritonitis rate was 0.168 episodes per patient-year. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with HPR include a quick occurrence of peritonitis after CAPD initiation (shorter than 12 months), and a low serum albumin level at the start of CAPD. In the Cox proportional hazard model, HPR was a significant predictor of technique failure. There were no differences between HPR and low peritonitis rate (LPR) group for all-cause mortality. However, when the peritonitis rate was considered as a continuous variable, a positive correlation was observed between the peritonitis rate and mortality. We found the quick peritonitis occurrence after CAPD and the low serum albumin level before CAPD were strongly associated with an HPR. Also, our results verified that HPR was positively correlated with technique failure. More importantly, the increase in the peritonitis rate suggested a higher risk of all-cause mortality. These results may help to identify and target patients who are at higher risk of HPR at the start
Ramanathan, Kumaresan; Padmanabhan, Giri; Vijayaraghavan, Bhooma
Severe peritonitis causing death is one of the most devastating complications of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Since the predictive value of C-reactive protein (CRP) in PD fluid has not been assessed, the objective of the present study is to evaluate its predictive value and clinical correlation in patients on PD with peritonitis. One hundred and twenty patients on continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) were enrolled and their serum and fluid CRP (Fl. CRP) were evaluated at the start of CAPD. All patients who developed peritonitis were further evaluated for serum and fluid CRP. The patients were categorized into four groups, namely: normal patients (control group), patients with peritonitis, patients with peritonitis leading to catheter removal, and death due to peritonitis. Sixty-five patients developed peritonitis of whom, catheter removal was performed in eight patients. Five patients died due to peritonitis-related complications. Fl. CRP showed a significant difference among the three groups, unlike S. CRP. Estimation of CRP in the peritoneal fluid may be a useful marker to monitor the onset of peritonitis.
Shin, Sung Joon; Gwak, Won-Gun
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is known as a pathogen of occupational diseases or a zoonosis. We report a case of E. rhusiopathiae peritonitis in a 50-yr-old male undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). He was suffered from mild abdominal pain with a distinctive erysipeloid skin lesion. E. rhusiopathiae was considered to be introduced through a lacerated wound on his hand when he was exposed to contaminated materials. He was treated successfully with a first generation cephalosporin. To our knowledge, CAPD peritonitis due to E. rhusiopathiae is very rare, and this is a report of the first case in Asia.
Zhe, Xing-wei; Tian, Xin-kui; Cheng, Lei; Wang, Tao
Volume control is critical for peritoneal dialysis. Although peritoneal equilibration test (PET) has been used to clarify the peritoneal membrane characteristics, it is not able to adequately predict peritoneal fluid removal and optimize appropriately the dwell time. In the present study, we applied computer simulation and performed a more detailed evaluation of the fluid kinetics in patients with different ultrafiltration (UF) capacity. Patients who used three to four exchanges of 2.27% glucose dialysate per day (poor UF capacity group), and patients who used three to four exchanges of 1.36% glucose dialysate per day (good UF capacity group) to achieve adequate amount of peritoneal fluid removal were included in the present analysis. All included patients were asked to record appropriately their dialysis exchanges for the assessment of their peritoneal fluid transport characteristics. Seventeen continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients were selected in the present study, nine in poor UF capacity group and eight in good UF capacity group. Patients in poor UF capacity group had significantly higher daily glucose exposure, higher dialysate-to-plasma ratio of creatinine (D/P creatinine) values, and higher peritoneal fluid absorption rate, K(e), as compared to patients with good UF capacity. Our results suggest that patients with poor UF capacity have significant higher peritoneal small solute transport rate, and more importantly, higher peritoneal fluid absorption rate as compared to patients with good UF capacity.
Uzunoglu, E; Sahin, A M
Paecilomyces variotii (P. variotii) is an extremely rare cause of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis. When diagnosed, it usually portends poor prognosis. Patient's survival depends on early laboratory diagnosis and proper treatment. We herein report a P. variotii peritonitis in a patient on CAPD which is a quite rare clinical entity. Laboratory diagnosis was confirmed via both morphological analysis and DNA sequencing. Antifungal susceptibility tests were performed and interpreted according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute M38-A2 guidelines. After laboratory diagnosis, the patient was treated succesfully with liposomal amphotericin B and itraconazole combination and the peritoneal catheter was removed. This case is worthy of reporting since P. variotii is an uncommon cause of peritonitis and leads to dilemmas in both laboratory diagnosis and treatment strategies.
Sahin, Garip; Kiraz, Nuri; Sahin, Ilknur; Soydan, Mehmet; Akgün, Yurdanur
Background Tuberculosis continues to be an important health problem in the world. Besides pulmonary involvement extrapulmonary involvement becomes an affair in developing countries, even in developed countries. Case presentation A thirty-six year old male patient was admitted with abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and fever which had started one week before. The patient had been followed up with predialisis Chronic Renal Failure(CRF) diagnosis for 4 years and receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) treatment for 4 months. In peritoneal fluid, 1600/mm3 cells were detected and 70% of them were polymorphonuclear leukocytosis. The patient begun nonspesific antibiotherapy but no benefit was obtained after 12 days and peritoneal fluid bacterial cultures remained negative. Peritoneal smear was positive for Asid-fast basilli (AFB), and antituberculosis therapy was started with isoniazid, rifampicine, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. After 15 days his peritoneal fluid cell count was decreased and his symptoms were relieved. Peritoneal fluid tuberculosis culture was found positive. Conclusion Considering this case, we think that in patients with CAPD catheter and peritonitis; when peritoneal fluid leukocytes are high and PMNL are dominant, AFB and tuberculosis culture must be investigated besides bacterial culture routinely. PMID:15461815
Goldman, M; Vandenabeele, P; Moulart, J; Amraoui, Z; Abramowicz, D; Nortier, J; Vanherweghem, J L; Fiers, W
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) was determined in serum and peritoneal dialysis effluent (PDE) of patients on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) by a biological assay measuring the proliferation of the IL-6-dependent 7TD1 cell line. Six patients free of peritonitis displayed low but significant levels of IL-6 (mean +/- 42 pg/ml) in PDE, while IL-6 was undetectable in serum. In 6 patients with staphylococcal peritonitis, a tremendous increase in PDE levels of IL-6 was noted (range: 5,832-37,491 pg/ml), while serum IL-6 remained either undetectable or on a low level except in one case. After 5 days of antibiotic treatment, IL-6 levels in PDE returned to basal values. We conclude that CAPD results in an intraperitoneal secretion of IL-6 which is markedly but transiently increased during peritonitis episodes.
Fan, Xiaoguang; Huang, Rong; Wang, Juan; Ye, Hongjian; Guo, Qunying; Yi, Chunyan; Lin, Jianxiong; Zhou, Qian; Shao, Fengmin; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Xiao
Background The first episode of peritonitis affects survival of the peritoneal membrane as a medium for dialysis as well as survival of patients. The aim of this study is to investigate risk factors associated with the first episode of peritonitis in Southern Chinese continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Methods This is a single-center, retrospective, cohort study. All incident CAPD patients from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2010 were recruited, and followed up until their first episode of peritonitis or 31 December, 2012. Baseline demographic, socioeconomic, clinical and laboratory data were collected. Cox proportional model was used to determine the factors associated with the first episode of peritonitis. Results In a cumulative 30756.5 patient-months follow-up (the median vintage 26.1 months) of 1117 CAPD patients, 309(27.7%) patients presented the first episodes of peritonitis. The cumulative peritonitis-free survival was 86.2%, 78.1%, 71.4% and 57.8% at 1, 2, 3 and 5 year, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with risk for the first episode of peritonitis were elderly patients (>65 years) [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.427, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.051 to 1.938, P = 0.023], male(HR = 1.315, 95% CI = 1.028 to 1.684, P = 0.030), lower education level (HR = 1.446, 95% CI: 1.127 to 1.855, P = 0.004) and albumin <38g/L (HR = 1.425, 95% CI: 1.112 to 1.825, P = 0.005). Conclusions Older age, male, lower educational level and hypoalbuminemia at the commencement of PD were the risk factors associated with the first episode of peritonitis in Southern Chinese CAPD patients. PMID:25222609
Over recent decades, rapid progress in information and telecommunications technology has led to the application of these technologies in the medical field. In 1999, we reported on a telemedicine system (version 1.0) that used an automated peritoneal dialysis machine to collect data on patients with end-stage renal disease. After 2002, we focused on using cellular telephones in a new telemedicine system (version 2.0) to monitor patient data at home, including blood pressure (BP), heart rate, body weight, urine volume, and blood glucose. By 2003, we had developed a fully automatic system called I-converter (version 3.0) to collect data from a fully automatic device and send it via cellular telephone. After the fully automatic device measures a patient's BP, I-converter sends the data directly to the main server in our central data center. That server is directly connected to Web site by application service provider (ASP) technology. Recently, to make the system simpler, we developed a new version called D-converter (version 4.0). The telephone used in this new system is a Personal Handy-phone System (PHS). The PHS has several advantages: high-speed data transmission, low power output, little electromagnetic interference with medical devices, and easy locating of patients. The D-converter system uses a small computer and a PHS card called a Dopa card. Our telemedicine systems monitor continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients at home. For elderly and handicapped patients, these systems are very advantageous because they reduce visits to the outpatient clinic. In addition, data can be monitored at the patient's home in real time. The present paper reports our recent advances in telemedicine systems for CAPD patients.
Wu, George; Kim, Donald; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios G
Since it was introduced in 1976, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) has won acceptance in many centres and it is now regarded as an important alternative to haemodialysis. CAPD patients have comparable and, in some circumstances, better survival than those on chronic haemodialysis. It is indicated particularly in patients with diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular instability and at the extremes of life. The success of kidney transplantation is similar in those maintained on CAPD and on haemodialysis. CAPD also achieves satisfactory physical and psychological rehabilitation, and the quality of life, including the level of sexual function, is similar during CAPD and haemodialysis. Women on CAPD menstruate more often than those on haemodialysis. CAPD provides adequate clearance of metabolic wastes, maintains fluid balance and ameliorates neurotoxic cognitive dysfunction. CAPD gives control of hypertension and anaemia which is superior to that on haemodialysis. Neuropathy remains stable but osteitis fibrosa seems to progress. CAPD is the most economical of the various forms of dialysis. We conclude that CAPD is an adequate form of replacement and should be made available in every nephrology centre providing treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease. PMID:3909582
Martín, Juan; Sansone, Gabriela; Cirugeda, Antonio; Sánchez-Tomero, José A; Muñoz, Cecilia; Selgas, Rafael
Icodextrin is a glucose polymer obtained from starch hydrolysis. It is used as an osmotic agent at 7.5% for peritoneal dialysis (PD). Its use in PD has been associated with several side effects separate from the one reported here, the most frequent being sterile peritonitis. Recently, three mechanisms have been proposed to explain the occurrence of sterile peritonitis: allergy to dextrin, production of anti-dextran antibodies, and impurities introduced during manufacture. Here, we report a peritoneal mononucleosis outbreak that is highly suggestive of being a consequence of the last-mentioned mechanism. During the period December 2001 to May 2002, a group of 8 Spanish hospitals whose individual PD programs regularly share information and activity reported 29 cases of sterile peritonitis associated with icodextrin use in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients [mean age: 60.7 +/- 14.47 years; 8 women (27.59%), 21 men (72.41%); mean time on PD: 25.21 +/- 35.31 months; mean time on icodextrin: 15.17 +/- 11.03 months]. Of the 29 patients, 51.8% showed no symptoms. The remainder presented with mild abdominal discomfort and anorexia. Only 2 patients showed general malaise, severe nausea, fever, and abdominal pain. The initial white cell count in peritoneal effluent was 512 +/- 386 cells/mL (45.0% +/- 28% neutrophils, 44.92% +/- 32.6% mono-nuclear cells, 7.75% +/- 12% eosinophils). In 5 of the patients, we performed an immunophenotype (CD14) study, demonstrating the monocyte nature of 60%-80% (mean: 70.6%) of the cells. Microbiology cultures were always negative. A rechallenge with the same batches of PD fluid was tried. In 100% of the patients, the clinical and cellular patterns relapsed. No short-term changes in peritoneal function have been observed. The manufacturer informed us that the icodextrin was contaminated with a peptidoglycan. In this sterile peritonitis outbreak with a simultaneous, similar clinical presentation in a group of patients
Jo, Young-Il; Song, Jong-Oh; Park, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Ho; Shin, Sug Kyun
Peritoneal fluid eosinophilia (PFE), which is classically associated with idiopathic eosinophilic peritonitis (EP), has been known as a common event in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). However, our recent retrospective study of CAPD patients following percutaneous catheter placement showed that PFE occurred rarely. The aim of this prospective study was to clarify the incidence and characteristics of idiopathic EP and PFE in patients on CAPD following percutaneous catheter placement. Forty-eight patients on CAPD following percutanous catheter placement were recruited for the present study. Peritoneal dialysis was initiated immediately after catheter insertion without break-in period. A cytological study of dialysate was performed on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 14 and 30 after initiation of CAPD, and then monthly for 6 months. In addition, a cytological study was performed also when a patient revealed abdominal pain or cloudy peritoneal effluent. PFE developed in three (6.3%) patients during the study period. The incidence of idiopathic EP and PFE without any clinical findings suggestive of PD-related peritonitis was 2.1% and 4.2% respectively. All cases of PFE, including idiopathic EP, developed on a mean of 13 day following initiation of CAPD and resolved spontaneously after a mean of 7 days. There was no significant difference in IgE levels or the occurrence of peripheral blood eosinophilia between patients with PFE and those without. Idiopathic EP is infrequent among patients on CAPD following percutaneous catheter placement, but should be differentiated from infectious PD-related peritonitis.
McKinnie, J J; Bourgeois, R J; Husserl, F E
This article reports the treatment with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis of a patient with intractable congestive heart failure secondary to an ischemic cardiomyopathy. Although the use of peritoneal dialysis to treat refractory heart failure is not new, the advent of an effective continuous peritoneal dialysis system has allowed its use over prolonged periods of time. The two-year treatment interval described herein represents the longest reported application of this technique, to the best of our knowledge.
Tokmak, Handan; Mudun, Ayşe; Türkmen, Cuneyt; Sanli, Yasemin; Cantez, Sema; Bozfakioğlu, Semra
While continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) offers several advantages over hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease, several complications have been recognized. The intraperitoneal instillation of dialysate increases intra-abdominal pressure and consequently predisposes the patient to leaks and herniations through defects in the abdominal wall. The use of an intraperitoneal radiolabeled colloid has been previously described to image entities such as hernias, patent processus vaginalis, abdominal wall, and diaphragmatic leakage. This study shows a simple, non-invasive method of determining the site of dialysate leak and its importance to assist further patient management. There has been a continuing increase in the number of end stage renal disease patients maintained on chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD). Many patients choose CPD as their preferred chronic dialysis treatment, though approximately 20% of patients who drop out transfer to hemodialysis annually. Although peritonitis remains the major reason for transfer to hemodialysis, other factors such as exit site infections, catheter-related problems, abdominal wall and inguinal hernias, loss of ultrafiltrations, and poor clearance contribute to CPD technique failure. In order to permit the continuation of long-term therapy with CPD, these complications should be resolved. Routine laboratory evaluation or physical examination can detect some CPD-related problems; however, some patients require more complicated investigations to evaluate their problems properly.
Halstenson, C E; Blevins, R B; Salem, N G; Matzke, G R
Eight adult patients without peritonitis maintained on chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) were administered a single oral dose of 320 mg trimethoprim (TMP) and 1600 mg sulfamethoxazole (SMX) to characterize the pharmacokinetics of TMP and SMX. Ten blood samples were drawn following the dose. TMP and SMX-active (SMXA) concentrations were quantified in serum and dialysate. The half-life of TMP and SMXA determined by model independent methods were 33.7 +/- 10.5 h (mean +/- SD) and 13.8 +/- 2.2 h respectively. Total body clearance of TMP was 32.8 +/- 10.1 ml/min and SMXA was 21.9 +/- 6.4 ml/min. CAPD clearance of TMP was 2.27 +/- 0.81 ml/min and SMXA was 1.72 +/- 0.93 ml/min. The average peritoneal dialysate concentrations over the 72-hour collection period of TMP and SMXA were 0.9 +/- 0.1 mg/l and 5.3 +/- 0.8 mg/l respectively. A dose of 320 mg TMP and 1600 mg SMX every 48 hours is recommended for CAPD patients with mild to moderate systemic infections.
Dai, Hui-li; Lin, Ai-wu; Qian, Jia-qi; Fang, Wei; Ni, Zhao-hui; Cao, Li-ou; Lin, Xing-hui; Wu, Qing-wei
To observe the effect of icodextrin on peritoneal membrane angiogenesis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. This was a randomized double-blind perspective study of CAPD patients at our center between January 2006 to December 2006. The patients were randomized to receive either 7.5% icodextrin (ICO, n = 27) or glucose (GLU, n = 27) solution at night for 4 weeks. Peritoneal membrane function was defined as dialysate dwell for 4 hours to plasma ratio of creatinine (4 h D/Pcr) at baseline. Ultrafiltration volume, creatinine clearance (Ccr), VEGF and IL-6 in peritoneal effluent during the long night dwell (UF) dialysate were measured at baseline and after 4 weeks. The VEGF appearance was used to adjust the influences of dwell time and ultrafiltration volume. A total of 54 patients were enrolled. The baseline conditions showed no difference between the groups. After 2 and 4 weeks of therapy, both net UF and peritoneal creatinine clearance of long dwell were significantly higher in the ICO group than the GLU group. VEGF in night dwell PD solution was positively correlated with D/PCr (r = 0.68, P < 0.01)and negatively correlated to 4 hour ultrafiltration volume (r = -0.51, P < 0.01). The VEGF appearance was comparable between two groups at baseline. After a follow-up of 4 weeks, the VEGF appearance had an increasing tendency in the GLU group and a decreasing tendency in the ICO group but there was no significant difference. The ΔVEGF appearance (VEGF appearance in 4 week-VEGF appearance at baseline) was different between the GLU and ICO groups (9.5 ± 20.2 vs -13.4 ± 26.1, P < 0.01). IL-6 in night dwell dialysate had no difference between two groups. As compared with glucose-based solution, 7.5% icodextrin significantly decreases the local VEGF level in dialysate.
Bapat, Usha; Kedlya, Prashanth G
To study the perceived illness intrusion of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, to examine their demographics, and to find out the association among demographics, duration of illness as well as illness intrusion, 40 chronic kidney disease stage V patients on CAPD during 2006-2007 were studied. Inclusion criteria were patients' above 18 years, willing, stable, and completed at least two months of dialysis. Those with psychiatric co-morbidity were excluded. Sociodemographics were collected using a semi-structured interview schedule. A 14-item illness intrusion checklist covering various aspects of life was administered. The subjects had to rate the illness intrusion in their daily life and the extent of intrusion. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi square test of association. The mean age of the subjects was 56.05 ± 10.05 years. There was near equal distribution of gender. 82.5% were married, 70.0% belonged to Hindu religion, 45.0% were pre-degree, 25.0% were employed, 37.5% were housewives and 30.0% had retired. 77.5% belonged to the upper socioeconomic strata, 95.0% were from an urban background and 65.0% were from nuclear families. The mean duration of dialysis was 19.0 ± 16.49 months. Fifty-eight percent of the respondents were performing the dialysis exchanges by themselves. More than 95.0%were on three or four exchanges per day. All the 40 subjects reported illness intrusion in their daily life. Intrusion was perceived to some extent in the following areas: health 47.5%, work 25.0%, finance 37.5%, diet 40.0%, and psychological 50.0%. Illness had not intruded in the areas of relationship with spouse 52.5%, sexual life 30.0%, with friends 92.5%, with family 85.5%, social functions 52.5%, and religious functions 75.0%. Statistically significant association was not noted between illness intrusion and other variables. CAPD patients perceived illness intrusion to some extent in their daily life. Elderly, educated
Sahapozova, E; Ruso, B; Kuzmanovska, D; Tasić, V; Ristoska-Bojkoviska, N
Three children (2 girls and 1 boy) with end-stage renal failure were put in program of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in the period of 2.5 years (January 1995-September 1997). The age of the children at the treatment onset was 5-12 years. One of three children died due to cardiovascular failure after six-month treatment. Two out of three children had a total of 8 episodes of peritonitis in the period of 37 months during the treatment with peritoneal dialysis. The incidence of peritonitis occurrence in our patients was one episode in 4 patients/months. Most frequent cause for peritonitis occurrence was Staphylococcus aureus in 50% of isolated bacteria. Obtained results in peritoneal equilibration test revealed that the transport and ultrafiltration rate of peritoneal membrane decreased after recurrent peritonitis episodes.
Cetin, Nuran; Sav, Nadide Melike; Ciftci, Evrim; Yildiz, Bilal
Foreign body reaction is a tissue response against implanted materials. We described for the first time the eosinophilic peritonitis and foreign body giant cell reaction to dialysis catheter in a nonatopic child on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. We found tenderness, redness, and swelling without purulent discharge around the peritoneal catheter; increased eosinophil count in cloudy dialysis fluid; and blood and hyperechoic granulomatous formation appearance surrounding the peritoneal catheter on ultrasonography and foreign body giant cell reaction to dialysis catheter in pathologic examination of granulomatous lesionin in our patient. The peritoneal dialysis catheter was removed due to resistance to antibiotic and antihistamine treatments for suspected peritonitis and tunnel infection. Foreign body reaction and eosinophilic peritonitis with eosinophilic cloudy dialysis effluent can exist simultaneously. Foreign body reaction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of exit site and/or tunnel infection. Ultrasonography helps distinguish between foreign body reaction and exit-site or tunnel infection.
Sahpazova, E; Ruso, B; Kuzmanovska, D
A 14-year-old girl, with end-stage renal disease on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) the last 4 years, after an episode of Candida albicans was switched to hemodialysis. One month later she came back because of a palpable-painful abdominal mass and abdominal distention. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound examination demonstrated a demarkated fluid collection in the lower abdomen and pelvis. The cyst was drained percutaneously and the culture disclosed candida albicans which was treated with fluconasole. Two months later, the girl was admitted again with the same symptoms. An investigative laparotomy was undergone and the cyst was drained again. Fluid cultures were negative. CT abdomen examination six months later was negative for cyst relapse. In conclusion, intraperitoneal pseudocyst is a serious complication of CAPD. Surgical intervention may be preferable to percutaneous drainage.
Sahpazova, E; Ruso, B; Kuzmanovska, D
A 14-year-old girl, with end-stage renal disease on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) the last 4 years, after an episode of Candida albicans was switched to hemodialysis. One month later she came back because of a palpable painful abdominal mass and abdominal distention. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound examination demonstrated a demarkated fluid collection in the lower abdomen and pelvis. The cyst was drained percutaneously and the culture disclosed candida albicans which was treated with fluconasole. Two months later, the girl was admitted again with the same symptoms. An investigative laparotomy was undergone and the cyst was drained again. Fluid cultures were negative. CT abdomen examination six months later was negative for cyst relapse. In conclusion, intraperitoneal pseudocyst is a serious complication of CAPD. Surgical intervention may be preferable to percutaneous drainage. PMID:19582199
Nicholls, A J; Waldek, S; Platts, M M; Moorhead, P J; Brown, C B
Thirty eight patients aged over 60 with end stage renal disease were treated by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for up to three years. Most of these patients, because of their age or coexisting diseases, had been considered to be unsuitable for haemodialysis by the criteria used before the advent of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in 1980. Actuarial patient survival at one and two years was 72% and 61% respectively, and only two patients were permanently transferred to haemodialysis. Twenty one of the 23 survivors were fully rehabilitated, the remaining two being partially disabled but living at home. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis permits more liberal selection of patients with end stage renal disease for renal replacement treatment with excellent survival and rehabilitation and without overburdening scarce hospital haemodialysis facilities. PMID:6418297
Lee, Sang Hun; Park, Hyeong Cheon; Sim, Soung Rok; Chung, Soo Jin; Kim, Ki Joong; Park, Woo Il; Hong, Soon Won; Ha, Sung Kyu
Icodextrin, a glucose polymer, is widely used as an alternative to glucose as the osmotic agent in peritoneal dialysis (PD). We describe a case of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient who developed severe cutaneous hypersensitivity after initiation of icodextrin PD solution. Erythematous skin lesions gradually disappeared after discontinuation of icodextrin PD solution. Although the safety and efficacy of icodextrin PD solution is well documented, clinicians should be mindful of the possibility of severe adverse cutaneous reactions to icodextrin PD solution.
El-Reshaid, Wael; Al-Disawy, Hanan; Nassef, Hossameldeen; Alhelaly, Usama
Peritonitis is a common complication in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). In this retrospective study, peritonitis rates and patient survival of 180 patients on CAPD and 128 patients on APD were compared in the period from January 2005 to December 2014 at Al-Nafisi Center in Kuwait. All patients had prophylactic topical mupirocin at catheter exit site. Patients on CAPD had twin bag system with Y transfer set. The peritonitis rates were 1 in 29 months in CAPD and 1 in 38 months in APD (p < 0.05). Percentage of peritonitis free patients over 10-year period in CAPD and APD were 49 and 60%, respectively (p < 0.05). Time to develop peritonitis was 10.25 ± 3.1 months in CAPD compared to 16.1 ± 4 months in APD (p < 0.001). Relapse and recurrence rates were similar in both groups. Median patient survival in CAPD and APD groups with peritonitis was 13.1 ± 1 and 14 ± 1.4 months respectively (p = 0.3) whereas in peritonitis free patients it was 15 ± 1.4 months in CAPD and 23 ± 3.1 months in APD (p = 0.025). APD had lower incidence rate of peritonitis than CAPD. Patient survival was better in APD than CAPD in peritonitis free patients but was similar in patients who had peritonitis.
Hsieh, Yao-Peng; Chang, Chia-Chu; Wen, Yao-Ko; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Yang, Yu
♦ Objective: Peritoneal dialysis (PD) has become more prevalent as a treatment modality for end-stage renal disease, and peritonitis remains one of its most devastating complications. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the frequency and predictors of peritonitis and the impact of peritonitis on clinical outcomes. ♦ Methods: Our retrospective observational cohort study enrolled 391 patients who had been treated with continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) for at least 90 days. Relevant demographic, biochemical, and clinical data were collected for an analysis of CAPD-associated peritonitis, technique failure, drop-out from PD, and patient mortality. ♦ Results: The peritonitis rate was 0.196 episodes per patient-year. Older age (>65 years) was the only identified risk factor associated with peritonitis. A multivariate Cox regression model demonstrated that technique failure occurred more often in patients experiencing peritonitis than in those free of peritonitis (p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the group experiencing peritonitis tended to survive longer than the group that was peritonitis-free (p = 0.11). After multivariate adjustment, the survival advantage reached significance (hazard ratio: 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.46 to 0.89; p = 0.006). Compared with the peritonitis-free group, the group experiencing peritonitis also had more drop-out from PD (p = 0.03). ♦ Conclusions: The peritonitis rate was relatively low in the present investigation. Elderly patients were at higher risk of peritonitis episodes. Peritonitis independently predicted technique failure, in agreement with other reports. However, contrary to previous studies, all-cause mortality was better in patients experiencing peritonitis than in those free of peritonitis. The underlying mechanisms of this presumptive “peritonitis paradox” remain to be clarified. PMID:24084840
Tian, Yuanshi; Xie, Xishao; Xiang, Shilong; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shou, Zhangfei; Chen, Jianghua
Peritonitis remains a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). A high peritonitis rate (HPR) affects continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients' technique survival and mortality. Predictors and outcomes of HPR, rather than the first peritonitis episode, were rarely studied in the Chinese population. In this study, we examined the risk factors associated with HPR and its effects on clinical outcomes in CAPD patients.This is a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 294 patients who developing at least 1 episode of peritonitis were followed up from March 1st, 2002, to July 31, 2014, in our PD center. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with HPR, and the Cox proportional hazard model was conducted to assess the effects of HPR on clinical outcomes.During the study period of 2917.5 patient-years, 489 episodes of peritonitis were recorded, and the total peritonitis rate was 0.168 episodes per patient-year. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with HPR include a quick occurrence of peritonitis after CAPD initiation (shorter than 12 months), and a low serum albumin level at the start of CAPD. In the Cox proportional hazard model, HPR was a significant predictor of technique failure. There were no differences between HPR and low peritonitis rate (LPR) group for all-cause mortality. However, when the peritonitis rate was considered as a continuous variable, a positive correlation was observed between the peritonitis rate and mortality.We found the quick peritonitis occurrence after CAPD and the low serum albumin level before CAPD were strongly associated with an HPR. Also, our results verified that HPR was positively correlated with technique failure. More importantly, the increase in the peritonitis rate suggested a higher risk of all-cause mortality.These results may help to identify and target patients who are at higher risk of HPR at the start of CAPD and to
Kanjanabuch, Talerngsak; Puttipittayathorn, Nopadol; Leelahavanichkul, Asada; Lieusuwan, Songkiat; Katavetin, Pisut; Mahatanan, Nanta; Sriudom, Kanda; Chirananthavat, Thanit; Thongbor, Nisa; Eiam-Ong, Somchai
Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) becomes the first option for peritoneal dialysis, nowadays overtaking continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in many countries. The comparison of peritoneal membrane alteration in CAPD and APD is inconclusive. The authors therefore compared the peritoneal membrane changes in patients undergoing CAPD and APD. In naive end stage renal disease patients, the choice of PD modes (CAPD or APD) was dependent on the patient's decision. Thirty-six CAPD and 25APD patients with a total of 287 patient-months were compared. The peritoneal mass parameter, exfoliated mesothelial cell (MTC) and dialysate CA-125, as well as modified peritoneal equilibrium test (mPET) with 4.25% dextrose solution was simultaneously evaluated at 1 and 6 month follow-up. Although the peritoneal function (as measured by D/P creatinine, D/D0 glucose, sodium dipping, and dialysate protein loss), adequacy, serum albumin, nutritional status, and residual renal function showed no significant differences between groups at 1 and 6 months, CA-125 but not MTC was higher in APD compared with CAPD at the first month of PD beginning. Due to the single time-point measurement limitation, the authors compared the peritoneal mass parameter differences between 1 and 6 month. During 6-month follow-up, CA-125 decreased 30 +/- 5% vs. 7 +/- 5% and MTC decreased 5 +/- 12% vs. 40 +/- 11% in APD and CAPD, respectively. The higher CA-125 reduction in APD and greater changes of MTC in CAPD suggested that there was less viable mesothelial cell in APD compared with CAPD. The authors observed that both APD and CAPD damaged peritoneum. However, there might be higher peritoneal injury in APD patients. The proper randomization study in longer follow-up period is mandatory to confirm this observation.
Flayou, Kaoutar; Ouzeddoun, Naima; Bayahia, Rabia; Rhou, Hakima; Benamar, Loubna
Peritoneal dialysis is a new renal replacement therapy recently introduced in Morocco since 2006. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis has proven to be as effective as hemodialysis. However, it is associated with several complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of complications in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis at our center. The nature of non-infectious complications was noted during follow-up in these patients. Fiftyseven complications were noted among 34 patients between June 2006 and June 2014. Catheter migration was the most common complication (36.8%), followed by obstruction (14%), dialysate leaks (14%), hemorrhagic complications (10.5%) and, finally, hernia (12.2%), catheter perforation (5.2%) and externalization (3.5%).
Jovanović, Natasa; Lausević, Mirjana; Stojimirović, Biljana
During the last years, an increasing number of patients with end-stage renal failure caused by various underlying diseases, all over the world, is treated by renal replacement therapy. NUTRITIONAL STATUS: Malnutrition is often found in patients affected by renal failure; it is caused by reduced intake of nutritional substances due to anorexia and dietary restrictions hormonal and metabolic disorders, comorbid conditions and loss of proteins, amino-acids, and vitamins during the dialysis procedure itself. Nutritional status significantly affects the outcome of patients on chronic dialysis treatment. Recent epiodemiological trials have proved that survival on chronic continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis program depends more on residual renal function (RRF) than on peritoneal clearances of urea and creatinine. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of RRF on common biochemical and anthropometric markers of nutrition in 32 patients with end-stage renal failure with various underlying diseases during the first 6 months on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The mean residual creatinine clearance was 8,3 ml/min and the mean RRF was 16,24 l/week in our patients at the beginning of the chronic peritoneal dialysis treatment. During the follow-up, the RRF slightly decreased, while the nutritional status of patients significantly improved. Gender and age, as well as the leading disease and peritonitis didn't influence the RRF during the first 6 months of CAPD treatment. We found several positive correlations between RRF and laboratory and anthropometric markers of nutrition during the follow-up, proving the positive influence of RRF on nutritional status of patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis.
Beduschi, Gabriela de Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Olandoski, Marcia; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Barretti, Pasqual; de Moraes, Thyago Proenca
The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT) is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort. This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis. After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group). Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71) compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02) nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11). In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better in APD patients.
Xu, Yaowen; Gao, Chenni; Xu, Jing; Chen, Nan
Eosinophilic peritonitis is a well-described complication of peritoneal dialysis and is often associated with either a reaction to the dialysis system constituent (tubing, sterilant or solution) or an underlying bacterial or fungal reaction. We report a case of eosinophilic peritonitis, which is treated by oral prednisone acetate therapy. A 43-year-old female patient developed end-stage renal disease and underwent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 2.5 years. The patient received 2,000 ml of 1.5% dialysis solution (PD2) with three exchanges daily and 2,000 ml of 2.5% PDF overnight (PD2). She went to the consultation because of a constant turbid peritoneal dialysis effluent for 3 months without abdominal pain. Repeated peritoneal effluent samples showed an elevated white blood cell count of 500 cells/mm3, with 87% eosinophils. The peripheral blood test revealed a white blood cell count of 3.8 × 109/l, with 32.2% eosinophils. Etiology like bacterial and fungal infection was excluded by peritoneal fluid culture. Turbidness persisted in spite of diagnostic antibiotic treatment. Given the fact that we found a significant elevation of eosinophils in the peripheral blood and an absolute increase in the eosinophil count of >30/mm3 in dialysis fluid (up to 400/mm3 in our patient), obvious dialysate effluent turbidness, negative results of repeated peritoneal fluid cultures, inefficacy of antibiotic therapy, and negativity of serum tumor and immunological markers, we drew the conclusion that the patient had idiopathic eosinophilic peritonitis. Oral corticosteroid was administered at once (20 mg prednisone acetate daily), which was gradually weaned off and stopped over an 8-week period. Afterwards, the dialysis effluent became clear, and the cytological analysis showed that the white blood cell count decreased to 1 × 106/l, with no eosinophils. This case reminds us that the diagnosis of eosinophilic peritonitis should be considered when repeated cultures are
Iyer, R N; Reddy, A K; Gande, S; Aiyangar, A
A total of 170 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) fluids were processed by various culture methods, including direct inoculation of the centrifuged sediment, inoculation into automated blood culture bottles, water lysis, Tween-80 incorporated blood agar, and Triton-X treatment of the specimen. Of 170 CAPD fluids, 127 showed the growth of bacteria/fungi. Sixty-three fluids showed growth by all methods, the water lysis alone detected 24 additional positive cultures, while Tween-80 blood agar and Triton-X yielded 30 additional positive cultures. A combination of water lysis, Tween-80 blood agar and Triton-X treatment of the CAPD fluid is recommended for diagnosis of CAPD peritonitis in resource-limited settings. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Steiner, R W; Halasz, N A
Primary bacterial peritonitis and catheter-associated infections compose the large majority of abdominal events in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Yet occasionally primary pathology involving the abdominal viscera develops, and surgery is frequently considered. The early manifestations of intraabdominal inflammation or bleeding in patients undergoing CAPD depend on the pathological process, its access to the peritoneal cavity, and whether generalized bacterial peritonitis supervenes to obscure helpful physical findings. Clear dialysate is not a reliable sign that major pathology is absent, nor does initial stabilization of the clinical course with antibiotic therapy uniformly indicate that surgery will not be necessary. Polymicrobial peritonitis may develop in cholecystitis, pancreatitis, or from a colonic source, the latter featuring more bacterial species and more gram-negative and anaerobic organisms. A history directed at progression of symptoms and sites of abdominal discomfort and an examination for deep local tenderness and bowel incarcerated in an abdominal wall hernia are essential. Measurement of dialysate amylase and Gram stain of dialysate for food fibers may be helpful. Imaging techniques such as abdominal radiographs for dilated bowel or free subdiaphragmatic air, ultrasonography of the gallbladder or pancreas, computed tomographic (CT) scanning of the lower abdomen, and water-soluble contrast colonic studies may help identify the pathologic process. Special studies such as these should be considered early in the course of suspected unusual abdominal events in patients on CAPD.
Jamale, Tukaram; Dhokare, Aniruddha; Satpute, Kushal; Kulkarni, Renu; Usulumarty, Deepa; Vishwanath, Billa; Noronha, Santosh; Hase, Niwrutti
While non-infectious etiologies like chemical irritants are rare causes of epidemics of peritonitis, this possibility should be considered when one encounters an unusual clustering of peritonitis cases. We describe here an epidemic of chemical peritonitis at our center. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
Maude, Rapeephan R; Barretti, Michael
Hydrothorax is a rare complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) which can progress quickly to cause acute respiratory distress. We present a 76 year-old female with a past medical history significant for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on daily home peritoneal dialysis for 2 years presented to the hospital from home with shortness of breath at rest and cough for 2 days prior to admission. She developed severe respiratory distress and had emergent pleurocentesis that released 3.8 L of pleural fluid. The analysis showed significantly high sugar indicative of hydrothorax from CAPD. She underwent thoracotomy with pleurodesis and switched to hemodialysis for 6 weeks before resuming CAPD. A high glucose concentration in the pleural fluid is pathognomonic for hydrothorax from dialysis fluid after rule out other possible causes of pleural effusion. Patients who are on CAPD presenting with marked pleural effusion should prompt clinicians to consider the differential diagnosis of pleuroperitoneal communications.
Gómez-Fernández, P; Sánchez Agudo, L; Calatrava, J M; Escuin, F; Selgas, R; Martínez, M E; Montero, A; Sánchez-Sicilia, L
The increasingly frequent use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) as substitutive therapy in terminal renal failure has induced the investigation of the advantages and disadvantages of this therapeutic modality. The effects of CAPD on pulmonary function are one of the aspects currently under study. Based on previous data suggesting the existence of extrapulmonary ventilatory restriction in uremic patients under CAPD, we have studied in these patients the respiratory muscle function as expressed in the maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and assessed the impact of the infusion of 2 liters of dialysis fluid into the peritoneal cavity on both MIP and the pulmonary volumes. Uremic patients evidenced significantly lower MIP values as compared with healthy controls. The filling of the peritoneal cavity induced, both in the supine and in the sitting position, a restrictive effect and an increase in the inspiratory capacity. We conclude that uremic patients under CAPD evidence a respiratory muscle dysfunction of as yet unclear cause. Our findings further suggest that the infusion of 2 liters of dialysis fluid into the peritoneal cavity induces not only a restrictive effect, but also an increase in the strength of the respiratory muscles, the latter effect being probably due to increased diaphragmatic contractility.
Bouchet, J L; Albin, H; Quentin, C; de Barbeyrac, B; Vinçon, G; Martin-Dupont, P; Potaux, L; Aparicio, M
Kinetics of fosfomycin were investigated in six patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Each subject received both an i.v. and an i.p. 1 g dose of fosfomycin with a one week washout between doses. Fosfomycin was assayed by a microbiological diffusion technique. After intravenous injection the fosfomycin serum kinetic parameters were as followed: elimination half-life (t1/2 beta) 38.4 +/- 8.7 h; volume of distribution 0.32 +/- 0.02 l/kg; total plasma clearance 7.0 +/- 1.4 ml/min and peritoneal clearance 3.2 +/- 0.2 ml/min. Dialyzate fosfomycin concentrations reached a maximum mean value of 32.2 +/- 2.8 micrograms/ml at 4 h post-injection and fosfomycin was detectable in dialyzate samples for up to 72 hours post-dosing. After intraperitoneal instillation, fosfomycin appeared in the serum rapidly and the mean peak plasma concentration was 36.2 +/- 2.8 micrograms/ml at the 4th h. The absorption rate (ka) was 0.580 +/- 0.039 h-1 and the absorption of fosfomycin from peritoneal space was 68.4 +/- 6.0%. These data suggest a bidirectional exchange through the peritoneal membrane. Intraperitoneal administration of 1 g either 48 h apart for anephric patients or 36 h apart for patients with residual renal function may achieve therapeutic serum concentrations.
Johnson, Curtis A.; Taylor, Claude A.; Zimmerman, Stephen W.; Bridson, William E.; Chevalier, Paul; Pasquier, Olivier; Baybutt, Robert I.
Quinupristin-dalfopristin may be useful for treatment of organisms causing peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis, including methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. The pharmacokinetic profiles of single intravenous doses of this combination streptogramin antibiotic of 7.5 mg/kg of body weight were characterized for eight noninfected patients receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Comparison was made to pharmacokinetic profiles determined for eight healthy volunteers matched by age, sex, and race. Drug was measured in dialysate up to 6 h following the dose. Plasma and dialysate were assayed for parent compounds and metabolites. Mean pharmacokinetic parameters were compared between groups. No statistically significant differences were observed between groups for maximal concentrations in plasma, times to maximal concentration, areas under the curve, distribution volumes, rates of total body clearance, or half-lives in plasma for quinupristin and dalfopristin. No statistically significant differences were observed in maximal concentrations in plasma, times to maximal concentration, areas under the curve, or half-lives for cysteine, the glutathione conjugates of quinupristin, or the pristinamycin IIA metabolite of dalfopristin. The measurements in dialysate of the parent and most metabolites were below the expected MICs. Dialysis clearance was insignificant. Quinupristin-dalfopristin was well tolerated in both groups, causing only mild adverse events that resolved prior to discharge from the study. The disposition of quinupristin, dalfopristin, or their primary metabolites following a single dose was unaltered in patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. Intravenous dosing of this antibiotic combination is unlikely to be adequate for the treatment of peritonitis associated with peritoneal dialysis. PMID:9869581
Beduschi, Gabriela de Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Olandoski, Marcia; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Barretti, Pasqual; de Moraes, Thyago Proenca
Introduction The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT) is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort Methods This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis. Results After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group). Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71) compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02) nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11). Conclusion In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better
Martea, M; Hekster, Y A; Vree, T B; Voets, A J; Berden, J H
Cefradine and co-trimoxazole pharmacokinetics were studied in a patient with peritonitis that complicated continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Concentrations in the plasma reached after oral administration of 500 mg cefradine four times daily and 400/80 mg co-trimoxazole four times daily were for cefradine 100 micrograms/ml, for trimethoprim 15 micrograms/ml, and for sulfamethoxazole 100 micrograms/ml, respectively. In the dialysate concentrations were reached of 35-70 micrograms/ml cefradine, 2-5 micrograms/ml trimethoprim and 8-17 micrograms/ml sulfamethoxazole. The values for sulfamethoxazole are regarded too low to be clinically effective. Half-lives, protein binding values and CAPD clearances are presented. Low CAPD clearances were obtained during the night and high values during the day. The dosage yielded too high plasma trimethoprim concentrations, while sulfamethoxazole dialysate concentrations were too low. It seems questionable therefore whether co-trimoxazole can be used orally for the treatment of CAPD peritonitis.
Szeto, Cheuk-Chun; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Chow, Kai-Ming; Chung, Sebastian; Yu, Vincent; Cheng, Phyllis Mei-Shan; Leung, Chi-Bon; Law, Man-Ching; Li, Philip Kam-Tao
♦ Background: Residual renal function (RRF) is an important prognostic indicator in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. We determined the predictors of RRF loss in a cohort of incident CAPD patients. ♦ Methods: We reviewed the record of 645 incident CAPD patients. RRF loss is represented by the slope of decline of residual glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as well as the time to anuria. ♦ Results: The average rate of residual GFR decline was -0.083 ± 0.094 mL/min/month. The rate of residual GFR decline was faster with a higher proteinuria (r = -0.506, p < 0.0001) and baseline residual GFR (r = -0.560, p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that proteinuria, baseline residual GFR, and the use of diuretics were independent predictors of residual GFR decline. Cox proportional hazard model showed that proteinuria, glucose exposure, and the number of peritonitis episodes were independent predictors of progression to anuria, while a higher baseline GFR was protective. Each 1 g/day of proteinuria is associated with a 13.2% increase in the risk of progressing to anuria, each 10 g/day higher glucose exposure is associated with a 2.5% increase in risk, while each peritonitis episode confers a 3.8% increase in risk. ♦ Conclusions: Our study shows that factors predicting the loss of residual solute clearance and urine output are different. Proteinuria, baseline residual GFR, and the use of diuretics are independently related to the rate of RRF decline in CAPD patients, while proteinuria, glucose exposure, and the number of peritonitis episodes are independent predictors for the development of anuria. The role of anti-proteinuric therapy and measures to prevent peritonitis episodes in the preservation of RRF should be tested in future studies. PMID:24497594
Guedri, Yosra; Damma, K Najla; Toumi, Melek; Sahtout, Wissal; Azzabi, Awatef; Mrabet, Sinda; Nouira, Safa; Saidane, Dalila; Amor, Samira; Belarbia, Anis; Zellama, Dorsaf; Achour, Abdellatif
Peritoneal protein loss is one of the inevitable consequences during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Our objective was to study the effect of sulodexide on the protein loss and efficiency of dialysis. This study included six patients receiving CAPD treated with sulodexide at the dose of 600 IU/day given by intraperitoneal injection for 10 days. Clinical and biologic parameters were assessed before starting the treatment (D0 and after 10 days of treatment (D10. We also evaluated the benefit of therapy persisting 20 days after the end of treatment (D30. The sulodexide administration produced a significant improvement of the peritoneal function as determined by a significant increase in the following ratios measured at the 4 th h of dwell time on D0 and D30: dialysate-to plasma (D/P) creatinine from 0.63 ± 1.45 to 0.85 ± 0.073 (P = 0.028) and D/P urea from 0.63 ± 0.15 to 79 ± 0.2 (P = 0.048). A significant decrease of albumin leakage was observed, which was 0.90 ± 0.40 g/L at baseline, 0.67 ± 0.36 g/L on the 10 th day, and 0.43 ± 0.22g/L 20 days after the end of treatment. Within 10-day treatment period, use of sulodexide resulted in a reduction in the peritoneal loss of albumin, in addition to improvement of the quality of dialysis and the residual renal function among these patients.
Emder, P J; Howard, N J; Rosenberg, A R
An unusual case of diabetes secondary to acute pancreatitis in a boy with end-stage renal failure receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is described. A hyperglycaemic, hyperosmolar pre-coma developed, aggravated by associated hypercalcaemia. The glucose content of the dialysis fluid contributed to the hyperglycaemia, which settled as the pancreatitis resolved and lower glucose concentration dialysis fluid was used. Our experience suggests that pancreatic dysfunction should be considered where significant hyperglycaemia occurs during peritoneal dialysis.
Davison, Sara N.; Jhangri, Gian S.; Jindal, Kailash; Pannu, Neesh
Background and objectives: Cycler-assisted peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) has been associated with decreased sodium removal compared with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) as a result of peritoneal sodium sieving during the short dwells that are associated with CCPD. This may have adverse consequences for management of extracellular fluid volume (ECFV). This study compared ECFV in patients who received CAPD or CCPD; CCPD dwell times were maximized by limiting the number of exchanges, and the use of icodextrin for the long daytime dwells was widespread. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was an observational, cross-sectional study of 158 prevalent patients (90 CAPD, 68 CCPD). Demographic data, blood work, and 24-h dialysate and urine samples were collected from all participants between January 2004 and July 2006. They subsequently underwent assessment of ECFV by multifrequency bioimpedance spectroscopy analysis. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the relationship between peritoneal dialysis modality and ECFV. Potential cofounders including age, comorbidity, time on dialysis, residual renal function, and icodextrin use were identified a priori. Results: There were no differences in BP, use of antihypertensive medications, or the presence of peripheral edema between CAPD and CCPD patients. Similarly, there was no difference in the ratio of ECFV to total body water between CAPD (51.8%) and CCPD (51.9%) patients (P = 0.929). Conclusions: There is no difference in BP, sodium removal, or volume control in patients who use a contemporary approach to CCPD that uses fewer night cycles and liberalizes the use of icodextrin when compared with CAPD. PMID:19406971
Maude, Rapeephan R.; Barretti, Michael
Introduction Hydrothorax is a rare complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) which can progress quickly to cause acute respiratory distress. Case presentation We present a 76 year-old female with a past medical history significant for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on daily home peritoneal dialysis for 2 years presented to the hospital from home with shortness of breath at rest and cough for 2 days prior to admission. She developed severe respiratory distress and had emergent pleurocentesis that released 3.8 L of pleural fluid. The analysis showed significantly high sugar indicative of hydrothorax from CAPD. She underwent thoracotomy with pleurodesis and switched to hemodialysis for 6 weeks before resuming CAPD. Conclusion A high glucose concentration in the pleural fluid is pathognomonic for hydrothorax from dialysis fluid after rule out other possible causes of pleural effusion. Patients who are on CAPD presenting with marked pleural effusion should prompt clinicians to consider the differential diagnosis of pleuroperitoneal communications. PMID:26029545
Xiang, Siyun; Yao, Ying; Wan, Yunan; Liang, Wangqun; Meng, Ruiwei; Jin, Qiman; Wu, Nannan; Xu, Fangyi; Ying, Chenjiang; Zuo, Xuezhi
Few studies have been reported on alterations of trace elements (TE) in peritoneal dialysis patients. Our objective was to investigate and assess the characteristics of daily TE excretions in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. This cross-sectional study included 61 CAPD patients (nonanuric/anuric: 45/16) and 11 healthy subjects in Wuhan, China between 2013 and 2014. The dialysate and urine of patients and urine of healthy subjects were collected. The concentrations of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo), and arsenic (As) in dialysate and urine were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Various clinical variables were obtained from automatic biochemical analyzer. Daily Cu, Zn, Se, and Mo excretions in nonanuric patients were higher than healthy subjects, while arsenic excretion in anuric patients was lower. A strong and positive correlation was observed between Se and Mo excretion in both dialysate (β = 0.869, p < 0.010) and urine (β = 0.968, p < 0.010). Furthermore, the clinical variables associated with Se excretion were found to be correlated with Mo excretion. Our findings indicated that nonanuric CAPD patients may suffer from deficiency of some essential TEs, while anuric patients are at risk of arsenic accumulation. A close association between Se and Mo excretion was also found. PMID:27999390
Nakamoto, Hidetomo; Babazono, Tetsuya; Kasai, Kenji; Kuriyama, Satoru; Sugimoto, Tokuichiro; Nakayama, Masaaki; Hamada, Chieko; Furuya, Ryuichi; Hasegawa, Hirohumi; Kasahara, Masato; Moriishi, Misaki; Tomo, Tadashi; Miyazaki, Masanobu; Yorioka, Noriaki; Sato, Manaka; Yamabe, Kaoru; Kawaguchi, Yoshindo
In peritoneal dialysis (PD), a 7.5% polyglucose-containing dialysis solution (icodextrin) provides prolonged ultrafiltration as compared with glucose-based dialysis solutions. In the present study, we attempted to clarify the safety and effectiveness of icodextrin in elderly patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Clinical data and outcomes of 16 patients aged 65 or older were monitored for 12 weeks before and during icodextrin treatment. The group included 13 men and 3 women with a mean age of 69 +/- 5 years (range: 66-78 years). The underlying kidney disease was chronic nephritis in 7 patients, diabetes mellitus in 8 patients, and nephrosclerosis in I patient. From the beginning of peritoneal dialysis, 1 patients had been treated with icodextrin; the other 10 were changed to icodextrin from glucose dialysis solution. At the end of study, body weight had increased to 63.8 +/- 9.3 kg from 61.6 +/- 9.3 kg, accompanied by an increase in ultrafiltration to 480 +/- 207 mL daily from 369 +/- 436 mL daily. No significant change in urine volume occurred. Despite the increase in body weight, cardiothoracic rate decreased to 51.1% +/- 3.4% from 52.3% +/- 4.9%. All patients reported an improvement of edema and appetite. Edema scores were significantly decreased to 0.85 +/- 0.90 from 1.63 +/- 0.96 (p < 0.03). No adverse side effects were associated with the use of icodextrin. From the foregoing data, we concluded that, as compared with conventional glucose solution, icodextrin has beneficial effects on ultrafiltration volume and clinical symptoms in elderly patients on CAPD.
Cortés-Sanabria, Laura; Rodríguez-Arreola, Brenda E.; Ortiz-Juárez, Victor R.; Soto-Molina, Herman; Pazarín-Villaseñor, Leonardo; Martínez-Ramírez, Héctor R.; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M.
♦ Objective: We set out to estimate the direct medical costs (DMCs) of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and to compare the DMCs for continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) and automated PD (APD). In addition, DMCs according to age, sex, and the presence of peritonitis were evaluated. ♦ Methods: Our retrospective cohort analysis considered patients initiating PD, calculating 2008 costs and, for comparison, updating the results for 2010. The analysis took the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security, including outpatient clinic and emergency room visits, dialysis procedures, medications, laboratory tests, hospitalizations, and surgeries. ♦ Results: No baseline differences were observed for the 41 patients evaluated (22 on CAPD, 19 on APD). Median annual DMCs per patient on PD were US$15 072 in 2008 and US$16 452 in 2010. When analyzing percentage distribution, no differences were found in the DMCs for the modality groups. In both APD and CAPD, the main costs pertained to the dialysis procedure (CAPD 41%, APD 47%) and hospitalizations (CAPD 37%, APD 32%). Dialysis procedures cost significantly more (p = 0.001) in APD (US$7 084) than in CAPD (US$6 071), but total costs (APD US$15 389 vs CAPD US$14 798) and other resources were not different. The presence of peritonitis increased the total costs (US$16 075 vs US$14 705 for patients without peritonitis, p = 0.05), but in the generalized linear model analysis, DMCs were not predicted by age, sex, dialysis modality, or peritonitis. A similar picture was observed for costs extrapolated to 2010, with a 10% - 20% increase for each component—except for laboratory tests, which increased 52%, and dialysis procedures, which decreased 3%, from 2008. ♦ Conclusions: The annual DMCs per patient on PD in this study were US$15 072 in 2008 and US$16 452 in 2010. Total DMCs for dialysis procedures were higher in APD than in CAPD, but the difference was not statistically significant. In both APD and CAPD, 90% of costs were
Tzamaloukas, A H; Murata, G H; Malhotra, D
In peritoneal dialysis (PD), small solute clearances are normalized by body water (V) and body surface area (BSA). The purpose of this study was to identify if V or BSA produced stronger associations between body size and normalized clearances. We studied the relationship between four size indicators (V, BSA, height, and weight) and either peritoneal urea clearance normalized to V (Kt/V(ur)) and BSA (C(ur)) or creatinine clearance normalized to V (Kt/V(cr)) and BSA (C(cr)). A total of 613 clearance studies were performed in subjects on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) with four daily exchanges and a 2 L fill volume. As size increased, the normalized peritoneal clearances decreased in a nonlinear fashion (regression: y = b0 + b1x(-1), where x is a size indicator and y is a normalized clearance). Significant (p < 0.001) negative correlations were found between each normalized clearance and each size indicator. However, in each case, the correlation was higher when V, rather than BSA, was used. For example, BSA correlated more closely with K/V(ur)(-0.660) than C(ur)(-0.556), and also with Kt/V(cr)(-0.579) than C(cr)(-0.446). Normalized clearances are smaller in large subjects on CAPD because one mathematic determinant of the clearance, the drain volume (Dv) normalized by V (Dv/V) or BSA (DV/BSA), decreases as size increases. The relationship between Dv/V or Dv/BSA and the size indicators was studied by the same nonlinear regression model. The correlations of the size indicators with Dv/V were also consistently higher than the corresponding correlations with Dv/BSA. In subjects who were on the same PD schedule, the dependence of clearances on size was consistently higher when V, rather than BSA, was the normalizing parameter. Because prescription of the dose of PD is based on body size, there is a practical advantage by using V as the sole normalizing parameter for both urea and creatinine clearance.
Wearne, Nicola; Kilonzo, Kajiru; Effa, Emmanuel; Davidson, Bianca; Nourse, Peter; Ekrikpo, Udeme; Okpechi, Ikechi G
Chronic kidney disease is a major public health problem that continues to show an unrelenting global increase in prevalence. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease has been predicted to grow the fastest in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). There is evidence that people living in LMICs have the highest need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) despite the lowest access to various modalities of treatment. As continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) does not require advanced technologies, much infrastructure, or need for dialysis staff support, it should be an ideal form of RRT in LMICs, particularly for those living in remote areas. However, CAPD is scarcely available in many LMICs, and even where available, there are several hurdles to be confronted regarding patient selection for this modality. High cost of CAPD due to unavailability of fluids, low patient education and motivation, low remuneration for nephrologists, lack of expertise/experience for catheter insertion and management of complications, presence of associated comorbid diseases, and various socio-demographic factors contribute significantly toward reduced patient selection for CAPD. Cost of CAPD fluids seems to be a major constraint given that many countries do not have the capacity to manufacture fluids but instead rely heavily on fluids imported from developed countries. There is need to invest in fluid manufacturing (either nationally or regionally) in LMICs to improve uptake of patients treated with CAPD. Workforce training and retraining will be necessary to ensure that there is coordination of CAPD programs and increase the use of protocols designed to improve CAPD outcomes such as insertion of catheters, treatment of peritonitis, and treatment of complications associated with CAPD. Training of nephrology workforce in CAPD will increase workforce experience and make CAPD a more acceptable RRT modality with improved outcomes. PMID:28115864
Chronic kidney disease is prevalent in Indonesia, running at 29.1% in the population at risk (hypertension, diabetes, and proteinuria). In a recent survey, the incidence rate for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was 30.7 per million population (pmp), and the prevalence rate was 23.4 pmp. In 2006, about 10,000 patients were being treated with hemodialysis. Nevertheless, many ESRD patients remained untreated. Financial problems, scarcity of dialysis facilities, and insufficient numbers of skilled health care providers were among reasons why renal replacement treatment is not so well developed in Indonesia. The continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) program begun in 1985 was slowly growing until an economic crisis in 1998. Afterward, with new development of CAPD and government support, the number of patients on CAPD increased. In the middle of 2007, CAPD patients numbered 774 in total. Drop-out rates remained high, because of death, infection, and catheter failure. Almost all new CAPD patients are older than 35 years of age, and the technique is still costly: 51% of patients receive 4 daily exchanges, costing $6,000 annually; the rest receive 3 daily exchanges, costing $4,800 annually. Government insurance reimburses only 3 exchanges. Expensive drugs such as erythropoietin, intravenous iron, and vitamin D(3) are not covered by insurance. The infection rate for the most recent year was 1 episode in 47.17 patient-months. The cost of antibiotic treatment to cure peritonitis is still expensive. Many patients experience some complication related to catheter obstruction or hemorrhage. In Indonesia, CAPD is relatively new and just beginning to progress. In our archipelago, with its many islands and limited resources and investment, CAPD may be the better choice of therapy. More training is needed to increase the number of skilled and experienced doctors, nurses, and other CAPD team members. We hope that CAPD can be made more affordable for ESRD patients.
Akhlaghi, Ali Asghar; Najafi, Iraj; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Shojaee, Abbas; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Hosseini, Mostafa
Peritoneal dialysis is one of the most prevalent types of dialysis prescribed to the patients suffering from renal failure. Studies on the factors affecting the survival of these patients have mainly used log-rank test and Cox analysis. The present study aimed to investigate the risk factors affecting short- and long term survival of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) using cure model. The data obtained retrospectively from 20 medical centers in Iran, between 1996 and 2009. All patients with renal failure who had been treated by CAPD and followed at least 3 months were included in the study. The STATA (11.0) software and CUREREGR module were used for survival analysis using cure model. Totally 2006 patients were included in this study. The major reasons for renal failure were hypertension (35.4%) and diabetes (33.6%). The median of survival time was 4.8 years with a 95% confidence interval of 4.3 to 5.6 years. The percentage of long-lived patients surviving was 40% (95% CI: 32%, 47%). The analysis showed that the effect of diabetes, serum albumin level, age, diastolic blood pressure, and medical center was significant on the long-term survival of the patients. In addition, in short-term survival the effects of age, albumin, and medical center were significant. By improving the quality of medical care in centers, nutritional status, controlling co-morbidities can help the patients on CAPD with better health and increase their short and long term survival.
Díaz-Arrieta, Gustavo; Mendoza-Hernández, María Elsa; Pacheco-Aranda, Erika; Rivas-Duro, Miguel; Robles-Parra, Héctor Manuel; Espinosa-Vázquez, Raúl Arturo; Hernández-Cabrera, Jorge
In diabetic patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) treated with dialysis, the diastolic and systolic left ventricular dysfunction is frequent. The aim was to assess by echocardiography the prevalence of diastolic and systolic ventricular dysfunction in diabetic patients with CRF treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Sixty diabetic patients with CRF in CAPD were studied. The mean age was 54.5 +/- 12 years (27-78 years). The left ventricular filling pattern (LVFP) as a diastolic function parameter and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) as a systolic function parameter were measured by transthoracic echocardiography. Descriptive statistical analysis was used. 27 (45 %) patients were women and 33 (55 %) were men. In 55 (91.7 %) left ventricular concentric hypertrophy was observed. Fifty-two patients (86.7 %) showed LVFP type I; three (5 %) had the type II; two (3.3 %) showed pseudonormal pattern and three (5 %) had a normal LVFP. The LVEF was 0.63 +/- 0.09 (CI = 0.41-0.82). Forty nine (81.7 %) patients had LVEF equal or greater than 0.55. The prevalence of diastolic left ventricular dysfunction was 95 % and the prevalence of systolic left ventricular dysfunction was 18.3%.
Hsieh, Yao-Peng; Tsai, Shr-Mei; Chang, Chia-Chu; Kor, Chew-Teng; Lin, Chi-Chen
Although red cell distribution width (RDW) has emerged as a biomarker of clinical prognostic value across a variety of clinical settings in the last two decades, limited evidence is available for its role in end-stage renal disease. We enrolled 313 incident patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in this retrospective observational study from 2006 to 2015. In the fully adjusted model of Cox regression analysis, the adjusted hazard ratios for the high RDW group versus the low RDW group were 2.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.31–5.09, p = 0.006) and 3.48 (95% CI = 1.44–8.34, p = 0.006) for all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD)-related mortality, respectively. Based on area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) analysis, RDW (AUC = 0.699) had a stronger predictive value for all-cause and CVD-related mortality than other biological markers including hemoglobin (AUC = 0.51), ferritin (AUC = 0.584), iron saturation (AUC = 0.535), albumin (AUC = 0.683) and white blood cell count (AUC = 0.588). Given that RDW is a readily available hematological parameter without the need for additional cost, we suggest that it can be used as a valuable index to stratify the risk of mortality beyond a diagnosis of anemia. PMID:28367961
Gen, Shikou; Inoue, Tsutomu; Nodaira, Yuka; Ikeda, Naofumi; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Watanabe, Yusuke; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Nakamoto, Hidetomo; Suzuki, Hiromichi
In the present study, we examined the association between vascular and valvular calcification and the prognosis of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Data were collected from the records of patients introduced onto CAPD therapy during 1999 - 2006 at the Department of Nephrology, Saitama Medical University. At the start of CAPD, cardiac and vascular echography were used to examine 162 patients (average age: 56 +/- 5 years; 58 men, 104 women; 43 with and 119 without diabetes) for evaluation of vascular and valvular calcification. Both vascular and valvular calcification were found in 32 patients. Vascular calcification was found in 16, and valvular calcification in 11. Over 5 years, 11 patients suffered from cardiovascular disease (7 with stroke, 4 with myocardial infarction). All of these patients had vascular or valvular calcification at the start of CAPD therapy. We also used Cox hazard analysis to examine values for Ca, P, Ca x P, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), and lipids. None of these values were independent contributory factors for incidence of cardiovascular disease in patients on CAPD. These data suggest the importance of vascular and valvular echography to evaluate patients on CAPD, especially at the start of CAPD therapy. Vascular and valvular calcification are important factors for determining the prognosis of patients on CAPD.
Pais, M J; Gaspar, A; Santana, A; Bruges, M; Simões, J
We compared the effect of twice weekly subcutaneous recombinant human erythropoietin (SC rHuEPO) in two groups of patients treated with a starting dose of 80 U/kg body weight/week: group I, 7 hemodialysis (HD) patients; group II, 8 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. In a third group (group III) of 4 patients transferred from HD to CAPD with anemia previously corrected with intravenous (IV) rHuEPO, we studied the changes in the maintenance SC dose to maintain the same hemoglobin. In groups I and II the mean SC doses required to correct anemia and to maintain hemoglobin/hematocrit levels were similar; the mean time for the correction of anemia was significantly longer in HD patients (p = 0.032). In group III the maintenance SC rHuEPO does was reduced to more than 50% at 12 weeks of CAPD. Subcutaneous rHuEPO is effective in reversing anemia in HD and CAPD patients, but it takes longer to correct anemia in HD with the same initial SC rHuEPO low dose. CAPD patients need lower doses of SC rHuEPO than HD patients in IV therapy to maintain the same hemoglobin levels.
Lim, S L; Lee, E J; Myint, C C; Ong, K T; Tay, M E; Yusuf, N; Ong, C N
Oral intake of ascorbic acid is essential for optimum health in human beings. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients have an increased need for ascorbic acid, because of increased loss through dialysate, reduced intake owing to nausea and loss of appetite, and increased oxidative stress. However, optimum intake is still controversial. We studied 50 clinically stable patients to determine the relationship between oral ascorbic acid intake and serum ascorbic acid (SAA) level. Total oral intake ranged from 28 mg daily to 412 mg daily. Only one patient had an oral intake of ascorbic acid below 60 mg per day. The SAA levels ranged from 1 mg/L to 36.17 mg/L. Although a strong correlation existed between intake and SAA (p < 0.001, R2 = 0.47), the variation in SAA at any given intake level was wide. Of the studied patients, 62% had an SAA < 8.7 mg/L, 40% had an SAA < 5.1 mg/L (below the level in a healthy population), and 12% had a level below 2 mg/L (scorbutic). None of the patients demonstrated clinical manifestations of scurvy. Our results show that, in CAPD patients, ascorbic acid deficiency can be reliably detected only with SAA measurements, and oral intake may influence SAA level. To maintain ascorbic acid in the normal range for healthy adults, daily oral intake needs to be increased above the U.S. recommended dietary allowance to 80-140 mg.
Jinga, Mariana; Checheriţă, I A; Becheanu, G; Jinga, V; Peride, Ileana; Niculae, A
We report a case of a 42-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus and chronic kidney disease stage 5 undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, presenting asthenia, dizziness, abdominal pain and small efforts dyspnea. After a complete physical and clinical examination, including laboratory tests, esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy and gastric lesions biopsy, she was diagnosed with gastric antral vascular ectasia. We are facing a rare case of antral vascular ectasia in a patient associating both chronic kidney disease and autoimmune disease.
Sutton, Debbie; Higgins, Bernie; Stevens, Judith M
This study's objective was to determine whether offering dietary advice was effective in supporting patients in adjusting energy intake. We performed a prospective, randomized, controlled trial of dietary intervention involving 59 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis over a 4-month follow-up period. The study involved outpatients on home-based renal replacement therapy. All participants were adult patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. All eligible patients were invited to take part. Subjects were randomized into two groups: control and intervention. Those with diabetes mellitus, malabsorption, malignancy, or eating disorders were excluded. Baseline measurements to assess current dietary intake and nutritional status were performed in all subjects. Measurements included a 5-day food diary, subjective global assessment (SGA), anthropometry, and serum biochemistry. After analysis of the food diaries, the participants in the control group were given follow-up dietary advice that would enable them to match intake with current dietary recommendations for this group of 1.2 g of protein per kilogram of ideal body weight, 25 cal/kg ideal body weight. Participants in the intervention group were given follow-up dietary advice that would encourage them to match energy intake with an estimate of total energy expenditure based on their calculated basal metabolic rate and physical activity level as designated using information from SGA, with a significantly lower protein intake of 0.8 to 1.0 g/kg ideal body weight and an emphasis on calories from carbohydrate and fat. Both groups completed further 5-day food diaries at 2 and 4 months to assess their ability to make the recommended changes. SGA, anthropometry, and biochemistry were all remeasured at the end of the study period. Differences in energy and protein intakes between and within the two groups from baseline to 4 months were assessed. Protein and energy intakes did not change during 4
Zhang, Fan; Liu, Hong; Gong, Xiaoli; Liu, Fuyou; Peng, Youming; Cheng, Meichu; Zhang, Hongqing; Liu, Yang; Liu, Yuyuan; Guo, Chunyan
♦ Objective: The intent of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome and risk factors affecting mortality of the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients in a single peritoneal dialysis (PD) center over a period of 10 years. ♦ Patients and methods: We retrospectively analyzed patients on PD from June 2001 to June 2011. The clinical and biochemical data were collected from the medical records. Clinical variables included gender, age at the start of PD, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), presence of diabetes mellitus and blood pressure. Biochemical variables included hemoglobin, urine volume, residual renal function (RRF), serum albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, total cholesterol, triglyceride, comorbidities, and outcomes. Survival curves were made by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses to identify mortality risk factors were performed using the Cox proportional hazard regression model. ♦ Results: A total of 421 patients were enrolled, 269 of whom were male (63.9%). The mean age at the start of PD was 57.9 ± 14.8 years. Chronic glomerulonephritis was the most common cause of ESRD (39.4%). Estimation of patient survival by Kaplan-Meier was 92.5%, 80.2%, 74.4%, and 55.7% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. Patient survival was associated with age (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.641 [1.027 – 2.622], p = 0.038), cardiovascular disease (HR: 1.731 [1.08 – 2.774], p = 0.023), hypertriglyceridemia (HR: 1.782 [1.11 – 2.858], p = 0.017) in the Cox proportional hazards model analysis. Estimation of technique survival by Kaplan-Meier was 86.7%, 68.8%, 55.7%, and 37.4% at 1, 3, 5, and 10 years, respectively. In the Cox proportional hazards model analysis, age (HR: 1.672 [1.176 – 2.377], p = 0.004) and hypertriglyceridemia (HR: 1.511 [1.050 – 2.174], p = 0.026) predicted technique failure. ♦ Conclusion: The PD patients in our center exhibited comparable or even
Hooi, Lai Seong; Lim, Teck Onn; Goh, Adrian; Wong, Hin Seng; Tan, Chwee Choon; Ahmad, Ghazali; Morad, Zaki
This is a multi-centre study to determine cost efficiency and cost effectiveness of the Ministry of Health centre haemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) programme. Forty-four haemodialysis and 11 CAPD centres were enrolled in this study in 2001. Sixty patients, 30 from each modality, were evaluated. Micro-costing was used to determine costs. The number of haemodialyses conducted ranged from 402 to 23,000 procedures per year, while for CAPD, output ranged from 70 to 2300 patient months/year. Cost ranged from RM79.61 to RM475.79 per haemodialysis treatment, with a mean cost of RM169 per HD (USD 1 = RM 3.80). The cost of CAPD treatment ranged from RM1400 to RM3200 per patient month, with a mean of RM2186. Both modalities incurred similar outpatient costs. The cost of erythropoeitin per year is RM4500 and RM2500 for haemodialysis and CAPD, respectively. The number of life years saved is 10.96 years for haemodialysis and 5.21 years for CAPD. Cost per life year saved is RM33 642 for haemodialysis and RM31 635 for CAPD. The cost for land, building, equipment, overheads, and staff were higher for haemodialysis, while consumables and hospitalization cost more for CAPD. Sensitivity analysis was performed for two discount rates (3 and 5%), varying erythropoietin doses and maximum and minimum overheads. Relative cost effectiveness of haemodialysis and CAPD was unchanged in all sensitivity scenarios, except for overhead costs, which influenced the cost effectiveness of HD. It is economically viable to promote the use of both CAPD and haemodialysis because the cost effectiveness of both are nearly equal.
Kim, Chang Seong; Bae, Eun Hui; Ma, Seong Kwon; Kim, Soo Wan
Chronic kidney disease, including end-stage renal disease, has been identified as a possible risk factor for primary septicemia and wound infection by Vibrio vulnificus. However, cases of severe septicemia, necrotizing fasciitis, and peritonitis caused by V. vulnificus in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) have not been described. We report a case of severe septicemia, necrotizing fasciitis, and peritonitis due to V. vulnificus in a patient undergoing CAPD after ingesting raw seafood. A 37-year-old woman undergoing CAPD was admitted to the emergency room due to general weakness, fever, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Although empirical intraperitoneal antibiotics were administered for the diagnosis of CAPD-related peritonitis, her fever did not subside. On hospital day 3, she had hemorrhagic bullae on both lower legs. We evaluated her recent food history, and found that she ate raw seafood before admission. She underwent emergency fasciotomy on the suspicion of necrotizing fasciitis by V. vulnificus infection. Finally, V. vulnificus was confirmed by 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequencing using blood and peritoneal effluent fluid cultures. The administration of intraperitoneal ceftazidime and intravenous ciprofloxacin/ceftriaxone was continued for 4 weeks, and the patient completely recovered. Suspicion of V. vulnificus infection in vulnerable patients who ingest raw seafood is essential for prompt diagnosis, which could significantly improve patient outcomes.
Liu, Yun; Huang, Rong; Guo, Qunying; Yang, Qiongqiong; Yi, Chunyan; Lin, Jianxiong; Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Xiao
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between baseline peritoneal transport types and nutritional status in Chinese continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. In the present single-centre, prospective study, incident CAPD patients were included from 15 April 2010 to 31 December 2011 and were followed up for 12 months. According to the results of baseline peritoneal equilibration test, patients were divided into lower peritoneal transport group (lower transporters) and higher peritoneal transport group (higher transporters). Nutritional status was evaluated by both subjective global assessment (SGA) and protein-energy wasting (PEW) score. The body composition parameters were assessed by body impedance analysis. A total of 283 CAPD patients were included in the study, of which 171 (60.4 %) were males with a mean age of 47.0 (sd 14.9) years. Compared with lower transporters (n 92), higher transporters (n 181) had lower levels of serum albumin (37.1 (sd 4.3) v. 39.6 (sd 4.3) g/l, P< 0.001), serum pre-albumin (356 (sd 99) v. 384 (sd 90) mg/l, P= 0.035), phase angle (6.15 (sd 0.39) v. 6.27 (sd 0.47)°, P< 0.05) and higher rate of malnutrition defined by SGA (52.5 v. 25.0%, P< 0.001) and PEW score (37.0 v. 14.1 %, P< 0.001) at 1-year of follow-up. Baseline higher peritoneal transport, analysed by multivariate binary logistic regressions, was independently associated with malnutrition (SGA mild to moderate and severe malnutrition: OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.69, 6.96, P< 0.01; PEW: OR 2.40, 95% CI 1.08, 5.31, P= 0.03). It was concluded that baseline higher peritoneal transport was independently associated with worse nutritional status of CAPD patients in Southern China.
Pearson, F C; Dubczak, J; Weary, M; Anderson, J
Endotoxins represent a family of ubiquitous bacterial lipopolysaccharides found in water and raw materials. These substances have the ability to generate interleukin-1 (IL-1) and induce fever, as well as other acute phase phenomena. A study was undertaken to determine levels of background endotoxin in (1) continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis solution, (2) spent dialysate subsequent to overnight dwell, (3) hemodialysis solution, and (4) Limulus amebocyte lysate-reactive material (LAL-RM) in hemodialyzers and patient plasma. Levels of endotoxin in all of the above cases were less than thought to be required to induce biological activity, such as pyrogenicity, through IL-1 generation. Although nanogram amounts of LAL-RM are associated with some hollow-fiber membranes as well as the plasma of patients on those membranes, this material per se does not appear to produce IL-1 in vitro.
Hori, Tomohide; Nakauchi, Masaya; Nagao, Kazuhiro; Oike, Fumitaka; Tanaka, Takahiro; Gunji, Daigo; Okada, Noriyuki
A 40-year-old male underwent tube placement surgery for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A 2-cm skin incision was made, and the peritoneum was reflected enough to perform secure fixation. A swan-necked, double-felted silicone CAPD catheter was inserted, and the felt cuff was sutured to the peritoneum to avoid postoperative leakage. An adequate gradient for tube fixation to the abdominal wall was confirmed. The CAPD tube was passed through a subcutaneous tunnel. Aeroperitoneum was induced to confirm that there was no air leakage from the sites of CAPD insertion. Two trocars were placed, and we confirmed that the CAPD tube led to the rectovesical pouch. Tip position was reliably observed laparoscopically. Optimal patency of the CAPD tube was confirmed during surgery. Placement of CAPD catheters by laparoscopic-assisted surgery has clear advantages in simplicity, safety, flexibility, and certainty. Laparoscopic technique should be considered the first choice for CAPD tube insertion. PMID:24179625
Cho, Kyu-Hyang; Do, Jun-Young; Park, Jong-Won; Yoon, Kyung-Woo; Kim, Yong-Lim
Several studies have reported benefits for human peritoneal mesothelial cell function of a neutral-pH dialysate low in glucose degradation products (GDPs). However, the effects of low-GDP solution on ultrafiltration (UF), transport of solutes, and control of body water remain elusive. We therefore investigated the effect of low-GDP solution on UF, solute transport, and control of body water. Among 79 new continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients, 60 completed a 12-month protocol (28 in a lactate-based high-GDP solution group, 32 in a lactate-based low-GDP solution group). Clinical indices--including 24-hour UF volume (UFV), 24-hour urine volume (UV), residual renal function, and dialysis adequacy--were measured at months 1, 6, and 12. At months 1, 6, and 12, UFV, glucose absorption, 4-hour dialysate-to-plasma (D/P) creatinine, and 1-hour D/P Na(+) were assessed during a modified 4.25% peritoneal equilibration test (PET). Body composition by bioelectric impedance analysis was measured at months 1 and 12 in 26 CAPD patients. Daily UFV was lower in the low-GDP group. Despite similar solute transport and aquaporin function, the low-GDP group also showed lower UFV and higher glucose absorption during the PET. Factors associated with UFV during the PET were lactate-based high-GDP solution and 1-hour D/P Na(+). No differences in volume status and obesity at month 12 were observed, and improvements in hypervolemia were equal in both groups. Compared with the high-GDP group, the low-GDP group had a lower UFV during a PET and a lower daily UFV during the first year after peritoneal dialysis initiation. Although the low-GDP group had a lower daily UFV, no difficulties in controlling edema were encountered.
Rottembourg, J; de Groc, F; Jacq, D; Issad, B; El Shahat, Y; Aqraflotis, A; Seidler, A; Legrain, M
The pros and cons of CAPD are weighed up on the basis of a 3-year study on 100 patients with renal insufficiency (61 men, 36 women and 3 children). If equal groups are compared, the survival rate corresponds to that of haemodialysis. Continuous detoxication and dehydration lead to a good uraemic metabolic situation (creatinine 960 mumol/l, urea 24 mmol/l, haemoglobin 98 g/l, albumin 31 g/l. The serum electrolytes are well-balanced, anorganic phosphate is normal. The rise in cholesterol and triglycerides observed is a possible negative influence with regard to arterial sclerosis. The functioning of the kidneys is not affected by CAPD. The main risks of this method of therapy are peritonitis and loss of protein via the peritoneal dialysate, which can be favourably influenced by strictly antiseptic handling when changing the dialysate bag and a sufficient protein supply in the diet. In France 10-15% of all patients with terminal renal insufficiency will be treated with CAPD in future.
Abu-Aisha, Hasan; Elhassan, Elwaleed A; Khamis, Ammar H; Fedail, Haleema; Kaballo, Babikir; Abdelraheem, M Babbikir; Ali, Tigani; Medani, Safaa; Tammam, Layla; Basheir, Ihsan
This is a cumulative report of all patients in six centers in Greater Khartoum, all three cities that comprise the capital of Sudan, covering the first year of operation of the National Program. This study evaluates the rates, mechanisms, causative agents and clinical outcomes of peritonitis. We included the data of all 60 patients who underwent CAPD from June 2005 to June 2006. There were 15 episodes of peritonitis in 323 patient-months, which equates to an overall peritonitis rate of one episode every 21.5 months (0.55 episodes per year at risk). The individual center rates varied. There was a statistically significant age difference, with peritonitis being more common in the youngsters. All patients presented with abdominal pain and had cloudy effluents but none had a significant exit site or tunnel infection. Fluid cultures were available in 11 out of the 15 episodes of peritonitis. The cultures were positive for organisms in only 3 out of 11 (27%) cases. Two patients were infected by Pseudomonas aerogenosa and one patient by Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, the culture-negative peritonitis rate was 8/11 (73%). Touch contamination was the likely mechanism in 7/15 (46.7%) of the episodes. There were three cases of refractory peritonitis and only one case of relapsing peritonitis. None of the patients had a catheter removed because of peritonitis. We conclude that the first year of operation of the Sudan National Multi-centered PD program has proven that it is a promising project with multifaceted success. The cumulative peritonitis incidence is acceptable although there are several areas for improvement. Standardized laboratory techniques need to be implemented and pursued, particularly in the microbiology area.
Yongsiri, Somchai; Thammakumpee, Jiranuch; Prongnamchai, Suriya; Tengpraettanakorn, Pechngam; Chueansuwan, Rachaneeporn; Tangjaturonrasme, Siriporn; Dinchuthai, Pakaphan
The incidence of hypokalemia in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients is about 15-60%, leading to significant complications. There is no standard treatment other than potassium supplement in this setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate effect of spironolactone 25 mg/day in CAPD patients who have a history of hypokalemia. This is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study in CAPD patients who had a history of hypokalemia. Study intervention is 4 weeks of oral spironolactone 25 mg/day or placebo, cross-over after a 2-week wash-out period. The primary outcome was the difference of serum potassium before and after 4 weeks of spironolactone treatment. Serum potassium was measured every 2 weeks, serum magnesium, urine and peritoneal fluid potassium measured before and after each treatment period. We enrolled 24 patients, and 20 completed the cross-over study. Ten patients were anuric. The total doses of potassium supplement were the same during the study period. Serum potassium levels before and after study intervention were not significantly different in both groups (4.23 ± 0.64 vs. 3.90 ± 0.59 mEq/L for spironolactone P = 0.077 and 3.84 ± 0.62 vs. 3.91 ± 0.52 for placebo P = 0.551). Total 24-h potassium, magnesium, sodium excretion, urine volume and ultrafiltration volume were not affected by spironolactone or placebo. There was one episode of hyperkalemia (5.6 mEq/L) during the spironolactone treatment period. Spironolactone 25 mg/day does not have a significant effect on serum potassium or urine and peritoneal excretion rate in CAPD patients who have a history of hypokalemia.
Losso, Ricardo L M; Minhoto, Gisele R; Riella, Miguel C
Sleep disorders for patients on dialysis are significant causes of a poorer quality of life and increased morbidity and mortality. No study has evaluated patients undergoing automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) to assess their sleep disorders compared to hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A total of 166 clinically stable patients who had been on dialysis for at least 3 months were randomly selected for the study and divided into HD, CAPD or APD. Socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters and self-administered questionnaires were collected for the investigation of insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS), bruxism, rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), sleepwalking, sleep hygiene, depression and anxiety. Insomnia was detected in more than 80 % of patients on the three modalities. OSAS was lower for patients on HD (36 %) than on CAPD (65 %) (p < 0.01) or APD (60 %) (p < 0.04). Patients on APD were more likely to have RLS compared to those on HD or CAPD (p < 0.04) (50 vs. 23 vs. 33 %). No differences among the modalities were found in bruxism, EDS, sleepwalking, sleep hygiene, depression or anxiety. ESRD patients undergoing any one of the three dialysis modalities studied had a high prevalence of sleep disorders. Patients on HD had a lower proportion of OSAS than those on CAPD and APD, which is most likely attributed to their lower body mass indices. The possible causes of higher RLS rates in APD patients have not been established.
van Leusen, R; Roldaan, B; Dennesen, P J; Bosch, F H
The experience gained with CAPD in a group of 101 patients with terminal renal failure and a subgroup of 19 patients with diabetes mellitus was analysed. The actuarial patient survival was 81% after two years and 50% after five years. The combined patient-technique survival after two years was 48.8%. The most important reasons for drop-out were transplantation (25%) and death (24%). Death was method-related in 4 patients and caused by peritonitis in 2 of them. More often peritonitis was the cause of morbidity and temporary interruption (10 x) or of permanent abandoning of the method (11 x ). The peritonitis frequency during the whole period of nine years was 1 : 11.3 months. Use of the Y-connector Twinbag system and a U.V.-light system reduced the incidence substantially. However, faecal peritonitis remains a dangerous situation which cannot be prevented in this way. The mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus is high but not method-related. The incidence of peritonitis is not significantly different from that among patients without diabetes mellitus.
Cavdar, Caner; Atay, Tuba; Zeybel, Mujdat; Celik, Ali; Ozder, Ayse; Yildiz, Serkan; Gulay, Zeynep; Camsari, Taner
In the present study, we evaluated the effects of once-weekly mupirocin application to catheter exit sites on Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS) colonization and investigated the resistance of those bacteria to methicillin (MeR) and mupirocin (MuR). We enrolled 36 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients (mean age: 55.1 +/- 1.4 years) into the study. The patients (men/women: 21/15) had been applying mupirocin to the catheter exit site once weekly before the start of the study (mupirocin treatment duration: 3.1 +/- 2.0 years). During the study period, swabs were taken monthly from the nares, axillae, inguinal area, and catheter exit site. The swabs were inoculated on blood plates. Methicillin and mupirocin susceptibility were tested by disc diffusion according to the interpretative criteria of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. We evaluated a total of 144 cultures. Among CNS isolates, the MuR was 66%, and the MeR was 38.8%. At the start of the study period, 3 patients were S. aureus nasal carriers. In nasal swabs, no MeR S. aureus was identified, and only 1 MuR S. aureus was found. Once-weekly application of mupirocin at the exit site in CAPD patients led to comparable rates of colonization by MuR S. aureus as did thrice-weekly or more frequent application. Clinical results showing high mupirocin and methicillin resistance in CNS are controversial.
Naini, Afsoon Emami; Keyvandarian, Nooshin; Mortazavi, Mojgan; Taheri, Shahram; Hosseini, Sayed Mohsen
Hypertension and hyperlipidemia are two major risk factors for cardiovascular disease in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. This study was designed to investigate the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on blood pressure (BP) and serum lipids in CAPD patients. This study was a randomized double-blind clinical trial in which 90 CAPD patients were randomly assigned to either the omega-3 or the placebo group. Patients in omega-3 group received 3 g/day omega-3 for 8 weeks, whereas patients in the control group received placebo. At baseline and at the end of 8 weeks, the patients' BP was controlled, and serum biochemistry was measured. Mean systolic BP decreased (-22.2 ± 14.2 mmHg) in the omega-3 group at the end of the study while in the placebo group increased (+0.5 ± 30.2 mmHg) (P < 0.0001). Mean diastolic BP of the omega-3 group decreased more (-11.95 ± 11.9 mmHg) comparing with the placebo group (-1.1 ± 17.3 mmHg) (P = 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in mean changes in serum triglyceride, and total, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The results of this study indicate that omega-3 reduced BP significantly but had no effect on lipid profile in our CAPD patients.
Alfa, M J; Degagne, P; Olson, N; Harding, G K
Culture-negative peritonitis is a major complication for patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and precludes organism-specific therapy. The aim of the present study was to compare inoculation of 10 ml of CAPD effluent into BacT/Alert blood culture bottles (FAN [fastidious antimicrobic neutralizing], BacTAlert aerobic [BTA], and BacT/Alert anaerobic [BTAn] bottles) to our conventional method of using 50 ml of concentrated CAPD effluent to inoculate peptone broth bottles (BD bottles) and MacConkey agar and blood agar medium (BA-MAC). The FAN, BTA, and BTAn bottles were monitored automatically in the BacT/Alert blood culture instrument. A total of 207 CAPD effluents were studied, and in 97 bacteria were detected by at least one method. Compared to BTA bottles (79 of 97; 81.4%), BTAn bottles (78 of 97; 80.4%), and BD bottles (88 of 97; 90.7%), the single best broth medium for detecting bacterial growth in CAPD effluents was the FAN bottle (90 of 97 effluents; 92.8%). A total of 125 bacterial species were detected by any method, and the majority (91.8%) of CAPD effluents were infected with a single species. A combination of FAN and BTAn bottles detected 111 of 125 (88.8%) of all organisms, whereas a combination of BD bottles and BA-MAC detected 107 of 125 (85.6%) of all organisms. One or more organisms that would have been completely missed by the conventional method with BD bottles and BA-MAC were detected in 18 CAPD effluents. Of these 18 CAPD effluents, 6 showed no growth by the conventional method with BD bottles and BA-MAC. On the basis of our data, the most sensitive and least labor intensive method was direct inoculation of 10 ml of CAPD effluent into a FAN bottle and a BTAn bottle, which could be automatically monitored by the BacT/Alert blood culture instrument. On the basis of case definitions for peritonitis, the sensitivities and specificities of the methods with FAN and BTAn bottles and with BD bottles and BA-MAC were 81.1 and 98
Tinroongroj, Nantawan; Jittikanont, Suparoek; Lumlertgul, Dusit
Malnutrition inflammation syndrome may contribute to a change of peritoneum, leading to high peritoneal membrane transport, peritoneal albumin loss, and increased glucose uptake into systemic circulation and decreased ultrafiltration (UF) volume. Fluid overload is a common problem among CAPD patients which has an effect on morbidity and mortality in these patients. The present study was designed as a pilot to find out a correlation between malnutrition and UF volume in CAPD patients. A cross-sectional study was comducted in 42 stable CAPD cases at CAPD clinic, Maharaj Chiang Mai Hospital. Subjective global assessment score (SGA), malnutrition inflammation score (MIS), and laboratory values were utilized to identify nutritional and inflammatory status. Peritoneal equilibration test (PET) was performed to measure UF volume while bioelectrical impedance assay was determined to measure extracellular fluid volume (ECF), lean body mass (LBM), lean fat mass, and fluid status. Of 42 CAPD patients, 30 subjects were classified to have normal nutritional status while 12 patients were categorized to have malnutrition. Only 1 patient was classified to have malnutrition inflammation syndrome. MIS scores and serum albumin were significantly different between 2 groups (p < 0.001). PET-UF volume was significantly decreased in the malnutrition group (p < 0.05), especially when serum albumin was less than 3.0 g/dl. PET-UF volume was reduced 137.44 ml for every 1 g/dl of serum albumin below 3.0 g/dl. Residual renal function (RRF) was also significantly reduced in malnutrition group (p < 0.05). Malnutrition, decreased RRF and decreased UF volume led to ECF expansion, hypertension, and fluid overload. Other factors that were correlated with UF volume were ACEI and/or ARB use (p < 0.05) and total protein loss per day (p < 0.05). There was a significantly positive correlation between malnutrition and reduction of UF volume. Other factors that were correlated with UF volume were ACEI and
Cheng, P T; Reid, A; Millard, J; Pritzker, K P; Khanna, R; Oreopoulos, D G
Patients on haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis due to renal failure have an unusually high incidence of kidney stones (from 5 to 51% depending on methodology). However, there is a controversy on the composition of these stones - whether they are calcium oxalate stones or matrix stones. This paper presents ultrastructural evidence that these stones are in fact heterogeneous, ranging from calcium oxalate stones with little organic matrix component, through calcium oxalate and calcium apatite stones with substantial organic matrix component, to matrix stones with little inorganic material component. The correlative analytical methodology developed in this laboratory employing analytical scanning and transmission electron microscopy, electron and x-ray diffraction, as well as biochemistry, was reported previously. For the calcium oxalate stones, scanning electron microscopy showed that numerous small crystals of 1-3 micron in size were exposed to stone surfaces, apparently in an unorganized manner. However, transmission electron microscopy sections showed orderly stacking of crystals held together by organic matrix, just like bricks held together by mortar. For the matrix stones, scanning electron microscopy showed smooth stone surfaces while transmission electron microscopy sections showed focal areas of calcium oxalate or apatite deposits as identified by selected area electron diffraction.
Koomanachai, Pornpan; Landersdorfer, Cornelia B.; Chen, Gong; Lee, Hee Ji; Jitmuang, Anupop; Wasuwattakul, Somkiat; Sritippayawan, Suchai; Li, Jian
Colistin, administered intravenously as its inactive prodrug colistin methanesulfonate (CMS), is increasingly used as last-line therapy to combat multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. CMS dosing needs to be adjusted for renal function. The impact of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) on the pharmacokinetics of both CMS and colistin has not been studied. No CMS dosing recommendations are available for patients receiving CAPD. Eight CAPD patients received a single intravenous CMS dose (150 mg colistin base activity [CBA]) over 30 min. Serial blood and dialysate samples, and cumulative urine where applicable, were collected over 25 h. CMS and colistin concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population pharmacokinetic modeling and Monte Carlo simulations were conducted. The total body clearance of CMS (excluding CAPD clearance) was 1.77 liters/h (44%) [population mean (between-subject variability)], while CAPD clearance was 0.088 liter/h (64%). The population mean terminal half-life of CMS was 8.4 h. For colistin, the total clearance/fraction of CMS metabolized to colistin (fm) (excluding CAPD clearance) was 2.74 liters/h (50%), the CAPD clearance was 0.101 liter/h (34%), and the mean terminal half-life was 13.2 h. Monte Carlo simulations suggested a loading dose of 300 mg CBA on day 1 and a maintenance dose of either 150 mg or 200 mg CBA daily to achieve a target average steady-state plasma colistin concentration of 2.5 mg/liter. Clearance by CAPD was low for both CMS and formed colistin. Therefore, CMS doses should not be increased during CAPD. Modeling and simulation enabled us to propose the first evidence-based CMS dosage regimen for CAPD patients. PMID:24189256
Heaton, A; Ward, M K; Johnston, D G; Alberti, K G; Kerr, D N
Six patients established on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis entered a trial of treatment with dialysis fluid containing glycerol instead of glucose as the osmotic agent in an attempt to decrease the energy load. They were observed for a further 6 months after reconversion to glucose-based dialysis. During the 6 month control period fluid balance was achieved mainly with a solution containing 76 mmol of glucose/1. Fluid balance was maintained during the 6 month period of treatment with glycerol only by the increased use of solutions containing a high concentration of glycerol (152 mmol/l and 272 mmol/l). Thus the energy value of the absorbed osmotic agent did not differ at a mean of 1607 kJ (384 kcal)/day using glycerol and 1669 kJ (399 kcal)/day using glucose as the osmotic agent. In five subjects, fasting and peak blood glycerol levels did not change over the 6 months, but one subject, who accumulated glycerol, developed symptoms of hyperosmolality after 2 months and glycerol therapy was discontinued. In a further subject glycerol-based dialysis was terminated at 3 months when increasing angina was reported. Mean fasting plasma triglyceride concentrations were 50% higher during the 6 months on glycerol (3.12 +/- 1.12 mmol/l) than on glucose (2.19 +/- 0.97 mmol/l) (P less than 0.05). There was a small rise in very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations with glycerol dialysis but total cholesterol levels were unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Prasad, Narayan; Gupta, Amit; Sinha, Archana; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Kumar, Alok; Kumar, Ramesh
The prevalence of malnutrition in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients in India has not been studied in much detail. We studied various nutritional indices of end-stage renal disease patients at the initiation of therapy. Two hundred and eighty-three CAPD patients (204 were male; mean +/- SD age, 50 +/- 14 years) were assessed for their nutritional status at the initiation of therapy. Nutritional status was assessed by anthropometry, dietary diary, subjective global assessment (SGA), and serum albumin. The patients were categorized into different grades of malnutrition, based on their nutritional indices: (1) normal nutritional status, (2) mild-moderate malnutrition, and (3) severe malnutrition. Based on SGA, 71/283 (25.08%) had a normal nutritional status, 192/283 (67.84%) had mild-moderate malnutrition, and 20/283 (7.07%) had severe malnutrition. However, on categorizing patients in different grades of malnutrition based on serum albumin, 103/283 (36.4%) had a normal nutritional status, 175/283(61.84%) had mild-moderate malnutrition, and (5/283) 1.77% had severe malnutrition. Their mean calorie and protein intake was significantly lower than recommended (National Kidney Foundation Dialysis Outcome and Quality Initiative guidelines). Individual dietary counseling was performed, an individual diet chart was given to each patient, and counseling was repeated. There was a significant increase in nutrient intake and in grades of malnutrition of these patients during follow-up. We conclude that the majority of the patients were already malnourished at the initiation of CAPD, and that nutrient intake and nutritional parameters improved during the follow-up of these patients.
Tang, Chao-Hsiun; Wu, Yu-Ting; Huang, Siao-Yuan; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Wu, Ming-Ju; Hsu, Bang-Gee; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Sue, Yuh-Mou
Objectives Taiwan succeeded in raising the proportion of peritoneal dialysis (PD) usage after the National Health Insurance (NHI) payment scheme introduced financial incentives in 2005. This study aims to compare the economic costs between automated PD (APD) and continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) modalities from a societal perspective. Design and setting A retrospective cohort of patients receiving PD from the NHI Research Database was identified during 2004–2011. The 1:1 propensity score matched 1749 APD patients and 1749 CAPD patients who were analysed on their NHI-financed medical costs and utilisation. A multicentre study by face-to-face interviews on 117 APD and 129 CAPD patients from five hospitals located in four regions of Taiwan was further carried out to collect data on their out-of-pocket payments, productivity losses and quality of life with EuroQol-5D-5L. Outcome measures The NHI-financed medical costs, out-of-pocket payments and productivity losses of APD and CAPD patients. Results The total NHI-financed medical costs per patient-year after 5 years of follow-up were significantly higher with APD than CAPD (US$23 005 vs US$19 237; p<0.01). In terms of dialysis-related costs, APD had higher costs resulting from the use of APD machines (US$795) and APD sets (US$2913). Significantly lower productivity losses were found with APD (US$2619) than CAPD (US$6443), but the out-of-pocket payments were not significantly different. The differences in NHI-financed medical costs and productivity losses between APD and CAPD remained robust in the bootstrap analysis. The total economic costs of APD (US$30 401) were similar to those of CAPD (US$29 939), even after bootstrap analysis (APD, US$28 399; CAPD, US$27 960). No discernable differences were found in the results of mortality and quality of life between the APD and CAPD patients. Conclusions APD had higher annual dialysis-related costs and lower annual productivity losses than CAPD, which made the
Wong, T Y; Chan, J C; Szeto, C C; Leung, C B; Li, P K
Although glycemic control has an important impact on the clinical outcomes of patients with diabetes undergoing dialysis, there is a paucity of data on the relationship between glucose metabolism and clinical parameters in these patients. In this study, we compared a cohort of 48 patients with type II diabetes undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) with 84 age- and sex-matched patients with type II diabetes with similar disease duration but normal renal function. Compared with those with normal renal function, patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing CAPD had greater serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity (median, 57.4 U/L; range, 33.5 to 100.0 U/L v 46.9 U/L; range, 11.6 to 111.2 U/L; P < 0.005), fasting C-peptide (median, 9.1 ng/mL; range, 0.9 to 30.0 ng/mL v 2.2 ng/mL; range, 0.2 to 20.3 ng/mL; P < 0.0001) and triglyceride levels, and lower serum albumin concentrations. Among the patients undergoing CAPD, there was a preponderance of men in the insulin-treated group. Insulin-treated patients also had greater plasma albumin levels and body weights and lower fasting serum C-peptide levels (2.81 +/- 1.77 v 3.12 +/- 2.04 ng/mL; analysis of variance, P = 0.007 adjusted for fasting glucose concentration). Multivariate analysis showed duration of diabetes, hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) level, and body weight were independent determinants of insulin requirement in patients undergoing CAPD. The daily insulin dosage required was related to the duration of diabetes (r = 0.5; P = 0.007). In summary, among patients with end-stage renal failure, insulin-treated patients had greater body weights and plasma albumin levels but lower cholesterol levels. Plasma C-peptide concentration and duration of diabetes were the main determinants of insulin requirement, reflecting a decrease in beta-cell reserve, whereas the daily insulin dose correlated mainly with body weight, HbA(1c) level, and duration of diabetes. Kt/V had no effect on insulin resistance or
Fuster, Oscar; Andino, Belinda; Pardo, Amparo; Laiz, Begoña
Accurate evaluation of hematology analyzers is recommended before these devices can be broadly introduced for the routine testing of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), ascitic, and pleural fluids. We evaluated the performance of Mindray BC-6800 for white blood cell (WBC) and differential cell count in 50 CAPD, 60 ascitic and 40 pleural compared with manual microscopy. Within-run precision, limit of blank (LoB), limit of detection (LoD), limit of quantitation (LoQ), and carryover were assessed. The Passing-Bablok regression in all fluids showed the following equations: yWBC =1.05x+3.31 (95%CI slope 0.95 to 1.12; intercept -0.25 to 5.52); yMN =0.85x+15.63 (95%CI slope 0.72 to 1.05; intercept -24.18 to 84.47); and yPMN =1.21x+13.37 (95%CI slope 1.03 to 1.35; intercept 4.00 to 32.47) with bias 78 cells/μL. The AUC for clinical PMN cut-off was 0.88 (95%CI: 0.77 to 0.98). In ascitic, pleural, and CAPD fluids the AUC for clinical PMN cut-off were 0.88 (95%CI: 0.63 to 1.00), 0.83 (95%CI: 0.68 to 0.99), and 1.00 (95%CI: 1.00 to 1.00) respectively. CV ranged from 3%-34%. LoB of 3 cell/μL was verified. LoD and LoQ reported the same result (8 cells/μL). Carry over never exceeded 0.05%. The effectiveness of BC-6800 to categorize cells from different body fluids was not compromised by the slight positive bias observed. This conclusion is supported by the high AUC and agreement between the automated method and the reference method. The results show that BC-6800 offers rapid, accurate, and reproducible results for clinical management of CAPD, ascitic, and pleural fluids. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zhang, Lei; Zhao, Shiqi; Ma, Jinling; Gong, Jian; Qiu, Guizhen; Ren, Yueqin; Zen, Ying; Shi, Yongbing
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a major complication in renal failure patients, but very little information is available on the cardiovascular parameters in these patients. The prevalence and risk factors for PAH were systematically evaluated in patients with end-stage renal diseases (ESRD) undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Between January 2010 and January 2014, 177 ESRD patients (85 males and 92 females) undergoing CAPD therapy were recruited. General data, biochemical parameters and echocardiographic findings were collected and PAH risk factors studied. Study participants consisted of 65 patients (36.52%) with PAH (PAH group) and 112 patients without PAH (non-PAH group). The interdialytic weight gain, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure and hypertensive nephropathy incidence in the PAH group were significantly higher than the non-PAH group (all p < 0.05). There were significant differences between PAH group and non-PAH group in C-reactive protein-positive rate, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), hemoglobin, prealbumin and serum albumin levels (all p < 0.05). Compared with non-PAH group, PAH group showed significant increases in right ventricular internal diameter (RVID), right ventricular outflow tract diameter (RVOTD), main pulmonary artery diameter, left atrial diameter (LAD), left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, interventricular septal thickness, left ventricular mass index, early diastolic mitral annulus velocity and valve calcification incidence (all p < 0.05), and decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and early diastolic blood flow peak and mitral annulus velocity (E/E') (all p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that DBP, NT-proBNP, LAD, RVID, RVOTD, LVEF, TAPSE and E/E' are major risk factors for PAH. We observed a high incidence of PAH in ESRD patients
Li, Jianying; Wu, Xiaofeng; Lin, Jianxiong; Zou, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Cheng, Shouzhen; Guo, Qunying
The previous studies reported Type D was associated with poor quality of life (QoL), increased psychological distress, and impaired health status in cardiac patients. The aim of this study is to assess the relationships among Type D personality, illness perception, social support, and investigate the impact of Type D personality on QoL in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Type D personality was assessed by the Chinese 14-item Type D Personality Scale (DS14). Illness perceptions were assessed using the Chinese version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Social support status was assessed by the well-validated social support rating scale (SSRS). Patients' QoL was assessed by using Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 (SF-36), respectively. The Type Ds had significantly lower objective support score (8.18 ± 2.56 vs. 9.67 ± 3.28, p = 0.0001), subjective support score (6.71 ± 2.0 vs. 7.62 ± 1.93, p = 0.0001) and utilization of social support score (6.76 ± 2.0 vs. 7.61 ± 1.94, p = 0.0001) than that of the non-type Ds. Type Ds believed their illness had much more serious consequences (7.67 ± 2.64 vs. 6.27 ± 3.45, p < 0.001), and experience much more symptoms that they attributed to their illness (6.65 ± 2.54 vs. 7.31 ± 2.36, p = 0.023). Significant differences were found between Type Ds and non-Type Ds in PCS (40.53 ± 6.42 vs. 48.54 ± 6.21 p < 0.001) and MCS (41.7 1 ± 10.20 vs. 46.35 ± 9.31, p = 0.012). The correlation analysis demonstrated that Type D was negatively associated with physical component score (PCS) (r = -0.29, p < 0.01), mental component score (MCS) (r = -0.31, p < 0.01), and social support (r = -0.24, p < 0.001). Using multiple linear regression analysis, we found that Type D personality was independently associated with PCS (β = -0.32, p < 0.001) and MCS (β = -0.24, p < 0.001). Type D personality was a predictor of poor QoL in CAPD patients
Gordonia Species as Emerging Causes of Continuous-Ambulatory-Peritoneal-Dialysis-Related Peritonitis Identified by 16S rRNA and secA1 Gene Sequencing and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)
Lam, Jimmy Y. W.; Leung, Wai-Shing; Cheung, Ingrid; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Tse, Cindy W. S.; Lee, Rodney A.; Lau, Susanna K. P.
We report here four cases of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis caused by three different species of Gordonia. The portal of entry was likely through Tenckhoff catheters. 16S rRNA and secA1 gene sequencing are so far the most reliable methods for the accurate identification of Gordonia species. PMID:25428146
Krishnamoorthy, Venkataramanan; Sunder, Sham; Mahapatra, Himansu Sekhar; Verma, Himanshu; Sharma, Neera; Jayaraman, Rajesh; Sathi, Satyanand; Khanna, Shikha; Mohamed, Ashik
Protein-energy wasting (PEW) and heightened inflammation are prevalent in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and is a strong risk factor for morbidity and mortality in these patients. Evaluation of PEW, prevalence of inflammation as well as interrelationship between various nutritional indices and inflammation has not been studied in much detail in patients undergoing CAPD. This study was conducted to evaluate the interrelationship between PEW and inflammation in patients undergoing CAPD. Sixty-three patients undergoing CAPD (M = 28, F = 35) were assessed with regard to their nutritional status and inflammation after a minimum of 3 months CAPD initiation. Nutritional status was assessed by dietary diary, anthropometry, subjective global assessment, and multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). In addition, their serum albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, and cholesterol level were measured. Also, inflammation in these patients was assessed by High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP > 3 mg/L) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6 > 2 µg/mL). Later on, diagnosis of malnutrition was made based on different methods. Correlation between inflammation and various nutritional assessment indices were analyzed statistically. Mean (SD) age of the patients was 57.6 (11.6) years. The average (SD) calorie and protein intake per day were 25.5 (4.6) kcal and 0.81 (0.2) mg, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of anthropometry variables of body mass index (BMI), mid-arm circumference (MAC), tricipital skin-fold thickness (TST), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), and corrected mid-arm muscle area (cMAMA) were 23.7 ± 5 kg/m(2), 26.3 ± 4.5 cm, 1.624 ± 0.4 cm, 25.6 ± 4.5 cm, and 45.7 ± 19.7 cm(2), respectively. The mean values of serum protein, albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, cholesterol, triglyceride, hs-CRP, and IL-6 were 5.9 g/dL, 3.0 g/dL, 21.11 mg/dL, 130.6 mg/dL, 155.9 mg/dL, 136.1 mg/dL, 8.8 ± 7.6 mg/L, and 8.4 ± 12.2 µg
Hsieh, Yao-Peng; Chang, Chia-Chu; Kor, Chew-Teng; Yang, Yu; Wen, Yao-Ko; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Lin, Chi-Chen
Uric acid (UA) is the product of purine or nucleotide metabolism via the pathway of xanthine oxidase or xanthine dehydrogenase. Although epidemiological studies assessing the role of UA in cardiovascular disease or mortality have produced inconsistent results, the correlation between UA and technique failure in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) remains to be assessed. A retrospective cohort study. Patients starting CAPD between 2001 and 2009 in a single centre in Taiwan. A total of 371 patients on CAPD. All-cause and peritonitis-related technique failure. A cohort of 371 participants (43.9% male) was enrolled in the study with a mean age of 55.7±15.9 years at the start of CAPD. During the study period, technique failure occurred in 41 (34.4%) patients in the hyperuricaemia group compared with 49 (19.4%) in the normouricaemia group (p=0.003). In the multivariate Cox regression models, hyperuricaemia at baseline was significantly associated with both a higher risk of technique failure (HR 1.24; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.42, p=0.001) and peritonitis-related technique failure (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.57, p=0.008). UA was shown to be associated with all-cause and peritonitis-related technique failure in our study. Patients on CAPD with hyperuricaemia should be closely monitored and strategies of increasing survival on CAPD should be taken. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Hsieh, Yao-Peng; Chang, Chia-Chu; Kor, Chew-Teng; Yang, Yu; Wen, Yao-Ko; Chiu, Ping-Fang; Lin, Chi-Chen
Objectives Uric acid (UA) is the product of purine or nucleotide metabolism via the pathway of xanthine oxidase or xanthine dehydrogenase. Although epidemiological studies assessing the role of UA in cardiovascular disease or mortality have produced inconsistent results, the correlation between UA and technique failure in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) remains to be assessed. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting Patients starting CAPD between 2001 and 2009 in a single centre in Taiwan. Participants A total of 371 patients on CAPD. Primary outcome measures All-cause and peritonitis-related technique failure. Results A cohort of 371 participants (43.9% male) was enrolled in the study with a mean age of 55.7±15.9 years at the start of CAPD. During the study period, technique failure occurred in 41 (34.4%) patients in the hyperuricaemia group compared with 49 (19.4%) in the normouricaemia group (p=0.003). In the multivariate Cox regression models, hyperuricaemia at baseline was significantly associated with both a higher risk of technique failure (HR 1.24; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.42, p=0.001) and peritonitis-related technique failure (HR 1.29; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.57, p=0.008). Conclusions UA was shown to be associated with all-cause and peritonitis-related technique failure in our study. Patients on CAPD with hyperuricaemia should be closely monitored and strategies of increasing survival on CAPD should be taken. PMID:28389481
Lee, Seoung Woo; Kim, Hyo Jung; Kwon, Hei Kyung; Son, Sook Mee; Song, Joon Ho
Purpose Equations are frequently used to estimate resting energy expenditure (REE) in a clinical setting. However, few studies have examined their accuracy in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Materials and Methods To investigate agreement between indirect calorimetry and several REE estimating equations in 38 ESRD patients on peritoneal dialysis, we performed indirect calorimetry and compared the results with REEs estimated using 5 equations [Harris-Benedict (HBE), Mifflin, WHO, Schofield, and Cunningham]. Results Measured REE was 1393.2 ± 238.7 kcal/day. There were no significant differences between measured and estimated REEs except Mifflin (1264.9 ± 224.8 kcal/day). Root mean square errors were smallest for HBE, followed by Schofield, Cunningham, and WHO, and largest for Mifflin (171.3, 171.9, 174.6, 175.3, and 224.6, respectively). In Bland-Altman plot, correlation coefficients between mean values and differences were significant for HBE (r = 0.412, p = 0.012) and tended to be significant for Cunningham (r = 0.283, p = 0.086). In DM patients and patients with overhydration, HBE showed significant underestimation when REE increased. Conclusion In ESRD patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), REE-estimating equations have no significant differences from indirect calorimetry, except Mifflin. However, HBE showed greater bias than others when REE was high. PMID:18452263
Awdisho, Alan; Bermudez, Maria
Peritonitis is a leading complication of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. However, very rarely does Neisseria mucosa cause peritonitis. We describe an unusual case of N. mucosa peritonitis in a chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient. A 28-year-old Hispanic male presents with diffuse abdominal pain exacerbated during draining of the peritoneal fluid. Peritoneal fluid examination was remarkable for leukocytosis and gramnegative diplococci. Bacterial cultures were positive for N. mucosa growth. The patient was treated with ciprofloxacin with preservation of the dialysis catheter. This case highlights the rarity and importance of Neisseria mucosa causing peritonitis in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients’. There seems to be a unique association between N. mucosa peritonitis and chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients’. The patient was successfully managed with ciprofloxacin along with salvaging of the dialysis catheter. PMID:28191300
Gordon, A; Maxwell, M H; Lewin, A J
Sorbent regeneration of peritoneal dialysate has been shown to be feasible in experimental and preliminary clinical studies and provides a realistic basis for the optimization of dialysis therapy and the potential development of an ambulatory dialysis system. Peritoneal dialysis efficiency can be significantly enhanced by continuous dialysate flow techniques and the mass transfer of uremic solutes can be theoretically augmented by the increased dialysis time made possible by a wearable design. Further optimization of end stage renal failure therapy may be achieved by the combined use of various methods for blood purification.
Jung, Hee-Yeon; Jang, Hye Min; Kim, Yang Wook; Cho, Seong; Kim, Hye-Young; Kim, Sung-Ho; Bang, Kitae; Kim, Hyun Woo; Lee, So Young; Jo, Sang Kyung; Lee, Jonghyo; Choi, Ji-Young; Cho, Jang-Hee; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Chan-Duck; Kim, Yong-Lim
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important clinical outcome for dialysis patients. However, relative superiority in HRQOL between automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) are not clearly known. We compared HRQOL over time between APD and CAPD patients and evaluated factors associated with HRQOL.All 260 incident patients initiating APD or CAPD at multiple centers throughout Korea were prospectively enrolled in this study between October 2010 and February 2013. HRQOL, depressive symptoms, and renal treatment satisfaction were assessed 1 and 12 months after the start of dialysis by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form 36 (KDQOL-36), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Renal Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire (RTSQ), respectively.Of 196 patients who completed all questionnaires and did not change the peritoneal dialysis (PD) modality during the 1-year follow-up period, 160 were matched. APD patients showed better baseline HRQOL than CAPD patients for the symptoms, patient satisfaction, pain, and social function domains. There were no differences in HRQOL between the 2 groups at 12 months, and CAPD patients had significantly greater improvements in symptoms (P = 0.02), the mental composite summary (P = 0.03), and health status domains (P = 0.03) than APD patients. There were similar improvements in depressive symptoms (P = 0.01) and patient satisfaction with treatment (P = 0.01) in CAPD and APD patients. Interestingly, depressive symptoms, not PD modality, was the most influential and consistent factor for HRQOL. Despite the spontaneous improvement of depressive symptoms, considerable PD patients still had depressive symptoms at the 1-year appointment.APD has no advantage over CAPD for HRQOL. Considering the substantial negative effect of depressive symptoms on HRQOL, it is important to evaluate PD patients for depression and to treat those with depression to improve
Shin, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Si Hyun; Jeong, Haeng Soon; Oh, Seung Hwan; Kim, Hye Ran; Lee, Jeong Nyeo; Yoon, Young Chul; Kim, Yang Wook; Kim, Yeong Hoon
Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) is the most common pathogen in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)-associated peritonitis. There is no well-organized, standardized database for CoNS, and few studies have used gene sequencing in reporting species distribution in CAPD peritonitis. In the present study, we used 3 housekeeping genes to evaluate the prevalence of CoNS isolated from CAPD peritonitis episodes and to estimate the accuracy of, and the characteristic differences between, these genes for species identification. All 51 non-duplicated CoNS isolates obtained from CAPD peritonitis between April 2006 and May 2008 were used. The strains were identified by polymerase chain reaction and by direct sequencing using the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA), tuf, and sodA genes. We determined species distribution, and using selected databases, we analyzed the characteristics and diagnostic utility of the individual genes for species identification. In GenBank (National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA), we found 49 type or reference strains for CoNS 16S rRNA, 17 for tuf, and 46 for sodA, and we used those data for sequence-similarity comparisons with CAPD isolates. Among our 51 strains, S. epidermidis (66.7%) was the most common, followed by S. haemolyticus (11.8%), S. warneri (7.8%), S. caprae (5.9%), S. capitis (3.9%), and S. pasteuri (2.0%). For 1 strain, different species results were obtained with each gene. The identification rates with 16S rRNA, sodA, and tuf gene sequencing were 84.0%, 96.0%, and 92.2% respectively. The discrimination capability of 16S rRNA gene was lower in a few individual species, and for the sodA gene, the percentage similarity to sequences from reference strains was also lower. The tuf gene had excellent identification capacity, but relatively few type strains are available in public databases. The 16S rRNA gene did not discriminate between S. caprae and S. capitis. The sodA gene showed a similarity rate that was lower than
Stanković-Popović, Verica; Popović, Dragan; Dimković, Nada; Maksić, Djoko; Vasilijić, Sasa; Colić, Miodrag; Vucinić, Zarko; Radjen, Slavica; Milicić, Biljana
Morbidity and mortality of continous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients is still very high. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions (standard vs biocompatible) on long-term patients' and the techique survival. A total of 42 stable patients on CAPD participated in this cross-sectional study. They were prospectively followed-up during the twelve years. Patients with severe anemia (Hb < 10 g/L) and malignant disease ware excluded. Twenty one (50%/0) patients were treated with the standard PD solutions (CAPDP-1) while the other 21 (500/0) were treated with biocompatible PD solutions [(lower level of glucose degradation products, lower concentration of Ca(2+) and neutral pH (CAPDP-2)]. All patients were analyzed for a presence of vascular calcification, nutrition status, and parameters of inflammation after 2.5 +/- 0.6 years of starting CAPD, and these variables considered in the analysis as risk factors. The patients from the group CAPDP-2 compared to those from the group CAPDP-1 had lower level of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (p = 0.003), and better nutritional status as confirmed by the mid-arm circumference (p = 0.015), and mid-arm muscle circumference (p = 0.002) and subjective global assessment (p = 0.000). Also, they had lower vascular calcifications as confirmed by intima media thickness (IMT) (p = 0.003), degree of carotid narrowing (p = 0.001) and calcified plaques of common carotid arteries (CCA) (p = 0.008). Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed better survival of patients from the group CAPDP-2 than those from the group CAPDP-1 (1-, 5-, and 10-year patients survival rate was: 100%, 61.9% and 14.3% for the group CAPDP-1, and 100%, 85.7%, and 52.4% for the group CAPDP-2, respectively; p = 0.0345). The 1-, 5-, and 10-year technique survival rate was: 100%, 71.4%, and 38.1% for the group CAPDP-1, and 100%, 85.7%, and 76.2% for the group CAPDP-2, respectively; (p = 0.0719). Duration of dialysis
Oba, Ikuko; Shinozaki, Michiya; Harada, Kenji; Mori, Takefumi; Kanai, Hidetoshi
Increased left ventricular mass index (LVMI) is commonly observed in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). The present study aimed to determine the effect of icodextrin (Ico) on LVMI in PD patients with maintained residual renal function (RRF). This retrospective study included 18 patients (12 men, 6 women; average age: 62 +/- 10 years) diagnosed with indications for PD therapy and divided into two groups: those treated with Ico (Ico group) and without Ico (non-Ico group). Echocardiography was performed at the beginning of continuous ambulatory PD and after 6 and 12 months. A significant reduction in LVMI (p < 0.01) and an increase in ultrafiltration (p < 0.01) were observed after 6 months of lco treatment and were maintained for 12 months. Ejection fraction was significantly lower in the non-Ico group after 12 months (p < 0.01), but was not altered in the Ico group. Blood pressure, cardiothoracic ratio, urine volume, and N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide were unaffected by PD treatment up to 12 months. The year-averaged ultrafiltration and the reduction in LVMI were significantly correlated (p < 0.05). Ico effectively improved LVMI and maintained ejection fraction in end-stage renal disease patients within 1 year from PD initiation. Notably, treatment with Ico resulted in a reduction of LVMI (associated with increased ultrafiltration), with no significant reduction in RRF.
Dombros, N V; Prutis, K; Tong, M; Anderson, G H; Harrison, J; Sombolos, K; Digenis, G; Pettit, J; Oreopoulos, D G
The long-term effect of an AA solution based on Travasol, a solution for total parenteral nutrition, given intraperitoneally over a 6-month period was studied in 5 patients 22 to 75 years old, having been on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) for 3 to 57 months. A low oral protein intake (less than 0.8 g/kg bw/day) and/or a low serum albumin (less than 35 g/L) were used as inclusion criteria. Two liters of 1% AA solution were infused overnight, while a glucose Dianeal was used for the other exchanges. During the study, BUN increased from 22.04 mM/L to 28.06 mM/L the first month and remained at these levels, indicating the increased protein intake. However, average oral total energy and protein intake, body weight (bw), serum creatinine, cholesterol, triglycerides, total proteins, albumin, transferrin, skinfold thickness, total body potassium, and plasma AA levels remained basically unchanged. The average total body nitrogen decreased from 1.746 to 1.554 Kg, but this decrease did not reach statistical significance (p greater than 0.05). We conclude that intraperitoneal overnight administration of 2 L of 1% AA based on Travasol over 6 months did not improve the nutritional status of CAPD patients. This ineffectiveness might be due to the AA composition of the solution, the timing of administration, or to a low caloric intake and/or that our patients were not severely malnourished.
Kaul, Anupma; Sharma, R K; Gupta, Amit; Prasad, Narayan
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) associated with pre-existing advanced liver disease (ALD) has increased the risk of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study is to assess the outcome following the use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in ESRD patients with ALD. A retrospective case-controlled study was performed on 16 patients with ALD and ESRD (ESRD-ALD) and 27 control patients with ESRD but without liver disease (ESRD); both groups were started on CAPD during the same period. No major complications were observed in either group in the immediate post-surgical period and, after an average break in period of 11.3 days, the cases and controls were started on regular CAPD. The average duration of follow-up was 8 ± 2.3 months in the ESRD-ALD group compared with 20 ± 1.3 months in the ESRD group. The overall peritonitis rates were 1.26/treatment year in the ESRD-ALD group and 0.63 in the ESRD group. The 6- and 12-month survivals among ESRD-ALD patients were 63.75% and 38.75%, respectively. Patients with ESRD-ALD had significantly lower baseline serum protein and albumin levels at the time of initiation of CAPD. On follow-up, the hemoglobin levels improved in both the groups along with an improvement in the serum protein and albumin levels. Fourteen of the 16 ESRD-ALD patients died at the end of the 3-year follow-up period; deaths were due to terminal liver failure in nine patients and peritonitis in five patients. Patients who died in the ESRD-ALD group had lower serum albumin, lower body mass index (BMI) (median BMI 18.2 vs. 25.6) and higher grades of liver disease [child Pugh grade B (8), grade C (6) vs. grade B (2)] at initiation of CAPD. Our study suggests that CAPD is a safe modality in patients with ESRD-ALD and that it does not carry any major risk for bleeding tendencies, technique failure or worsening of nutritional status. Low serum albumin, lower BMI and higher grade of liver disease at initiation are associated with higher mortality
Polańska, Bożena; Augustyniak, Daria; Makulska, Irena; Niemczuk, Maria; Jankowski, Adam; Zwolińska, Danuta
Peritoneal dialysis is one of the main modality of treatment in end-stage kidney diseases (ESKD) in children. In our previous work in chronic kidney disease patients, in pre-dialyzed period and on hemodialysis, the neutrophils were highly activated. The aim of this study was to assess an inflammatory condition and neutrophil activation in ESKD patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Thirteen CAPD patients without infection, both sexes, aged 2.5-24 years, and group of healthy subjects (C) were studied. For comparative purposes the conservatively treated (CT) group of ESKD patients was included. Neutrophil elastase in complex with α1-proteinase inhibitor (NE-α1PI; ELISA), α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1PI; radial immunodiffusion) and interleukin-8 (IL-8; ELISA) were measured in the blood samples from CAPD, CT, and C group and in the peritoneal dialysate fluid (PDF) samples of patients on CAPD. A significantly increased plasma NE-α1PI levels (median 176.5 μg/L, range 85.2-373.2 μg/L; p < 0.00005), serum IL-8 (median 18.6 pg/mL, range 15.73-35.28 pg/mL; p < 0.05), and slightly decreased serum α1PI (median 1,540 mg/L, range 1,270-1,955; p ≤ 0.05) compared to the control groups were found. There were no significant differences of analyzed parameters between CAPD and CT patients. The concentration ratio of NE-α1PI, α1PI and IL-8 in blood/PDF was 29.97, 8.24, and 4.48, respectively. There were significantly positive correlations between serum and PDF concentration of α1PI and IL-8 (r = 0.613, p < 0.05; r = 0.59; p < 0.005, respectively). The results of our study demonstrate that neutrophils are highly activated in non-infected CAPD patients. The pivotal marker of this activation is NE-α1PI. It may contribute to chronic inflammation and tissues injury.
Maya, Ivan D
A modified fluoroscopic technique by adding ultrasound-assistance ensuring entry into the abdominal cavity and avoiding the risk of epigastric artery injury under direct ultrasound visualization was recently published. This study demonstrated that the technique was minimally invasive and allowed for accurate assessment of entry into the abdominal cavity and avoidance of vascular injury. In the current analysis, we report the impact of this technique on hospital stay during a peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter insertion. Twenty-six PD catheters have been placed on an outpatient basis using this technique. All catheter insertions were successful. Patients were discharge on the same day of the procedure. There were no procedure-related complication or related to short hospital stay. An ambulatory setting allows for a short hospital stay without compromising patient care. This brief paper explains in detail the pre, peri and postoperative period and follow-up.
Taegtmeyer, M.; Saxena, R.; Corkill, J. E.; Anijeet, H.; Parry, C. M.
Bacterial peritonitis is a well-recognized complication of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in patients with end-stage renal failure. We present a case of peritonitis due to an unusual pathogen, Neisseria cinerea, unresponsive to the standard intraperitoneal (i.p.) vancomycin and gentamicin, which responded rapidly to oral ciprofloxacin. PMID:16891538
Taegtmeyer, M; Saxena, R; Corkill, J E; Anijeet, H; Parry, C M
Bacterial peritonitis is a well-recognized complication of chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in patients with end-stage renal failure. We present a case of peritonitis due to an unusual pathogen, Neisseria cinerea, unresponsive to the standard intraperitoneal (i.p.) vancomycin and gentamicin, which responded rapidly to oral ciprofloxacin.
González-Espinoza, Liliana; Gutiérrez-Chávez, Jorge; del Campo, Fabiola Martín; Martínez-Ramírez, Héctor R; Cortés-Sanabria, Laura; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M
Malnutrition is highly prevalent in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and is a strong predictor of increased morbidity and mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of an egg albumin-based protein supplement on the nutritional status of CAPD patients. In this randomized, open label, controlled clinical trial, 28 CAPD patients were allocated to a study (n = 13) or a control (n = 15) group. Both groups received conventional nutritional counseling; the study group received, additionally, an oral egg albumin-based supplement. During a 6-month follow-up, all patients had monthly clinical and biochemical evaluations and quarterly assessments of adequacy of dialysis and nutrition. Serum albumin Levels were not different between groups; however, a significant increase (baseline vs final) was observed in the study group (2.64+/-0.35 vs 3.05+/-0.72 g/dL) but not in the control group (2.66+/-0.56 vs 2.80+/-0.54 mg/dL). Calorie and protein intake increased more in the study group (calories 1331+/-432 vs 1872+/-698 kcal; proteins 1.0+/-0.3 vs 1.7+/-0.7 g/kg) than in the control group (calories 1423+/-410 vs 1567+/-381 kcal; proteins 1.0+/-0.4 vs 1.0+/-0.3 g/kg). Similarly, non-protein nitrogen appearance rate (nPNA) increased significantly more in the study (1.00+/-0.23 vs 1.18+/-0.35 g/kg/day) than in the control group (0.91+/-0.11 vs 0.97+/-0.14 g/kg/ day). Triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and midarm muscle area (MAMA) displayed a nonsignificant trend to a greater increase in the study group (TSF 16.7+/-8.7 vs 18.3+/-10.7 mm; MAMA 23.8+/-6.2 vs 25.8+/-5.9 cm2) than in controls (TSF 16.4+/-5.7 vs 16.9+/-7.0 mm; MAMA 28.7+/-7.8 vs 30.0+/-7.9 cm2). At the end of follow-up, the frequency of patients with moderate or severe malnutrition decreased 6% in the control group and decreased 28% in the study group. At the final evaluation, the most important predictors of serum albumin were the oral egg albumin
Guest, Steven; Leypoldt, John K; Cassin, Michelle; Schreiber, Martin
♦ BACKGROUND: Incremental peritoneal dialysis (PD), the gradual introduction of dialysate exchanges at less than full-dose therapy, has been infrequently described in clinical reports. One concern with less than full-dose dialysis is whether urea clearance targets are achievable with an incremental regimen. In this report, we used a large database of PD patients, across all membrane transport types, and performed urea kinetic modeling determinations of possible incremental regimens for an individual membrane type. ♦ METHODS: Using a modified 3-pore model of peritoneal transport, various incremental manual continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) exchanges employing glucose and/or icodextrin were evaluated. Peritoneal urea clearances from those simulations were added to residual kidney urea clearance for patients with various glomerular filtration rates (GFRs), and the total weekly urea clearance was then compared to the total weekly urea Kt/V target of 1.7. All 4 peritoneal membrane types were modeled. For each simulated prescription, net ultrafiltration and carbohydrate absorption were also calculated. ♦ RESULTS: Incremental CAPD regimens of 2 exchanges a day met adequacy targets if the GFR was 6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in all membrane types. For regimens employing 3 exchanges a day, Kt/V targets were achieved at GFR levels of 4 to 5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in high transporters to low transporters but higher tonicity 2.5% glucose solutions or icodextrin were required in some regimens. ♦ CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates that with incremental CAPD regimens, urea kinetic targets are achievable in most new starts to PD with residual kidney function. Incremental PD may be a less intrusive, better accepted initial treatment regime and a cost-effective way to initiate chronic dialysis in the incident patient. The key role of intrinsic kidney function in incremental regimens is highlighted in this analysis and would warrant conscientious monitoring. Copyright © 2017 International
Aramwit, Pornanong; Bunmee, Panipat; Supasyndh, Ouppatham
Background: Patients with chronic renal insufficiency, especially those undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), normally have insulin resistance due to deficiencies in insulin secretion and degradation, as well as tissue resistance to insulin at both receptor and postreceptor levels. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and tolerability of rosiglitazone on insulin resistance and body composition in patients without diabetes mellitus (DM) undergoing CAPD. Methods: This pilot study included a pretest and posttest with a repeated-measure design in a small number of patients. CAPD patients without DM received rosiglitazone 2-mg tablets BID for 12 weeks. Homeostasis Model Assessment Index of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) were used to assess insulin resistance and body composition, respectively. Tolerability was assessed using laboratory analyses as well as physical examination findings to evaluate peripheral edema. Peripheral edema was assessed by the study investigators. Results: Thirteen Thai patients (mean [SD] age, 54.17 [11.42] years [range, 35–85 years]; body mass index [BMI], >20 to <30 kg/m2; fasting blood glucose [FBG] concentration, <5.39 mmol/L) were included in the study. One patient was withdrawn due to illness unrelated to the study. No significant difference was found in FBG concentration between baseline and posttreatment (after 12 weeks of treatment) (5.45 [0.59] vs 5.24 [0.51] mmol/L), but fasting plasma insulin concentrations (28.50 [23.70] vs 10.15 [4.22] μIU/mL; P = 0.005) and HOMA-IR score (6.70 [5.23] vs 2.40 [1.15]; P = 0.011) were significantly lower. There were no significant changes in weight or BMI from baseline to posttreatment. Seven subjects (58.3%) experienced weight gain at week 4, while 2 patients (16.7%) still had weight gain after 12 weeks of treatment. A significant increase was found between baseline and posttreatment in total body
George, M J; DeBin, J A; Preston, K E; Chiu, C; Haqqie, S S
We present an unusual case of recurrent (chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis) CAPD-associated peritonitis caused by Neisseria cinerea. Using DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, we determined that the recurrent infection was caused by reinfection with a different N. cinerea strain rather than relapse with the index strain and that the probable origin of the reinfecting organism was the patient's upper respiratory tract.
Benefits of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) technique with one icodextrin-containing and two biocompatible glucose-containing dialysates for preservation of residual renal function and biocompatibility in incident CAPD patients.
Yoon, Hye Eun; Chang, Yoon Kyung; Shin, Seok Joon; Choi, Bum Soon; Kim, Byung Soo; Park, Cheol Whee; Song, Ho Cheol; Yoon, Sun Ae; Jin, Dong Chan; Kim, Yong-Soo
In a prospective randomized controlled study, the efficacy and safety of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) technique has been evaluated using one icodextrin-containing and two glucose-containing dialysates a day. Eighty incident CAPD patients were randomized to two groups; GLU group continuously using four glucose-containing dialysates (n=39) and ICO group using one icodextrin-containing and two glucose-containing dialysates (n=41). Variables related to residual renal function (RRF), metabolic and fluid control, dialysis adequacy, and dialysate effluent cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were measured. The GLU group showed a significant decrease in mean renal urea and creatinine clearance (-Δ1.2 ± 2.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P=0.027) and urine volume (-Δ363.6 ± 543.0 mL/day, P=0.001) during 12 months, but the ICO group did not (-Δ0.5 ± 2.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P=0.266; -Δ108.6 ± 543.3 mL/day, P=0.246). Peritoneal glucose absorption and dialysate calorie load were significantly lower in the ICO group than the GLU group. The dialysate CA125 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the ICO group than the GLU group. Dialysis adequacy, β2-microglobulin clearance and blood pressure did not differ between the two groups. The CAPD technique using one icodextrin-containing and two glucose-containing dialysates tends to better preserve RRF and is more biocompatible, with similar dialysis adequacy compared to that using four glucose-containing dialysates in incident CAPD patients. [Clincal Trial Registry, ISRCTN23727549].
Benefits of a Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) Technique with One Icodextrin-Containing and Two Biocompatible Glucose-Containing Dialysates for Preservation of Residual Renal Function and Biocompatibility in Incident CAPD Patients
In a prospective randomized controlled study, the efficacy and safety of a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) technique has been evaluated using one icodextrin-containing and two glucose-containing dialysates a day. Eighty incident CAPD patients were randomized to two groups; GLU group continuously using four glucose-containing dialysates (n=39) and ICO group using one icodextrin-containing and two glucose-containing dialysates (n=41). Variables related to residual renal function (RRF), metabolic and fluid control, dialysis adequacy, and dialysate effluent cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels were measured. The GLU group showed a significant decrease in mean renal urea and creatinine clearance (-Δ1.2±2.9 mL/min/1.73 m2, P=0.027) and urine volume (-Δ363.6±543.0 mL/day, P=0.001) during 12 months, but the ICO group did not (-Δ0.5±2.7 mL/min/1.73 m2, P=0.266; -Δ108.6±543.3 mL/day, P=0.246). Peritoneal glucose absorption and dialysate calorie load were significantly lower in the ICO group than the GLU group. The dialysate CA125 and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the ICO group than the GLU group. Dialysis adequacy, β2-microglobulin clearance and blood pressure did not differ between the two groups. The CAPD technique using one icodextrin-containing and two glucose-containing dialysates tends to better preserve RRF and is more biocompatible, with similar dialysis adequacy compared to that using four glucose-containing dialysates in incident CAPD patients. [Clincal Trial Registry, ISRCTN23727549] Graphical Abstract PMID:25246739
Sav, Tansu; Oymak, Oktay; Inanc, Mehmet Tugrul; Dogan, Ali; Tokgoz, Bulent; Utas, Cengiz
Hypervolemia is a risk factor for left ventricular hypertrophy and hypertension in peritoneal dialysis patients. Icodextrin improves volume control by increasing ultrafiltration in peritoneal dialysis patients. To examine the effects of twice-daily icodextrin administration on blood pressure and left ventricular hypertrophy in peritoneal dialysis patients with hypervolemia and ultrafiltration failure. Administration of icodextrin twice daily resulted in a significant reduction in the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) of patients by the end of the third month (p < 0.05). The reduction in LVMI was also significant for the once-daily icodextrin group (p < 0.05). Mean blood pressure of patients receiving icodextrin twice daily was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). By the end of the third month no significant changes were observed in mean blood pressure of the patients using once-daily icodextrin (p > 0.05). No statistically significant changes were observed in weekly total creatinine clearances or Kt/V of patients in either group at the end of 3 months (NS). Twice-daily icodextrin administration was clinically beneficial as shown by reduced blood pressure and prevention of the progress of left ventricular hypertrophy without causing any decrease in dialysis adequacy or any side effects. The icodextrin metabolite results did not suggest any further increase in their values when comparing once- to twice-daily administration of icodextrin. Although prescription of icodextrin once daily may yield good clinical results in the long term, this study showed that it may be more efficient to use twice-daily icodextrin for at least a specific period for the purpose of obtaining quicker results in patients with ultrafiltration failure, serious hypervolemia, or hard-to-control blood pressure conditions.
Martín-Del-Campo, Fabiola; González-Espinoza, Liliana; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Ruiz, Norma; González, Juana; Pazarín, Leonardo; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M
To evaluate the effect of nutritional counselling on nutritional status in peritoneal dialysis patients. Twenty-nine peritoneal dialysis patients were randomly selected to receive conventional nutritional counselling during 6 months of follow up. All patients had monthly clinical and biochemical evaluations, and assessments of dialysis adequacy, inflammation and nutritional status at 0, 3 and 6 months. Moderate-severe malnutrition decreased 28% whereas normal nutrition increased 23% at final evaluation (non-significant). Calorie and protein intake remained stable throughout the study (baseline vs final, calorie: 24 +/- 8 vs 23 +/- 5 Kcal/kg; protein: 1.1 +/- 0.5 vs 1.0 +/- 0.3 g/Kg, respectively). On the other hand, triceps (16 +/- 6 vs 18 +/- 8 mm) and subscapular (17 +/- 8 vs 20 +/- 5 mm) skinfold thicknesses, and mid-arm circumference (27 +/- 3 vs 28 +/- 3 mm) significantly increased; mid-arm muscle area displayed a non-significant trend to increase (30 +/- 9 vs 31 +/- 9 cm(2)) whereas serum albumin significantly increased at the end of study (2.67 +/- 0.46 vs 2.94 +/- 0.48 g/dL). At final evaluation, median renal creatinine clearance decreased (6.3 (0.8-15.3) vs 2.0 (0.1-6.3) L/week per 1.73 m(2)) whereas interleukin-6 increased (2.33 (1.9-7.0) vs 4.02 (2.1-8.4) pg/mL). Even though conventional nutritional counselling, as an isolated measure, did not significantly improve all nutritional parameters, it prevented a greater deterioration during 6 months. Nutritional counselling maintained the nutritional status in spite of a decrease in residual renal function and higher systemic inflammation.
Singh, Shivendra; Prakash, Jai; Singh, R G; Dole, P K; Pant, Pragya
To evaluate the incidence of mechanical and infectious complications of conventional straight catheter (SC) versus swan-neck straight catheter (SNSC) implanted by percutaneous method. We retrospectively analyzed 45 catheter insertions being done by percutaneous method from January 1, 2011, to May 31, 2014. SC was inserted in 24 patients, and SNSC was inserted in 21 patients. Baseline characteristics for the two groups were similar with respect to age, sex and diabetic nephropathy as the cause for end-stage renal disease. Incidence of mechanical and infectious complications in SNSC group was found to be low as compared to the SC group and was statistically significant (1 in 11.6 patient months vs. 1 in 14.4 patient months, p = 0.02). Catheter migration was found to be the most common mechanical complication (20 %), and peritonitis was found to be the most common infectious complication in conventional SC group (27 episodes in 420 patient months vs. 11 episodes in 333 patient months, p = 0.03). The incidence of exit site and tunnel infection rates revealed no difference between the groups. SNSC insertion by percutaneous method is associated with low mechanical and infectious complications.
Albin, H; Ragnaud, J M; Demotes-Mainard, F; Vincon, G; Wone, C
The kinetics of moxalactam has been investigated in 10 subjects undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A single 1 g dose was injected i.v. and a 1 g dose was given intraperitoneally in the CAPD fluid during a 4 h dwell-time. Moxalactam was assayed by HPLC. After i.v. injection, the serum kinetics of moxalactam were: plasma t 1/2 = 17.9 h; volume of distribution at steady-state, 0.27 l/kg; total plasma clearance, 12.8 ml/min; peritoneal clearance, 2.1 ml/min. Dialysate moxalactam concentrations rose rapidly but only 20% of the dose was eliminated by the peritoneal route. After intraperitoneal instillation, moxalactam appeared in the serum rapidly and the peak serum concentration ranged from 21 to 49 micrograms/ml after between 4 and 5 h. The absorption of moxalactam from the peritoneal space was 57 +/- 16%. The data suggest that moxalactam has bidirectional exchange characteristics through the peritoneal membrane. Instillation of moxalactam in CAPD fluid may permit rapid absorption and the appearance of a therapeutic serum concentration.
Albin, H C; Demotes-Mainard, F M; Bouchet, J L; Vincon, G A; Martin-Dupont, C
We investigated the kinetics of cefotaxime in eight subjects undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A single 1 gm iv dose was injected and a 1 gm dose was given intraperitoneally in the CAPD fluid during a 4-hour dwell time. Cefotaxime and desacetylcefotaxime were assayed by HPLC. After intravenous injection the cefotaxime serum kinetic parameters were as follows: plasma t 1/2, 2.31 +/- 0.20 hours; volume of distribution, 0.35 +/- 0.04 L/kg; total plasma clearance, 118.7 +/- 12.3 ml/min; and peritoneal clearance, 6.7 +/- 1.3 ml/min. Dialysate cefotaxime concentrations rose rapidly, but only 5% of the dose was eliminated by the peritoneal route. After intraperitoneal instillation, cefotaxime appeared in the serum rapidly and the peak serum concentrations ranged from 9 to 20 micrograms/ml between 1 and 3 hours. The absorption of cefotaxime from peritoneal space was 58.7% +/- 5.4%. Data suggest that cefotaxime has bidirectional exchange characteristics through the peritoneal membrane. Instillation of cefotaxime in CAPD fluid may permit rapid absorption to achieve therapeutic serum concentrations.
Demotes-Mainard, F; Vinçon, G; Ragnaud, J M; Morlat, P; Bannwarth, B; Dangoumau, J
The pharmacokinetics of ceftazidime have been investigated in eight patients with chronic renal failure undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Each subject was given ceftazidime 1 g intravenously and 1 g intraperitoneally at an interval of 1 week. Ceftazidime was assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. After intravenous administration, the pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftazidime were: elimination plasma half-life (t1/2 beta) = 24.6 +/- 4.6 hours; apparent volume of distribution (V(area)): 0.37 +/- 0.09 1/kg, total plasma clearance (CL): 11.9 +/- 3.3 mL/minute, peritoneal clearance (CLp): 1.7 +/- 0.3 mL/minute. Over 72 hours, only 15.6 +/- 4.7% of the dose was eliminated by the peritoneal route. After intraperitoneal administration, ceftazidime appeared in the plasma rapidly, and the peak plasma concentration of 24.5 +/- 5.2 mg/L was achieved at the fourth hour; the elimination half-life (t1/2ke) was 20.8 +/- 1.7 hours. The absorption of ceftazidime from the peritoneal space was 74.1 +/- 7.4%. These data suggest that ceftazidime has bidirectional exchange characteristics through the peritoneal membrane. A single 1-g intraperitoneal dose led to serum and dialysate concentrations of ceftazidime above the minimum concentrations for susceptible pathogen germs for 24 hours.
Ramalakshmi, S; Baben, Bjoe; Ashok, Ben S; Jayanthi, V; Leslie, Nancy; Abraham, Georgi
In the present study, we aimed to determine levels of free carnitine in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in India and to correlate carnitine deficiency with various clinical parameters. Patients on HD and PD at two tertiary care centers were selected for the study. Baseline data were obtained, and a free carnitine analysis was performed. Carnitine deficiency was defined as a free carnitine level of less than 40 micromol/L. The total number of study patients was 96 (77 on HD, 19 on PD). In the PD group, the mean age was 56 years, with 26.3% of the patients being vegan, 47.4% having diabetes, and 57.9% having a daily urine output of <500 mL. The mean carnitine level in that group was 38.9 micromol/L, and 68.4% of the patients had a carnitine deficiency. A Pearson correlation test failed to show any association of carnitine level with parameters such as anemia, use of erythropoietin, non-vegetarian diet, diabetes, and hypertension. In the HD group, the mean age was 45 years, with 22% of the patients being vegan, 23% having diabetes, and 45.5% having a daily urine output of <500 mL. The mean carnitine level in the group was 38.2 micromol/L, and 64.3% of the patients had a carnitine deficiency. Residual renal function and duration of dialysis were different in HD patients with and without carnitine deficiency. Carnitine levels in the HD group correlated positively and statistically significantly with the presence of diabetes and hypertension. This study is the first demonstration that Indian dialysis patients have carnitine deficiency.
Albin, H; Ragnaud, J M; Demotes-Mainard, F; Vinçon, G; Couzineau, M; Wone, C
The kinetics of ceftriaxone was investigated in 8 patients without infection, who were receiving continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Ceftriaxone 1 g was injected i.v. and 1 g was given intraperitoneally in the CAPD fluid during a 4-h dwell time. Ceftriaxone was assayed by HPLC. After intravenous administration, the kinetic parameters of ceftriaxone were: plasma t1/2, 12.3 h, total plasma clearance, 14.0 ml/min, volume of distribution at steady state 0.18 l/kg, and peritoneal clearance 0.59 ml/min. Over 72 hours only 5.5% of the dose was eliminated by the peritoneal route. After intraperitoneal administration, ceftriaxone rapidly appeared in serum; the absorption t1/2 was 1.1 h and the mean peak concentration was 38.8 micrograms/ml. The absorption of ceftriaxone from the peritoneal space was 39%. A single 1.0 g IP dose led to serum and dialysate concentrations of ceftriaxone above the minimum inhibitory concentration for susceptible pathogens for 24 hours.
[Effects of low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid on micro-inflammation and the relationship between micro-inflammation and nutritional status in patients performing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a randomized controlled trial].
Chen, Wei; Guo, Zhi-Yong; Wu, Hao; Sun, Li-Jing; Cai, Li-Li; Xu, Hai-Yan
To investigate the effects of the combination of alpha-keto acid and low-protein diet on the levels of serum cytokines in patients performing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and to explore the relationship between inflammation and malnutrition in CAPD patients. Eighty-nine CAPD patients were randomized into three groups, and 78 cases completed a one-year follow-up and with complete data. There were 31 cases in low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid group, 26 cases in low-protein diet group and 21 cases in routine-protein diet group. The levels of serum albumin (Alb), prealbumin (PA), retinol-binding protein (RBP), transferrin (TRF), cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), leptin, and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), body mass index (BMI) were measured. The changes of serum interleukin-1alpha (IL-1alpha), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also detected. Compared with low-protein diet group, serum levels of PA, RBP and TRF were significantly increased both in low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid and routine-protein diet groups ( P<0.01), however, there was no significant difference in the levels of PA, RBP and TRF between low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid group and routine-protein diet group. There was an increased tendency in the content of Alb, TC, TG, BMI, TSF and MAMC, but there were no significant differences. The plasma levels of IL-1alpha, IL-6 and TNF-alpha in low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid group were decreased as compared with the routine-protein diet group, but there were no significant differences. The plasma level of CRP in low-protein diet plus alpha-keto acid group was lower than that in the routine-protein diet group ( P<0.01). The combination of alpha-keto acid and low-protein diet can ameliorate malnutrition and micro-inflammation in CAPD patients.
Taheri, Shahram; Ahmadnia, Mahdieh; Mortazavi, Mojgan; Karimi, Shirin; Reihani, Homa; Seirafian, Shiva
Bachground: Peritonitis and exit site (ES) infection are two main complications of peritoneal dialysis. There are some controversies regard to preventive strategies for ES care. In this study we compared peritonitis and ES infection rates in patients with and without dressing. Materials and Methods: This historical cohort study carried out on 72 patients under continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis treatment, 54 with dressing versus 18 patients without dressing, followed from October 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011 for peritonitis and ES infection. Results: A total of 17 episodes of ES infection occurred in 12 patients in dressing group, but no case was seen in no-dressing group (P = 0.02). Twenty-one episodes of peritonitis occurred in 15 patients in both groups (one episode every 20.6 patient-months). In no-dressing group two episodes occurred in only one patient (one episode every 54 patient-months), and in dressing group, 19 episode in 14 patients (one episode every 17.1 patient-months) (P = 0.03). Peritonitis was significantly more frequent in male versus female in overall patients (38% vs. 14%, P = 0.025) and in dressing group (52% vs. 15%, P = 0.003). In dressing group, peritonitis was more frequent in diabetics versus non-diabetics (48% vs. 11%, P = 0.01). Odds ratio for developing peritonitis was 9.4 in dressing group (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.05 − 84.4; P = 0.045), and 4.4 in men (95% CI = 1.26 − 15.19; P = 0.02). Conclusion: In this study, chronic ES care without dressing was associated with lower risk of peritonitis and ES infection. PMID:28217650
Diaz-Buxo, José A
Continuous flow peritoneal dialysis (CFPD) can be considered a special form of hemodialysis, during which peritoneal effluent, rather than blood, is being dialyzed using standard hemodialysis technology. Preliminary clinical data have identified poor mixing of the dialysis solution, streaming and recirculation as a significant limitation in achieving maximal solute removal and ultrafiltration. Better catheter designs remain a research priority in this field. Although the clinical experience is limited to short-lasting experiments with CFPD, the preliminary data strongly support the superiority of CFPD as the most effective peritoneal dialysis modality in removing small solutes and providing high ultrafiltration rates. The levels of clearance attained are similar to quotidian hemodialysis. In addition, it is expected that the current methodology will provide a new standard of solution biocompatibility.
Acute abdomen; Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; SBP; Cirrhosis - spontaneous peritonitis ... blood, body fluids, or pus in the belly ( abdomen ). One type is called spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SPP). ...
Seguin, Philippe; Verdier, Marie Clémence; Chanavaz, Charles; Engrand, Charlotte; Laviolle, Bruno; Donnio, Pierre-Yves; Mallédant, Yannick
The aim of this study was to determine the steady-state plasma and peritoneal concentrations of cefotaxime and its metabolite desacetyl-cefotaxime administered by continuous infusion to critically ill patients with secondary peritonitis. In 11 patients, a continuous infusion of 4 g/24 h of cefotaxime following a bolus of 2 g was evaluated. Plasma and peritoneal levels of cefotaxime and desacetyl-cefotaxime were measured at steady state on days 2 and 3 (plasma) and on day 3 (peritoneal) by HPLC. Results are expressed as means +/- SD. Total and unbound plasma levels of cefotaxime were 24.0 +/- 21.5 and 20.3 +/- 19.8 mg/L on day 2 and 22.1 +/- 20.7 and 18.9 +/- 19.2 mg/L on day 3, respectively. Total and unbound levels of cefotaxime in the peritoneal fluids were 16.2 +/- 11.5 and 14.3 +/- 10.4 mg/L, respectively. The unbound fraction of plasma cefotaxime was 81.8 +/- 5.9% on day 2 and 82.6 +/- 7.7% on day 3, and the unbound fraction at the peritoneal site was 87.0 +/- 5.5% on day 3. Total and unbound plasma levels of desacetyl-cefotaxime were 9.0 +/- 8.1 and 8.4 +/- 8.1 mg/L on day 2 and 7.6 +/- 7.6 and 7.2 +/- 7.6 mg/L on day 3, respectively. Total and unbound levels of desacetyl-cefotaxime in the peritoneal fluids were 11.9 +/- 11.5 and 10.9 +/- 10.8 mg/L, respectively. The MICs for the enterobacteria recovered ranged from 0.016 to 0.25 mg/L. Continuous infusion of 4 g/24 h of cefotaxime provided a peritoneal concentration >5x MIC for the recovered Enterobacteriaceae and the susceptibility breakpoint of cefotaxime for facultative Gram-negative bacilli.
Marzec, A; Heron, L G; Pritchard, R C; Butcher, R H; Powell, H R; Disney, A P; Tosolini, F A
Four cases of peritonitis caused by the filamentous fungus Paecilomyces variotii in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis are reported. Removal of the Tenckhoff catheter and antifungal chemotherapy led to resolution of symptoms in all cases. Possible contaminating events are discussed, and reported infections with P. variotii are reviewed. PMID:8408561
Morris, B; Chan, Y F; Reddy, J; Woodgyer, A
A 50-year-old diabetic woman with end-stage renal disease, who had been on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 8 months, developed peritonitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans. The patient was completely asymptomatic and infection was confirmed by detection of budding yeast cells in Gram-stained smears of turbid peritoneal fluid. The infection was cleared after intravenous fluconazole with delayed removal of the catheter. Fluconazole may be a suitable alternative drug in treating cryptococcal peritonitis.
... complication of colonoscopy or endoscopy. A ruptured appendix, stomach ulcer or perforated colon. Any of these conditions can ... risk of developing peritonitis: cirrhosis, appendicitis, Crohn's disease, stomach ulcers, diverticulitis and pancreatitis. History of peritonitis. Once you' ...
Phantom Limb Pain With Ambulatory Continuous...TYPE Annual 3. DATES COVERED 26 Dec 2013 – 25 Dec 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Treating Intractable Post-Amputation Phantom Limb Pain With Ambulatory...continuous peripheral nerve block (CPNB) is an effective treatment for intractable phantom limb pain
Peritoneal Neoplasms; Retroperitoneal Neoplasms; Gastrointestinal Neoplasms; Adenocarcinoma; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Neoplasms; Sarcoma; Adrenocortical Carcinoma; Wilms Tumor; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor
Turner, C; Pateman, B
As a result of technical developments and policies that promote shorter hospital stays, patients are increasingly receiving high technology treatment in the community. The administration of ambulatory intravenous chemotherapy at home is an example of such treatment. Despite being generalist nurses, district nurses (DNs) are involved in what could be viewed as 'specialist' care - advising and supporting patients while they are receiving treatment. This article reports on a study of 20 DNs from one community trust and examines the sources of the knowledge and skills used in caring for these patients and the communication links with the regional cancer centre.
Nowak, Zbigniew; Laudanski, Krzysztof
Background Conformity is a psychological variable related to the propensity of an individual to match his or her behavior and opinion to the perceived social and cultural norm, even if these do not represent the true beliefs of the person. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the psychological variable of conformity is different in two distinct modes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Material/Methods A total of 56 hemodialyzed patients (HD group), 45 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients (CAPD group) and 62 healthy volunteers (CONTR group) were enrolled in the study. The Social Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ) was employed, and chart review was performed to collect clinical data. Results When age was not a factor, the conformity measure was significantly higher in the HD group compared with the CAPD and CONTR groups. The lowest conformity was found in healthy participants who were asked to imagine an acute medical problem. The highest conformity was found in older HD and CAPD patients. Conclusions Being chronically ill and having adaptable views may be more favorable traits for coping with ESRD in dialyzed patients, especially in elderly HD patients. On the other hand, conformity can be deleterious if CAPD patients decide to overlook certain facts or not confront the medical aspects of their condition. PMID:27886156
Nowak, Zbigniew; Laudanski, Krzysztof
BACKGROUND Conformity is a psychological variable related to the propensity of an individual to match his or her behavior and opinion to the perceived social and cultural norm, even if these do not represent the true beliefs of the person. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the psychological variable of conformity is different in two distinct modes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 56 hemodialyzed patients (HD group), 45 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients (CAPD group) and 62 healthy volunteers (CONTR group) were enrolled in the study. The Social Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ) was employed, and chart review was performed to collect clinical data. RESULTS When age was not a factor, the conformity measure was significantly higher in the HD group compared with the CAPD and CONTR groups. The lowest conformity was found in healthy participants who were asked to imagine an acute medical problem. The highest conformity was found in older HD and CAPD patients. CONCLUSIONS Being chronically ill and having adaptable views may be more favorable traits for coping with ESRD in dialyzed patients, especially in elderly HD patients. On the other hand, conformity can be deleterious if CAPD patients decide to overlook certain facts or not confront the medical aspects of their condition.
Serum CA-125 level in end-stage renal disease patients maintained on chronic peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis: the effect of continuous presence of peritoneal fluid, peritonitis, and peritoneal catheter implantation.
Bastani, B; Chu, N
Serum Ca-125, an ovarian tumor marker, is used to screen and follow up patients with overian cancer. Normal values (< 35 U/ml) have been reported in patients with end-stage renal disease and patients maintained on chronic hemodialysis (HD). Non-malignant ascites has been associated with high serum levels of CA-125, suggesting that the presence of fluid in the peritoneal cavity may stimulate its release. We studied 38 HD and 43 chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with regard to serum CA-125 levels. In the HD patients, the mean +/- SE serum CA-125 level was 10.1 +/- 1.7 U/ml (range < 5-39) with 8% of the patients having serum levels of > 35 U/ml. In the CAPD patients, the mean serum CA-125 level in all samples collected (n = 68) was 17.7 +/- 2.7 U/ml (range < 5-101, p < 0.01 vs. HD) with 16% of the sera showing levels of > 35 U/ml. The high serum CA-125 levels in the CAPD patients were from sera obtained within 2 months of diagnosis of peritonitis, peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheter implantation, or intra-abdominal surgery. When serum samples from this 2-month period were excluded, the mean serum CA-125 level was 8.9 +/- 1.5 U/ml (p = NS vs. HD) and only 1 patient had an abnormal level. Peritoneal dialysate CA-125 levels during an episode of peritonitis were significantly higher than at the baseline (69.1 +/- 14.2 vs. 21 +/- 2.5, p = 0.004) and both were significantly higher than the serum levels (p < 0.0001). Serum CA-125 levels were also the same in both sexes and races. In conclusion, it was found that while the serum CA-125 level is within normal limits in the majority of HD and stable CAPD patients, it is not uncommon that it is elevated in CAPD patients within 2 months of peritonitis, PD catheter placement, or intra-abdominal surgery, particularly when peritoneal exchanges are temporarily on hold in the latter two. The serum CA-125 level should be interpreted with caution in the CAPD patients as it may be a non-specific marker of peritoneal
van Ruler, O; Boermeester, M A
Secondary peritonitis remains associated with high mortality and morbidity rates. Treatment of secondary peritonitis is still challenging even in the era of modern medicine. Surgical intervention for source control remains the cornerstone of treatment besides adequate antimicrobial therapy and when necessary intensive medical care measures and resuscitation. A randomized clinical trial showed that relaparotomy on demand (ROD) after initial emergency surgery was the preferred treatment strategy, irrespective of the severity and extent of peritonitis. The effective and safe use of ROD requires intensive monitoring of the patient in a setting where diagnostic tests and decision making about relaparotomy are guaranteed round the clock. The lack of knowledge on timely and adequate patient selection, together with the lack of use of easy but reliable monitoring tools seem to hamper full implementation of ROD. The accuracy of the relaparotomy decision tool is reasonable for prediction of the formation of peritonitis and necessary selection of patients for computed tomography (CT). The value of CT in the early postoperative phase is unclear. Future research and innovative technologies should focus on the additive value of CT after surgical treatment for secondary peritonitis and on the further optimization of bedside prediction tools to enhance adequate patient selection for interventions in a multidisciplinary setting.
Kempkens, Daniela; Dieterle, Wilfried E.; Butzlaff, Martin; Wilson, Andrew; Bocken, Jan; Rieger, Monika A.; Wilm, Stefan; Vollmar, Horst C.
Introduction: This survey aimed to investigate German ambulatory physicians' opinions about mandatory continuing medical education (CME) and CME resources shortly before the introduction of mandatory CME in 2004. Methods: A structured national telephone survey of general practitioners and specialists was conducted. Main outcome measures were…
Fortuna, Robert J; Garfunkel, Lynn; Mendoza, Michael D; Ditty, Megan; West, Julia; Nead, Karen; Robbins, Brett W
Continuity of care is a critical element of residents' educational experience in primary care programs. We examined how continuity in resident practices compares to nonteaching practices, identified factors associated with increased continuity, and explored the association between continuity and quality measures. We analyzed 117 235 patient visits to 4 resident practices (26 resident teams in internal medicine, pediatrics, family medicine, and medicine-pediatrics) and 270 242 visits to nonteaching community practices between July 2013 and May 2014. We defined continuity from both clinician and patient perspectives, and used logistic regression models to examine the influence of factors on continuity while controlling for postgraduate year, patient age, gender, race, and insurance. Continuity was greater at nonteaching sites compared to resident practices (87.3% versus 56.2%, P < .001). Resident continuity ranged from 33.1% to 83.7% among resident sites. Factors associated with improved resident continuity included absence of advanced practice providers (71.5% versus 52.3%); consistent use of scheduling protocols (77.5% versus 33.1%); rescheduling policies (71.5% versus 41.3%); increased faculty clinical time (71.5% versus 46.3%); and dismissal policies for excessive missed appointments (71.5% versus 62.5%, P < .001 for all). Increased continuity was associated with improved rates of diabetic control (62.8% versus 54.6%); hypertension control (82.8% versus 57.5%); screening colonoscopy (69.2% versus 31.9%); and mammography (74.8% versus 38.2%, P < .001 for all). Increased clinical faculty time, scheduling protocols, and absence of advanced practice providers were most strongly associated with increasing continuity. Increased continuity was associated with improved quality measures.
Levy, M; Balfe, J W; Geary, D F; Fryer-Keene, S P; Bannatyne, R M
The clinical aspects of peritonitis were reviewed in 83 patients treated with continuous ambulatory or continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis between May 1978 and April 1988. Peritonitis occurred in 50 patients whose mean duration of dialysis was 17.8 months, but not in 33 patients with a mean duration of dialysis of 10.4 months. The mean time from starting dialysis to the first episode of peritonitis was 7.1 months. The peritonitis rate was lower for continuous cyclic than for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (1 episode per 12.9 vs. 1 episode per 8.1 patient months, respectively). In 39% of the episodes, gram stain of the dialysate was positive. The dialysate leukocyte count was higher in gram-negative than in gram-positive peritonitis. Seventy percent of the peritonitis episodes were gram positive, and Staphylococcus aureus was predominant. Only 1 of the 7 diapered infants had gram-negative organisms associated with peritonitis. Catheters were replaced in 48 cases, 26 because of infection. Sixty-nine percent of the patients were cured with antibiotic therapy alone. Although peritonitis was associated with a mortality rate of 1.2%, peritoneal dialysis remains the favored dialytic mode for children.
Phantom Limb Pain With Ambulatory Continuous...Annual 3. DATES COVERED 26 December 2012–25 December 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Treating Intractable Post-Amputation Phantom Limb Pain With...effective treatment for intractable phantom limb pain following a traumatic limb amputation. There is
Janma, Jirayut; Linasmita, Patcharasarn; Changsirikulchai, Siribha
A 70-years of age, male patient with underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and ischemic heart disease had undergone continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)for 3 years without any episodes of peritonitis. He was diagnosed with necrotizing fasciitis and later developed peritonitis after receiving a laceration from an aquatic injury suffered during the flood disaster of 2011. The blood culture, necrotic tissue and the clear dialysate collected upon admission had shown Aeromonas sobria. The route of peritonitis may be from the hematogenous spread of A. sobria resulting in necrotizing fasciitis. A. sobria should be considered as the pathogen of peritonitis in PD patients who have history of wounds from contaminated water. We suggest that the PD patients who present with septicemia and did not meet the criteria for peritonitis, the initial dialysate effluent should be sent for culture. The benefit of this is to allow early recognition and treatment of peritonitis.
Serwint, Janet R; Thoma, Kathleen A; Dabrow, Sharon M; Hunt, Lynn E; Barratt, Michelle S; Shope, Timothy R; Darden, Paul M
The goal was to compare visit data from Continuity Research Network practices with data for a nationally representative sample of pediatric visits in practice settings from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. A cross-sectional study comparing data for Continuity Research Network practice visits during a 1-week period in 2002 with data from the 2000 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey was performed. Continuity Research Network and National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey data were derived from 30 patient visits per practice site for patients < 22 years of age, with the primary care providers being residents and practicing pediatricians, respectively. Eighteen Continuity Research Network practices reported on 540 visits, compared with 32 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey physicians reporting on 792 visits. Continuity Research Network patients were more likely to be black non-Hispanic or Hispanic/Latino and to have public insurance. The top 5 reasons for visits were the same for Continuity Research Network and National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey visits, although the orders varied slightly. These 5 reasons accounted for 58% of Continuity Research Network visits and 49% of National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey visits. Continuity Research Network visits were more likely to result in patient instructions to return at a specific time (78% vs 52%). Residents in Continuity Research Network practices provide care to more underserved patients but evaluate problems that are similar to those observed in office practices; the Continuity Research Network practices thus provide important training experiences for residents who will serve both minority and nonminority children.
Thodis, Elias; Passadakis, Ploumis; Lyrantzopooulos, Nikolaos; Panagoutsos, Stelios; Vargemezis, Vassilis; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios
Catheter related infectious complications (exit-site infections, tunnel infections, and peritonitis) remain the major reasons for technique failure during the three decades since, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) treatment has been first established. Despite improvements in catheter's survival rates, catheter related complications result in an increase in the cumulative patients' morbidity and often leading to the catheter removal. The ideal catheter provides reliable and rapid dialysate flow rates without leaks or infections. Among several types, the double-cuff straight Tenckhoff catheter, developed in 1968, is still the most widely used, although its use is decreasing in favour of swanneck catheters. Although there are only few well-designed trials comparing catheters and catheters related infectious complications, controlling for all other important variables, no difference in these complications among the main types of catheters was seen. The single cuff catheters have been associated with a shorter survival rate and time to the first peritonitis episode than the double-cuff catheters. Also exit-site infections were found to be more frequent and significantly more resistant to treatment with single-cuff compared to double-cuff ones. Finally, better results have been reported with the latest developed presternal peritoneal dialysis catheter both regarding survival rates and exit-site infection and peritonitis rates. Recently a renewed interest in continuous flow peritoneal dialysis stimulated inventions of imaginative, double-lumen catheters since a suitable peritoneal access is a sine qua non condition for the development of this new technique of peritoneal dialysis.
Badve, Sunil V.; Zimmerman, Deborah L.; Knoll, Greg A.; Burns, Kevin D.; McCormick, Brendan B.
Background and objectives: Hyperphosphatemia is an independent risk factor for mortality in ESRD, but factors regulating phosphate clearance on peritoneal dialysis (PD) are incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that peritoneal phosphate clearance is better with continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) as compared with continuous cyclic PD (CCPD) after adjusting for membrane transport status. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: In this cross-sectional and retrospective study, measurements of peritoneal phosphate clearance of 129 prevalent PD patients were reviewed. Patients were divided according to membrane transport status (high, high average, low average-low categories) and PD modality (CAPD or CCPD). Results: Among high transporters, peritoneal phosphate clearances were comparable in both modalities. However, treatment with CAPD was associated with increased peritoneal phosphate clearance compared with CCPD among high-average transporters (42.4 ± 11.4 versus 36.4 ± 8.3 L/wk/1.73 m2, P = 0.01), and low-average-low transporters (35.6 ± 5.9 versus 28.9 ± 11 L/wk/1.73 m2, P = 0.034). On multivariate linear regression, PD modality, membrane transport category, and peritoneal creatinine clearance, but not Kt/V urea, were independently associated with peritoneal phosphate clearance. Conclusions: Peritoneal phosphate clearance is determined by PD modality and membrane transport category, suggesting that PD regimes with longer dwell times may help control hyperphosphatemia in lower transporters. PMID:18815242
Johnson, David W.; McDonald, Stephen P.; Boudville, Neil; Borlace, Monique; Badve, Sunil V.; Sud, Kamal; Clayton, Philip A.
Background and objectives There is conflicting evidence comparing peritonitis rates among patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). This study aims to clarify the relationship between peritoneal dialysis (PD) modality (APD versus CAPD) and the risk of developing PD-associated peritonitis. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This study examined the association between PD modality (APD versus CAPD) and the risks, microbiology, and clinical outcomes of PD-associated peritonitis in 6959 incident Australian PD patients between October 1, 2003, and December 31, 2011, using data from the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry. Median follow-up time was 1.9 years. Results Patients receiving APD were younger (60 versus 64 years) and had fewer comorbidities. There was no association between PD modality and time to first peritonitis episode (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for APD versus CAPD, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.91 to 1.07; P=0.71). However, there was a lower hazard of developing Gram-positive peritonitis with APD than CAPD, which reached borderline significance (HR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.00; P=0.05). No statistically significant difference was found in the risk of hospitalizations (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.35; P=0.22), but there was a nonsignificant higher likelihood of 30-day mortality (odds ratio, 1.33; 95% CI, 0.93 to 1.88; P=0.11) at the time of the first episode of peritonitis for patients receiving APD. For all peritonitis episodes (including subsequent episodes of peritonitis), APD was associated with lower rates of culture-negative peritonitis (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.94; P=0.002) and higher rates of gram-negative peritonitis (IRR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.46; P=0.01). Conclusions PD modality was not associated with a higher likelihood of developing peritonitis. However, APD was associated with a borderline
A description is provided of a course, "Care of the Patient with Renal Disease," offered at the community college level to prepare licensed registered nurses to care for patients with renal disease, including instruction in performing the treatments of peritoneal dialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The first…
A description is provided of a course, "Care of the Patient with Renal Disease," offered at the community college level to prepare licensed registered nurses to care for patients with renal disease, including instruction in performing the treatments of peritoneal dialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The first…
Indraprasit, S; Charoenpan, P; Suvachittanont, O; Mavichak, V; Kiatboonsri, S; Tanomsup, S
Severe falciparum malaria complicated by acute renal failure resulted in very high mortality. Ten patients with acute renal failure from falciparum malaria (infected rbc up to 80%) were continuously dialysed using Tenckhoff peritoneal catheter. Five were oliguric and BUN was maintained between 60 to 80 mg/dl (21.4 to 28.6 mmol/l) by hourly 1 to 1.5 liter dialysate exchange during the acute phase. The peritoneal urea clearance (mean +/- SD) was 12.1 +/- 1.2 ml/min with urea nitrogen removal of 13.4 +/- 2.3 g/day. In nonoliguric cases dialysis was also needed for additional removal of waste products since the remaining renal function could not cope with the hypercatabolic state. Peritoneal glucose absorption (135 to 565 g/day) gave considerable caloric supply without volume load and also contributed to the prevention of hypoglycemia. Varying degree of acute respiratory failure developed in all patients with 5 cases (2 oliguric and 3 nonoliguric) progressing to pulmonary edema. Swan-Ganz catheterization and hemodynamic study suggested the role of increased capillary permeability and volume overload from endogenous water formation in the development of pulmonary complication. Continuous removal of fluid and waste products minimized these problems and may prevent the progression of respiratory failure. One patient died of severe sepsis and the other nine survived. This study showed the beneficial contribution of continuous peritoneal dialysis in the management of acute renal failure from severe falciparum malaria.
Zewinger, Stephen; Meier, Clemens-Magnus; Fliser, Danilo; Klingele, Matthias
Mycobacterium fortuitum peritonitis is a rare complication in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A 47-year-old patient was admitted to our tertiary hospital because of culture-negative peritonitis with persisting signs of infection despite adequate empirical antibiotic treatment. Although M. fortuitum was detected and the antibiotic regime subsequently amended, catheter removal was inevitable and the dialysis modality converted to hemodialysis (HD). After long-term antibiotic treatment and an additional latency of 4 months without signs of residual infection, reinitiation of CAPD was planned. Explorative laparoscopy prior to catheter reinsertion revealed multiple adhesions within the peritoneal cavity, preventing adequate catheter function. The clinical course of M. fortuitum peritonitis, the need for catheter removal and the description of peritoneal changes are discussed regarding to recent literature.
Simbli, Mohammed Amin; Niaz, Faraz A; Al-Wakeel, Jamal S
Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare but serious complication seen in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or automated peritoneal dialysisAPD after prolonged duration on dialysis. Patients usally present with vague complaints of abdominal pain, vomitting, diarrhea, weight loss and change in peritoneal transport characte-ristics. High degree of suspicion is needed in PD patients who have been on dialysis for prolonged duration and have been using high-concentrated dialysis fluid. Mycobacterium fortuitum (MF) is a rapidly growing, non-tuberculous mycobacterium that has rarely been reported as a pathogen causing peritonits in patients on PD. We report a case of CAPD presenting with culture-negative peritonits, which, on specific culture, grew MF and, on radiological evaluation, showed diagnostic features of EPS.
Coche, Emmanuel; Lonneux, Max; Goffin, Eric
The authors describe a rare case of peritoneal transdiaphragmatic hernia discovered immediately after a car accident in a young male patient on peritoneal dialysis. The potential role of CT peritoneography and peritoneal scintigraphy to demonstrate and understand thoracic complications of ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is discussed.
Kipper, S.L.; Steiner, R.W.; Witztum, K.F.; Basarab, R.M.; Kipper, M.S.; Halpern, S.E.; Ashburn, W.L.
In-111-labeled leukocytes were administered to 13 patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in order to locate catheter-associated infections. Using a marker to indicate the catheter exit site, infections of the catheter tunnel were correctly identified prior to surgery in 4 patients with relapsing peritonitis and infections of the exit site were diagnosed in 5 out of 7 patients. The authors conclude that In-111-leukocyte scintigraphy appears to be accurate in diagnosing peritoneal infections of the dialysis catheter tunnel.
Li, Jianying; Wu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Xiao; Yu, Xueqing
Background Fluid overload is frequently present in CAPD patients and one of important predictors of mortality. The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors in a cohort study of Southern Chinese CAPD patients. Methods The patients (receiving CAPD 3 months and more) in our center were investigated from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. Multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess the patient’s body composition and fluid status. Results A total of 307 CAPD patients (43% male, mean age 47.8±15.3 years) were enrolled, with a median duration of PD 14.6 (5.9–30.9) months. Fluid overload (defined by Extracellular water/Total body water (ECW/TBW)≥0.40) was present in 205 (66.8%) patients. Univariate analysis indicated that ECW/TBW were inversely associated with body mass index (r = −0.11, P = 0.047), subjective global assessment score (r = −0.11, P = 0.004), body fat mass (r = −0.15, P = 0.05), serum albumin (r = −0.32, P<0.001), creatinine (r = −0.14, P = 0.02), potassium (r = −0.15, P = 0.02), and residual urine output (r = −0.14, P = 0.01), positively associated with age (r = 0.27, P<0.001), Chalrlson Comorbidity Index score (r = 0.29, P<0.001), and systolic blood pressure (r = 0.22, P<0.001). Multivariate linear regression showed that lower serum albumin (β = −0.223, P<0.001), lower body fat mass (β = −0.166, P = 0.033), old age (β = 0.268, P<0.001), higher systolic blood pressure (β = 0.16, P = 0.006), less residual urine output (β = −0.116, P = 0.042), and lower serum potassium (β = −0.126, P = 0.03) were independently associated with higher ECW/TBW. After 1 year of follow-up, the cardiac event rate was significantly higher in the patients with fluid overload (17.1% vs 6.9%, P = 0.023) than that of the normal hydrated patients. Conclusions The prevalence of fluid overload was high in CAPD patients. Fluid overload in CAPD patients were independently associated with protein-energy wasting, old age, and decreased residual urine output. Furthermore, CAPD patients with fluid overload had higher cardiac event rate than that of normal hydrated patents. PMID:23341936
Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A; Dursun, Ismail; Kaya, Aysenur; Soylemezoglu, Oguz; Hasanoglu, Enver; Buyan, Necla
Calciphylaxis is a rare, life-threatening condition of progressive cutaneous necrosis resulting from medial calcification of the small arterioles. It is usually seen in uraemic patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. An 11-year-old girl with end-stage renal failure and calciphylaxis of the toes is described. She was unresponsive to medical treatment and amputation was required.
Glorieux, Griet; Lameire, Norbert; Van Biesen, Wim; Dequidt, Clement; Vanholder, Raymond
Icodextrin dialysate used for peritoneal dialysis contains an iso-molar glucose polymer solution, which provides sustained ultrafiltration over long dwell times and is considered a valuable approach to reduce intraperitoneal glucose exposure. However, several side effects have been described, including abdominal pain and allergic and hypersensitivity reactions. Also, reactions compatible with chemical peritonitis have been reported. Over the period of a few months (January 2002-May 2002), a remarkable increase in the number of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients using icodextrin dialysate diagnosed with sterile peritonitis was observed in our unit. Five of the CAPD patients using icodextrin dialysate in our unit and diagnosed with sterile peritonitis were screened for leucocyte count and leucocyte differentiation during a follow-up period of 77 +/- 23 days. In addition, expression of CD14, a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS), on the peripheral and peritoneal monocyte population was analysed. These results were compared to CAPD patients suffering from bacterial peritonitis. The peritoneal leucocyte count of CAPD patients using icodextrin dialysate and diagnosed with sterile peritonitis did not decrease significantly before treatment with icodextrin dialysate was interrupted, whereas it currently disappeared within 2-4 days in proven bacterial peritonitis. The sterile, cloudy icodextrin effluent contained an excess of macrophages on the day of diagnosis, whereas in bacterial peritonitis essentially an increase in the granulocyte population was observed. No elevation in the eosinophil population was observed. In contrast to bacterial peritonitis, we observed no increase in CD14 expression on the peripheral and peritoneal macrophages on the day of presentation and during the follow-up period. Specific batches of the icodextrin CAPD fluids contain a macrophage chemotactic agent, which causes a sustained inflammatory state in the peritoneal
Schmit, J L; Hary, L; Bou, P; Renaud, H; Westeel, P F; Andrejak, M; Fournier, A
Comparison of plasma and dialysate concentrations of pefloxacin after intravenous, oral, or intraperitoneal administration shows excellent bidirectional diffusion of the quinolone through the peritoneal membrane, demonstrating that therapeutical concentrations can be achieved in the dialysate after intravenous or oral administration. In this study, the half-life of the drug was 18.8 +/- 1.4 h, i.e., apparently longer than that reported for normal controls or uremic patients on hemodialysis. PMID:1929314
Duquennoy, Simon; Béchade, Clémence; Verger, Christian; Ficheux, Maxence; Ryckelynck, Jean-Philippe; Lobbedez, Thierry
♦ This study was carried out to examine whether or not elderly patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) had an increased risk of peritonitis. ♦ This was a retrospective cohort study based on data from the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry. We analyzed 8,396 incident patients starting PD between January 2003 and December 2010. The end of the observation period was 31 December 2012. Patients were separated into 2 age groups: up to 75 and over of 75 years old. ♦ Among 8,396 patients starting dialysis there were 3,173 patients older than 75. When using a Cox model, no association was found between age greater than 75 years and increased risk of peritonitis (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.97 [0.88 - 1.07]). Diabetes (HR: 1.14 [1.01 - 1.28] and continuous ambulatory PD (HR: 1.13 [1.04 - 1.23]) were significantly associated with a higher risk of peritoneal infection whereas nurse-assisted PD was associated with a lower risk of peritonitis (HR: 0.85 [0.78 - 0.94]. In the analysis restricted to the 3,840 self-care PD patients, there was no association between age older than 75 years and risk of peritonitis. ♦ The risk of peritonitis is not increased in elderly patients on PD in a country where assisted PD is available. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
Ozisik, Lale; Ozdemir, Fatma Nurhan; Tanriover, Mine Durusu
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) has become a treatment modality for end stage renal disease with a peak of its use in 1990 s. The aim of this study was to examine the peritonitis rates, causative organisms and the risk factors of peritonitis in a large group of patients in our center. The study was conducted in the Nephrology Department of a University Hospital in Turkey. Patients in the PD programme between January 2000 and January 2006 were included. Cohort-specific and subject specific peritonitis incidence, and peritonitis-free survival were calculated. Causative organisms and risk factors were evaluated. Totally 620 episodes of peritonitis occurred in 440 patients over the six years period. Peritonitis rates showed a decreasing trend through the years (0.79 episodes/patient-year 2000-2003 and 0.46 episodes/patient-year 2003-2006). Cohort-specific peritonitis incidence was 0.62 episodes/patient-years and median subject-specific peritonitis incidence was 0.44 episodes/patient-years. The median peritonitis-free survival was 15.25 months (%95 CI, 9.45-21.06 months). The proportion of gram-negative organisms has increased from 9.8% to 17.3%. There was a significant difference in the percentage of culture negative peritonitis between the first three and the last three years (53.1% vs. 43.2%, respectively). Peritonitis incidence was higher in patients who had been transferred from HD, who had catheter related infection and who had HCV infection without cirrhosis. Our study showed significant trends in the peritonitis rates, causative organisms and antibiotic resistance. Prior HD therapy, catheter related infections and HCV infection were found to be risk factors for peritonitis.
Lee, Kyong Ok; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Ji Hong; Lee, Jae Seung; Kim, Pyung Kil
Purpose Relatively little is known on the microbiology, risk factors and outcomes of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis in Korean children. We performed this study in order to evaluate the incidence, treatment and clinical outcomes of peritonitis in pediatric PD patients at Severance Hospital. Materials and Methods We analyzed data from 57 PD patients younger than 18 years during the period between June 1, 1986 and December 31, 2011. The collected data included gender, age at commencement of PD, age at peritonitis, incidence of peritonitis, underlying causes of end stage renal disease, microbiology of peritonitis episodes, antibiotics sensitivity, modality and outcomes of PD. Results We found 56 episodes of peritonitis in 23 of the 57 PD patients (0.43 episodes/patient-year). Gram-positive bacteria were the most commonly isolated organisms (40 episodes, 71.4%). Peritonitis developed in 17 patients during the first 6 months following initiation of PD (73.9%). Peritonitis episodes rarely resulted in relapse or the need for permanent hemodialysis and no patient deaths were directly attributable to peritonitis. Antibiotic regimens included cefazolin+tobramycin from the years of 1986 to 2000 and cefazolin+ceftazidime from the years of 2001 to 2011. While antibiotic therapy was successful in 48 episodes (85.7%), the treatment was ineffective in 8 episodes (14.3%). The rate of continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) peritonitis was statistically higher than that of automated PD (APD) (p=0.025). Conclusion Peritonitis was an important complication of PD therapy and we observed a higher incidence of PD peritonitis in patients with CAPD when compared to APD. PMID:23709435
Francis, Maureen D.; Wieland, Mark L.; Drake, Sean; Gwisdalla, Keri Lyn; Julian, Katherine A.; Nabors, Christopher; Pereira, Anne; Rosenblum, Michael; Smith, Amy; Sweet, David; Thomas, Kris; Varney, Andrew; Warm, Eric; Wininger, David; Francis, Mark L.
Background Many internal medicine (IM) programs have reorganized their resident continuity clinics to improve trainees' ambulatory experience. Downstream effects on continuity of care and other clinical and educational metrics are unclear. Methods This multi-institutional, cross-sectional study included 713 IM residents from 12 programs. Continuity was measured using the usual provider of care method (UPC) and the continuity for physician method (PHY). Three clinic models (traditional, block, and combination) were compared using analysis of covariance. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of practice metrics and clinic model on continuity. Results UPC, reflecting continuity from the patient perspective, was significantly different, and was highest in the block model, midrange in combination model, and lowest in the traditional model programs. PHY, reflecting continuity from the perspective of the resident provider, was significantly lower in the block model than in combination and traditional programs. Panel size, ambulatory workload, utilization, number of clinics attended in the study period, and clinic model together accounted for 62% of the variation found in UPC and 26% of the variation found in PHY. Conclusions Clinic model appeared to have a significant effect on continuity measured from both the patient and resident perspectives. Continuity requires balance between provider availability and demand for services. Optimizing this balance to maximize resident education, and the health of the population served, will require consideration of relevant local factors and priorities in addition to the clinic model. PMID:26217420
Francis, Maureen D; Wieland, Mark L; Drake, Sean; Gwisdalla, Keri Lyn; Julian, Katherine A; Nabors, Christopher; Pereira, Anne; Rosenblum, Michael; Smith, Amy; Sweet, David; Thomas, Kris; Varney, Andrew; Warm, Eric; Wininger, David; Francis, Mark L
Many internal medicine (IM) programs have reorganized their resident continuity clinics to improve trainees' ambulatory experience. Downstream effects on continuity of care and other clinical and educational metrics are unclear. This multi-institutional, cross-sectional study included 713 IM residents from 12 programs. Continuity was measured using the usual provider of care method (UPC) and the continuity for physician method (PHY). Three clinic models (traditional, block, and combination) were compared using analysis of covariance. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to analyze the effect of practice metrics and clinic model on continuity. UPC, reflecting continuity from the patient perspective, was significantly different, and was highest in the block model, midrange in combination model, and lowest in the traditional model programs. PHY, reflecting continuity from the perspective of the resident provider, was significantly lower in the block model than in combination and traditional programs. Panel size, ambulatory workload, utilization, number of clinics attended in the study period, and clinic model together accounted for 62% of the variation found in UPC and 26% of the variation found in PHY. Clinic model appeared to have a significant effect on continuity measured from both the patient and resident perspectives. Continuity requires balance between provider availability and demand for services. Optimizing this balance to maximize resident education, and the health of the population served, will require consideration of relevant local factors and priorities in addition to the clinic model.
Chow, Kai Ming; Szeto, Cheuk Chun; Kwan, Bonnie Ching Ha; Pang, Wing Fai; Ma, Terry; Leung, Chi Bon; Law, Man Ching; Li, Philip Kam-Tao
The clinical benefits of using icodextrin during acute peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis are uncertain. On the premise that high glucose concentration might jeopardize the peritoneal defense during peritonitis, icodextrin administration during acute peritonitis could have the potential to improve the peritonitis outcome whilst improving ultrafiltration. We conducted a single-center, open-label, randomized controlled trial in which 53 adult continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients underwent randomization to receive either icodextrin or original glucose-based dialysis solution. The primary outcome measure was the peritoneal dialyzate white cell count on Day 3. Secondary outcome measures comprised the need of additional hypertonic exchanges, fluid control as denoted by changes in body weight, and the clinical outcome of peritonitis including 30-day and 120-day all-cause mortality. Between icodextrin and control treatment groups, there were no statistically significant differences in the peritoneal dialyzate white cell count on day (1829 versus 987/mm(3), P = 0.13). There was neither improvement in primary cure rate (31.8 versus 32.3%, P = 1.00), nor was there any change in 120-day mortality after icodextrin use (13.6 versus 12.9%, P = 1.00). However, requirement of hypertonic dialysis exchange was much more frequent in the control group than in those randomized to icodextrin (35.5 versus 0%, P = 0.001). Body weight did not change significantly in the icodextrin group, but body weight in the control group increased from 63.3 ± 14.5 kg at baseline to 64.2 ± 14.2 kg at Day 5 (P = 0.0002) and 65.2 ± 14.1 kg at Day 10 (P < 0.0001). As compared with glucose-based peritoneal dialysis solution, use of icodextrin achieved better ultrafiltration and fluid control during acute peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, although we found no evidence of a worthwhile clinical benefit on peritonitis resolution. (ClinicalTrial.gov number, NCT
Li, Y F; Su, N; Chen, S Y; Hu, W X; Li, F F; Jiang, Z P; Yu, X Q
Escherichia coli is the most common cause of Gram-negative peritonitis resulting in peritoneal function deterioration as well as poor clinical outcome in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetic background and genetic profile of the E. coli isolates and sought to determine the characteristics of specific bacteria associated with peritonitis. E. coli isolates from 56 episodes of peritonitis in 46 PD patient cases and rectal isolates from 57 matched PD control patient cases were compared for both phylogenetic groups and the presence of virulence factors (VFs). There were no significant differences in terms of demographic data between the peritonitis and control groups. Peritonitis isolates exhibited a significantly greater prevalence of 8 VFs. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, kpsMT II (group 2 capsule synthesis) was the strongest VF predictor of peritonitis (OR = 8.02; 95%CI = 3.18-20.25; P < 0.001), followed by traT (serum-resistance-associated outer membrane protein) (OR = 3.83; 95%CI = 1.33-11.03; P = 0.013). The pathogenic groups of E. coli contained a higher concentration of individual VFs compared to the commensal groups. The prevalence of pathogenic E. coli was much higher in peritoneal isolates than rectal isolates (64.3 vs 31.6%, P = 0.001). Our results indicate that the E. coli peritonitis and rectal isolates are different in PD patients. The specific VFs associated with peritonitis isolates may directly contribute to the pathogenesis of peritonitis.
Cheng, Mei; Cheng, Shu-Ling; Zhang, Qing; Jiang, He; Cong, Ji-Yan; Zang, Xiao-Ying; Zhao, Yue
To explore the effect of continuous nursing intervention guided by chronotherapeutics so as to provide the easy, noninvasive, effective and acceptable intervention for older hypertensive patients in the community. Many researchers studied the effect of administration at different times on blood pressure control and circadian rhythm. However, the individual administrative time was set ambiguously in previous studies. A semi-experimental study. In the study, 90 eligible patients were recruited and separated into three groups randomly, which were the control group, intervention group A (behaviour and chronotherapy intervention) and intervention group B (behaviour intervention). At 6 and 12 months after the study, the intervention groups were measured 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. There were significant differences in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring parameters of the two intervention groups at different measurement times, and there were interaction between measurement time and different groups. The number of patients with dipper increased and reverse dipper decreased in group A as the intervention applied. There were statistical differences between two groups. The number of patients with morning surge in group A decreased more, and there were statistical differences between two groups at six months after the intervention. The behaviour and chronotherapy intervention based on the patients' ambulatory blood pressure monitoring can control casual blood pressure much better and last longer, which can also improve patients' indexes of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring better than behaviour intervention only. The behaviour and chronotherapy intervention can increase patients' nocturnal blood pressure drop, increase the number of patients with dipper and decrease reverse dipper, and improve blood pressure surge in the morning. Nurses can use continuous nursing intervention guided by chronotherapeutics to help improve hypertension of older patients
Campos, Sara Ribeiro; Gusmão, Maria Helena Lima; Almeida, Alessandra Fortes; Pereira, Luís José Cardoso; Sampaio, Lilian Ramos; Medeiros, Jairza Maria Barreto
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) is a common and early complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Studies have suggested that high levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) may have deleterious effects on the nutritional status of patients with CKD. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of CKD patients in continuous peritoneal dialysis (CPD) with and without SHPT. The aim of this study was to compare the nutritional status of CKD patients in continuous peritoneal dialysis (CPD) with and without SHPT. 74 patients were evaluated, including adults and seniors, divided into two groups according to PTH levels. In group 1 (n = 18) levels of PTH higher than 300 pg/mL and in group 2 less than or equal to 300 pg/mL. The nutritional status of patients was assessed by anthropometry, biochemical and subjective global assessment (SGA). Food intake was measured by food record for 3 days. We also collected clinical data, such as calcium and serum phosphorus, and the presence of inflammation was assessed by measuring C-reactive protein ultra-sensitive (CRP US). The average age of the population studied was 54.97 ± 17.06 years, with predominance of adult patients (58.1%) and females (56.8%). The time of CPD expressed in median was 17 months (7.75-33). Through ASG, it was shown a prevalence of 36.5% of the population undernourished. In the analysis of difference between the groups in relation to anthropometry, biochemical indicators and ASG as well as food intake, there were no differences between the groups. There were no differences in nutritional status and dietary intake between patients with and without SHPT.
Schröder, Cornelis H.; Gajjar, Priya; Argent, Andrew; Nourse, Peter
Summary Background and objectives Acute renal failure can be treated with different dialysis modalities, depending on patient characteristics and hospital resources. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be first choice in situations like hypotension, disturbed coagulation, or difficult venous access. The main disadvantage of PD is the relatively limited efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether continuous flow peritoneal dialysis (CFPD) is a more effective treatment than conventional PD in acute renal failure. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A pilot study was performed at The Red Cross University Hospital in Cape Town in six patients. Patients were treated with both CFPD and conventional PD for 8 to 16 hours. CFPD was performed with two bedside-placed catheters. After initial filling, dialysate flow rate (100 ml/1.73 m2 per minute) was maintained with an adapted continuous venovenous hemofiltration machine. Ultrafiltration flow rate was set at 2.5 ml/1.73 m2 per minute. Results Mean ultrafiltration was 0.20 ml/1.73 m2 per minute with conventional PD versus 1.8 ml/1.73 m2 per minute with CFPD. Mean clearances of urea and creatinine were 5.0 and 7.6 ml/1.73 m2 per minute with conventional PD versus 15.0 and 28.8 ml/1.73 m2 per minute with CFPD, respectively. No complications occurred. Conclusions In this first report of CFPD in six pediatric patients with acute renal failure, CFPD was on average three to five times more effective for urea and creatinine clearance and ultrafiltration than conventional PD, without any complications observed. CFPD has the ability to improve therapy for acute renal failure . PMID:21030578
Kuribara, H; Tadokoro, S
Combined effects of methamphetamine and morphine were investigated by means of ambulatory activity in mice and continuous avoidance response in rats. Single administration of methamphetamine (0.5-2 mg/kg sc) or morphine (2.5-10 mg/kg sc) increased the ambulatory activity in a dose-dependent manner. The ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine and morphine were synergistic throughout the combined doses tested. Methamphetamine (0.13 and 0.5 mg/kg sc) produced an increase in frequency of lever-pressing and a decrease in shock rate, showing facilitation of the avoidance response, in a dose-dependent manner. Morphine tended to facilitate the avoidance response at lower doses (1.3 and 2.5 mg/kg sc), whereas, at higher doses (5 and 10 mg/kg sc), it elicited decrease in the frequency of lever-pressing and increase in the shock rate, showing suppressing of the avoidance response. The avoidance-facilitating effect of methamphetamine was attenuated by higher doses of morphine. The present results suggest that combined administration of methamphetamine and morphine shows synergistic effect on ambulatory activity in mice, and synergistic and antagonistic effects on the avoidance response in rats depending on the doses combined.
Yeo, Se Hwan; Kwak, Jae Hoon; Kim, Yeo Un; Lee, Jin Suk; Kim, Hyo Jin; Park, Kyoung Hwa; Lee, Jung Sook; Ha, Gyoung Yim; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jun Yeop; Yoo, Kyung Don
Abstract Introduction: Halomonas hamiltonii is a Gram-negative, halophilic, motile, and nonspore-forming rod bacterium. Although most Halomonas sp. are commonly found in saline environments, it has rarely been implicated as a cause of human infection. Herein, the authors present a case report of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)-related peritonitis attributed to H hamiltonii. Case presentation: An 82-year-old male patient who had been receiving CAPD therapy presented to an emergency department with complaints of abdominal pain and cloudy dialysate that had persisted for 2 days. The peritoneal dialysate was compatible with CAPD peritonitis, with white blood cell count of peritoneal effluent of 810/mm3 and neutrophils predominated (60%). Two days after culture on blood agar medium, nonhemolytic pink mucoid colonies showed, with cells showing Gram-negative, nonspore-forming rods with a few longer and larger bacilli than usual were found. We also performed biochemical tests and found negative responses in K/K on the triple sugar iron test and H2S and equivocal (very weak) response in the motility test, but positive responses to catalase, oxidase, and urease tests. The partial sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of a bacterium detected by peritoneal fluid culture was utilized for a Basic Local Alignment Search Tool search, which revealed that the organism was H hamiltonii. Intraperitoneal antibiotics were administered for 21 days, and the patient was discharged without clinical problems. Conclusion: We present here the first case report of CAPD-related peritonitis caused by H hamiltonii, which was identified using molecular biological techniques. Although guidelines do not exist for the treatment of infections caused by this organism, conventional treatment for Gram-negative organisms could be effective. PMID:27893682
Francis, Maureen D.; Warm, Eric; Julian, Katherine A.; Rosenblum, Michael; Thomas, Kris; Drake, Sean; Gwisdalla, Keri Lyn; Langan, Michael; Nabors, Christopher; Pereira, Anne; Smith, Amy; Sweet, David; Varney, Andrew; Francis, Mark L.
Background Many internal medicine programs have reorganized their resident continuity clinics to improve the ambulatory care experience for residents. The effect of this redesign on patient satisfaction is largely unknown. Methods Our multi-institutional, cross-sectional study included 569 internal medicine residents from 11 programs participating in the Educational Innovations Project Ambulatory Collaborative. An 11-item patient satisfaction survey from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems was used to assess patient satisfaction, comparing patient satisfaction in traditional models of weekly continuity clinic with 2 new clinic models. We then examined the relationship between patient satisfaction and other practice variables. Results Patient satisfaction responses related to resident listening and communication skills, knowledge of medical history, perception of adequate visit time, overall rating, and willingness to refer to family and friends were significantly better in the traditional and block continuity models than the combination model. Higher ambulatory workload was associated with reduced patient perception of respect shown by the physician. The percentage of diabetic patients with glycated hemoglobin < 8% was positively correlated with number of visits, knowledge of medical history, perception of respect, and higher scores for recommending the physician to others. The percentage of diabetic patients with low density lipoprotein < 100 mg/dL was positively correlated with the physician showing respect. Conclusions Patient satisfaction was similar in programs using block design and traditional models for continuity clinic, and both outperformed the combination model programs. There was a delicate balance between workload and patient perception of the physician showing respect. Care outcome measures for diabetic patients were associated with aspects of patient satisfaction. PMID:26279771
Francis, Maureen D; Warm, Eric; Julian, Katherine A; Rosenblum, Michael; Thomas, Kris; Drake, Sean; Gwisdalla, Keri Lyn; Langan, Michael; Nabors, Christopher; Pereira, Anne; Smith, Amy; Sweet, David; Varney, Andrew; Francis, Mark L
Many internal medicine programs have reorganized their resident continuity clinics to improve the ambulatory care experience for residents. The effect of this redesign on patient satisfaction is largely unknown. Our multi-institutional, cross-sectional study included 569 internal medicine residents from 11 programs participating in the Educational Innovations Project Ambulatory Collaborative. An 11-item patient satisfaction survey from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems was used to assess patient satisfaction, comparing patient satisfaction in traditional models of weekly continuity clinic with 2 new clinic models. We then examined the relationship between patient satisfaction and other practice variables. Patient satisfaction responses related to resident listening and communication skills, knowledge of medical history, perception of adequate visit time, overall rating, and willingness to refer to family and friends were significantly better in the traditional and block continuity models than the combination model. Higher ambulatory workload was associated with reduced patient perception of respect shown by the physician. The percentage of diabetic patients with glycated hemoglobin < 8% was positively correlated with number of visits, knowledge of medical history, perception of respect, and higher scores for recommending the physician to others. The percentage of diabetic patients with low density lipoprotein < 100 mg/dL was positively correlated with the physician showing respect. Patient satisfaction was similar in programs using block design and traditional models for continuity clinic, and both outperformed the combination model programs. There was a delicate balance between workload and patient perception of the physician showing respect. Care outcome measures for diabetic patients were associated with aspects of patient satisfaction.
Kabali, Conrad; Xie, Xuanqian; Higgins, Caroline
Background Ambulatory electrocardiography (ECG) monitors are often used to detect cardiac arrhythmia. For patients with symptoms, an external cardiac loop recorder will often be recommended. The improved recording capacity of newer Holter monitors and similar devices, collectively known as longterm continuous ambulatory ECG monitors, suggests that they will perform just as well as, or better than, external loop recorders. This health technology assessment aimed to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and budget impact of longterm continuous ECG monitors compared with external loop recorders in detecting symptoms of cardiac arrhythmia. Methods Based on our systematic search for studies published up to January 15, 2016, we did not identify any studies directly comparing the clinical effectiveness of longterm continuous ECG monitors and external loop recorders. Therefore, we conducted an indirect comparison, using a 24-hour Holter monitor as a common comparator. We used a meta-regression model to control for bias due to variation in device-wearing time and baseline syncope rate across studies. We conducted a similar systematic search for cost-utility and cost-effectiveness studies comparing the two types of devices; none were found. Finally, we used historical claims data (2006–2014) to estimate the future 5-year budget impact in Ontario, Canada, of continued public funding for both types of longterm ambulatory ECG monitors. Results Our clinical literature search yielded 7,815 non-duplicate citations, of which 12 cohort studies were eligible for indirect comparison. Seven studies assessed the effectiveness of longterm continuous monitors and five assessed external loop recorders. Both types of devices were more effective than a 24-hour Holter monitor, and we found no substantial difference between them in their ability to detect symptoms (risk difference 0.01; 95% confidence interval −0.18, 0.20). Using GRADE for network meta-analysis, we evaluated the
Taylor, Paul M
The principal complications of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), namely malposition of the dialysis catheter, peritonitis, exit site infection, leakage of dialysis fluid, sclerosing peritonitis, and renal cysts and tumors, are considered in this article. The techniques that are used to reposition displaced dialysis catheters and extend the duration of dialysis are described. The role of imaging in establishing the diagnosis of peritonitis is relatively small. However, both computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound may be used to identify loculation of fluid and localized sites of sepsis, and permit percutaneous drainage. Ultrasonography of the catheter track through the percutaneous tissues allows identification of pericatheter collections in patients with exit-site infection. The technique of CT peritoneography is helpful in establishing sites of dialysis fluid leakage. These commonly occur at the site of entry of the dialysis catheter, through abdominal incisions, or along the patent tunica vaginalis into the scrotum. The appearances on CT of sclerosing peritonitis reflect pathologic changes and are characterized by the presence of peritoneal thickening and calcification. Bowel obstruction, which may develop in sclerosing peritonitis, can be identified on abdominal radiographs or barium studies of the gastrointestinal tract. Acquired renal cystic disease and renal carcinomas occur in a significant proportion of patients undergoing CAPD. Ultrasound is the investigation of first choice in the identification and clarification of the pathology (cystic or solid) of suspected renal masses.
Al-Kaabi, Abdullah; Haider, Agha S.; Shafeeq, Mohammed O.; El-Naggari, Mohammed A.; El-Nour, Ibtisam; Ganesh, Anuradha
Non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is a serious complication of continuous peritoneal dialysis (CPD) which can lead to poor vision and blindness. We report a five-year-old girl who had undergone a bilateral nephrectomy at the age of one year and was on home CPD. She was referred to the Paediatric Ophthalmology Unit of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in 2013 with acute bilateral vision loss, preceded by a three-day history of poor oral intake. At presentation, the patient had severe systemic hypotension. An ophthalmological examination revealed severe bilateral visual impairment and NAION. She was treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and normal saline boluses. At a five-month follow-up, the visual acuity of the right eye had improved but vision in the left eye remained the same. Acute bilateral blindness due to NAION while on CPD is a rare condition in childhood. Paediatricians should be aware of this complication in order to ensure prompt management. PMID:28003901
Ahmad, Mufazzal; Jeloka, Tarun; Pliakogiannis, Theodoros; Tapiawala, Shruti; Zhong, Hui; Bargman, Joanne M; Oreopoulos, Dimitrios
A preliminary report from our unit previously suggested that diabetic patients on continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) have higher ultrafiltration (UF) with icodextrin than non-diabetic patients. To confirm this observation, we did a retrospective analysis of our patients (17 diabetic and 23 non-diabetic) who were on stable CCPD prescription using a long-day dwell with icodextrin. We collected daily UF data from these patients' records for 30 days. The two groups showed no significant difference with respect to age, gender, hemoglobin, serum albumin, peritoneal dialysis and icodextrin vintage, peritoneal membrane characteristics, CCPD prescription, and peritoneal and residual renal clearance. The overnight net UF achieved with the cycler with standard glucose dialysate was similar in the two groups (850+/-379 in diabetic vs 713+/-484 ml/day in non-diabetic, P=0.34). However, UF with icodextrin during the day dwell (14.8+/-0.8 h) was significantly higher in diabetics than non-diabetics (348+/-198 vs 137+/-311 ml/day, P=0.02). Our results show that icodextrin produces significantly higher UF in long-day dwell in diabetic ESRD patients on CCPD than in non-diabetic patients. The reason for this difference is not clear.
Benabed, Anais; Bechade, Clemence; Ficheux, Maxence; Verger, Christian; Lobbedez, Thierry
Diabetic patients treated by peritoneal dialysis (PD) have been reported to be at an increased risk of peritonitis. This has been attributed to impairment in host defense, visual impairment, disability and muscle wasting, which could compromise ability to safely perform catheter connections. This study aimed to evaluate whether assisted PD is associated with a lower risk of peritonitis in diabetic patients. This was a retrospective study based on data from the French Language Peritoneal Dialysis Registry. We included diabetic patients starting PD between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2012. The end of the observation period was 31 December 2013. Using complementary regression analysis (Fine and Gray, Hurdle models), we assessed the relationship between peritonitis occurrence, peritonitis number over time and the type of assisted PD. Of the 3598 diabetic patients, there were 2040 patients on nurse-assisted PD. These patients were older, more comorbid and more frequently on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In the multivariate analysis, nurse assistance was associated with a reduced risk of peritonitis in the Fine and Gray [subdistribution hazard ratio: 0.78 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.68-0.89)] and in the first component of the Hurdle models [rate ratio: 0.82 (95% CI 0.71-0.93)], but not a lower incidence of peritonitis after an initial episode [rate ratio: 0.82 (95% CI 0.95-1.38)]. Transplant failure, glomerulonephritis and CAPD were associated with an increased risk. In France, nurse-assisted PD is associated with a lower risk of peritonitis in diabetic patients treated by PD but not a lower incidence of peritonitis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
Francis, Maureen D; Thomas, Kris; Langan, Michael; Smith, Amy; Drake, Sean; Gwisdalla, Keri Lyn; Jones, Ronald R; Julian, Katherine A; Nabors, Christopher; Pereira, Anne; Rosenblum, Michael; Varney, Andrew; Warm, Eric; Ortiz, Melchor
Internal medicine programs are redesigning ambulatory training to improve the resident experience and answer the challenges of conflicting clinical responsibilities. However, little is known about the effect of clinic redesign on residents' satisfaction. We assessed residents' satisfaction with different resident continuity clinic models in programs participating in the Educational Innovations Project Ambulatory Collaborative (EPAC). A total of 713 internal medicine residents from 12 institutions in the EPAC participated in this cross-sectional study. Each program completed a detailed curriculum questionnaire and tracked practice metrics for participating residents. Residents completed a 3-part satisfaction survey based on the Veterans Affairs Learners' Perception Survey, with additional questions addressing residents' perceptions of the continuous healing relationship and conflicting duties across care settings. THREE CLINIC MODELS WERE IDENTIFIED: traditional weekly experience, combination model with weekly experience plus concentrated ambulatory rotations, and a block model with distinct inpatient and ambulatory blocks. The satisfaction survey showed block models had less conflict between inpatient and outpatient duties than traditional and combination models. Residents' perceptions of the continuous healing relationship was higher in combination models. In secondary analyses, the continuity for physician measure was correlated with residents' perceptions of the continuous healing relationship. Panel size and workload did not have an effect on residents' overall personal experience. Block models successfully minimize conflict across care settings without sacrificing overall resident satisfaction or resident perception of the continuous healing relationship. However, resident perception of the continuous healing relationship was higher in combination models.
Francis, Maureen D.; Thomas, Kris; Langan, Michael; Smith, Amy; Drake, Sean; Gwisdalla, Keri Lyn; Jones, Ronald R.; Julian, Katherine A.; Nabors, Christopher; Pereira, Anne; Rosenblum, Michael; Varney, Andrew; Warm, Eric; Ortiz, Melchor
Background Internal medicine programs are redesigning ambulatory training to improve the resident experience and answer the challenges of conflicting clinical responsibilities. However, little is known about the effect of clinic redesign on residents' satisfaction. Objective We assessed residents' satisfaction with different resident continuity clinic models in programs participating in the Educational Innovations Project Ambulatory Collaborative (EPAC). Methods A total of 713 internal medicine residents from 12 institutions in the EPAC participated in this cross-sectional study. Each program completed a detailed curriculum questionnaire and tracked practice metrics for participating residents. Residents completed a 3-part satisfaction survey based on the Veterans Affairs Learners' Perception Survey, with additional questions addressing residents' perceptions of the continuous healing relationship and conflicting duties across care settings. Results Three clinic models were identified: traditional weekly experience, combination model with weekly experience plus concentrated ambulatory rotations, and a block model with distinct inpatient and ambulatory blocks. The satisfaction survey showed block models had less conflict between inpatient and outpatient duties than traditional and combination models. Residents' perceptions of the continuous healing relationship was higher in combination models. In secondary analyses, the continuity for physician measure was correlated with residents' perceptions of the continuous healing relationship. Panel size and workload did not have an effect on residents' overall personal experience. Conclusions Block models successfully minimize conflict across care settings without sacrificing overall resident satisfaction or resident perception of the continuous healing relationship. However, resident perception of the continuous healing relationship was higher in combination models. PMID:24949127
Vigil, Darlene; Regmi, Anil; Last, Reuben; Wiggins, Brenda; Sun, Yijuan; Servilla, Karen S; Fair, Joanna R; Massie, Larry; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H
Fournier gangrene (FG), a form of necrotizing fasciitis of the perineum and genitals, with high morbidity and mortality in the general population, carries the additional risk of involvement of the peritoneal catheter tunnel and peritoneal cavity in patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD). We describe two men with diabetes who developed FG in the course of PD. Computed tomography showed no extension of FG to the abdominal wall, and spent peritoneal dialysate was clear in both patients. Broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with anaerobic coverage and early aggressive debridement followed by negative-pressure wound therapy and repeated debridement led to improvements in clinical status in both cases. Surgical closure and healing of the wound was achieved in one patient; the wound of the second patient is healing, but remains open. Both patients experienced prolonged hospitalization, with a serious decline in nutrition status. In patients on PD, FG can be treated successfully. However, additional measures are required to evaluate for potential involvement of the PD apparatus and the peritoneal cavity in the infectious process; and prolonged hospitalization, worsening nutrition, and multiple surgical interventions can result.
Comparison of new continuous measurements of ambulatory venous pressure (AVP) with conventional tiptoe exercise ambulatory AVP in relation to the CEAP clinical classification of chronic venous disease.
Eifell, Ron K G; Ashour, Hamdy Y; Lees, Tim A
Quantitative measurements of chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) are sensitive in detecting the presence of CVI but have low specificity in differentiating clinical severities of CVI as defined by the CEAP classification. One possible reason for this is measurement techniques do not assess variables that reflect hemodynamic changes that occur during normal exercise. Our aim was to compare the association of variables determined from a new technique, continuous ambulatory venous pressure monitoring (CAVPM), and those of conventional AVP measurement with the clinical severity of chronic venous insufficiency in patients with primary venous reflux. Fifty-four limbs of 49 patients with CVI and 15 healthy controls were studied. CVI clinical severity was classified according to CEAP as C2&C3 (mild disease), C4 (moderate disease), and C5&C6 (severe disease). All participants underwent duplex ultrasound scanning to rule out the presence of reflux in the control group and to confirm it in the patient groups. Conventional AVP measurements, including 90% refilling time (RT90), were compared with the new CAVP variables of mean walking pressure (MWP) and percentage fall in walking pressure (%FWP). Data were analyzed by analysis of variance using the Kruskal-Wallis test, and comparisons between groups were performed using Mann-Whitney tests. Discriminant analysis was used to determine the ability of a test to classify limbs into clinical classes. Conventional AVP measurements could not differentiate between the control group and the presence of mild disease (P = .56) but did differentiate between controls and severe disease as well as mild and severe disease (P < .001). RT90 detected differences between controls and reflux groups (P < .001) but not between moderate (C4) and severe (C5&C6) clinical groups (P > .5). MWP and %FWP showed significant differences between all clinical severities and controls (P < .001). In the assessment of CVI, mean walking pressure and percent fall in
Hirsch, Irl B; Verderese, Carol A
Recent consensus statements strongly advocate downloading and interpretation of continuous glucose data for diabetes management in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Supplementing periodic A1C testing with intermittent continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) using a standardized report form known as the ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) is an evolving standard of care. The rationale for this approach and its implementation with a recently approved novel monitoring technology are explored. Search of the medical literature, professional guidelines, and realworld evidence guided this introduction of an integrative practice framework that uses AGP in conjunction with intermittent continuous "flash" glucose monitoring (CFGM) as a supplement to A1C testing. The combination of intermittent continuous glucose pattern analysis, standardized glucose metrics, and a readily interpretable data report, as discussed in this review, has the potential to practically extend the recognized benefits of CGM to more patients, and clarify the relationship between A1C and average glucose levels in individual cases. Novel CFGM technologies portend greater use of continuous forms of glucose monitoring and wider adoption of AGP report analysis. Additional formal and empirical evidence is needed to more fully characterize best practice.
Przemysław, Włodek; Piotr, Książek; Grażyna, Chwatko; Danuta, Kowalczyk-Pachel; Małgorzata, Iciek; Bernadeta, Marcykiewicz; Małgorzata, Suliga; Witold, Smoleński
Thiol compounds such as glutathione, homocysteine, and cysteinyl-glycine are the natural reservoir of reductive capacity of the cells. Chronic renal failure is accompanied by disturbances in redox status of plasma thiols. The aim of the present study was to compare the changes in concentrations of different forms of thiols in plasma of terminal renal failure patients, nondialyzed and on peritoneal dialysis. Total concentrations of different redox forms of thiols were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. We observed that total concentration of glutathione in terminal renal failure patients decreased and total concentration of the remaining thiols in these patients significantly increased. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis had the following features in comparison with nondialyzed patients: (1) glutathione and cysteine concentration was restored and (2) free fraction of thiols rose, while protein-bound fraction dropped (except for homocysteine). Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis corrects total concentration of glutathione and cysteine, in comparison with nondialyzed patients.
Laudański, Krzysztof; Nowak, Zbigniew; Niemczyk, Stanisław
Background The aim of the present study was to compare the experience elderly and younger patients in terms of emotional status, disease perception, methods of coping with the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) stress, and health-related quality of life in 2 different settings of renal replacement therapy: hemodialysis (HD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis programs (CAPD). Specifically, we hypothesized that younger people will more frequently use goal-oriented strategies to cope with illness-related stress and elderly patients will use more strategies related to the control of emotion. Material/Methods A total of 69 HD patients, 40 CAPD patients, and 89 healthy volunteers were analyzed. The Situation and Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Profile of Mood States, the Cognitive Stress Appraisal Questionnaire, and the Nottingham Health Profile were used to assess anxiety, long-term emotional status, coping mechanisms, and health-related quality of life. Data were collected on several biochemical and demographic variables. Results Our study revealed that younger and elderly people on dialysis faced quite different problems. Younger people in both RRT groups had statistically higher assessment of ESRD as loss or challenge and they more frequently used distractive and emotional preoccupation coping strategies. Depression, confusion, and bewilderment dominate the emotional status of both patient populations, especially in the younger cohort. Both HDyoung and CAPDyoung patients complained more about lack of energy, mobility limitations, and sleep disturbances as compared to their elderly HD and CAPD counterparts. Conclusions There are different needs and problems in younger and elderly patients on renal replacement therapy. Younger people required more ESRD-oriented support to relieve their health-related complaints to the level observed in their peers and needed extensive psychological assistance in order to cope with negative emotions related to their disease. PMID
Li, H; Li, J
Peritoneal lymphatic stomata are small openings of the subperitoneal lymphatic vessels on the free surface of the mesothelium. The peritoneal cavity is connected with lymphatic system via these small openings which are considered to be the main passage-way that can absorb matter from the peritoneal cavity. The lymphatic stomata are claimed to be involved in many clinic procedures, such as ascites elimination; ultrafiltration failure on the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis; metastasis of tumor cells from the peritoneal cavity, and so on. It was reported that the cellular factor-NO(i.e. endothelium-derived relaxing factor, EDRF) can enhance the patency of the stomata and lymphatic absorption of the stomata by stimulating guanylate way, then increasing the concentration of the cGMP, decreasing the concentration of the [Ca2+] and as a result diastole the lymphatic stomata. Some traditional Chinese medicines, which can enhance absorption of ascites, have a regulative function on the stomata by enhancing the NO concentration.
Lausević, Mirjana; Nesić, Vidosava; Jovanović, Natasa; Stojimirović, Biljana
A normocytic normochromic anemia is one of the first signs of renal failure. Since anemia increases morbidity and mortality, its elimination is one of the essential objectives of the treatment. Human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEPO) has changed the therapeutical approach to anemia. The aim of the present study was to compare efficacy of anemia correction in peritoneal dialysis patients depending on treatment and dialysis modality. The study is the retrospective analysis of 64 patients who presented to our Clinic in 2003. Eighteen (28.13%) patients were treated with rHuEPO, 14 (28%) underwent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 2 (100%)--automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and 2 (33.3%)--intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD). Mean hemoglobin level was 98.6 +/- 17.82 g/l in patients treated with rHuEPO versus 98.81 +/- 15.14 g/l in patients without rHuEPO treatment. Erythropoietin requirements were 3392.85 +/- 1211.77 IU/week All patients received iron supplementation during rHuEPO therapy. Mean serum ferritin levels were 463.41 +/- 360 ug/l. Transferrin saturation (TSAT) was 0.35 +/- 0.16%. No difference of serum iron and TSAT levels was found between CAPD and IPD patients. The degree of anemia significantly differed between CAPD and IPD patients. A total of 17.11% of PD patients were given blood transfusions, most frequently during the first three months after the onset of dialysis. Our conclusion is that the number of patients receiving rHuEPO should be increased, as 50% of our patients should be substituted, while only 28% are being treated. As 50% of patients receiving rHuEPO failed to reach target Hgb levels, higher EPO doses should be considered. Iron stores should be continuously monitored, particularly in patients receiving rHuEPO, since iron deficiency is an important problem for patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis, especially during erythropoietin therapy. Oral iron supplementation is satisfactory in the majority of patients, and iron
Wu, Hsin-Hsu; Li, I-Jung; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Chen, Yung-Chang; Chang, Ming-Yang; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Hung, Cheng-Chieh; Yang, Chih-Wei; Tian, Ya-Chung
Introduction Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) peritonitis may develop after endoscopic procedures, and the benefit of prophylactic antibiotics is unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether prophylactic antibiotics reduce the incidence of peritonitis in these patients. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed all endoscopic procedures, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, cystoscopy, hysteroscopy, and hysteroscopy-assisted intrauterine device (IUD) implantation/removal, performed in CAPD patients at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan, between February 2001 and February 2012. Results Four hundred and thirty-three patients were enrolled, and 125 endoscopies were performed in 45 patients. Eight (6.4%) peritonitis episodes developed after the examination. Antibiotics were used in 26 procedures, and none of the patients had peritonitis (0% vs. 8.1% without antibiotic use; p = 0.20). The peritonitis rate was significantly higher in the non-EGD group than in the EGD group (15.9% [7/44] vs. 1.2% [1/81]; p<0.005). Antibiotic use prior to non-EGD examinations significantly reduced the endoscopy-associated peritonitis rate compared to that without antibiotic use (0% [0/16] vs. 25% [7/28]; p<0.05). Peritonitis only occurred if invasive procedures were performed, such as biopsy, polypectomy, or IUD implantation, (noninvasive procedures, 0% [0/20] vs. invasive procedures, 30.4% [7/23]; p<0.05). No peritonitis was noted if antibiotics were used prior to examination with invasive procedures (0% [0/10] vs. 53.8% [7/13] without antibiotic use; p<0.05). Although not statistically significant, antibiotics may play a role in preventing gynecologic procedure-related peritonitis (antibiotics, 0% [0/4] vs. no antibiotics, 55.6% [5/9]; p = 0.10). Conclusion Antibiotic prophylaxis significantly reduced endoscopy-associated PD peritonitis in the non-EGD group. Endoscopically assisted invasive procedures, such as
Martino, Francesca; Scalzotto, Elisa; Giavarina, Davide; Rodighiero, Maria Pia; Crepaldi, Carlo; Day, Sonya; Ronco, Claudio
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is frequently complicated by high rates of peritonitis, which result in hospitalization, technique failure, transfer to hemodialysis, and increased mortality. Early diagnosis, and identification of contributing factors are essential components to increasing effectiveness of care. In previous reports, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), a lipocalin which is a key player in innate immunity and rapidly detectable in peritoneal dialysis effluent (PDE), has been demonstrated to be a useful tool in the early diagnosis of peritonitis. This study investigates predictive value of PDE NGAL concentration as a prognostic indicator for PD-related peritonitis. A case-control study with 182 PD patients was conducted. Plasma and PDE were analyzed for the following biomarkers: C-reactive protein (CRP), blood procalcitonin (PCT), leucocytes and NGAL in PDE. The cases consisted of patients with suspected peritonitis, while controls were the patients who came to our ambulatory clinic for routine visits without any sign of peritonitis. The episodes of peritonitis were defined in agreement with International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis guidelines. Continuous variables were presented as the median values and interquartile range (IQR). Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare continuous variables. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to evaluate the association of biomarkers with peritonitis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to calculate area under curve (AUC) for biomarkers. Finally we evaluated sensitivity, and specificity for each biomarker. All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). During the 19-month study, of the 182 patients, 80 had a clinical diagnosis of peritonitis. C-reactive protein levels (p < 0.001), PCT (p < 0.001), NGAL in PDE (p < 0.001), and white blood cells (WBC) in PDE (p < 0.001) were all significantly different in
Optimization of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) prescription includes attempts to normalize the patient's blood pressure and extracellular volume. To do so, one must utilize crystalloid or colloid osmotic agents to achieve ultrafiltration. These osmotic agents are systemically absorbed and thus have both potential benefits and adverse effects. With glucose-based dialysate solutions, the average patient absorbs 300-450 kcal of glucose per day on either continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or the cycler. The amount of glucose absorbed varies based on peritoneal transport characteristics, prescription, and tonicity of fluids used. Alternative osmotic agents such as amino acids and macromolecular solutions, including polypeptides and polyglucose (icodextrin) solutions, have a different rate of systemic absorption and thus a different caloric load profile. In addition, there are protein losses that average about 10 g/day with glucose-based solutions and glucose losses with either amino acid or icodextrin dialysate solutions. There are also potential advantages of these alternative solutions with regard to ultrafiltration. Glucose-based solutions require the development of significant crystalloid osmotic forces, which are dissipated as glucose is absorbed systemically. In contrast, macromolecular solutions achieve ultrafiltration via differences in colloid osmotic pressure, and the absorption of these agents is of a lesser magnitude than glucose-based solutions. Further research is needed to determine other potential risks and benefits of these alternative dialysate solutions.
Carozzi, S; Nasini, M G; Schelotto, C; Caviglia, P M; Santoni, O; Pietrucci, A
Numerous factors related to the composition of peritoneal dialysis solutions (PDS) contribute to the pathogenesis of peritoneal fibrosis during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). They include high osmolarity, low pH, and the presence of lactate, which may be responsible for stimulating the proliferation of peritoneal fibroblasts (PF) and for the toxicity on the peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC). Similar effects could be hypothesized for the plasticizers released from the PDS bags, usually made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), such as the acid esters of phthalic acid, particularly bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (BEHP). Recently, however, new BEHP-free bags (Clear-Flex, Bieffe, Italy) made of three layers (polyethylene, nylon, and polypropylene) have been introduced. The aim of this work is to evaluate in vitro the effects of samples of PDS contained in PVC bags (Bieffe) and in Clear-Flex bags on the proliferative capacity of peritoneal fibroblasts and peritoneal mesothelial cells, and the release of interferon gamma (IFN gamma), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) from peritoneal T lymphocytes (PTLs) and macrophages (PM phi s). Results have shown that in the presence of PDS samples contained in PVC bags, the proliferative capacity of peritoneal fibroblasts was higher than in Clear-Flexbags. There was also an increased release of IFN-gamma and IL-1 from PTLs and PM phi s (cytokines that stimulate the collagen synthesis) and a decreased release of PGE2 (cytokines which inhibit the collagen synthesis). An inhibiting action on peritoneal mesothelial cells was also seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Muxfeldt, Elizabeth S; Margallo, Victor; Costa, Leonardo M S; Guimarães, Gleison; Cavalcante, Aline H; Azevedo, João C M; de Souza, Fabio; Cardoso, Claudia R L; Salles, Gil F
The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on blood pressures (BPs) in patients with resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea is not established. We aimed to evaluate it in a randomized controlled clinical trial, with blinded assessment of outcomes. Four hundred thirty-four resistant hypertensive patients were screened and 117 patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 per hour, were randomized to 6-month CPAP treatment (57 patients) or no therapy (60 patients), while maintaining antihypertensive treatment. Clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs were obtained before and after 6-month treatment. Primary outcomes were changes in clinic and ambulatory BPs and in nocturnal BP fall patterns. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol (limited to those with uncontrolled ambulatory BPs) analyses were performed. Patients had mean (SD) 24-hour BP of 129(16)/75(12) mm Hg, and 59% had uncontrolled ambulatory BPs. Mean apnea-hypopnea index was 41 per hour and 58.5% had severe obstructive sleep apnea. On intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in any BP change, neither in nocturnal BP fall, between CPAP and control groups. The best effect of CPAP was on night-time systolic blood pressure in per-protocol analysis, with greater reduction of 4.7 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -11.3 to +3.1 mm Hg; P=0.24) and an increase in nocturnal BP fall of 2.2% (95% confidence interval, -1.6% to +5.8%; P=0.25), in comparison with control group. In conclusion, CPAP treatment had no significant effect on clinic and ambulatory BPs in patients with resistant hypertension and moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea, although a beneficial effect on night-time systolic blood pressure and on nocturnal BP fall might exist in patients with uncontrolled ambulatory BP levels. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.
Buoncristiani, Umberto; Buoncristiani, Emanuela; Bianchi, Paolo
The 'Y' set introduced in the clinical practice in the early 80s with the aim of reducing the peritonitis rate in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, successfully revolutioned the philosophy of the connection system catheter-container of dialysate, which was the main way of bacterial contamination of the peritoneal cavity. In fact, while the previous connection systems had focused the attention on the reduction of the possible contaminating acts, the 'Y' system, taking into account the fact that soon or later a failure could occur even with the most skilled and compliant patient, introduced the possibility to kill the bacteria with a disinfectant and to remove it and the killed bacteria together with the bacteria eventually still surviving, by flushing the contaminated area. This goal was achieved thanks to a 'Y' shaped connector, having a third way connected to the discharge bag/container, besides the two connected to the new bag and to the catheter. From the 'Y' set have originated all the currently used continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis connection systems, where the 'Y' is mounted on the bag side (double-bag systems). However in these systems the disinfectant is no longer used, due to the fear of possible untoward effects on the peritoneal membrane. The groundlessness of this position and the possible further advantages of the use of a disinfectant in combination with the 'Y' are discussed and new 'Y' systems preventing every possibility of accidental entry of disinfectant into the peritoneal cavity are presented.
Galach, Magda; Antosiewicz, Stefan; Baczynski, Daniel; Wankowicz, Zofia; Waniewski, Jacek
In spite of many peritoneal tests proposed, there is still a need for a simple and reliable new approach for deriving detailed information about peritoneal membrane characteristics, especially those related to fluid transport. The sequential peritoneal equilibration test (sPET) that includes PET (glucose 2.27%, 4 h) followed by miniPET (glucose 3.86%, 1 h) was performed in 27 stable continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients. Ultrafiltration volumes, glucose absorption, ratio of concentration in dialysis fluid to concentration in plasma (D/P), sodium dip (Dip D/P Sodium), free water fraction (FWF60) and the ultrafiltration passing through small pores at 60 min (UFSP60), were calculated using clinical data. Peritoneal transport parameters were estimated using the three-pore model (3p model) and clinical data. Osmotic conductance for glucose was calculated from the parameters of the model. D/P creatinine correlated with diffusive mass transport parameters for all considered solutes, but not with fluid transport characteristics. Hydraulic permeability (L(p)S) correlated with net ultrafiltration from miniPET, UFSP60, FWF60 and sodium dip. The fraction of ultrasmall pores correlated with FWF60 and sodium dip. The sequential PET described and interpreted mechanisms of ultrafiltration and solute transport. Fluid transport parameters from the 3p model were independent of the PET D/P creatinine, but correlated with fluid transport characteristics from PET and miniPET.
Dunning, Kari; Carl, Daniel; Gerson, Myron; Khoury, Jane; Rockwell, Bradley; Keeton, Gabriela; Westover, Jennifer; Williams, Alesha; McCarthy, Michael; Kissela, Brett
Background Poststroke guidelines recommend moderate-intensity, continuous aerobic training (MCT) to improve aerobic capacity and mobility after stroke. High-intensity interval training (HIT) has been shown to be more effective than MCT among healthy adults and people with heart disease. However, HIT and MCT have not been compared previously among people with stroke. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and justification for a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing HIT and MCT in people with chronic stroke. Design A preliminary RCT was conducted. Setting The study was conducted in a cardiovascular stress laboratory and a rehabilitation research laboratory. Patients Ambulatory people at least 6 months poststroke participated. Intervention Both groups trained 25 minutes, 3 times per week, for 4 weeks. The HIT strategy involved 30-second bursts at maximum-tolerated treadmill speed alternated with 30- to 60-second rest periods. The MCT strategy involved continuous treadmill walking at 45% to 50% of heart rate reserve. Measurements Measurements included recruitment and attendance statistics, qualitative HIT acceptability, adverse events, and the following blinded outcome variables: peak oxygen uptake, ventilatory threshold, metabolic cost of gait, fractional utilization, fastest treadmill speed, 10-Meter Walk Test, and Six-Minute Walk Test. Results During the 8-month recruitment period, 26 participants consented to participate. Eighteen participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to either the HIT group (n=13) or the MCT group (n=5). Eleven out of the 13 HIT group participants attended all sessions. Participants reported that HIT was acceptable and no serious adverse events occurred. Standardized effect size estimates between groups were moderate to very large for most outcome measures. Only 30% of treadmill speed gains in the HIT group translated into overground gait speed improvement. Limitations The study was not
Kuan, Chee Sian; Yew, Su Mei; Toh, Yue Fen; Chan, Chai Ling; Lim, Soo Kun; Lee, Kok Wei; Na, Shiang Ling; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng
Peritonitis is the leading complication of peritoneal dialysis, which is primarily caused by bacteria rather than fungi. Peritonitis is responsible for approximately 18% of the infection-related mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. In this paper, we report the isolation of a rare fungus, Quambalaria cyanescens, from the peritoneal fluid of a man after he switched from continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis to nocturnal intermittent peritoneal dialysis. Based on the morphological examination and multigene phylogeny, the clinical isolate was confirmed as Q. cyanescens. This pathogen exhibited low sensitivity to all tested echinocandins and 5-flucytosine. Interestingly, morphological characterization revealed that Q. cyanescens UM 1095 produced different pigments at low temperatures (25°C and 30°C) on various culture media. It is important to monitor the emergence of this rare fungus as a potential human pathogen in the tropics. This study provides insight into Q. cyanescens UM 1095 phenotype profiles using a Biolog phenotypic microarray (PM). Of the 760 nutrient sources tested, Q. cyanescens UM 1095 utilized 42 compounds, and the fungus can adapt to a broad range of osmotic and acidic environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of Q. cyanescens from peritoneal fluid, revealing this rare fungus as a potential human pathogen that may be misidentified using conventional methods. The detailed morphological, molecular and phenotypic characterization of Q. cyanescens UM 1095 provides the basis for future studies on its biology, lifestyle, and potential pathogenicity.
Kuan, Chee Sian; Yew, Su Mei; Toh, Yue Fen; Chan, Chai Ling; Lim, Soo Kun; Lee, Kok Wei; Na, Shiang Ling; Hoh, Chee-Choong; Yee, Wai-Yan; Ng, Kee Peng
Peritonitis is the leading complication of peritoneal dialysis, which is primarily caused by bacteria rather than fungi. Peritonitis is responsible for approximately 18% of the infection-related mortality in peritoneal dialysis patients. In this paper, we report the isolation of a rare fungus, Quambalaria cyanescens, from the peritoneal fluid of a man after he switched from continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis to nocturnal intermittent peritoneal dialysis. Based on the morphological examination and multigene phylogeny, the clinical isolate was confirmed as Q. cyanescens. This pathogen exhibited low sensitivity to all tested echinocandins and 5-flucytosine. Interestingly, morphological characterization revealed that Q. cyanescens UM 1095 produced different pigments at low temperatures (25°C and 30°C) on various culture media. It is important to monitor the emergence of this rare fungus as a potential human pathogen in the tropics. This study provides insight into Q. cyanescens UM 1095 phenotype profiles using a Biolog phenotypic microarray (PM). Of the 760 nutrient sources tested, Q. cyanescens UM 1095 utilized 42 compounds, and the fungus can adapt to a broad range of osmotic and acidic environments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the isolation of Q. cyanescens from peritoneal fluid, revealing this rare fungus as a potential human pathogen that may be misidentified using conventional methods. The detailed morphological, molecular and phenotypic characterization of Q. cyanescens UM 1095 provides the basis for future studies on its biology, lifestyle, and potential pathogenicity. PMID:26716988
Waniewski, J; Heimbürger, O; Werynski, A; Lindholm, B
Analysis of kinetic studies of peritoneal solute transport involves the need for discrimination between three transport components: diffusion, convective transport, and peritoneal absorption. The description of convective transport in standard clinical conditions of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), as well as in isochratic measurements, has met some problems related to the paradoxical and often anomalous values of sieving coefficient, a parameter that characterizes solute drag with the flow of ultrafiltrate. A possible explanation of some of these results is the time dependence of the transport parameters, which is in contrast to their assumed steadiness. These anomalies as well as the time dependence of the transport parameters are confined more to the standard glucose-based dialysis fluid than to some alternative dialysis fluids. Furthermore, the most striking anomalies have been found for small electrolytes as well as for osmotic agents, which are applied in high, unphysiological concentrations. These solutes may be involved in the transport between intracellular and extracellular compartments within the peritoneal membrane, which phenomena are not included in the current modeling.
Tom, Jeffrey; Tseng, Chien-Wen; Davis, James; Solomon, Cam; Zhou, Chuan; Mangione-Smith, Rita
Objectives To determine if adherence to the recommended well-child care (WCC) visit schedule, independent of continuity of care (COC), is associated with lower risk for Ambulatory Care Sensitive Hospitalizations (ACSH) and whether this association varies by chronic disease status. Design Population-based, retrospective cohort study Setting Hawaii’s largest health plan from 1999 to 2006 Patients/Participants 36,944 children ≤ 3.5 years-old who were eligible if they were enrolled prior to 2 months-old, had ≥ 4 outpatient visits during the study period, and had an enrollment period that overlapped with ≥ 1 WCC visit interval. Main Exposure(s) WCC visit adherence and COC Index Main Outcome Measure(s) Risk for ACSH (Hazard Ratio [HR]) Results Overall, 8,921 (24%) children had ≥ 1 chronic disease. The proportions of ACSH among healthy children versus those with ≥ 1 chronic disease were 3% (n= 751) and 7% (n= 645), respectively. For children with chronic disease, those with the lowest WCC visit adherence (0–25%) had 1.9 times (HR: 1.9, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.5–2.5) the risk of ACSH compared to those in the highest category (75–100%). The risk of ACSH for children with chronic disease who fell into the lowest COC category (0–0.25) was 2.4 times (HR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.7–3.5) higher than for those who fell into the highest category (0.75–1.0). Conclusions For children with chronic disease, both low WCC visit adherence and COC are independently associated with an increased risk of ACSH. Providing access to a consistent source of primary care appears important for this vulnerable population. PMID:21041598
Morgaz, Juan; Muñoz-Rascón, Pilar; Serrano-Rodríguez, Juan Manuel; Navarrete, Rocío; Domínguez, Juan Manuel; Fernández-Sarmiento, José Andrés; Gómez-Villamandos, Rafael J; Serrano, Juan Manuel; Granados, María Del Mar
This study compared the post-operative analgesic efficacy of continuous lidocaine administration with that of intramuscular (IM) methadone in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Thirty-eight dogs were divided randomly into two groups. Following surgery, the lidocaine group (L) received a continuous lidocaine infusion (2 mg/kg/h) through a wound catheter inserted in the pre-peritoneal space; the control group (C) received methadone (0.2 mg/kg IM). A dynamic and interactive visual analogue scale (DIVAS), the Scale-Form Glasgow Composite Measure Scale (CMPS-SF), mechanical wound thresholds, heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure were assessed pre-operatively and 2, 4, 6, 18, and 24 h after surgery. The presence of the wound catheter prevented the evaluator from remaining blinded to group allocations. Plasma lidocaine and cortisol levels were measured 2, 6, 18, and 24 h after surgery. There were no intergroup differences in any pain assessment scale scores at any time point. Stable intravenous lidocaine levels were observed. Four animals in the control group but none in the lidocaine group required rescue analgesia. There were no differences in complication rates between groups. Continuous locoregional lidocaine delivered via a wound catheter between the parietal peritoneum and abdominal muscle offers effective analgesia in dogs during ovariohysterectomy and appears to be a promising analgesic option in veterinary surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Turyna, Bohdan; Jurek, Aleksandra; Gotfryd, Kamil; Siaśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Kubit, Piotr; Klein, Andrzej
The macrophages belong to the effector cells of both nonspecific and specific immune response. These cells generally express little cytotoxicity unless activated. The present work was intended to determine if peritoneal macrophages collected from patients on Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) during episodes of peritonitis were active against human tumor cell lines without further in vitro stimulation. We also compared macrophage antitumor potential with effectiveness of drugs used in cancer therapy (taxol and suramin). Conditioned medium (CM) of macrophages collected during inflammation-free periods did not exhibit cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against both tumor (A549 and HTB44) and non-transformed (BEAS-2B and CRL2190) cells. Exposure of tumor cells to CM of macrophages harvested during peritonitis resulted in significant suppression of proliferation, impairment of viability and induction of apoptosis, in contrast to non-transformed cells, which remained unaffected. The efficacy of CM of inflammatory macrophages as an antitumor agent appeared to be comparable to cytostatic and cytotoxic potency of taxol and suramin or, in the case of HTB44 cells, even higher. The results obtained suggest that activated human macrophages might represent a useful tool for cancer immunotherapy.
Ghoshal, Arunangshu; Salins, Naveen; Damani, Anuja; Deodhar, Jayita; Muckaden, M A
Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is commonly seen in patients with advanced abdominal cancers. The incidence of pediatric MBO in a patient with Burkitt's lymphoma and ataxia telangiectasia is rare, with no published case reports till now. Conservative management of inoperable MBO results in relief of symptoms and improves quality of life. An 11-year-old boy with Burkitt's lymphoma and ataxia telangiectasia was referred to pediatric palliative care with MBO. The objective of this report is to demonstrate conservative management of pediatric MBO using continuous ambulatory drug delivery system. The patient was initiated on continuous ambulatory drug delivery (CADD) system for symptom relief. MBO was reversed with conservative management and the child was discharged on self-collapsible portable elastomeric continuous infusion pump under the supervision of a local family physician. The child remained comfortable at home for 4 weeks until his death. His parents were satisfied with the child's symptom control, quality of life, and were able to care for the child at home. In a resource-limited setting, managing patients at home using elastomeric continuous infusion pumps instead of expensive automated CADD is a practical pharmacoeconomic approach.
Prasad, Narayan; Gupta, Amit; Sharma, Raj K; Sinha, Archna; Kumar, Ramesh
To determine the impact of nutritional status on peritonitis in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in a developing country. 56 patients with end-stage renal disease on CAPD were randomly selected for this study. These patients were assessed for nutritional status and peritonitis episodes. Nutritional parameters were assessed by anthropometry, diet, body mass index (BMI), Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), serum albumin level, and Subjective Global Assessment (SGA). Based on SGA, patients were categorized into either group 1 (malnutrition, n = 31) or group 2 (normal nutritional status, n = 25). Peritonitis was considered the primary outcome and was compared between the two groups. Demographic profiles, Kt/V, creatinine clearance, and mean follow-up of the two groups were similar. Number of peritonitis episodes was significantly higher in patients with malnutrition (25/31) compared to patients with normal nutritional status (4/25) (p = 0.001). Mean peritonitis rate per patient per year was also significantly higher in patients with malnutrition (0.99 +/- 1.07) compared to patients with normal nutritional status (0.18 +/- 0.42) (p = 0.007). On univariate analysis, malnutrition based on SGA (p = 0.009), NRI (p = 0.02), serum albumin level (p = 0.005), and calorie intake (p = 0.006) was a significant predictor of peritonitis. On multivariate Cox regression analysis, only SGA (p = 0.001, odds ratio 0.08, 95% confidence interval 0.02-0.36) was found to be a significant predictor of peritonitis. On general linear model, the observed power of prediction of peritonitis was 0.96 based on SGA. On Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, peritonitis-free survival in patients with normal nutrition (42 months) was significantly higher compared to patients with malnutrition (21 months) based on SGA (log rank p = 0.003). We conclude that peritonitis rate is high in patients with malnutrition and that malnutrition indices, especially SGA, can predict the peritonitis rate
Struijk, Dirk G.
Background Peritoneal dialysis (PD) for the treatment of end-stage renal failure was introduced in the 1960s. Nowadays it has evolved to an established therapy that is complementary to hemodialysis (HD), representing 11% of all patients treated worldwide with dialysis. Despite good clinical outcomes and similar results in patient survival between PD and HD, the penetration of PD is decreasing in the Western world. Summary First the major events in the history of the development of PD are described. Then important insights into the physiology of peritoneal transport are discussed and linked to the changes in time observed in biopsies of the peritoneal membrane. Furthermore, the developments in peritoneal access, more biocompatible dialysate solutions, automated PD at home, the establishment of parameters for dialysis adequacy and strategies to prevent infectious complications are mentioned. Finally non-medical issues responsible for the declining penetration in the Western world are analyzed. Key Messages Only after introduction of the concept of continuous ambulatory PD by Moncrief and Popovich has this treatment evolved in time to a renal replacement therapy. Of all structures present in the peritoneal membrane, the capillary endothelium offers the rate-limiting hindrance for solute and water transport for the diffusive and convective transport of solutes and osmosis. The functional and anatomical changes in the peritoneal membrane in time can be monitored by the peritoneal equilibrium test. Peritonitis incidence decreased by introduction of the Y-set and prophylaxis using mupirocin on the exit site. The decrease in the proportion of patients treated with PD in the Western world can be explained by non-medical issues such as inadequate predialysis patient education, physician experience and training, ease of HD initiation, overcapacity of in-center HD, lack of adequate infrastructure for PD treatment, costs and reimbursement issues of the treatment. Facts from
Topley, N; Alobaidi, H M; Davies, M; Coles, G A; Williams, J D; Lloyd, D
The respiratory and oxidative responses of human peritoneal polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and peritoneal macrophages (PM phi) following exposure to unused continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis fluid (CAPD) and early dwell effluent were studied using an open oxygen (O2) electrode system and by measurement of oxygen radical-derived luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Both cell types responded to stimulation by increasing O2 consumption and by generating chemiluminescence even at external O2 concentrations below 50 microM O2. Oxygen concentrations in the dialysate, as measured by blood gas analysis, were never lower than 118 +/- 8.3 microM O2 even during active peritonitis. Thus oxygen availability does not appear to be rate limiting for phagocyte oxidative metabolism in the peritoneal cavity. Preexposure of both inflammatory cell types to unused fluid or early dwell CAPD effluent significantly reduced both stimulated oxygen uptake and the subsequent ability of these cells to generate chemiluminescence without significantly affecting their viability. Further investigation of this down regulatory phenomenon using unused fluid and laboratory prepared dialysis fluid revealed that low pH (5.3) and high sodium lactate concentration in combination are directly responsible for the suppressive effect of unused fluid and early dwell effluent on cell function. These observations demonstrate that cellular host defense may be impaired early in the dialysis cycle as a result of lactate mediated "stunning" of resident phagocytes. The precise nature of the molecular species responsible for this suppressive effect remains to be identified.
Pacitti, Alfonso; Maffei, S; Segoloni, G P
In the Renal Unit of the Molinette Hospital of Turin, peritoneal dialysis (PD) was introduced in the mid 1960s to treat patients suffering from acute renal failure. The peritoneal catheter, which was then a stiff catheter, was inserted by a surgeon at each dialysis session. Between 1966 and 1970 there were a series of improvements, such as the first cycler for intermittent PD, fast-shift DP, and a homemade machine for automatic PD. During the early 1970s, a new type of stiff peritoneal catheter was introduced, which was used also for patients suffering from chronic renal failure. Towards the end of the 1970s the soft Tenckhoff peritoneal catheter started to be used, as well as continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), which made it possible to treat a large number of patients at home. The 1980s brought a new surgical technique for the insertion of the catheter, and in the 1990s new peritoneal catheters were introduced which reduced the number of early and late complications. Around the turn of the century, the PD service was reorganized and improved, with dedicated personnel and facilities. Moreover, automated PD was introduced and the treatment of peritonitis was standardized according to international guidelines.
Nakamoto, Hidetomo; Imai, Hirokazu; Kawanishi, Hideki; Nakamoto, Masahiko; Minakuchi, Jun; Kumon, Shinichi; Watanabe, Syuichi; Shiohira, Yoshiki; Ishii, Takeo; Kawahara, Toshihiko; Tsuzaki, Koichi; Suzuki, Hiromichi
We evaluated differences in individual peritoneal membrane transport function and nutritional status in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and nondiabetic (non-DM) patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We used a newly developed peritoneal function test, personal dialysis capacity, in 88 patients (44 DM and 44 non-DM) on CAPD for 1 to 210 months. Sex, age, past history of peritonitis, and duration of CAPD were matched in DM and non-DM patients. Serum albumin (mean +/- SEM) was lower in DM compared with non-DM patients: 3.0 +/- 0.1 g/dL (30 +/- 1 g/L) versus 3.5 +/- 0.1 g/dL (35 +/- 1 g/L), P < 0.001. Peritoneal area and dialysis protein loss were greater in DM versus non-DM patients. In multiple linear regression analysis, the only independent predictor of serum albumin in patients with DM was dialysis protein loss. In contrast, age, past history of peritonitis, duration of CAPD, caloric intake, protein nitrogen appearance and protein catabolic rate, and residual renal function did not correlate with serum albumin in DM patients. In non-DM patients, age, duration of CAPD, and past history of peritonitis, but not dialysis protein loss, were independent predictors of serum albumin. There was a significant correlation in DM patients, but not in non-DM CAPD patients, between dialysis protein loss and urinary excretion of protein (r = 0.866, P = 0.0005). In this multicenter study, peritoneal membrane transport and peritoneal protein permeability were significantly higher in DM than in non-DM patients. Hypoproteinemia in DM patients is attributable to the high permeability of the peritoneal membrane undergoing CAPD. Copyright 2002 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.
Churchill, D N
For patients with end-stage renal disease treated with peritoneal dialysis, prospective cohort studies using multivariate statistical analysis have shown an association between greater urea clearance and a decreased relative risk for death. The recommended weekly Kt/V for urea is 2.0, with the corresponding creatinine clearance (CrCl) of 60 L/1.73 m2. This is considered adequate dialysis but fails to define optimum urea and CrCl targets. The assumption that renal and peritoneal clearances are equivalent has been challenged by circumstantial data and is probably untenable. The relative importance of these clearances requires definition. The suggestion that CrCl is a more important indicator of adequacy of dialysis is confounded by association with renal, rather than peritoneal, clearance and perhaps by the early referral and initiation of dialysis. Recent reports have shown an association between increased peritoneal membrane transport and an increased relative risk for technique failure and/or death. Patients with higher peritoneal transport should have greater clearance of urea and creatinine and better clinical outcomes. Possible explanations for this apparent contradiction include the adverse effects of increased glucose absorption, malnutrition, and fluid overload, the latter caused by decreased ultrafiltration. Available data suggest an important role for the failure of ultrafiltration among patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). Strategies to improve the clearance of urea and creatinine include the preservation of residual renal function and increased peritoneal clearance. Loss of residual renal function may be delayed by the avoidance of nephrotoxic drugs and angiographic dye. Peritoneal clearance can be enhanced by a combination of increased volume and frequency of peritoneal dialysis cycles. Ultrafiltration failure, but not protein loss, can be addressed with shorter cycles with nocturnal peritoneal dialysis. Development of
Nikibakhsh, Ahmad-Ali; Mahmoodzadeh, Hashem; Vali, Mohamad; Enashaei, Ali; Asem, Abdolreza; Yekta, Zahra
Objective Peritoneal dialysis remains the only available option for patients which need immediate dialysis and it could be a bridge between end-stage renal failure (ESRD) and transplantation. There is a paucity of published experience of children with immediate use of permanent Tenckhoff Catheter for peritoneal dialysis from developing countries. In this study we report our experience on immediate use of permanent peritoneal access and continued peritoneal dialysis for a prolonged time. Methods Fifty six patients were studied including 30 males and 26 females within the age range of 1 month to 14 years with mean age of 6.5 years in Urmia, Northwest Iran. Findings No operative morbidity was seen. During a total of 499.5 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis months, 16 patients had 28 episodes of peritonitis, which means a overall result of one episode per 17.8 months. There were 3 patients (5.35%) with catheter site leakage, 12 (21.4%) catheter obstructions (which led to omentectomy), 4 (7.2%) exit site infections (2 patients in the early postoperative period and 2 patients in during follow up). Death due to catheter related complications occurred in 1 per 56 patients and due to non-catheter related causes in 10 per 56 patients. Conclusion Present results indicate that catheter-related complications were not higher than those previously reported and peritoneal dialysis could be initiated immediately after catheter implantation and could be a safe bridge between end-stage renal failure (ESRD) and transplantation. PMID:23724178
Wong, Ping-Nam; Mak, Siu-Ka; Lo, Man-Wai; Lo, Kin-Yee; Tong, Gensy Mei-Wa; Wong, Yuk; Wong, Andrew Kui-Man
Vibrio vulnificus is a marine bacterium and opportunistic human pathogen. Associated infections have contributed to the majority of seafood-related deaths in the United States. In patients with such predisposed clinical conditions as chronic liver disease, immunocompromised state, and end-stage renal disease, this organism has been associated with the development of life-threatening primary septicemia and severe wound infection. However, continuous ambulatory peritonitis dialysis (CAPD)-related peritonitis caused by V vulnificus has not been reported. We describe a patient receiving CAPD who developed peritonitis caused by V vulnificus after handling seafood. This case highlights the importance of strict aseptic technique during CAPD exchanges and calls for an effort in educating our dialysis patients on precautions about seafood handling.
... peritoneal fluid, lubricates the surface of this tissue. Disorders of the peritoneum are not common. They include ... fluid to diagnose the problem. Treatment of peritoneal disorders depends on the cause.
Yung, S.; Thomas, G. J.; Stylianou, E.; Williams, J. D.; Coles, G. A.; Davies, M.
This study describes experiments that compare the proteoglycans (PGs) extracted from the dialysate from patients receiving continuous peritoneal ambulatory dialysis (CAPD) with those secreted by metabolically labeled human peritoneal mesothelial cells in vitro. The PGs isolated from both sources were predominantly small chondroitin sulfate/dermatan sulfate PGs. Western blot of the core proteins obtained after chondroitin ABC lyase treatment with specific antibodies identified decorin and biglycan. With [35S]sulfate and [35S]methionine as labeling precursors it was shown that dermatan sulfate rather than chondroitin sulfate were the major glycosaminoglycan chains and that decorin was the predominant species. These data provide the first evidence that human peritoneal mesothelial cells may be the principal source of PGs in the peritoneum. Given the proposed functions of decorin and biglycan, the results suggest that these PGs may be involved in the control of transforming growth factor-beta activity and collagen fibril formation in the peritoneum. Images Figure 2 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7856761
Wiggins, K J; Craig, J C; Johnson, D W; Strippoli, G F
Peritonitis is a common complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and is associated with significant morbidity. Adequate treatment is essential to reduce morbidity and recurrence. To evaluate the benefits and harms of treatments for PD-associated peritonitis. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's specialised register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and reference lists without language restriction. Date of search: February 2005 All randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs assessing the treatment of peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients (adults and children) evaluating: administration of an antibiotic(s) by different routes (e.g. oral, intraperitoneal, intravenous); dose of an antibiotic agent(s); different schedules of administration of antimicrobial agents; comparisons of different regimens of antimicrobial agents; any other intervention including fibrinolytic agents, peritoneal lavage and early catheter removal were included. Two authors extracted data on study quality and outcomes. Statistical analyses were performed using the random effects model and the dichotomous results were expressed as relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and continuous outcomes as mean difference (WMD) with 95% CI. We identified 36 studies (2089 patients): antimicrobial agents (30); urokinase (4), peritoneal lavage (1) intraperitoneal (IP) immunoglobulin (1). No superior antibiotic agent or combination of agents were identified. Primary response and relapse rates did not differ between IP glycopeptide-based regimens compared to first generation cephalosporin regimens, although glycopeptide regimens were more likely to achieve a complete cure (3 studies, 370 episodes: RR 1.66, 95% CI 1.01 to 3.58). For relapsing or persistent peritonitis, simultaneous catheter removal/replacement was superior to urokinase at reducing treatment failure rates (1 study, 37 patients: RR 2.35, 95% CI 1.13 to
Arbeiter, Anja K; Kranz, Birgitta; Wingen, Anne-Margret; Bonzel, Klaus-Eugen; Dohna-Schwake, Christian; Hanssler, Ludwig; Neudorf, Ulrich; Hoyer, Peter F; Büscher, Rainer
Newborns with inborn errors of metabolism often present with hyperammonaemic coma, requiring prompt diagnosis and specific medical therapy, nutritional support and efficient toxin removal. Little information regarding the efficacy and safety of continuous venovenous haemodialysis (CVVHD) as an option for extracorporal ammonia detoxification in children is available. Twenty-one patients with hyperammonaemia [19 neonates (mean age 4.1 +/- 2.4 days) and two children 1 and 7 years of age, respectively] were admitted to our hospital for dialysis between 1996 and 2008. Seventeen children (15 neonates), received CVVHD. Four neonates received continuous peritoneal dialysis (CPD). All started medical treatment with sodium benzoate, l-arginine hydrochloride and carnitine as well as protein-restricted parenteral diets with high caloric intake before dialysis. Plasma ammonia levels (range 464-7267 microg/dl before dialysis and 27-3317 microg/dl after dialysis) were significantly reduced by 50% within 4.7 +/- 2.5 h with CVVHD compared with 13.5 +/- 6.2 h with CPD (P < 0.0001). Plasma ammonia levels <200 microg/dl critical range were achieved within 22.4 +/- 18.1 h in CVVHD patients compared with 35.0 +/- 24.1 h with CPD. Depending on the weight and blood pressure stability of the patients, mean blood flow velocities of 9.8 +/- 3.4 ml/kg/min and mean dialysate flow rates of 3925 +/- 2398 ml/min/1.73 m(2) were employed. Blood and dialysate flows significantly correlated with ammonia clearance and decay of ammonia in vivo. Because of the severe underlying disease, 18% of CVVHD patients died compared with 50% undergoing CPD. In total, 82% of CVVHD patients survived the first 6 months after dialysis. Among these, 43% were without sequelae, 43% developed moderate mental retardation, and two (14%) developed severe mental retardation. CVVHD effectively and quickly eliminates plasma ammonia. To optimize long-term mental outcome, rapid identification and appropriate treatment of the
Zhe, Xing-wei; Tian, Xin-kui; Chen, Wei; Guo, Li-juan; Gu, Yue; Chen, Hui-min; Tang, Li-jun; Wang, Tao
While cardiovascular disease accounts for 40-50% of the mortality in dialysis patients, and while a high peritoneal transport in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is an independent predictor of outcome, it is unclear if there are any links. Aortic stiffness has become established as a cardiovascular risk factor. We thus studied pulse wave velocity (PWV) in CAPD patients to explore the possible link between peritoneal small solute transport and aortic stiffness. CAPD patients (n = 76, 27 M/49 F) in our center were included in the present study. Aortic stiffness was assessed by brachial pulse pressure (PP) and carotid-femoral PWV. Patients' peritoneal small solute transport rate was assessed by D/P(cr) at 4 h. Extracellular water over total body water (E/T ratio) was assessed by means of bioimpedance analysis. C-reactive protein was also measured. Carotid-femoral PWV was positively associated with patients' age (r = 0.555; P < 0.01), time on peritoneal dialysis (r = 0.332; P < 0.01), diabetic status (r = 0.319; P < 0.01), D/P(cr) (r = 0.241; P < 0.05), PP (r = 0.475; P < 0.01), and E/T (r = 0.606; P < 0.01). In a multivariate regression analysis, carotid-femoral PWV was independently determined by E/T (P < 0.01), PP (P < 0.01), age (P < 0.01), and D/P(cr) (P < 0.05). D/P(cr), in addition to E/T, age, and PP, was an independent predictor of elevated carotid-femoral PWV in CAPD patients, suggesting that there might be a link between high aortic stiffness and increased peritoneal small solute transport rate.
Halstead, D C; Guzzo, J; Giardina, J A; Geshan, A E
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis is an important modality of therapy for patients with renal disease. However, peritonitis continues to be a major risk factor and is usually treated by intraperitoneal administration of antimicrobial agents. Few data are available concerning the stability of antimicrobial agents in peritoneal dialysis solution beyond 48 h. Our investigation was designed to establish the chemical and biological stability of gentamicin alone and in combination with cefazolin in peritoneal dialysis solution at 6 and 72 h by an immunoassay and by an in vitro bactericidal test against American Type Culture Collection (Rockville, Md.) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition, uninfected peritoneal dialysis effluent was inoculated with three American Type Culture Collection strains and gentamicin or imipenem. Gentamicin alone or in combination with cefazolin was not altered chemically and was bactericidal for Staphylococcus spp. but not P. aeruginosa. In contrast, imipenem was active against both Staphylococcus spp. and P. aeruginosa. Undefined factors other than inactivation of gentamicin may be responsible for the lack of bactericidal activity and treatment failure of Pseudomonas infections.
Krediet, Raymond T.
Peritoneal dialysis was first employed in patients with acute renal failure in the 1940s and since the 1960s for those with end-stage renal disease. Its popularity increased enormously after the introduction of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in the end of 1970s. This stimulated both clinical and basic research. In an ideal situation, this should lead to cross-fertilization between the two. The present review describes two examples of interactions: one where it worked out very well and another where basic science missed the link with clinical findings. Those on fluid transport are examples of how old physiological findings on absorption of saline and glucose solutions were adopted in peritoneal dialysis by the use of glucose as an osmotic agent. The mechanism behind this in patients was first solved mathematically by the assumption of ultrasmall intracellular pores allowing water transport only. At the same time, basic science discovered the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP-1), and a few years later, studies in transgenic mice confirmed that AQP-1 was the ultrasmall pore. In clinical medicine, this led to its assessment in patients and the notion of its impairment. Drugs for treatment have been developed. Research on biocompatibility is not a success story. Basic science has focussed on dialysis solutions with a low pH and lactate, and effects of glucose degradation products, although the first is irrelevant in patients and effects of continuous exposure to high glucose concentrations were largely neglected. Industry believed the bench more than the bedside, resulting in ‘biocompatible’ dialysis solutions. These solutions have some beneficial effects, but are evidently not the final answer. PMID:26120456
Yoshimoto, K; Saima, S; Nakamura, Y; Nakayama, M; Kubo, H; Kawaguchi, Y; Nishitani, H; Nakamura, Y; Yasui, A; Yokoyama, K; Kuriyama, S; Shirai, D; Kugiyama, A; Hayano, K; Fukui, H; Horigome, I; Amagasaki, Y; Tsubakihara, Y; Kamekawa, T; Ando, R; Tomura, S; Okamoto, R; Miwa, S; Koyama, T; Echizen, H
We previously reported that manidipine, a new dihydropyridine type calcium channel blocker, produced chylous peritoneal dialysate being visually indistinguishable from infective peritonitis in 5 patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) [Yoshimoto et al. 1993]. To study whether such an adverse drug reaction would also be elicited by other commonly prescribed calcium channel blockers in CAPD patients, we have conducted postal inquiry to 15 collaborating hospitals and an institutional survey in International Medical Center of Japan as to the possible occurrence of calcium channel blocker-associated non-infective, turbid peritoneal dialysate in CAPD patients. Our diagnostic criteria for drug-induced turbidity of dialysate as a) it developed within 48 h after the administration of a newly introduced calcium channel blocker to the therapeutic regimen, b) absence of clinical symptoms of peritoneal inflammation (i.e., pyrexia, abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting), c) the fluid containing normal leukocyte counts and being negative for bacterial and fungal culture of the fluid, and d) it disappeared shortly after the withdrawal of the assumed causative agent. Results showed that 19 out of 251 CAPD patients given one of the calcium channel blockers developed non-infective turbid peritoneal dialysis that fulfilled all the above criteria. Four calcium channel blockers were suspected to be associated with the events: benidipine [2 out of 2 (100%) patients given the drug], manidipine [15 out of 36 (42%) patients], nisoldipine [1 out of 11 (9%) patients] and nifedipine [1 out of 159 (0.6%)] in descending order of frequency. None of the patients who received nicardipine, nilvadipine, nitrendipine, barnidipine and diltiazem (25, 7, 2, 1 and 8 patients, respectively) exhibited turbid dialysate. In conclusion, we consider that certain dihydropyridine type calcium channel blockers would cause turbid peritoneal dialysate being similar to that observed in
Baillie, Jessica; Lankshear, Annette
Internationally, increasing numbers of patients are requiring treatment for end-stage kidney disease and greater use of peritoneal dialysis is thus being promoted. However, peritonitis can be a significant problem in this population. It is the leading cause of technique failure in patients using peritoneal dialysis and results in considerable morbidity and mortality. There is a dearth of research exploring patients' and their families' experiences of peritonitis. The aim of this paper is to explore patients' and their families' perspectives and experiences of peritonitis. An ethnographic study was conducted in 2011 in the United Kingdom. Sixteen patients and nine of their relatives were recruited through purposive and convenience sampling. In-depth interviews were undertaken with patients and their families, who were also observed using peritoneal dialysis in their homes. The data were analysed thematically using Wolcott's (1994) three-stage approach. This article describes four themes: learning about the risk of peritonitis; measures taken to prevent the infection; how participants monitored continuously for signs and symptoms of the infection; how they then identified and intervened once peritonitis was suspected. Overall, peritonitis was associated with fear and uncertainty, pain and learning from episodes of the infection. Overall, peritonitis was a distressing experience that participants sought to prevent. However, there was some confusion amongst participants about the signs and symptoms of the infection and further education for patients and their families is thus crucial. © 2015 European Dialysis and Transplant Nurses Association/European Renal Care Association.
Nakao, Ai; Nakao, Kazushi; Takatori, Yuji; Kojo, Syoichirou; Inoue, Junko; Akagi, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Hitoshi; Wada, Jun; Makino, Hirofumi
Application of icodextrin-based peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) provides a potential benefit in patients with diabetes and end-stage renal failure treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) because of better ultrafiltration capacity and avoidance of direct glucose exposure. We examined the effect of glucose and icodextrin-based PDF on histological alterations of peritoneal membranes. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: control Wistar rats with non-treated (n = 8), streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats with 5/6 kidney ablation (n = 8), STZ-induced diabetic rats with 5/6 kidney ablation injected with a standard lactate-buffered 4.25% glucose-based PDF (Dianeal; n = 8) and STZ-induced diabetic rats with 5/6 kidney ablation injected with 7.5% icodextrin-based PDF (Extraneal; n = 8). Intraperitoneal injection was performed once daily with an instillation volume of 20 ml per injection during 8 weeks. Chronic high-glucose-based PDF exposure resulted in increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) expression, accumulation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), and up-regulation of the receptor for AGE (RAGE), which were ameliorated in the icodextrin-based PDF group. The peritoneal damages, such as neoangiogenesis and submesothelial fibrosis, were significantly reduced in icodextrin-based PDF compared to high-glucose-based PDF. Long-term in vivo exposure to high glucose-based PDF promotes the fibrosing process of peritoneal membranes. Icodextrin-based PDF may be helpful in slowing the PDF-induced deterioration of peritoneal function and prolonging the use of peritoneal dialysis in patients with diabetes.
Peritoneal dialysis Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Peritoneal dialysis (per-ih-toe-NEE-ul die-AL-uh-sis) is a way to remove waste products from your blood when your kidneys can no longer do the job adequately. A cleansing fluid flows through a tube (catheter) into part of your abdomen and filters waste ...
Marinangeli, Giancarlo; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Neri, Loris; Viglino, Giusto; Russo, Roberto; Teatini, Ugo
♦ Background: To understand how peritoneal dialysis (PD) was being used in Italy in 2005 and 2008, a census of all centers was carried out. ♦ Methods: In 2005 and 2008, data were collected from, respectively, 222 and 223 centers, with respect to 4432 and 4094 prevalent patients. ♦ Results: In the two periods, the PD incidence remained stable (24.3% vs 22.9%), varying from center to center. Continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) was the main initial method (55%), but APD was more widespread among prevalent patients (53%). Among patients returning to dialysis from transplantation (Tx), PD was used in 10%. The use of incremental CAPD increased significantly from 2005 to 2008, in terms both of the number of centers (27.0% vs 40.9%) and of patients (13.6% vs 25.7%). Late referrals remained stable at 28%, with less use of PD. The overall drop-out rate (episodes/100 patient-years) remained unchanged (31.0 vs 32.8), with 13.1 and 12.9 being the result of death, and 11.8 and 12.4 being the result of a switch to hemodialysis, mainly after peritonitis. A dialysis partner was required by 21.8% of the PD patients. The incidence of peritonitis was 1 episode in 36.5 and 41.1 patient-months, with negative cultures occurring in 17.1% of cases in both periods. The incidence of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (episodes/100 patient-years) was 0.70, representing 1.26% of patients treated. The catheter types used and the sites and methods of insertion varied widely from center to center. ♦ Conclusions: These censuses confirm the good results of PD in Italy, and provide insight into little-known aspects such as the use of incremental PD, the presence of a dialysis partner, and the incidence of encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis. PMID:22383633
... the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care for Continued Approval of Its Ambulatory... Association for Ambulatory Health Care for continued recognition as a national accrediting organization for... 6 years or as determined by CMS. The Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care (AAAHC...
Fourtounas, Costas; Hardalias, Andreas; Dousdampanis, Periklis; Papachristopoulos, Basil; Savidaki, Eirini; Vlachojannis, Jannis G
One of the main goals of dialysis is the control of extracellular volume, because inadequate sodium and fluid removal result in fluid overload and increased mortality. In the present study, we evaluated the roles of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD), and the use of icodextrin on sodium removal in 29 patients (n = 18 on CAPD, n = 11 on CCPD). Daily removal of sodium by each modality and dialysis adequacy by Kt/V and creatinine clearance were evaluated. A significantly higher amount of sodium was removed in CAPD patients than in CCPD patients, although peritoneal dialysis clearances were lower in CAPD, and no difference in daily ultrafiltration was observed between the modalities. In the CAPD group, patients using icodextrin for the long dwell showed significantly increased 24-hour sodium removal (218 +/- 65 mmol/L) as compared with patients not using icodextrin (96.3 +/- 58 mmol/L, p < 0.001); they also showed increased daily ultrafiltration (1685 +/- 302 mL vs. 717 +/- 440 mL, p < 0.001). In the CCPD group, 8 patients were using icodextrin for the long dwell, and they showed significantly increased sodium removal only for the day exchange (43 +/- 49 mmol/L) as compared with patients not using icodextrin (-60 +/- 6, p < 0.001). Hypertension was less common in the CAPD patients than in the CCPD patients. These results indicate that CAPD is a more efficient modality than CCPD for sodium removal. Icodextrin is an effective tool not only for increasing adequacy, but also for removing more sodium in both modalities.
Sánchez-Cifuentes, Angela; Gonzalez-Valverde, Francisco Miguel; Vicente-Ruiz, María; Peña-Ros, Emilio; Pastor-Quirante, Francisco; Albarracín-Marín-Blázquez, Antonio; Escamilla-Segade, Concepción
Peritoneal gliomatosis is characterized by the presence of miliary implants of mature glia on the peritoneum of patients with ovarian teratomas, usually immature. We report the case of a woman operated on 5 years earlier due to a right mature ovarian teratoma. When she was operated on due to left ovarian tumor she presented a miliary glial dissemination in omentum and peritoneum. The association of peritoneal gliomatosis ovarian teratomas is rare. Although the primary treatment and patient monitoring is focused on the teratoma, control should be maintained of peritoneal implants because of the possibility of malignancy. We believe it would be beneficial to establish a protocol for monitoring these lesions.
Trull, Timothy J.; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich
Ambulatory assessment (AA) covers a wide range of assessment methods to study people in their natural environment, including self-report, observational, and biological/physiological/behavioral. AA methods minimize retrospective biases while gathering ecologically valid data from patients’ everyday life in real time or near real time. Here, we report on the major characteristics of AA, and we provide examples of applications of AA in clinical psychology (a) to investigate mechanisms and dynamics of symptoms, (b) to predict the future recurrence or onset of symptoms, (c) to monitor treatment effects, (d) to predict treatment success, (e) to prevent relapse, and (f) as interventions. In addition, we present and discuss the most pressing and compelling future AA applications: technological developments (the smartphone), improved ecological validity of laboratory results by combined lab-field studies, and investigating gene-environment interactions. We conclude with a discussion of acceptability, compliance, privacy, and ethical issues. PMID:23157450
Tamayo-Isla, Ramon A; de la Cruz, Mauro Cuba; Okpechi, Ikechi G
South Africa has one of the highest incidences of tuberculosis (TB) worldwide due to the ongoing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. There are, however, no reports on peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis in South Africa. The aim of this study is to discuss our experience of tuberculous peritonitis in CAPD patients from a rural endemic area of South Africa. This is a retrospective descriptive study of CAPD patients diagnosed with mycobacterium peritonitis infection from January 2008 to August 2014 at the Limpopo Kidney and Dialysis Centre (LKDC) in South Africa. The diagnosis of peritonitis was based on the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis (ISPD) 2010 recommendations. Peritoneal fluid samples were collected in BACTEC Myco/F Lytic Culture Vials (Becton, Dickinson and Company, Dublin, Ireland). Tenckhoff catheter tips were sent for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear and TB culture. Mycobacterium infection was considered in patients with clinical features of peritonitis if 1) AFB smear or TB culture was positive or 2) if the patient was smear- or culture-negative but had suggestive radiological features of TB in the lungs or abdomen or 3) if the patient improved clinically following treatment with anti-tuberculous drugs. Of 170 patients on CAPD for the period reviewed, 12 (7.1%) were diagnosed and treated for mycobacterial peritonitis. There was an equal number of males and females, and all the patients were Black Africans with a mean age of 35.4 years (17-51 years). Eight of the 12 patients (66.7%) had had previous episodes of non-tuberculous peritonitis. Four patients (33.3%) had elevated white blood cell count (WCC) while 9 had higher polymorph count in the PD fluid than lymphocyte count. Mycobacterial organism was confirmed in 9/12 (75%), while the diagnosis was made on clinical and radiological features in the remaining 3 patients. Seven patients (58.3%) died, 10 patients were
Rašić, Senija; Hadžović-Džuvo, Almira; Rebić, Damir; Unčanin, Snežana; Hadžić, Azra; Mujaković, Aida; Kulenović, Indira
The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a multi-factorial disorder which includes a main risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular, neurologic, renal and endocrine diseases, especially type 2 diabetes. This study has been conducted to estimate the prevalence of the MS in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and its association with cardiovascular morbidity. The study included 37 patients (25 type 2 diabetic patients and 12 non-diabetic patients), who had been on peritoneal dialysis for > 3 months. At the beginning of CAPD treatment (baseline) and at the end of follow-up, we measured: body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and defined the prevalence of the MS using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP; Adult Treatment Panel III) for peritoneal dialysis patients. The overall prevalence of the MS was 89,2%. The metabolic syndrome was estimated in all (100%) type 2 diabetic patients (vs. 60% patients on the beginning of CAPD treatment). In non-diabetic peritoneal patients, the MS was estimated in 50% cases, according to 33,3% at the beginning CAPD treatment. Development of the MS was significantly higher in the type 2 diabetic patients in compared with non-diabetic patients until the end of follow-up examination (p=0,0005). The prevalence of LVH in type 2 diabetic patients with the MS was significantly higher (p=0,002) than in non-diabetic peritoneal patients with the MS. We didn’t found statistical significantly difference in the prevalence of ischemic heart disease between this two category of peritoneal dialysis patients (p=0,076). The results indicate that the metabolic syndrome is presented in high percentage in peritoneal dialysis patients, and it’s also important risk factor of high cardiovascular morbidity rate in these patients, especially in type 2 diabetic patients. PMID:20433428
Rasić, Senija; Hadzović-Dzuvo, Almira; Rebić, Damir; Uncanin, Snezana; Hadzić, Azra; Mujaković, Aida; Kulenović, Indira
The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a multi-factorial disorder which includes a main risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular, neurologic, renal and endocrine diseases, especially type 2 diabetes. This study has been conducted to estimate the prevalence of the MS in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and its association with cardiovascular morbidity. The study included 37 patients (25 type 2 diabetic patients and 12 non-diabetic patients), who had been on peritoneal dialysis for > 3 months. At the beginning of CAPD treatment (baseline) and at the end of follow-up, we measured: body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) and defined the prevalence of the MS using the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP; Adult Treatment Panel III) for peritoneal dialysis patients. The overall prevalence of the MS was 89.2%. The metabolic syndrome was estimated in all (100%) type 2 diabetic patients (vs. 60% patients on the beginning of CAPD treatment). In non-diabetic peritoneal patients, the MS was estimated in 50% cases, according to 33.3% at the beginning CAPD treatment. Development of the MS was significantly higher in the type 2 diabetic patients in compared with non-diabetic patients until the end of follow-up examination (p=0.0005). The prevalence of LVH in type 2 diabetic patients with the MS was significantly higher (p=0.002) than in non-diabetic peritoneal patients with the MS. We didn't found statistical significantly difference in the prevalence of ischemic heart disease between this two category of peritoneal dialysis patients (p=0.076). The results indicate that the metabolic syndrome is presented in high percentage in peritoneal dialysis patients, and it's also important risk factor of high cardiovascular morbidity rate in these patients, especially in type 2 diabetic patients.
Waniewski, Jacek; Paniagua, Ramón; Stachowska-Pietka, Joanna; Ventura, María-de-Jesús; Ávila-Díaz, Marcela; Prado-Uribe, Carmen; Mora, Carmen; García-López, Elvia; Lindholm, Bengt
Fluid removal during peritoneal dialysis depends on modifiable factors such as tonicity of dialysis fluids and intrinsic characteristics of the peritoneal transport barrier and the osmotic agent-for example, osmotic conductance, ultrafiltration efficiency, and peritoneal fluid absorption. The latter parameters cannot be derived from tests of the small-solute transport rate. We here propose a simple test that may provide information about those parameters. Volumes and glucose concentrations of drained dialysate obtained with 3 different combinations of glucose-based dialysis fluid (3 exchanges of 1.36% glucose during the day and 1 overnight exchange of either 1.36%, 2.27%, or 3.86% glucose) were measured in 83 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Linear regression analyses of daily net ultrafiltration in relation to the average dialysate-to-plasma concentration gradient of glucose allowed for an estimation of the osmotic conductance of glucose and the peritoneal fluid absorption rate, and net ultrafiltration in relation to glucose absorption allowed for an estimation of the ultrafiltration effectiveness of glucose. The osmotic conductance of glucose was 0.067 ± 0.042 (milliliters per minute divided by millimoles per milliliter), the ultrafiltration effectiveness of glucose was 16.77 ± 7.97 mL/g of absorbed glucose, and the peritoneal fluid absorption rate was 0.94 ± 0.97 mL/min (if estimated concomitantly with osmotic conductance) or 0.93 ± 0.75 mL/min (if estimated concomitantly with ultrafiltration effectiveness). These fluid transport parameters were independent of small-solute transport characteristics, but proportional to total body water estimated by bioimpedance. By varying the glucose concentration in 1 of 4 daily exchanges, osmotic conductance, ultrafiltration efficiency, and peritoneal fluid absorption could be estimated in CAPD patients, yielding transport parameter values that were similar to those obtained by other, more
Waniewski, Jacek; Paniagua, Ramón; Stachowska-Pietka, Joanna; Ventura, María-de-Jesús; Ávila-Díaz, Marcela; Prado-Uribe, Carmen; Mora, Carmen; García-López, Elvia; Lindholm, Bengt
♦ Background: Fluid removal during peritoneal dialysis depends on modifiable factors such as tonicity of dialysis fluids and intrinsic characteristics of the peritoneal transport barrier and the osmotic agent—for example, osmotic conductance, ultrafiltration efficiency, and peritoneal fluid absorption. The latter parameters cannot be derived from tests of the small-solute transport rate. We here propose a simple test that may provide information about those parameters. ♦ Methods: Volumes and glucose concentrations of drained dialysate obtained with 3 different combinations of glucose-based dialysis fluid (3 exchanges of 1.36% glucose during the day and 1 overnight exchange of either 1.36%, 2.27%, or 3.86% glucose) were measured in 83 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Linear regression analyses of daily net ultrafiltration in relation to the average dialysate-to-plasma concentration gradient of glucose allowed for an estimation of the osmotic conductance of glucose and the peritoneal fluid absorption rate, and net ultrafiltration in relation to glucose absorption allowed for an estimation of the ultrafiltration effectiveness of glucose. ♦ Results: The osmotic conductance of glucose was 0.067 ± 0.042 (milliliters per minute divided by millimoles per milliliter), the ultrafiltration effectiveness of glucose was 16.77 ± 7.97 mL/g of absorbed glucose, and the peritoneal fluid absorption rate was 0.94 ± 0.97 mL/min (if estimated concomitantly with osmotic conductance) or 0.93 ± 0.75 mL/min (if estimated concomitantly with ultrafiltration effectiveness). These fluid transport parameters were independent of small-solute transport characteristics, but proportional to total body water estimated by bioimpedance. ♦ Conclusions: By varying the glucose concentration in 1 of 4 daily exchanges, osmotic conductance, ultrafiltration efficiency, and peritoneal fluid absorption could be estimated in CAPD patients, yielding transport parameter
Lin, Aiwu; Qian, Jiaqi; Li, Xiaomei; Yu, Xueqing; Liu, Wenhu; Sun, Yang; Chen, Nan; Mei, Changlin
While peritoneal dialysis with icodextrin is commonly used in patients with poor peritoneal membrane characteristics, the data on the usefulness of this solution in patients with lower transport characteristics are limited. The study was designed to compare icodextrin to glucose in Chinese prevalent peritoneal dialysis patients of different peritoneal transport characteristics (PET) categories. This was a randomized, double-blind, perspective control study. Stable prevalent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were randomized to either 7.5% icodextrin (ICO) or 2.5% glucose (GLU) solution for 4 wk. Peritoneal membrane function was measured to define PET category in baseline. Creatinine clearance (Ccr), urea nitrogen clearance (C(BUN)), ultrafiltration (UF) during the long night dwell, dialysate, and metabolic biomarkers were measured at baseline, 2, and 4 wk. UF, Ccr, and C(BUN) were compared among different PET categories. A total of 201 CAPD patients were enrolled in the study. There were no baseline differences between the groups. Following 2 and 4 wk of therapy, Ccr, C(BUN,) and UF were all significantly higher in the ICO versus the GLU group. Additionally, switching to ICO resulted in a significant increase in UF in high, high-average, and low-average transporters as compared with baseline. The extent of increased UF was more obvious in higher transporters. Blood cholesterol level in the ICO group decreased significantly than that in the GLU group. Compared with glucose-based solution, 7.5% icodextrin significantly improved UF and small solute clearance, even in patients with low-average peritoneal transport.
Lin, Aiwu; Li, Xiaomei; Yu, Xueqing; Liu, Wenhu; Sun, Yang; Chen, Nan; Mei, Changlin
Background and objectives: While peritoneal dialysis with icodextrin is commonly used in patients with poor peritoneal membrane characteristics, the data on the usefulness of this solution in patients with lower transport characteristics are limited. The study was designed to compare icodextrin to glucose in Chinese prevalent peritoneal dialysis patients of different peritoneal transport characteristics (PET) categories. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: This was a randomized, double-blind, perspective control study. Stable prevalent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients were randomized to either 7.5% icodextrin (ICO) or 2.5% glucose (GLU) solution for 4 wk. Peritoneal membrane function was measured to define PET category in baseline. Creatinine clearance (Ccr), urea nitrogen clearance (CBUN), ultrafiltration (UF) during the long night dwell, dialysate, and metabolic biomarkers were measured at baseline, 2, and 4 wk. UF, Ccr, and CBUN were compared among different PET categories. Results: A total of 201 CAPD patients were enrolled in the study. There were no baseline differences between the groups. Following 2 and 4 wk of therapy, Ccr, CBUN, and UF were all significantly higher in the ICO versus the GLU group. Additionally, switching to ICO resulted in a significant increase in UF in high, high-average, and low-average transporters as compared with baseline. The extent of increased UF was more obvious in higher transporters. Blood cholesterol level in the ICO group decreased significantly than that in the GLU group. Conclusion: Compared with glucose-based solution, 7.5% icodextrin significantly improved UF and small solute clearance, even in patients with low-average peritoneal transport. PMID:19808224
Carpenter, Ryan W; Wycoff, Andrea M; Trull, Timothy J
In recent years, significant technological advances have changed our understanding of dynamic processes in clinical psychology. A particularly important agent of change has been ambulatory assessment (AA). AA is the assessment of individuals in their daily lives, combining the twin benefits of increased ecological validity and minimized retrospective biases. These benefits make AA particularly well-suited to the assessment of dynamic processes, and recent advancements in technology are providing exciting new opportunities to understand these processes in new ways. In the current article, we briefly detail the capabilities currently offered by smartphones and mobile physiological devices, as well as some of the practical and ethical challenges of incorporating these new technologies into AA research. We then provide several examples of recent innovative applications of AA methodology in clinical research, assessment, and intervention and provide a case example of AA data generated from a study utilizing multiple mobile devices. In this way, we aim to provide a sense of direction for researchers planning AA studies of their own.
Fan, Yu-Pei; Hsia, Ching-Chih; Tseng, Kuang-Wen; Liao, Chih-Kai; Fu, Tz-Win; Ko, Tsui-Ling; Chiu, Mei-Miao; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Huang, Pei-Yu; Chiang, Yi-Chia
A major complication in continuous, ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease who are undergoing long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) is peritoneal fibrosis, which can result in peritoneal structural changes and functional ultrafiltration failure. Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells (HUMSCs) in Wharton’s jelly possess stem cell properties and are easily obtained and processed. This study focuses on the effects of HUMSCs on peritoneal fibrosis in in vitro and in vivo experiments. After 24-hour treatment with mixture of Dulbecco’s modified Eagle’s medium and PD solution at a 1:3 ratio, primary human peritoneal mesothelial cells became susceptible to PD-induced cell death. Such cytotoxic effects were prevented by coculturing with primary HUMSCs. In a rat model, intraperitoneal injections of 20 mM methylglyoxal (MGO) in PD solution for 3 weeks (the PD/MGO 3W group) markedly induced abdominal cocoon formation, peritoneal thickening, and collagen accumulation. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated neoangiogenesis and significant increase in the numbers of ED-1- and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive cells in the thickened peritoneum in the PD/MGO 3W group, suggesting that PD/MGO induced an inflammatory response. Furthermore, PD/MGO treatment for 3 weeks caused functional impairments in the peritoneal membrane. However, in comparison with the PD/MGO group, intraperitoneal administration of HUMSCs into the rats significantly ameliorated the PD/MGO-induced abdominal cocoon formation, peritoneal fibrosis, inflammation, neoangiogenesis, and ultrafiltration failure. After 3 weeks of transplantation, surviving HUMSCs were found in the peritoneum in the HUMSC-grafted rats. Thus, xenografts of HUMSCs might provide a potential therapeutic strategy in the prevention of peritoneal fibrosis. Significance This study demonstrated that direct intraperitoneal transplantation of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells into the rat effectively
Al-Natour, Mohammed; Thompson, Dustin
Peritoneal dialysis is becoming more important in the management of patients with end-stage renal disease. Because of the efforts of the “Fistula First Breakthrough Initiative,” dialysis venous access in the United States has become focused on promoting arteriovenous fistula creation and reducing the number of patients who start dialysis with a tunneled catheter. This is important because tunneled catheters can lead to infection, endocarditis, and early loss of more long-term access. When planned for, peritoneal dialysis can offer patients the opportunity to start dialysis at home without jeopardizing central access or the possibilities of eventual arteriovenous fistula creation. The purpose of this review is to highlight the indications, contraindications, and procedural methods for implanting peritoneal dialysis catheters in the interventional radiology suite. PMID:27011420
Yamada, M; Tokuriki, M
Ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) has been recorded in dogs wearing a jacket to protect a Holter recording system, but the jacket was often damaged by dogs. We compared ECG recorded by a Holter recording system and spontaneous activity measured by an accelerometer in Beagle dogs with or without an Elizabethan collar. There were few significant differences in mean values (per hr) of the heart rate and the amount of spontaneous activity between dogs with or without the Elizabethan collar. Mean values (per 23 hr) of them had no significant difference between them. We concluded that the Elizabethan collar did not have any effect on ambulatory ECG and canine movements and was effective to protect the recording apparatus.
Keshaviah, P; Emerson, P F; Vonesh, E F; Brandes, J C
A peritoneal dialysate fill volume of 2 L has become the standard of clinical practice, but the relationships between body size, fill volume, and mass transfer area coefficient (KoA) have not been well established. These relationships were studied in 10 stable peritoneal dialysis patients who underwent six peritoneal equilibration studies (2 h each) at fill volumes of 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 L. The concentration-time profiles for urea, creatinine, and glucose were measured at each fill volume, and residual volumes were calculated from the preceding dwell period. A modified Henderson equation was used to calculate the KoA for the three solutes as a function of fill volume. By normalizing the KoA for each solute to the value at 2 L, the data for all three solutes collapsed onto the same trend line when plotting the normalized KoA versus dialysate volume. Between 0.5- and 2-L fill volumes, the average normalized KoA increases in an almost linear fashion, its value almost doubling over this range. Between 2- and 3-L fill volumes, there is less than a 10% change in the normalized KoA. However, fill volumes for peak urea KoA were found to increase with increasing body surface area (R = 0.76), being around 2.5 L for an average-sized patient and increasing to between 3 and 3.5 L for body surface areas > 2 m2. To maximize solute transport, these relationships between body size, volume, and KoA should be considered when choosing fill volumes for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and automated peritoneal dialysis and when deciding reserve and tidal volumes for tidal peritoneal dialysis.
Kim, Chan Ho; Oh, Hyung Jung; Lee, Mi Jung; Kwon, Young Eun; Kim, Yung Ly; Nam, Ki Heon; Park, Kyoung Sook; An, Seong Yeong; Ko, Kwang Il; Koo, Hyang Mo; Doh, Fa Mee; Han, Seung Hyeok; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Beom Seok; Kang, Shin-Wook
Purpose The effect of different peritoneal dialysis (PD) modalities on the decline in residual renal function (RRF) is unclear due to inconsistencies among studies. In particular, the effect of automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) modalities [continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD) and nightly intermittent peritoneal dialysis (NIPD)] on RRF has not been examined in a large cohort. Materials and Methods We conducted a single-center retrospective study to investigate the association between PD modalities and decline in RRF in 142 incident PD patients [34 on CCPD, 36 on NIPD, and 72 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)]. RRF was measured within 2 months from PD start and at 1 year after PD initiation. Results The RRF at 1 year after PD initiation was 1.98±2.20 mL/min/1.73 m2 in CCPD patients and 3.63±3.67 mL/min/1.73 m2 in NIPD patients, which were moderately lower than 4.23±3.51 mL/min/1.73 m2 in CAPD patients (p=0.064). Moreover, there was no significant difference in the 1-year rate of decline of RRF between CCPD and NIPD patients, although APD patients had a faster 1-year RRF decline rate than CAPD patients (CCPD and NIPD vs. CAPD: -45.68 and -36.69 vs. 1.17%/year, p=0.045). APD was associated with a more rapid decline in RRF in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing PD, although multivariate analysis attenuated the significance of this finding (β=-31.50; 95% CI, -63.61 to 0.62; p=0.052). Conclusion Our results suggest that CAPD might be more helpful than APD for preserving RRF during the first year of dialysis therapy, although there was no significant difference in the 1-year rate of decline of RRF between the two APD modalities. PMID:24339299
Hahn, P. F.; Miller, L. L.; Robscheit-Robbins, F. S.; Bale, W. F.; Whipple, G. H.
The absorption of red cells from the normal peritoneum of the dog can be demonstrated by means of red cells labeled with radio-iron incorporated in the hemoglobin of these red cells. Absorption in normal dogs runs from 20 to 100 per cent of the amount given within 24 hours. Dogs rendered anemic by bleeding absorb red cells a little less rapidly—ranging from 5 to 80 per cent of the injected red cells. Doubly depleted dogs (anemic and hypoproteinemic) absorb even less in the three experiments recorded. This peritoneal absorption varies widely in different dogs and even in the same dog at different times. We do not know the factors responsible for these variations but there is no question about active peritoneal absorption. The intact red cells pass readily from the peritoneal cavity into lymph spaces in diaphragm and other areas of the peritoneum. The red cells move along the lymphatics and through the lymph glands with little or no phagocytosis and eventually into the large veins through the thoracic ducts. PMID:19871404
Coccolini, Federico; Gheza, Federico; Lotti, Marco; Virzì, Salvatore; Iusco, Domenico; Ghermandi, Claudio; Melotti, Rita; Baiocchi, Gianluca; Giulini, Stefano Maria; Ansaloni, Luca; Catena, Fausto
Several gastrointestinal and gynecological malignancies have the potential to disseminate and grow in the peritoneal cavity. The occurrence of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) has been shown to significantly decrease overall survival in patients with liver and/or extraperitoneal metastases from gastrointestinal cancer. During the last three decades, the understanding of the biology and pathways of dissemination of tumors with intraperitoneal spread, and the understanding of the protective function of the peritoneal barrier against tumoral seeding, has prompted the concept that PC is a loco-regional disease: in absence of other systemic metastases, multimodal approaches combining aggressive cytoreductive surgery, intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy and systemic chemotherapy have been proposed and are actually considered promising methods to improve loco-regional control of the disease, and ultimately to increase survival. The aim of this review article is to present the evidence on treatment of PC in different tumors, in order to provide patients with a proper surgical and multidisciplinary treatment focused on optimal control of their locoregional disease. PMID:24222942
Teixeira, J. Pedro; Combs, Sara A.; Teitelbaum, Isaac
Due to ongoing limitations in the availability and timeliness of kidney transplantation, most patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) require some form of dialysis during their lifetime. Worldwide, ESRD patients most commonly receive hemodialysis (HD) or one of two forms of peritoneal dialysis (PD), continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) or automated PD (APD). In this review, we analyze the data available from the last several decades on overall survival associated with HD as compared to PD as well as with CAPD compared to APD. Because of the inherent difficulty in randomly assigning patients to different dialysis modalities, the survival data available are virtually all observational and fraught with many confounding factors and limitations. However, over the last 10 – 15 years as overall survival of dialysis patients has steadily improved and statistical methods to analyze observational data have evolved, a pattern of virtual equivalence in survival among patients on HD vs. PD and on CAPD vs. APD has emerged. As such, impact upon lifestyle and upon quality of life likely should remain the predominant factors in guiding nephrologists and their patients in their choice of dialysis modality. PMID:25345384
Sanz, Ana Belen; Aroeira, Luiz Stark; Bellon, Teresa; del Peso, Gloria; Jimenez-Heffernan, Jose; Santamaria, Beatriz; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Blanco-Colio, Luis Miguel; Lopez-Cabrera, Manuel; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Selgas, Rafael; Ortiz, Alberto
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is complicated by peritonitis episodes that cause loss of mesothelium and eventually sclerosing peritonitis. An improved understanding of the molecular contributors to peritoneal injury and defense may increase the therapeutic armamentarium to optimize peritoneal defenses while minimizing peritoneal injury. There is no information on the expression and function of the cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 during peritoneal injury. Fn14 expression and soluble TWEAK levels were measured in human PD peritoneal effluent cells or fluids with or without peritonitis. Fn14 expression was also analyzed in peritoneal biopsies from PD patients. Actions of intraperitoneal TWEAK were studied in mice in vivo. sTWEAK levels were increased in peritoneal effluent in PD peritonitis. Effluent sTWEAK levels correlated with the number of peritoneal macrophages (r = 0.491, p = 0.002). Potential TWEAK targets that express the receptor Fn14 include mesothelial cells and macrophages, as demonstrated by flow cytometry of peritoneal effluents and by analysis of peritoneal biopsies. Peritoneal biopsy Fn14 correlated with mesothelial injury, fibrosis and inflammation, suggesting a potential deleterious effect of TWEAK/Fn14. In this regard, intraperitoneal TWEAK administration to mice promoted peritoneal inflammation characterized by increased peritoneal effluent MCP-1, Fn14 and Gr1+ macrophages, increased mesothelial Fn14, MCP-1 and CCL21 expression and submesothelial tissue macrophage recruitment. Taken together these data suggest that the TWEAK/Fn14 system may promote inflammation and tissue injury during peritonitis and PD. PMID:24599047
Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M; Rojas-Campos, Enrique
Mexico is struggling to gain a place among developed countries; however, there are many socioeconomic and health problems still waiting for resolution. While Mexico has the twelfth largest economy in the world, a large portion of its population is impoverished. Treatment for end-stage renal disease (377 patients per million population) is determined by the individual's access to resources such as private medical care (approximately 3%) and public sources (Social Security System: approximately 40%; Health Secretariat: approximately 57%). With only 6% of the gross national product spent on healthcare and most treatment providers being public health institutions that are often under economic restrictions, it is not surprising that many Mexican patients do not receive renal replacement therapy. Mexico is still the country with the largest utilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) in the world, with 18% on automated PD, 56% on continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD), and 26% on hemodialysis. Results of PD (patient morbi-mortality, peritonitis rate, and technique survival) in Mexico are comparable to other countries. However, malnutrition and diabetes mellitus are highly prevalent in Mexican patients on CAPD programs, and these conditions are among the most important risk factors for a poor outcome in our setting.
Zhou, Jianhui; Cao, Xueying; Lin, Hongli; Ni, Zhaohui; He, Yani; Chen, Menghua; Zheng, Hongguang; Chen, Xiangmei
Peritoneal dialysis is an important type of renal replacement therapy for uremic patients. In peritoneal dialysis, fluids fill in and flow out of the abdominal cavity three to five times per day. Usually, the fluid is packed in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bag. Safety concerns have arisen over di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, which is essential in the formation of PVC materials. In 2011, the National Development and Reform Commission of China released a catalog of industrial structural adjustments, mandating the elimination of PVC bags for intravenous infusion and food containers. Although bags for peritoneal dialysis fluid were not included in the elimination list, several manufacturers began to develop new materials for fluid bags. HUAREN peritoneal dialysis fluid consists of the same electrolytes and buffer agent as in Baxter fluid, but is packed in bags that do not contain PVC. This multicenter randomized controlled trial was designed to compare peritoneal dialysis fluid packed in non-PVC-containing and PVC-containing bags. Further, the study sought to determine the proper dose of peritoneal dialysis fluid and the actual survival rates of Chinese patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The study participants are adults undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for 30 days to 6 months. All eligible patients are randomized (1:1) to peritoneal dialysis with Baxter and HUAREN dialysis fluids (initial dose, 6 l/day), with dosages adjusted according to a unified protocol. The primary outcomes are the 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year overall survival rates. Secondary outcome measures include technique survival rates, reductions in estimated glomerular filtration rate, nutritional status, quality of life, cardiovascular events, medical costs and drop-out rates. Safety outcome measures include adverse events, changes in vital signs and laboratory parameters, peritonitis, allergies, and quality of products. This study is the first to evaluate the long-term safety and
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Almeida, Priscilla B; Pinheiro da Costa, Bartira E; Figueiredo, Ana E; Conti, Adriana; Alves, Silvana Lunardini; d'Avila, Domingos O; Poli de Figueiredo, Carlos E
During long-term exposure to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD), the characteristics of the peritoneal membrane may be altered. The substrate for nitric oxide synthesis is L-arginine, which may enter cells via the y+ and y+L transport systems. Peritoneal membrane characteristics may depend on vascular function and the L-arginine-NO pathway. Maximal capacity for L-arginine transport is higher in patients with a lower dialysis adequacy index. Our aim was to evaluate erythrocyte L-arginine uptake in PD patients at the start and end of a 3-year interval. Our longitudinal study evaluated 8 stable patients on PD who were not using NO donors and who had been free of peritonitis for at least 1 month. Uptake of L-arginine was measured in 2003 and again in 2006. Maximal transport capacity (Vmax, in micromoles per liter-cells per hour) and half-saturation constant (km, in micromoles per liter) were measured in erythrocytes using 14C as a marker and N-ethylmaleimide as inhibitor of the y+ system. For the years 2003 and 2006 respectively, mean +/- standard deviation for total L-arginine uptake Vmax was 749 +/- 182 micromol/L-cells/h and 1146 +/- 365 micromol/L-cells/h (p = 0.016, paired t-test),for y+L Vmax was 180 +/- 58 micromol/L-cells/h and 515 +/- 142 micromol/L-cells/h (p = 0. 002), and for y+ Vmax was 556 +/- 177 micromol/L-cells/h and 662 +/- 267 micromol/ L-cells/h (nonsignificant). The total y+L and y+km were not significantly different. The L-arginine maximal uptake capacity in erythrocytes increased after 3 years of PD treatment. These findings agree with the suggestion of an association between y+L activity and dialysis adequacy or uremia toxicity. Peritoneal membrane characteristics may depend on vascular function and the L-arginine-NO pathway.
Kadiroğlu, A K; Ustündag, S; Kayabaşi, H; Yilmaz, Z; Yildirım, Y; Sen, S; Yilmaz, M E
Dyslipidemia is frequent in patients with end stage renal disease. Excessive peritoneal glucose absorption from high glucose-containing peritoneal dialysis solutions may enhance disturbances on the lipid metabolism of patients on peritoneal dialysis. We compared the effect of icodextrin-based peritoneal dialysis therapy with hemodialysis (HD) therapy on lipid metabolism. A total of 157 non-diabetic patients on dialysis at least for 3 months; 78 patients on Icodextrin-based continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) (44 M, 34 F) and 79 patients in HD group (47M, 32F) were included into the study. After 12 h of fasting and before the dialysis session, serum urea, creatinin, glucose, Sodium, potasium, and albumin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL)-C, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C, apolipoprotein A (Apo A), apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein a were measured. TG (P = 0018) and VLDL (P = 0.022) were lower in CAPD group than HD group, HDL-C (P < 0.001) and Apo A (P = 0.001) were higher in CAPD group than in HD group. A total of 24.4% in CAPD group and 11.4% in HD group (P < 0.034) had normal serum levels of TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C. More patients in CAPD group (47.4%) had high serum Apo A levels than in HD group (21.5%) (P = 0.001). We suggest that patients receiving icodextrin-based CAPD may have better TG, HDL-C, and Apo A levels than patients on HD.
Kadiroğlu, A. K.; Üstündag, S; Kayabaşi, H.; Yilmaz, Z.; Yildirım, Y.; Şen, S.; Yilmaz, M. E.
Dyslipidemia is frequent in patients with end stage renal disease. Excessive peritoneal glucose absorption from high glucose-containing peritoneal dialysis solutions may enhance disturbances on the lipid metabolism of patients on peritoneal dialysis. We compared the effect of icodextrin-based peritoneal dialysis therapy with hemodialysis (HD) therapy on lipid metabolism. A total of 157 non-diabetic patients on dialysis at least for 3 months; 78 patients on Icodextrin-based continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) (44 M, 34 F) and 79 patients in HD group (47M, 32F) were included into the study. After 12 h of fasting and before the dialysis session, serum urea, creatinin, glucose, Sodium, potasium, and albumin, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL)-C, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C, apolipoprotein A (Apo A), apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein a were measured. TG (P = 0018) and VLDL (P = 0.022) were lower in CAPD group than HD group, HDL-C (P < 0.001) and Apo A (P = 0.001) were higher in CAPD group than in HD group. A total of 24.4% in CAPD group and 11.4% in HD group (P < 0.034) had normal serum levels of TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C. More patients in CAPD group (47.4%) had high serum Apo A levels than in HD group (21.5%) (P = 0.001). We suggest that patients receiving icodextrin-based CAPD may have better TG, HDL-C, and Apo A levels than patients on HD. PMID:24049273
Retana, Carmen; Sanchez, Elsa I; Gonzalez, Sirenia; Perez-Lopez, Alejandro; Cruz, Armando; Lagunas-Munoz, Jesus; Alfaro-Cruz, Carmen; Vital-Flores, Socorro; Reyes, José L
Patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis are classified according to their peritoneal permeability as low transporter (low solute permeability) or High transporter (high solute permeability). Factors that determine the differences in permeability between them have not been fully disclosed. We investigated morphological features of cultured human peritoneal mesothelial cells from low or high transporter patients and its response to All trans retinoic Acid (ATRA, vitamin A active metabolite), as compared to non-uremic human peritoneal mesothelial cells. Control cells were isolated from human omentum. High or low transporter cells were obtained from dialysis effluents. Cells were cultured in media containing ATRA (0, 50, 100 or 200 nM). We studied length and distribution of microvilli and cilia (scanning electron microscopy), epithelial (cytokeratin, claudin-1, ZO-1 and occludin) and mesenchymal (vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin) transition markers by immunofluorescence and Western blot, and transforming growth factor β1 expression by Western blot. Low and high transporter exhibited hypertrophic cells, reduction in claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1 expression, cytokeratin and vimentin disorganization and positive α-smooth muscle actin label. Vimentin, α-smooth muscle actin and transforming growth factor-β1 were overexpressed in low transporter. Ciliated cells were diminished in low and high transporters. Microvilli number and length were severely reduced in high transporter. ATRA reduced hypertrophic cells number in low transporter. It also improved cytokeratin and vimentin organization, decreased vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin expression, and increased claudin 1, occludin and ZO-1 expression, in low and high transporter. In low transporter, ATRA reduced transforming growth factor-β1 expression. ATRA augmented percentage of ciliated cells in low and high transporter. It also augmented cilia length in high transporter. Alterations in
Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A; Ekim, Mesiha; Sever, Lale; Noyan, Aytul; Aksu, Nejat; Akman, Sema; Elhan, Atilla H; Yalcinkaya, Fatos; Oner, Ayse; Kara, Orhan D; Caliskan, Salim; Anarat, Ali; Dusunsel, Ruhan; Donmez, Osman; Guven, Ayfer Gur; Bakkaloglu, Aysin; Denizmen, Yasemen; Soylemezoglu, Oguz; Ozcelik, Gul
Chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD) has been utilized in the treatment of children since 1989 in Turkey. The aims of this study were to summarize our experience with CPD in children and to establish a pediatric registry data system in Turkey. Standard questionnaires were sent to all pediatric CPD centers. 514 patients treated between 1989 and 2002 in 12 pediatric centers were enrolled in the study. Reflux nephropathy was the most common (18.1%) cause of renal failure. Mean age at dialysis initiation was 10.1+/-4.6 years. Mean duration of dialysis was 24.1+/-20.5 months. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) was the first CPD modality for 476 (92.6%) patients, 142 of whom switched to automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) during follow-up. Currently, 47.3% of the patients are still on CPD, 15.4% were transplanted, 13.2% switched to hemodialysis, 16.7% died. The patient and technique survivals were 90% and 95% at one year and 70% and 69% at five years, respectively. The survival was significantly shorter in the youngest age group (0-24 months) compared to those in older age groups (p=0.000). We herein report the first results of the TUPEPD study providing information on demographic data and survival of pediatric CPD patients. As opposed to clear recommendations in favor of APD, there is a clear preponderance of CAPD in our pediatric CPD population. That vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is still the leading cause of renal failure is a distressing finding. Remarkably lower survival rates and transplantation ratios are as striking and distressing as the high incidence of VUR among the causes of ESRD. We conclude that we must make a great effort to achieve better results and to change these undesirable events.
Văcăroiu, Ileana Adela; Rădulescu, Daniela; Ciocâlteu, A; Peride, Ileana; Ardeleanu, S; Checheriţă, I A
Nowadays, nephrologists are confronted with an increasing number of elderly patients diagnosed with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in need of dialysis. The benefits of renal replacement therapy are uncertain in this group of patients. Most studies show that the quality of life and survival of elderly dialyzed patients are worse than in younger patients because of multiple comorbidities. Functional status is an important aspect of the quality of life, a strong predictor of survival and a determinant of the health care systems costs. In the present research, we compare the change in the functional status--appreciated with the MDS-ADL score--in a cohort of hemodialyzed versus peritoneal dialyzed elderly patients (> 65 years) during a period of 3 years after starting dialysis treatment. At the time of initiating dialysis, the median minimum data set of activities of daily living (MDS-ADL) score in hemodialysis (HD) elderly patients was 4.04 and in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) group was 6.27 (the median MDS-ADL score at the moment of starting dialysis was statistically significant higher in peritoneal group than in hemodialysis elderly group). The results conclude that elderly treated with peritoneal dialysis have a better evolution of functional status than hemodialyzed elderly patients do.
le Poole, Caatje Y.; Welten, Angelique G.A.; ter Wee, Piet M.; Paauw, Nanne J.; Djorai, Amina N.; Valentijn, Rob M.; Beelen, Robert H.J.; van den Born, Jacob; van Ittersum, Frans J.
♦ Background: Glucose and glucose degradation products (GDPs) in peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) are both thought to mediate progressive peritoneal worsening. ♦ Methods: In a multicenter, prospective, randomized crossover study, incident continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients were treated either with conventional lactate-buffered PDF (sPD regimen) or with a regimen low in glucose and GDPs: Nutrineal×1, Extraneal×1, and Physioneal×2 (NEPP regimen; all solutions: Baxter Healthcare, Utrecht, Netherlands). After 6 months, patients were switched to the alternative regimen for another 6 months. After 6 weeks of run-in, before the switch, and at the end of the study, 4-hour peritoneal equilibration tests were performed, and overnight effluents were analyzed for cells and biomarkers. Differences between the regimens were assessed by multivariate analysis corrected for time and regimen sequence. ♦ Results: The 45 patients who completed the study were equally distributed over both groups. During NEPP treatment, D4/D0 glucose was lower (p < 0.01) and D/P creatinine was higher (p = 0.04). In NEPP overnight effluent, mesothelial cells (p < 0.0001), cancer antigen 125 (p < 0.0001), hyaluronan (p < 0.0001), leukocytes (p < 0.001), interleukins 6 (p = 0.001) and 8 (p = 0.0001), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, p < 0.0001) were increased by a factor of 2 – 3 compared with levels in sPD effluent. The NEPP regimen was associated with higher transport parameters, but that association disappeared after the addition of VEGF to the model. The association between NEPP and higher effluent levels of VEGF could not be attributed to glucose and GDP loads. ♦ Conclusions: Study results indicate preservation of the mesothelium and increased peritoneal activation during NEPP treatment. Whether the increase in VEGF reflects an increase in mesothelial cell mass or whether it points to another, undesirable mechanism cannot be determined from the present study
Since 1971, the author has been actively promoting and working on a wearable artificial kidney for continuous dialysis. Such a kidney could allow the patient to have a more normal life style, eliminate treatment scheduling, and provide stable chemistries. Two partially successful wearable kidneys based upon hemofiltration have been devised. One required the patient to drink a liter of dialysate every hour to replace ultrafiltrate loss, and the other regenerated the ultrafiltrate with a REDY sorbent cartridge. Although the patients underwent anticoagulation, their hemofilters clotted in fewer than 5 days. In addition, there was a serious risk of bleeding in the event of accidental injuries. Use of a peritoneal access eliminates these blood related problems. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is a successful continuously wearable kidney, but the bag changes are a chore. This drawback often produces technique failure, resulting in the patient shifting to hemodialysis. Regeneration of peritoneal dialysis has been performed successfully in intermittent peritoneal dialysis, but the higher concentration of protein in spent CAPD fluid interfered with performance of the sorbent cartridge. The author demonstrated that removing the protein by filtration through a hemofilter before regeneration resolves this problem, permitting development of a viable wearable kidney.
Park, Sung-Won; Seo, Jung-Ju; Bae, Ho-Sang; Kim, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Chan-Duck; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yong-Lim
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) is commonly used for renal replacement therapy in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. We investigated the changes of peritoneal transport characteristics, nutritional status, and adequacy and inflammation parameters in diabetic CAPD patients (N = 17) compared to non-diabetic patients (N = 23). Peritoneal equilibrium testing, nutritional, biochemical, and anthropometric parameters and adequacy were prospectively assessed at 1 (baseline), 6 and 12 months after initiating CAPD. The levels of several nutritional parameters were lower and did not change in DM patients over time (P < 0.05) and significantly improved in the non-DM patients over time (P < 0.05). Total weekly creatinine clearance and residual renal function exhibited a rapid decline (P < 0.05) and inflammation parameter levels were higher in DM patients (P < 0.05). Our results showed the difficulty in improvement of nutritional status and inflammatory parameters in diabetic patients during at least the first year of CAPD compared to non-DM patients.
Goodson, Teresa; Randell, Susan; Moore, Lisa
Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) frequently results in death in cats. It is caused by a mutated, highly contagious coronavirus, and it is more common in indoor cats in multicat households. A complex interaction between the coronavirus and the feline immune system causes disseminated vasculitis, which is the hallmark of FIP. New tests are being developed, but the antemortem diagnosis of FIP continues to be difficult and frustrating. Current treatments are crude and involve supportive care and immunosuppression. Minimizing exposure is the best method of preventing infection.
Minami, Satoshi; Hora, Kazuhiko; Kamijo, Yuji; Higuchi, Makoto
The removal of low molecular weight proteins such as beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)MG) is accelerated by using a 7.5% icodextrin-based peritoneal dialysis solution (ICO) dwell. To examine the possibility of peritoneal injury in ICO, we investigated the relationship between beta(2)MG and the injury markers in effluent. Sixteen ICO-treated patients (11 male and five female, mean age 50.1 +/- 10.9 years) with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD; mean duration 54.6 +/- 30.8 months) were studied. The patients were treated with ICO 2 L and 2.27% glucose-based solution 2 L for an 8-h dwell and the effluent was collected. We investigated the correlations between beta(2)MG and the injury markers (e.g. hyaluronic acid [HA], interleukin-6 [IL-6], matrix metalloproteinase-2 [MMP-2]) in each effluent sample. The beta(2)MG level in the ICO effluent was 8978 +/- 2431 microg/L, significantly higher than in the 2.27% glucose-based solution effluent (6454 +/- 2956 microg/L; P = 0.0032). The levels of HA and MMP-2 in ICO effluent were significantly higher than those in the 2.27% glucose-based solution effluent (P = 0.00214, P = 0.0113, respectively). There was a trend toward higher IL-6-values in ICO effluent, although no significant differences were seen. There were positive correlations between levels of various injury markers and beta(2)MG. We propose that the subclinical injury of the peritoneum by ICO treatment may accelerate peritoneal permeability to increase beta(2)MG in effluent. ICO's biocompatibility might not be superior to that of glucose-based solution.
Jellouli, Manel; Ferjani, Meriem; Abidi, Kamel; Hammi, Yosra; Boutiba, Ilhem; Naija, Ouns; Zarrouk, Chokri; Ben Abdallah, Taieb; Gargah, Tahar
Peritonitis on catheter of dialysis represents the most frequent complication of the peritoneal dialysis (PD) in the pediatric population. It remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In this study, we investigated the risk factors for peritonitis in children. In this study, we retrospectively collected the records of 85 patients who were treated with PD within the past ten years in the service of pediatrics of the University Hospital Charles-Nicolle of Tunis. Peritonitis rate was 0.75 episode per patient-year. Notably, peritonitis caused by Gram-positive organisms were more common. Analysis of infection risk revealed three significant independent factors: the poor weight (P=0.0045), the non-automated PD (P=0.02) and the short delay from catheter insertion to starting PD (P=0.02). The early onset peritonitis was significantly associated with frequent peritonitis episodes (P=0.0008). The mean duration between the first and second episode of peritonitis was significantly shorter than between PD commencement and the first episode of peritonitis. We revealed a significant association between Gram-negative peritonitis and the presence of ureterostomy (0.018) and between Gram-positive peritonitis and the presence of exit-site and tunnel infections (0.02). Transition to permanent hemodialysis was needed in many children but no death occurred in patients with peritonitis. Considering the important incidence of peritonitis in our patients, it is imperative to establish a targeted primary prevention. Nutritional care must be provided to children to avoid poor weight. The automated dialysis has to be the modality of choice. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is the modality of choice for pediatric patients in all over the world. Peritonitis, still the main complication of PD, causes significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prevention of peritonitis is of particular importance. Pre-implantation antibiotic prophylaxis, catheter-related interventions (catheter selection, implantation technique, exit-site orientation), acute and chronic exit-site care (dressing protocols and application of an exit-site antibiotic such as mupirocin or gentamicin), antifungal prophylaxis during peritonitis, contamination protocols and prevention of touch contamination, patient and trainer training, tracking and root-cause analysis of infections, and continuous quality improvement programs are all essential for the prevention of peritonitis episodes. In the present review, all those issues and emerging concepts are discussed.
Buoncristiani, U; Bianchi, P; Nasimi, M; Parlani, F; Covarelli, C; Buoncristiani, E; Bastianini, L; Bistoni, F
A new connection system for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) has been established, and its efficacy in preventing microbial contamination of the peritoneal cavity has been tested in vitro. The system consists of a Y-shaped channel formed in the bottom of a Plexiglas cup. The Luer-lock shaped ends of the Y-shaped channel are designed to host the connectors from the drainage bag, the catheter transfer set, and the bag of fresh dialysate. Because the connectors from the catheter transfer set and the fresh bag are located at the inner surface of the cup bed, and because the cup is filled with disinfectant during the entire exchange procedure, all at-risk steps are continuously protected by disinfectant (that is, removal of the caps from the connectors, connection and disconnection, replacement of the caps). Still, because the patient could inadvertently extract and contaminate one of the two connectors (although such a possibility is unlikely), the disinfecting efficacy of the system was tested in vitro. Despite contamination with various micro-organisms at the highest possible concentrations, all tests showed negative bacterial growth, thus confirming the absolute efficacy of the system in preventing exogenous transluminal peritonitis.
Strippoli, Raffaele; Moreno-Vicente, Roberto; Battistelli, Cecilia; Cicchini, Carla; Noce, Valeria; Amicone, Laura; Marchetti, Alessandra; del Pozo, Miguel Angel; Tripodi, Marco
Peritoneal dialysis is a form of renal replacement alternative to the hemodialysis. During this treatment, the peritoneal membrane acts as a permeable barrier for exchange of solutes and water. Continual exposure to dialysis solutions, as well as episodes of peritonitis and hemoperitoneum, can cause acute/chronic inflammation and injury to the peritoneal membrane, which undergoes progressive fibrosis, angiogenesis, and vasculopathy, eventually leading to discontinuation of the peritoneal dialysis. Among the different events controlling this pathological process, epithelial to mesenchymal transition of mesothelial cells plays a main role in the induction of fibrosis and in subsequent functional deterioration of the peritoneal membrane. Here, the main extracellular inducers and cellular players are described. Moreover, signaling pathways acting during this process are elucidated, with emphasis on signals delivered by TGF-β family members and by Toll-like/IL-1β receptors. The understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying fibrosis of the peritoneal membrane has both a basic and a translational relevance, since it may be useful for setup of therapies aimed at counteracting the deterioration as well as restoring the homeostasis of the peritoneal membrane. PMID:26941801
... at fluid that has built up in the space in the abdomen around the internal organs. This area is called the peritoneal space. ... sample of fluid is removed from the peritoneal space using a needle and syringe. Your health care ...
van Esch, Sadie; Struijk, Dirk G; Krediet, Raymond T
♦ The quality of the peritoneal membrane can deteriorate over time. Exposure to glucose-based dialysis solutions is the most likely culprit. Because peritonitis is a common complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD), distinguishing between the effect of glucose exposure and a possible additive effect of peritonitis is difficult. The aim of the present study was to compare the time-course of peritoneal transport characteristics in patients without a single episode of peritonitis-representing the natural course-and in patients who experienced 1 or more episodes of peritonitis during long-term follow-up. ♦ This prospective, single-center cohort study enrolled incident adult PD patients who started PD during 1990-2010. A standard peritoneal permeability analysis was performed in the first year of PD treatment and was repeated every year. The results in patients without a single episode of peritonitis ("no-peritonitis group") were compared with the results obtained in patients who experienced 1 or more peritonitis episodes ("peritonitis group") during a follow-up of 4 years. ♦ The 124 patients analyzed included 54 in the no-peritonitis group and 70 in the peritonitis group. The time-course of small-solute transport was different in the groups, with the peritonitis group showing an earlier and more pronounced increase in the mass transfer area coefficient for creatinine (p = 0.07) and in glucose absorption (p = 0.048). In the no-peritonitis group, the net ultrafiltration rate (NUFR) and the transcapillary ultrafiltration rate (TCUFR) both showed a steep increase from the 1st to the 2nd year of PD that was absent in the peritonitis group. Both groups showed a decrease in the NUFR after year 3. A decrease in the TCUFR occurred only in the peritonitis group. That decrease was already present after the year 1 in patients with severe peritonitis. The time-course of free water transport showed a continuous increase in the patients without peritonitis, but a decrease in the
Twardowski, Zbylut J
The first peritoneal accesses were devices that had been used in other fields (general surgery, urology, or gynecology): trocars, rubber catheters, and sump drains. In the period after World War II, numerous papers were published with various modifications of peritoneal dialysis. The majority of cases were treated with the continuous flow technique; rubber catheters for inflow and sump drains for outflow were commonly used. At the end of the 1940s, intermittent peritoneal dialysis started to be more frequently used. Severe complications of peritoneal accesses created incentive to design accesses specifically for peritoneal dialysis. The initial three, in the late 1940s, were modified sump drains; however, Ferris and Odel for the first time designed a soft, polyvinyl intraperitoneal tube with metal weights to keep the catheter tip in the pelvic gutter where the conditions for drain are the best. In the 1950s, intermittent peritoneal dialysis was established as the preferred technique; polyethylene and nylon catheters became commercially available and peritoneal dialysis was established as a valuable method for treatment of acute renal failure. The major breakthrough came in the 1960s. First of all, it was discovered that the silicone rubber was less irritating to the peritoneal membrane than other plastics. Then, it was found that polyester velour allowed an excellent tissue ingrowth creating a firm bond with the tissue. When a polyester cuff was glued to the catheter, it restricted catheter movement and created a closed tunnel between the integument and the peritoneal cavity. In 1968, Tenckhoff and Schechter combined these two features and designed a silicone rubber catheter with a polyester cuff for treatment of acute renal failure and two cuffs for treatment of chronic renal failure. This was the most important development in peritoneal access. Technological evolution never ends. Multiple attempts have been made to eliminate remaining complications of the
Culture - peritoneal fluid ... sent to the laboratory for Gram stain and culture. The sample is checked to see if bacteria ... The peritoneal fluid culture may be negative, even if you have ... diagnosis of peritonitis is based on other factors, in addition ...
Newston, Caroline; Ingram, Bethan
Ambulatory chemotherapy allows high-dose chemotherapy to be delivered in an outpatient facility with multidisciplinary planning and management. At University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, this model of care has been successfully applied to a teenage and young adult population. A mobile infusion device, CADD-Solis VIP pump has allowed chemotherapy and supportive therapy administration in the ambulatory setting. Continuous and intermittent therapies have been delivered. Patients attend the ambulatory care unit daily for assessment and treatment set up. Overnight, they reside in nearby accommodation. Patients are educated to self-manage, promoting independence and empowerment; however, they also have 24-hour access to nursing and medical advice. Clear communication and patient education, adopting a multidisciplinary team approach and clear assessment guidance for patients and staff, is essential to make this model of care successful.
Strijack, Christine; Harding, Godfrey K. M.; Ariano, Robert E.; Zelenitsky, Sheryl A.
Standard microbiological tests (i.e., MIC) do not account for the unique factors of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis which can significantly influence treatment response. Our goals were to develop a peritoneal fluid titer (PFT) test and to conduct a pilot study of its association with clinical outcome. The methodology was developed by using spent dialysate collected from patients with bacterial PD-related peritonitis prior to the initiation of antibiotics. Dialysate was processed and spiked with antibiotic to simulate two standard intraperitoneal regimens: cefazolin plus tobramycin and cefazolin alone. Thirty-six clinical isolates, including Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were tested. In the pilot study, dialysate was collected from 14 patients with bacterial PD-related peritonitis. Titers were determined by using each patient's dialysate and infecting pathogen. Titers were highly reproducible, with discrepancies in only 1% of cases. Overall, PFTs were notably higher against gram-positive bacteria (P < 0.0001). The addition of tobramycin increased titers significantly from zero to values of 1/16 to 1/64 against E. cloacae and P. aeruginosa (P < 0.0001). In the pilot study, peritoneal fluid inhibitory titers were significantly associated with clinical outcome, with a median value of 1/96 for patients who were cured compared to 1/32 for those who failed treatment (P = 0.036). In conclusion, this study provides preliminary support for the PFT as a pharmacodynamic index specific to the treatment of PD-related peritonitis. With further characterization and validation in patients, the PFT test may advance the study of antibiotic therapies for PD-related peritonitis. PMID:15105126
Fabian Velasco, Rosaura; Lagunas Muñoz, Jesus; Sanchez Saavedra, Veronica; Mena Brito Trejo, Jorge E; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; García-López, Elvia; Divino Filho, Jose C
Automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) has been considered as the ideal dialysis modality for pediatric patients. This study reports the 3-year APD experience with 458 end-stage renal disease (ESRD) children who started APD in a single pediatric center in Mexico City between June 2003 and June 2006. By June 2003, there were 310 patients being treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). At that time, these patients were gradually switched to APD, with priority being given to those prescribed more than four exchanges per day, younger than 6 years of age, or presenting complications [hernias or decreased ultrafiltration (UF)]. An improvement of daily UF was observed when the patients were switched from CAPD (590 +/- 340 ml/day) to APD (846 +/- 335 ml/day). The presence of edema decreased (from 67% to 8%) as well as the percentage of patients requiring antihypertensive drugs (from 83% to 38%), the peritonitis rate improved from one episode every 35 patient/month to one episode every 47 patient/month, the total number of hospitalizations decreased (from 384 to 51), and 85% of children attended school. While waiting for renal transplant, APD is the dialysis modality of choice for ESRD children at the La Raza Medical Center in Mexico City.
Shanmuganathan, Malini; Goh, Bak Leong; Lim, Christopher; NorFadhlina, Zakaria; Fairol, Ibrahim
Patients with peritonitis present with abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and turbid peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid. Shewanella algae peritonitis has not yet been reported in PD patients in the literature. We present the first 2 cases of Shewanella algae peritonitis in PD patients. Mupirocin cream is applied on the exit site as prophylactic antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
Rippe, B; Levin, L
The three-pore model of peritoneal transport has the ability to predict ultrafiltration (UF) profiles rather accurately, even when high molecular weight (MW) solutes are employed as osmotic agents in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In the present simulations, we wanted to assess, for various theoretical perturbations, the UF properties of a peritoneal dialysis (PD) solution with an osmotic agent having an average MW of 20 kD and a "number average MW" of 6.2 kD, which is similar to that of icodextrin (ICO). For a PD solution containing a completely monodispersed 20 kD MW osmotic agent, the degree of UF modeled is much higher than that reported for ICO. Hence, to model the behavior of ICO, we subdivided the ICO molecules into eight or more different MW size fractions. For simulations using six or eight subfractions, we obtained an excellent fit of simulated to reported UF data. More dispersed solutions produced UF profiles similar to that with eight fractions. A 2.05 L 7.5% ICO PD solution, despite being slightly hypotonic, yielded a UF volume of nearly 600 mL in 12 hours, modeled for patients not previously exposed for ICO. After nine hours, the UF volume exceeded that produced by 3.86% glucose. The UF rate and volumes increased in proportion to (1) the ICO concentration, (2) the peritoneal surface area, and (3) the peritoneal UF coefficient, but was almost insensitive to increases in the instilled fluid volume. Simulated for patients previously exposed to ICO, having steady-state plasma concentrations of ICO degradation products, the predicted UF volume at 12 hours was reduced to approximately 400 mL. Employing the three-pore model of peritoneal transport and taking into account the polydispersed nature of ICO, it was possible to accurately computer simulate the UF profiles of ICO in accordance with reported data. The simulations suggest an advantage of using ICO in patients with type I UF failure, where UF with a high-MW osmotic agent will exceed
Effects of neutral pH and low-glucose degradation product-containing peritoneal dialysis fluid on systemic markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction: a randomized controlled 1-year follow-up study.
Park, Sun-Hee; Do, Jun-Young; Kim, Yeong Hoon; Lee, Ho Yung; Kim, Beom Seok; Shin, Sug-Kyun; Kim, Hyun Chul; Chang, Yoon-Kyung; Yang, Jong-Oh; Chung, Hyun-Chul; Kim, Chan-Duck; Lee, Won Kee; Kim, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Yong-Lim
The local peritoneal effects of low-glucose degradation product (GDP)-containing peritoneal dialysis fluid (PDF) have been extensively described. However, the systemic effects of prolonged prescription of these solutions are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of neutral pH and low-GDP PDF on systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction markers in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This is a multicenter, open labeled, randomized controlled trial including one hundred fifty-two patients initiating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for end-stage renal disease from seven centers in Korea. Participants were randomly allocated to conventional PDF (Stay safe®; Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany) or low-GDP PDF (Balance®; Fresenius Medical Care) and were followed for 1 year. Primary outcome variable was the inflammation and endothelial dysfunction index (IEDI), a composite score derived from serum levels of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM)-1, soluble vascular cellular adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, residual renal function (RRF), peritoneal membrane transport characteristics, ultrafiltration volume and nutritional parameters were measured as secondary outcome variables. Of 152 patients randomized, 146 (low-GDP: conventional PDF, 79:67) patients entered the trial (46% male, 53% with diabetes mellitus). At 12-month follow-up, the low-GDP group had significantly lower levels of IEDI, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 compared to the conventional group; hs-CRP was not different between groups. Peritoneal transport characteristics, RRF, nutritional parameters, incidence of peritonitis and death-censored technique survival were not different between groups. Neutral pH and low-GDP PDF likely produce fewer changes in markers of endothelial dysfunction compared to conventional PDF in incident PD patients.
Borzych, Dagmara; Soo Ha, Il; Serdaroglu, Erkin; Büscher, Rainer; Salas, Paulina; Patel, Hiren; Drozdz, Dorota; Vondrak, Karel; Watanabe, Andreia; Villagra, Jorge; Yavascan, Onder; Valenzuela, Maria; Gipson, Deborah; Ng, K.H.; Warady, Bradley A.; Schaefer, Franz
Summary Background and objectives Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor and an intermediate end point of dialysis-associated cardiovascular comorbidity. We utilized a global pediatric registry to assess the prevalence, incidence, and predictors of LVH as well as its evolution in the longitudinal follow-up in dialyzed children. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Cross-sectional echocardiographic, clinical, and biochemical data were evaluated in 507 children on peritoneal dialysis (PD), and longitudinal data were evaluated in 128 patients. The 95th percentile of LV mass index relative to height age was used to define LVH. Results The overall LVH prevalence was 48.1%. In the prospective analysis, the incidence of LVH developing de novo in patients with normal baseline LV mass was 29%, and the incidence of regression from LVH to normal LV mass 40% per year on PD. Transformation to and regression from concentric LV geometry occurred in 36% and 28% of the patients, respectively. Hypertension, high body mass index, use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, renal disease other than hypo/dysplasia, and hyperparathyroidism were identified as independent predictors of LVH. The use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) antagonists and high total fluid output (sum of urine and ultrafiltration) were protective from concentric geometry. The risk of LVH at 1 year was increased by higher systolic BP standard deviation score and reduced in children with renal hypo/dysplasia. Conclusions Using height-adjusted left ventricular mass index reference data, LVH is highly prevalent but less common than previously diagnosed in children on PD. Renal hypo/dysplasia is protective from LVH, likely because of lower BP and polyuria. Hypertension, fluid overload, and hyperparathyroidism are modifiable determinants of LVH. PMID:21737855
Bakkaloglu, Sevcan A; Borzych, Dagmara; Soo Ha, Il; Serdaroglu, Erkin; Büscher, Rainer; Salas, Paulina; Patel, Hiren; Drozdz, Dorota; Vondrak, Karel; Watanabe, Andreia; Villagra, Jorge; Yavascan, Onder; Valenzuela, Maria; Gipson, Deborah; Ng, K H; Warady, Bradley A; Schaefer, Franz
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor and an intermediate end point of dialysis-associated cardiovascular comorbidity. We utilized a global pediatric registry to assess the prevalence, incidence, and predictors of LVH as well as its evolution in the longitudinal follow-up in dialyzed children. Cross-sectional echocardiographic, clinical, and biochemical data were evaluated in 507 children on peritoneal dialysis (PD), and longitudinal data were evaluated in 128 patients. The 95(th) percentile of LV mass index relative to height age was used to define LVH. The overall LVH prevalence was 48.1%. In the prospective analysis, the incidence of LVH developing de novo in patients with normal baseline LV mass was 29%, and the incidence of regression from LVH to normal LV mass 40% per year on PD. Transformation to and regression from concentric LV geometry occurred in 36% and 28% of the patients, respectively. Hypertension, high body mass index, use of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, renal disease other than hypo/dysplasia, and hyperparathyroidism were identified as independent predictors of LVH. The use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) antagonists and high total fluid output (sum of urine and ultrafiltration) were protective from concentric geometry. The risk of LVH at 1 year was increased by higher systolic BP standard deviation score and reduced in children with renal hypo/dysplasia. Using height-adjusted left ventricular mass index reference data, LVH is highly prevalent but less common than previously diagnosed in children on PD. Renal hypo/dysplasia is protective from LVH, likely because of lower BP and polyuria. Hypertension, fluid overload, and hyperparathyroidism are modifiable determinants of LVH.
Kanda, Reo; Hamada, Chieko; Kaneko, Kayo; Nakano, Takanori; Wakabayashi, Keiichi; Io, Hiroaki; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko
It is well known that bioincompatible peritoneal dialysate plays a central role in the development of peritoneal fibrosis. Peritoneal inflammation continues even after the cessation of peritoneal dialysate stimulation. It is important to establish the definition of persistent inflammation in the peritoneal cavity at the cessation of peritoneal dialysis (PD). The objective of the present study was to determine whether pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in peritoneal effluent (PE) may be a new biomarker in PD patients. Serum, PE, and peritoneal specimens were obtained from 50 patients with end-stage kidney disease at Juntendo University Hospital. Samples of 19 patients were obtained at the initiation of PD and those of 31 patients at the cessation of PD. PTX3, high-sensitivity CRP, and MMP-2 and IL-6 were analyzed. An immunohistological examination using an anti-PTX3 antibody was performed. Expressions of PTX3 were observed in endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and mesothelial cells in the peritoneum. The PTX3 level in PE at the cessation of PD was significantly higher than that at the initiation of PD. Effluent PTX3 levels in patients with a history of peritonitis or a PD duration of more than 8 years were significantly higher than those in patients without peritonitis or patients with a PD duration of <8 years. The PTX3 level was significantly correlated with MMP-2 and IL-6 levels in PE, as well as the thickness of the submesothelial compact zone and the vasculopathy. It appears that PTX3 may be a new biomarker of peritoneal inflammation and progressive fibrosis.
Gault, M. H.
Certain preventable complications in the treatment of renal failure, in part related to the composition of commercially prepared peritoneal dialysis solutions, continue to occur. Solutions are advocated which would contain sodium 132, calcium 3.5, magnesium 1.5, chloride 102 and lactate or acetate 35 mEq./1., and dextrose 1.5% or about 4.25%. Elimination of 7% dextrose solutions and a reduction of the sodium and lactate concentrations should reduce complications due to hypovolemia, hyperglycemia, hypernatremia and alkalosis. Reduction in the number of solutions should simplify the procedure and perhaps reduce costs. It is anticipated that some of the changes discussed will soon be introduced by industry. PMID:4691094
Yates, Phillip J; Kitchen, Jessica P A; Kaushik, Monica; Nicholson, Michael L
Peritonitis is a life-threatening complication of peritoneal dialysis. Peritoneal sclerosis is associated with long-term peritoneal dialysis. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of peritoneal sclerosis on outcomes following laparotomy for peritoneal dialysis peritonitis. A series of 63 consecutive patients underwent laparotomy for peritoneal dialysis peritonitis. Patients were divided into two groups, those with and those without simple peritoneal sclerosis identified at laparotomy. Medical, anaesthetic, and surgical notes were used for data collection. Patients with known encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis were excluded from the study. Patients with simple peritoneal sclerosis had a statistically significant longer duration of peritoneal dialysis. They also had a significantly higher risk of major complications postoperatively and a greater relative risk for mortality. There is an increased prevalence of simple peritoneal sclerosis with long-term peritoneal dialysis. Patients with simple peritoneal sclerosis have higher incidence of postlaparotomy complications. Patients on long-term peritoneal dialysis should be treated aggressively for peritoneal dialysis peritonitis to reduce complication/mortality rates. Evidence of simple peritoneal sclerosis at laparotomy should preclude further peritoneal dialysis.
Joseph, Jeffrey I; Torjman, Marc C; Strasma, Paul J
Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and glycemic variability have been associated with increased morbidity, mortality, length of stay, and cost in a variety of critical care and non-critical care patient populations in the hospital. The results from prospective randomized clinical trials designed to determine the risks and benefits of intensive insulin therapy and tight glycemic control have been confusing; and at times conflicting. The limitations of point-of-care blood glucose (BG) monitoring in the hospital highlight the great clinical need for an automated real-time continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) that can accurately measure the concentration of glucose every few minutes. Automation and standardization of the glucose measurement process have the potential to significantly improve BG control, clinical outcome, safety and cost.
Lock, J F; Eckmann, C; Germer, C-T
Postoperative peritonitis is still a life-threatening complication after abdominal surgery and approximately 10,000 patients annually develop postoperative peritonitis in Germany. Early recognition and diagnosis before the onset of sepsis has remained a clinical challenge as no single specific screening test is available. The aim of therapy is a rapid and effective control of the source of infection and antimicrobial therapy. After diagnosis of diffuse postoperative peritonitis surgical revision is usually inevitable after intestinal interventions. Peritonitis after liver, biliary or pancreatic surgery is managed as a rule by means of differentiated therapy approaches depending on the severity.
Cheng, I K
three years from the straight-line systems with or without germicidal connection devices to the disconnect systems. In China and India, where PD has been introduced only recently, the disconnect systems are used almost exclusively. The disconnect systems are also the most popular systems in use in Japan and Taiwan. As data concerning the cost-effectiveness of different PD systems becomes available, it is likely that trend towards a more liberal use of disconnect systems will continue in the future. The usage of low calcium peritoneal dialysate and the average number of daily CAPD exchanges also vary among the Asian countries. Low calcium peritoneal dialysate has been introduced only in Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, with the highest utilization rate (90%) recorded in Singapore. The Philippines had the lowest average number of daily peritoneal exchanges (6L) among the countries surveyed, followed by Hong Kong (6.4L), China and Indonesia (7L), and the rest (8L). The use of a lower number of exchanges was introduced in some countries, initially, mainly as a cost-saving measure based on the assumption that Asians are of small body build. The justification for the continued use of a lower number of exchanges among Asian patients is debatable, but is supported by the acceptable, long-term clinical outcome of patients given this form of dialysis prescription. It is suggested that long-term prospective studies on dialysis adequacy and clinical outcome should be done in different ethnic groups in Asia to see if the similar guidelines with regard to dialysis adequacy can be applied uniformly to Orientals and Caucasians.
Ohtani, Y; Ohtani, O
Pathways of peritoneal fluids to the pleural cavity in the rat were investigated by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Intraperitoneally injected India ink was demonstrated to enter the subperitoneal lymphatics through lymphatic stomata, and to drain through the subpleural collecting lymphatics, into the parasternal, paravertebral and mediastinal lymphatic trunks as well as the thoracic duct. Five to 10 min after the intraperitoneal injection of India ink, the parasternal lymphatic trunk was ligated at the third intercostal space. Thirty minutes, 1 h, or 2 h after the ligation of either the right or the left trunk, India ink was macroscopically recognized only around the ligated trunk. When the right and left trunks were simultaneously ligated, India ink leaked around both trunks. Five hours after the ligation of both trunks, a massive amount of ink was located in the interstitium of the anterior thoracic wall. TEM revealed carbon particles passing through gaps of the lymphatic endothelial cells into the interstitial space, and partly reaching the mesothelial surface lining the anterior thoracic wall. Results show that obstruction or narrowing of the lymphatic trunks draining the diaphragmatic lymph causes a hydrothorax, indicating that this is at least one mechanism causing this during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and diseases with ascites.
Finger, Herbert; Weeks, Bill
This presentation discusses instrumentation that will be used for a specific event, which we hope will carry on to future events within the Space Shuttle program. The experiment is the Autogenic Feedback Training Experiment (AFTE) scheduled for Spacelab 3, currently scheduled to be launched in November, 1984. The objectives of the AFTE are to determine the effectiveness of autogenic feedback in preventing or reducing space adaptation syndrome (SAS), to monitor and record in-flight data from the crew, to determine if prediction criteria for SAS can be established, and, finally, to develop an ambulatory instrument package to mount the crew throughout the mission. The purpose of the Ambulatory Feedback System (AFS) is to record the responses of the subject during a provocative event in space and provide a real-time feedback display to reinforce the training.
Ersoy, F F; Karayalcin, U; Karayalcin, B; Sapan, M; Bozcuk, H; Süleymanlar, G; Yakupoglu, G
Because of its relatively small molecular size of 5800 daltons, insulin is a transperitoneally diffusable substance. Insulin is also known to be a mitogenic coadjuvant for mice fibroblasts, and safety of its long-term intraperitoneal use has been questioned because of the potential risk for peritoneal fibrosis. For similar reasons native insulin content of the peritoneal effluent should also not be neglected. To our knowledge, no sufficient data are available about native insulin transfer to dialysate during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In this study we measured plasma and dialysate immune-reactive insulin levels during a 4 hour peritoneal exchange in 9 nondiabetic and 4 type II diabetic end-stage renal disease patients on CAPD. In both plasma and dialysate, insulin levels were higher in diabetic patients. At hour 4 of dwell time, plasma insulin was 37.5 +/- 7.9 microU/mL in non-diabetics and 64.2 +/- 34.1 microU/mL in type II diabetics. In both groups, dialysate insulin was 1.5 to 2 x higher than their simultaneous peripheral vein insulin levels and was measured as 88.1 +/- 26.8 microU/mL in nondiabetic group and 101.7 +/- 52.6 microU/mL in the diabetic group at hour 4 (p < 0.005 vs 4 hour plasma level). In conclusion, in both diabetic and nondiabetic CAPD patients, native insulin was present in the dialysate in amounts exceeding simultaneous plasma levels. Equilibration with high portal vein insulin content through hepatic capsule may explain higher insulin concentrations measured in the dialysate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Xanthopoulos, P; Heilman, K M; Drago, V; Pardalos, P; Foster, P S; Skidmore, F M
When performing activity associated with walking, the amount of walking a person does often will depend on their plans. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between motor planning and ambulatory persistence in participants with Parkinson's disease (PD) and to see if ambulatory persistence was related to the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL). 20 individuals with idiopathic PD were recruited to perform the Trail making Test (a test of motor planning) and to wear a step activity monitor for 48h. The measurement of persistence of an ambulatory event consisted of the number of steps taken during an event and an ambulatory event was defined as continuous ambulation (taking step) without pausing for 3 or more seconds. The resumption of taking step (ambulation) after 3 or more seconds counted as a new ambulatory event. UPDRS-motor and ADL scale were also obtained. The cumulative percentage of the total ambulatory events at each number of steps was plotted for each subject which when plotted could be described as a sigmoid curve. We found that this sigmoidal curve defined by the equation y=x(n)/(k(n)+x(n)), fit the data well, where k represents a constant specific to each subject, x represents the number of steps during each ambulatory event, and y represents the projected percentage of movement events containing x number of steps or less. (Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)=0.02, R(2)=0.98). Trail making test part A was highly associated with the constant k (R=-0.74, p<0.001). The constant k was also highly associated with the UPDRS ADL subscale (R=-0.81, p=0.0001). A forward bivariate regression model including Part A of the Trail making test, and the UPDRS-ADL subscale predicted 66% of the variability of the constant k. The overall number of steps taken per day, and the UPDRS motor subscale did not contribute to the model. Defective motor planning in Parkinson's disease as measured by poor performance on a Trail making test is associated with
... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and... Hospital Outpatient Services § 419.31 Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and payment weights... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR...
... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and... Hospital Outpatient Services § 419.31 Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and payment weights... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR...
... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and... Hospital Outpatient Services § 419.31 Ambulatory payment classification (APC) system and payment weights... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM FOR...
Mihalache, O; Bugă, C; Doran, H; Catrina, E; Bobircă, F; Andreescu, A; Mustățea, P; Pătrașcu, T
Peritonitis is the main complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and also an important factor for raising the cost of the method to the level of hemodialysis. Associated with PD, peritonitis is responsible for the increase of morbidity and mortality of the procedure and, at the same time, the main cause of the technique failure. Severe and prolonged peritonitis or repeated episodes of peritonitis lead to ultrafiltration failure. Peritonitis treatment should aim for a rapid remission of inflammation in order to preserve the peritoneal membrane functional integrity. The treatment of PD peritonitis consists mainly of antibiotic therapy, surgical intervention not being usually required. However, it is of outmost importance to differentiate the so-called "catheter related" peritonitis from secondary peritonitis due to visceral lesions, in which the surgical treatment comes first. The confusion between secondary and "catheter related" peritonitis may lead to serious errors in choosing the correct treatment, endangering the patient's life. The differential diagnosis between a refractory or secondary peritonitis in a peritoneal dialyzed patient may be very difficult. In front of a refractory PD peritonitis, surgical exploration must not be delayed. Also we have to keep in mind that the aim of peritonitis treatment is the saving of the peritoneal membrane and not the catheter.
Mihalache, O; Bugă, C; Doran, H; Catrina, E; Bobircă, F; Andreescu, A; Mustățea, P; Pătrașcu, T
Peritonitis is the main complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) and also an important factor for raising the cost of the method to the level of hemodialysis. Associated with PD, peritonitis is responsible for the increase of morbidity and mortality of the procedure and, at the same time, the main cause of the technique failure. Severe and prolonged peritonitis or repeated episodes of peritonitis lead to ultrafiltration failure. Peritonitis treatment should aim for a rapid remission of inflammation in order to preserve the peritoneal membrane functional integrity. The treatment of PD peritonitis consists mainly of antibiotic therapy, surgical intervention not being usually required. However, it is of outmost importance to differentiate the so-called “catheter related” peritonitis from secondary peritonitis due to visceral lesions, in which the surgical treatment comes first. The confusion between secondary and “catheter related” peritonitis may lead to serious errors in choosing the correct treatment, endangering the patient’s life. The differential diagnosis between a refractory or secondary peritonitis in a peritoneal dialyzed patient may be very difficult. In front of a refractory PD peritonitis, surgical exploration must not be delayed. Also we have to keep in mind that the aim of peritonitis treatment is the saving of the peritoneal membrane and not the catheter. PMID:27974935
Jovanović, Natasa; Lausević, Mirjana; Stojimirović, Biljana
The disturbances of active forms of vitamin D synthesis and disturbances in calcium and posphate metabolism develop early in chronic renal failure, when creatinine clearance is about 30 ml/min. Chronic hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis only partially correct the biochemical enviroment of patients on chronic renal replacement therapy because of end-stage renal disease. These dialysis modalities can't signifficantly affect the endocrine disturbances of chronic renal failure and they have minimal modulatory effect. The management of disturbed calcium (Ca) and phosphate (P) metabolism and the maintainance of Ca x P product below 4.4 mmol/l thanks to the use of dialysate solutions with the appropriate calcium concentration and the careful dosage of phosphate binders, calcium and active vitamin D metabolits, are extremely important for the prevention of renal osteodystrophy, secondary hyperparathyroidism as well as low-bone turnover disease. The aim of the study was to analyze the plasma levels of calcium, phosphate, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and parathormon (PTH) in 58 patients who were treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) from March to August 2003. The use of phosphate binders and the substitution with active vitamin D metabolits were also analyzed. We examined 58 patients, 30 males and 28 female, mean-age 52 years (range, 26-78 years), affected by end-stage renal disease of the different leading cause. The average time on peritoneal dialysis program was 20 months (2-66 months). Most of the patients were treated by CAPD, while only few of them performed authomatic, cyclic or intermitent peritoneal dialysis. Most of the patients used a dialysate with 1.75 mmol/l calcium concentration. The study showed that our patients on chronic CAPD program during several months had normal calcemia, phosphatemia and the level of alkaline phosphatase, and that they had Ca x P product in the recommended range. PTH serum level ranged from 16 to 490 pg/l in
Hou, Chenrui; Yang, Yun; Li, Ziyang
Gordonia terrae is a rare cause of clinical infections, with only 23 reported cases. We report the first case of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis caused by Gordonia terrae in mainland China. A 52-year-old man developed peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis and received preliminary antibiotic treatment. After claiming that his symptoms had been resolved, the patient insisted on being discharged (despite our recommendations) and did not receive continued treatment after leaving the hospital. A telephone follow-up with the patient's relatives revealed that the patient died 3 months later. Routine testing did not identify the bacterial strain responsible for the infection, although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry identified the strain as Gordonia rubropertincta. However, a 16S rRNA sequence analysis using an isolate from the peritoneal fluid culture revealed that the responsible strain was actually Gordonia terrae. Similar to this case, all previously reported cases have involved a delayed diagnosis and initial treatment failure, and the definitive diagnosis required a 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Changes from an inappropriate antibiotic therapy to an appropriate one have relied on microbiological testing and were performed 7-32 days after the initial treatment. The findings from our case and the previously reported cases indicate that peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis caused by Gordonia terrae can be difficult to identify and treat. It may be especially challenging to diagnose these cases in countries with limited diagnostic resources.
John, S G; Selby, N M; McIntyre, C W
Conventional low biocompatibility peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid composition has been driven by manufacturing expediency and cost limitations. PD is associated with significant acute changes in cardiovascular functional parameters, at least in part influenced by fluid composition. Short-term control of blood pressure (BP) is under control of the baroreflex arc. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of PD fluid biocompatibility on baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). We studied 10 non-diabetic established continuous ambulatory PD patients, in a randomized crossover trial comparing conventional and biocompatible PD fluids. Systemic hemodynamics were continuously monitored using digital pulse-wave analysis. Plasma glucose and insulin were assessed during treatment with both 1.36% and 3.86% glucose-containing fluids. BRS was calculated offline from continuous BP and interbeat interval data. BRS was significantly higher with conventional PD fluid during both 1.36% (P<0.001) and 3.86% (P<0.001) dwells. Systolic BP was higher; heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output were lower; and total peripheral resistance increased during exposure to either fluid. There were significant differences between fluids with respect to the magnitude of these responses. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and ultrafiltration volumes were significantly higher during the 3.86% dwell than the 1.36% dwell, but there were no differences between standard and biocompatible fluids. We have demonstrated for the first time that PD fluid biocompatibility rapidly affects BRS. These changes occur against a background of cardiovascular variability, hyperinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism and, more importantly, the consequences of these findings.
August, David A; Everett, Lucinda L
Pediatric patients often undergo anesthesia for ambulatory procedures. This article discusses several common preoperative dilemmas, including whether to postpone anesthesia when a child has an upper respiratory infection, whether to test young women for pregnancy, which children require overnight admission for apnea monitoring, and the effectiveness of nonpharmacological techniques for reducing anxiety. Medication issues covered include the risks of anesthetic agents in children with undiagnosed weakness, the use of remifentanil for tracheal intubation, and perioperative dosing of rectal acetaminophen. The relative merits of caudal and dorsal penile nerve block for pain after circumcision are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tentes, Antonios-Apostolos; Zorbas, Georgios; Pallas, Nicolaos; Fiska, Aliki
Summary Background: Multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare disease. It is not certain if it is a benign or a borderline tumor. Although many therapeutic approaches have been used, complete cytoreductive surgery in combination with hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy has gained acceptance. Case Report: A case of multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma in a 16-year old patient is reported. The patient underwent complete cytoreduction and received intraoperative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. The patient is disease-free one year after surgery. Conclusions: Complete cytoreductive surgery in combination with hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy appears to be a rational therapeutic approach in multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma. PMID:23569544
Tentes, Antonios-Apostolos; Zorbas, Georgios; Pallas, Nicolaos; Fiska, Aliki
Multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare disease. It is not certain if it is a benign or a borderline tumor. Although many therapeutic approaches have been used, complete cytoreductive surgery in combination with hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy has gained acceptance. A case of multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma in a 16-year old patient is reported. The patient underwent complete cytoreduction and received intraoperative hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. The patient is disease-free one year after surgery. Complete cytoreductive surgery in combination with hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy appears to be a rational therapeutic approach in multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma.
Anderson, R; Lyons, G M
This paper reviews the advancements made in ambulatory data logging used in the study of human subjects since the inception of the analogue tape based data logger in the 1960s. Research into the area of ambulatory monitoring has been rejuvenated due to the development of novel storage technologies during the 1990s. Data logging systems that were previously impractical due to lack of processing power, practical size and cost are now available to the practitioner. An overview of the requirements of present day ambulatory data logging is presented and analogue tape, solid-state memory and disk drive storage recording systems that have been described in the literature are investigated in detail. It is proposed that digital based technology offers the best solution to the problems encountered during human based data logging. The appearance of novel digital storage media will continue the trend of increased recording durations, signal resolution and number of parameters thus allowing the momentum gained throughout the last several decades to continue.
Kennedy, Harold L
Ambulatory Holter electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring has undergone continuous technological evolution since its invention and development in the 1950s era. With commercial introduction in 1963, there has been an evolution of Holter recorders from 1 channel to 12 channel recorders with increasingly smaller storage media, and there has evolved Holter analysis systems employing increasingly technologically advanced electronics providing a myriad of data displays. This evolution of smaller physical instruments with increasing technological capacity has characterized the development of electronics over the past 50 years. Currently the technology has been focused upon the conventional continuous 24 to 48 hour ambulatory ECG examination, and conventional extended ambulatory monitoring strategies for infrequent to rare arrhythmic events. However, the emergence of the Internet, Wi-Fi, cellular networks, and broad-band transmission has positioned these modalities at the doorway of the digital world. This has led to an adoption of more cost-effective strategies to these conventional methods of performing the examination. As a result, the emergence of the mobile smartphone coupled with this digital capacity is leading to the recent development of Holter smartphone applications. The potential of point-of-care applications utilizing the Holter smartphone and a vast array of new non-invasive sensors is evident in the not too distant future. The Holter smartphone is anticipated to contribute significantly in the future to the field of global health.
Eisenstein, Diana Hill
Many people receiving maintenance anticoagulation therapy require surgery each year in ambulatory surgery centers. National safety organizations focus attention toward improving anticoagulation management, and the American College of Chest Physicians has established guidelines for appropriate anticoagulation management to balance the risk of thromboembolism when warfarin is discontinued with the risk of bleeding when anticoagulation therapy is maintained. The guidelines recommend that patients at high or moderate risk for thromboembolism should be bridged with subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin or IV unfractionated heparin with the interruption of warfarin, and low-risk patients may require subcutaneous low-molecular-weight heparin or no bridging with the interruption of warfarin. The guidelines recommend the continuation of warfarin for patients who are undergoing minor dermatologic or dental procedures or cataract removal. The literature reveals, however, that there is not adequate adherence to these recommendations and guidelines. Management of anticoagulation therapy by a nurse practitioner may improve compliance and safety in ambulatory surgery centers.
van Diepen, Anouk T N; van Esch, Sadie; Struijk, Dirk G; Krediet, Raymond T
Little or no evidence is available on the impact of the first peritonitis episode on peritoneal transport characteristics. The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of the very first peritonitis episode and distinguish its effect from the natural course by comparison of peritoneal transport before and after infection. We analyzed prospectively collected data from 541 incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, aged > 18 years, between 1990 and 2010. Standard Peritoneal Permeability Analyses (SPA) within the year before and within the year after (but not within 30 days) the first peritonitis were compared. In a control group without peritonitis, SPAs within the first and second year of PD were compared. SPA data included the mass transfer area coefficient of creatinine, glucose absorption and peritoneal clearances of β-2-microglobulin (b2m), albumin, IgG and α-2-macroglobulin (a2m). From these clearances, the restriction coefficient to macromolecules (RC) was calculated. Also, parameters of fluid transport were determined: transcapillary ultrafiltration rate (TCUFR), lymphatic absorption (ELAR), and free water transport. Crude and adjusted linear mixed models were used to compare the slopes of peritoneal transport parameters in the peritonitis group to the control group. Adjustments were made for age, sex and diabetes. Of 541 patients, 367 experienced a first peritonitis episode within a median time of 12 months after the start of PD. Of these, 92 peritonitis episodes were preceded and followed by a SPA within one year. Forty-five patients without peritonitis were included in the control group. Logistic reasons (peritonitis group: 48% vs control group: 83%) and switch to hemodialysis (peritonitis group: 22% vs control group: 3%) were the main causes of missing SPA data post-peritonitis and post-control. When comparing the slopes of peritoneal transport parameters in the peritonitis group and the control group, a first peritonitis episode was
Javeri, H; Jamieson, S; Sehgal, R; Cadena, J
Although brucellosis is a common zoonotic disease worldwide, infection with Brucella canis is rare and often difficult to diagnose. We describe the clinical and epidemiological aspects of a case of B. canis peritonitis.
van Diepen, Anouk T.N.; van Esch, Sadie; Struijk, Dirk G.; Krediet, Raymond T.
♦ Objective: Little or no evidence is available on the impact of the first peritonitis episode on peritoneal transport characteristics. The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of the very first peritonitis episode and distinguish its effect from the natural course by comparison of peritoneal transport before and after infection. ♦ Participants: We analyzed prospectively collected data from 541 incident peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, aged > 18 years, between 1990 and 2010. Standard Peritoneal Permeability Analyses (SPA) within the year before and within the year after (but not within 30 days) the first peritonitis were compared. In a control group without peritonitis, SPAs within the first and second year of PD were compared. ♦ Main outcome measurements: SPA data included the mass transfer area coefficient of creatinine, glucose absorption and peritoneal clearances of β-2-microglobulin (b2m), albumin, IgG and α-2-macroglobulin (a2m). From these clearances, the restriction coefficient to macromolecules (RC) was calculated. Also, parameters of fluid transport were determined: transcapillary ultrafiltration rate (TCUFR), lymphatic absorption (ELAR), and free water transport. Crude and adjusted linear mixed models were used to compare the slopes of peritoneal transport parameters in the peritonitis group to the control group. Adjustments were made for age, sex and diabetes. ♦ Results: Of 541 patients, 367 experienced a first peritonitis episode within a median time of 12 months after the start of PD. Of these, 92 peritonitis episodes were preceded and followed by a SPA within one year. Forty-five patients without peritonitis were included in the control group. Logistic reasons (peritonitis group: 48% vs control group: 83%) and switch to hemodialysis (peritonitis group: 22% vs control group: 3%) were the main causes of missing SPA data post-peritonitis and post-control. When comparing the slopes of peritoneal transport parameters in
Souqiyyeh, Muhammad Ziad; Shaheen, Faissal A M
In an attempt to evaluate the attitude of physicians towards establishing and maintaining a peritoneal dialysis (PD) program in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), we sent a questionnaire to 160 physicians; the heads of the 148 active dialysis centers in the KSA and 12 other consultants working in these centers. This covered decision makers in 109 centers (73.6%) in the Ministry of Health (MOH), 18 (12.2%) in Governmental-non-MOH centers, and 21 (14.2%) in private hospitals that, together, care for a population of more than 7300 patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD) and 559 on PD. The study was performed between September and December 2005. A total of 145 of the 160 physicians (90.6%) from 141 dialysis centers (95.2%) answered the questionnaire. There were 81 respondents (56.3%) who believed that follow-up of the PD patients should be available in all the dialysis centers, 80 (55.2%) would like to have a PD clinic at their centers, and only 20 (13.8%) had PD clinics in their centers. However, 93 (66.4%) respondents did not request from the administration of their hospitals to open a PD clinic and 62 (44.6%) admitted to having no expertise in managing the patients on PD, while 53 (38.1%) claimed that they did not have enough space in their dialysis centers to start a PD program. Regarding training and expertise, 57 (40.7%), 58 (43.3%), 48 (35.6%) and 72 (52.9%) physicians had training in continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD), intermittent peritoneal dialysis (IPD), automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) or continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD), and acute PD, respectively. The comparisons between the health sectors in the KSA showed that MOH had significantly less active PD programs, and this reflected tremendously on the knowledge of the staff. Our survey indicates that the current practices concerning the PD programs in the KSA are modest, and that a new strategy is required to spread this modality of therapy horizontally in all the dialysis centers, and vertically by
Merritt, R J; Atkinson, J B; Whalen, T V; Thomas, D W; Sinatra, F R; Roloson, G J
We provided partial peritoneal alimentation to a 1.69-kg 11-month-old premature infant who had no available central venous access, depleted peripheral venous access, and gastrointestinal dysfunction. A cuffed silastic catheter was surgically inserted into the suprahepatic space. An alimentation solution was continuously infused into the peritoneum for 28 days to supplement peripheral venous and nasogastric alimentation and contributed 42 +/- 15% of total calories daily. Weight gain was achieved, but complications included hypoglycemia, hypophosphatemia, intravascular dehydration, catheter site leakage, ascites, and hydrocele. At autopsy 11 months later, lipid accumulation was present in the upper peritoneum and the hilar regions of the lungs secondary to preexisting lymphatic obstruction. Partial peritoneal alimentation may be feasible when other access routes are inadequate, but lymphatic obstruction is a contraindication to the peritoneal administration of lipid emulsions.
Ransy, V; Gevers, B; Landsberg, M
Ambulatory paediatrics in University hospitals has remarkably evolved during the past decade, along with technological progress and the current need for undelayed information and attention; demand for hospital medical advice increases consequently, either directly in outpatients wards or indirectly by phone or e-mails. Specific medico-social aspects linked essentially to populations' migration, poverty, chronic stress and family splitting are regularly encountered. Hospital architecture and adequacy of medical and nursing staff must both be adjusted to these changing medical demands including medical teaching. We now face the ever-growing challenge of providing an adequate management of actual medico-psycho-social aspects and integrating up-to-date paediatrics in our daily practices.
Firanek, Catherine A; Sloand, James A; Todd, Lucy B
In the United States, the majority of patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) use a cycler or automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). The aim of this study was the identification of common features in nurse-led APD training programs that were likely to contribute to successful home dialysis. This study collected data on nurse-led APD training programs in six high-performing PD centers. A 13-point survey, which focused on training tools, topics covered methods used, and level of support at home, was administered during group face-to-face interviews with the PD training nurses. Data were reviewed for trends between centers. Training programs in all six centers focused on essential information and skill sets to begin home dialysis using APD, with simple instructions and a hands-on approach. Every center initially trained patients on continuous ambulatory PD before APD. The clinics provided ongoing education, reinforcement, and retraining of concepts and skills through discussion, quizzes, and topic-specific monthly training sessions. All clinics provided 24-hour support for patients. Adopting the best practices identified in this study has the potential to improve APD training.
Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y; Chiu, Siu-kau; Leung, Kit-wah; Yung, Raymond W H; Yuen, Kwok-yung
Phenotypic identification of fungi in clinical microbiology laboratories is often difficult and late, especially for slow growing and rarely encountered fungi. We describe the application of 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing in the early diagnosis of a case of Exophiala peritonitis. A yeast-like fungus was isolated from the dialysate fluid of a 66-year-old man undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. It grew slowly after 12 days of incubation to yield mature cultures to permit recognition of microscopic features resembling those of Exophiala, a dematiacerous mold. 18S rRNA gene sequencing provided results 12 days earlier than phenotypic identification and revealed 15 base difference (0.9%) between the isolate and Exophiala sp. strain GHP 1205 (GenBank Accession no. AJ232954), indicating that the isolate most closely resembles a strain of Exophiala species. The patient responded to 4 weeks of intravenous amphotericin B therapy. Early identification of the fungus was important for the choice of anti-fungal regimen. As opportunistic fungal infections in immunocompromised patients are globally emerging problems, the development of molecular techniques for fungal identification is crucial for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
Xiong, Liping; Cao, Shirong; Xu, Fenghua; Zhou, Qian; Fan, Li; Xu, Qingdong; Yu, Xueqing; Mao, Haiping
Although high body mass index (BMI) appears to confer a survival advantage in hemodialysis patients, the association of BMI with mortality in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients is uncertain. We enrolled incident CAPD patients and BMI was categorized according to World Health Organization classification for Asian population. BMI at baseline and one year after the initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) treatment was assessed to calculate the BMI change (∆BMI). Patients were split into four categories according quartiles of ∆BMI. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis were performed to assess the association of BMI on outcomes. A total of 1263 CAPD patients were included, with a mean age of 47.8 ± 15.0 years, a mean BMI of 21.58 ± 3.13 kg/m2. During a median follow-up of 25.3 months, obesity was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) death (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 2.01; 95% CI 1.14, 3.54), but not all-cause mortality. Additionally, patients with more BMI decline (>0.80%) during the first year after CAPD initiation had an elevated risk for both all-cause (AHR: 2.21, 95% CI 1.23–3.95) and CVD mortality (AHR 2.31, 95% CI 1.11, 4.84), which was independent of baseline BMI values. PMID:26473916
Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Malyszko, Jolanta; Zbroch, Edyta; Malyszko, Jacek; Mysliwiec, Michal
VAP-1 (vascular adhesion protein-1) possesses semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) activity. It has also been found that serum VAP-1 was elevated in acute and chronic hyperglycemia and in patients with diabetes as well as in chronic kidney disease. Renalase, with possible monoamine oxidase activity, which breaks down catecholamines such as SSAO, is expressed in the endothelium as well as in the kidney. The aim of the study was to assess serum VAP-1 levels in peritoneally dialyzed (PD) patients and factors explaining its variability. This pilot study was performed on 25 peritoneally dialyzed patients, including 4 patients with type 2 diabetes. We found that the mean VAP-1 was significantly higher in chronic ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients when compared to the control group (p<0.05). Dopamine was significantly lower in PD patients when compared to the healthy volunteers (p<0.05), whereas noradrenaline was significantly higher in PD patients relative to the healthy volunteers (p<0.01). There was a significant difference in the VAP-1 concentration in the group with and without residual renal function (p<0.05) as well as between 10 patients with hyperglycemia when compared to patients with normoglycemia (p<0.05). There was no effect of gender on the serum VAP-1 levels. In PD patients VAP-1 correlated with systolic blood pressure (r=-0.4, p<005), residual renal function (r=-0.62, p<0.05), and glucose (=0.54, p<0.05). We concluded that VAP-1, elevated in patients on PD, was predominantly dependent on residual kidney function and glucose level, factors both linked to endothelial damage and cardiovascular complications.
Gallois, Emmanuelle; Lamy, Thomas; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Lobbedez, Thierry; Cattoir, Vincent
We report a case of a recurrent peritonitis due to Microbacterium resistens in a 71-year-old male patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD). Importantly, this Gram-positive rod was intrinsically resistant to cephalosporins and vancomycin, classically used in PD-related peritonitis treatment. His infection resolved after several weeks of appropriate therapy (amoxicillin plus gentamicin) and PD catheter removal.
Bodnar, B M
Bacteriological investigation of peritoneal exudate was conducted in 131 children with peritonitis. The greatest quantity of pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic Escherichias and bacteroids was revealed in March, April and September. In summer peritonitis was caused by pathogenic and conventionally pathogenic Escherichias in association with enterobacterias, staphylococci and other microorganisms.
Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.
for practicing in a managed care environment, and help staff communicate with a culturally diverse patient population and promote the importance of primary care within the community. Significant innovations and improvements were realized through the projects. Several hospitals expanded the availability of primary care services, trained new primary care providers, and helped patients gain access to primary care clinicians for the first time. Better methods for documenting ambulatory care were introduced. To increase efficiency and improve service to patients, some of the hospitals instituted automated appointment systems and improved medical record services. To reduce fragmentation and contain personnel costs, support staff positions were redesigned, and staff were retrained to carry out new multi-tasked responsibilities. Many of the components vital to high-quality ambulatory care can take years to develop, and significant investments of capital. Increased primary care capacity, new specialty group practices, state-of-the-art equipment for diagnosis and treatment, advanced information technology to manage and coordinate care and link services at multiple locations, and highly trained clinical and support staff all require strong commitment and support from a team of senior management executives and medical staff leaders, sufficient staffing resources, and outside expertise. Once the infrastructure is in place, hospitals must continue to reach out to their communities, helping people to understand the health care system and use it effectively.
Feng, Xiaoran; Yang, Xiao; Yi, Chunyan; Guo, Qunying; Mao, Haiping; Jiang, Zongpei; Li, Zhibin; Chen, Dongmei; Cui, Yingpeng; Yu, Xueqing
Escherichia coli (E. coli) peritonitis is a frequent, serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli peritonitis is associated with poorer prognosis and its incidence has been on continuous increase during the last decades. However, the clinical course and outcomes of E. coli peritonitis remain largely unclear. All of the E. coli peritonitis episodes that occurred in our dialysis unit from 2006 to 2011 were reviewed. The polymicrobial episodes were excluded. In total, ninety episodes of monomicrobial E. coli peritonitis occurred in 68 individuals, corresponding to a rate of 0.027 episodes per patient-year. E. coli was the leading cause (59.2%) of monomicrobial gram-negative peritonitis. ESBL-producing strains accounted for 35.5% of E. coli peritonitis. The complete cure rate and treatment failure rate of E. coli peritonitis were 77.8% and 10.0% respectively. Patients with preceding peritonitis had a higher risk of ESBL production as compared to those without peritonitis history [odds ratio (OR): 5.286; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.018 - 13.843; p = 0.001]. The risk of treatment failure was significantly increased when the patient had a baseline score of Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) above 3 (OR: 6.155; 95% CI: 1.198 - 31.612; p = 0.03), or had diabetes mellitus (OR: 8.457; 95% CI: 1.838 - 38.91; p = 0.006), or hypoalbuminemia (≤ 30g/l) on admission (OR: 13.714; 95% CI: 1.602 - 117.428; p = 0.01). Prolonging the treatment course from 2 to 3 weeks or more reduced the risk of relapse and repeat significantly (p < 0.05). E. coli peritonitis remains a common complication of PD. The clinical outcomes of E. coli peritonitis are relatively favorable despite the high ESBL rate. A history of peritonitis is associated with increased risk for ESBL development. The severity of baseline comorbidities, the presence of diabetes mellitus and hypoalbuminemia at admission are associated with poor outcomes
Nessim, Sharon J.; Nisenbaum, Rosane; Bargman, Joanne M.; Jassal, Sarbjit V.
♦ Background: Peritoneal dialysis (PD)–associated peritonitis clusters within patients. Patient factors contribute to peritonitis risk, but there is also entrapment of organisms within the biofilm that forms on PD catheters. It is hypothesized that this biofilm may prevent complete eradication of organisms, predisposing to multiple infections with the same organism. ♦ Methods: Using data collected in the Canadian multicenter Baxter POET (Peritonitis, Organism, Exit sites, Tunnel infections) database from 1996 to 2005, we studied incident PD patients with 2 or more peritonitis episodes. We determined the proportion of patients with 2 or more episodes caused by the same organism. In addition, using a multivariate logistic regression model, we tested whether prior peritonitis with a given organism predicted the occurrence of a subsequent episode with the same organism. ♦ Results: During their time on PD, 558 patients experienced 2 or more peritonitis episodes. Of those 558 patients, 181 (32%) had at least 2 episodes with the same organism. The organism most commonly causing repeat infection was coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS), accounting for 65.7% of cases. Compared with peritonitis caused by other organisms, a first CNS peritonitis episode was associated with an increased risk of subsequent CNS peritonitis within 1 year (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.5 to 2.8; p < 0.001). Among patients with repeat CNS peritonitis, 48% of repeat episodes occurred within 6 months of the earlier episode. ♦ Conclusions: In contrast to previous data, we did not find a high proportion of patients with multiple peritonitis episodes caused by the same organism. Coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was the organism most likely to cause peritonitis more than once in a given patient, and a prior CNS peritonitis was associated with an increased risk of CNS peritonitis within the subsequent year. PMID:22215659
Vadivelu, Nalini; Kai, Alice M; Kodumudi, Vijay; Berger, Jack M
Ambulatory surgery is on the rise, with an unmet need for optimum pain control in ambulatory surgery centers worldwide. It is important that there is a proportionate increase in the availability of acute pain-management services to match the rapid rise of clinical patient load with pain issues in the ambulatory surgery setting. Focus on ambulatory pain control with its special challenges is vital to achieve optimum pain control and prevent morbidity and mortality. Management of perioperative pain in the ambulatory surgery setting is becoming increasingly complex, and requires the employment of a multimodal approach and interventions facilitated by ambulatory surgery pain specialists, which is a new concept. A focused ambulatory pain specialist on site at each ambulatory surgery center, in addition to providing safe anesthesia, could intervene early once problematic pain issues are recognized, thus preventing emergency room visits, as well as readmissions for uncontrolled pain. This paper reviews methods of acute-pain management in the ambulatory setting with risk stratification, the utilization of multimodal interventions, including pharmacological and nonpharmacological options, opioids, nonopioids, and various routes with the goal of preventing delayed discharge and unexpected hospital admissions after ambulatory surgery. Continued research and investigation in the area of pain management with outcome studies in acute surgically inflicted pain in patients with underlying chronic pain treated with opioids and the pattern and predictive factors for pain in the ambulatory surgical setting is needed. PMID:27382329
van Esch, Sadie; van Diepen, Anouk T N; Struijk, Dirk G; Krediet, Raymond T
♦ Preservation of the peritoneum is required for long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD). We investigated the effect of multiple peritonitis episodes on peritoneal transport. ♦ Prospectively collected data from 479 incident PD patients treated between 1990 and 2010 were analyzed, using strict inclusion criteria: follow-up of at least 3 years with the availability of a Standard Peritoneal Permeability Analysis (SPA) in the first year after start of PD and within the third year of PD, without peritonitis preceding the first SPA. For the purpose of the study, we only included patients who remained peritonitis-free (n = 28) or who experienced 3 or more peritonitis episodes (n = 16). ♦ At baseline the groups were similar with regard to small solute and fluid transport. However, the frequent peritonitis group had lower peritoneal protein clearances compared to the no peritonitis group, resulting in lower dialysate concentrations of proteins: albumin 196.5 mg/L vs 372.5 mg/L, IgG 36.4 mg/L vs 65.0 mg/L, and α-2-macroglobulin (A2M) 1.9 mg/L vs 3.6 mg/L, p <0.01. No differences in serum concentrations were present. A comparison between the transport slopes over time in both groups showed a positive time trend of mass transfer area coefficient (MTAC) creatinine (p = 0.03) and glucose absorption (p = 0.09) and a negative trend of transcapillary ultrafiltration (p = 0.06), when compared to the no peritonitis group. Frequent peritonitis did not affect free water transport. ♦ Slow initial peritoneal transport rates of serum proteins result in lower dialysate concentrations, and likely a lower opsonic activity, which is a risk factor for peritonitis. Patients with frequent peritonitis show an increase in small solute transport and a concomitant decrease of ultrafiltration. In long-term peritonitis-free PD patients, small solute transport decreased, while ultrafiltration increased. This suggests that frequent peritonitis leads to an increase of the vascular peritoneal surface
Rare Peritoneal Surface Malignancies; Pseudomyxoma Peritonei; Peritoneal Mesothelioma; Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor; Psammocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Carcinoma; Diffuse Peritoneal Leiomyomatosis; Appendiceal Mucinous Neoplasms
Uzüm, Nüket; Ozçay, Necdet; Ataoğlu, Omür
Benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare tumor that occurs mainly in women in their reproductive age. It is characterized by the formation of multiple, thin-walled, multilocular cysts that frequently produce large, intra-abdominal masses. The short follow-ups and possible etiologies based on the published reports make it difficult to draw any firm conclusions.
Parvez, Najma; Cornelius, Lisa K; Fader, Robert
We present what we believe is the first case of Brevibacillus (Bacillus) brevis peritonitis in a patient with hepatocellular carcinoma, possibly caused by the ingestion of fermented foods containing B. brevis spores. This case also demonstrates a pattern of antibiotic susceptibility with differing in vitro and in vivo bactericidal efficacy.
Feng, Xiaoran; Yang, Xiao; Yi, Chunyan; Guo, Qunying; Mao, Haiping; Jiang, Zongpei; Li, Zhibin; Chen, Dongmei; Cui, Yingpeng; Yu, Xueqing
♦ Introduction: Escherichia coli (E. coli) peritonitis is a frequent, serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). The extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli peritonitis is associated with poorer prognosis and its incidence has been on continuous increase during the last decades. However, the clinical course and outcomes of E. coli peritonitis remain largely unclear. ♦ Methods: All of the E. coli peritonitis episodes that occurred in our dialysis unit from 2006 to 2011 were reviewed. The polymicrobial episodes were excluded. ♦ Results: In total, ninety episodes of monomicrobial E. coli peritonitis occurred in 68 individuals, corresponding to a rate of 0.027 episodes per patient-year. E. coli was the leading cause (59.2%) of monomicrobial gram-negative peritonitis. ESBL-producing strains accounted for 35.5% of E. coli peritonitis. The complete cure rate and treatment failure rate of E. coli peritonitis were 77.8% and 10.0% respectively. Patients with preceding peritonitis had a higher risk of ESBL production as compared to those without peritonitis history [odds ratio (OR): 5.286; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.018 - 13.843; p = 0.001]. The risk of treatment failure was significantly increased when the patient had a baseline score of Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) above 3 (OR: 6.155; 95% CI: 1.198 - 31.612; p = 0.03), or had diabetes mellitus (OR: 8.457; 95% CI: 1.838 - 38.91; p = 0.006), or hypoalbuminemia (≤ 30g/l) on admission (OR: 13.714; 95% CI: 1.602 - 117.428; p = 0.01). Prolonging the treatment course from 2 to 3 weeks or more reduced the risk of relapse and repeat significantly (p < 0.05). ♦ Conclusions: E. coli peritonitis remains a common complication of PD. The clinical outcomes of E. coli peritonitis are relatively favorable despite the high ESBL rate. A history of peritonitis is associated with increased risk for ESBL development. The severity of baseline comorbidities, the presence of diabetes mellitus and
Tang, Wen; Cho, Yeoungjee; Hawley, Carmel M.; Badve, Sunil V.; Johnson, David W.
♦ Background: There is limited available evidence regarding the role of monitoring serum gentamicin concentrations in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients receiving this antimicrobial agent in gram-negative PD-associated peritonitis. ♦ Methods: Using data collected in all patients receiving PD at a single center who experienced a gram-negative peritonitis episode between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2011, we investigated the relationship between measured serum gentamicin levels on day 2 following initial empiric antibiotic therapy and subsequent clinical outcomes of confirmed gram-negative peritonitis. ♦ Results: Serum gentamicin levels were performed on day 2 in 51 (77%) of 66 first gram-negative peritonitis episodes. Average serum gentamicin levels on day 2 were 1.83 ± 0.84 mg/L with levels exceeding 2 mg/L in 22 (43%) cases. The overall cure rate was 64%. No cases of ototoxicity were observed. Day-2 gentamicin levels were not significantly different between patients who did and did not have a complication or cure. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, failure to cure peritonitis was not associated with either day-2 gentamicin level (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25 - 3.73) or continuation of gentamicin therapy beyond day 2 (OR 0.28, 0.02 - 3.56). The only exception was polymicrobial peritonitis, where day-2 gentamicin levels were significantly higher in episodes that were cured (2.06 ± 0.41 vs 1.29 ± 0.71, p = 0.01). In 17 (26%) patients receiving extended gentamicin therapy, day-5 gentamicin levels were not significantly related to peritonitis cure. ♦ Conclusion: Day-2 gentamicin levels did not predict gentamicin-related harm or efficacy during short-course gentamicin therapy for gram-negative PD-related peritonitis, except in cases of polymicrobial peritonitis, where higher levels were associated with cure. PMID:24385334
Hoover, J A
Outpatient surgery will be the driving force in the continued growth of ambulatory care in the 1990s. Providing efficient, high-quality ambulatory surgical services should therefore be a priority among healthcare providers. Arthur Andersen conducted a survey to discover best practices in ambulatory surgical service. General success characteristics of best performers were business-focused relationships with physicians, the use of clinical protocols, patient convenience, cost management, strong leadership, teamwork, streamlined processes and efficient design. Other important factors included scheduling to maximize OR room use; achieving surgical efficiencies through reduced case pack assembly errors and equipment availability; a focus on cost capture rather than charge capture; sound materiel management practices, such as standardization and vendor teaming; and the appropriate use of automated systems. It is important to evaluate whether the best practices are applicable to your environment and what specific changes to your current processes would be necessary to adopt them.
Di Liberato, Lorenzo; Arduini, Arduino; Rossi, Claudia; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto; Posari, Cosima; Sacchetta, Paolo; Urbani, Andrea; Bonomini, Mario
Carnitine metabolism in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD), particularly automated PD (APD), has not been extensively evaluated. Here, we examined levels of a large number of carnitine species in plasma from adult uremic patients treated with continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) or APD, vetting whether L-carnitine may be used in the solution bag for APD therapy. Plasma levels of carnitine and its esters were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry in 14 patients on CAPD (3 × 1.5 % glucose daily and icodextrin overnight), 16 patients on APD (tidal modality), and 8 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. PD groups did not differ with regard to demographic characteristics, renal function, dialysis features, peritoneal function, or biochemistry. In five APD patients, we also examined the safety and efficacy of L-carnitine (5 g) addition to one night-dwell solution bag over five consecutive days. Several abnormalities were found in plasma carnitine species of PD patients as compared to controls, mainly represented by a reduction of free carnitine and an increase in acetyl-carnitine, dicarboxylic and other carnitines. The main carnitine species (free carnitine, acetyl-carnitine) were significantly lower in plasma from APD than CAPD patients. APD patients tolerated L-carnitine supplementation well, laboratory, physical and dialysis parameters proving stable. Plasma carnitine metabolism is abnormal in patients on PD, and may be influenced by the PD modality. Given the good tolerability and potential advantages of carnitine used in the PD fluid, L-carnitine-containing solution bags in APD treatment definitely merit further evaluation.
Babazono, Tetsuya; Nakamoto, Hidetomo; Kasai, Kenji; Kuriyama, Satoru; Sugimoto, Tokuichiro; Nakayama, Masaaki; Hamada, Chieko; Furuya, Ryuichi; Hasegawa, Hirofumi; Kasahara, Masato; Moriishi, Misaki; Tomo, Tadashi; Miyazaki, Masanobu; Sato, Manaka; Yorioka, Noriaki; Kawaguchi, Yoshindo
Icodextrin reduces glucose absorption from the peritoneal dialysate. We conducted this prospective, open-labeled, multicenter study to determine the effects of icodextrin on glycemic and lipid parameters in diabetic patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (PD) or automated PD. Patients were recruited from 15 institutions in Japan, and a total of 51 patients (15 women and 36 men, mean age: 59 +/- 10 years, median duration of PD: 13 months) were enrolled. The patients were administered an overnight or daytime dwell of 1.5 or 2.0 l of 7.5% icodextrin-containing solution. At baseline and 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the start of icodextrin, nonfasting blood was drawn for measurement of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) and serum lipids. During icodextrin treatment, there was no change in overall HbA1C levels compared to baseline values; however, for those with baseline HbA1C > or =6.5% (n = 22), significant decreases in HbA1C were observed. Mean total/LDL cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased significantly during icodextrin treatment, with greater decreases for patients with baseline total cholesterol > or =220 mg/dl, LDL cholesterol > or =120 mg/dl or triglycerides > or =150 mg/dl. HDL cholesterol did not differ at any time point; however, values for patients with baseline HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dl tended to increase with marginal significance. In the current study, switching from glucose-containing dialysis solution to icodextrin resulted in improved lipid profiles and possibly a favorable metabolic profile, particularly in patients with poor glycemic control. These hypotheses remain to be proven in controlled clinical trials. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Peritoneal dialysis can be considered a "wearable" dialysis therapy. However, patients typically require 3 or 4 daily exchanges, each taking 20-40 minutes and potentially increasing the risk of infection by repeated disconnection and reconnection. Although peritoneal dialysis cyclers allow patients to be "free" from their machine for 13-15 hours, they similarly need a supply of fresh dialysate. Several groups have therefore explored the possibility of trying to minimize dialysate exchanges by recycling dialysate. However, that approach introduces not only a series of challenges, including regeneration of the spent dialysate, maintenance of acid-base and electrolyte balance and adequate ultrafiltration, but also new hurdles to be overcome, including monitoring the sorbents to determine when capacity is exceeded. The proposed Vicenza Wearable Artificial Kidney system consists of a continuous-flow peritoneal dialysis system that combines sorbents in series and urease to regenerate dialysate during the day, and a 7.5% icodextrin exchange overnight.
Bolognesi, Massimo; Bolognesi, Diletta
Background Peritoneal tuberculosis is very rare in European countries. However, its incidence is increasing due to the continued immigration of people from endemic areas affected by tuberculosis. Case Report: The authors report a case of tuberculous peritonitis in a 46-year-old male patient from North Africa. The presenting symptoms of the disease were hiccups, dyspepsia, anorexia, and weight loss. Physical examination revealed an abdominal distension that suggested the presence of ascites. Subsequent investigations of ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen revealed the presence of massive ascites. A diagnostic laparoscopy went on to highlight a macro micronodular degeneration of the peritoneum. Histological examination showed the presence of epithelioid granulomas with typical Langhans cells with areas of caseous necrosis. The diagnosis of tuberculous peritonitis was then made, and the ascites quickly disappeared in response to the anti-mycobacterial therapy. The patient remained free of symptoms after 6 months of clinical follow-up. Conclusions: In this case the clinical diagnosis was complicated and delayed due to clinicians’ suboptimal knowledge of and experience with this disease. This case demonstrates why laparoscopy with peritoneal biopsy should be the gold standard in any clinical suspicion. PMID:23826447
Cho, Yeoungjee; Badve, Sunil V.; Hawley, Carmel M.; Wiggins, Kathryn; Johnson, David W.
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a preferred home dialysis modality and has a number of added advantages including improved initial patient survival and cost effectiveness over haemodialysis. Despite these benefits, uptake of PD remains relatively low, especially in developed countries. Wider implementation of PD is compromised by higher technique failure from infections (e.g., PD peritonitis) and ultrafiltration failure. These are inevitable consequences of peritoneal injury, which is thought to result primarily from continuous exposure to PD fluids that are characterised by their “unphysiologic” composition. In order to overcome these barriers, a number of more biocompatible PD fluids, with neutral pH, low glucose degradation product content, and bicarbonate buffer have been manufactured over the past two decades. Several preclinical studies have demonstrated their benefit in terms of improvement in host cell defence, peritoneal membrane integrity, and cytokine profile. This paper aims to review randomised controlled trials assessing the use of biocompatible PD fluids and their effect on clinical outcomes. PMID:23251801
Since its inception 30 years ago, AEEG has continued to evolve--from four-channel tape recorders to 32-channel digital recorders with sophisticated automatic spike and seizure detection algorithms. AEEG remains an important tool in epilepsy evaluation. In the near future, smaller, faster, and more sophisticated AEEGs will be developed. Seizure detection/anticipation systems will allow the wearer to be forewarned of a seizure so that appropriate safety measures can be taken. With further refinement in our understanding of nonlinear dynamic analysis to define the pre-ictal state, AEEG will be coupled with an accurate seizure anticipation device in a closed-loop system, providing a time window during which therapeutic intervention can occur, to prevent a seizure. The therapeutic intervention will most likely involve vagus nerve or deep brain stimulation. An alternative is that the patient may learn to recognize early symptoms of the pre-ictal state and use behavioral biofeedback interventions to avoid a clinical seizure. In order to achieve convenient ambulatory recording and seizure detection that could realistically improve the lives of patients with refractory epilepsy, the process of miniaturization of such a device to a convenient size must be accomplished. One of the aspects of epilepsy that patients find most frustrating, and that most limits activities, is the vulnerability to sudden unexpected incapacitation due to the occurrence of a seizure. With miniaturization of AEEG and seizure anticipation technology, and advancements in our ability to identify the transition from pre-ictal to ictal state, there is realistic hope that patients with refractory epilepsy may gain control over their seizures and enjoy significantly improved quality of life.
Lemoine, Lieselotte; Sugarbaker, Paul; Van der Speeten, Kurt
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Besides the lymphatic and haematogenous routes of dissemination, CRC frequently gives rise to transcoelomic spread of tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity, which ultimately leads to peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC). PC is associated with a poor prognosis and bad quality of life for these patients in their terminal stages of disease. A loco-regional treatment modality for PC combining cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal peroperative chemotherapy has resulted in promising clinical results. However, this novel approach is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. A comprehensive understanding of the molecular events involved in peritoneal disease spread is paramount in avoiding unnecessary toxicity. The emergence of PC is the result of a molecular crosstalk between cancer cells and host elements, involving several well-defined steps, together known as the peritoneal metastatic cascade. Individual or clumps of tumor cells detach from the primary tumor, gain access to the peritoneal cavity and become susceptible to the regular peritoneal transport. They attach to the distant peritoneum, subsequently invade the subperitoneal space, where angiogenesis sustains proliferation and enables further metastatic growth. These molecular events are not isolated events but rather a continuous and interdependent process. In this manuscript, we review current data regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of colorectal PC, with a special focus on the peritoneum and the role of the surgeon in peritoneal disease spread. PMID:27678351
Fetter, R B; Averill, R F; Lichtenstein, J L; Freeman, J L
This article describes Ambulatory Visit Groups (AVGs) and the process by which they were defined. An approach to the analysis of physician productivity in the ambulatory setting is then demonstrated, with data derived from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey . Finally, recommendations for future work are presented to make this approach more effective in designing and managing ambulatory care delivery organizations. PMID:6490373
Chmiel, Alan; Humphreys, Brad
A compact, ambulatory biometric data acquisition system has been developed for space and commercial terrestrial use. BioWATCH (Bio medical Wireless and Ambulatory Telemetry for Crew Health) acquires signals from biomedical sensors using acquisition modules attached to a common data and power bus. Several slots allow the user to configure the unit by inserting sensor-specific modules. The data are then sent real-time from the unit over any commercially implemented wireless network including 802.11b/g, WCDMA, 3G. This system has a distributed computing hierarchy and has a common data controller on each sensor module. This allows for the modularity of the device along with the tailored ability to control the cards using a relatively small master processor. The distributed nature of this system affords the modularity, size, and power consumption that betters the current state of the art in medical ambulatory data acquisition. A new company was created to market this technology.
Assaly, M; Bongiovanni, M; Kumar, N; Egger, J-F; Pelte, M-F; Genevay, M; Finci, V; Tschanz, E; Pache, J-C
To describe the cytological aspect of peritoneal washings in benign multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (BMPM). Three peritoneal washing specimens stained by standard cytological and histological procedures and analysed by light microscopy. The specimens showed an abundance of monomorphous mesothelial cells devoid of atypia or mitoses. The mesothelial cells were calretinin positive. They also showed numerous squamous metaplastic cells arranged in flat sheets or isolated cells. The background contained some inflammatory cells. The combination of cytology of the peritoneal washing, histology (cell block and surgical specimen) and clinical history allow differentiation of BMPM from other cystic lesions (cystic lymphangioma and malignant mesothelioma).
Shah, Nikhil; Naidu, Prenilla; Pauly, Robert P.
Background: Abiotrophia defectiva is a fastidious aerobic gram-positive bacterium which is part of the normal flora of the human oral cavity. It is an unusual cause of peritoneal dialysis–related peritonitis. Case Presentation: We present a case of a man in his fifties with end-stage renal failure secondary to polycystic kidney disease who presented with a cloudy peritoneal fluid effluent and a cell count of 35 620 × 106 cells/L with 90% polymorphonuclear cells. The fluid was cultured per unit protocol, and the organism was identified as Abiotrophia defectiva. Post–peritonitis dialysis technique review revealed frequent lapses in the use of facemask and hand washing during cycler connection and disconnection. The patient responded well to vancomycin; however, he subsequently developed ultrafiltration failure and symptoms of fluid overload and uremia and was transferred to home hemodialysis. Conclusions: Abiotrophia defectiva is an unusual cause of peritoneal dialysis–related peritonitis. The organism is a normal commensal of the oral cavity and may cause peritonitis in patients with nonadherence to dialysis technique. In our case, the infection was followed by peritoneal membrane failure and transfer to hemodialysis. It remains to be seen if peritonitis with Abiotrophia defectiva heralds a worse outcome. PMID:28270927
Posthuma, N; Borgstein, P J; Eijsbouts, Q; ter Wee, P M
Catheter-related infections result in high patient morbidity, the need for temporary haemodialysis, and high costs. These infections are the main cause of limited technique survival in peritoneal dialysis. We introduced a protocol for the simultaneous peritoneoscopic insertion and removal of peritoneal catheters in patients with catheter-related infections. Peritoneal dialysis was continued the day after surgery using low-volume dwells and a dry abdomen during the daytime. The dialysate leukocyte count had to be below 100/mm3 before exchanging catheters, which was performed under antibiotic therapy based on culture sensitivity. The old catheter was removed after the new catheter had been inserted in the opposite abdominal region. CAPD patients were switched to APD for 1 week, which made prolonged hospitalization necessary. Simultaneous catheter insertion and removal was performed 25 times in 22 patients on CCPD and 15 times in 14 patients on CAPD. In CCPD patients, peritoneal dialysis was restarted after 1.0+/-0.1 days in 24 cases. One patient had sufficient residual renal function and discontinued CCPD until day 10. In 10 CAPD patients (11 procedures) APD was started 1.3+/-0.2 days after the procedure with CAPD beginning 7.1+/-0.6 days thereafter. Three CAPD patients preferred haemodialysis and restarted CAPD 10.0+/-2.1 days after surgery. One patient continued CAPD the day after surgery. In addition to minor complications (e.g. position-dependent outflow problems), dialysate leakage occurred in two patients. Two patients developed peritonitis within the first 30 days after surgery, one of which was procedure related. One patient had severe lower gastrointestinal bleeding 2 weeks after the procedure, which was not related to the catheter replacement. Ultimately, in 38 of 40 procedures the patients could successfully continue peritoneal dialysis. We conclude that simultaneous insertion and removal of a peritoneal dialysis catheter without interruption of peritoneal
Bridda, Alessio; Padoan, Ilaria; Mencarelli, Roberto; Frego, Mauro
Background Malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare aggressive tumor of the peritoneum, regarded as a universally fatal disease. It is poorly described and the knowledge of its natural history is very limited. Occupational and environmental asbestos exposure still remains a public health problem around the world. The incidence has increased in the past 2 decades. Only 20% to 33% of all mesotheliomas arise from the peritoneum itself; the pleura is the most common site of origin. PMID:17955087
Machado, Norman O
Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the peritoneum with an unknown aetiology. Also known as abdominal cocoon, the condition occurs when loops of the bowel are encased within the peritoneal cavity by a membrane, leading to intestinal obstruction. Due to its rarity and non-specific clinical features, it is often misdiagnosed. The condition presents with recurrent episodes of small bowel obstruction and can be idiopathic or secondary; the latter is associated with predisposing factors such as peritoneal dialysis or abdominal tuberculosis. In the early stages, patients can be managed conservatively; however, surgical intervention is necessary for those with advanced stage intestinal obstruction. A literature review revealed 118 cases of SEP; the mean age of these patients was 39 years and 68.0% were male. The predominant presentation was abdominal pain (72.0%), distension (44.9%) or a mass (30.5%). Almost all of the patients underwent surgical excision (99.2%) without postoperative complications (88.1%).
Machado, Norman O.
Sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis (SEP) is a rare chronic inflammatory condition of the peritoneum with an unknown aetiology. Also known as abdominal cocoon, the condition occurs when loops of the bowel are encased within the peritoneal cavity by a membrane, leading to intestinal obstruction. Due to its rarity and non-specific clinical features, it is often misdiagnosed. The condition presents with recurrent episodes of small bowel obstruction and can be idiopathic or secondary; the latter is associated with predisposing factors such as peritoneal dialysis or abdominal tuberculosis. In the early stages, patients can be managed conservatively; however, surgical intervention is necessary for those with advanced stage intestinal obstruction. A literature review revealed 118 cases of SEP; the mean age of these patients was 39 years and 68.0% were male. The predominant presentation was abdominal pain (72.0%), distension (44.9%) or a mass (30.5%). Almost all of the patients underwent surgical excision (99.2%) without postoperative complications (88.1%). PMID:27226904
Nakamura-Taira, Nanako; Muranaka, Yoshimi; Miwa, Masako; Kin, Seikon; Hirai, Kei
The preference for dialysis modalities is not well understood in Japan. This study explored the subjective views of Japanese patients undergoing dialysis regarding their treatments. The participants were receiving in-center hemodialysis (CHD) or continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In Study 1, 34 participants (17 CHD and 17 CAPD) were interviewed about the advantages and disadvantages of dialysis modalities. In Study 2, 454 dialysis patients (437 CHD and 17 CAPD) rated the advantages and disadvantages of CHD and CAPD in a cross-sectional survey. Interviews showed that professional care and dialysis-free days were considered as advantages of CHD, while independence, less hospital visits, and flexibility were considered as advantages of CAPD. Disadvantages of CHD included restriction of food and fluids and unpleasant symptoms after each dialysis session. Catheter care was an additional disadvantage of CAPD. Survey showed that the highly ranked advantages were professional care in CHD and less frequent hospital visits in CAPD, while the highly ranked disadvantages were concerns about emergency and time restrictions in CHD, and catheter care and difficulty in soaking in a bath in CAPD. The total scores of advantages and disadvantages showed that CHD patients subjectively rated their own modality better CHD over CAPD, while CAPD patients had the opposite opinion. The results of this study indicate that the factors affecting the decision-making process of Japanese patients are unique to Japanese culture, namely considering the trouble caused to the people around patients (e.g., families, spouses, and/or caregivers).
Alwakeel, J; Gader, A M; Hurieb, S; al-Momen, A K; Mitwalli, A; Abu Aisha, H
Coagulation inhibitors and fibrinolytic parameters were studied in twelve patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and ten patients on haemodialysis (HD). Patients on CAPD exhibited higher levels of ATIII and proteins C and S than those on HD. No significant differences were noted in tPA and PAI levels. Both groups of patients showed higher levels of tPA than controls. Besides, patients on HD had significantly lower levels of ATIII and protein C than controls. PAI levels in both patient groups were similar to those of the controls, but tPA levels were higher in patients than in controls. These results indicate that HD is associated with marked diminution in the circulating levels of coagulation inhibitors. This is in contrast to CAPD patients who showed elevated levels of these inhibitors, despite their significant loss in the dialysate. The finding of enhanced fibrinolysis in both patient groups may be a natural protective mechanism against the development of a thrombotic tendency.
Hiramatsu, Takeyuki; Hayasaki, Takahiro; Hobo, Akinori; Furuta, Shinji; Kabu, Koki; Tonozuka, Yukio; Iida, Yoshiyasu
Icodextrin-based peritoneal dialysis (PD) has many advantages over glucose-based PD. The present study aimed to investigate when icodextrin should be started for better management of cardiovascular status (as defined by echocardiography findings) and residual renal function (RRF). We retrospectively analyzed 40 patients treated with continuous ambulatory PD or automated PD. The patients were divided into these groups: Group A: started icodextrin within 2 weeks after PD onset. Group B: started icodextrin 1 year after PD onset. Group C: started icodextrin 2 years after PD onset. Group D: never used icodextrin during the study period. At the start of PD, we observed no significant difference in left ventricular mass index (LVMI) or urine volume (UV) between the groups. At 4 years, LVMI and UV were both significantly improved in group A compared with group D. The amelioration in LVMI was negatively associated with phosphate elimination. Our study showed that icodextrin preserved RRF and ameliorated left ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, the timing of icodextrin introduction in PD patients influenced the clinical effects, including progression of cardiac hypertrophy and RRF.
Gulcan, Aynur; Gulcan, Erim; Keles, Mustafa; Aktas, Esin
We aimed to investigate the frequency of oral yeast colonization (OYC) and the risk factors for patients who received continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or hemodialysis (HD) or were renal transplant recipients (RTRs). The patients admitted to the Nephrology Clinic at Ataturk University Medical School from January through April 2013 were included in the study. A questionnaire about risk factors was filled out, and swab cultures were taken from the tongue surface of each participant. OYC was detected in 32.1% of the RTRs, 40% of the HD patients, 20.9% of the CAPD patients, and 18% of the healthy control (HC) group. Of the 42 yeast strains isolated from the renal replacement therapy groups, 26 strains (61.9%) were Candida albicans, nine (21.4%) were Candida glabrata, two (4.7%) were Candida krusei, two (4.7%) were Candida kefyr, one (2.38%) was Candida parapsilosis, and two (4.7%) were Geotrichum candidum. Risk factors for OYC in the RTRs group included antibiotic use and the presence of dental prostheses; however, in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing CAPD, only the presence of dental prostheses was found to be a statistically significant risk factor. Although OYC was mostly detected in patients with chronic kidney disease (undergoing HD, a variety of isolated yeast strains in the RTRs was noted. The rates of OYC and isolated Candida species in CAPD were similar to those of the HC group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schwaiger, Johannes P; Kopriva-Altfahrt, Gertrude; Söllner, Wolfgang; König, Paul
Personality psychology is increasingly used in various clinical medicine settings to help in decision-making in difficult situations, especially in chronic disease. Patients with chronic renal disease are very dependent on modern medicine, and psychological aspects could help give answers in certain circumstances. Logotherapy and Existence analysis, after Viktor Frankl (Third Viennese School of Psychotherapy), is the theory of the possibilities and conditions for a fulfilled existence and evaluates a different aspect of personality psychology, namely meaning (in life). We used the existence scale questionnaire in this pilot study to investigate the personal abilities self-distancing, self-transcendence, freedom and responsibility in dialysis patients and compared a group of hemodialysis (HD) patients with patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). We studied a mixed dialysis cohort (24 HD, 24 CAPD) at two Austrian centers (Innsbruck Medical University Hospital and Wilhelminenspital of the City of Vienna). Overall, results for dialysis patients (n = 48) were very close to those reported for healthy persons; however, CAPD patients scored significantly better than HD patients (p = 0.017) on the subscale self-distancing. This significant difference was also seen in the overall scores (p = 0.045). Our results might indicate that contented CAPD patients have personal abilities that predestine them for this type of treatment. The existence scale might help decide between CAPD and HD treatment alternatives.
Kitterer, Daniel; Latus, Joerg; Pöhlmann, Christoph; Alscher, M Dominik; Kimmel, Martin
Peritonitis is one of the most important causes of treatment failure in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. This study describes changes in characteristics of causative organisms in PD-related peritonitis and antimicrobial susceptibility. In this single center study we analyzed retrospective 487 susceptibility profiles of the peritoneal fluid cultures of 351 adult patients with peritonitis from 1979 to 2014 (divided into three time periods, P1-P3). Staphylococcus aureus decreased from P1 compared to P2 and P3 (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) occurred only in P3. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) increased in P3 over P1 and P2 (P <0.0001, respectively). In P2 and P3, vancomycin resistant enterococci were detected. The percentage of gram-negative organisms remained unchanged. Third generation cephalosporin resistant gram-negative rods (3GCR-GN) were found exclusively in P3. Cefazolin-susceptible gram-positive organisms decreased over the three decades (93% in P1, 75% in P2 and 58% in P3, P<0.01, P<0.05 and P<0.0001, respectively). Vancomycin susceptibility decreased and gentamicin susceptibility in gram-negatives was 94% in P1, 82% in P2 and 90% in P3. Ceftazidim susceptibility was 84% in P2 and 93% in P3. Peritonitis caused by MSSA decreased, but peritonitis caused by MRSE increased. MRSA peritonitis is still rare. Peritonitis caused by 3GCR-GN is increasing. An initial antibiotic treatment protocol should be adopted for PD patients to provide continuous surveillance.
Barker, Lee R.
In 1974 an ambulatory practice was developed for the house staff in the Department of Medicine at Baltimore City Hospital and integrated into the traditional residency program, which is based upon block rotations in inpatient services, emergency service, and subspeciality electives. The goals and strategies of this program are described. (LB H)
Raetzo, M A
The perspectives of the insurance companies, medical associations and practitioners about quality in outpatient care are different. After a brief discussion of each of these views, a proposal for quality improvement through continuous medical education is presented. It applies to the doctor-patient relationship, the diagnostic and therapeutic strategies and the handling of uncertainty. Practically, simulations can help the physicians to understand the theory behind continuous quality improvement and apply it to the process of outpatient care.
Courivaud, Cécile; Bardonnet, Karine; Crepin, Thomas; Bresson-Vautrin, Catherine; Rebibou, Jean-Michel; Ducloux, Didier
Peritonitis is a frequent and serious complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). Whether low immunoglobulin level is associated with PD-related peritonitis is unknown. We conducted a prospective study to assess whether immunoglobulin levels at PD onset could predict the occurrence of peritonitis. All patients starting peritoneal dialysis between 01/2005 and 12/2010 at the University hospital of Besançon, France, were included in the study. Of 240 consecutive PD patients enrolled (mean follow-up 25 ± 12 months), 76 (32%) had at least one episode of peritonitis. Mean immunoglobulin (Ig)G level at PD start was lower in patients who subsequently experienced peritonitis (7.9 + 3.4 vs. 9.7 + 3.4 g/l, p = 0.005). An increased IgG level at PD onset was associated with a reduced risk of peritonitis [hazard ratio (HR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.80-0.97 for each increase of 1 g/l in IgG, p = 0.008]. IgG level ≤6.4 g/l ("low IgG") was the best predictive value for the occurrence of subsequent peritonitis: 52 patients (24%) had low IgG levels. At multivariate analysis, both low IgG level (HR 2.49, 95% CI 1.32-4.69, p = 0.005) and diabetes (HR 2.78, 95% CI 1.49-5.20, p = 0.001) were predictive of the occurrence of peritonitis. Low IgG levels predict the occurrence of PD-related peritonitis. Randomized studies should determine whether such patients could benefit from intravenous immunoglobulin administration.
Background Bacterial infections account for most peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis episodes. However, anaerobic PD peritonitis is extremely rare and intuitively associated with intra-abdominal lesions. In this study, we examined the clinical characteristics of PD patients who developed anaerobic peritonitis. Methods We retrospectively identified all anaerobic PD peritonitis episodes from a prospectively collected PD registry at a single center between 1990 and 2010. Only patients receiving more than 3 months of PD were enrolled. We analyzed clinical features as well as outcomes of anaerobic PD peritonitis patients. Results Among 6 patients, 10 episodes of PD-associated peritonitis were caused by anaerobic pathogens (1.59% of all peritonitis episodes during study the period), in which the cultures from 5 episodes had mixed growth. Bacteroides fragilis was the most common species identified (4 isolates). Only 3 episodes were associated with gastrointestinal lesions, and 4 episodes were related to a break in sterility during exchange procedures. All anaerobic pathogens were susceptible to clindamycin and metronidazole, but penicillin resistance was noted in 4 isolates. Ampicillin/sulbactam resistance was found in 2 isolates. In 5 episodes, a primary response was achieved using the first-generation cephalosporin and ceftazidime or aminoglycoside. In 3 episodes, the first-generation cephalosporin was replaced with aminoglycosides. Tenckhoff catheter removal was necessary in 2 episodes. Only one episode ended with mortality (due to a perforated bowel). Conclusion Anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis might be predominantly caused by contamination, rather than intra-abdominal events. Half of anaerobic PD-associated peritonitis episodes had polymicrobial growth. The overall outcome of anaerobic peritonitis is fair, with a high catheter survival rate. PMID:23705895
Alvarez, Eduardo; Castillo, Alvaro; Iturrieta, Isabel
Fungal peritonitis is a relatively uncommon infection in peritoneal dialysis patients. However, it can be associated with significant morbimortality. In recent reports, Candida species and other filamentous fungi have been reported as being aetiological agents. Thermoascus species are ubiquitous, thermophilic fungi, with an anamorph in the Paecilomyces genus. Here we present the first report of fungal peritonitis by Thermoascus crustaceus from Chile. We present the case of an 83-year-old female patient, with a history of cholecystectomy, hernia repair, severe arterial hypertension, hip and knee osteoarthritis and several episodes of peritoneal dialysis with a cloudy exudate. Bacterial cultures were negative. In addition, a history of two months with intermittent fever peaks mainly in the evening was reported. Blood culture bottles inoculated with peritoneal fluid revealed the presence of fungal growth. Morphological and molecular studies allowed us to identify the aetiological agent as Thermoascus crustaceus. An antifungal susceptibility test was performed using the M38-A2 method, developed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The MIC values to amphotericin B, itraconazole, voriconazole and echinochandins were 0.5, 0.25, 0.25 and 0.125μg/ml, respectively. Antifungal treatment with amphotericin B was prescribed, with good patient progress. Fungal peritonitis is a very rare entity. Moreover, the spectrum of fungal pathogens continues to expand, a reason for which morphological and molecular studies are necessary for a rapid diagnosis. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Mallion, J M; Tremel, F; Siché, J P; Azzouzi, L; Baguet, J P
The advent of new techniques has greatly contributed to the development of ambulatory measurement as a noninvasive method for evaluating blood pressure. The technique implies use of a validated and reliable standardized apparatus. The operator must strictly comply with operating procedures, which must also be explained to the patient. Ambulatory measurement can be meaningful only if the results are compatible with reference values, which have now been established, and if the causes of possible error can be recognized and interpreted. Ambulatory blood pressure measurement has greatly improved our knowledge of physiological and pathological variations over the circadian cycle including day/night variability and the effects of psychosensorial stimulation. Diagnostic indications are clearly identified and include borderline hypertension suspected but not identified after about 3 months, the white coat effect, severe hypertension when modifications in the circadian cycle are suspected, paroxysmal hypertension, suspected pheochromocytoma, and gravid hypertension or an inversion of the circadian cycle possibly preceding an episode of eclampsia. There are also a certain number of particular indications in patients with degenerative or primary conditions affecting their autonomy. The true prognostic value of these recordings was recognized several years ago and has been confirmed by clinical trials. For example, the white blouse effect has no significant implication in terms or predicting less favourable morbidity or mortality. Finally, ambulatory blood pressure measurement has been definitively shown to be a valid method for evaluating the therapeutic effect of an anti-hypertensive drug in a given patient, especially when resting levels are questioned. For therapeutic trials, ambulatory measurements serve as a reference to evaluate the effect of treatment on the circadian cycle. Peak/dip levels can thus be determined in comparison with the residual effect of the drug. A
Macleod, C; McElroy, G; O'Loan, D; Kennedy, F; Kerr, R M; Jenkins, J; Lim, J
To determine whether a paediatric ambulatory assessment service is an effective and acceptable replacement for an inpatient unit. Analysis of hospital paediatric medical admissions. Postal questionnaire survey of local general practitioners. Telephone survey of parents of children who had attended the ambulatory service. Rural General Hospital in Northern Ireland. General practitioners. Parents of children referred to assessment service. Number of paediatric medical hospital admissions from the local area before and after the introduction of an ambulatory assessment service. General practitioner satisfaction levels. Parental satisfaction levels. Since the introduction of the new service in April 1996 there has been a marked progressive reduction in paediatric medical hospital admissions from the local area. By the third year of operation of the ambulatory service (1998/99), a 47% reduction in admissions was recorded, compared to the 1995/96 baseline year. The response rate to the general practitioner questionnaire was 65% (37 of 57) of whom most (31, 84%) found the service beneficial. Of the 37 respondents, 31 had referred patients to the service. The majority of these general practitioners (30, 97%) reported that the service was easy to access, and the same proportion felt that requests for consultation were met promptly. Most felt that feedback was appropriate (29, 94%). A telephone survey of 50 parents showed that most were either very satisfied (38, 76%), or satisfied (11, 22%) with the service. Most parents (41, 82%) felt their child had benefited by not being admitted to hospital. Most (46, 92%) felt they had received adequate information regarding their child's illness. A paediatric ambulatory assessment unit can reduce the number of children admitted to hospital and meet the needs of children, their families and general practitioners.
Flanigan, M J; Doyle, C; Lim, V S; Ullrich, G
To determine the feasibility of home tidal peritoneal dialysis (TPD) and to assess whether eight hours of TPD can achieve uremia control and urea removal equal to that of continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). An open enrollment pilot study. The Home Dialysis Training Center of the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, a tertiary care teaching hospital. Nine patients experienced with CCPD and living 80 km to 280 km from the dialysis center began TPD, because they wished to decrease their dialysis time. Following baseline measurements, each patient was taught to perform TPD. TPD consisted of an initial fill volume of 40 mL/kg, a residual volume approximately 20 mL/kg, and tidal exchanges of 10 to 20 mL/kg to achieve the desired hourly flow rate. Clinic assessments took place every four to six weeks, and prescriptions were subsequently altered to attain urea removal equal to that of CCPD. Patient interviews were used to determine TPD acceptance. Prior to each clinic visit, dialysate effluent volume and dialysis duration were recorded, and a sterile sample of the effluent was obtained for urea, creatinine, and total nitrogen measurement. Urea and creatinine clearances increased with dialysate flow. Dialysate nonurea nitrogen was 3.0 +/- 0.2 mmol/kg/D and changed minimally with increasing dialysate volumes. Eight hours of TPD (initial fill: 40 mL/kg; residual volume: 20 mL/kg; tidal inflow: 20 mL/kg) with hourly tidal flow exceeding 40 mL/kg/hr and no daytime volume achieved urea removal equal to that of the patient's prior CCPD prescription. TPD can provide dialysis equal to that of CCPD within a shorter amount of time (eight vs ten hours), but uses a greater volume of dialysate (16.0 L for TPD vs 9.5 L for CCPD).
Canale, R; Barone, R J; Gimenez, N S; Santopietro, M; Ramirez, L; Palliotti, A; Romero, P; Amado, D
With the aim of evaluating nutrition indices and dialysis adequacy level in patients who started peritoneal dialysis (PD) without residual renal function, we retrospectively studied 19 patients [8 men, 11 women; 3 with diabetes (15.8%); mean age: 44.5 +/- 10.74 years; 15 on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), 3 on continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis (CCPD), 1 on nightly intermittent peritoneal dialysis (NIPD)]. The mean time spent by these patients on hemodialysis before PD was 62.7 +/- 54.7 months (range: 8.8-216 months), and the mean time on PD was 46.2 +/- 21.4 months (range: 10-75 months). In these patients, we measured weekly Kt/V urea, weekly creatinine clearance (CrC), normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), body surface area (BSA), urea distribution volume (V), serum albumin, body mass index (BMI), percent lean body mass (%LBM), infusion volume (liters per day), subjective global assessment (SGA), and peritoneal equilibration test (PET). Using the Student t-test at a significance level of p < 0.05, we compared initial body weight (INW), actual weight (AW), and ideal body weight (IBW) according to age, sex, and height. We analyzed actuarial and technique survival (Kaplan-Meier). In regard to patient survival, only death was considered the end point; for technique survival, only technique failure was considered the end point. Data are expressed as mean +/- standard deviation. Results were: Kt/V, 2.20 +/- 0.46 L weekly; CrC, 59.11 +/- 12 L weekly; nPCR, 1.08 +/- 0.25 g/kg daily; BSA, 1.67 +/- 0.2 m2; V, 33.34 +/- 7.12; serum albumin, 3.68 +/- 0.22 g/dL; BMI, 24.06 +/- 4.16; %LBM, 64.92 +/- 10.13; SGA, 94.7% well-nourished; AW, 65.37 +/- 13.88 kg; IBW, 67.21 +/- 10.5 kg (AW vs IBW: r = 0.69, p > 0.05); INW, 61.54 +/- 11.07 kg (INW vs AW: r = 0.92, p < 0.05; INW vs IBW: r = 0.71, p < 0.05). Distribution of transport status by PET was 15.8% high transport, 36.8% high-average transport, 36.8% low-average transport, and 10.5% low transport. Mean
Fourtounas, Costas; Dousdampanis, Periklis; Hardalias, Andreas; Vlachojannis, Jannis G
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) has been considered as a more efficient modality for sodium removal than automated peritoneal dialysis (APD), due to the longer dwell times and the sodium sieving phenomenon. However, because studies regarding sodium removal in peritoneal dialysis (PD) report rather controversial results and carry various methodological flaws, it remains uncertain whether they offer enough significant information regarding PD prescription and therapy. The aim of the present observational cross-sectional study was to evaluate the impact of the optimal prescription of CAPD and APD, regarding solute clearances and daily ultrafiltrate, on daily sodium removal. Forty-six (46) patients aged 52.3 ± 14 years were studied. Twenty-six (26) patients were subjected to CAPD, and 20 patients were subjected to APD. Ten (10) patients per group were prescribed icodextrin for the long dwell to achieve optimal adequacy and ultrafiltration (UF) targets. CAPD patients removed a higher, albeit not statistically significant, daily amount of sodium (131.7 ± 98.2 mmol) compared with APD patients (79.4 ± 129.2 mmol). Their Kt/V urea was lower (1.48 ± 0.3 vs. 2.17 ± 0.33, P < 0.05), and there were no differences on daily UF (1119 ± 533 vs. 1005 ± 517 mL). In both groups, icodextrin use for the long dwell resulted in equal sodium removal with that of patients not prescribed icodextrin. Our results, derived from an unselected PD population, indicate that although classic CAPD may be more efficient for sodium removal than APD, the use of icodextrin as an adjuvant for higher daily UF not only increases solute clearance but also removes more sodium for both modalities. In addition, calculations of sodium removal in PD do not seem to benefit the everyday clinical practice, provided that PD patients can achieve the adequacy targets and present optimal daily UF without signs of volume overload. © 2013, Copyright the
Moinuddin, Zia; Summers, Angela; Van Dellen, David; Augustine, Titus; Herrick, Sarah E.
Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a devastating but, fortunately, rare complication of long-term peritoneal dialysis. The disease is associated with extensive thickening and fibrosis of the peritoneum resulting in the formation of a fibrous cocoon encapsulating the bowel leading to intestinal obstruction. The incidence of EPS ranges between 0.7 and 3.3% and increases with duration of peritoneal dialysis therapy. Dialysis fluid is hyperosmotic, hyperglycemic, and acidic causing chronic injury and inflammation in the peritoneum with loss of mesothelium and extensive tissue fibrosis. The pathogenesis of EPS, however, still remains uncertain, although a widely accepted hypothesis is the “two-hit theory,” where, the first hit is chronic peritoneal membrane injury from long standing peritoneal dialysis followed by a second hit such as an episode of peritonitis, genetic predisposition and/or acute cessation of peritoneal dialysis, leading to EPS. Recently, EPS has been reported in patients shortly after transplantation suggesting that this procedure may also act as a possible second insult. The process of epithelial–mesenchymal transition of mesothelial cells is proposed to play a central role in the development of peritoneal sclerosis, a common characteristic of patients on dialysis, however, its importance in EPS is less clear. There is no established treatment for EPS although evidence from small case studies suggests that corticosteroids and tamoxifen may be beneficial. Nutritional support is essential and surgical intervention (peritonectomy and enterolysis) is recommended in later stages to relieve bowel obstruction. PMID:25601836
Stătescu, G; Cărăuşu, Mihaela
In our clinical study postoperative peritonitis represent 17.01% by operations for neglected peritonitis. The other abdominal complications are eviscerations, postoperative oclusions and residual abscesses. We have to analize the incidence, etiology, diagnosis and surgical management of 25 cases by postoperative peritonitis which appears after operations of 147 cases by neglected peritonitis. The semiology of a postoperative peritonitis it is easy to recognize in young pacients with reactions which appear in a few days after operations : pain localised to the abdominal area well localised in an area in which palpation show contraction. In a few hours the pain became flow. It appears fever,nausea,vommiting and all the clinical signs of peritonitis. The highest prevalence of postoperative peritonitis for which we perform reoperations it appears after appendectomy in 18 cases with fatality 11.11%; next are coming reoperations on stomac and duodenum 4 cases with rate of fatality by 50%, reoperations on small bowell in 2 cases with fatality by 50% and reoperations of big bowell (1 case). On our series of postoperative peritonitis we have a global rate of fatality by 20% from all cases. We have considered this level well in comparison with the dates from another similar experience which show us a rate of fatality which are gone until 90%. Our media of reoperations were about three operations on each cases. If we compare with first operation for neglected peritonitis we have observe that in reoperations we change our plans in the way of making faster minimum necesary because of high risk to dead of this cases. Clinical diagnosis by postoperative peritonitis is difficult to establish and only follow up very care clinical signs of this cases beneath laboratory findings (leucogram, uree, ionogram) and with radiological examination (CT) can tell us about postoperative peritonitis.
Rippe, Bengt; Venturoli, Daniele; Simonsen, Ole; de Arteaga, Javier
In the present review, we summarize the principles governing the transport of fluid and electrolytes across the peritoneum during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) in "average" patients and during ultrafiltration failure (UFF), according to the three-pore model of peritoneal transport. The UF volume curves as a function of dwell time [V(t)] are determined in their early phase by the glucose osmotic conductance [product of the UF coefficient (LpS) and the glucose reflection coefficient (sigmag)] of the peritoneum; in their middle portion by intraperitoneal volume and glucose diffusivity; and in their late portion by the LpS, Starling forces, and lymph flow. The most common cause of UFF is increased transport of small solutes (glucose) across the peritoneum, whereas the LpS is only moderately affected. Concerning peritoneal ion transport, ions that are already more or less fully equilibrated across the membrane at the start of the dwell, such as Na+ (Cl-), Ca2+, and Mg2+, have a convection-dominated transport. The removal of these ions is proportional to UF volume (approximately 10 mmol/L Na+ and 0.12 mmol/L Ca2+ removed per deciliter UF in 4 hours). The present article examines the impact on fluid and solute transport of varying concentrations of Ca2+ and Na+ in peritoneal dialysis solutions. Particularly, the effect of "ultralow" sodium solutions on transport and UF is simulated and discussed. Ions with high initial concentration gradients across the peritoneum, such as K+, phosphate, and bicarbonate, display a diffusion-dominated transport. The transport of these ions can be adequately described by non-electrolyte equations. However, for ions that are in (or near) their diffusion equilibrium over the peritoneum (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+), more complex ion transport equations need to be used. Due to the complexity of these equations, however, non-electrolyte transport formalism is commonly employed, which leads to a marked underestimation of mass transfer
Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Chen, Huei-Wen; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen
Introduction: Non-Pseudomonas gram-negative bacteria are responsible for an increasing proportion of cases of peritoneal dialysis (PD)-related peritonitis. The role of Citrobacter species in the etiology of PD-related peritonitis is often underestimated. In the present study, we aimed to describe the clinical features, laboratory findings, and short- and long-term outcomes in PD-related peritonitis caused by Citrobacter. Methods: A retrospective review of all episodes of PD-related peritonitis caused by Citrobacter from a single center between 1990 and 2010 was performed. Clinical features, microbiological data, and outcomes of these episodes were analyzed. Results: Citrobacter species was responsible for 11 PD-related episodes (1.8% of all peritonitis episodes) in 8 patients. Citrobacter freundii was the most common etiologic species (73%), and mixed growth was found in the other 3 episodes (27%). Approximately half (46%) of the episodes were associated with constipation and/or diarrhea. Of the Citrobacter isolates from all episodes, 54% were resistant to cefazolin, and only 18% were susceptible to cefmetazole. All isolates were susceptible to ceftazidime, cefepime, carbapenem, and aminoglycosides. More than half of the patients (54%) were hospitalized for index peritonitis, and 27% of the episodes involved a change in antibiotic medication. One patient had relapsing peritonitis caused by C. koseri (9%). The mortality rate of PD-related peritonitis caused by Citrobacter was 18%, and 89% of surviving patients developed technique failure requiring a modality switch after an average of 12 months of follow-up (range 1.2-31.2 months). Conclusion: PD-related peritonitis caused by Citrobacter is associated with poor outcomes, including high rates of antibiotic resistance, a high mortality rate, and a high rate of technique failure among survivors during the follow-up period. PMID:23869184
Oz, Yasemin; Kiraz, Nuri; Ozkurt, Sultan; Soydan, Mehmet
Thermoascus crustaceus is a thermophilic fungus and the teleomorph form of Paecilomyces crustaceus. Thermoascus spp. have been rarely isolated from human mycoses as etiological fungal agents. We believe that our patient is the first case of catheter colonization with Thermoascus crustaceus. In a 50-year-old male patient undergoing chronic peritoneal dialysis, the mold was isolated from three separate, consecutive dialysate fluid specimens and peritoneal catheter tip. The patient had slight clinical findings and he was treated by early catheter removal without antifungal treatment. Therefore this case was considered as the colonization of the peritoneal catheter rather than peritonitis. Consequently, we think that the human pathogen fungal spectrum will continue to enlarge.
Momtahan, Mozhdeh; Nemati, Maryam; Safaei, Akbar
Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata is a very rare condition characterized by the development of multiple smooth muscle-like nodules in the peritoneal cavity. It is associated with increased serum levels of gonadal steroids. The present report describes a 29-year-old patient underwent transabdominal hysterectomy and Bilateral Salpingo oophorectomy six years ago because of leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata. After six years she referred to us again because of retroperitoneal fibroma, another rare entity, during hormone replacement therapy inspite of lack of uterus and previous castration.
Momtahan, Mozhdeh; Nemati, Maryam; Safaei, Akbar
Leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata is a very rare condition characterized by the development of multiple smooth muscle-like nodules in the peritoneal cavity. It is associated with increased serum levels of gonadal steroids. The present report describes a 29-year-old patient underwent transabdominal hysterectomy and Bilateral Salpingo oophorectomy six years ago because of leiomyomatosis peritonealis disseminata. After six years she referred to us again because of retroperitoneal fibroma, another rare entity, during hormone replacement therapy inspite of lack of uterus and previous castration. PMID:23365481
Liakopoulos, Vassilios; Stefanidis, Ioannis; Dombros, Nicholas V
A number of attempts to create a commonly accepted terminology regarding definitions and terms used for clinical entities, methods, problems, and materials encountered by health professionals involved in peritoneal dialysis (PD) were undertaken in the past, the last one in 1990. Later on, some relevant sporadic attempts in a number of textbooks have been made, but they did not include the whole spectrum of PD. This glossary is an attempt to address the need for a universally accepted PD terminology including the latest advances in PD connection systems and fluids.
Goldberg, G A
The clinics of a single university hospital center were observed to determine a practical rationale for and impediments to implementing a medical care evaluation program. A quality assurance mechanism is especially important in the ambulatory care setting because of problems with patient compliance, lack of policy continuity, lack of intercommunication among care providers, no counterpart for most inpatient quality-oriented activities, structural defects in many clinics, and general emphasis on the inpatient medicine. Impediments to implementing quality assurance programs include the condition of clinic records and individual charts, lack of established criteria for care, problems of care provider intercommunication during the evaluation process, manpower availability, choice of evaluation method, and method of implementing resulting plans for corrective action.
Chokshi, Dave A; Rugge, John; Shah, Nirav R
Policy Points: The landscape of ambulatory care services in the United States is rapidly changing on account of payment reform, primary care transformation, and the rise of convenient care options such as retail clinics. New York State has undertaken a redesign of regulatory policy for ambulatory care rooted in the Triple Aim (better health, higher-quality care, lower costs)-with a particular emphasis on continuity of care for patients. Key tenets of the regulatory approach include defining and tracking the taxonomy of ambulatory care services as well as ensuring that convenient care options do not erode continuity of care for patients. While hospitals remain important centers of gravity in the health system, services are increasingly being delivered through ambulatory care. This shift to ambulatory care is giving rise to new delivery structures, such as retail clinics and urgent care centers, as well as reinventing existing ambulatory care capacity, as seen with the patient-centered medical home model and the movement toward team-based care. To protect the public's interests, oversight of ambulatory care services must keep pace with these rapid changes. With this purpose, in January 2013 the New York Public Health and Health Planning Council undertook a redesign of the regulatory framework for the state's ambulatory care services. This article describes the principles undergirding the framework as well as the regulatory recommendations themselves. We explored and analyzed the regulation of ambulatory care services in New York in accordance with the available gray and peer-reviewed literature and legislative documents. The deliberations of the Public Health and Health Planning Council informed our review. The vision of high-performing ambulatory care should be rooted in the Triple Aim (better health, higher-quality care, lower costs), with a particular emphasis on continuity of care for patients. There is a pressing need to better define the taxonomy of ambulatory
Colorectal Cancer; Colorectal Neoplasms; Colorectal Carcinoma; Colorectal Adenocarcinoma; Colorectal Cancer Metastatic; Peritoneal Carcinoma; Peritoneal Neoplasms; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Peritoneal Carcinomatosis; Peritoneal Metastases
Hampson, Neil B; Courtney, Todd G; Holm, James R
Measurement of air pollutant levels in the environment is traditionally performed using monitors in fixed locations so that changes over time can be directly compared. Such measurements do not necessarily correlate with the level of exposure to the individual because of distance to the monitoring site and other factors. In the case of carbon monoxide (CO), portable personal monitors are available for industrial use, some of which do not just alarm, but also record measured values. First, it was the purpose of this study to test the feasibility of continuously measuring ambient CO levels in an ambulatory fashion. The second objective was to compare measurements made in a country with significant air pollution to one without to determine the degree to which differences might be observed. Ambient CO levels were measured and recorded every 10 minutes during 13 days of travel in Vietnam. A parallel study was performed in the United States for comnarison. Continuous ambient CO levels at an individual level were successfully measured and recorded. Mean ambient CO level throughout Vietnam was 3.5 ± 4.4 ppm, as compared to 0.9 ± 0.8 ppm in the U.S. (p < 0.001). In Vietnam, 36 CO measurements (2% of total) were 15 ppm or greater vs. none in the U.S. Higher mean levels, as well as number and magnitude of peaks, were highly associated with proximity to traffic. Personal exposures to CO can be measured easily over time and may be more relevant to the individual with underlying disease than data from fixed monitoring stations. Such information may prove useful to potential travelers. Additionally, governmental agencies may find ambulatory measurement to be complimentary to data from fixed monitoring stations when attempting to estimate how traditionally collected data relate to exposure of the individual. The technique could also be used for evaluation of vague complaints suggestive of intermittent CO exposure in the home or workplace.
Tegtmeier, Carl H
A telephone survey of New York State's most significant providers of Medicaid hospital ambulatory surgery dental treatment for special needs patients was conducted in June and July of 2011 to assess whether there had been changes in the availability of dental services following implementation of the Ambulatory Patient Groups (APG) Medicaid payment methodology and the April 2011 35% reduction in fee-for-service reimbursement to dentists who provide this dental care. With release of "Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General" in 2000, attention was focused on the link between oral health and general health, with the report highlighting the difficulties individuals with special needs experienced with respect to their oral health and accessing dental care. The New York State Department of Health in 2005 released its "Oral Health Plan for New York State." It had three stated objectives pertaining to those with special needs. None of these objectives has been met, and the response to this survey revealed waiting times for access to ambulatory surgery dental programs of up to two years and an overall probable 10% to 15% decrease in availability as a direct result of the APG payment methodology and reduction in fee-for-service reimbursements. New York is failing not only to meet the objectives of its own oral health plan, but also to adequately meet the dental health care needs of its most vulnerable citizens.
Dean, Marleah; Oetzel, John; Sklar, David P
Effective communication has been linked to better health outcomes, higher patient satisfaction, and treatment adherence. Communication in ambulatory care contexts is even more crucial, as providers typically do not know patients' medical histories or have established relationships, conversations are time constrained, interruptions are frequent, and the seriousness of patients' medical conditions may create additional tension during interactions. Yet, health communication often unduly emphasizes information exchange-the transmission and receipt of messages leading to a mutual understanding of a patient's condition, needs, and treatments. This approach does not take into account the importance of rapport building and contextual issues, and may ultimately limit the amount of information exchanged.The authors share the perspective of communication scientists to enrich the current approach to medical communication in ambulatory health care contexts, broadening the under standing of medical communication beyond information exchange to a more holistic, multilayered viewpoint, which includes rapport and contextual issues. The authors propose a socio-ecological model for understanding communication in acute ambulatory care. This model recognizes the relationship of individuals to their environment and emphasizes the importance of individual and contextual factors that influence patient-provider interactions. Its key elements include message exchange and individual, organizational, societal, and cultural factors. Using this model, and following the authors' recommendations, providers and medical educators can treat communication as a holistic process shaped by multiple layers. This is a step toward being able to negotiate conflicting demands, resolve tensions, and create encounters that lead to positive health outcomes.
Cirera Segura, F; Martín Espejo, J L; Reina Neyra, M
The objective of the present study is to obtain information about the training programme for patients undergoing Domiciliary Peritoneal Dialysis (DPD) in Spain. For the purposes of the study we designed a questionnaire comprising 50 closed-ended items and one open response item. The questionnaire was sent to 104 hospitals and was completed by 78.84% of them (n > or = 82). The average of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) in the hospitals under study was 27.6: 15.8 of them receiving Chronic Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) and 11.8 Automatic Peritoneal Dialysis (APD). The questionnaire also served to investigate into the training methodology used in the different units, the involvement of the family in the programme, the basic knowledge patients received about Chronic Renal Insufficiency, the procedures associated with the therapy and the preparation they obtained to solve small-scale contingencies and emergency situations as well as the improvement of their quality of life. We also evaluated the training programme of autonomous patients on DPD and at the end of the questionnaire a blank space was left for facilities to add any comments or suggestions they considered relevant. From the results obtained we may conclude that most Spanish hospitals have devised a training planning for patients undergoing PD which helps them or caregivers to perform domiciliary treatment safely, provides them with basic knowledge about the disease and the routine procedures associated with the treatment, enables them to cope with contingencies and emergency situations and improves their quality of life during the dialysis period.
355 Learning from Errors in Ambulatory Pediatrics Julie J. Mohr, Carole M. Lannon, Kathleen A. Thoma, Donna Woods, Eric J. Slora, Richard C...Wasserman, Lynne Uhring Abstract Background: Approximately 70 percent of pediatric care occurs in ambulatory settings, yet there has been little...research on errors and harm in these settings. Given the importance of understanding harm in ambulatory pediatrics , this study was funded by the Agency
Liu, Jia; Wu, Xia; Liu, Yanchun; Xu, Yaguang; Huang, Yuhan; Xing, Changying; Wang, Xiaoyun
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a high-glucose-based peritoneal dialysis solution (HGPDS) on the expression of pleiotrophin (PTN) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMCs) and the mechanisms through which fluvastatin (Flu) protects the peritoneal membrane in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). HPMCs were cultured with HGPDS, Flu (10-8‑10-6 mol/l) and PTN (10‑30 nmol/l). The expression of PTN and VEGF was examined at the mRNA and protein level. To define the role of PTN in the regulation of VEGF expression, HPMCs were cultured with HGPDS in the presence or absence of the blocking peptide of PTN. The signaling pathways involved in PTN synthesis induced by HGPDS were also characterized. The phenotypic characteristics of HPMCs were observed under a light microscope. Cell viability was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) colorimetry and the mRNA and protein expression of PTN, VEGF and ERK1/2 was assessed by RT‑PCR and the western blot analysis, respectively. Following incubation with HGPDS for 48 h, the morphology of the HPMCs changed from a typical cobblestone‑like appearance to a fibroblast‑like phenotype. The same alteration in the morphology of the HPMCs also occurred following incubation with 20 nmol/l PTN. Flu (10-6 mol/l), GSK650394 [a competitive inhibitor of serum/glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1), 10-5 mol/l] and PD98059 (a competitive inhibitor of ERK1/2, 10-5 mol/l) improved the negative changes in cell morphology induced by HGPDS. The results of MTT assay revealed that the reduction in HPMC viability occurred in the groups treated with HGPDS and this reduction was partially restored by Flu, GSK650394 and PD98059. A significant improvement in cell viability, which had been decreased by HGPDS, was observed following treatment with Flu (10-6 mol/l), PD98059 (10-5 mol/l) or GSK650394 (10-5 mol/l) (P<0
The number of patients with end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis has increased markedly over the last decade and continues to grow at an alarming rate in the United States. Of the currently available dialysis options for end-stage renal disease (hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis), peritoneal dialysis (PD) is underutilized in the United States for nonmedical reasons. In fact, PD is the less expensive dialysis modality and may provide a survival advantage over hemodialysis in first 2 to 4 years of treatment, but that advantage is not as robust with increasing age and with the presence of diabetes. Moreover, the initial survival advantage is lost in long-term PD, mainly owing to changes in the peritoneal membrane from the use of conventional bio-incompatible PD solutions. Current data suggest that not many patients continue on PD beyond 10 years. The recent development of a more biocompatible PD solution should help to preserve membrane function, promote ultrafiltration, improve nutritional status, and, it is hoped, prolong the survival advantage of PD. Identification of molecular mechanisms involved in cellular responses leading to peritoneal fibrosis and angiogenesis evokes new therapeutic strategies that might protect the peritoneal membrane against the consequences of long-term PD.
Kang, Gyong Hoon; Kim, Ye Na; Shin, Ho Sik
We investigated the relationship between geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI) and subpopulation lymphocyte counts (SLCs) in hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and evaluated whether they can be helpful in the diagnosis of malnutrition in these patients. We examined the GNRI and SLCs of 50 HD patients (mean: 55.8 ± 12.7 years; 28 men and 22 women) and 16 Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis (CAPD) patients (mean: 49.8 ± 14.5 years; 10 men and six women). The GNRI is calculated based on the serum albumin level, dry weight, and ideal body weight and uses the following equation: GNRI = [14.89 × albumin (g/dL)] + [41.7 × (weight/ideal body weight)]. SLCs were evaluated using flow cytometry. T-tests and χ(2) tests were performed to compare the two groups. Logistic regression analysis was performed for predicting malnutrition in dialysis patients. The average GNRI value was 100.1 ± 8.4 in HD patients and 99.2 ± 8.1 in PD patients, and no significant differences in GNRI or SLC were observed between the two groups. SLCs were higher in patients with higher GNRI (GNRI ≥ 100) although there was no statistical difference. Logistic regression for predicting malnutrition according to GNRI revealed that age, female sex, and CD19 counts predicted malnutrition in HD and PD patients. These results suggest that GNRI and SLCs (especially CD19 count) may be significant nutritional markers in these patients.
Yang, Fan; Lau, Titus; Luo, Nan
This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of haemodialysis (HD), continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Singapore. A Markov model was developed to examine the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of HD, CAPD and APD over the 10-year time horizon from the societal perspective, using clinical data from an observational study and the national renal registry, utilities from published studies and costs from dialysis services providers. The base-case analysis was for a hypothetical cohort of 60-year-old non-diabetic ESRD patients. A high-risk group of 60-year-old diabetic ESRD patients was also studied. In the base-case analysis, the quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were 3.27 with CAPD, 3.48 with APD and 4.69 with HD. The total costs were Singapore dollar $169 872 for CAPD, $201 509 for APD and $306 827 for HD. CAPD and HD had extended dominance over APD. The ICER of HD versus CAPD was $96 447 (US$69 121) per QALY. One-way sensitivity analyses indicated that the results were most sensitive to the utility of HD. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses demonstrated that CAPD had the maximum probability of being cost-effective among treatments under evaluation at a willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of $60 000 (US$43 000) per QALY. The high-risk group analyses showed similar results. The ICER of HD versus CAPD was $106 281 (US$76 168) per QALY and the probability of CAPD being optimal was the highest using the same WTP threshold. Our analysis suggested that starting dialysis with CAPD is most cost-effective for ESRD patients in Singapore. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.
Horling, E W; Albert, C; Bassermann, R; Stiegler, H
We report on a 31-year-old man with a 29 x 15 x 15 cm large abdominal tumor who came to surgery under suspicion of echinococcus cyst of the liver. Histologically, the neoplasm could identified as multicystic peritoneal mesothelioma (synonyma: benign cystic mesothelioma). Additionally some cysts were located in the greater omentum and mesocolon. In contrast to our case the benign cystic mesotheliomas most commonly occur in young women, localized in the pelvis and abdomen and often complicated by postoperative local recurrence. We performed a resection of the right hemicolon and the omentum. Postoperatively no further therapy was necessary because of the benign appearance of the lesion. Close follow-up is required in these patients due to the disposition for recurrences.
Munkholm-Larsen, Stine; Cao, Christopher Q; Yan, Tristan D
Malignant mesothelioma is a highly aggressive neoplasm. The incidence of malignant mesothelioma is increasing worldwide. Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) represents one-fourth of all mesotheliomas. Association of asbestos exposure with DMPM has been observed, especially in males. The great majority of patients present with abdominal pain and distension, caused by accumulation of tumors and ascitic fluid. In the past, DMPM was considered a pre-terminal condition; therefore attracted little attention. Patients invariably died from their disease within a year. Recently, several prospective trials have demonstrated a median survival of 40 to 90 mo and 5-year survival of 30% to 60% after combined treatment using cytoreductive surgery and perioperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This remarkable improvement in survival has prompted new search into the medical science related to DMPM, a disease previously ignored as uninteresting. This review article focuses on the key advances in the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatments and prognosis of DMPM that have occurred in the past decade. PMID:21160794
Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Chen, Huei-Wen; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen
Background Acinetobacter species are assuming an increasingly important role in modern medicine, with their persistent presence in health-care settings and antibiotic resistance. However, clinical reports addressing this issue in patients with peritoneal dialysis (PD) peritonitis are rare. Methods All PD peritonitis episodes caused by Acinetobacter that occurred between 1985 and 2012 at a single centre were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical features, microbiological data, and outcomes were analysed, with stratifications based upon temporal periods (before and after 2000). Results Acinetobacter species were responsible for 26 PD peritonitis episodes (3.5% of all episodes) in 25 patients. A. baumannii was the most common pathogen (54%), followed by A. iwoffii (35%), with the former being predominant after 2000. Significantly more episodes resulted from breaks in exchange sterility after 2000, while those from exit site infections decreased (P = 0.01). The interval between the last and current peritonitis episodes lengthened significantly after 2000 (5 vs. 13.6 months; P = 0.05). All the isolates were susceptible to cefepime, fluoroquinolone, and aminoglycosides, with a low ceftazidime resistance rate (16%). Nearly half of the patients (46%) required hospitalisation for their Acinetobacter PD-associated peritonitis, and 27% required an antibiotic switch. The overall outcome was fair, with no mortality and a 12% technique failure rate, without obvious interval differences. Conclusions The temporal change in the microbiology and origin of Acinetobacter PD-associated peritonitis in our cohort suggested an important evolutional trend. Appropriate measures, including technique re-education and sterility maintenance, should be taken to decrease the Acinetobacter peritonitis incidence in PD patients. PMID:25314341
Kahveci, Arzu; Asicioglu, Ebru; Tigen, Elif; Ari, Elif; Arikan, Hakki; Odabasi, Zekaver; Ozener, Cetin
An 87 -year-old female who was undergoing peritoneal dialysis presented with peritonitis caused by Alcaligenes faecalis and Pantoea agglomerans in consecutive years. With the following report we discuss the importance of these unusual microorganisms in peritoneal dialysis patients.
Baghi, Heibatollah; Panniers, Teresa L; Smolenski, Mary C
Changes within nursing demand that a specialty conduct periodic, appropriate practice analyses to continually validate itself against preset standards. This study explicates practice analysis methods using ambulatory care nursing as an exemplar. Data derived from a focus group technique were used to develop a survey that was completed by 499 ambulatory care nurses. The validity of the instrument was assessed using principal components analysis; reliability was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The focus group with ambulatory care experts produced 34 knowledge and activity statements delineating ambulatory care nursing practice. The survey data produced five factors accounting for 71% of variance in the data. The factors were identified as initial patient assessment, professional nursing issues and standards, client care management skills, technical/clinical skills, and system administrative operations. It was concluded that practice analyses delineate a specialty and provide input for certification examinations aimed at measuring excellence in a field of nursing.
The National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) is designed to collect information on the services provided in hospital emergency and outpatient departments and in ambulatory surgery centers.
Bensman, V M; Savchenko, Yu P; Shcherba, S N; Golikov, I V; Triandafilov, K V; Chaykin, V V; Pyatakov, S N; Saakyan, A S; Saakyan, E A
to improve the results of advanced peritonitis management. 743 patients with advanced peritonitis were studied. Patients were divided into 2 groups depending on treatment strategy. Programmed relaparotomy combined with removable draining musculoaponeurotic seams during laparotomy closure decreased mortality from 47.8±2.7% to 24.1±2.3% (p<0.001) and provided 4-fold reduction of postoperative suppuration incidence (p<0.001). Refusal from removable draining musculoaponeurotic seams and use of only cutaneous seams in persistent abdominal hypertension were associated with further decrease of mortality to 15.8±2.7% (p<0.05). Programmed relaparotomy combined with removable draining musculoaponeurotic seams are advisable for advanced peritonitis management. Laparotomy closure with only cutaneous seams is indicated in case of persistent abdominal hypertension. Large eventration always requires abdominal wall repair. APACHE-III scale scores have significant prognostic value in patients with advanced peritonitis.
McLeod, P J; Meagher, T W
OBJECTIVE: To determine the status of ambulatory care training of core internal medicine residents in Canada. DESIGN: Mail survey. PARTICIPANTS: All 16 program directors of internal medicine residency training programs in Canada. OUTCOME MEASURES: The nature and amount of ambulatory care training experienced by residents, information about the faculty tutors, and the sources and types of patients seen by the residents. As well, the program directors were asked for their opinions on the ideal ambulatory care program and the kinds of teaching skills required of tutors. RESULTS: All of the directors responded. Fifteen stated that the ambulatory care program is mandatory, and the other stated that it is an elective. Block rotations are more common than continuity-of-care assignments. In 12 of the programs 10% or less of the overall training time is spent in ambulatory care. In 11 the faculty tutors comprise a mixture of generalists and subspecialists. The tutors simultaneously care for patients and teach residents in the ambulatory care setting in 14 of the schools. Most are paid through fee-for-service billing. The respondents felt that the ideal program should contain a mix of general and subspecialty ambulatory care training. There was no consensus on whether it should be a block or continuity-of-care experience, but the directors felt that consultation and communication skills should be emphasized regardless of which type of experience prevails. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is a widespread commitment to provide core internal medicine residents with experience in ambulatory care, there is little uniformity in how this is achieved in Canadian training programs. PMID:8324688
Thorpe, Jane Hyatt; Gray, Elizabeth Alexandra
Big data is heralded as having the potential to revolutionize health care by making large amounts of data available to support care delivery, population health, and patient engagement. Critics argue that big data's transformative potential is inhibited by privacy requirements that restrict health information exchange. However, there are a variety of permissible activities involving use and disclosure of patient information that support care delivery and management. This article presents an overview of the legal framework governing health information, dispels misconceptions about privacy regulations, and highlights how ambulatory care providers in particular can maximize the utility of big data to improve care. PMID:25401945
Cho, Yeoungjee; Badve, Sunil V; Hawley, Carmel M; McDonald, Stephen P; Brown, Fiona G; Boudville, Neil; Clayton, Philip; Johnson, David W
There has not been a comprehensive examination to date of peritoneal dialysis (PD) outcomes after temporary haemodialysis (HD) transfer for peritonitis. The study included all incident Australian patients who experienced peritonitis between 1 October 2003, and 31 December 2011, using Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry data. Patients were grouped into three categories: Interim HD, Permanent HD and Never HD based on HD transfer status after the first peritonitis. The independent predictors of HD transfer and subsequent return to PD were determined by multivariable, multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis. Matched case-control analyses were performed to compare clinical outcomes (e.g. patient survival) between groups. Of the 3305 patients who experienced peritonitis during the study period, 553 episodes (16.7%) resulted in transfer to HD and 101 patients subsequently returned to PD. HD transfer was significantly and independently predicted by inpatient treatment of peritonitis [odds ratio (OR) 11.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 7.14-18.36] and the recovered microbiologic profile of organisms recognized to be associated with moderate (20-40%) to high (>40%) rates of catheter removal (moderate: OR 2.45, 95% CI 1.89-3.17; high: OR 8.63, 95% CI 6.44-11.57). Matched case-control analyses yielded comparable results among Interim, Permanent and Never HD groups in terms of patient survival (P = 0.28), death-censored technique survival [hazard ratio (HR) 0.87, 95% CI 0.59-1.28; P = 0.48] and peritonitis-free survival (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.50-1.39, P = 0.49). In an observational registry study of first peritonitis episodes, temporary HD transfer was not associated with inferior patient-level clinical outcomes when compared with others who either never required HD transfer or remained on HD permanently if all patient-level and peritonitis-related factors were considered equal. Therefore, return to PD after a temporary HD due to peritonitis
Helping you choose: Quality ambulatory care When you need ambulatory care, you should find out some information to help you choose the best ... the center follows rules for patient safety and quality. Go to Quality Check ® at www. qualitycheck. org ...
Kuczkowski, Krzysztof M
A simple statement that describes the degree of the patient's satisfaction with the pain relief from her labor epidural analgesia has often assessed the quality of labor analgesia as perceived by the patient. Many laboring parturients, midwives, obstetricians and anesthesiologists are increasingly concerned by the limitations of traditional epidural labor analgesia. In general, women dislike the inability to void, the often-dense motor block, the feeling of numbness of the lower body, the total lack of the urge to bear down, and the complete perineal anesthesia. Continuous search for balanced labor analgesia that provides relief from pain, while preserving motor function, has led to the development of an ambulatory labor analgesia technique. This article assesses the validity of various strongly advocated opinions as to whether parturients benefit from ambulation in labor and also reviews the current trends in ambulatory labor analgesia.
Bonse-Geuking, Ulrich; Kraus, Michael
A 64 year old male patient suffering from Crohn's disease received infliximab therapy for a period of 5 months prior to presentation to our hospital. Due to the symptoms fever, ascites, and diffuse abdominal tenderness on palpation of unknown origin, a CT scan of the abdomen was performed and led to the suspected diagnosis of a peritoneal carcinomatosis. QuantiFERON™ test revealed a tuberculosis infection and molecular analyses of a peritoneal specimen obtained by laparoscopy clearly identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. Quadruple tuberculostatic therapy was initiated and the patient's condition continuously improved thereafter.
Velioglu, Arzu; Asicioglu, Ebru; Ari, Elif; Arikan, Hakki; Tuglular, Serhan; Ozener, Cetin
Peritonitis is one of the causes of early peritoneal dialysis (PD) failure in newly-placed catheters. Antibiotic prophylaxis has been recommended to decrease the risk of infection after PD catheter placement. In this study, we compared the efficacy of parenteral versus oral prophylactic cefuroxime axetil for preventing peritonitis after placed PD catheters. In total, 67 patients (F/M: 32/35; mean age: 46.6±13.2 years) undergoing 70 percutaneous PD catheter placement procedures were included (in three patients, placement was repeated). In 37 patients (parenteral group), we administered a single intravenous (IV) 750-mg dose of cefuroxime axetil, approximately 30 min before placement. In the oral group, 33 patients received a 500-mg dose of oral cefuroxime axetil 1 hour before the procedure and the patients continued that twice daily for 3 days. Patients were evaluated for peritonitis over the following 14 days. The costs of both oral and parenteral forms of cefuroxime axetil were calculated. The two groups were similar regarding age and gender. Three patients (9%) in the oral group and three (8.1%) in the parenteral group developed peritonitis (P=0.578). All were responded to therapy for peritonitis. The cost of parenteral prophylaxis was $US 7.58, while that of the oral form was $US 3.92. For patients undergoing percutaneous PD catheter insertion, a 3-day regimen of oral cefuroxime axetil for preventing early peritonitis was safe, equally effective, and had lower cost comparing with single intravenous dose of the same agent.
Chung, Sung Hee; Noh, Hyunjin; Ha, Hunjoo; Lee, Hi Bahl
The survival of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) resulting from diabetes continues to improve, but the survival rate among diabetic ESRD patients remains the lowest among all primary diagnoses probably because of the higher prevalence of cardiovascular comorbidity associated with diabetes. Diabetes, age, and comorbidity all significantly modify the effect of treatment modality on patient survival. As compared with hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD) offers an equal or lower risk of death across all subgroups during the first 1-2 years of dialysis. The association of PD with better outcomes than are seen with HD is probably a result of a lower prevalence of infections and congestive heart failure and better preservation of residual renal function (RRF) in PD patients. Use of angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) helps to preserve RRF in ESRD patients and to maintain peritoneal membrane integrity longer in PD patients. Antioxidants can also support preservation of peritoneal membrane function. Peritoneal dialysis should be the initial modality of dialysis in all ESRD patients. Older patients (age > or = 45 years) with diabetes and patients without diabetes may switch to HD or receive a kidney graft in 1-2 years' time; younger patients (age < 45 years) with diabetes may stay on PD longer. Use of ACEI and ARB or antioxidants can help to maintain peritoneal membrane function longer.
Roberts, J Devin
The cardiac catheterization laboratory (CCL) and electrophysiology laboratory (EPL) environments present unique clinical challenges. These challenges include unfamiliar work areas and staff, limited space with physical barriers separating the patient from the care provider, remote locations, and procedures with rare but potentially catastrophic clinical complications. Ambulatory anesthesiologists must familiarize themselves with these new surroundings and practice vigilant preoperative planning and continual communication with the proceduralist and team. In the future, the need for anesthesiologists in the CCL and EPL will continue to grow as procedures increase in complexity and duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chao, Chia-Ter; Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Wei-Shun; Chen, Huei-Wen; Fang, Cheng-Chung; Yen, Chung-Jen; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Hung, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Jenq-Wen
The clinical courses and long-term outcomes of viridans streptococcus (VS) peritoneal dialysis (PD) peritonitis remain unclear. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all PD patients in a single center with gram-positive cocci (GPC) peritonitis between 2005 and 2011, and divided them into 3 groups: VS, other streptococci and other GPC (apart from VS). Clinical characteristics and outcomes of the VS group were compared with the other streptococci and other GPC groups, with prognostic factors determined. A total of 140 patients with 168 episodes of GPC peritonitis (44% of all peritonitis) were identified over 7 years. Among these, 18 patients (13%) developed VS peritonitis, while 14 patients (10%) developed other streptococcal peritonitis. Patients with VS peritonitis had a high cure rate by antibiotic alone (94%), despite a high polymicrobial yield frequency (28%). We found that VS peritonitis carried a lower risk of Tenckhoff catheter removal and relapsing episodes than other GPC peritonitis (6% vs 11%), and a lower mortality than other streptococci peritonitis (0% vs 7%). However, after the index peritonitis episodes, VS, other streptococci, and other GPC group had a significantly increased peritonitis incidence compared with the period before the index peritonitis (all p < 0.01). Patients with VS peritonitis had a significantly higher incidence of refractory peritonitis compared with other streptococci or other GPC peritonitis in the long term (both p < 0.01). VS poses a higher risk of subsequent refractory peritonitis after the index episode as compared with other streptococcal or GPC peritonitis. It might be prudent to monitor the technique of these patients with VS peritonitis closely to avoid further peritonitis episodes. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
Beyer, K; Menges, P; Keßler, W; Heidecke, C-D
Despite intensive research efforts peritonitis leading to subsequent sepsis remains associated with a high mortality. The initial effector cells are the locally residing cells of the peritoneum, such as mesothelial cells, mast cells, macrophages and lymphocytes. Through the secretion of chemokines, an influx of neutrophils initially takes place followed by monocytes. The latter can differentiate into inflammatory macrophages. The non-directed activity of neutrophilic granulocytes is limited by the induction of apoptotic programs. Through the breaching of cytokines, bacteria and microbial products into the circulation, a systemic reaction in the sense of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) or sepsis arises. This is viewed as a concomitant derailing of inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory responses, which leads to extensive apoptosis of lymphocytes. The presentation of apoptotic cells leads to a strong immunosuppression. Due to the coexistence of hyperinflammation and immunosuppression, exact knowledge of the current immune status of the patient is a prerequisite in the development of immunotherapies for the treatment of sepsis.
Bunke, C M; Brier, M E; Golper, T A
The use of the "peritonitis rate" in the management of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis is assuming importance in comparing the prowess of facilities, care givers and new innovations. For this to be a meaningful outcome measure, the type of infection (causative pathogen) must have less clinical significance than the number of infections during a time interval. The natural history of Staphylococcus aureus, pseudomonas, and fungal peritonitis would not support that the outcome of an episode of peritonitis is independent of the causative pathogen. Could this concern be extended to other more frequently occurring pathogens? To address this, the Network 9 Peritonitis Study identified 530 episodes of single organism peritonitis caused by a gram positive organism and 136 episodes caused by a single non-pseudomonal gram negative (NPGN) pathogen. Coincidental soft tissue infections (exit site or tunnel) occurred equally in both groups. Outcomes of peritonitis were analyzed by organism classification and by presence or absence of a soft tissue infection. NPGN peritonitis was associated with significantly more frequent catheter loss, hospitalization, and technique failure and was less likely to resolve regardless of the presence or absence of a soft tissue infection. Hospitalization and death tended to occur more frequently with enterococcal peritonitis than with other gram positive peritonitis. The outcomes in the NPGN peritonitis group were significantly worse (resolution, catheter loss, hospitalization, technique failure) compared to coagulase negative staphylococcal or S. aureus peritonitis, regardless of the presence or absence of a coincidental soft tissue infection. Furthermore, for the first time, the poor outcomes of gram negative peritonitis are shown to be independent of pseudomonas or polymicrobial involvement or soft tissue infections. The gram negative organism appears to be the important factor. In addition, the outcome of peritonitis caused by S. aureus
♦ Background: The clinical courses and long-term outcomes of viridans streptococcus (VS) peritoneal dialysis (PD) peritonitis remain unclear. ♦ Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all PD patients in a single center with gram-positive cocci (GPC) peritonitis between 2005 and 2011, and divided them into 3 groups: VS, other streptococci and other GPC (apart from VS). Clinical characteristics and outcomes of the VS group were compared with the other streptococci and other GPC groups, with prognostic factors determined. ♦ Results: A total of 140 patients with 168 episodes of GPC peritonitis (44% of all peritonitis) were identified over 7 years. Among these, 18 patients (13%) developed VS peritonitis, while 14 patients (10%) developed other streptococcal peritonitis. Patients with VS peritonitis had a high cure rate by antibiotic alone (94%), despite a high polymicrobial yield frequency (28%). We found that VS peritonitis carried a lower risk of Tenckhoff catheter removal and relapsing episodes than other GPC peritonitis (6% vs 11%), and a lower mortality than other streptococci peritonitis (0% vs 7%). However, after the index peritonitis episodes, VS, other streptococci, and other GPC group had a significantly increased peritonitis incidence compared with the period before the index peritonitis (all p < 0.01). Patients with VS peritonitis had a significantly higher incidence of refractory peritonitis compared with other streptococci or other GPC peritonitis in the long term (both p < 0.01). ♦ Conclusions: VS poses a higher risk of subsequent refractory peritonitis after the index episode as compared with other streptococcal or GPC peritonitis. It might be prudent to monitor the technique of these patients with VS peritonitis closely to avoid further peritonitis episodes. PMID:24497584
KO, Jae Jin; MANN, F. A. (Tony)
ABSTRACT Barium peritonitis is extremely rare, but is difficult to treat and may be life-threatening. Barium suspension leakage from the gastrointestinal tract into the abdominal cavity has a time-dependent and synergistically deleterious effect in patients who have generalized bacterial peritonitis. The severity of barium peritonitis is dependent on the quantity of barium in the abdominal cavity. Barium sulfate leakage results in hypovolemia and hypoproteinemia by worsening the exudation of extracellular fluid and albumin. Abdominal fluid analysis is a useful and efficient method to diagnose barium peritonitis. Serial radiographs may not be a reliable or timely diagnostic technique. Initial aggressive fluid resuscitation and empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment should be instituted promptly, followed quickly by celiotomy. During exploratory surgical intervention, copious irrigation and direct wiping with gauze are employed to remove as much barium as possible. Omentectomy should be considered when needed to expedite barium removal. Despite aggressive medical and surgical treatments, postoperative prognosis is guarded to poor due to complications, such as acute vascular shock, sepsis, diffuse peritonitis, hypoproteninemia, electrolyte imbalance, cardiac arrest, small bowel obstruction related to progression of granulomas and adhesions in the abdominal cavity. Therefore, intensive postoperative monitoring and prompt intervention are necessary to maximize chances for a positive outcome. For those that do survive, small bowel obstruction is a potential consequence due to progression of abdominal adhesions. PMID:24430662
Lameire, N; Vanholder, R; De Smet, R
Uremic toxicity is related in part to the accumulation of toxic substances, the nature of which has only partly been characterized. Because of the use of a highly permeable membrane and better preservation of the residual renal function, it could be anticipated that some of these uremic toxins are more efficiently cleared across the peritoneal membrane, and that the plasma and tissue levels of these compounds are lower than in hemodialysis patients. This article analyzes the generation and removal of several uremic toxins in peritoneal dialysis patients. The following uremic toxins are discussed: beta2-microglobulin, advanced glycation end products, advanced oxidation protein products, granulocyte inhibitory proteins, p-Cresol, and hyperhomocysteinemia. Some recent studies are reviewed suggesting that uremic toxins are involved in the progression of renal failure and are at least partially removed by peritoneal dialysis. We conclude that, although the plasma levels of some of these compounds are lower in peritoneal dialysis versus hemodialysis patients, it does not mean that the peritoneal dialysis patient is "better" protected against the numerous disturbances caused by these toxins.
Comparative Analysis of the Equivital EQ02 Lifemonitor with Holter Ambulatory ECG Device for Continuous Measurement of ECG, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability: A Validation Study for Precision and Accuracy.
Akintola, Abimbola A; van de Pol, Vera; Bimmel, Daniel; Maan, Arie C; van Heemst, Diana
Background: The Equivital (EQ02) is a multi-parameter telemetric device offering both real-time and/or retrospective, synchronized monitoring of ECG, HR, and HRV, respiration, activity, and temperature. Unlike the Holter, which is the gold standard for continuous ECG measurement, EQO2 continuously monitors ECG via electrodes interwoven in the textile of a wearable belt. Objective: To compare EQ02 with the Holter for continuous home measurement of ECG, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: Eighteen healthy participants wore, simultaneously for 24 h, the Holter and EQ02 monitors. Per participant, averaged HR, and HRV per 5 min from the two devices were compared using Pearson correlation, paired T-test, and Bland-Altman analyses. Accuracy and precision metrics included mean absolute relative difference (MARD). Results: Artifact content of EQ02 data varied widely between (range 1.93-56.45%) and within (range 0.75-9.61%) participants. Comparing the EQ02 to the Holter, the Pearson correlations were respectively 0.724, 0.955, and 0.997 for datasets containing all data and data with < 50 or < 20% artifacts respectively. For datasets containing respectively all data, data with < 50, or < 20% artifacts, bias estimated by Bland-Altman analysis was -2.8, -1.0, and -0.8 beats per minute and 24 h MARD was 7.08, 3.01, and 1.5. After selecting a 3-h stretch of data containing 1.15% artifacts, Pearson correlation was 0.786 for HRV measured as standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN). Conclusions: Although the EQ02 can accurately measure ECG and HRV, its accuracy and precision is highly dependent on artifact content. This is a limitation for clinical use in individual patients. However, the advantages of the EQ02 (ability to simultaneously monitor several physiologic parameters) may outweigh its disadvantages (higher artifact load) for research purposes and/ or for home monitoring in larger groups of study participants. Further studies can be aimed at
Comparative Analysis of the Equivital EQ02 Lifemonitor with Holter Ambulatory ECG Device for Continuous Measurement of ECG, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability: A Validation Study for Precision and Accuracy
Akintola, Abimbola A.; van de Pol, Vera; Bimmel, Daniel; Maan, Arie C.; van Heemst, Diana
Background: The Equivital (EQ02) is a multi-parameter telemetric device offering both real-time and/or retrospective, synchronized monitoring of ECG, HR, and HRV, respiration, activity, and temperature. Unlike the Holter, which is the gold standard for continuous ECG measurement, EQO2 continuously monitors ECG via electrodes interwoven in the textile of a wearable belt. Objective: To compare EQ02 with the Holter for continuous home measurement of ECG, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: Eighteen healthy participants wore, simultaneously for 24 h, the Holter and EQ02 monitors. Per participant, averaged HR, and HRV per 5 min from the two devices were compared using Pearson correlation, paired T-test, and Bland-Altman analyses. Accuracy and precision metrics included mean absolute relative difference (MARD). Results: Artifact content of EQ02 data varied widely between (range 1.93–56.45%) and within (range 0.75–9.61%) participants. Comparing the EQ02 to the Holter, the Pearson correlations were respectively 0.724, 0.955, and 0.997 for datasets containing all data and data with < 50 or < 20% artifacts respectively. For datasets containing respectively all data, data with < 50, or < 20% artifacts, bias estimated by Bland-Altman analysis was −2.8, −1.0, and −0.8 beats per minute and 24 h MARD was 7.08, 3.01, and 1.5. After selecting a 3-h stretch of data containing 1.15% artifacts, Pearson correlation was 0.786 for HRV measured as standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN). Conclusions: Although the EQ02 can accurately measure ECG and HRV, its accuracy and precision is highly dependent on artifact content. This is a limitation for clinical use in individual patients. However, the advantages of the EQ02 (ability to simultaneously monitor several physiologic parameters) may outweigh its disadvantages (higher artifact load) for research purposes and/ or for home monitoring in larger groups of study participants. Further studies can be aimed
Rhee, Harin; Baek, Min Ja; Chung, Hyun Chul; Park, Jong Man; Jung, Woo Jin; Park, Soo Min; Lee, Jang Won; Shin, Min Ji; Kim, Il Young; Song, Sang Heon; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Seong, Eun Young
In chronic peritoneal dialysis patients, preservation of residual renal function (RRF) is a major determinant of patient survival, and maintaining sufficient intravascular volume has been hypothesized to be beneficial for the preservation of RRF. The present study aimed to test this hypothesis using multifrequency bioimpedence analyzer (MFBIA), in Korean peritoneal dialysis patients. A total of 129 patients were enrolled in this study. The baseline MFBIA was checked, and the patients were divided into the following two groups: group 1, extracellular water per total body water (ECW/TBW) < median, group 2, ECW/TBW > median. We followed up the patients, and then we analyzed the changes in the urine output (UO) and the solute clearance (weekly uKt/V) in each group. Data associated with patient and technical survivor were collected by medical chart review. The volume measurement was made using Inbody S20 equipment (Biospace, Seoul, Korea). We excluded the anuric patients at baseline. The median value of ECW/TBW was 0.396. The mean patient age was 49.74 ± 10.01 years, and 62.1 % of the patients were male; most of the patients were on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (89.1 %). The mean dialysis vintage was 26.20 ± 28.71 months. All of the patients were prescribed hypertensive medication, and 48.5 % of the patients had diabetes. After 25.47 ± 6.86 months of follow up, ΔUO and Δweekly Kt/V were not significantly different in the two groups as follows: ΔUO (-236.07 ± 185.15 in group 1 vs -212.21 ± 381.14 in group 2, p = 0.756); Δ weekly Kt/v (-0.23 ± 0.43 in group 1 vs -0.29 ± 0.49 in group 2, p = 0.461). The patient and technical survivor rate was inferior in the group 2, and in the multivariable analysis, initial hypervolemia was an independent factor that predicts both of the patient mortality [HR 1.001 (1.001-1.086), p = 0.047] and the technical failure [HR 1.024 (1.001-1.048), p = 0.042]. Extracellular volume expansion
Talwalkar, Jaideep S; Satcher, D'Juanna; Turner, Teri L; Sisson, Stephen D; Fenick, Ada M
Extramural curricula developed for the purpose of sharing with other institutions have been designed to improve education on important topics in ambulatory care. We sought to assess the usage rates of these curricula among paediatric, internal medicine, and combined medicine-paediatrics residency programmes in the United States. Surveys on aspects of trainee continuity clinic were sent to paediatric and medicine-paediatrics programme directors in 2012. Surveys contained an item asking respondents about their use of extramural ambulatory care curricula. Since no similar recent data were available for internal medicine, and to verify the accuracy of the paediatric survey data, we queried the editors of four widely used curricula for subscription information. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated. Responses from paediatric programmes indicated that 48 of 111 (43 %) were using an extramural curriculum, compared with 39 of 60 (65 %) medicine-paediatrics programmes (p = 0.007). Editor query revealed a collective subscription rate of internal medicine programmes (300 of 402, 75 %), which was greater than the subscription rate of paediatric programmes (90 of 201, 45 %) (p < 0.001). Training programmes in paediatrics, internal medicine, and combined medicine-paediatrics utilize extramural curricula to guide education in ambulatory care, but internal medicine and medicine-paediatrics programmes employ these curricula at greater rates than paediatric programmes.
Klemetti, Seija; Suominen, Tarja
The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine how preoperative fasting and postoperative termination of the fast was experienced in ambulatory surgery by child patients and their mothers. The target group consisted of children (n = 12, age 2-10 years) who had undergone tonsillectomy/adenoidectomy, and their mothers. In the interviews, the mothers were asked to describe the problems connected with their child's preoperative fast and postoperative termination of the fast, as well as the things that went well in the process. Content analysis was carried out inductively. Preoperatively, the children were thirsty and anxious, but understood the fasting situation well. In some cases, there were conflicts between the child and his/her parent if fasting was prolonged. Parents also had doubts about their ability to implement the child's fast. Postoperatively, children had pains in their throats and stomachs, suffered from nausea, and had difficulty taking in nutrition and medication. Parents had worries about their child's home care, such as food intake and administration of pain medication. The possibility of postoperative bleeding and exacerbation of the child's condition was also worrying for the parents. The most evident result of the study was that parents need more information before their child's operation. Preparing the child for the operation by giving him/her nutrition as long as permitted enhances postoperative recovery and improves parents' control over the ambulatory surgical experience. Nurses should take a more active part in children's perioperative fasting and preoperative preparation of children and their parents. In further research, experimental studies should be designed in order to receive more evidence-based information for clinical practice.
Bellavia, Salvatore; Coche, Emmanuel; Goffin, Eric
Ultrafiltration failure (UFF) is a common complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). It may be due to a technical problem (PD catheter obstruction or migration, peritoneal leaks or intraperitoneal adhesions) or because of a peritoneal membrane alteration (hyperpermeability, aquaporin dysfunction, peritoneal sclerosis or enhanced lymphatic reabsorption). We, here, present the case of a patient who developed several consecutive PD complications that eventually led to UFF. We also present an algorithm, which may help clinicians to establish a precise etiological diagnosis of UFF.
Beladi Mousavi, Seyed Seifollah; Hayati, Fatemeh; Valavi, Ehsan; Rekabi, Fazlollah; Mousavi, Marzieh Beladi
Although the life expectancy of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has improved in recent years, it is still far below that of the general population. In this retrospective study, we compared the survival of patients with ESRD receiving hemodialysis (HD) versus those on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The study was conducted on patients referred to the HD and PD centers of the Emam Khomini Hospital and the Aboozar Children's Hospital from January 2007 to May 2012 in Ahvaz, Iran. All ESRD patients on maintenance HD or PD for more than two months were included in the study. The survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method and the differences between HD and PD patients were tested by the log-rank test. Overall, 239 patients, 148 patients on HD (61.92%) and 91 patients on continuous ambulatory PD (CAPD) (38.55%) with mean age of 54.1 ± 17 years were enrolled in the study. Regardless of the causes of ESRD and type of renal replacement therapy (RRT), one-, two- and three-year survival of patients was 65%, 51% and 35%, respectively. There was no significant difference between type of RRT in one- (P-value = 0.737), two- (P-value = 0.534) and three- (P-value = 0.867) year survival. There was also no significant difference between diabetic and non-diabetic patients under HD and CAPD in the one-, two- and three-year survival. Although the three-year survival of diabetic patients under CAPD was lower than that of non-diabetic patients (13% vs. 34%), it was not statistically significant (P-value = 0.50). According to the results of the current study, there is no survival advantage of PD during the first years of initiation of dialysis, and the one-, two- and three-year survival of HD and PD patients is also similar.
Lu, Ze; Wang, Jie; Wientjes, M Guillaume; Au, Jessie L-S
Cancers originating from organs in the peritoneal cavity (e.g., ovarian, pancreatic, colorectal, gastric and liver) account for approximately 250,000 new cancer cases annually in the USA. Peritoneal metastases are common owing to locoregional spread and distant metastases of extraperitoneal cancers. A logical treatment is intraperitoneal therapy, as multiple studies have shown significant targeting advantage for this treatment, including significant survival benefits in stage III, surgically debulked ovarian cancer patients. However, the clinical use of intraperitoneal therapy has been limited, in part, by toxicity, owing to the use of indwelling catheters or high drug exposure, by inadequate drug penetration into bulky tumors (>1 cm) and by the lack of products specifically designed and approved for intraperitoneal treatments. This article provides an overview on the background of peritoneal metastasis, clinical research on intraperitoneal therapy, the pharmacokinetic basis of drug delivery in intraperitoneal therapy and our development of drug-loaded tumor-penetrating microparticles. PMID:21062160
Icodextrin is the only large molecular weight osmotic agent available in peritoneal dialysis solutions. Icodextrin (compared to glucose) has a prolonged positive ultrafiltration because of the slow absortion of icodextrin due to its large molecular weight. As icodextrin induces transcapillary ultrafiltration by a mechanism resembling 'colloid' osmosis (with the ultrafiltration occurring mainly through the small pores) almost no sieving of solutes is observed with icodextrin-based solution resulting in increased convective transport and clearance of small solutes. In general, the transport characteristics of the peritoneal membrane are similar with glucose- and icodextrin-based solution, but results from the EAPOS study suggests that use of icodextrin-based solution may be associated with less changes in peritoneal transport with time.
Campbell, Denise; Mudge, David W; Craig, Jonathan C; Johnson, David W; Tong, Allison; Strippoli, Giovanni Fm
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an important therapy for patients with end-stage kidney disease and is used in more than 200,000 such patients globally. However, its value is often limited by the development of infections such as peritonitis and exit-site and tunnel infections. Multiple strategies have been developed to reduce the risk of peritonitis including antibiotics, topical disinfectants to the exit site and antifungal agents. However, the effectiveness of these strategies has been variable and are based on a small number of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). The optimal preventive strategies to reduce the occurrence of peritonitis remain unclear.This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2004. To evaluate the benefits and harms of antimicrobial strategies used to prevent peritonitis in PD patients. We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant's Specialised Register to 4 October 2016 through contact with the Information Specialist using search terms relevant to this review. Studies contained in the Specialised Register are identified through search strategies specifically designed for CENTRAL, MEDLINE, and EMBASE; handsearching conference proceedings; and searching the International Clinical Trials Register (ICTRP) Search Portal and ClinicalTrials.gov. RCTs or quasi-RCTs in patients receiving chronic PD, which evaluated any antimicrobial agents used systemically or locally to prevent peritonitis or exit-site/tunnel infection were included. Two authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Summary estimates of effect were obtained using a random-effects model, and results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Thirty-nine studies, randomising 4435 patients, were included. Twenty additional studies have been included in this update. The risk of bias domains were often unclear or high; risk of bias was judged to be low in 19 (49%) studies for random sequence generation, 12 (31%) studies for
Bondarev, V I; Tatarenko, L D; Golovnia, P F; Sviridov, N V
The causes were studied and the analysis was performed of the lethality in 329 patients with acute diffuse peritonitis (ADP). The incidence of lethal outcome of ADP directly depended on the time of hospitalization, age of the patients, source of peritonitis, and as well on the technique of operative intervention. Progressive peritonitis caused death in 71 (92.2%) of 77 patients.
Obradovic, M M; Stojimirovic, B B; Trpinac, D P; Milutinovic, D D; Obradovic, D I; Nesic, V B
The introduction of peritoneal dialysis (PD) as a respectable modality of renal replacement therapy some three decades ago, suddenly drew attention of many authors to peritoneal membrane as insufficiently investigated structure. In order to explain the pathological changes in peritoneum due to renal diseases, it became necessary to explore the normal peritoneal structure. The aim of this study was to examine the morphology of peritoneal lining cells in healthy persons. Biopsies of the peritoneum were performed on 20 volunteer kidney donors. Tissue samples were taken during renal transplantation. Special care was taken in getting appropriate samples without artificial damage because of the extreme fragility of the peritoneal tissue. The preparing procedure was standard for routine HE staining and for plastic embedded semifine and fine sections studies. Semifine sections were made on ultramicrotome, stained with Toluidin blue and studied by light microscope, while fine sections were made by ultramicrotome and studied by transmission electron microscope. One layer of cuboidal or flattened lining cells present over the lamina propria connective tissue presented mesothelium. The cells were overlapped like tiles on the roof. Lateral parts of their interdigitated membranes were interconnected with different types of cell junctions: unpermeable, adhesion and communication junctions; inhibiting intercellular transport. Cell surface was often covered with great number of microvilli and lamellar bodies. A single kinocilia was also often present on apical cell surface. Nuclei were euchromatic with well developed nucleoli. Cytoplasm was filled with a great number of ribosomes, mitochondria, cisterns of rough endoplasmatic reticulum and Golgi apparatus, lamellar bodies and lipid inclusions. Numerous pinocytic vesicles on all parts of the membrane as well as in the cytoplasm indicating active endocytosis, egsocytosis and transcytosys in the process of secretion and reabsorption
Burns, Nathan; Arthur, Ian; Leung, Michael; Ketharanathan, Selva; Gené, Josepa; Guarro, Josep
Peritoneal dialysis is the renal replacement modality used by ∼20% of patients with end-stage kidney disease (S. McDonald, P. Clayton, and K. Hurst, p. 6.2–6.27, in ANZDATA 2012 Annual Report, 35th ed., 2012). A major complication of peritoneal dialysis is the development of peritonitis. We describe a case of Humicola sp. causing peritoneal dialysis (PD)-associated peritonitis, successfully treated with a prolonged course of antifungal therapy. PMID:26157153
Anastasio, G D; Shaughnessy, A F
To determine salary and selected fringe benefits of members of the Ambulatory Care Practice and Research Network of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy, we developed a self-administered questionnaire that surveyed demographic information, schooling and training, academic appointments, yearly salary (as of February 1, 1995), source of salary, outside income, annual raise, vacation time, financial support for continuing education, and board certification. Ninety-nine surveys were returned (return rate 46%). Respondents were mostly women (58%), their average age was 34 years (range 25-51 yrs), and they had a median of 5 years in the work force. Most respondents (67%) had residency training, whereas only 21% had fellowship experience. Board certification was reported by 46%. The median salary was $53,500 (average $55,861, range $35-90 k), with progression for academic rank. The last salary increase averaged 3.7%. Most (93%) respondents received an average of $1509 for travel. The survey represents a young work force. The salaries vary but show progression for accomplishment.
Hultman, Gretchen; Marquard, Jenna; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Mink, Pamela; Rizvi, Rubina; Ramer, Tim; Khairat, Saif; Fickau, Keri; Melton, Genevieve B
Despite widespread electronic health record (EHR) adoption, poor EHR system usability continues to be a significant barrier to effective system use for end users. One key to addressing usability problems is to employ user testing and user-centered design. To understand if redesigning an EHR-based navigation tool with clinician input improved user performance and satisfaction. A usability evaluation was conducted to compare two versions of a redesigned ambulatory navigator. Participants completed tasks for five patient cases using the navigators, while employing a think-aloud protocol. The tasks were based on Meaningful Use (MU) requirements. The version of navigator did not affect perceived workload, and time to complete tasks was longer in the redesigned navigator. A relatively small portion of navigator content was used to complete the MU-related tasks, though navigation patterns were highly variable across participants for both navigators. Preferences for EHR navigation structures appeared to be individualized. This study demonstrates the importance of EHR usability assessments to evaluate group and individual performance of different interfaces and preferences for each design.
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Arneja, Jugpal S; Mitton, Craig
BACKGROUND: Socialized health systems face fiscal constraints due to a limited supply of resources and few reliable ways to control patient demand. Some form of prioritization must occur as to what services to offer and which programs to fund. A data-driven approach to decision making that incorporates outcomes, including safety and quality, in the setting of fiscal prudence is required. A value model championed by Michael Porter encompasses these parameters, in which value is defined as outcomes divided by cost. OBJECTIVES: To assess ambulatory cleft lip surgery from a quality and safety perspective, and to assess the costs associated with ambulatory cleft lip surgery in North America. Conclusions will be drawn as to how the overall value of cleft lip surgery may be enhanced. METHODS: A value analysis of published articles related to ambulatory cleft lip repair over the past 30 years was performed to determine what percentage of patients would be candidates for ambulatory cleft lip repair from a quality and safety perspective. An economic model was constructed based on costs associated with the inpatient stay related to cleft lip repair. RESULTS: On analysis of the published reports in the literature, a minority (28%) of patients are currently discharged in an ambulatory fashion following cleft lip repair. Further analysis suggests that 88.9% of patients would be safe candidates for same-day discharge. From an economic perspective, the mean cost per patient for the overnight admission component of ambulatory cleft surgery to the health care system in the United States was USD$2,390 and $1,800 in Canada. CONCLUSIONS: The present analysis reviewed germane publications over a 30-year period, ultimately suggesting that ambulatory cleft lip surgery results in preservation of quality and safety metrics for most patients. The financial model illustrates a potential cost saving through the adoption of such a practice change. For appropriately selected patients, ambulatory
Zilm, Frank; Culp, Kristyna; Dorney, Beverley
Computer simulation modeling has evolved during the past twenty years into an effective tool for analyzing and planning ambulatory care facilities. This article explains the use of this tool in three case-study, ambulatory care settings--a GI lab, holding beds for a cardiac catheterization laboratory, and in emergency services. These examples also illustrate the use of three software packages currently available: MedModel, Simul8, and WITNESS.
Posthuma, N; ter Wee, P; Donker, A J; Dekker, H A; Oe, P L; Verbrugh, H A
To investigate peritoneal defense during icodextrin use in continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis (CCPD). In an open, prospective, 2-year follow-up study, CCPD patients were randomized to either glucose (Glu) or icodextrin (Ico) for their long daytime dwell. University hospital and teaching hospital. Both established and patients new to CCPD were included. A life expectancy of more than 2 years, a stable clinical condition, and written informed consent were necessary before entry. Patients aged under 18 years, those who had peritonitis in the previous month, and women of childbearing potential, unless taking adequate contraceptive precautions, were excluded. Thirty-eight patients (19 Glu, 19 Ico) started the study. The median follow-up was 16 and 17 months for Glu and Ico respectively (range 0.5-25 months and 5-25 months, respectively). Peritoneal defense characteristics and peritoneal dialysis-related infections were recorded every 3 months. Total peritoneal white cell count tended to decrease over time in both groups. After 1 year, absolute numbers and percentages of effluent peritoneal macrophages (PMphis) were significantly higher in Ico than in Glu patients; this difference in the percentage persisted after 2 years. Percentage of mesothelial cells increased overtime in Ico patients. The phagocytic capacity of PMphis decreased over time, resulting in a borderline significant difference for coagulase-negative staphylococci (p = 0.05) and a significant difference for Escherichia coli (p < 0.05) phagocytosis in favor of Ico patients. PMphi oxidative metabolism remained stable over time without a difference between the groups. PMphi cytokine production and effluent opsonic capacity also remained stable over time. Finally, 16 peritonitis episodes in Glu and 14 in Ico patients occurred. Glucose patients had 37 and Ico patients 32 exit-site infections during the study. CCPD patients using Ico did equally as well as Glu-treated patients with respect to clinical
Henne, S J; Warner, N E; Frank, K J
Nurse practitioners continue to struggle to find avenues for professional fulfillment. Urgent care or ambulatory care centers (ACCs) may, because of their need to respond to consumer demands for more comprehensive services, offer nurse practitioners a unique opportunity to establish productive primary care practices based on the concepts of total patient care. A model for such a practice has operated successfully since 1983, establishing that both professional and business success can result from the collaborative efforts of nurse practitioners and physicians in an ACC setting.
Briones-Garduño, Jesús Carlos; Díaz de León-Ponce, Manuel Antonio; Rodríguez-Roldán, Martín; Briones-Vega, Carlos Gabriel; Torres-Pérez, Juan
The prevalence of acute renal failure (ARF) in obstetric patients in our country is estimated to be between 3 and 42.8%. The most important causes are preeclampsia, especially when associated with thrombotic microangiopathy and hemolysis and less frequently to hemorrhagic shock. Early peritoneal dialysis (EPD) is the temporary treatment. For these patients, 100 % recovery in renal function was observed. When ARF is associated with multiple organ failure (MOF), the reported mortality ranges between 0 and 20 %. To describe clinical features and medical outcomes of patients treated with early peritoneal dialysis in pregnancy complicated by ARF. A case series was conducted at the Research Unit of the Instituto Materno Infantil del Estado de México. We reviewed the cases of patients admitted to the ICU matching the criteria for ARF. They were divided into two groups: those who received EPD vs. those who did not require EPD. The most important national series were included describing the association with preeclampsia and thrombotic microangiopathy with hemolysis. In a 5-year period, 1272 patients were admitted to the ICU; in 38 patients ARF was documented requiring peritoneal dialysis. In nine cases ARF was associated with thrombotic microangiopathy with hemolysis, two cases of stillbirth, and one case of mortality with MOF. A 100% recovery in renal function was observed in all cases, using 1.5% solution with an average of 34 dialysis treatments. The early use of peritoneal dialysis in obstetric patients with ARF has a good prognosis.
Yung, Susan; Chan, Tak Mao
The success of peritoneal dialysis (PD) is dependent on the structural and functional integrity of the peritoneal membrane. The mesothelium lines the peritoneal membrane and is the first line of defense against chemical and/or bacterial insult. Peritonitis remains a major complication of PD and is a predominant cause of technique failure, morbidity and mortality amongst PD patients. With appropriate antibiotic treatment, peritonitis resolves without further complications, but in some PD patients excessive peritoneal inflammatory responses lead to mesothelial cell exfoliation and thickening of the submesothelium, resulting in peritoneal fibrosis and sclerosis. The detrimental changes in the peritoneal membrane structure and function correlate with the number and severity of peritonitis episodes and the need for catheter removal. There is evidence that despite clinical resolution of peritonitis, increased levels of inflammatory and fibrotic mediators may persist in the peritoneal cavity, signifying persistent injury to the mesothelial cells. This review will describe the structural and functional changes that occur in the peritoneal membrane during peritonitis and how mesothelial cells contribute to these changes and respond to infection. The latter part of the review discusses the potential of mesothelial cell transplantation and genetic manipulation in the preservation of the peritoneal membrane. PMID:22577250
Katerndahl, David; Wood, Robert; Jaen, Carlos R
Complex systems differ from complicated systems in that they are nonlinear, unpredictable and lacking clear cause-and-effect relationships, largely due to the interdependence of their components (effects of interconnectedness on system behaviour and consequences). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential for network density to serve as a measure of interdependence, assess its concurrent validity and test whether the use of valued or binary ties yields better results. This secondary analysis used the 2010 National Ambulatory Care Medical Survey to assess interdependence of 'top 20' diagnoses seen and medications prescribed for 14 specialties. The degree of interdependence was measured as the level of association between diagnoses and drug interactions among medications. Both valued and binary network densities were computed for each specialty. To assess concurrent validity, these measures were correlated with previously-derived valid measures of complexity of care using the same database, adjusting for diagnosis and medication diversity. Partial correlations between diagnosis density, and both diagnosis and total input complexity, were significant, as were those between medication density and both medication and total output complexity; for both diagnosis and medication densities, adjusted correlations were higher for binary rather than valued densities. This study demonstrated the feasibility and validity of using network density as a measure of interdependence. When adjusted for measure diversity, density-complexity correlations were significant and higher for binary than valued density. This approach complements other methods of estimating complexity of care and may be applicable to unique settings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hanna, Amgad H; Mason, Linda J
Clinical studies and new guidelines are frequently being published in the area of preoperative fasting. A growing population of patients with obstructive sleep apnea is being referred for outpatient procedures including adenotonsillectomy. Recently published preoperative fasting guidelines for pediatric patients are covered along with studies comparing gastric volume following different fasting intervals. Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea is discussed. Clinical presentation, severity, perioperative risks, and controversies as whether outpatient procedures are suitable for these patients are presented. New data covering different perioperative aspects are presented. A more liberal preoperative intake is encouraged with fasting for 2 h for clear liquids, 4 h for breast milk, 6 h for formula and light meals, and 8 h for heavy meals is widely accepted. Interpersonal variation in residual gastric volume exists. Children with obstructive sleep apnea under 3 years of age and those with severe obstructive sleep apnea and comorbidities are not candidates for ambulatory surgery. Polysomnography has specific preoperative indications. Dexmedetomidine can decrease emergence agitation and has an opioid-sparing effect. Intravenous acetaminophen is presented as an opioid-sparing analgesic. Dexamethasone is effective in preventing postoperative nausea without increased risk of bleeding. Surgical techniques may affect postoperative pain.
Esch, Lindsay M.; Bird, Amber-Nicole; Oyler, Julie L.; Lee, Wei Wei; Shah, Sachin D.; Pincavage, Amber T.
Introduction Internal medicine (IM) interns start continuity clinic with variable ambulatory training. Multiple other specialties have utilized a boot camp style curriculum to improve surgical and procedural skills, but boot camps have not been used to improve interns’ ambulatory knowledge and confidence. The authors implemented and assessed the impact of an intern ambulatory boot camp pilot on primary care knowledge, confidence, and curricular satisfaction. Methods During July 2014, IM interns attended ambulatory boot camp. It included clinically focused case-based didactic sessions on common ambulatory topics as well as orientation to the clinic and electronic medical records. Interns anonymously completed a 15-question pre-test on topics covered in the boot camp as well as an identical post-test after the boot camp. The interns were surveyed regarding their confidence and satisfaction. Results Thirty-eight interns participated in the boot camp. Prior to the boot camp, few interns reported confidence managing common outpatient conditions. The average pre-test knowledge score was 46.3%. The average post-test knowledge score significantly improved to 76.1% (p<0.001). All interns reported that the boot camp was good preparation for clinics and 97% felt that the boot camp boosted their confidence. Conclusions The ambulatory boot camp pilot improved primary care knowledge, and interns thought it was good preparation for clinic. The ambulatory boot camp was well received and may be an effective way to improve the preparation of interns for primary care clinic. Further assessment of clinical performance and expansion to other programs and specialties should be considered. PMID:26609962
Melgarejo, Jesus D; Maestre, Gladys E; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Boggia, José; Casiglia, Edoardo; Hansen, Tine W; Imai, Yutaka; Jacobs, Lotte; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Kawecka-Jaszcz, Kalina; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Li, Yan; Malyutina, Sofia; Nikitin, Yuri; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A
Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10 community-dwelling cohorts on 3 continents. We determined how between-cohort differences in risk factors and socioeconomic factors influence hypertension rates. The overall prevalence was 49.3% (range between cohorts, 40.0%-86.8%) for conventional hypertension (conventional BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) and 48.7% (35.2%-66.5%) for ambulatory hypertension (ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg). Treatment and control rates for conventional hypertension were 48.0% (33.5%-74.1%) and 38.6% (10.1%-55.3%) respectively. The corresponding rates for ambulatory hypertension were 48.6% (30.5%-71.9%) and 45.6% (18.6%-64.2%). Among 1677 untreated subjects with conventional hypertension, 35.7% had white coat hypertension (23.5%-56.2%). Masked hypertension (conventional BP <140/90 mm Hg and ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg) occurred in 16.9% (8.8%-30.5%) of 3320 untreated subjects who were normotensive on conventional measurement. Exclusion of participants with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, or history of cardiovascular complications resulted in a <9% reduction in the conventional and 24-hour ambulatory hypertension rates. Higher social and economic development, measured by the Human Development Index, was associated with lower rates of conventional and ambulatory hypertension. In conclusion, high rates of hypertension in all cohorts examined demonstrate the need for improvements in prevention, treatment, and control. Strategies for the management of hypertension should continue to not only focus on preventable and modifiable risk factors but also consider societal issues. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Esch, Lindsay M; Bird, Amber-Nicole; Oyler, Julie L; Lee, Wei Wei; Shah, Sachin D; Pincavage, Amber T
Internal medicine (IM) interns start continuity clinic with variable ambulatory training. Multiple other specialties have utilized a boot camp style curriculum to improve surgical and procedural skills, but boot camps have not been used to improve interns' ambulatory knowledge and confidence. The authors implemented and assessed the impact of an intern ambulatory boot camp pilot on primary care knowledge, confidence, and curricular satisfaction. During July 2014, IM interns attended ambulatory boot camp. It included clinically focused case-based didactic sessions on common ambulatory topics as well as orientation to the clinic and electronic medical records. Interns anonymously completed a 15-question pre-test on topics covered in the boot camp as well as an identical post-test after the boot camp. The interns were surveyed regarding their confidence and satisfaction. Thirty-eight interns participated in the boot camp. Prior to the boot camp, few interns reported confidence managing common outpatient conditions. The average pre-test knowledge score was 46.3%. The average post-test knowledge score significantly improved to 76.1% (p<0.001). All interns reported that the boot camp was good preparation for clinics and 97% felt that the boot camp boosted their confidence. The ambulatory boot camp pilot improved primary care knowledge, and interns thought it was good preparation for clinic. The ambulatory boot camp was well received and may be an effective way to improve the preparation of interns for primary care clinic. Further assessment of clinical performance and expansion to other programs and specialties should be considered.
Kwon, Ji Eun; Koh, Seong-Joon; Chun, Jaeyoung; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae
AIM: To investigate the effect of gastric acid suppressants and prokinetics on peritonitis development in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study. The medical records of 398 PD patients were collected from January 2000 to September 2012 and analyzed to compare patients with at least one episode of peritonitis (peritonitis group, group A) to patients who never had peritonitis (no peritonitis group, group B). All peritonitis episodes were analyzed to compare peritonitis caused by enteric organisms and peritonitis caused by non-enteric organisms. RESULTS: Among the 120 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 61 patients had at least one episode of peritonitis and 59 patients never experienced peritonitis. Twenty-four of 61 patients (39.3%) in group A and 15 of 59 patients (25.4%) in group B used gastric acid suppressants. Only the use of H2-blocker (H2B) was associated with an increased risk of PD-related peritonitis; the use of proton pump inhibitors, other antacids, and prokinetics was not found to be a significant risk factor for PD-related peritonitis. A total of 81 episodes of peritonitis were divided into enteric peritonitis (EP) or non-enteric peritonitis, depending on the causative organism, and gastric acid suppressants and prokinetics did not increase the risk of EP in PD patients. CONCLUSION: The use of H2B showed a trend for an increased risk of overall PD-related peritonitis, although further studies are required to clarify the effects of drugs on PD-related peritonitis. PMID:25057226
Wu, H; Xiong, L; Xu, Q; Wu, J; Huang, R; Guo, Q; Mao, H; Yu, X; Yang, X
High serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been found to be an independent predictor for cardiovascular events in the general population. We aimed to evaluate whether a high TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). In this single-center retrospective cohort study, 1170 incident patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2011 were recruited and followed up until 31 December 31 2013. The mean age was 47.4 ± 15.2 years, and 24.7% were diabetic. During a median of the 34.5-month follow-up period, 213 (18.2%) deaths occurred, 121 of which (56.8%) were caused by cardiovascular disease (CVD). The serum median TG/HDL-C ratio at baseline was 2.57 (range: 0.06-39.39). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, the highest quartile of the TG/HDL-C ratio (≥4.19) was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR) 1.98, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.17-3.36; P = 0.011) and CVD mortality (HR 2.28, 95% CI, 1.16-4.47; P = 0.017). For female patients, each one-unit higher baseline TG/HDL-C was associated with 13% (95% CI 1.06-1.22; P = 0.001) increased risk of CVD mortality, whereas such an association was not observed for male patients, (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.92-1.08; P = 0.977). A higher serum TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and CVD mortality in PD patients. Moreover, the increased risk of CVD mortality was significantly higher in female than male PD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Davies, R. J.; Jenkins, N. E.; Stradling, J. R.
OBJECTIVE--To assess whether recording of ambulatory blood pressure at night causes arousal from sleep and a change in the continuous blood pressure recorded simultaneously. DESIGN--Repeated measurement of blood pressure with two ambulatory blood pressure machines (Oxford Medical ABP and A&D TM2420) during continuous measurement of beat to beat blood pressure and continuous electroencephalography. SETTING--Sleep research laboratory. SUBJECTS--Six normal subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--The duration of electroencephalographic arousal and the beat to beat changes in blood pressure produced by the measurement of ambulatory blood pressure; the size of any changes that this arousal and change in blood pressure produced in the blood pressure recorded by the ambulatory machine. RESULTS--Both ambulatory blood pressure machines caused arousal from sleep: the mean duration of arousal was 16 seconds (95% range 0-202) with the ABP and 8 seconds (0-73) with the TM2420. Both also caused a rise in beat to beat blood pressure. During non-rapid eye movement sleep, this rise led to the ABP machine overestimating the true systolic blood pressure during sleep by a mean of 10 (SD 14.8) mm Hg and the TM2420 by a mean of 6.3 (8.2) mm Hg. On average, diastolic pressure was not changed, but measurements in individual subjects changed by up to 23 mm Hg. These changes varied in size among subjects and stages of sleep and were seen after measurements that did not cause any electroencephalographic arousal. CONCLUSIONS--Ambulatory blood pressure machines cause appreciable arousal from sleep and therefore alter the blood pressure that they are trying to record. This effect should be taken into account when recordings of blood pressure at night are interpreted in clinical work and epidemiological research. PMID:8167489
Wong, S F; Leung, M P; Chan, M Y
After major open heart surgery, a significant number of infants and children are dependent on peritoneal dialysis as a result of renal impairment. They often require broad-spectrum antibiotics for the treatment of ongoing infections or as prophylactic therapy and have an increased risk of fungal infection. Fluconazole is a new thiazole antifungal agent that has been widely used in adults, but its use in children with acute renal impairment requiring peritoneal dialysis has not been documented. The purpose of this investigation was to study the pharmacokinetics of fluconazole in infants and children who developed various degrees of renal impairment, with or without the need for peritoneal dialysis, after major open heart surgery. Between January 1992 and June 1995, 17 children ranging in age from 2 weeks to 3 years (mean, 6 months) who received fluconazole therapy intravenously (3 mg/kg per day for 2 to 3 weeks) after major open heart surgery were enrolled in a prospective study. They were divided into two groups--those who required peritoneal dialysis (PD group; n = 8) and those who did not (non-PD group; n = 9). Blood, urine, and peritoneal dialysate samples were collected for 4 days to determine the pharmacokinetics of the drug, and data were compared between the two groups. The two groups of children had similar demographic characteristics, and their plasma concentrations of fluconazole showed no statistically significant differences. For children dependent on peritoneal dialysis, fluconazole was excreted almost solely through dialysis. Despite a significantly longer terminal elimination half-life for this group of infants, they tended to have a marginally larger volume of distribution of the drug. This, coupled with the continuous hourly exchange of dialysate, provided a large sink volume to effectively remove flu- conazole from the circulation. Thus the plasma clearance and the accumulation ratio were comparable for the two groups of children. Continuous
Schepers, H Martin; van Asseldonk, Edwin H F; Buurke, Jaap H; Veltink, Peter H
The center of mass (CoM) and the center of pressure (CoP) are two variables that are crucial in assessing energy expenditure and stability of human walking. The purpose of this study is to estimate the CoM displacement continuously using an ambulatory measurement system. The measurement system consists of instrumented shoes with 6 DOF force/moment sensors beneath the heels and the forefeet. Moreover, two inertial sensors are rigidly attached to the force/moment sensors for the estimation of position and orientation. The estimation of CoM displacement is achieved by fusing low-pass filtered CoP data with high-pass filtered double integrated CoM acceleration, both estimated using the instrumented shoes. Optimal cutoff frequencies for the low-pass and high-pass filters appeared to be 0.2 Hz for the horizontal direction and 0.5 Hz for the vertical direction. The CoM estimation using this ambulatory measurement system was compared to CoM estimation using an optical reference system based on the segmental kinematics method. The rms difference of each component of the CoM displacement averaged over a hundred trials obtained from seven stroke patients was ( 0.020 +/-0.007 ) m (mean +/- standard deviation) for the forward x-direction, ( 0.013 +/-0.005) m for the lateral y-direction, and ( 0.007 +/-0.001) m for the upward z-direction. Based on the results presented in this study, it is concluded that the instrumented shoe concept allows accurate and continuous estimation of CoM displacement under ambulatory conditions.
Hutchison, Alastair J; Gill, Maggie; Copley, J Brian; Poole, Lynne; Wilson, Rosamund J
This short-term study assessed the efficacy and safety of lanthanum carbonate in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in dialysis patients; here, we report a prespecified subgroup analysis of patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Men and women (n=39) who had received continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis for chronic kidney disease for 6 months or more were enrolled in eight renal medicine departments in the United Kingdom. A 2-week washout period was followed by a 4-week dose-titration phase during which patients received lanthanum carbonate titrated up to 2250 mg/day. This was followed by a 4-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase during which patients continued to receive either lanthanum carbonate at the titrated dose, or a matched dose of placebo. The main outcome measure was control of serum phosphate levels (1.3-1.8 mmol/l) at the end of the parallel-group phase. Serum phosphate was controlled in 3/39 (8%) patients at the beginning of the dose-titration phase (after washout) and in 18/31 (58%) patients treated with lanthanum carbonate at its end. After the parallel-group phase, 60% of lanthanum carbonate-treated patients and 10% of those receiving placebo had controlled serum phosphate. There was no difference in mean (95% confidence interval) serum phosphate levels between groups at randomization: lanthanum carbonate, 1.57 (1.34-1.81) mmol/l; placebo, 1.58 (1.40-1.76) mmol/l (p=0.96). However, a difference was seen at the end of the parallel-group phase: lanthanum carbonate, 1.56 (1.33-1.79) mmol/l; placebo, 2.25 (1.81-2.68) mmol/l (p=0.0015). There were no clinically important changes in nutritional parameters and no serious treatment-related adverse events were recorded. At doses up to 2250 mg/day, lanthanum carbonate is well tolerated and controls hyperphosphatemia effectively. Treatment with higher doses of lanthanum carbonate may allow patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis the potential to increase their dietary protein intake
Sheps, S G; Elveback, L R; Close, E L; Kleven, M K; Bissen, C
We have the opportunity to evaluate a portable ambulatory device for the recording of sequential indirect arterial blood pressure and continuous electrocardiogram (Del Mar Avionics automatic ambulatory blood pressure recording device). With careful attention to technique, only 11% of systolic and 5% of diastolic blood pressure readings differed by more than 10 mm Hg as compared with a trained technician's observations simultaneously in the same arm. The device has been useful in the evaluation of borderline (labile) hypertension, hypertensive drug therapy programs, and various episodic cardiovascular phenomena--for example, vasodepressor syncope and pheochromocytoma crises.
Montoya, I D; Richard, A J
The health care industry leads others in the development and use of professional codes of ethics. However, ambulatory care facilities continue to operate without coherent ethical guidelines addressing the workplace itself. New diagnostic and treatment capabilities, coupled with economic pressures, have intensified the ethical dilemmas facing the ambulatory care practice. This article argues that office codes of ethics decrease the risk of liability exposure, clarify the expectations of patients and staff, and foster responsible ethical reflection in the workplace. Material for this article was gathered from relevant literature in the areas of business ethics, bioethics, and health care management.
Harris, Ila M; Baker, Ed; Berry, Tricia M; Halloran, Mary Ann; Lindauer, Kathleen; Ragucci, Kelly R; McGivney, Melissa Somma; Taylor, A Thomas; Haines, Stuart T
A business-practice model is a guide, or toolkit, to assist managers and clinical pharmacy practitioners in the exploration, proposal, development and implementation of new clinical pharmacy services and/or the enhancement of existing services. This document was developed by the American College of Clinical Pharmacy Task Force on Ambulatory Practice to assist clinical pharmacy practitioners and administrators in the development of business-practice models for new and existing clinical pharmacy services in ambulatory settings. This document provides detailed instructions, examples, and resources on conducting a market assessment and a needs assessment, types of clinical services, operations, legal and regulatory issues, marketing and promotion, service development and exit plan, evaluation of service outcomes, and financial considerations in the development of a clinical pharmacy service in the ambulatory environment. Available literature is summarized, and an appendix provides valuable citations and resources. As ambulatory care practices continue to evolve, there will be increased knowledge of how to initiate and expand the services. This document is intended to serve as an essential resource to assist in the growth and development of clinical pharmacy services in the ambulatory environment.
Siddique, Imad; Brimble, K. Scott; Walkin, Louise; Summers, Angela; Brenchley, Paul; Herrick, Sarah; Margetts, Peter J.
♦ Background: Outcomes for peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are affected by the characteristics of the peritoneal membrane, which may be determined by genetic variants. We carried out a systematic review of the literature to identify studies which assessed the association between genetic polymorphisms, peritoneal membrane solute transport, and clinical outcomes for PD patients. ♦ Methods: The National Library of Medicine was searched using a variety of strategies. Studies which met our inclusion criteria were reviewed and data abstracted. Our outcomes of interest included: high transport status peritoneal membrane, risk for peritonitis, encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS), patient and technique survival. We combined data from studies which evaluated the same genetic polymorphism and the same outcome. ♦ Results: We evaluated 18 relevant studies. All studies used a candidate gene approach. Gene polymorphisms in the interleukin (IL)-6 gene were associated with peritoneal membrane solute transport in several studies in different ethnic populations. Associations with solute transport and polymorphisms in endothelial nitric oxide synthase and receptor for advanced glycation end product genes were also identified. There was evidence of a genetic predisposition for peritonitis found in 2 studies, and for EPS in 1 study. Survival was found to be associated with a polymorphism in vascular endothelial growth factor and technique failure was associated with a polymorphism in the IL-1 receptor antagonist. ♦ Conclusions: There is evidence that characteristics of the peritoneal membrane and clinical outcomes for PD patients have genetic determinants. The most consistent association was between IL-6 gene polymorphisms and peritoneal membrane solute transport. PMID:25395500